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Sample records for lactobacillus coryniformis cect5711

  1. Characterization of a reuterin-producing Lactobacillus coryniformis strain isolated from a goat's milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Martín, R; Olivares, M; Marín, M L; Xaus, J; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2005-10-25

    Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711, a strain isolated from a goat's milk cheese, displayed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; as a consequence, its ability to produce the antagonistic compounds associated to lactic acid bacteria, including bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, acetic acid, and reuterin (3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-HPA) was investigated. Production of bacteriocins or hydrogen peroxide by this strain could not be detected. However, in addition to lactic acid and acetic acid, it produced reuterin and cobalamin, a cofactor required for conversion of glycerol to 3-HPA through a glycerol dehydratase. The gene encoding a glycerol dehydratase subunit was detected by PCR and the corresponding amplicon was sequenced. This strain showed a high survival after exposition to conditions simulating those existing in the gastrointestinal tract as well as a notable ability to adhere to intestinal cells, which suggests that its reuterin-producing ability may be used for the host benefit. In addition, the strain showed a strong beta-galactosidase activity. Production of biogenic amines and degradation of mucin could not be detected. PMID:15975679

  2. Evaluation of the impact on food safety of a Lactobacillus coryniformis strain from pickled vegetables with degradation activity against nitrite and other undesirable compounds.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Feng, Tingting; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Four strains of lactic acid bacteria showing antimicrobial activity against some food-spoilage microorganisms or pathogens, including both Gram-negative and -positive strains, were isolated from naturally fermented pickled vegetables and a traditional cheese product. Among these isolates, Lactobacillus coryniformis strain BBE-H3, characterised previously to be a non-biogenic amine producer, showed a high level of activity in degrading sodium nitrite and exhibited the ability to eliminate ethyl carbamate and one of its precursors, urea. The antimicrobial substance produced by L. coryniformis BBE-H3 was found to be active at an acidic pH range of 4.0-4.5. The antimicrobial activity of this strain decreased differentially after treatment with proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, papain, trypsin and proteinase K), implying this growth inhibitory compound is either a protein or a polypeptide. The results of this study show the suitability of L. coryniformis BBE-H3 as a starter in food manufacturing processes, and demonstrate its potential role in eliminating food origin carcinogens such as sodium nitrite and ethyl carbamate. PMID:26898528

  3. Production of lactate and acetate by Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM 20004(T) in comparison with Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T).

    PubMed

    Slavica, Anita; Trontel, Antonija; Jelovac, Nuša; Kosovec, Željka; Šantek, Božidar; Novak, Srđan

    2015-05-20

    Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM20004(T) is a d-lactate producer, with a portion of the d-lactate higher than 99.9% of total lactic acid produced. Acetate was identified as the second end-product that appeared at the end of the exponential growth phase in MRS medium when glucose concentration dropped to 38.41mM (6.92g/L). The acetate production was prolonged to the stationary phase, while the concentration of d-lactate remained constant. Other end-products were not identified by HPLC method. The known metabolic pathways of glucose fermentation in lactic acid bacteria do not produce the particular combination of these two end-products, but besides lactate and acetate also formate, ethanol and CO2 are produced. For comparison, the production of lactate and acetate by a d-/l-lactate producer Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T) was also investigated. This strain produced equimolar quantities of d- and l-lactate in the MRS medium. Acetate was produced only when initial concentration of glucose was 55.51mM (10g/L) and production started in the exponential phase when concentration of glucose dropped to 35.52mM (6.40g/L). Similar behavior was observed with the initial concentration of maltose of 29.21mM (10g/L). An unstructured mathematical model was established for the bioprocess simulation. PMID:25617683

  4. Lactobacillus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactis, L. Plantarum, L. Reuteri, L. Rhamnosus, L. Salivarius, L. Sporogenes, Lacto Bacillus, Lactobacille, Lactobacilli, Lactobacilli Acidophilus, ... GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus Salivarium, Lactobacillus ... Lactobacilo, Lactospores, LC-1, Probiotics, Probiotiques.

  5. Lactobacillus

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach ulcers. Treating diarrhea caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile.Vaginal yeast infections after taking antibiotics. There is ... been used. For treating recurrent diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile: 1.25 billion live Lactobacillus GG in two ...

  6. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  7. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

  8. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takao; Arihara, Keizo; Ikeda, Ami; Nomura, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Ohori, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    Four strains isolated from chicken small intestine and strains JCM 1038 and JCM 1039 (designated as Lactobacillus acidophilus) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. These strains had similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intergroup DNA relatedness values of >77 %, indicating that they comprised a single species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain, JCM 1039(T) (designated as type strain in this study), was determined and aligned with those of other Lactobacillus species. JCM 1039(T) was placed in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii cluster of the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and formed an independent cluster that was distinct from its closest neighbours, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and whole-cell protein profiles clearly indicated that these strains represent a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of this species is JCM 1039(T). PMID:14657145

  9. Differentiation of Lactobacillus strains by ribotyping.

    PubMed Central

    Rodtong, S; Tannock, G W

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-four lactobacillus strains were differentiated by ribotyping. The stability of ribotypes characteristic of four strains of lactobacilli inhabiting the digestive tract of mice was investigated. One of four isolates of Lactobacillus delbrueckii GT21, which had been associated with mice for 22 months, had an altered ribotype. Images PMID:7504432

  10. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus zeae isolates identified by sequence signature and immunoblot phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C Melissa; Chaban, Bonnie; Deneer, Harry; Ziola, Barry

    2004-07-01

    Species taxonomy within the Lactobacillus casei group of bacteria has been unsettled. With the goal of helping clarify the taxonomy of these bacteria, we investigated the first 3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA interspacer region, and one third of the chaperonin 60 gene for Lactobacillus isolates originally designated as L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus, and L. zeae. For each genetic region, a phylogenetic tree was created and signature sequence analysis was done. As well, phenotypic analysis of the various strains was performed by immunoblotting. Both sequence signature analysis and immunoblotting gave immediate identification of L. casei, L. rhamnosus, and L. zeae isolates. These results corroborate and extend previous findings concerning these lactobacilli; therefore, we strongly endorse recent proposals for revised nomenclature. Specifically, isolate ATCC 393 is appropriately rejected as the L. casei type strain because of grouping with isolates identified as L. zeae. As well, because all other L. casei isolates, including the proposed neotype isolate ATCC 334, grouped together with isolates designated L. paracasei, we support the use of the single species L. casei and rejection of the name L. paracasei. PMID:15381972

  11. Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates inhibit uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Fabrice; Brassart, Dominique; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Servin, Alain L

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus jensenii KS119.1 and KS121.1, and Lactobacillus gasserii KS120.1 and KS124.3 strains isolated from the vaginal microflora of healthy women, against uropathogenic, diffusely adhering Afa/Dr Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains IH11128 and 7372 involved in recurrent cystitis. We observed that some of the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of E. coli IH11128 and 7372. In addition, we observed that adhering Lactobacillus strains inhibited adhesion of E. coli IH11128 onto HeLa cells, and inhibited internalization of E. coli IH11128 within HeLa cells. PMID:16553843

  12. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. PMID:27001126

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus pobuzihii E100301T

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-ming; Chang, Chi-huan; Pan, Shwu-fen; Wu, Hui-chung; Li, Shiao-wen; Chang, Chuan-hsiung; Lee, Yun-shien; Chiang, Chih-ming

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus pobuzihii E100301T is a novel Lactobacillus species previously isolated from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia) in Taiwan. Phylogenetically, this strain is closest to Lactobacillus acidipiscis, but its phenotypic characteristics can be clearly distinguished from those of L. acidipiscis. We present the draft genome sequence of strain L. pobuzihii E100301T. PMID:23661478

  14. Lactobacillus helveticus: the proteolytic system

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M. W.; Tellez, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) most commonly used in the production of fermented milk beverages and some types of hard cheese. The versatile nature of this bacterium is based on its highly efficient proteolytic system consisting of cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs), transport system and intracellular peptidases. Besides use of L. helveticus in cheese processing, the production of fermented milk preparations with health promoting properties has become an important industrial application. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products are able to decrease blood pressure, stimulate the immune system, promote calcium absorption, and exert an anti-virulent effect against pathogens. These beneficial effects are produced by a variety of peptides released during the hydrolysis of milk proteins by the proteolytic system of L. helveticus, which provides the bacterium with its nutritional requirements for growth. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding the factors that affect the kinetics of milk protein hydrolysis by specific strains and have concentrated on the effect of pH, temperature, growth phase, and matrix composition on the bacterial enzymatic system. This review focuses on the role of the proteolytic system of L. helveticus in the production of bioactive compounds formed during fermentation of dairy products. Taking advantage of the powerful proteolytic system of this bacterium opens up future opportunities to search for novel food-derived compounds with potential health promoting properties. PMID:23467265

  15. Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., a species related to Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Strain TCF032-E4 was isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented radish. It shares >99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus and L. paraplantarum. This strain can ferment ribose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, trehalose and gentiobiose. It cannot ferment sucrose, which can be used by L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis, as well as most of the L. plantarum strains (88.7%). TCF032-E4 cannot grow at temperature above 32 °C. This strain shares 78.2-83.6% pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit) and 89.5-94.9% rpoA (RNA polymerase alpha subunit) sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis. These results indicate that TCF032-E4 represents a distinct species. This hypothesis was further confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and comparison with available genomes of related species. The draft genome size of TCF032-E4 is approximately 2.9 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 43.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between TCF032-E4 and related species ranges from 79.0 to 81.1%, the highest ANI value being observed with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T. A novel species, Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., is proposed with TCF032-E4T ( = CCTCC AB2015090T = DSM 100358T) as the type strain. PMID:26410554

  16. Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, C; Bouley, C; Cayuela, C; Bouttier, S; Bourlioux, P; Bellon-Fontaine, M N

    1997-01-01

    Hydrophilic and electrostatic cell surface properties of eight Lactobacillus strains were characterized by using the microbial adhesion to solvents method and microelectrophoresis, respectively. All strains appeared relatively hydrophilic. The strong microbial adhesion to chloroform, an acidic solvent, in comparison with microbial adhesion to hexadecane, an apolar n-alkane, demonstrated the particularity of lactobacilli to have an important electron donor and basic character and consequently their potential ability to generate Lewis acid-base interactions with a support. Regardless of their electrophoretic mobility (EM), strains were in general slightly negatively charged at alkaline pH. A pH-dependent behavior concerning cell surface charges was observed. The EM decreased progressively with more acidic pHs for the L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains until the isoelectric point (IEP), i.e., the pH value for which the EM is zero. On the other hand, the EM for the L. rhamnosus strains was stable from pH 8 to pH 3 to 4, at which point there was a shift near the IEP. Both L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains were characterized by an IEP of around 4, whereas L. rhamnosus strains possessed a markedly lower IEP of 2. The present study showed that the cell surface physicochemical properties of lactobacilli seem to be, at least in part and under certain experimental conditions, particular to the bacterial species. Such differences detected between species are likely to be accompanied by some particular changes in cell wall chemical composition. PMID:9143109

  17. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus amylovorus GRL1112.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Paulin, Lars; Alatalo, Edward; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus amylovorus is a common member of the normal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota in pigs. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. amylovorus GRL1112, a porcine feces isolate displaying strong adherence to the pig intestinal epithelial cells. The strain is of interest, as it is a potential probiotic bacterium. PMID:21131492

  18. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R; Ziola, Barry

    2012-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences. PMID:22247527

  19. Lactobacillus assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K.; Jha, Anal K.; Kulkarni, A. R.

    2007-05-01

    An eco-friendly lactobacillus sp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40 60 nm are found.

  20. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  1. Pyelonephritis and Bacteremia from Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    PubMed Central

    DuPrey, Kevin M.; McCrea, Leon; Rabinowitch, Bonnie L.; Azad, Kamran N.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilli are normal colonizers of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. Infection is rare, but has been reported in individuals with predisposing conditions. Here we describe the case of a woman with pyelonephritis and bacteremia in which Lactobacillus delbrueckii was determined to be the causative agent. PMID:23056967

  2. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  3. Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Franden, Mary Ann; Mc Millan, James D.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1998-01-01

    A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.

  4. The status of the species Lactobacillus casei (Orla-Jensen 1916) Hansen and Lessel 1971 and Lactobacillus paracasei Collins et al. 1989. Request for an opinion.

    PubMed

    Dellaglio, Franco; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of considerable published evidence, it is concluded that the species Lactobacillus casei is not correctly represented by the strain actually designated as the type strain ATCC 393. It is proposed that the Judicial Commission consider: (1) that ATCC 393T is scientifically unsuitable as the type strain of Lactobacillus casei and should be reclassified as Lactobacillus zeae; (2) that Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and Lactobacillus paracasei strains are members of the same taxon and therefore can be united within the name Lactobacillus casei (Rules 42 and 23a), the name Lactobacillus paracasei being rejected; and (3) designating ATCC 334 as the neotype strain for the species PMID:11837314

  5. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p < 0.05). The present work showed that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties. PMID:23764216

  6. Comparative genomics and transcriptional analysis of prophages identified in the genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; Canchaya, Carlos; Bernini, Valentina; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; McGrath, Stephen; Claesson, Marcus J; Li, Yin; Leahy, Sinead; Walker, Carey D; Zink, Ralf; Neviani, Erasmo; Steele, Jim; Broadbent, Jeff; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-05-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described prophage sequences revealed that they have not followed an evolutionary development similar to that of their bacterial hosts and that they show a high degree of diversity, even within a species. The attachment sites were determined for all these prophage elements; LgaI as well as Sal1 integrates in tRNA genes, while prophage Sal2 integrates in a predicted arginino-succinate lyase-encoding gene. In contrast, Lca1 and the Sal3 and Sal4 prophage remnants are integrated in noncoding regions in the L. casei ATCC 334 and L. salivarius UCC 118 genomes. Northern analysis showed that large parts of the prophage genomes are transcriptionally silent and that transcription is limited to genome segments located near the attachment site. Finally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blot hybridization with specific prophage probes indicates that these prophage sequences are narrowly distributed within lactobacilli. PMID:16672450

  7. [The measurement of growth curve and generation time of lactobacillus

    PubMed

    Gu, S P; Liu, Z; Song, P Z

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this test was to understand the growth pattern of lactobacillus for the research of its cariogenicity. METHODS: The growth quantity of lactobacillus which was culture in a constant condition was measured periodically by spectrophotometry and flora counting,and its growth curve and generation time were measured. RESULTS: It was found that the logarithmic phase of lactobacillus was 6-16 hours after it was cultured.And its generatin time was 54 minutes. CONCLUSIN: The growth curve of lactobacillus was in accordance with streptococcus mutan. PMID:15071634

  8. [Penicillin-binding proteins of various strains of Lactobacillus].

    PubMed

    Griaznova, N S; Subbotina, N A; Beliavskaia, I V; Taisova, A S; Afonin, V I; Tiurin, M V; Shenderov, B A; Sazykina, Iu O; Navashin, S M

    1990-02-01

    Sensitivity of different species of Lactobacillus i.e. L. casei, L. plantarum, L. acidophillus, L. buchneri, L. jugurti and others to penicillins and cephalosporins of various generations was studied. Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of the Lactobacillus species were specified. It was shown that the number of PBPs depended on the Lactobacillus species. L. casei had the least number of PBPs (4) and L. brevis had the highest number of PBPs (11). Competition of 14C-benzylpenicillin with ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime and cefoperazone for binding to separate PBPs in three strains of different Lactobacillus species was investigated. PMID:2110806

  9. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. PMID:25922408

  10. Differentiation of Lactobacillus Species by Molecular Typing

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Millsap, Kevin; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, Hanna; Reid, Gregor

    1998-01-01

    A total of 64 type, reference, clinical, health food, and stock isolates of microaerophilic Lactobacillus species were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of particular interest were members of six of the eight species most commonly recovered from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women, namely, Lactobacillus jensenii, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. fermentum. Six main groupings were identified on the basis of ribotyping. This technique was able to classify fresh isolates to the species level. In the case of the ribotype A grouping for L. rhamnosus, differences between strains were evident by chromosome typing (chromotyping). Many isolates did not possess plasmids. Six L. rhamnosus strains isolated from four different health food products appeared to be identical to L. rhamnosus ATCC 21052. The molecular typing system is useful for identifying and differentiating Lactobacillus isolates. Studies of strains of potential importance to the urogenital flora should include molecular characterization as a means of comparing genetic traits with those of strains whose characteristics associated with colonization and antagonism against pathogens have been defined. PMID:9647809

  11. Dominance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the Facultative Jejunal Lactobacillus Microbiota of Fistulated Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yurui; Manninen, Titta J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 104 to 108 CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), Lactobacillus acidophilus was dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern. PMID:22843523

  12. Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK908

    PubMed Central

    Koryszewska-Bagińska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK908, a patented probiotic strain (Polish patent no. 209987), was isolated from the feces of a healthy 6-year-old girl. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of LOCK908 and identify genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPSs). PMID:24558250

  13. Lactobacillus sobrius Konstantinov et al. 2006 is a later synonym of Lactobacillus amylovorus Nakamura 1981.

    PubMed

    Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Murros, Anna; Palva, Airi; Björkroth, Katri Johanna

    2008-04-01

    While studying the taxonomy of six lactic acid bacterium isolates from Finnish porcine intestine and faeces, the taxonomic positions of Lactobacillus sobrius type strain DSM 16698T and strain AD5 based on comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis were found to be controversial, as they showed high similarity to Lactobacillus amylovorus strains. Therefore, the taxonomy of these species was addressed in a polyphasic taxonomy study that included, in addition to re-evaluating the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA reassociation results, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the housekeeping genes encoding the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) as well as numerical analysis of HindIII and EcoRI ribotypes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated a very high similarity between the L. sobrius and L. amylovorus type and reference strains and representative Finnish porcine isolates (99.6-99.9 %). The MLSA data showed the close phylogenetic relationship of these strains; pheS and rpoA gene sequence similarities were 98.5-100 % and 99.6-99.8 %, respectively. Numerical analyses of HindIII/EcoRI ribotypes placed these strains in a single cluster by both enzymes. Finally, the DNA-DNA reassociation experiments revealed high reassociation levels (higher than 79 %) between the strains. These results indicate that DSM 16698T, AD5 and the related porcine lactobacilli strains from Finland constitute a single species, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and that the name Lactobacillus sobrius should be considered as a later synonym of Lactobacillus amylovorus. PMID:18398193

  14. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis associated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM), a severe infection with a high fatality rate, develops in mediastinal spaces due mainly to deep cervical abscesses. The majority of causative microbes of DNM are Streptococci and oral anaerobes. DNM associated with Lactobacillus-infection is rather rare. Case presentation A 69-year-old male with an unremarkable past medical history was referred to our hospital for surgical resection of advanced laryngeal cancer. Full examination revealed a neck abscess and DNM with a background of untreated diabetes mellitus. Initially, he was treated with meropenem. However, Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from surgical drainage of a mediastinal abscess. Despite using antibiotics capable of eradicating all isolates with susceptibilities not differing significantly from those of the neck and mediastinal abscesses, we attributed DNM to the L. plantarum detected only in the mediastinal abscess. After DNM treatment, he underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection followed by reconstruction using free jejunum. He was discharged fully recovered. Conclusion We concluded that L. plantarum as the sole cause of the mediastinal abscess in the present case cannot be ruled out. As the number of immunocompromised patients increases, we should be cautious regarding this “familiar” microbe. PMID:23987907

  15. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

  16. Lactobacillus mixtipabuli sp. nov. isolated from total mixed ration silage.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Masuda, Takaharu; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Using a polyphasic taxonomic approach, we investigated three bacterial strains - IWT30T, IWT8 and IWT75 - isolated from total mixed ration silage prepared in Hachimantai, Iwate, Japan. The isolates comprised Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. Good growth occurred at 15-45 °C and at pH 4.0-7.5. Their major cellular fatty acids were C18:1ω9c and C19:1 cyclo 9,10.The G+C content of genomic DNA of strain IWT30T was 44.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these novel strains belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. These strains shared 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and were most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus silagei, Lactobacillus odoratitofui, Lactobacillus similis, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus paracollinoides and Lactobacillus kimchicus, with sequence similarity values of 99.5, 98.8, 98.7, 97.8, 97.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between these strains and their closest phylogenetic neighbours was less than 30 %. On the basis of additional phylogenetic analysis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we conclude that these three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which we propose the name Lactobacillus mixtipabuli sp. nov. The type strain is IWT30T ( = JCM 19805T = DSM 28580T). PMID:25807979

  17. Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919.

    PubMed

    Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

  20. A Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model for vaginal Lactobacillus colonization and live microbicide development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rosa R.; Cheng, Andrew T.; Lagenaur, Laurel A.; Huang, Wenjun; Weiss, Deborah E.; Treece, Jim; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E.; Hamer, Dean H.; Lee, Peter P.; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to establish a nonhuman primate model of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization suitable for evaluating live microbial microbicide candidates. Methods Vaginal and rectal microflora in Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were analyzed, with cultivable bacteria identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Live lactobacilli were intravaginally administered to evaluate bacterial colonization. Results Chinese rhesus macaques harbored abundant vaginal Lactobacillus, with Lactobacillus johnsonii as the predominant species. Like humans, most examined macaques harbored only one vaginal Lactobacillus species. Vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus isolates from the same animal exhibited different genetic and biochemical profiles. Vaginal Lactobacillus was cleared by a vaginal suppository of azithromycin, and endogenous L. johnsonii was subsequently restored by intravaginal inoculation. Importantly, prolonged colonization of a human vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii was established in these animals. Conclusions The Chinese rhesus macaque harbors vaginal Lactobacillus and is a potentially useful model to support the pre-clinical evaluation of Lactobacillus-based topical microbicides. PMID:19367737

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain IPLA 88

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Martin, M. Cruz; Fernández, María

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a 3.2-Mbp draft assembly for the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum IPLA 88. The sequence of this sourdough isolate provides insight into the adaptation of this versatile species to different environments. PMID:23887921

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56

    PubMed Central

    Hochwind, Kerstin; Weinmaier, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; van Hemert, Saskia; Hartmann, Anton; Rattei, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56 in one contig. This strain shows immunomodulatory and probiotic properties. The strain is also an ingredient of commercially available probiotic products. PMID:23144392

  3. Draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56.

    PubMed

    Hochwind, Kerstin; Weinmaier, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; van Hemert, Saskia; Hartmann, Anton; Rattei, Thomas; Rothballer, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56 in one contig. This strain shows immunomodulatory and probiotic properties. The strain is also an ingredient of commercially available probiotic products. PMID:23144392

  4. Lactobacillus insicii sp. nov., isolated from fermented raw meat.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Kröckel, Lothar; Lick, Sonja; Radmann, Pia; Bantleon, Annegret; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the bacterial microbiota of retain samples of pork salami revealed an isolate (strain TMW 1.2011T) that could neither be assigned to typical genera of starter organisms nor to any other known meat-associated species. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, short, straight rods occurring singly, in pairs or short chains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and specific phenotypic characteristics showed that strain TMW 1.2011T belonged to the phylogenetic Lactobacillus alimentarius group, and the closest neighbours were Lactobacillus nodensis JCM 14932T (97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus tucceti DSM 20183T (97.4 %), 'Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans' EMML 3041 (97.3 %), Lactobacillus versmoldensis DSM 14857T (96.9 %) and Lactobacillus furfuricola JCM 18764T (97.2 %). Similarities using partial gene sequences of the alternative chronometers pheS, dnaK and rpoA also support these relationships. DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel isolate and L. nodensis JCM 14932T, L. versmoldensis DSM 14857T and L. tucceti DSM 20183T, L. furfuricola JCM 18764T and 'L. ginsenosidimutans' EMML 3041 were below 70 % and the DNA G+C content was 36.3 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type is l-Lys-Gly-d-Asp. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological evidence, strain TMW 1.2011T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus insicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TMW 1.2011T ( = CECT 8802T = DSM 29801T). PMID:26486967

  5. High efficiency electrotransformation of Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Welker, Dennis L; Hughes, Joanne E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether protocols allowing high efficiency electrotransformation of other lactic acid bacteria were applicable to five strains of Lactobacillus casei (12A, 32G, A2-362, ATCC 334 and BL23). Addition of 1% glycine or 0.9 M NaCl during cell growth, limitation of the growth of the cell cultures to OD600 0.6-0.8, pre-electroporation treatment of cells with water or with a lithium acetate (100 mM)/dithiothreitol (10 mM) solution and optimization of electroporation conditions all improved transformation efficiencies. However, the five strains varied in their responses to these treatments. Transformation efficiencies of 10(6) colony forming units μg(-1) pTRKH2 DNA and higher were obtained with three strains which is sufficient for construction of chromosomal gene knock-outs and gene replacements. PMID:25670703

  6. Protoplast formation and regeneration in Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamta; Joshi, Dipti; Gaikaiwari, Shalaka; Gokhale, Digambar V

    2010-03-01

    Method for production and regeneration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii protoplasts are described. The protoplasts were obtained by treatment with a mixture of lysozyme and mutanolysin in protoplast buffer at pH 6.5 with different osmotic stabilizers. The protoplasts were regenerated on deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) with various osmotic stabilizers. Maximum protoplast formation was obtained in protoplast buffer with sucrose as an osmotic stabilizer using a combination of lysozyme (1 mg/ml) and mutanolysin (10 μg/ml). Maximum protoplast regeneration was obtained on MRS medium with sucrose (0.5 M) as an osmotic stabilizer. The regeneration medium was also applicable to other species of lactobacilli as well. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on protoplast formation and efficient regeneration in case of L. delbrueckii. PMID:23100814

  7. Genomic adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei group.

    PubMed

    Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

  8. Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

  9. Genomic Adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei Group

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

  10. Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

  11. Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55 mg/10(10) cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33 mg/10(10) cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

  13. Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

    2013-12-01

    Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) ( = JCM 17300(T) = DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

  14. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability. PMID:22676388

  15. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of Three Lactobacillus plantarum Food Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a widespread member of the Lactobacillus genus and frequently isolated from spoiled acidified food products. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three L. plantarum food isolates. PMID:27313301

  16. Molecular Analysis and Clinical Significance of Lactobacillus spp. Recovered from Clinical Specimens Presumptively Associated with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Bui, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ≥105 CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

  17. Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

    1998-08-25

    A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

  18. Reclassification of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 15820 as Lactobacillus zeae nom. rev., designation of ATCC 334 as the neotype of L. casei subsp. casei, and rejection of the name Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Dicks, L M; Du Plessis, E M; Dellaglio, F; Lauer, E

    1996-01-01

    The type strain of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (ATCC 393) exhibits low levels of DNA homology with other strains of L. casei subsp. casei (8 to 46%) and strains of Lactobacillus paracasei (30 to 50%), but exhibits a level of DNA similarity of 80% with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 15820, the original type strain of "Lactobacterium zeae" Kuznetsov 1959. Strains ATCC 393T (T = type strain) and ATCC 15820T are members of one protein profile cluster that is separate from the other Lactobacillus spp. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR profile of strain ATCC 393T is also different from the profiles obtained for the other species. L. casei ATCC 334T is genetically closely related to L. casei subsp. casei strains (71 to 97%) and L. paracasei strains (71 to 91%), is a member of the same protein profile cluster as these organisms, and shares several DNA amplicons with L. paracasei strains. On the basis of these results, we propose that L. casei subsp. casei ATCC 393T and L. rhamnosus ATCC 15820 should be reclassified as members of Lactobacillus zeae nom. rev. (type strain, ATCC 15820), that strain ATCC 334 should be designated the neotype strain of L. casei subsp. casei, and that the name L. paracasei should be rejected. PMID:8573516

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Electron Transport Chains▿

    PubMed Central

    Brooijmans, R. J. W.; de Vos, W. M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. The addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels that are typically found in L. plantarum growth media (1 to 2% [vol/vol] glucose). In contrast, comparable mannitol levels did not inhibit the reduction of nitrate. L. plantarum reduced nitrate with concomitant formation of nitrite and ammonia. Genes that encode a bd-type cytochrome (cydABCD) and a nitrate reductase (narGHJI) were identified in the genome of L. plantarum. The narGHJI operon is part of a cluster of genes that includes the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis genes and narK. Besides a menaquinone source, isogenic mutants revealed that cydA and ndh1 are required for the aerobic-respiration-like response and narG for nitrate reduction. The ndh1 mutant was still able to reduce nitrate. The existence of a nonredundant branched electron transport chain in L. plantarum WCFS1 that is capable of using oxygen or nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor is proposed. PMID:19346351

  20. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity. PMID:26610803

  1. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

  2. Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus

    PubMed Central

    Cremonesi, Paola; Chessa, Stefania; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones. PMID:23335916

  3. Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus

    PubMed Central

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058

  4. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

  5. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  6. Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

  7. Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

  8. [Comparison of expression and antibacterial activities of recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in four Lactobacillus species].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Wu, Xiao; He, Jia; Qiao, Xinyuan; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2014-09-01

    The coding sequence for the mature peptide of porcine lactoferrin (Plf) was synthesized according to the codon usage of lactobacillus, to establish optimized porcine lactoferrin Lactobacillus expression system. The gene was ligated into the Xho I/BamH I site of Lactobacillus expression vector pPG612.1 and the recombinant plasmid pPG612.1-plf was transformed individually into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS1.0413, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 or Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS1.0652 by electroporation. After induction with xylose, expression of the recombinant proteins was detected by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of recombinant Plf proteins from four recombinant species was determined quantitatively by ELISA. The antibacterial activities of recombinant proteins were measured by agar diffusion method. The result shows that Plf was correctly expressed in four species of recombinant lactobacillus, with molecular weight of about 73 kDa. The expression levels in recombinant Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei were 9.6 μg/mL, 10.8 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial activity experiment shows that the recombinant proteins were active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria, Pasteurella. The recombinant Plf expressed by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum showed the best antibacterial activity among all recombinant lactobacillus species. These data represent a basis for the development and application of porcine lactoferrin from recombinant lactobacillus. PMID:25720152

  9. Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum: Effect on stress responses, antagonistic effects on pathogen growth and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Aoudia, Nabil; Rieu, Aurélie; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Chluba, Johanna; Jego, Gaëtan; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have extensively investigated probiotic functions associated with biofilms. Here, we show that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum are able to grow as biofilm on abiotic surfaces, but the biomass density differs between strains. We performed microtiter plate biofilm assays under growth conditions mimicking to the gastrointestinal environment. Osmolarity and low concentrations of bile significantly enhanced Lactobacillus spatial organization. Two L. plantarum strains were able to form biofilms under high concentrations of bile and mucus. We used the agar well-diffusion method to show that supernatants from all Lactobacillus except the NA4 isolate produced food pathogen inhibitory molecules in biofilm. Moreover, TNF-α production by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells was suppressed by supernatants from Lactobacillus cultivated as biofilms but not by planktonic culture supernatants. However, only L. fermentum NA4 showed anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish embryos fed with probiotic bacteria, as assessed by cytokine transcript level (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10). We conclude that the biofilm mode of life is associated with beneficial probiotic properties of lactobacilli, in a strain dependent manner. Those results suggest that characterization of isolate phenotype in the biofilm state could be additional valuable information for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26611169

  10. Vaginal Lactobacillus: biofilm formation in vivo – clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ventolini, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli provide protection against intrusive pathogenic bacteria. Some Lactobacillus spp. produce in vitro a thick, protective biofilm. We report in vivo formation of biofilm by vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii. The biofilm formation was captured in fresh wet-mount microscopic samples from asymptomatic patients after treatment for recurrent bacterial vaginitis. In vivo documentation of biofilm formation is in our opinion noteworthy, and has significant clinical implications, among which are the possibility to isolate, grow, and therapeutically utilize lactobacilli to prevent recurrent vaginal infections and preterm labor associated with vaginal microbial pathogens. PMID:25733930

  11. Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices.

    PubMed

    Bringel, Françoise; Castioni, Anna; Olukoya, Daniel K; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

    2005-07-01

    Fourteen strains isolated from vegetable sources and identified as belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum presented an atypical pattern of amplification with a species-specific multiplex-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of two protein-encoding genes, recA (encoding the recombinase A protein) and cpn60 (encoding the GroEL chaperonin), as well as phenotypic and genomic traits revealed a homogeneous group of very closely related strains for which subspecies status is proposed, with the name Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis. The type strain is DKO 22(T) (=CIP 108320(T)=DSM 16365(T)). PMID:16014493

  12. Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics. PMID:23292549

  13. Incompatibility of Lactobacillus Vectors with Replicons Derived from Small Cryptic Lactobacillus Plasmids and Segregational Instability of the Introduced Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Posno, M.; Leer, R. J.; van Luijk, N.; van Giezen, M. J. F.; Heuvelmans, P. T. H. M.; Lokman, B. C.; Pouwels, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Three new Lactobacillus vectors based on cryptic Lactobacillus plasmids were constructed. The shuttle vector pLP3537 consists of a 2.3-kb plasmid from Lactobacillus pentosus MD353, an erythromycin resistance gene from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pE194, and pUC19 as a replicon for Escherichia coli. The vectors pLPE317 and pLPE323, which do not contain E. coli sequences, were generated by introducing the erythromycin resistance gene of pE194 into a 1.7- and a 2.3-kb plasmid from L. pentosus MD353, respectively. These vectors and the shuttle vector pLP825 (M. Posno, R. J. Leer, J. M. M. van Rijn, B. C. Lokman, and P. H. Pouwels, p. 397-401, in A. T. Ganesan and J. A. Hoch, ed., Genetics and biotechnology of bacilli, vol. 2, 1988) could be introduced by electroporation into Lactobacillus casei, L. pentosus, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, and L. brevis strains with similar efficiencies. Transformation efficiencies were strain dependent and varied from 102 to 107 transformants per μg of DNA. Plasmid DNA analysis of L. pentosus MD353 transformants revealed that the introduction of pLP3537 or pLPE323 was invariably accompanied by loss of the endogenous 2.3-kb plasmid. Remarkably, pLPE317 could only be introduced into an L. pentosus MD353 strain that had been previously cured of its endogenous 1.7-kb plasmid. The curing phenomena are most likely to be explained by the incompatibility of the vectors and resident plasmids. Lactobacillus vectors are generally rapidly lost when cells are cultivated in the absence of selective pressure. However, pLPE323 is stable in three of four Lactobacillus strains tested so far. Images PMID:16348515

  14. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Karska-Wysocki, Barbara; Bazo, Mari; Smoragiewicz, Wanda

    2010-10-20

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant microorganism and the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria against MRSA from ten human clinical isolates as well as MRSA standard strain ATCC 43300 was tested in vitro. The Lactobacillus (Lb.) strains (Lb. acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lb. casei LBC80R) as pure cultures, which came from commercial food products were employed. The growth inhibitory effect produced by the antimicrobial activity of the lactic acid bacteria on the MRSA strains was tested on solid medium using agar diffusion methods as well as a using a liquid medium procedure that contained a mixture of MRSA and lactic acid bacteria cultures. In the latter instance, we were able to demonstrate that the direct interaction of lactic acid bacteria and MRSA in such a mixture led to the elimination of 99% of the MRSA cells after 24 h of their incubation at 37°C. PMID:20116228

  15. In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

  16. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii using alginate and gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Flores, Walfred; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo

    2013-10-15

    Sodium alginate (SA) at 2% (w/v) and low acylated gellan gum (LAG) at 0.2% (w/v) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp lactis by employing the internal ionic gelation technique through water-oil emulsions at three different stirring rates: 480, 800 and 1200 rpm. The flow behavior of the biopolymer dispersions, the activation energy of the emulsion, the microencapsulation efficiency, the size distribution, the microcapsules morphology and the effect of the stirring rate on the culture viability were analyzed. All of the dispersions exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior because the apparent viscosity decreased in value when the shear rate was increased. The activation energy was calculated using the Arrhenius-like equation; the value obtained for the emulsion was 32.59 kJ/mol. It was observed that at 400 rpm, the microencapsulation efficiency was 92.83%, whereas at 800 and 1200 rpm, the stirring rates reduced the efficiency to 15.83% and 4.56%, respectively, evidencing the sensitivity of the microorganisms to the shear rate (13.36 and 20.05 s(-1)). Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed spherical microcapsules with irregular topography due to the presence of holes on its surface. The obtained size distribution range was modified when the stirring rate was increased. At 400 rpm, bimodal behavior was observed in the range of 20-420 μm; at 800 and 1200 rpm, the behavior became unimodal and the range was from 20 to 200 μm and 20 to 160 μm, respectively. PMID:23987441

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing “stuck” fermentations, which i...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Subramanyam; Shouri, Raju Naidu Devanaboyaina; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

  19. Ribotyping of Lactobacillus casei group strains isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Svec, P; Dráb, V; Sedlácek, I

    2005-01-01

    A series of lactobacilli isolated from dairy products were characterized using biotyping and ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII restriction enzymes. Biotyping assigned 14 strains as Lactobacillus casei, 6 strains as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and 12 as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The obtained ribotype patterns separated all analyzed strains into two clearly distinguished groups corresponding to L. rhamnosus and L. casei/L. paracasei subsp. paracasei. The HindIII ribotypes of individual strains representing these two groups were visually very similar. In contrast, EcoRI ribotyping revealed high intraspecies variability. All ribotypes of L. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei dairy strains were very close and some strains even shared identical ribotype profiles. The type strains L. casei CCM 7088T (= ATCC 393T) and Lactobacillus zeae CCM 7069T revealing similar ribopatterns formed a separate subcluster using both restriction enzymes. In contrast, the ribotype profile of L. casei CCM 7089 (= ATCC 334) was very close to ribopatterns obtained from the dairy strains. These results support synonymy of L. casei and L. paracasei species revealed by other studies as well as reclassification of the type strain L. casei CCM 7088T as L. zeae and designation of L. casei CCM 7089 as the neotype strain. PMID:16295661

  20. Role of transporter proteins in bile tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Erika A; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM derivatives containing deletion mutations in the transporter genes LBA0552, LBA1429, LBA1446, and LBA1679 exhibited increased sensitivity to bile. These strains showed unique patterns of sensitivity to a variety of inhibitory compounds, as well as differential accumulations of ciprofloxacin and taurocholate. PMID:19633113

  1. Characterization and adsorption of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Xi, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; Fan, M; Liu, Y; Wu, W

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria is considered an important problem worldwide in the food fermentation industry, as it may produce low quality or unsafe foods, cause fermentation failure, and result in economic losses. To increase current knowledge on the properties of Lactobacillus virulent phages, we evaluated the effect of divalent cations, temperature, pH, and chloramphenicol on the adsorption ability of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1. Phage P1 was isolated from the abnormal fermentation liquid of Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10120. The results showed that this phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The latent period of this phage was 45min, and the burst time was 90min. Burst size was 132.88±2.37 phage counts expressed per milliliter per infective center. This phage showed good tolerance at different temperatures, but incubation at 50°C only affected its adsorption. Adsorption rate reached a maximum value between 30 and 42°C. A high adsorption value of phage infectivity was obtained from pH 6 to 8. Moreover, calcium ions promoted and increased the adsorption capacity of phage P1, but magnesium ions had negative effects. Chloramphenicol had no effect on phage adsorption. This study increased current knowledge on the characterization and biological aspects of Lactobacillus virulent phages, and may provide some basic information that can be used to design successful antiphage strategies in the food industry. PMID:27372579

  2. Nearly Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain NIZO2877

    PubMed Central

    Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Siezen, Roland; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile bacterial species that is isolated mostly from foods. Here, we present the first genome sequence of L. plantarum strain NIZO2877 isolated from a hot dog in Vietnam. Its two contigs represent a nearly complete genome sequence. PMID:26607887

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain UCMA 3037

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Saima; Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Vaisse, Melissa; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Celine; Rechenmann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid of the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UCMA 3037, isolated from raw milk camembert cheese in our laboratory, was sequenced. We present its draft genome sequence with the aim of studying its functional properties and relationship to the cheese ecosystem. PMID:23704179

  4. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain UCMA 3037.

    PubMed

    Naz, Saima; Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Vaisse, Melissa; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Celine; Rechenmann, Mathias; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid of the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UCMA 3037, isolated from raw milk camembert cheese in our laboratory, was sequenced. We present its draft genome sequence with the aim of studying its functional properties and relationship to the cheese ecosystem. PMID:23704179

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

  6. Chorioamnionitis and possible neonatal infection associated with Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, R P; Appelbaum, P C; Ward, R M; Botti, J J

    1982-01-01

    A patient is described with premature labor at 32 weeks of gestation complicated by chorioamnionitis associated with Lactobacillus species, subsequent premature delivery, and possible neonatal infection. Mother and infant did well with antibiotic therapy. The significance of chorioamnionitis and neonatal pneumonia due to this organism group is discussed. PMID:7130367

  7. First Functional and Mutational Analysis of Group 3 N-Acetylneuraminate Lyases from Lactobacillus antri and Lactobacillus sakei 23K

    PubMed Central

    García-García, María Inmaculada; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    N-acetyl neuraminate lyases (NALs) catalyze the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Previous phylogenetic studies divided NALs into four different groups. Groups 1 and 2 have been well characterized at both kinetic and molecular levels, but no NAL from group 3 has been studied to date. In this work, a functional characterization of two group 3 members was performed using the recombinant NALs from Lactobacillus antri and Lactobacillus sakei 23K, revealing an optimal pH of between 6.0 and 7.0, low stability at basic pHs (>8.0), low optimal temperatures and, especially, low catalytic efficiency compared with their counterparts in group 1 and 2. The mutational analysis carried out showed that a plausible molecular reason for the low activity shown by Lactobacillus antri and Lactobacillus sakei 23k NALs compared with group 1 and 2 NALs could be the relatively small sugar-binding pocket they contain. A functional divergence analysis concluding that group 3 is more closely related to group 2 than to group 1. PMID:24817128

  8. Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cauwerts, K; Pasmans, F; Devriese, L A; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2006-04-01

    Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillu sreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides and lincosamides was very high in the investigated lactobacilli: 89% of the strains were resistant to either or both lincosamide and macrolide class antibiotics. The vast majority of these resistant strains (96%) displayed constitutive resistance. More than one-half of the macrolide and/or lincosamide resistant strains carried an erm(B), erm(C), mef(A), lnu(A) gene or a combination of these genes. PMID:16595310

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid plca36 isolated from Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Yu, Dongliang; Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Bao, Qiuhua; Meng, He; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Heping

    2008-09-01

    The complete 36,487 bp sequence of plasmid plca36 from Lactobacillus casei Zhang was determined. Plca36 contains 44 predicted coding regions, and to 23 of them functions could be assigned. For the first time, we identified a relBE toxin-antitoxin (TA) locus in a Lactobacillus genus, perhaps indicating a potential role for plca36 in host survival under extreme nutritional stress. A region encoding a cluster of conjugation genes (tra) was also identified. The cluster showed high similarity and co-linearity with tra regions of pWCFS103 and pMRC01 from Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. Comparative gene analysis revealed that plasmids from the genus Lactobacillus may have contributed to the environmental adaptation mainly by providing carbohydrate and amino acid transporters. In addition, two chromosome-encoded relBE systems in Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri were identified. PMID:18634821

  10. Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Strains for Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. Objectives: The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes’ milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. Results: The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L

  11. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group and the Lactobacillus acidophilus group by automated ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Ryu, C S; Czajka, J W; Sakamoto, M; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    A total of 91 type and reference strains of the Lactobacillus casei group and the L acidophilus group were characterized by the automated ribotyping device Riboprinter microbial characterization system. The L. casei group was divided into five (C1-C5) genotypes by ribotyping. Among them, the strain of L. casei ATCC 334 was clustered to the same genotype group as most of L. paracasei strains and L casei JCM 1134T generated a riboprint pattern that was different from the type strain of L. zeae. These results supported the designation of L. casei ATCC 334 as the neotype strain, but were not consistent with the reclassification of L. casei JCM 1134T as L. zeae. The L. acidophilus group was also divided into 14 (A1-A11, B1-B3) genotypes by ribotyping. L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus and L. gallinarum generated ribotype patterns that were distinct from the patterns produced by L. gasseri and L. johnsonii. This result confirmed previous data that the L. acidophilus group divided to two major clusters. Five strains of L. acidophilus and two strains of L. gasseri were correctly reidentified by ribotyping. Most strains belonging to the L. casei group and the L. acidophilus group were discriminated at the species level by automated ribotyping. Thus this RiboPrinter system yields rapid, accurate and reproducible genetic information for the identification of many strains. PMID:11386416

  12. Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jared M.; Hassan, Wisal M.; Chohan, Vrasha; Richardson, Barbra A.; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Objective Vaginal colonization with Lactobacillus species is characteristic of normal vaginal ecology. The absence of vaginal lactobacilli, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing isolates, has been associated with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV) and increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Identification of factors associated with vaginal Lactobacillus colonization may suggest interventions to improve vaginal health. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among Kenyan HIV-1 seronegative female sex workers. At monthly follow-up visits, vaginal Lactobacillus cultures were obtained. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine demographic, behavioral, and medical correlates of Lactobacillus isolation, including isolation of H2O2-producing strains. Results Lactobacillus cultures were obtained from 1020 women who completed a total of 8896 follow-up visits. Vaginal washing, typically with water alone or with soap and water, was associated with an approximately 40% decreased likelihood of Lactobacillus isolation, including isolation of H2O2-producing strains. Recent antibiotic use, excluding metronidazole and treatments for vaginal candidiasis, reduced Lactobacillus isolation by ~30%. H2O2-producing lactobacilli were significantly less common among women with Trichomonas vaginalis infection and those who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2. In contrast, H2O2-producing lactobacilli were significantly more common among women with concurrent vaginal candidiasis. Conclusions Modifiable biologic and behavioral factors are associated with Lactobacillus colonization in African women. Our results suggest intervention strategies to improve vaginal health in women at high risk for HIV-1. PMID:19329442

  13. Effect of pressurization on antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Grześkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of high pressures on antibacterial properties of selected strains of the Lactobacillus species. Cultures of 22 strains were subjected to high-pressure treatment at 30, 60, 90, and 300 MPa/1 min/18 °C. The susceptibility of the bacteria pressurized at 30-90 MPa was diversified and depended on the strain and not on its species affiliation. When compared with pressures of 30-90 MPa, the pressure treatment at 300 MPa caused the inhibition of the acidifying activity of the strains analyzed. In turn, the pressures applied had no impact on the quantity of hydrogen peroxide synthesized. An increase in pressure was accompanied by a diminishing antibacterial activity of the investigated Lactobacillus strains.

  14. Biowaste: a Lactobacillus habitat and lactic acid fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Fritschi, Annika; Wagner, Andreas; Insam, Heribert

    2013-09-01

    Composite organic waste was assessed for its physical, chemical and microbial suitability to serve as a substrate for the fermentative production of lactic acid. The biowaste studied was highly acidic (pH 4.3) and had high organic carbon content (45%). A clone library identified 90% of the bacterial community were lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by Lactobacilli (70%). Cultivation using semiselective media identified Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and their closest relatives as the dominating taxa. PCR-DGGE using general bacterial and lactic acid bacterial specific primers resulted in little heterogeneity of microbial community. These data indicate that biowaste is a preferred habitat of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting that the unsterilized biowaste and its natural flora could be used in a fermentation process for lactic acid production. Such kind of biowaste application could be an alternative for current substrates and provide a modern, efficient and environmental friendly waste treatment technology. PMID:23816359

  15. Lactobacillus crispatus as biomarker of the healthy vaginal tract.

    PubMed

    Lepargneur, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that the lactobacilli inhabiting the human vagina are the first line of defense in the female urogenital and reproductive tracts. In healthy cervicovaginal microbiota, Lactobacillus crispatus is prevalent and beneficial with production of copious amounts of lactic acid potent broad spectrum bactericide virucide and immunomodulator. Future and preventic approaches may need to include probiotics, prebiotics also have the potential to optimize and restore the vaginal ecosystem. PMID:27492695

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Strain 3872

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kavita; Abramov, Vyacheslav M.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 3872. The data revealed remarkable similarity to and dissimilarity with the published genome sequences of other strains of the species. The absence of and variation in structures of some adhesins and the presence of an additional adhesin may reflect adaptation of the bacterium to different host systems and may contribute to specific properties of this strain as a new probiotic. PMID:24285652

  17. Comparative Genomics Reveals Biomarkers to Identify Lactobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Koul, Shikha; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria possessing multiple copies of 16S rRNA (rrs) gene demonstrate high intragenomic heterogeneity. It hinders clear distinction at species level and even leads to overestimation of the bacterial diversity. Fifty completely sequenced genomes belonging to 19 species of Lactobacillus species were found to possess 4-9 copies of rrs each. Multiple sequence alignment of 268 rrs genes from all the 19 species could be classified into 20 groups. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis TMW 1.1304 was the only species where all the 7 copies of rrs were exactly similar and thus formed a distinct group. In order to circumvent the problem of high heterogeneity arising due to multiple copies of rrs, 19 additional genes (732-3645 nucleotides in size) common to Lactobacillus genomes, were selected and digested with 10 Type II restriction endonucleases (RE), under in silico conditions. The following unique gene-RE combinations: recA (1098 nts)-HpyCH4 V, CviAII, BfuCI and RsaI were found to be useful in identifying 29 strains representing 17 species. Digestion patterns of genes-ruvB (1020 nts), dnaA (1368 nts), purA (1290 nts), dnaJ (1140 nts), and gyrB (1944 nts) in combination with REs-AluI, BfuCI, CviAI, Taq1, and Tru9I allowed clear identification of an additional 14 strains belonging to 8 species. Digestion pattern of genes recA, ruvB, dnaA, purA, dnaJ and gyrB can be used as biomarkers for identifying different species of Lactobacillus. PMID:27407290

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1,991,830-bp complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-14 (SD-5212). Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.98% similarity overall to the L. acidophilus NCFM genome. Globally, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (95 SNPs, 16 indels) were observed throughout the genome. Also, a 416-bp deletion in the LA14_1146 sugar ABC transporter was identified. PMID:23788546

  19. Resequencing of the Lactobacillus plantarum Strain WJL Genome

    PubMed Central

    Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Siezen, Roland; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strain WJL is a symbiont isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut. The genome of L. plantarum WJL, first sequenced in 2013, was resequenced and rescaffolded in this study. A combination of Sanger and Illumina sequencing allowed us to reduce the number of contigs from 102 to 13. This work contributes to a better understanding of the genome and function of this organism. PMID:26607892

  20. The effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) on the availability of minerals from Dutch-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Aljewicz, Marek; Siemianowska, Ewa; Cichosz, Grażyna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    The use of probiotic cultures in the production of Dutch-type cheeses did not lead to significant changes in their chemical composition but it lowered their acidity. The availability of calcium and magnesium analyzed by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was 19 and 35%, respectively; the availability of phosphorus was significantly higher, at >90%. The use of probiotic cultures significantly increased the availability of calcium (~2.5%), phosphorus (~6%), and magnesium (~18%). The in vitro method supports accurate determination of the effect of the Lactobacillus spp. cultures on the availability of mineral compounds ingested with Dutch-type cheese. PMID:24913654

  1. Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L. plantarum WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L. plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L. plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

  2. Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. Methods: In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. Conclusion: No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications. PMID:24790899

  3. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans include possible antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fasseas, Costas; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Syntichaki, Popi

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effects of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici were found to inhibit the development and growth of the worm. Compared to Escherichia coli used as the control, L. reuteri and P. acidilactici reduced the lifespan of wild-type and short-lived daf-16 worms. On the contrary, L. salivarius extended the lifespan of daf-16 worms when used live, but reduced it as UV-killed bacteria. The three LAB induced the expression of genes involved in pathogen response and inhibited the growth of tumor-like germ cells, without affecting DAF16 localization or increasing corpse cells. Our results suggest the possible use of C. elegans as a model for studying the antitumor attributes of LAB. The negative effects of these LAB strains on the nematode also indicate their potential use against parasitic nematodes. PMID:22923095

  4. Systemic augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Perdigón, G; de Macias, M E; Alvarez, S; Oliver, G; de Ruiz Holgado, A P

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of feeding fermented milks with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mixture of both micro-organisms on the specific and non-specific host defence mechanisms in Swiss mice. Animals fed with fermented milk for 8 days (100 micrograms/day) showed an increase in both phagocytic and lymphocytic activity. This activation of the immune system began on the 3rd day, reached a maximum on the 5th, and decreased slightly on the 8th day of feeding. In the 8-day treated mice, boosted with a single dose (100 micrograms) on the 11th day, the immune response increased further. The feeding with fermented milk produced neither hepatomegaly nor splenomegaly. These results suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus, associated with intestinal mucosae, can influence the level of activation of the immune system. The possible clinical application of fermented milks as immunopotentiators is also discussed. PMID:3123370

  5. Comparative genomics analysis of Lactobacillus species associated with weight gain or weight protection

    PubMed Central

    Drissi, F; Merhej, V; Angelakis, E; El Kaoutari, A; Carrière, F; Henrissat, B; Raoult, D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some Lactobacillus species are associated with obesity and weight gain while others are associated with weight loss. Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria represent a major bacterial population of the small intestine where lipids and simple carbohydrates are absorbed, particularly in the duodenum and jejunum. The objective of this study was to identify Lactobacillus spp. proteins involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with weight modifications. METHODS: We examined a total of 13 complete genomes belonging to seven different Lactobacillus spp. previously associated with weight gain or weight protection. We combined the data obtained from the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology, Batch CD-Search and Gene Ontology to classify gene function in each genome. RESULTS: We observed major differences between the two groups of genomes. Weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. appear to lack enzymes involved in the catabolism of fructose, defense against oxidative stress and the synthesis of dextrin, L-rhamnose and acetate. Weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. encoded a significant gene amount of glucose permease. Regarding lipid metabolism, thiolases were only encoded in the genome of weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. In addition, we identified 18 different types of bacteriocins in the studied genomes, and weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. encoded more bacteriocins than weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed that weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. have developed defense mechanisms for enhanced glycolysis and defense against oxidative stress. Weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. possess a limited ability to breakdown fructose or glucose and might reduce ileal brake effects. PMID:24567124

  6. Effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus reuteri on gut barrier function and heat shock proteins in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Yu; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Ahl, David; Dicksved, Johan; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Lundh, Torbjörn

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a set of highly conserved proteins that can serve as intestinal gate keepers in gut homeostasis. Here, effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and two novel porcine isolates, Lactobacillus johnsonii strain P47-HY and Lactobacillus reuteri strain P43-HUV, on cytoprotective HSP expression and gut barrier function, were investigated in a porcine IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cell line model. The IPEC-J2 cells polarized on a permeable filter exhibited villus-like cell phenotype with development of apical microvilli. Western blot analysis detected HSP expression in IPEC-J2 and revealed that L. johnsonii and L. reuteri strains were able to significantly induce HSP27, despite high basal expression in IPEC-J2, whereas LGG did not. For HSP72, only the supernatant of L. reuteri induced the expression, which was comparable to the heat shock treatment, which indicated that HSP72 expression was more stimulus specific. The protective effect of lactobacilli was further studied in IPEC-J2 under an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge. ETEC caused intestinal barrier destruction, as reflected by loss of cell-cell contact, reduced IPEC-J2 cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance, and disruption of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1. In contrast, the L. reuteri treatment substantially counteracted these detrimental effects and preserved the barrier function. L. johnsonii and LGG also achieved barrier protection, partly by directly inhibiting ETEC attachment. Together, the results indicate that specific strains of Lactobacillus can enhance gut barrier function through cytoprotective HSP induction and fortify the cell protection against ETEC challenge through tight junction protein modulation and direct interaction with pathogens. PMID:25847917

  7. Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche. PMID:20849602

  8. Synergistic impact of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and vincristine on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    ASHA; GAYATHRI, DEVARAJA

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. is the most dominant probiotic strain of bacteria. Evidence indicates that the consumption of Lactobacillus sp. reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in animal models. The present study was carried out to determine whether administration of Lactobacillus fermentum/ Lactobacillus plantarum alone or in combination with vincristine have a synergistic impact on the control of colorectal cancer in an animal model. Mice with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) hydrochloride-induced colon cancer were fed with L. fermentum and L. plantarum isolated along with vincristine. An increase in body weight, a decrease in ammonia concentration, a decrease in β glucosidase and β glucuronidase enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of crypts in the mice in the pre-carcinogen-induced group was noted when compared to these variables in the post-carcinogen-induced group. The body weight of the mice fed L. fermentum along with vincristine was increased (6.5 g), and was found to be 3.5 times higher compared to that of the control. A marked decrease in the ammonia concentration (240 mg), and β glucosidase (0.0023 IU) and β glucopyranose enzyme activity (0.0027 IU) was observed; 22.59% less ammonia concentration, 73.26% less β glucosidase activity and 56.46% less β glucuronidase enzyme activity was noted when compared to the control. A significant reduction in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (90%) was observed when compared to the control. Maximum protection was observed in the mice fed the probiotics and vincristine prior to cancer induction. Among the different dietary combinations tested in the present study, L. fermentum and vincristine showed a more extensive reduction in ammonia concentration, β glucosidase, β glucuronidase activity and the number of ACF. PMID:22970015

  9. Effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus reuteri on gut barrier function and heat shock proteins in intestinal porcine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao-Yu; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Ahl, David; Dicksved, Johan; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Lundh, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a set of highly conserved proteins that can serve as intestinal gate keepers in gut homeostasis. Here, effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and two novel porcine isolates, Lactobacillus johnsonii strain P47-HY and Lactobacillus reuteri strain P43-HUV, on cytoprotective HSP expression and gut barrier function, were investigated in a porcine IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cell line model. The IPEC-J2 cells polarized on a permeable filter exhibited villus-like cell phenotype with development of apical microvilli. Western blot analysis detected HSP expression in IPEC-J2 and revealed that L. johnsonii and L. reuteri strains were able to significantly induce HSP27, despite high basal expression in IPEC-J2, whereas LGG did not. For HSP72, only the supernatant of L. reuteri induced the expression, which was comparable to the heat shock treatment, which indicated that HSP72 expression was more stimulus specific. The protective effect of lactobacilli was further studied in IPEC-J2 under an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge. ETEC caused intestinal barrier destruction, as reflected by loss of cell–cell contact, reduced IPEC-J2 cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance, and disruption of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1. In contrast, the L. reuteri treatment substantially counteracted these detrimental effects and preserved the barrier function. L. johnsonii and LGG also achieved barrier protection, partly by directly inhibiting ETEC attachment. Together, the results indicate that specific strains of Lactobacillus can enhance gut barrier function through cytoprotective HSP induction and fortify the cell protection against ETEC challenge through tight junction protein modulation and direct interaction with pathogens. PMID:25847917

  10. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

    2013-01-01

    Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-κB response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

  11. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains marketed as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-03-01

    Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-κB response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

  12. Expression of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase gene in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii and characterization of the genetically modified probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Cho, J S; Choi, Y J; Chung, D K

    2000-04-01

    Endoglucanase A from Clostridium thermocellum resistant to pancreatic proteinase was selected out of a range of microbial cellulases expressed in lactobacilli. Two Lactobacillus-E. coli expression vectors, harboring the endoglucanase gene from C. thermocellum under the control of its own promoter (pSD1) and the Lactococcus lactis lac A promoter (pSD2), were constructed separately. Intestinal Lactobacillus strains, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii, were electrotransformed with pSD1 and pSD2, and the stability of each plasmid was evaluated. The endoglucanase activities of 0.722 and 0.759 U/ml were respectively found in culture medium of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii containing pSD1, and of 0.407 U/ml in medium of L. gasseri harboring pSD2. When the probiotic characteristics such as acid-tolerance, bile-salt tolerance, and antibiotic susceptibility were investigated, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were resistant to low pHs of 2 and 3. Also, L. johnsonii was bile-salt resistant in the presence of 0.5% oxgall and porcine bile extract. L. johnsonii and L. gasseri showed a rather homogeneous resistant pattern against tested antibiotics. Both strains were resistant to amikacin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and colistin. PMID:10688695

  13. Taxonomic and strain-specific identification of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei group.

    PubMed

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-05-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  14. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332: kinetics of formation and matrix characterization.

    PubMed

    Leccese Terraf, María Cecilia; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Rault, Lucie; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion and biofilm formation are strain properties that reportedly contribute to the permanence of lactobacilli in the human vagina. The kinetics of biofilm formation and the chemical nature of the biofilm matrix formed by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) 1324 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1332, vaginal beneficial strains, were evaluated in this work. Crystal violet-stained microplate assay and techniques of epifluorescence, electron and confocal microscopy were applied. The highest density and complexity of biofilms of both vaginal lactobacilli were observed at 72 h of incubation. Protease, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin treatments efficiently detached L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm that was also partially affected by α-amylase. However, L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm was slightly affected by protease, proteinase K and α-amylase. Confocal microscopy revealed greater amount of polysaccharides in L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 biofilm matrix than in L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm matrix. The results indicate that proteins are one of the main components of the L. reuteri CRL 1324 biofilm, while the biofilm matrix of L. rhamnosus CRL 1332 is composed of carbohydrates and proteins. The results obtained support the knowledge, understanding and characterization of two biofilm-forming vaginal Lactobacillus strains. PMID:27146055

  15. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group▿

    PubMed Central

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  16. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required. PMID:25930687

  17. Lactobacillus sobrius sp. nov., abundant in the intestine of weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Sergey R; Poznanski, Elisa; Fuentes, Susana; Akkermans, Antoon D L; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M

    2006-01-01

    To obtain porcine isolates related to Lactobacillus amylovorus, we screened strains from piglet intestine grown on Lactobacillus-specific MRS agar for hybridization to a fluorescent 16S rRNA-targeted DNA probe. Six strains were isolated and further characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. They had similar phenotypic characteristics and displayed genomic DNA-DNA relatedness values of >78 % to each other, indicating that they belong to a single species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the novel isolates were members of Lactobacillus rRNA group I, which includes Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the type species of the genus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, Lactobacillus kitasatonis (99 %), Lactobacillus crispatus (98 %) and Lactobacillus amylovorus (97 %) were the nearest relatives of the novel isolates, but their DNA-DNA relatedness was found to be lower than 49 %. One of the isolates, strain OTU171-001T, was further characterized using physiological and biochemical tests. Together, the results enabled genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain OTU171-001T from the other species that showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values greater than 97 %. Strain OTU171-001T merits species status and the name Lactobacillus sobrius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OTU171-001T (= DSM 16698T = NCCB 100067T). PMID:16403862

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus collinoides CUPV237, an Exopolysaccharide and Riboflavin Producer Isolated from Cider

    PubMed Central

    Puertas, Ana Isabel; Capozzi, Vittorio; Llamas, María Goretti; López, Paloma; Lamontanara, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Russo, Pasquale; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus collinoides CUPV237 is a strain isolated from a Basque cider. Lactobacillus collinoides is one of the most frequent species found in cider from Spain, France, or England. A notable feature of the L. collinoides CUPV237 strain is its ability to produce exopolysaccharides. PMID:27284133

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus collinoides CUPV237, an Exopolysaccharide and Riboflavin Producer Isolated from Cider.

    PubMed

    Puertas, Ana Isabel; Capozzi, Vittorio; Llamas, María Goretti; López, Paloma; Lamontanara, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Russo, Pasquale; Spano, Giuseppe; Dueñas, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus collinoides CUPV237 is a strain isolated from a Basque cider. Lactobacillus collinoides is one of the most frequent species found in cider from Spain, France, or England. A notable feature of the L. collinoides CUPV237 strain is its ability to produce exopolysaccharides. PMID:27284133

  20. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae Strain KZ01T, Isolated from a Western Lowland Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Sayaka; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae strain KZ01T isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). This genome sequence will be helpful for the comparative genomics between human and nonhuman primate-associated Lactobacillus. PMID:26472838

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae Strain KZ01T, Isolated from a Western Lowland Gorilla.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Sayaka; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae strain KZ01(T) isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). This genome sequence will be helpful for the comparative genomics between human and nonhuman primate-associated Lactobacillus. PMID:26472838

  3. The type strain of Lactobacillus casei is ATCC 393, ATCC 334 cannot serve as the type because it represents a different taxon, the name Lactobacillus paracasei and its subspecies names are not rejected and the revival of the name 'Lactobacillus zeae' contravenes Rules 51b (1) and (2) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 82.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that typification of Lactobacillus casei is based on ATCC 393, that ATCC 334 is a member of a different taxon and that the publication rejecting the name Lactobacillus paracasei (and its included subspecies) together with the revival of the name 'Lactobacillus zeae' contravenes Rules 51b (1) and (2) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. PMID:18599731

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus Spp. on Selected Food Spoilage Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Gupta, Piyush; Bhattacharya, Susinjan

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to isolate Lactobacillus species from curd, amla/Indian gooseberry and orange and to assess their antagonistic ability against selected food spoilage bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. isolated from natural food sources. In the approaches used, native Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from amla, orange and curd and identified by standard microbiological methods. Their antagonistic affect was tested by disc diffusion tests against three selected test isolates, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. isolated from tomato, pumpkin, cauliflower, lady's finger, carrot, and milk. There are recent patents also suggesting use of novel strains of Lactobacillus for microbial antagonism. In our present work, the lactobacilli isolated from different food sources showed varied ability to inhibit the growth of test isolates. The growth of test isolates was inhibited by Lactobacillus isolates with one of the Lactobacillus isolate from amla being the most potent inhibitor. PMID:25751004

  5. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies. PMID:25859220

  6. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mariya I; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies. PMID:25859220

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese.

    PubMed

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 93 Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese raised on Polish farms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method. All strains were sensitive to the cell wall inhibitors ampicillin and amoxicillin (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml). Resistance to inhibitors of protein synthesis and to fluoroquinolone inhibitors of replication was found in 44.1% and 60.2% of isolates, respectively; 26.9% strains were resistant to neomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 23.6% to tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 15% to lincomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 18.3% to doxycycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 9.7% to tylosin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 56% to flumequine (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml) and 22.6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml). Bimodal distribution of MICs indicative of acquired resistance and unimodal distribution of the high MIC values indicative of intrinsic resistance were correlated with Lactobacillus species. Eleven (11.8%) strains displayed multiple resistance for at least three classes of antibiotics. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing current microbiological breakpoints for categorisation of susceptible and resistant strains of Lactobacillus genus and help to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of drug resistance among natural intestinal microflora. PMID:26105622

  8. Chemostat Production of Plantaricin C By Lactobacillus plantarum LL441

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, J. M. Bruno; Siñeriz, F.; González de Llano, D.; Rodríguez, Ana; Suárez, Juan E.

    1998-01-01

    Plantaricin C, a bacteriocin synthesized by Lactobacillus plantarum LL441, was optimally produced in chemostats kept at pH 5.0, 30°C, 150 rpm, and a dilution rate of 0.05 h−1 when glucose was used as carbon source and a dilution rate of 0.10 to 0.12 h−1 when sucrose or fructose was used instead. Production was abolished at high dilution rates, i.e., when the cells grew rapidly in all carbon sources. PMID:9726907

  9. Death of Lactobacillus bulgaricus Resulting from Liquid Nitrogen Freezing1

    PubMed Central

    Smittle, R. B.; Gilliland, S. E.; Speck, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrated cell suspensions of Lactobacillus bulgaricus prepared from cells grown in semisynthetic media were frozen in liquid nitrogen. After storage for 24 hr, the cell suspensions were found to have decreased colony counts and acid-producing capacity in milk. The amount of loss varied among the different strains tested. The addition of known cryoprotective agents to cell suspensions of the most labile strain before freezing provided little or no protection to the cells. However, storage stability of all strains investigated was improved by supplementing the growth medium with Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate). The concentration of Tween 80 necessary for maximal storage stability varied among strains. PMID:16349940

  10. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    PubMed

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management. PMID:26946538

  11. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. PMID:26051957

  12. Lactobacillus plantarum ldhL gene: overexpression and deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Ferain, T; Garmyn, D; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

    1994-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate to L-(+)- and D-(-)-lactate with stereospecific enzymes designated L-(+)- and D-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), respectively. A gene (designated ldhL) that encodes L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase from L. plantarum DG301 was cloned by complementation in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 320 amino acids closely related to that of Lactobacillus pentosus. A multicopy plasmid bearing the ldhL gene without modification of its expression signals was introduced in L. plantarum. L-LDH activity was increased up to 13-fold through this gene dosage effect. However, this change had hardly any effect on the production of L-(+)- and D-(-)-lactate. A stable chromosomal deletion in the ldhL gene was then constructed in L. plantarum by a two-step homologous recombination process. Inactivation of the gene resulted in the absence of L-LDH activity and in exclusive production of the D isomer of lactate. However, the global concentration of lactate in the culture supernatant remained unchanged. PMID:8300514

  13. Potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains from traditional Kurdish cheese.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Milani, Elnaz; Eshaghi, Zarrin

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional Kurdish cheese was investigated. The Lactobacillus strains were examined for resistance to gastric acidity and bile toxicity, antimicrobial activities, autoaggregation, coaggregation, hydrophobicity, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antibiotic susceptibility. The results showed that all strains tested tolerate acid gastric conditions (pH 2.0 and 3.0), and all of them were bile resistant (at 0.3 and 1% concentration). Although no antibacterial activity was detected in vitro assay for the treated (neutralized to pH 6.5 and treated with catalase) cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of strains, untreated CFCS showed strong antagonistic activity against two known pathogens bacteria. All strains exhibited a strong autoaggregating phenotype and manifested a high degree of coaggregation with pathogens. On the other hand, majority of studied strains were found sensitive to different antibiotics, such as ampicillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, and tetracycline, and were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Finally, isolated strains showed good hydrophobicity and adherence to Caco-2 cell line, so they could be exploited for food manufacture. PMID:24676764

  14. The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G + C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

  15. Lactobacillus prophylaxis for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Robins-Browne, R M; Cisneros, L A; Drusano, G L; Lanata, C F; Saah, A J

    1981-01-01

    In vitro and animal experiments indicated that lactobacilli might prevent Escherichia coli from colonizing the intestine and may produce substances counteracting enterotoxin. Lactinex, a commercial preparation of dried Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bulgaricus, is marketed for uncomplicated diarrhea. Preliminary experiments in nonfasting volunteers indicated that lactobacilli in this preparation colonized the small intestine for up to 6 h. To evaluate the protective efficacy of Lactinex, a double-blind randomized study was carried out in which 48 volunteers (23 receiving Lactinex and 25 receiving placebos) were challenged with E. coli strains that produced heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins or both. No significant differences between the two groups were noted with respect to attack rate, incubation period, duration of diarrhea, volume and number of liquid stools, and coproculture yields. These data suggest that this lactobacillus preparations does not prevent or alter the course of enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea in adults. Lack of efficacy occurred despite efforts to maximize small bowel colonization, including administration of Lactinex in milk and in a 6-hour-interval regimen during 36 h before and 96 h after challenge. PMID:6792978

  16. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  17. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10 h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200 AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1 L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10 h by 10 AP U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4 h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10 h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72 h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

  18. Lactobacillus crispatus and its nonaggregating mutant in human colonization trials.

    PubMed

    Cesena, C; Morelli, L; Alander, M; Siljander, T; Tuomola, E; Salminen, S; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Vilpponen-Salmela, T; von Wright, A

    2001-05-01

    A wild-type Lactobacillus crispatus, showing a cell aggregation phenotype and its spontaneous nonaggregating mutant were compared for their in vitro adhesion properties to human ileal mucus and to a cultured human colonic cell line (Caco2) and for their in vivo colonization and adhesion potential with colonoscopy patients as volunteers in feeding trials. The wild-type strain adhered better to mucus or to Caco2 cells than did the mutant. Altogether, three human trials with the wild type and two with the mutant strain were performed. In two of the trials, the wild type could be recovered from either fecal samples or biopsies taken from the colon, while the mutant strain could not be demonstrated in either of the trials where it was used. The L. crispatus colonies recovered from the trials were often mixed, and several enterococci and lactobacillus strains coaggregating with L. crispatus wild type could be isolated. The results indicate that the surface-mediated properties, such as aggregation, of lactobacilli can have a role in adhesion and colonization. PMID:11384025

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus challenge on Gardnerella vaginalis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Sheri; Bocking, Alan; Challis, John; Reid, Gregor

    2007-04-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common infectious condition in women. It is caused primarily by anaerobic bacteria which rapidly form biofilms recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, elevate vaginal pH, induce inflammatory processes and displace indigenous lactobacilli from the vault. Gardnerella vaginalis is commonly associated with these infections. Microscopy analysis showed that within 72 h, viable G. vaginalis covered a surface area of 567 microm(2), reached a depth of 16 microm and a density of approximately 104 microm(3). They maintained these levels for a further 3 days unless challenged with lactobacilli strains. Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 produced the biggest displacement of Gardnerella. This was not due to pH, which remained between 4.7 and 5.1 for all experiments, nor by hydrogen peroxide which is produced in low amounts by strain L. reuteri RC-14, high amounts by L. crispatus 33820 and not at all by L. rhamnosus GR-1. Deconvolution microscopy showed changes in structure and viability of the biofilms, with loss of dense Gardnerella biofilm pods. For the first time, a strain of L. iners, the most commonly isolated vaginal Lactobacillus in healthy women, was tested for potential probiotic properties. It was found to disrupt Gardnerella biofilm surface area, density and depth, albeit to a lesser extent than L. reuteri RC-14. These studies help to provide insight into the clinical situation in which probiotic and indigenous vaginal lactobacilli can interfere with Gardnerella's presence and reduce the risk of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:17234391

  20. [Antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L

    2014-01-01

    The antagonistic activity of 109 lactobacillus strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine, has been investigated and it has been shown that the significant part of strains show different levels of inhibition of opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms. It has been shown that the antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms was dependent on the sources of Lactobacillus strains isolation. L. plantarum strains show a higher level of inhibition against phytopathogenic microorganisms than opportunistic test-strains. Eleven strains of L. plantarum demonstrated antagonistic activity for all used test-strains. PMID:25007440

  1. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  2. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  3. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products. PMID:22633536

  4. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed. PMID:25922399

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum SF2A35B.

    PubMed

    Bron, Peter A; Lee, I-Chiao; Backus, Lennart; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Wels, Michiel; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is intensively studied as a model probiotic species. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain SF2A35B. PMID:26950330

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  7. Efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide for inactivating Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juice makers have traditionally used thermal pasteurization to prevent deterioration by spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum; however this thermal processing causes adverse effects on product quality such as undesirable taste and destruction of heat sensitive nutrients. For this reason,...

  8. A comparative study and phage typing of silage-making Lactobacillus bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Doi, Katsumi; Zhang, Ye; Nishizaki, Yousuke; Umeda, Akiko; Ohmomo, Sadahiro; Ogata, Seiya

    2003-01-01

    To investigate basic characteristics of 10 virulent phages active on silage-making lactobacilli, morphological properties, host ranges, protein composition and genome characterization were separated into five groups based on host ranges and basic properties. The seven phages of groups I, II and V were active on Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus. Phage phiPY4 (group III) infected both L. casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Phage phiPY5 (group IV) specifically infected Lactobacillus casei. Morphologically, three phages of groups I belonged to the Myoviridae family, while seven other phages of groups II, III and V belonged to the Siphoviridae family. SDS-PAGE profiles, restriction analysis, G + C contents of DNA and Dot blot hybridization revealed a high degree of homology in each group. Clustering derived from host range analysis was closely related to results of DNA and protein analyses. These phages may be applicable to phage typing for silage-making lactobacilli. PMID:16233449

  9. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.

    PubMed

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-05-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  10. Characterization of the effects of three Lactobacillus species on the function of chicken macrophages.

    PubMed

    Brisbin, Jennifer T; Davidge, Lianne; Roshdieh, Ala; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius can influence the adaptive immune responses in chickens but vary in their ability to do so. The present study attempted to identify how these three bacteria alter the innate immune system. A chicken macrophage cell line, MQ-NCSU, was co-cultured with the three live Lactobacillus species, alone or in combination, grown at different temperatures for various durations of time. Late exponential growth phase bacteria were more immunostimulatory, while bacterial growth temperature had little effect. L. acidophilus and L. salivarius significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis, while L. reuteri did not. In fact, L reuteri was shown to inhibit NO production of macrophages when co-cultured with the other bacteria or when cells were pre-treated with LPS. The results demonstrate a possible molecular mechanism for the immunomodulatory effects of L. acidophilus and L. salivarius, and a unique immunomodulatory ability of L. reuteri. PMID:25847283

  11. Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    PubMed Central

    Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

  12. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus johnsonii Strain W1, Isolated from Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Chunyan; Guo, Zhonghe; Hao, Yuchong; Li, Jinghua; Shi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus johnsonii, a member of the gut lactobacilli, plays an important role in normal gut functioning. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of L. johnsonii strain W1 isolated from ICR mice. PMID:27313302

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum SF2A35B

    PubMed Central

    Bron, Peter A.; Lee, I-Chiao; Backus, Lennart; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is intensively studied as a model probiotic species. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain SF2A35B. PMID:26950330

  14. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)). PMID:25281727

  15. Bacterial Endocarditis Caused by Lactobacillus acidophilus Leading to Rupture of Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Loranger, Austin Mitchell; Bharatkumar, A.G.; Almassi, G. Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus rarely causes bacterial endocarditis, because it usually resides in the mucosa of the vagina, gastrointestinal tract, and oropharynx. Moreover, sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are rare cardiac anomalies, either acquired or congenital. We present the case of a middle-aged man whose bacterial endocarditis, caused by Lactobacillus acidophilus, led to an aneurysmal rupture of the sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricular outflow tract. The patient underwent successful surgical repair, despite numerous complications and sequelae. PMID:27127435

  16. Evaluation of profertility effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 2621 in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Praveen; Prabha, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. Methods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 µl PBS, E.coli group was administered with 106 cfu/20 µl E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 µl) for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 µl). After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (106 cfu/20 µl) whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (106 cfu/20 µl) E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic strains that resulted in

  17. 1,3-Propanediol production from glycerol with Lactobacillus diolivorans.

    PubMed

    Pflügl, Stefan; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural producer Lactobacillus diolivorans as potential production organism of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. Different cultivation parameters, such as oxygen supply, feeding-strategy, or medium composition have been tested in batch and fed-batch cultivations. The 1,3-propanediol concentration obtained in batch cultivations was 41.7 g/l. This could be increased to 73.7 g/l in a fed-batch co-feeding glucose and glycerol with a molar ratio of 0.1. Yeast extract as part of the MRS cultivation medium could be replaced by nicotinic acid and riboflavin. Furthermore, the addition of Vitamin B(12) to the culture medium increased production by 15% to a final titer of 84.5 g/l 1,3-propanediol. PMID:22728193

  18. Crystallographic studies of aspartate racemase from Lactobacillus sakei NBRC 15893.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takae; Ishiyama, Makoto; Gogami, Yoshitaka; Oikawa, Tadao; Hata, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Aspartate racemase catalyzes the interconversion between L-aspartate and D-aspartate and belongs to the PLP-independent racemases. The enzyme from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei NBRC 15893, isolated from kimoto, is considered to be involved in D-aspartate synthesis during the brewing process of Japanese sake at low temperatures. The enzyme was crystallized at 293 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 25%(v/v) PEG MME 550, 5%(v/v) 2-propanol. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.68, c = 97.29 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. Structure determination is under way. PMID:26249691

  19. Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Torres, María; Reverón, Inés; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently found in the fermentation of plant-derived food products, where hydroxycinnamoyl esters are abundant. L. plantarum WCFS1 cultures were unable to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters; however, cell extracts from the strain partially hydrolyze methyl ferulate and methyl p-coumarate. In order to discover whether the protein Lp_0796 is the enzyme responsible for this hydrolytic activity, it was recombinantly overproduced and enzymatically characterized. Lp_0796 is an esterase that, among other substrates, is able to efficiently hydrolyze the four model substrates for feruloyl esterases (methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl p-coumarate, and methyl sinapinate). A screening test for the detection of the gene encoding feruloyl esterase Lp_0796 revealed that it is generally present among L. plantarum strains. The present study constitutes the description of feruloyl esterase activity in L. plantarum and provides new insights into the metabolism of hydroxycinnamic compounds in this bacterial species. PMID:23793626

  20. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  1. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    PubMed

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used. PMID:25827218

  2. Antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed Central

    Coconnier, M H; Liévin, V; Bernet-Camard, M F; Hudault, S; Servin, A L

    1997-01-01

    The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The activity was heat stable and relatively sensitive to enzymatic treatments and developed under acidic conditions. The antimicrobial activity was independent of lactic acid production. Activity against S. typhimurium SL1344 infecting human cultured intestinal Caco-2 cells was observed as it was in the conventional C3H/He/oujco mouse model with S. typhimurium C5 infection and oral treatment with the LB spent culture supernatant. PMID:9145867

  3. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

    2014-09-15

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:24767059

  4. Lactobacillus casei as a biocatalyst for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Vinay-Lara, Elena; Wang, Song; Bai, Lina; Phrommao, Ekkarat; Broadbent, Jeff R; Steele, James L

    2016-09-01

    Microbial fermentation of sugars from plant biomass to alcohols represents an alternative to petroleum-based fuels. The optimal biocatalyst for such fermentations needs to overcome hurdles such as high concentrations of alcohols and toxic compounds. Lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli, have high innate alcohol tolerance and are remarkably adaptive to harsh environments. This study assessed the potential of five Lactobacillus casei strains as biocatalysts for alcohol production. L. casei 12A was selected based upon its innate alcohol tolerance, high transformation efficiency and ability to utilize plant-derived carbohydrates. A 12A derivative engineered to produce ethanol (L. casei E1) was compared to two other bacterial biocatalysts. Maximal growth rate, maximal optical density and ethanol production were determined under conditions similar to those present during alcohol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. L. casei E1 exhibited higher innate alcohol tolerance, better growth in the presence of corn stover hydrolysate stressors, and resulted in higher ethanol yields. PMID:27312380

  5. Antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Liévin, V; Bernet-Camard, M F; Hudault, S; Servin, A L

    1997-05-01

    The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The activity was heat stable and relatively sensitive to enzymatic treatments and developed under acidic conditions. The antimicrobial activity was independent of lactic acid production. Activity against S. typhimurium SL1344 infecting human cultured intestinal Caco-2 cells was observed as it was in the conventional C3H/He/oujco mouse model with S. typhimurium C5 infection and oral treatment with the LB spent culture supernatant. PMID:9145867

  6. Molecular Characterization of Three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Phages

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

  7. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  8. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. PMID:24961744

  9. Genetic determinants of reutericyclin biosynthesis in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Lohans, Christopher T; Duar, Rebbeca; Zheng, Jinshui; Vederas, John C; Walter, Jens; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Reutericyclin is a unique antimicrobial tetramic acid produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. This study aimed to identify the genetic determinants of reutericyclin biosynthesis. Comparisons of the genomes of reutericyclin-producing L. reuteri strains with those of non-reutericyclin-producing strains identified a genomic island of 14 open reading frames (ORFs) including genes coding for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), a polyketide synthase (PKS), homologues of PhlA, PhlB, and PhlC, and putative transport and regulatory proteins. The protein encoded by rtcN is composed of a condensation domain, an adenylation domain likely specific for d-leucine, and a thiolation domain. rtcK codes for a PKS that is composed of a ketosynthase domain, an acyl-carrier protein domain, and a thioesterase domain. The products of rtcA, rtcB, and rtcC are homologous to the diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthetic proteins PhlABC and may acetylate the tetramic acid moiety produced by RtcN and RtcK, forming reutericyclin. Deletion of rtcN or rtcABC in L. reuteri TMW1.656 abrogated reutericyclin production but did not affect resistance to reutericyclin. Genes coding for transport and regulatory proteins could be deleted only in the reutericyclin-negative L. reuteri strain TMW1.656ΔrtcN, and these deletions eliminated reutericyclin resistance. The genomic analyses suggest that the reutericyclin genomic island was horizontally acquired from an unknown source during a unique event. The combination of PhlABC homologues with both an NRPS and a PKS has also been identified in the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum, suggesting that the genes in these organisms and those in L. reuteri share an evolutionary origin. PMID:25576609

  10. Genetic Determinants of Reutericyclin Biosynthesis in Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Lohans, Christopher T.; Duar, Rebbeca; Zheng, Jinshui; Vederas, John C.; Walter, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Reutericyclin is a unique antimicrobial tetramic acid produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. This study aimed to identify the genetic determinants of reutericyclin biosynthesis. Comparisons of the genomes of reutericyclin-producing L. reuteri strains with those of non-reutericyclin-producing strains identified a genomic island of 14 open reading frames (ORFs) including genes coding for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), a polyketide synthase (PKS), homologues of PhlA, PhlB, and PhlC, and putative transport and regulatory proteins. The protein encoded by rtcN is composed of a condensation domain, an adenylation domain likely specific for d-leucine, and a thiolation domain. rtcK codes for a PKS that is composed of a ketosynthase domain, an acyl-carrier protein domain, and a thioesterase domain. The products of rtcA, rtcB, and rtcC are homologous to the diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthetic proteins PhlABC and may acetylate the tetramic acid moiety produced by RtcN and RtcK, forming reutericyclin. Deletion of rtcN or rtcABC in L. reuteri TMW1.656 abrogated reutericyclin production but did not affect resistance to reutericyclin. Genes coding for transport and regulatory proteins could be deleted only in the reutericyclin-negative L. reuteri strain TMW1.656ΔrtcN, and these deletions eliminated reutericyclin resistance. The genomic analyses suggest that the reutericyclin genomic island was horizontally acquired from an unknown source during a unique event. The combination of PhlABC homologues with both an NRPS and a PKS has also been identified in the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum, suggesting that the genes in these organisms and those in L. reuteri share an evolutionary origin. PMID:25576609

  11. Lactobacillus acidophilus upregulates intestinal NHE3 expression and function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varsha; Raheja, Geetu; Borthakur, Alip; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alakkam, Anas; Malakooti, Jaleh

    2012-01-01

    A major mechanism of electroneutral NaCl absorption in the human ileum and colon involves coupling of Na+/H+ and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers. Disturbances in these mechanisms have been implicated in diarrheal conditions. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus have been indicated to be beneficial in the management of gastrointestinal disorders, including diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics have not been fully understood. We have previously demonstrated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) to stimulate Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels and expression of the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger DRA in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of LA on NHE3, the Na+/H+ exchanger involved in the coupled electroneutral NaCl absorption, are not known. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the effects of LA on the function and expression of NHE3 and to determine the mechanisms involved. Treatment of Caco2 cells with LA or its conditioned culture supernatant (CS) for 8–24 h resulted in a significant increase in Na+/H+ exchange activity, mRNA, and protein levels of NHE3. LA-CS upregulation of NHE3 function and expression was also observed in SK-CO15 cells, a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line. Additionally, LA treatment increased NHE3 promoter activity, suggesting involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. In vivo, mice gavaged with live LA showed significant increase in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colonic regions. In conclusion, LA-induced increase in NHE3 expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of probiotics. PMID:23086913

  12. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Capra, María L.; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M.; Labrie, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  13. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed. PMID:26519974

  14. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  15. Antioxidative potential of folate producing probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus CD6.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayesh Jagannath; Mokashe, Narendra Uttamrao; Patil, Hemant Jagatrao; Chaudhari, Bhushan Liladhar

    2013-02-01

    Folate producing Lactobacillus sp. CD6 isolated from fermented milk showed 98% similarity with Lactobacillus helveticus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It was found to produce a folic acid derivative 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF). The intracellular cell-free extract of strain demonstrated antioxidative activity with the inhibition rate of ascorbate autoxidation in the range of 27.5% ± 3.7%. It showed highest metal ion chelation ability for Fe(2+) (0.26 ± 0.06 ppm) as compared to Cu(2+). The DPPH (α,α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity for intact cells were found to be 24.7% ± 10.9% proved its antioxidative potential. Furthermore, it demonstrated 14.89% inhibition of epinephrine autoxidation, 20.9 ± 1.8 μg cysteine equivalent reducing activity and 20.8% ± 0.9% hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. The strain was evaluated for probiotic properties as per WHO and FAO guidelines. It showed 90.61% survival at highly acidic condition (pH 2.0), 90.66% viability in presence of synthetic gastric juice and 68% survivability at 0.5% bile concentration for 24 h. It was susceptible to many antibiotics which reduces the prospect to offer resistance determinants to other organisms if administered in the form of probiotic preparations. It showed in vitro mucus binding and antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501), Streptococcus pyogenes (NCIM 2608), and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 5021) and moreover it showed non- hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar. PMID:24425884

  16. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, Diego J; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Capra, María L; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M; Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  17. Health-promoting properties exhibited by Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Gustaw, Waldemar; Waśko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many strains belonging to lactobacilli exert a variety of beneficial health effects in humans and some of the bacteria are regarded as probiotic microorganisms. Adherence and capabilities of colonization by Lactobacillus strains of the intestinal tract is a prerequisite for probiotic strains to exhibit desired functional properties. The analysis conducted here aimed at screening strains of Lactobacillus helveticus possessing a health-promoting potential. The molecular analysis performed, revealed the presence of a slpA gene encoding the surface S-layer protein SlpA (contributing to the immunostimulatory activity of L. helveticus M 92 probiotic strain) in all B734, DSM, T80, and T105 strains. The product of gene amplification was also identified in a Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 probiotic strain. SDS-PAGE of a surface protein extract demonstrated the presence of a protein with a mass of about 50 kDa in all strains, which refers to the mass of the S-layer proteins. These results are confirmed by observations carried with transmission electron microscopy, where a clearly visible S-layer was registered in all the strains analyzed. The in vitro study results obtained indicate that the strongest adhesion capacity to epithelial cells (HT-29) was demonstrated by L. helveticus B734, while coaggregation with pathogens was highly diverse among the tested strains. The percentage degree of coaggregation was increasing with the incubation time. After 5 h of incubation, the strongest ability to coaggregate with Escherichia coli was expressed by T104. The T80 strain demonstrated a significant ability to co-aggregate with Staphylococcus aureus, while DSM with Bacillus subtilis. For B734, the highest values of co-aggregation coefficient was noted in samples with Salmonella. The capability of autoaggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to increasing salt concentrations, and strain survival in simulated small intestinal juice were also analyzed. PMID:26601325

  18. Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

  19. Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus spp., referred to as IJ-1 and IJ-2, were isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets and analyzed for probiotic properties. According to the analyses of 16S rDNA sequence, Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 showed greater than 99% homology with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016(T), and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 had greater than 99% homology with the L. gasseri ATCC 33323(T) and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200(T). The pH changes in the culture media of Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 were from 6.5 to 4.2 and 4.6, respectively. Their respective resistance against artificial gastric acid and artificial bile acid led to survival rates of nearly 186+/-44% and 13+/-5%. Neither strain produced the carcinogenic enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Both strains inhibited the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella enterica KCTC 12401, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 3881, and Bacillus cereus 3711, within 24 h of growth. PMID:19664551

  20. New insights into the impact of Lactobacillus population on host-bacteria metabolic interplay

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Epp; Songisepp, Epp; Claus, Sandrine P.; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the association between intestinal Lactobacillus sp. composition and their metabolic activity with the host metabolism in adult and elderly individuals. Faecal and plasma metabolites were measured and correlated to the Lactobacillus species distribution in healthy Estonian cohorts of adult (n = 16; < 48 y) and elderly (n = 33; > 65 y). Total cholesterol, LDL, C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin were statistically higher in elderly, while platelets, white blood cells and urinary creatinine were higher in adults. Aging was associated with the presence of L. paracasei and L. plantarum and the absence of L. salivarius and L. helveticus. High levels of intestinal Lactobacillus sp. were positively associated with increased concentrations of faecal short chain fatty acids, lactate and essential amino acids. In adults, high red blood cell distribution width was positively associated with presence of L. helveticus and absence of L. ruminis. L. helveticus was correlated to lactate and butyrate in faecal waters. This indicates a strong relationship between the composition of the gut Lactobacillus sp. and host metabolism. Our results confirm that aging is associated with modulations of blood biomarkers and intestinal Lactobacillus species composition. We identified specific Lactobacillus contributions to gut metabolic environment and related those to blood biomarkers. Such associations may prove useful to decipher the biological mechanisms underlying host-gut microbial metabolic interactions in an ageing population. PMID:26437083

  1. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    PubMed Central

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  2. Intestinal Lactobacillus community structure and its correlation with diet of Southern Chinese elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Da-Wen; Li, Quanyang

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the intestinal Lactobacillus species and diet of elderly subjects in a longevity area in Southern China. Healthy elderly subjects ranging from 80 to 99 years old were respectively selected from the regions of Bama and Nanning, Guangxi, China. The nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology was used to analyze the intestinal Lactobacillus community structure. Results showed that Weissella confusa, L. mucosae, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. delbrueckii were the representative Lactobacillus of elderly subjects. Among them, L. crispatus and L. delbrueckii were the dominant Lactobacillus of all species. In comparison to Nanning elderly subjects, the detection frequencies of W. confusa and L. salivarius were significantly increased in Bama elderly subjects (P < 0.01), whereas L. mucosae was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Interestingly, it was also found that there were 4 kinds of representative Lactobacillus, which were significantly correlated with dietary fiber. W. confusa (P < 0.01) and L. salivarius (P < 0.05) were significantly positively correlated with the intake of dietary fiber, while L. mucosae (P < 0.01) and L. crispatus (P < 0.05) were significantly negatively correlated with the intake of dietary fiber, respectively. Results confirmed that different diets had obvious effects on the intestinal Lactobacillus community structure of elderly subjects in Southern China, which may provide a certain theoretical basis for the elderly's healthy food strategic design and probiotics product development. PMID:27572508

  3. New insights into the impact of Lactobacillus population on host-bacteria metabolic interplay.

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Caroline I; Štšepetova, Jelena; Sepp, Epp; Songisepp, Epp; Claus, Sandrine P; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2015-10-13

    We aimed at evaluating the association between intestinal Lactobacillus sp. composition and their metabolic activity with the host metabolism in adult and elderly individuals. Faecal and plasma metabolites were measured and correlated to the Lactobacillus species distribution in healthy Estonian cohorts of adult (n = 16; < 48 y) and elderly (n = 33; > 65 y). Total cholesterol, LDL, C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin were statistically higher in elderly, while platelets, white blood cells and urinary creatinine were higher in adults. Aging was associated with the presence of L. paracasei and L. plantarum and the absence of L. salivarius and L. helveticus. High levels of intestinal Lactobacillus sp. were positively associated with increased concentrations of faecal short chain fatty acids, lactate and essential amino acids. In adults, high red blood cell distribution width was positively associated with presence of L. helveticus and absence of L. ruminis. L. helveticus was correlated to lactate and butyrate in faecal waters. This indicates a strong relationship between the composition of the gut Lactobacillus sp. and host metabolism. Our results confirm that aging is associated with modulations of blood biomarkers and intestinal Lactobacillus species composition. We identified specific Lactobacillus contributions to gut metabolic environment and related those to blood biomarkers. Such associations may prove useful to decipher the biological mechanisms underlying host-gut microbial metabolic interactions in an ageing population. PMID:26437083

  4. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  5. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 Modulates Urea Hydrolysis in the Murine Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charlotte M.; Loach, Diane; Lawley, Blair; Bell, Tracey; Sims, Ian M.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Zomer, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach. Inactivation of the ureC gene reduced the acid tolerance of strain 100-23 in vitro, and the mutant was outcompeted by the wild type in the gut of ex-Lactobacillus-free mice. Urine analysis showed that stable isotope-labeled urea, administered by gavage, was metabolized to a greater extent in Lactobacillus-free mice than animals colonized by strain 100-23. This surprising observation was associated with higher levels of urease activity and fecal-type bacteria in the stomach digesta of Lactobacillus-free mice. Despite the modulation of urea hydrolysis in the stomach, recycling of urea nitrogen in the murine host was not affected since the essential amino acid isoleucine, labeled with a stable isotope, was detected in the livers of both Lactobacillus-free and 100-23-colonized animals. Therefore, our experiments reveal a new and unexpected impact of Lactobacillus colonization on urea hydrolysis in the murine gut. PMID:25063664

  6. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese. PMID:26805985

  7. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Fecal Lactobacillus Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, diarrhea and atopy. However, the Lactobacillus species distribution in breast-fed or formula-fed infants has not yet been determined in great detail. For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5′ nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The designed and validated assays were used to determine the amounts of different Lactobacillus species in fecal samples of infants receiving a standard formula (SF) or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in a 9:1 ratio (OSF). A breast-fed group (BF) was studied in parallel as a reference. During the 6-week intervention period a significant increase was shown in total percentage of fecal lactobacilli in the BF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.1% ± 1.5%) and the OSF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.4% ± 1.4%). The Lactobacillus species distribution in the OSF group was comparable to breast-fed infants, with relatively high levels of L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, and L. casei. The SF-fed infants, on the other hand, contained more L. delbrueckii and less L. paracasei compared to breast-fed infants and OSF-fed infants. An infant milk formula containing a specific mixture of prebiotics is able to induce a microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of BF infants. PMID:16597930

  8. Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory gene rsiR modulates histamine production and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hemarajata, P; Gao, C; Pflughoeft, K J; Thomas, C M; Saulnier, D M; Spinler, J K; Versalovic, J

    2013-12-01

    Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

  9. Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

  10. Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Putaala, H; Barrangou, R; Leyer, G J; Ouwehand, A C; Hansen, E Bech; Romero, D A; Rautonen, N

    2010-09-01

    The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33 DCE-induced changes were overall more similar to those of B. lactis 420 than to L. acidophilus NCFM™, which is consistent with previously observed in vivo immunomodulation properties. In the gene ontology and pathway analyses both specific and unspecific changes were observed. Common to all was the regulation of apoptosis and adipogenesis, and lipid-metabolism related regulation by the probiotics. Specific changes such as regulation of cell-cell adhesion by B. lactis 420, superoxide metabolism by L. salivarius Ls-33, and regulation of MAPK pathway by L. acidophilus NCFM™ were noted. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed between the pathogenic and probiotic treatments in the Toll-like receptor pathway, especially for adapter molecules with a lowered level of transcriptional activation of MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1 and TRAF6 by probiotics compared to EHEC. The results in this study provide insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlight the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria. PMID:21831765

  11. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

  12. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-01

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. PMID:21807435

  13. Assessment of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus species for identifying new potential antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dubourg, Grégory; Elsawi, Ziena; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The bacteriocin-mediated antimicrobial properties of Lactobacillus spp. have been widely studied, leading to the use of these micro-organisms in the food industry as preservative agents against foodborne pathogens. In an era in which antibiotic resistance is becoming a public health issue, the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus spp. could be used for the discovery of new potential antibiotics. Thus, it is essential to have an accurate method of screening the production of antimicrobial agents by prokaryotes. Many in vitro assays have been published to date, largely concerning but not limited to Lactobacillus spp. However, these methods mainly use the spot-on-the-lawn method, which is prone to contamination during the overlay stage, with protocols using methanol vapours or the reverse side agar technique being applied to avoid such contamination. In this study, a method combining the spot-on-the-lawn and well diffusion methods was tested, permitting clear identification of inhibition zones from eight Lactobacillus spp. towards clinical isolates of 12 species (11 bacteria and 1 yeast) commonly found in human pathology. Lactobacillus plantarum CIP 106786 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CSUR P567 exhibited the widest antimicrobial activity, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM 20079 was relatively inactive. In addition, the putative MIC(50) of L. rhamnosus against Proteus mirabilis was estimated at 1.1×10(9)CFU/mL using culture broth dilution. In conclusion, considering the increasing cultivable bacterial human repertoire, these findings open the way of an effective method to screen in vitro for the production of potential antimicrobial compounds. PMID:26163158

  14. Effect of lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pirotta, Marie; Gunn, Jane; Chondros, Patty; Grover, Sonia; O'Malley, Paula; Hurley, Susan; Garland, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective To test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus can prevent vulvovaginitis after antibiotic treatment. Design Randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, factorial 2×2 trial. Setting Fifty general practices and 16 pharmacies in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Non-pregnant women aged 18-50 years who required a short course of oral antibiotics for a non-gynaecological infection: 278 were enrolled in the study, and results were available for 235. Interventions Lactobacillus preparations taken orally or vaginally, or both, from enrolment until four days after completion of their antibiotic course. Main outcome measures Participants' reports of symptoms of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis, with microbiological evidence of candidiasis provided by a self obtained vaginal swab. Results Overall, 55/235 (23% (95% confidence interval 18% to 29%)) women developed post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Compared with placebo, the odds ratio for developing post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis with oral lactobacillus was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 1.94) and with vaginal lactobacillus 1.38 (0.75 to 2.54). Compliance with antibiotics and interventions was high. The trial was terminated after the second interim analysis because of lack of effect of the interventions. Given the data at this time, the chances of detecting a significant reduction in vulvovaginitis with oral or vaginal lactobacillus treatment were less than 0.032 and 0.0006 respectively if the trial proceeded to full enrolment. Conclusions The use of oral or vaginal forms of lactobacillus to prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is not supported by these results. Further research on this subject is unlikely to be fruitful, unless new understandings about the pathogenesis of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis indicate a possible role for lactobacillus. PMID:15333452

  15. Lactobacillus wasatchensis sp. nov., a non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from aged Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Craig J; Oberg, Taylor S; Culumber, Michele D; Ortakci, Fatih; Broadbent, Jeffery R; McMahon, Donald J

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming strain (WDC04T), which may be associated with late gas production in cheese, was isolated from aged Cheddar cheese following incubation on MRS agar (pH 5.2) at 6 °C for 35 days. Strain WDC04T had 97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis DSM 26202T, Lactobacillus oligofermentans 533, 'Lactobacillus danicus' 9M3, Lactobacillus suebicus CCUG 32233T and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus DSM 20634T. API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation panels indicated strain WDC04T could only utilize one of the 50 substrates tested, ribose, although it does slowly utilize galactose. In the API ZYM system, strain WDC04T was positive for leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, cysteine arylamidase (weakly), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and β-galactosidase activities. Total genomic DNA was sequenced from strain WDC04T using a whole-genome shotgun strategy on a 454 GS Titanium pyrosequencer. The sequence was assembled into a 1.90 Mbp draft genome consisting of 105 contigs with preliminary genome annotation performed using the RAST algorithm (rast.nmpdr.org). Genome analysis confirmed the pentose phosphate pathway for ribose metabolism as well as galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and glycerol fermentation pathways. Genomic analysis places strain WDC04T in the obligately heterofermentative group of lactobacilli and metabolic results confirm this conclusion. The result of genome sequencing, along with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, indicates WDC04T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus wasatchensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WDC04T ( = DSM 29958T = LMG 28678T). PMID:26475452

  16. Active Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 or Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 administration positively influences liver fatty acid composition in mice on a HFD regime.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Djuricic, Ivana; Radojevic Skodric, Sanja; Zivkovic, Irena; Sobajic, Sladjana; Djordjevic, Brizita

    2016-06-15

    Western life style, and high calorie diet in particular is causing major health problems such as insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and heart disease in the modern age. High fat diet (HFD) induces similar changes in mice, such as increased body weight, hypercholesterolemia and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. These changes can be ameliorated by the administration of some Lactobacillus species. The focus of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content of liver, heart and brain tissues of mice fed HFD and administered with either Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68, and to analyze the fatty acid content of these organs after a two months washout period. The fatty acid composition of mouse liver tissue changed significantly due to probiotic administration during a 12 weeks HFD regime and active Lactobacillus administration had a slightly reversing effect toward the standard mouse diet group, but after the washout period these changes disappeared. The fatty acid composition of the heart and brain tissues was significantly changed in the HFD regime but probiotic administration had no significant influence on the fatty acid profile of these two organs. Upon the 8 weeks washout period the only remaining beneficial effect was the significantly lower mouse weight in the supplemented groups compared to the HFD group. PMID:27231730

  17. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 – an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2009-01-01

    The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The

  18. Identification of Lactobacillus strains of goose origin using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Dec, Marta; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Gnat, Sebastian; Puchalski, Andrzej; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2014-04-01

    The objective of our study was to identify Lactobacillus sp. strains of goose origin using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR/RFLP. All three techniques proved to be valuable tools for identification of avian lactobacilli and produced comparable classification results. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from 100% of geese aged 3 weeks to 4 years, but from only 25% of chicks aged 1-10 days. Among the 104 strains isolated, we distinguished 14 Lactobacillus species. The dominant species was Lactobacillus salivarius (35.6%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18.3%), Lactobacillus ingluviei (11.5%) and Lactobacillus agilis (7.7%). The intact-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry enabled rapid species identification of the lactobacilli with minimal pretreatment. However, it produced more than one identification result for 11.5% examined strains (mainly of the species L. johnsonii). ITS-PCR distinguished 12 genotypes among the isolates, but was not able to differentiate closely related strains, i.e. between Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus kitasatonis and between Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus zeae. These species were differentiated by ITS-PCR/RFLP using the restriction enzymes TaqI and MseI. The results obtained indicate that ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR/RFLP assays could be used not only for interspecific, but also for intraspecific, typing. PMID:24607713

  19. Molecular detection of Lactobacillus species in the neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Domig, Konrad J; Kraler, Manuel; Marschalek, Julian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general opinion that penile skin lined neovagina of transsexual women is not able to support the growth of lactobacilli. This study was undertaken to prove if lactobacilli strains could survive in neovagina and to characterise the most dominant Lactobacillus species. Sixty three male-to-female transsexual women without abnormal vaginal discharge, clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among transsexual outpatients in an academic research institution and tertiary care centre. Neovaginal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus spp. profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Lactobacillus species were detected from 47/63 transsexual women (75%). The 279 Lactobacillus signals detected by PCR-DGGE technique belonged to 13 different species. Lactobacilli of the L. delbrueckii group (L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. johnsonii, L. iners, L. jensenii) were predominant. More than 90% of women harboured a combination of two or more neovaginal Lactobacillus species. In this study we report the frequent occurrence of lactobacilli from neovagina of transsexual women. Both, frequency and composition were similar to the normal lactic acid bacterial microflora in both women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. PMID:24434849

  20. Screening of immunomodulatory and adhesive Lactobacillus with antagonistic activities against Salmonella from fermented vegetables.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Liu, Pilong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by their in vitro adhesive and immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics. In this study, 16 randomly selected LAB strains from fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, bean and cabbage) were first screened for their tolerance to acid, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, bacterial inhibitory activities and abilities to adherence to Caco-2 cells. Then, 4 strains with the highest adhesion abilities were selected for further studies of their immunomodulatory properties and inhibitory effects against Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that these 16 LAB strains effectively survived in simulated gastrointestinal condition and inhibited growth of six tested pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus P1, Lactobacillus plantarum P2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus P3 and Lactobacillus casei P4 had the highest abilities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, L. plantarum P2 strain showed higher abilities to induce expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 by splenic monocytes and strongly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. enteritidis ATCC13076 to Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that Lactobacillus strains P2 could be used as a probiotic candidate in food against Salmonella infection. PMID:26340935

  1. Starch-binding domain affects catalysis in two Lactobacillus alpha-amylases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanoja, R; Ruiz, B; Guyot, J P; Sanchez, S

    2005-01-01

    A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in alpha-amylases from three lactobacilli (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus alpha-amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98% sequence identity. In spite of this identity, the SBD structures seem to be quite different. To investigate whether the observed differences in the SBDs have an effect on the hydrolytic capability of the enzymes, a kinetic study of L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amylases was developed, with both enzymes acting on several starch sources in granular and gelatinized forms. Results showed that the amylolytic capacities of these enzymes are quite different; the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase is, on average, 10 times more efficient than the L. plantarum enzyme in hydrolyzing all the tested polymeric starches, with only a minor difference in the adsorption capacities. PMID:15640201

  2. Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lactobacillus on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Amdekar, Sarika; Roy, Purabi; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2 × 107 CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at t = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at t = 24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at P < 0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway. PMID:22518342

  4. Molecular detection of Lactobacillus species in the neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women

    PubMed Central

    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Domig, Konrad J.; Kraler, Manuel; Marschalek, Julian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general opinion that penile skin lined neovagina of transsexual women is not able to support the growth of lactobacilli. This study was undertaken to prove if lactobacilli strains could survive in neovagina and to characterise the most dominant Lactobacillus species. Sixty three male-to-female transsexual women without abnormal vaginal discharge, clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among transsexual outpatients in an academic research institution and tertiary care centre. Neovaginal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus spp. profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE). Lactobacillus species were detected from 47/63 transsexual women (75%). The 279 Lactobacillus signals detected by PCR-DGGE technique belonged to 13 different species. Lactobacilli of the L. delbrueckii group (L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. johnsonii, L. iners, L. jensenii) were predominant. More than 90% of women harboured a combination of two or more neovaginal Lactobacillus species. In this study we report the frequent occurrence of lactobacilli from neovagina of transsexual women. Both, frequency and composition were similar to the normal lactic acid bacterial microflora in both women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. PMID:24434849

  5. Starch-Binding Domain Affects Catalysis in Two Lactobacillus α-Amylases

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sanoja, R.; Ruiz, B.; Guyot, J. P.; Sanchez, S.

    2005-01-01

    A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in α-amylases from three lactobacilli (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus α-amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98% sequence identity. In spite of this identity, the SBD structures seem to be quite different. To investigate whether the observed differences in the SBDs have an effect on the hydrolytic capability of the enzymes, a kinetic study of L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amylases was developed, with both enzymes acting on several starch sources in granular and gelatinized forms. Results showed that the amylolytic capacities of these enzymes are quite different; the L. amylovorus α-amylase is, on average, 10 times more efficient than the L. plantarum enzyme in hydrolyzing all the tested polymeric starches, with only a minor difference in the adsorption capacities. PMID:15640201

  6. Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Filho, Raphael Lucio Andreatti

    2014-01-01

    In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract. PMID:25477944

  7. Naturally occurring lactic Acid bacteria isolated from tomato pomace silage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Du, Rui-Ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-Qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

  8. Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus farciminis NBRC 111452, Isolated from Kôso, a Japanese Sugar-Vegetable Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Lactobacillus farciminis strain NBRC 111452, isolated from kôso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. This genome information is of potential use in studies of Lactobacillus farciminis as a probiotic. PMID:26769925

  10. Lactobacillus frumenti sp. nov., a new lactic acid bacterium isolated from rye-bran fermentations with a long fermentation period.

    PubMed

    Müller, M R; Ehrmann, M A; Vogel, R F

    2000-11-01

    Within the framework of the characterization of the microflora of an industrial sourdough fermentation, strains of Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus pontis and two other strains were isolated which could not be associated with a valid species. These latter strains were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods that could be clearly differentiated from known species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. For further characterization, the morphological, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic (G+C content, cell wall composition, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins) properties were determined. Fitting of the complete 16S rDNA sequence into alignments of such sequences, together with the subsequent phylogenetic calculations, allowed the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree. These data showed that the two strains were phylogenetically related but formed an independent cluster distinct from their closest neighbours, L. pontis, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus vaginalis and Lactobacillus reuteri. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that the two isolates represent a new Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus frumenti is proposed; the type strain of this species is DSM 13145T (= LMG 19473T). PMID:11155988

  11. Novel feruloyl esterase from Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 and analysis of the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using agar plates containing ethyl ferulate as the sole carbon source, 33 Lactobacillus strains were screened for feruloyl esterase (FE) activity. Among a dozen species showing a clearing zone on the opaque plate containing ethyl ferulate, Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-1932 demonstrated the stronge...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Coccoid Lactobacillus equigenerosi NRIC 0697T Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Healthy Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Toh, Hidehiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Mimura, Iyo; Arakawa, Kensuke; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Takefumi; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi NRIC 0697(T) was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy thoroughbreds. This strain produced unique spherical or oval cells, which is rare in the genus Lactobacillus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. PMID:26847890

  13. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  14. Understanding the physiology of Lactobacillus plantarum at zero growth

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; van de Bunt, Bert; Giovane, Marco; Leveau, Johan H J; Höppener-Ogawa, Sachie; Teusink, Bas; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Situations of extremely low substrate availability, resulting in slow growth, are common in natural environments. To mimic these conditions, Lactobacillus plantarum was grown in a carbon-limited retentostat with complete biomass retention. The physiology of extremely slow-growing L. plantarum—as studied by genome-scale modeling and transcriptomics—was fundamentally different from that of stationary-phase cells. Stress resistance mechanisms were not massively induced during transition to extremely slow growth. The energy-generating metabolism was remarkably stable and remained largely based on the conversion of glucose to lactate. The combination of metabolic and transcriptomic analyses revealed behaviors involved in interactions with the environment, more particularly with plants: production of plant hormones or precursors thereof, and preparedness for the utilization of plant-derived substrates. Accordingly, the production of compounds interfering with plant root development was demonstrated in slow-growing L. plantarum. Thus, conditions of slow growth and limited substrate availability seem to trigger a plant environment-like response, even in the absence of plant-derived material, suggesting that this might constitute an intrinsic behavior in L. plantarum. PMID:20865006

  15. CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

  16. Global transcriptional response of Lactobacillus reuteri to the sourdough environment.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Eric; Britton, Robert A; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Hertel, Christian

    2008-10-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium that is highly adapted to the sourdough environment. It is a dominant member of industrial type II sourdoughs, and is also able to colonize the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans, and birds. In this study, the transcriptional response of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was investigated during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays. Significant changes of mRNA levels were found for 101 genes involved in diverse cellular processes, such as carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell envelope biosynthesis, exopolysaccharide production, stress responses, signal transduction and cobalamin biosynthesis. The results showed extensive changes of the organism's gene expression during growth in sourdough as compared with growth in chemically defined medium, and, thus, revealed pathways involved in the adaptation of L. reuteri to the ecological niche of sourdough. The utilization of starch and non-starch carbohydrates, the remodelling of the cell wall, characterized by reduced D-alanylation, and increased amounts of cell wall-associated polysaccharides, as well as the regulatory function of two component systems for cell wall biogenesis and metabolism were suggested by the gene expression data as being important for growth in sourdough. The impact of several L. reuteri genes for effective growth in sourdough was shown by implementation of mutant strains in sourdough fermentation. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular fundamentals of L. reuteri's ecological competitiveness, and provides a basis for further exploration of genetic traits involved in adaptation to the food environment. PMID:18762399

  17. Genetic and functional aspects of linoleate isomerase in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, Martin; Robert, Normand; Lee, Byong H

    2010-08-01

    While the remarkable health effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) catalyzed from alpha-linoleic acid by the enzyme linoleate isomerase (LI, EC 5.2.1.5) are well recognized, how widely this biochemical activity is present and the mechanisms of its regulation in lactic acid bacteria are unknown. Although certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus can enrich CLA in fermented dairy products, it is unknown if other strains share this capacity. Due to its immense economic importance, this work aimed to investigate genetic aspects of CLA production in L. acidophilus for the first time. The genomic DNA from industrial and type strains of L. acidophilus were subjected to PCR and immunoblot analyses using the putative LI gene of L. reuteri ATCC 55739 as probe. The CLA production ability was estimated by gas chromatography of the biomass extracts. The presumptive LI gene from L. acidophilus ATCC 832 was isolated and sequenced. The resulting sequence shared 71% identity with that of L. reuteri and at least 99% with reported sequences from other L. acidophilus strains. All the strains accumulated detectable levels of CLA and tested positive by PCR and immunoblotting. However, no apparent correlation was observed between the yields and the hybridization patterns. The results suggest that LI activity might be common among L. acidophilus and related species and provide a new tool for screening potential CLA producers. PMID:20461509

  18. The adsorption of ochratoxin a by lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

  19. Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Injeong

    2007-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25℃ and 37℃. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100℃ and 121℃. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10. PMID:24015075

  20. Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus as additive for maize and sorghum ensiling.

    PubMed

    Salimei, Elisabetta; Capilongo, Valeria; Simoni, Andrea; Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Maglieri, Cristina; Romano, Cristina A; Mannina, Luisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

    2007-11-14

    The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus AT195, a potential probiotic microorganism cultured in buffalo "scotta" whey, on chemical and microbiological composition in maize and sorghum ensiling were evaluated. Both crops were harvested, chopped, and treated or not with the selected strain prior to ensiling in fiberglass vertical silos; 90 days after ensiling, silages were sensorially evaluated and sampled. Different chemical components were evaluated both on fresh crops and silages: in particular, the water-soluble carbohydrates content was investigated by high-field NMR spectroscopy and the carbohydrate fermentation profile was performed by GC. Besides phenotypic identification and typing, microbiological studies included Lb. rhamnosus genotype typing by RAPD-PCR. All silages, inoculated or not, were well preserved, as their chemical and microbiological data along with the fermentation profiles showed. The selected strain used as inoculum influenced the lactic acid population of silages and evidenced a good survival performance during the ensiling process of both maize and sorghum. Moreover, the use of Lb. rhamnosus strain efficiently improved the quality of the multifactorial ensiling process by significantly reducing the ammonia nitrogen content of both maize and sorghum silages. PMID:17929890

  2. Osmotically regulated transport of proline by Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532.

    PubMed

    Jewell, J B; Kashket, E R

    1991-10-01

    We reported previously that, when exposed to high osmotic pressure, Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532 cells accumulated N,N,N-trimethylglycine (glycine betaine), which serves as a compatible intracellular solute. When grown in medium with high osmotic pressure, these cells also accumulated one amino acid, proline. The uptake of [3H]proline by resting, glucose-energized cells was stimulated by increasing the osmotic pressure of the assay medium with 0.5 to 1.0 M KCl, 1.0 M NaCl, or 0.5 M sucrose. The accumulated [3H]proline was not metabolized further. In contrast, there was no osmotic stimulation of [3H]leucine uptake. The uptake of proline was activated rather than induced by exposure of the cells to high osmotic pressure. Only one proline transport system could be discerned from kinetics plots. The affinity of the carrier for proline remained constant over a range of osmotic pressures from 650 to 1,910 mosM (Kt, 7.8 to 15.5 mM). The Vmax, however, increased from 15 nmol/min/mg of dry weight in 0.5 M sucrose to 27 and 40 nmol/min/mg of dry weight in 0.5 M KCl and in 1.0 M KCl or NaCl, respectively. The efflux of proline from preloaded cells occurred rapidly when the osmotic pressure of the suspending buffer was lowered. PMID:1786048

  3. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine. PMID:24914724

  4. Influence of environmental factors on lipase production by Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M de F; Cunha, A E; Clemente, J J; Carrondo, M J; Crespo, M T

    1999-02-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, DSMZ 12028 (Deutsch Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen), isolated from a Portuguese dry fermented sausage, "chouriço", was found to produce true lipase, producing free fatty acids from triolein (olive oil). This enzymatic activity was found in whole cells, but was negligible in comparison to lipolytic activity in culture supernatant. Therefore, only extracellular activity was studied. The effect of pH, temperature and glucose concentration on extracellular lipase production was studied in continuously stirred tank reactors, the first time this technology has been used to study the production of this enzyme in lactobacilli. Maximum lipase production was achieved at a pH of 5.5 and 30 degrees C and was kept at a significant level over a wide range of dilution rates (0.05-0.4 h-1); the production of lipase was still significant for low pH values, temperature and glucose concentration, conditions that are close to the ones present during chouriço ripening. The effect of glucose concentration was also studied in a batch system. The control of lipase production was found to be related both to glucose concentration in the medium and to the growth rate/dilution rate. Glucose concentration was found to be important for fast lipase production, although it did not influence the maximum lipase activity reached in a batch culture. PMID:10091332

  5. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Enany, Shymaa; Abdalla, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach. PMID:26691482

  6. Lactobacillus casei combats acid stress by maintaining cell membrane functionality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains have traditionally been recognized as probiotics and frequently used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products where lactic acid stress is a frequently encountered environmental condition. We have investigated the effect of lactic acid stress on the cell membrane of L. casei Zhang [wild type (WT)] and its acid-resistant mutant Lbz-2. Both strains were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats; following challenge by low pH, the cell membrane stress responses were investigated. In response to acid stress, cell membrane fluidity decreased and its fatty acid composition changed to reduce the damage caused by lactic acid. Compared with the WT, the acid-resistant mutant exhibited numerous survival advantages, such as higher membrane fluidity, higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and higher mean chain length. In addition, cell integrity analysis showed that the mutant maintained a more intact cellular structure and lower membrane permeability after environmental acidification. These results indicate that alteration in membrane fluidity, fatty acid distribution, and cell integrity are common mechanisms utilized by L. casei to withstand severe acidification and to reduce the deleterious effect of lactic acid on the cell membrane. This detailed comparison of cell membrane responses between the WT and mutant add to our knowledge of the acid stress adaptation and thus enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress. PMID:22366811

  7. Identification of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus casei AST18.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Wenming; Lv, Jiaping

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus casei AST18 was screened as an antifungal lactic acid bacteria which we have reported before. In this research, the antifungal properties of cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from L. casei AST18 were detected, and the antifungal compounds of CCF were prepared by ultrafiltration, and semi-preparative HPLC, and then determined by GC-MS. CCF was sensitive to pH and heat treatment but it was not affected by the treatment of trypsin and pepsin. Through the treatment of ultrafiltration and semi-preparative HPLC there were two parts of CCF which showed antifungal activities: part 1 and part 4. Lactic acid was identified as the main antifungal compound in part 1. In part 4, three small molecular substances were detected with GC-MS. The three potential antifungal substances were cyclo-(Leu-Pro), 2,6-diphenyl-piperidine, and 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a;1',2'-d]pyrazine. The antifungal activity of L. casei AST18 was a synergistic effect of lactic acid and cyclopeptides. PMID:22580887

  8. Lactobacillus acidophilus—Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus. PMID:26544973

  9. Towards a better understanding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - host interactions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most widely used probiotic strains. Various health effects are well documented including the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal infections and diarrhea, and stimulation of immune responses that promote vaccination or even prevent certain allergic symptoms. However, not all intervention studies could show a clinical benefit and even for the same conditions, the results are not univocal. Clearly, the host phenotype governed by age, genetics and environmental factors such as the endogenous microbiota, plays a role in whether individuals are responders or non-responders. However, we believe that a detailed knowledge of the bacterial physiology and the LGG molecules that play a key role in its host-interaction capacity is crucial for a better understanding of its potential health benefits. Molecules that were yet identified as important factors governing host interactions include its adhesive pili or fimbriae, its lipoteichoic acid molecules, its major secreted proteins and its galactose-rich exopolysaccharides, as well as specific DNA motifs. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to correlate specific health effects to these molecular effectors in LGG, and also in other probiotic strains. PMID:25186587

  10. Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

  11. Purification and Characterization of an Arginine Aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Yolanda; Toldrá, Fidel

    2002-01-01

    An arginine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.6) that exclusively hydrolyzes basic amino acids from the amino (N) termini of peptide substrates has been purified from Lactobacillus sakei. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation and three chromatographic steps, which included hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration, and anion-exchange chromatography. This procedure resulted in a recovery rate of 4.2% and a 500-fold increase in specific activity. The aminopeptidase appeared to be a trimeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 180 kDa. The activity was optimal at pH 5.0 and 37°C. The enzyme was inhibited by sulfhydryl group reagents and several divalent cations (Cu2+, Hg2+, and Zn2+) but was activated by reducing agents, metal-chelating agents, and sodium chloride. The enzyme showed a preference for arginine at the N termini of aminoacyl derivatives and peptides. The Km values for Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (AMC) and Lys-AMC were 15.9 and 26.0 μM, respectively. The nature of the amino acid residue at the C terminus of dipeptides has an effect on hydrolysis rates. The activity was maximal toward dipeptides with Arg, Lys, or Ala as the C-terminal residue. The properties of the purified enzyme, its potential function in the release of arginine, and its further metabolism are discussed because, as a whole, it could constitute a survival mechanism for L. sakei in the meat environment. PMID:11916721

  12. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

  13. Proteolytic activity of probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus M92.

    PubMed

    Beganović, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Uroić, Ksenija; Džidara, Petra; Šušković, Jagoda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of previously defined probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus M92 as functional starter culture for fermented dairy products. Therefore, proteolytic activity of L. helveticus M92 was investigated and compared with those of different representatives of probiotic and starter culture strains. Cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints showed a difference of L. helveticus M92 compared to five other L. helveticus strains, but the percentage of similarity confirmed the identification on species level. Casein hydrolysis by L. helveticus M92 was monitored by agar-well diffusion test, SDS-PAGE and Anson's method. L. helveticus M92 exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among tested probiotic and starter cultures strains with the fastest acidification rate and the highest pH decrease after overnight incubation in skim milk. The presence of prtH2 gene was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers, while PCR product was not obtained after amplification with primers specific to prtH. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE LC-MS/MS analysis of insoluble proteome of L. helveticus M92 enabled identification of several proteins involved in proteolytic system of L. helveticus such as protease PrtM as well as proteins involved in Opp peptide transport system and the intracellular peptidases PepE, PepN, and PepQ. PMID:23454496

  14. Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730

    PubMed Central

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G. H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also contains α-(1→6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted α-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing α-(1→4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of α-(1→4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

  15. Comparative sequence analyses of the genes coding for 16S rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-related taxa.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Yamazaki, K; Ishiyama, T; Katsumata, M; Kobayashi, K; Kawai, Y; Inoue, N; Shinano, H

    1997-01-01

    The primary structures of the 16S rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were different. The Knuc values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the Knuc values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the strains of these species, the L. casei-related taxa should be classified in the following three species: L. zeae, which includes the type strains of L. zeae and L. casei; a species that includes the strains of L. paracasei and L. casei ATCC 334; and L. rhamnosus. PMID:8995801

  16. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

  17. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  18. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  19. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    PubMed Central

    Kasra – Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C–50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

  20. Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus plantarum – production, genetic organization and mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriocins are biologically active proteins or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action towards usually closely related species. Numerous strains of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum have been isolated in the last two decades from different ecological niches including meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, and milk and cereal products. Several of these plantaricins have been characterized and the aminoacid sequence determined. Different aspects of the mode of action, fermentation optimization and genetic organization of the bacteriocin operon have been studied. However, numerous of bacteriocins produced by different Lactobacillus plantarum strains have not been fully characterized. In this article, a brief overview of the classification, genetics, characterization, including mode of action and production optimization for bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in general, and where appropriate, with focus on bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, is presented. PMID:24031346

  1. Adhesion of human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chauvière, G; Coconnier, M H; Kernéis, S; Fourniat, J; Servin, A L

    1992-08-01

    Twenty-five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. Seven Lactobacillus strains adhered well to the Caco-2 cells, of which three possessed calcium-independent adhesion properties. A high level of calcium-independent adhesion was observed with the human stool isolate Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this strain adhered to the apical brush border of the cells. Adhesion increased in parallel with the morphological and functional differentiation of the Caco-2 cells. Two Lactobacillus components were involved in this adhesion. One was protease-resistant and bacterial-surface-associated; the other was heat-stable, extracellular and protease-sensitive. PMID:1527509

  2. Development of an Escherichia coli-Lactobacillus casei shuttle vector for heterologous protein expression in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Suebwongsa, Namfon; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Mayo, Baltasar; Yotpanya, Panjamaporn; Panya, Marutpong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to develop various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species as mucosal delivery vehicles, for which the development of a variety of cloning and expression systems for these bacteria is of primary importance. This study reports the complete nucleotide sequence of the cryptic plasmid pRCEID7.6 derived from the chicken probiotic LAB strain Lactobacillus casei TISTR1341. Sequence analysis and comparison showed that pRCEID7.6 is composed of nine putative open reading frames. The replicon origin of pRCEID7.6 consisted of untranslated origin of replication and translated replication protein B sequences. This region was used to construct Escherichia coli/L. casei shuttle vectors carrying erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes as selective markers. Segregation and structural stability of the vectors in L. casei was sufficient for most genetic applications. The feasibility of this vector for heterologous protein expression in L. casei was determined by cloning in pRCEID-LC7.6, the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein (NP), from the influenza A virus under the control of the homologous promoter from the lactate dehydrogenase gene. L. casei carrying this recombinant plasmid was shown to successfully express the NP protein. Therefore, this shuttle vector can be used for further study in the development of mucosal delivery vehicles. PMID:27026866

  3. Thirteen Virulent and Temperate Bacteriophages of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis Belong to a Single DNA Homology Group

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Mireille; Trautwetter, Annie; Luthaud, Gisèle; Ritzenthaler, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen virulent phages and two temperate phages of two closely related bacterial species (Lactobacillus lactis and L. bulgaricus) were compared for their protein composition, their antigenic properties, their restriction endonuclease patterns, and their DNA homology. The immunoblotting studies and the DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that the phages could be differentiated into two groups. One group contained 2 temperate phages of L. bulgaricus and 11 virulent phages of L. lactis. Inside each group, at least two common proteins of identical sizes could be detected for each phage. These proteins were able to cross-react in immunoblotting experiments with an antiserum raised against one phage of the same group. Temperate phage DNAs showed partial homology with DNAs from some virulent phages. These homologies seem to be located on the region coding for the structural proteins since recombinant plasmids coding for one of the major phage proteins of one phage were able to hybridize with the DNAs from phages of the same group. These results suggest that temperate and virulent phages may be related to one another. Images PMID:16347174

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. PMID:27570278

  5. Evaluation of Phytate-Degrading Lactobacillus Culture Administration to Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Askelson, Tyler E.; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  6. Characterization of Pro-Inflammatory Flagellin Proteins Produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and Related Motile Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Neville, B. Anne; Forde, Brian M.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Darby, Trevor; Coghlan, Avril; Nally, Kenneth; Ross, R. Paul; O’Toole, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate) and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate), but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli. PMID:22808200

  7. [Inhibitory activity of vaginal Lactobacillus bacteria on yeasts causing vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    PubMed

    Strus, Magdalena; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-01-01

    Growing frequency of therapeutical failures of vulvovaginal candidiasis, resulting from resistance of certain species of Candida to imidazole agents, raises interest in the use of probiotics from Lactobacillus genera as prophylaxis. Unfortunately, little is known about inhibitory mechanisms of Lactobacillus on Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of selected Lactobacillus species, representing the physiological vaginal flora, against Candida as well as investigation whether their inhibitory activity against Candida is related strictly to hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid production. 125 strains from vaginal smears of healthy women were classified by making use of phenotypic and genotypic methods. The majority of strains belonged to L. acidophilus: L. acidophilus sensu stricto, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii as well as L. fermentum and L. plantarum species. Culture supernatants of selected 25 strains representing the isolated species were examined for their inhibitory activity against the growth of Candida albicans and C. glabrata. The results showed that the strongest and the fastest activity against C. albicans was demonstrated by L. delbrueckii strains, producing the largest quantities of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, extended activity, demonstrable after 24 hours, was shown by non-H2O2 producing L. plantarum supernatants. Growth of C. glabrata was not inhibited by any of the examined strains of Lactobacillus. Comparison of activity of live active cultures of Lactobacillus strains and their mixtures with this of pure H2O2 and lactic acid has shown that pure chemical compounds were less active than the cultures. This suggests that mixtures of Lactobacillus strains are in cooperation with each other using many different metabolites. PMID:16130291

  8. Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  9. Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2012-09-01

    Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106. PMID:22021580

  10. Cloning and analysis of bile salt hydrolase genes from Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC No. 8198.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiang-Chao; Luo, Xue-Gang; Wang, Chong-Xi; Ma, De-Yun; Wang, Yan; He, Ying-Ying; Li, Wen; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2014-05-01

    Genes coding for bile salt hydrolase of Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 8198, a novel probiotic strain isolated from silage, were identified, analyzed and cloned. L. plantarum strongly resisted the inhibitory effects of bile salts and also decreased serum cholesterol levels by 20% in mice with hypercholesterolemia. Using RT-PCR analysis, bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 were upregulated by bile salts in a dose-dependent manner. All three bsh genes had high similarity with those of other Lactobacillus strains. All three recombinant BSHs had high activities for the hydrolysis of glycodeoxycholic acids and taurodeoxycholic acids. PMID:24375235

  11. Evidence that Lactobacillus casei insertion element ISL1 has a narrow host range.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Kadota, M; Flickinger, J L; Chassy, B M

    1988-01-01

    The 1.3-kilobase-pair insertion element ISL1, originally isolated from Lactobacillus casei S-1, was found to have an extremely restricted host range. By DNA-DNA hybrizations performed with Southern transfers by using a cloned internal fragment of ISL1 as a molecular probe, it was found that only 3 of 19 L. casei strains examined contained sequences that hybridized to the ISL1 probe. In two of these, the hybridizing sequences were found on lactose plasmids. No homologous sequences were detected in a survey of 14 other Lactobacillus strains (9 species) and 15 strains of other bacteria (8 genera, 12 species). Images PMID:2844733

  12. Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG.

    PubMed

    Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods

  13. Crystal structure of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuzhou; Guo, Fangfang; Hu, Xiao Jian; Lin, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is a gut-bacterial enzyme that negatively influences host fat digestion and energy harvesting. The BSH enzyme activity functions as a gateway reaction in the small intestine by the deconjugation of glycine-conjugated or taurine-conjugated bile acids. Extensive gut-microbiota studies have suggested that BSH is a key mechanistic microbiome target for the development of novel non-antibiotic food additives to improve animal feed production and for the design of new measures to control obesity in humans. However, research on BSH is still in its infancy, particularly in terms of the structural basis of BSH function, which has hampered the development of BSH-based strategies for improving human and animal health. As an initial step towards the structure-function analysis of BSH, C-terminally His-tagged BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514 was crystallized in this study. The 1.90 Å resolution crystal structure of L. salivarius BSH was determined by molecular replacement using the structure of Clostridium perfringens BSH as a starting model. It revealed this BSH to be a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. Crystals of apo BSH belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.79, b = 87.35, c = 86.76 Å (PDB entry 5hke). Two BSH molecules packed perfectly as a dimer in one asymmetric unit. Comparative structural analysis of L. salivarius BSH also identified potential residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity. PMID:27139829

  14. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    PubMed Central

    Kleerebezem, Michiel; Boekhorst, Jos; van Kranenburg, Richard; Molenaar, Douwe; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Leer, Rob; Tarchini, Renato; Peters, Sander A.; Sandbrink, Hans M.; Fiers, Mark W. E. J.; Stiekema, Willem; Lankhorst, René M. Klein; Bron, Peter A.; Hoffer, Sally M.; Groot, Masja N. Nierop; Kerkhoven, Robert; de Vries, Maaike; Ursing, Björn; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.

    2003-01-01

    The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, the genome encodes all enzymes required for the glycolysis and phosphoketolase pathways, all of which appear to belong to the class of potentially highly expressed genes in this organism, as was evident from the codon-adaptation index of individual genes. Moreover, L. plantarum encodes a large pyruvate-dissipating potential, leading to various end-products of fermentation. L. plantarum is a species that is encountered in many different environmental niches, and this flexible and adaptive behavior is reflected by the relatively large number of regulatory and transport functions, including 25 complete PTS sugar transport systems. Moreover, the chromosome encodes >200 extracellular proteins, many of which are predicted to be bound to the cell envelope. A large proportion of the genes encoding sugar transport and utilization, as well as genes encoding extracellular functions, appear to be clustered in a 600-kb region near the origin of replication. Many of these genes display deviation of nucleotide composition, consistent with a foreign origin. These findings suggest that these genes, which provide an important part of the interaction of L. plantarum with its environment, form a lifestyle adaptation region in the chromosome. PMID:12566566

  15. Mechanism of maltose uptake and glucose excretion in Lactobacillus sanfrancisco.

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, H; Glaasker, E; Hammes, W P; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

    1994-01-01

    Lactobacillus sanfrancisco LTH 2581 can use only glucose and maltose as sources of metabolic energy. In maltose-metabolizing cells of L. sanfrancisco, approximately half of the internally generated glucose appears in the medium. The mechanisms of maltose (and glucose) uptake and glucose excretion have been investigated in cells and in membrane vesicles of L. sanfrancisco in which beef heart cytochrome c oxidase had been incorporated as a proton-motive-force-generating system. In the presence of ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), and cytochrome c, the hybrid membranes facilitated maltose uptake against a concentration gradient, but accumulation of glucose could not be detected. Similarly, in intact cells of L. sanfrancisco, the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha-methylglucoside was taken up only to the equilibration level. Selective dissipation of the components of the proton and sodium motive force in the hybrid membranes indicated that maltose is transported by a proton symport mechanism. Internal [14C]maltose could be chased with external unlabeled maltose (homologous exchange), but heterologous maltose/glucose exchange could not be detected. Membrane vesicles of L. sanfrancisco also catalyzed glucose efflux and homologous glucose exchange. These activities could not be detected in membrane vesicles of glucose-grown cells. The results indicate that maltose-grown cells of L. sanfrancisco express a maltose-H+ symport and glucose uniport system. When maltose is the substrate, the formation of intracellular glucose can be more rapid than the subsequent metabolism, which leads to excretion of glucose via the uniport system. PMID:8188601

  16. High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R F; Pavlovic, M; Hörmann, S; Ehrmann, M A

    2005-08-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress response, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to identify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of the complex bacterial response to high pressure we have analyzed changes in the proteome and transcriptome by 2-D electrophoresis, and by microarrays and real time PCR, respectively. More than 16 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon high pressure stress and were compared to those sensitive to other stresses. Except for one apparently high pressure-specific stress protein, no pressure-specific stress proteins were found, and the proteome response to pressure was found to differ from that induced by other stresses. Selected pressure-sensitive proteins were partially sequenced and their genes were identified by reverse genetics. In a transcriptome analysis of a redundancy cleared shot gun library, about 7% of the genes investigated were found to be affected. Most of them appeared to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold and these results were confirmed by real time PCR. Gene induction was shown for some genes up-regulated at the proteome level (clpL/groEL/rbsK), while the response of others to high hydrostatic pressure at the transcriptome level seemed to differ from that observed at the proteome level. The up-regulation of selected genes supports the view that the cell tries to compensate for pressure-induced impairment of translation and membrane transport. PMID:16082466

  17. Lipoteichoic acid-deficient Lactobacillus acidophilus regulates downstream signals.

    PubMed

    Saber, Rana; Zadeh, Mojgan; Pakanati, Krishna C; Bere, Praveen; Klaenhammer, Todd; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2011-03-01

    The trillions of microbes residing within the intestine induce critical signals that either regulate or stimulate host immunity via their bacterial products. To better understand the immune regulation elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-deficient Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in steady state and induced inflammation, we deleted phosphoglycerol transferase gene, which synthesizes LTA in L. acidophilus NCFM. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted in order to compare the immune regulatory properties of the L. acidophilus strain deficient in LTA (NCK2025) with its wild-type parent (NCK56) in C57BL/6, C57BL/6 recombination-activation gene 1-deficient (Rag1 (-/-)) and C57BL/6 Rag1(-/-)IL-10(-/-) mice. We demonstrate that NCK2025 significantly activates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 but downregulates the phosphorylation of Akt1, cytosolic group IV PLA2 and p38 in mouse dendritic cells. Similarly, mice treated orally with NCK2025 exhibit decreased phosphorylation of inflammatory signals (Akt1, cytosolic group IV PLA2 or P38) but upregulate Erk1/2-phosphorylation in colonic epithelial cells in comparison with mice treated with NCK56. In addition, regulation of pathogenic CD4+ T cell induced colitis by NCK2025 was observed in Rag1 (-/-) but not Rag1(-/-)IL-10 (-/-) mice suggests a critical role of IL-10 that may be tightly regulated by Erk1/2 signaling. These data highlight the immunosuppressive properties of NCK2025 to deliver regulatory signals in innate cells, which results in the mitigation of T-cell-induced colitis in vivo. PMID:21395377

  18. Functional analysis of putative adhesion factors in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Buck, B Logan; Altermann, Eric; Svingerud, Tina; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2005-12-01

    Lactobacilli are major inhabitants of the normal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, and some select species have been used extensively as probiotic cultures. One potentially important property of these organisms is their ability to interact with epithelial cells in the intestinal tract, which may promote retention and host-bacterial communication. However, the mechanisms by which they attach to intestinal epithelial cells are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate cell surface proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus that may promote attachment to intestinal tissues. Using genome sequence data, predicted open reading frames were searched against known protein and protein motif databases to identify four proteins potentially involved in adhesion to epithelial cells. Homologous recombination was used to construct isogenic mutations in genes encoding a mucin-binding protein, a fibronectin-binding protein, a surface layer protein, and two streptococcal R28 homologs. The abilities of the mutants to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells were then evaluated in vitro. Each strain was screened on Caco-2 cells, which differentiate and express markers characteristic of normal small-intestine cells. A significant decrease in adhesion was observed in the fibronectin-binding protein mutant (76%) and the mucin-binding protein mutant (65%). A surface layer protein mutant also showed reduction in adhesion ability (84%), but the effect of this mutation is likely due to the loss of multiple surface proteins that may be embedded in the S-layer. This study demonstrated that multiple cell surface proteins in L. acidophilus NCFM can individually contribute to the organism's ability to attach to intestinal cells in vitro. PMID:16332821

  19. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. PMID:25790993

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37°C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS. PMID:15581218

  1. Triglyceride-Lowering Effects of Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Hong, Seong Soo; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-03-28

    The triglyceride-lowering effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 were investigated. Male SD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and probiotics (5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. plantarum KY1032 and 5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. curvatus HY7601), or normal diet for 6 weeks. Probiotic treatment significantly lowered the elevated plasma triglyceride and increased plasma free fatty acid, glycerol, and plasma apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) levels. The probiotic-treated group showed elevated hepatic mRNA expression of PPARα, bile acid receptor (FXR), and ApoA-V. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum KY1032 and L. curvatus HY7601 lower triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic rats by upregulating ApoA-V, PPARα, and FXR. PMID:26699746

  2. Glucan synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus: isolation and characterization of glucansucrase genes, enzymes and glucan products from six different strains.

    PubMed

    Kralj, S; van Geel-Schutten, G H; Dondorff, M M G; Kirsanovs, S; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L

    2004-11-01

    Members of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc synthesize various alpha-glucans (dextran, alternan and mutan). In Lactobacillus, until now, the only glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme that has been characterized is gtfA of Lactobacillus reuteri 121, the first GTF enzyme synthesizing a glucan (reuteran) that contains mainly alpha-(1-->4) linkages together with alpha-(1-->6) and alpha-(1-->4,6) linkages. Recently, partial sequences of glucansucrase genes were detected in other members of the genus Lactobacillus. This paper reports, for the first time, isolation and characterization of dextransucrase and mutansucrase genes and enzymes from various Lactobacillus species and the characterization of the glucan products synthesized, which mainly have alpha-(1-->6)- and alpha-(1-->3)-glucosidic linkages. The four GTF enzymes characterized from three different Lb. reuteri strains are highly similar at the amino acid level, and consequently their protein structures are very alike. Interestingly, these four Lb. reuteri GTFs have relatively large N-terminal variable regions, containing RDV repeats, and relatively short putative glucan-binding domains with conserved and less-conserved YG-repeating units. The three other GTF enzymes, isolated from Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus parabuchneri, contain smaller variable regions and larger putative glucan-binding domains compared to the Lb. reuteri GTF enzymes. PMID:15528655

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactobacillus spp. Isolated From Fecal Flora of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants Against Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Lashani, Elahe; Tajabadi Ebrahimi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the enteric pathogens, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are important causes of diarrhea in children in both developing and industrialized countries. Some Lactobacillus species are commonly used as probiotics, with effects especially against acute diarrhea in childhood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fecal flora of healthy breast-fed infants against five diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes such as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from seven healthy breast-fed infants between 1 to 18 months of age in Tehran city, Iran. Identification of Lactobacillus isolates was performed by biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. An agar well diffusion assay was used for detection of antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus isolates against five diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Results: A total of 20 Lactobacillus isolates were identified from stool samples. Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently isolated strain, followed by L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus. Seven Lactobacillus strains including L. fermentum (four isolates), L. paracasei (one isolate), L. plantarum (one isolate) and L. rhamnosus (one isolate) had a mild inhibitory activity against diarrheagenic E. coli. The mechanism of inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus strains appeared to be due to the production of organic acids or hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions: Our findings show that Lactobacillus strains with human origin had a mild inhibitory activity against the diarrheagenic E. coli, and these strains may be useful as probiotic candidates in prevention of intestinal infections caused by diarrheagenic E. coli. PMID:26865944

  4. Bacterial sensing underlies artificial sweetener-induced growth of gut Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Wilkinson, Mark C; Pongchaikul, Pisut; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2016-07-01

    Disruption in stable establishment of commensal gut microbiota by early weaning is an important factor in susceptibility of young animals to enteric disorders. The artificial sweetener SUCRAM [consisting of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) and saccharin] included in piglets' feed reduces incidence of enteric disease. Pyrosequencing of pig caecal 16S rRNA gene amplicons identified 25 major families encompassing seven bacterial classes with Bacteroidia, Clostridia and Bacilli dominating the microbiota. There were significant shifts in microbial composition in pigs maintained on a diet containing SUCRAM, establishing SUCRAM as a major influence driving bacterial community dynamics. The most notable change was a significant increase of Lactobacillaceae population abundance, almost entirely due to a single phylotype, designated Lactobacillus 4228. The sweetener-induced increase in Lactobacillaceae was observed in two different breeds of pigs signifying a general effect. We isolated Lactobacillus 4228, sequenced its genome and found it to be related to Lactobacillus amylovorus. In vitro analyses of Lactobacillus 4228 growth characteristics showed that presence of NHDC significantly reduces the lag phase of growth and enhances expression of specific sugar transporters, independently of NHDC metabolism. This study suggests that sensing of NHDC by a bacterial plasma membrane receptor underlies sweetener-induced growth of a health promoting gut bacterium. PMID:26058469

  5. Carbohydrate utilization and detection of a nucleotide hydrolase in Lactobacillus buchneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus buchneri strains NRRL 1837, DSM 5987, and NRRL B-30929 were examined for capacity to metabolize various carbohydrates via growth and fermentation analyses. Carbon sources used for this study included D-melibiose, inosine, uridine, D-melezitose, maltotriose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, suc...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C.

    PubMed

    Karlyshev, Andrey V; Villena, Julio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Albarracin, Leonardo; Barros, Javier; Garcia, Apolinaria

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain UCO-979C. The reads generated by a Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 2.01 Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. Specific features of the genome are highlighted. PMID:26659681

  7. Impact of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains feeding on fecal lactobacilli and weight gains in chicken.

    PubMed

    Lan, Pham Thi Ngoc; Binh, Le Thanh; Benno, Yoshimi

    2003-02-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus agilis JCM 1048 and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius JCM 1230 isolated from chicken intestine, exhibited probiotic characteristics that can be applied for chicken production. After 7 days of probiotic feeding (FD7), the count of intestinal lactobacilli in the probiotic group (group P, n=10) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the control group (group C, n=9). After 40 days of probiotic feeding (FD40), the lactobacilli and enterococci counts were stable but the Enterobacteriaceae number was significantly reduced (p<0.05). A total of 163 isolated lactobacilli were identified as the L. acidophilus/gallinarum group (49.7%), L. agilis (30.7%), L. salivarius (9.2%), L. reuteri (9.2%), and Lactobacillus spp. (1.2%). The probiotic lactobacilli positively affected the Lactobacillus biota in chickens at FD7, with a significant increase in the number (p<0.05) of L. agilis and group P. The viable counts of each Lactobacillus species at FD40, however, showed no differences between two groups. An increasing incidence of L. agilis was also noted with probiotic feeding. The probiotic effect of two strains resulted in significantly increased weight gains (10.7%) of group P in comparison with group C at FD40 (p<0.01). PMID:12682864

  8. Genome sequence of the vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608.

    PubMed

    Heavens, Darren; Tailford, Louise E; Crossman, Lisa; Jeffers, Faye; Mackenzie, Donald A; Caccamo, Mario; Juge, Nathalie

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of a range of vertebrates, is a true symbiont with effects established as beneficial to the host. Here we describe the draft genome of L. reuteri ATCC 53608, isolated from a pig. The genome sequence provides important insights into the evolutionary changes underlying host specialization. PMID:21622738

  9. Novel antibacterial polypeptide produced by Lactobacillus paracasei strain NRRL B-50314

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated as laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. The crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including the following: lactic a...

  10. High-throughput screening assays for antibacterial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Inglin, Raffael C; Stevens, Marc J A; Meile, Lukas; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2015-07-01

    We describe high-throughput screening techniques to rapidly detect either antimicrobial activity, using an agar-well diffusion assay in microtiter plates, or antifungal activity using an agar-spot assay in 24-well plates. 504 Lactobacillus isolates were screened with minimal laboratory equipment and screening rates of 2000-5000 individual antimicrobial interactions. PMID:25937247

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus panis DSM 6035T, First Isolated from Sourdough

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yixin; Fang, Daiqiong; Shi, Ding; Li, Ang; Lv, Longxian; Yan, Ren; Yao, Jian; Hua, Dasong; Hu, Xinjun; Guo, Feifei; Wu, Wenrui; Guo, Jing; Chen, Yanfei; Jiang, Xiawei; Chen, Xiaoxiao

    2015-01-01

    We report a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus panis DSM 6035T, isolated from sourdough. The genome of this strain is 2,082,789 bp long, with 47.9% G+C content. A total of 2,047 protein-coding genes were predicted. PMID:26205855

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus panis DSM 6035T, First Isolated from Sourdough.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yixin; Fang, Daiqiong; Shi, Ding; Li, Ang; Lv, Longxian; Yan, Ren; Yao, Jian; Hua, Dasong; Hu, Xinjun; Guo, Feifei; Wu, Wenrui; Guo, Jing; Chen, Yanfei; Jiang, Xiawei; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus panis DSM 6035(T), isolated from sourdough. The genome of this strain is 2,082,789 bp long, with 47.9% G+C content. A total of 2,047 protein-coding genes were predicted. PMID:26205855

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Respiration-Competent Strain Lactobacillus casei N87.

    PubMed

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Ianniello, Rocco G; Bassi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is used as a starter, adjunct, and/or probiotic culture in the production of fermented and functional foods. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the respiration-competent strain L. casei N87, isolated from infant feces. This genome information may be useful for the study of respiratory metabolism in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27151805

  14. Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

  15. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b.

    PubMed

    Ladero, Victor; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martinez, Noelia; Del Río, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food. PMID:24435875

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei LC2W▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Ai, Lianzhong; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W, a patented probiotic strain (Z. Wu, European patent EP 1642963 B1, February 2009), has been isolated from Chinese traditional dairy products and implemented in industrial production as starter culture. Here we present the complete genome sequence of LC2W and the identification of a gene cluster implicated in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides. PMID:21515769

  18. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04 Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sp. Strain TCF032-E4, Isolated from Fermented Radish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sp. strain TCF032-E4 (= CCTCC AB2015090 = DSM 100358), isolated from a Chinese fermented radish. The total length of the 57 contigs is about 2.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 43.5 mol% and 2,797 predicted coding sequences (CDSs). PMID:26227596

  20. Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider using radio frequency electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing is effective at inactivating Gram negative bacteria in fruit juices at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be shown to be effective at reducing Gram positive bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 49445, a Gram positive bacterium, was inocula...

  1. Colon-specific delivery of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using pectin hydrogel beads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), has shown beneficial effects on human health, and is accepted by increasing populations for the prevention and treatment of irritable bowel diseases. To increase the bioavailability and efficacy of LGG, the probiotic was encapsulated in hydro...

  2. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus amylovorus GRL1118, isolated from pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Paulin, Lars; Alatalo, Edward; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-06-01

    Lactobacillus amylovorus is a common member of the beneficial microbiota present in the pig gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the genome sequence of the surface layer (S-layer) protein-carrying and potentially probiotic strain L. amylovorus GRL1118, which was isolated from porcine ileum and which shows strong adherence to pig intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:21478337

  3. Genome Sequence of Rough and Smooth Variants of Pleomorphic Strain Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699

    PubMed Central

    Tareb, R.; Bernardeau, M.

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699 is a pleomorphic strain exhibiting smooth and rough variants. We report their complete genomes consisting of a chromosome of 2, 4 Mb and a plasmid of 6,417 bp. The smooth variant differs by the presence of an additional plasmid of 35,418 bp. PMID:26383668

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 Isolated from Maasai Fermented Milk.

    PubMed

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Brinks, Erik; Fiedler, Gregor; Kabisch, Jan; Koberg, Sabrina; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Neve, Horst; Kang, Youn-Goo; Yun, Doyeon; Kim, Ah-Ram; Narbad, Arjan; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome of Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk product kule naoto was sequenced, and sequence analysis showed the assembled genome size to be 3,285,094 bp, containing a predicted total of 3,111 protein-encoding genes, 17 rRNAs, and 70 tRNAs. PMID:27257199

  5. Bacteriophage endolysins expressed in yeast kill strains of Lactobacillus that contaminate fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Species of Lactobacillus are the predominant contaminants that reduce ethanol yields and cause “stuck” fermentations, decreasing the profitability of biofuel production with expen...

  6. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    PubMed

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases. PMID:27102127

  7. Microbiologic characteristics of Lactobacillus products used for colonization of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Hughes, V L; Hillier, S L

    1990-02-01

    Lactobacilli have long been considered to be the protective flora in the vagina. Women with vaginal infections have used various non-prescription products in an attempt to restore their normal vaginal flora. Products that contain lactobacilli include dairy products (yogurt, acidophilus milk) and commercially available Lactobacillus powders and tablets. Recently, Lactobacillus species that produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been associated with normal vaginal flora. In this study, we compared 16 non-prescription products containing lactobacilli for H2O2 production, purity, and identifiable contaminants. All 16 products contained lactobacilli, of which ten (62%) produced H2O2. At least one contaminant was detected in 11 of 16 (69%) of the products: Enterococcus faecium (ten), Clostridium sporogenes (one), Streptococcus mitis (one), and Pseudomonas species (one). Although all of the products tested contained lactobacilli, only four of the products contained Lactobacillus acidophilus. Most of the lactobacilli-containing products currently available either do not contain the Lactobacillus species advertised and/or contain other bacteria of questionable benefit. We conclude that commercially available products may not be appropriate for recolonization of the vagina. PMID:2300352

  8. Alterations in fecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in type 2 diabetic patients in Southern China population

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Kim-Anne; Li, Yan; Xu, Xiaojing; Yang, Wanting; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Xiaoning; Tang, Yongming Gorge; Cai, Dehong; Go, Vay Liang W.; Pandol, Stephen; Hui, Hongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background: The connection between gut microbiota and metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, members of commensal bacteria found in human gut, in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D) patients from Southern China. Methods: Fifty patients with T2D and thirty control individuals of similar body mass index (BMI) were recruited from Southern China. T2D and control subjects were confirmed with both oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c measurements. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in feces were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: In comparison to control subjects T2D patients had significantly more total Lactobacillus (+18%), L. bugaricus (+13%), L. rhamnosum (+37%) and L. acidophilus (+48%) (P < 0.05). In contrast, T2D patients had less amounts of total Bifidobacteria (−7%) and B. adolescentis (−12%) (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis showed that gut microbiota pattern of T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophillus, together with lesser numbers of B. adolescentis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The gut microflora in T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of Lactobacillus and lesser numbers of Bifidobacterium species. PMID:23386831

  9. Effect of Lactobacillus strains and Saccharomyces boulardii on persistent diarrhea in children.

    PubMed

    Gaón, David; García, Hugo; Winter, Luis; Rodríguez, Nora; Quintás, Ricardo; González, Silvia N; Oliver, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of probiotics on persistent diarrhea remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces boulardii on persistent diarrhea in children. In a double-blind trial eighty-nine children, aged 6-24 months were randomly distributed to receive pasteurized cow milk containing 2 viable lyophilized strains Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophillus strains CERELA, (10(10)-10(12) colony-forming units per g) (n = 30), or lyophilized S. boulardii, (10(10)-10(12) colony forming units per g) (n = 30) or pasteurized cow milk as placebo (n = 29); on each diet 175 g was given twice a day for a 5 day period. Number of depositions, duration of illness and frequency of vomiting were considered. Enteric pathogens were isolated from stools in 40% of the patients, 27% had rotavirus. Lactobacillus and S. boulardii significantly reduced the number of depositions (p < 0.001) and diarrheal duration (p < 0.005). Similarly both significantly (p < 0.002) reduced vomiting as compared with placebo. There was no difference between treatments depending on rotavirus status. In conclusion, L. casei and L. acidophillus strains CERELA and S. boulardii are useful in the management of persistent diarrhea in children. PMID:14518142

  10. Genetic expression profile analysis of the temporal inhibition of quercetin and naringenin on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant polyphenols, quercetin and naringenin, are considered healthy dietary compounds; however, little is known of their effects on the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). In this study, it was discovered that both quercetin and naringenin produced temporary inhibition of LGG growth, par...

  11. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  12. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gastricus PS3, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Virginia; Cárdenas, Nivia; Jiménez, Esther; Maldonado, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus gastricus is a mostly unknown lactobacilli species associated with mucosal surfaces. We present the draft annotated genome sequence of L. gastricus strain PS3, isolated from a human milk sample, to provide new insights into its biology and to characterize those genes related to advantageous technological and beneficial properties. PMID:23846278

  13. The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

  14. The in vitro activity of vaginal Lactobacillus with probiotic properties against Candida.

    PubMed

    Strus, Magdalena; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Kukla, Grazyna; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Maresz, Katarzyna; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-06-01

    Lactobacilli, the predominant vaginal microorganisms in healthy premenopausal women, control other members of the vaginal microflora and thus protect against bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections. It has been claimed that some lactobacilli are also protective against Candida vaginitis. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which these lactobacilli can control vaginal populations of Candida and prevent vaginitis. To address this question, vaginal Lactobacillus strains with known antagonistic properties against bacteria were tested for their cell surface properties, adhesion to vaginal cell lines in vitro and antagonistic activities against Candida. A small proportion of the lactobacilli tested adhered strongly to cultured vaginal epithelial cells and inhibited growth of Candida albicans but not of C. pseudotropicalis. This anticandidal activity was in some Lactobacillus strains related to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, but catalase treatment did not suppress this activity in other Lactobacillus strains, suggesting alternative mechanism(s). Moreover, tested vaginal Candida strains were resistant to relatively high concentrations of H2O2 that markedly exceeded those produced by even the most active Lactobacillus strains. PMID:16011996

  15. The in vitro activity of vaginal Lactobacillus with probiotic properties against Candida.

    PubMed Central

    Strus, Magdalena; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Kukla, Grazyna; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Maresz, Katarzyna; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacilli, the predominant vaginal microorganisms in healthy premenopausal women, control other members of the vaginal microflora and thus protect against bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections. It has been claimed that some lactobacilli are also protective against Candida vaginitis. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which these lactobacilli can control vaginal populations of Candida and prevent vaginitis. To address this question, vaginal Lactobacillus strains with known antagonistic properties against bacteria were tested for their cell surface properties, adhesion to vaginal cell lines in vitro and antagonistic activities against Candida. A small proportion of the lactobacilli tested adhered strongly to cultured vaginal epithelial cells and inhibited growth of Candida albicans but not of C. pseudotropicalis. This anticandidal activity was in some Lactobacillus strains related to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, but catalase treatment did not suppress this activity in other Lactobacillus strains, suggesting alternative mechanism(s). Moreover, tested vaginal Candida strains were resistant to relatively high concentrations of H2O2 that markedly exceeded those produced by even the most active Lactobacillus strains. PMID:16011996

  16. Proteomic Analyses of Ethanol Tolerance in Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. In this study, the ethanol tolerance trait was elucidated at the molecular level by using proteomics comparison and analyses. Cellular p...

  17. Preserving viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in vitro and in vivo by a new encapsulation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics have shown beneficial effects on human health. To increase the efficacy of probiotic applications, we used Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as a probiotic model to investigate approaches to enhance the bioavailability of probiotics. LGG was encapsulated in hydrogel beads containing pectin...

  18. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus ingluviei, a Bacterium Associated with Weight Gain in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Merhej, Vicky; Armougom, Fabrice; Robert, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus ingluviei strain Autruche 4 (CSURP209) isolated from an ostrich. L. ingluviei is associated with weight gain in mice. This genome sequence may help us understand the obesity-induced mechanisms of intestinal bacteria. PMID:23012279

  19. Bacteriophage-encoded lytic enzymes control growth of contaminating Lactobacillus found in fuel ethanol fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Reduced yields of ethanol due to bacterial contamination in fermentation cultures weakens the economics of biofuel production. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the most problematic, and surveys of commercial fuel ethanol facilities have found that species of Lactobacillus are predomin...

  20. Novel antibacterial polypeptide laparaxin produced by Lactobacillus paracasei strain NRRL B-50314 via fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. Crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including: lactic acid bacteria ...

  1. Labeling quality and molecular characterization studies of products containing Lactobacillus spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Giovanna; Fazio, Davide; Petronio, Giulio Petronio; Inturri, Rosanna; Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize at species level by phenotypic and different molecular methods the strains of Lactobacillus spp. used as constituents of five oral and four vaginal products. Susceptibilities to representative antibiotics were evaluated. In addition, total viable counts at mid and 3 months to deadline of shelf life, in the different formulations and the presence of eventual contaminant microorganisms were investigated.In all oral products the molecular characterization at species level of the strains of Lactobacillus spp. confirmed the strains stated on the label, except for one strain cited on the label as Lactobacillus casei, that our study characterized as Lactobacillus paracasei. In oral products total viable cell content complied with content claimed on the label. In three out four vaginal products (one product claimed "bacillo di Döderlein"), molecular characterization complied with the bacterial name stated on the label. Two vaginal products reported viable counts on the label that were confirmed by our study. The other vaginal products, which did not report bacterial counts on the label, showed a similar decrease of viable counts at different dates to deadline compared to the others. From all the tested products, contaminant microorganisms and acquired resistance to representative antibiotics by the probiotic strains were not detected. PMID:26667227

  2. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei LC2W.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Ai, Lianzhong; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W, a patented probiotic strain (Z. Wu, European patent EP 1642963 B1, February 2009), has been isolated from Chinese traditional dairy products and implemented in industrial production as starter culture. Here we present the complete genome sequence of LC2W and the identification of a gene cluster implicated in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides. PMID:21515769

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of a Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Julio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Albarracin, Leonardo; Barros, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain UCO-979C. The reads generated by a Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 2.01 Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. Specific features of the genome are highlighted. PMID:26659681

  5. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  6. Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

    2014-03-01

    Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

  7. Accumulation of Polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and Its Involvement in Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

  8. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martinez, Noelia; del Río, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz

    2014-01-01

    We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food. PMID:24435875

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M.; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus MN-BM-F01

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lan; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Yudong; Li, Zhouyong; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus MN-BM-F01 was originally isolated from a traditional fermented dairy product in China. The characteristics of this bacterium are its low post-acidification ability and high acid-producing rate. Here, we report the main genome features of L. acidophilus MN-BM-F01. PMID:26868391

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus FSI4, Isolated from Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Iartchouk, Oleg; Kozyavkin, Sergei; Karamychev, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    A new Lactobacillus acidophilus strain, FSI4, isolated from yogurt, was isolated and sequenced in our laboratory. Our data, although supportive of previous conclusions regarding the remarkable stability of L. acidophilus species, indicate accumulating mutations in commercial L. acidophilus strains that warrant further study of the effect of damaged genes on the competitiveness of these bacteria in gut microbiota. PMID:25858829

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  13. Mining metagenomic whole genome sequences revealed subdominant but constant Lactobacillus population in the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Maddalena; Martínez-Martínez, Daniel; Amaretti, Alberto; Ulrici, Alessandro; Raimondi, Stefano; Moya, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The genus Lactobacillus includes over 215 species that colonize plants, foods, sewage and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals. In the GIT, Lactobacillus population can be made by true inhabitants or by bacteria occasionally ingested with fermented or spoiled foods, or with probiotics. This study longitudinally surveyed Lactobacillus species and strains in the feces of a healthy subject through whole genome sequencing (WGS) data-mining, in order to identify members of the permanent or transient populations. In three time-points (0, 670 and 700 d), 58 different species were identified, 16 of them being retrieved for the first time in human feces. L. rhamnosus, L. ruminis, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. casei and L. acidophilus were the most represented, with estimated amounts ranging between 6 and 8 Log (cells g(-1) ), while the other were detected at 4 or 5 Log (cells g(-1) ). 86 Lactobacillus strains belonging to 52 species were identified. 43 seemingly occupied the GIT as true residents, since were detected in a time span of almost 2 years in all the three samples or in 2 samples separated by 670 or 700 d. As a whole, a stable community of lactobacilli was disclosed, with wide and understudied biodiversity. PMID:27043715

  14. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  15. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573

    PubMed Central

    Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

  17. Proteomic Approach for Molecular Mechanisms under Ethanol Stress in Lactobacillus buchneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria have potential to serve as microbial catalysts for production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 is a novel strain that belongs to the hetero-fermentative group of lactic acid bacteria. It was isolated from a fuel ethanol p...

  18. Proteomic analyses of ethanol tolerance in Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. This study aimed to identify proteins produced by B-30929 in response to environmental ethanol. Cellular proteins expressed by B-30929 gr...

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum effects on silage fermentation and in vitro microbial yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four alfalfa trials, one corn, and one bmr corn were treated with no inoculant (Control), Lactobacillus plantarum (MTD/1) and formic acid (FA), ensiled in 1-L mini-silos, and fermented for 60 d at room temperature (22 C). Mini-silos were opened and analyzed for fermentation characteristics and solub...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 Isolated from Maasai Fermented Milk

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Brinks, Erik; Fiedler, Gregor; Kabisch, Jan; Koberg, Sabrina; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Neve, Horst; Kang, Youn-Goo; Yun, Doyeon; Kim, Ah-Ram; Narbad, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome of Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk product kule naoto was sequenced, and sequence analysis showed the assembled genome size to be 3,285,094 bp, containing a predicted total of 3,111 protein-encoding genes, 17 rRNAs, and 70 tRNAs. PMID:27257199

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Respiration-Competent Strain Lactobacillus casei N87

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Annamaria; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Ianniello, Rocco G.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is used as a starter, adjunct, and/or probiotic culture in the production of fermented and functional foods. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the respiration-competent strain L. casei N87, isolated from infant feces. This genome information may be useful for the study of respiratory metabolism in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27151805

  2. Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Steele, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the manufacture of cheese and for production of bioactive peptides from milk proteins. We present the complete genome sequence for L. helveticus CNRZ 32, a strain particularly recognized for its ability to reduce bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese. PMID:23969047

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Diverse Lactobacillus Species Present in Advanced Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Roy; Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Our previous analysis of 65 advanced dental caries lesions by traditional culture techniques indicated that lactobacilli were numerous in the advancing front of the progressive lesion. Production of organic acids by lactobacilli is considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. The present study was undertaken to define more precisely the diversity of lactobacilli found in this environment and to quantify the major species and phylotypes relative to total load of lactobacilli by real-time PCR. Pooled DNA was amplified by PCR with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers for subsequent cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons, 18 different phylotypes of lactobacilli were detected, including strong representation of both novel and gastrointestinal phylotypes. Specific PCR primers were designed for nine prominent species, including Lactobacillus gasseri, L. ultunensis, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. crispatus, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and L. gallinarum. More than three different species were identified as being present in most of the dentine samples, confirming the widespread distribution and numerical importance of various Lactobacillus spp. in carious dentine. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed various proportions of the nine species colonizing carious dentine, with higher mean loads of L. gasseri and L. ultunensis than of the other prevalent species. The findings provide a basis for further characterization of the pathogenicity of Lactobacillus spp. in the context of extension of the carious lesion. PMID:15243071

  4. Isolation of histamine-producing Lactobacillus buchneri from Swiss cheese implicated in a food poisoning outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, S S; Speckhard, M W; Somers, E B; Taylor, S L

    1985-01-01

    A histamine-producing strain of Lactobacillus buchneri was isolated from Swiss cheese that had been implicated in an outbreak of histamine poisoning. It produced up to 4,070 nmol of histamine per ml in MRS broth supplemented with 0.1% histidine. The identification of this isolate was based on its biochemical, bacteriological, and DNA characterizations. PMID:4083875

  5. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

  6. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  7. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus reuteri Strain CRL 1098, an Interesting Candidate for Functional Food Development

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Andrea C.; Suárez, Nadia E.; Font, Graciela; Saavedra, Lucila

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus reuteri strain CRL 1098. This strain represents an interesting candidate for functional food development because of its proven probiotic properties. The draft genome sequence is composed of 1,969,471 bp assembled into 45 contigs and an average G+C content of 38.8%. PMID:27563038

  9. Enterococcus and Lactobacillus contamination of raw milk in a farm dairy environment.

    PubMed

    Kagkli, Dafni Maria; Vancanneyt, Marc; Hill, Colin; Vandamme, Peter; Cogan, Timothy M

    2007-03-10

    Enterococci and lactobacilli are ubiquitously found in the intestinal microflora of humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the importance of bovine faeces as a source of these organisms in raw milk. One hundred and fifty six putative enterococci and 362 lactobacilli were isolated from bovine faeces (n=26), cows' teats, raw milk, the milking machine and the milking environment on one farm. The clonal relationships of each group were investigated using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and representatives of the different clusters were identified by repetitive DNA element (rep)-PCR fingerprinting, protein profiling, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) sequence analysis or 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lactobacilli were present at approximately 3 orders of magnitude greater than enterococci in the bovine faeces. The majority of the bovine faecal enterococcal isolates were identified as Aerococcus viridans. Seven teat isolates belonged to a potential novel Aerococcus sp. and one bovine faecal isolate to a potential second novel Aerococcus sp. The lactobacilli present in the bovine faeces were predominantly Lactobacillus mucosae and Lactobacillus brevis, with small numbers of Lactobacillus plantarum. Only one Enterococcus (a strain of E. casseliflavus) out of 76 and one Lactobacillus (a strain of L. parabuchneri/kefir) out of 247 of the bovine faecal isolates was found in the milk. The major source of these bacteria in the milk was the milking equipment. PMID:17189657

  10. Conversion of Biomass Hydrolysates and Other Substrates to Ethanol and Other Chemicals by Lactobacillus buchneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Lactobacillus buchneri strain NRRL B-30929 can convert xylose and glucose into ethanol and chemicals. In this paper, L. buchneri NRRL B-30929 was initially compared with the type strains L. buchneri NRRL 1837 and DSM 5987 for growth and fermentation using single substrate derived from plant mater...

  11. Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

  12. Identification of Lactobacillus UFV H2B20 (probiotic strain) using DNA-DNA hybridization

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, J.T.; Uetanabaro, A.P. T.; de Moraes, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization tests were performed for identification of the species of the probiotic Lactobacillus UFV H2b20 strain. Using these two tests, we concluded that this strain, originally considered Lact. acidophilus, should be classified as Lact. delbrueckii. PMID:24031263

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  14. Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  16. Helicobacter pylori eradication: Sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Efrati, Cesare; Nicolini, Giorgia; Cannaviello, Claudio; O’Sed, Nicole Piazza; Valabrega, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) supplementation, in the eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 90 adult dyspeptic patients. Patients were excluded if previously treated for H. pylori infection or if they were taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), H2-receptor antagonist or antibiotics. Patients were assigned to receive one of the following therapies: (1) 7-d triple therapy (PPI plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole) plus L. reuteri supplementation during antibiotic treatment; (2) 7-d triple therapy plus L. reuteri supplementation after antibiotic treatment; (3) sequential regimen (5-d PPI plus amoxicillin therapy followed by a 5-d PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole) plus L. reuteri supplementation during antibiotic treatment; and (4) sequential regimen plus L. reuteri supplementation after antibiotic treatment. Successful eradication therapy was defined as a negative urea breath test at least 4 wk following treatment. RESULTS: Ninety adult dyspeptic patients were enrolled, and 83 (30 male, 53 female; mean age 57 ± 13 years) completed the study. Nineteen patients were administered a 7-d triple treatment: 11 with L. reuteri supplementation during and 8 after therapy. Sixty-four patients were administered a sequential regimen: 32 with L. reuteri supplementation during and 32 after therapy. The eradication rate was significantly higher in the sequential group compared with the 7-d triple regimen (88% vs 63%, P = 0.01). No difference was found between two types of PPI. No difference in eradication rates was observed between patients submitted to L. reuteri supplementation during or after antibiotic treatment. Compliance with therapy was excellent in all patients. No difference in adverse effects was observed between the different antibiotic treatments and between patients submitted to L. reuteri supplementation during and after

  17. An exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Modur, Sharada; Burgad, Derick; Gilbert, Douglas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; French, Audrey L.; McCotter, Kerrie; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested that glycogen expression in vaginal epithelium decreases at menopause, resulting in reduced levels of lactobacilli. However, free glycogen in genital fluids and its relationship to Lactobacillus levels has not been compared in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods 82 cervico-vaginal lavage samples were collected at different phases of the menstrual cycle from 11 pre-menopausal (4 HIV-uninfected and 7 HIV-infected) and 12 post-menopausal (7 HIV-uninfected and 5 HIV-infected) women over a 1–3 month period. Free glycogen was quantified in genital fluid. Lactobacillus levels were quantified by real time PCR. Estrogen and progesterone levels in blood were determined by ELISA. Results Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Across all samples, those from post-menopausal women had significantly lower levels of free glycogen than those from pre-menopausal women (median 0.002 vs. 0.065 µg/µl, respectively; p = 0.03). Lactobacillus levels correlated positively with free glycogen in both pre- (Spearman r=0.68, p <0.0001) and post-menopausal women (r=0.60, p <0.002). Samples from pre-menopausal women had higher Lactobacillus levels and a lower vaginal pH (median log=8.1; median pH= 4) than those from post-menopausal women (median log=7.1; median pH=4.6) although these differences were not significant. HIV status had no significant effect on these relationships. Conclusion Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women and correlated with Lactobacillus in both groups. These results point to the complexity of the relationship between menopause and vaginal microbiota and indicate that more careful studies of the role played by glycogen are warranted. PMID:25535963

  18. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37℃ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

  19. Importance of Molecular Methods to Determine Whether a Probiotic is the Source of Lactobacillus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli--Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)--that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains. PMID:26915093

  20. Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ≥10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P < 0.05 for E. coli ATCC; t = -6.19, P < 0.05 for E. coli clinical isolates; t = -6.16, P < 0.05 for Enterobacter sp; t = -11.92, P < 0.05 for Salmonella typhi, t = -1.10, P > 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ≥10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity. PMID:25153762

  1. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

  2. Enzymatic fractionation of the antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cumulative effect of peptidase and protease activities associated with cells of Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB) was evaluated on the milk-protein based antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin. Reaction mixtures of casocidin or isracidin...

  3. Characterization of a bovine isolate Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 which produces an exopolysaccharide composed predominantly of mannose residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Identification of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactobacilli as EPS production is potentially a very important trait among probiotic lactobacilli from technological and health promoting perspectives. Methods and Results: Characterization of EPS-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in de...

  4. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693 IN FED-BATCH AND CONTINUOUS CELL-RECYCLE FERMENTATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved fermentation processes were developed for the production of mannitol by a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693). A fed-batch fermentation protocol overcame limitations caused by high substrate concentrations. The process was developed using prima...

  5. Whole Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei N1115, Isolated from Traditional Chinese Fermented Milk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijie; He, Fang; Luo, Yongkang; Kang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Chun; Feng, Lili; Lu, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuling; Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 is a new strain with probiotic properties isolated from traditional homemade dairy products in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. paracasei N1115, which shows high similarity to the well-studied probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and 3 structures turned out to be inversions, according to the colinearity analysis of the BLAST alignment. PMID:24625864

  6. Adhesions of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Xiang, Xinling; Lu, Qianhui; Zhang, Lanwei; Ma, Fang; Wang, Linlin

    2016-02-01

    Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) that envelop Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L cell surfaces are involved in the adherence of these strain to the human intestinal cell line HT-29. To further elucidate some of the properties of these proteins, we assessed the yields and expressions of SLAP under different incubation conditions. An efficient and selective extraction of SLAP was obtained when cells of Lactobacillus were treated with 5 M LiCl at 37°C in aerobic conditions. The SLAP of Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L in cell extracts were visualized by SDS-PAGE and identified by Western blotting with sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin-labeled HT-29 cells as adhesion proteins. Atomic force microscopy contact imaging revealed that Lactobacillus strains M5-L and Q8-L normally display a smooth, homogeneous surface, whereas the surfaces of M5-L and Q8-L treated with 5 M LiCl were rough and more heterogeneous. Analysis of adhesion forces revealed that the initial adhesion forces of 1.41 and 1.28 nN obtained for normal Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L strains, respectively, decreased to 0.70 and 0.48 nN, respectively, following 5 M LiCl treatment. Finally, the dominant 45-kDa protein bands of Lactobacillus Q8-L and Lactobacillus M5-L were identified as elongation factor Tu and surface antigen, respectively, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:26709174

  7. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and bacitracin on layer performance of chickens and cholesterol content of plasma and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, S Y; Hashlamoun, E A; Robinson, R K

    1996-05-01

    1. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus alone or in combination with zinc bacitracin on the performance of laying hens was monitored over a period of 4 months. 2. Lactobacillus acidophilus improved egg production, food conversion and reduced the cholesterol concentration in the eggs, but zinc bacitracin had no effect when administered alone. 3. In combination, bacitracin had an adverse effect on the otherwise beneficial activity of the culture. PMID:8773843

  8. In vitro probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus strains from fermented radish and their anti-adherence activity against enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant. PMID:26382558

  9. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    PubMed

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms. PMID:18524322

  10. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  11. Lactobacillus vespulae sp. nov., isolated from gut of a queen wasp (Vespula vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Si-Kwan; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, oxidase- and catalase-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, DCY75T, was isolated from a queen wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Growth occurred at 4–37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 3.5–8.0 (optimum, pH 5.0–6.0) and with ≤ 7.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain DCY75T produced gas during growth on glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain DCY75T belonged to the genus Lactobacillus and was closely related to Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis ATCC 27651T and Lactobacillus lindneri DSM 20690T at sequence similarities of 96.7 and 96.4 %, respectively. A comparison of two housekeeping genes, pheS and rpoA, revealed that strain DCT75T was well separated from other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Strain DCY75T produced d- and l-lactic acid isomers in a ratio of 22.5 : 77.5 (v/v). The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18 :  1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 0.The peptidoglycan structure was of the A4α (l-Lys–d-Asp) type. Cell-wall sugars were glucose, galactose and ribose. The DNA G+C content was 35.5 ± 1.3 mol%. Based on phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain DCY75T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus vespulae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY75T ( = KCTC 21023T = JCM 19742T). PMID:26297032

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-κB with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-κB and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and > 100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD. PMID:24989059

  13. Administration of probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri K7 during pregnancy and lactation changes mouse mesenteric lymph nodes and mammary gland microbiota.

    PubMed

    Treven, P; Mrak, V; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Horvat, S; Rogelj, I

    2015-04-01

    The milk and mammary gland (MG) microbiome can be influenced by several factors, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, maternal lifestyle, health status, and diet. An increasing number of studies show a variety of positive effects of consumption of probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the mother and the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of probiotics Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (LK7) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during pregnancy and lactation on microbiota of the mouse mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), MG, and milk. Pregnant FVB/N mice were fed skim milk or probiotics LGG or LK7 resuspended in skim milk during gestation and lactation. On d 3 and 8 postpartum, blood, feces, MLN, MG, and milk were analyzed for the presence of LGG or LK7. The effects of probiotics on MLN, MG, and milk microbiota was evaluated by real-time PCR and by 16S ribosomal DNA 454-pyrosequencing. In 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LGG group and in 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LK7 group, more than 1 × 10(3) of live LGG or LK7 bacterial cells were detected, respectively, whereas no viable LGG or LK7 cells were detected in the control group. Live lactic acid bacteria but no LGG or LK7 were detected in blood, MLN, and MG. Both probiotics significantly increased the total bacterial load as assessed by copies of 16S ribosomal DNA in MLN, and a similar trend was observed in MG. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that both probiotics increased the abundance of Firmicutes in MG, especially the abundance of lactic acid bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus appeared exclusively in MG from probiotic groups. Both probiotics influenced MLN microbiota by decreasing diversity (Chao1) and increasing the distribution of species (Shannon index). The LGG probiotic also affected the MG microbiota as it increased diversity and distribution of species and proportions of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. These results provide evidence that

  14. Comparative analysis of the genes encoding 23S-5S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of Lactobacillus casei-related strains.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Lim, C K; Lee, Y K; Chan, Y N

    2000-03-01

    In this study, investigations into the 23S-5S rRNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) of the Lactobacillus casei group were performed. A 1.6 kb fragment, from Lactobacillus paracasei strain ATCC 27092, containing part of the 5S rRNA gene (60 bp), the 5S-23S spacer region (198 bp) and part of the 23S rRNA gene (1295 bp) was cloned and sequenced (GenBank no. AF098107). This fragment was used as a probe to determine the rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of nine strains belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group, along with four other non-Lactobacillus casei lactobacilli species. A pair of PCR primers, 23-Fl and 5-Ru, was designed and used for PCR amplification of the 23S-5S rRNA ISRs of these strains. The ISR length and sequence polymorphisms provided additional information for the taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus casei group. The spacer-length polymorphism of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was distinct from those of the other strains and this observation is consistent with the classification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus proposed by Mori et al. For all Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei strains, two major bands (approx. 250 and 170 bp in size) were obtained except in the case of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans strain NCIMB 9709T, which yielded only one amplified product (250 bp). The sequencing data of the PCR products of seven well-characterized Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei strains revealed the presence of a 76/80 bp insertion/deletion with some random, single-base substitutions between the longer and shorter spacers for each respective strain. A few base variations were also detected within different strains in this group although the overall sequence similarity was very high (95.9-99.5%). The rRNA RFLP and the spacer sequence of Lactobacillus casei type strain ATCC 393T exhibited unique identities in this cluster. On the other hand, Lactobacillus casei strain ATCC 334 showed a high level of similarity

  15. Use of green fluorescent protein to monitor Lactobacillus plantarum in the gastrointestinal tract of goats.

    PubMed

    Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum. PMID:26413069

  16. Purification and characterization of a novel exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus sp. Ca6.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Slima, Sirine Ben; Chaabane, Hela; Riadh, Ben Salah

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of ten lactic acid bacterial strains to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) on MRS broth containing 4% sucrose. A maximum EPS production yield of 2.4 g/l was obtained by strain Lactobacillus sp. Ca6. The results from thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed that the EPS produced was a polymer of glucose. Further FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups corresponding to a typical EPS. In addition to EPS production, Lactobacillus sp. Ca6 displayed good probiotic properties (antimicrobial activities and sensitivity to several antibiotics) and resistance to acidic condition (pH 2) and 5% bile bovine. Overall, the findings indicate that this strain has a number of promising properties that make it a potential promising candidate for future application as a food additive. PMID:25597428

  17. Metabolism of azo dyes by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 and effects of various factors on decolorization.

    PubMed

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Takenaka, Shinji; Kuntiya, Ampin; Klayraung, Srikarnjana; Murakami, Shuichiro; Aoki, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 was isolated from soil of a dairy wastewater treatment plant and selected as the most active azo dye degrader of 19 isolates. Growing cells and freely suspended cells of this strain completely degraded methyl orange, thereby decolorizing the medium. The strain stoichiometrically converted methyl orange to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, which were identified by HPLC, GC, and GC-MS analyses. The enzyme activity responsible for the cleavage of the azo bond of methyl orange was localized to the cytoplasm of cells grown on modified MRS medium containing methyl orange. The effect of sugars, oligosaccharides, organic acids, metal ions, pHs, oxygen and temperatures on methyl orange decolorization by freely suspended cells was investigated. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of methyl orange by the Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 are incubation at 35 degrees C and pH 6 with sucrose provided as the energy source. PMID:17254626

  18. Production and Mode of Action of Lactocin 27: Bacteriocin from a Homofermentative Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, G. C.; Hinsdill, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus strain LP27 produced a bacteriocin, lactocin 27, in dialyzable and nondialyzable forms. No evidence was obtained to indicate that lactocin 27 was under the control of extrachromosomal plasmids. Lactocin 27 had a bacteriostatic effect on the indicator, Lactobacillus helveticus strain LS18. It inhibited primarily protein synthesis without affecting deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis or adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels. Treatment of susceptible cells with the lactocin did not cause leakage of ultraviolet-absorbing material, but caused the efflux of potassium ions and the influx of sodium ions. It adsorbed non-specifically to various bacterial species irrespective of their susceptibility to lactocin 27. However, the presence of specific receptors has not been ruled out. Images PMID:1137365

  19. Use of green fluorescent protein to monitor Lactobacillus plantarum in the gastrointestinal tract of goats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum. PMID:26413069

  20. Functional characteristics of Lactobacillus spp. from traditional Maasai fermented milk products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Kutima, Phillip Museve; Mbugua, Samuel K; Shin, H-K; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-08-15

    In this study functional characteristics of 23 representative Lactobacillus strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk 'Kule naoto' were determined. The Lb. acidophilus group strains showed resistance to gastric juice and bile. In addition, some Lb. acidophilus strains expressed bile salt hydrolase activity, and had ability to assimilate cholesterol in vitro. In-vitro adhesion to HT29 MTX cells of up to 70% was recorded. Lb. fermentum strains showed almost 100% survival under simulated stomach acidic conditions and physiological salt concentrations of bile salts, hydrophobicity values were over 80%. Most strains of the Lb. casei and Lb. acidophilus groups showed aggregation abilities of above 50%. Many strains expressed a protective effect against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced DNA damage according to the 'comet assay' and none was virulent. The antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration of selected strains was established. According to these results, the Lactobacillus spp associated with 'Kule naoto', contain potentially probiotic (functional) strains. PMID:18539351

  1. Cold Shock Induction of the cspL Gene in Lactobacillus plantarum Involves Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Hallet, Bernard; Ferain, Thierry; Delcour, Jean; Hols, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    Fragments of the cspL promoter region were fused to the gusA reporter and reintroduced into Lactobacillus plantarum cells, either on multicopy plasmids or through single-copy chromosomal integration. β-Glucuronidase activity and primer extension data demonstrate that the cspL promoter is induced in response to cold shock and that multicopy constructs quench the induction of the resident cspL gene. PMID:12218042

  2. Characterization of an Inhibitor for Lactobacillus bulgaricus in Tomato Juice1

    PubMed Central

    Cogan, T. M.; Gilliland, S. E.; Speck, M. L.

    1968-01-01

    Tomato juice (serum) added to milk in high concentration caused inhibition of acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The inhibitor was partially purified by adsorption on charcoal. Further isolation and purification involved paper chromatography in two different solvent systems. Ultraviolet-absorption spectra and thin-layer chromatography were used in characterization studies. The inhibitor was found to be a xylose- and adenine-containing nucleotide. PMID:5695537

  3. Assessment of Characteristics and Functional Properties of Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Kimchi for Dairy Use.

    PubMed

    Baick, Seung-Chun; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi and to evaluate its characteristics and functional properties for application in fermented dairy products as a probiotic or commercial starter culture. Eight stains isolated from kimchi were selected through an investigation of phenotypic characteristics. Two strains (DK211 and DK303) were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, another two (DK207 and DK215) as Lactobacillus paracasei, and one (DK301) as Lactobacillus sakei. The remaining three strains were identified as species of Weissella. All selected Lactobacillus strains had acid and bile tolerance, even though there was wide variation in the ability of each strain. DK303 showed a remarkably higher proteolytic activity. There were no significant differences in β-galactosidase activity among the tested strains, except that DK301 showed no activity. Auto-aggregation varied between 82.1 and 90.0%, and hydrophobicity values ranged from 0.5 to 51.6%.The strongest auto-aggregation and hydrophobicity were observed in DK211. All selected strains showed better 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH) scavenging activity than commercial strains. DK211, DK215, DK301, and DK303 had effective inhibitory activity against all pathogens tested except E. coli. When selected strains were used for yogurt preparation as a single starter culture, the time required to reach target titratable acidity (0.9) was 11-12 h. The yogurt fermented with DK211 had favorable panelists ratings for most sensory attributes, which were comparable with yogurt fermented with a commercial strain. The results suggest that strains isolated from kimchi could be potential probiotic and starter cultures for use in yogurt manufacturing. PMID:26761848

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, Isolated from Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Tao, XueYing; Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a novel strain, was isolated from a breast milk sample from a healthy woman and demonstrated several probiotic functions. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which contains 3,192,587 bp, a G+C content of 44.52%, 3,158 protein-coding genes, and 53 tRNA genes. PMID:26659683

  5. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Palva, Airi

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonousLactobacillus brevisstrain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  6. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonous Lactobacillus brevis strain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  7. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ZLR003 isolated from healthy weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongyan; Ji, Haifeng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Sixin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yamin

    2016-06-20

    Lactobacillus reuteri ZLR003 was isolated from the caecum mucosa of healthy weaned pigs with displaying probiotic properties in our laboratory. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of L. reuteri ZLR003, which consists of a circular 2,234,097bp chromosome (G+C content of 38.66%). Such information will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of its probiotic activity and facilitate its application in animal production. PMID:27130498

  8. Physiological Characteristics and Anti-obesity Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 Isolated from Feces

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Seong-A; Kim, Sae-Hun; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with several metabolic and chronic diseases and has become a major public health problem of worldwide concern. This study aimed to investigate the physiological characteristics and anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Q180. Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 was isolated from the faces of healthy adults and found to have a lipase inhibitory activity of 83.61±2.32% and inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (14.63±1.37%) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The strain was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of L. plantarum Q180 was 37℃. Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 showed higher sensitivity to novobiocin in a comparison of fifteen different antibiotics and showed the highest resistance to rifampicin, polymyxin B and vancomycin. The strain showed higher β-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities. It also did not produce carcinogenic enzymes such as β-glucuronidase. The survival rate of L. plantarum Q180 in MRS broth containing 0.3% bile was 97.8%. Moreover, the strain showed a 97.2% survival rate after incubation for 3 h in pH 2.0. Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 was displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with rates of 55.6%, 38.0% and 47.6%, respectively. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum Q180 has potential as a probiotic with anti-obesity effects. PMID:26761499

  9. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    PubMed

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations. PMID

  10. Assessment of Characteristics and Functional Properties of Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Kimchi for Dairy Use

    PubMed Central

    Baick, Seung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi and to evaluate its characteristics and functional properties for application in fermented dairy products as a probiotic or commercial starter culture. Eight stains isolated from kimchi were selected through an investigation of phenotypic characteristics. Two strains (DK211 and DK303) were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, another two (DK207 and DK215) as Lactobacillus paracasei, and one (DK301) as Lactobacillus sakei. The remaining three strains were identified as species of Weissella. All selected Lactobacillus strains had acid and bile tolerance, even though there was wide variation in the ability of each strain. DK303 showed a remarkably higher proteolytic activity. There were no significant differences in β-galactosidase activity among the tested strains, except that DK301 showed no activity. Auto-aggregation varied between 82.1 and 90.0%, and hydrophobicity values ranged from 0.5 to 51.6%.The strongest auto-aggregation and hydrophobicity were observed in DK211. All selected strains showed better 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH) scavenging activity than commercial strains. DK211, DK215, DK301, and DK303 had effective inhibitory activity against all pathogens tested except E. coli. When selected strains were used for yogurt preparation as a single starter culture, the time required to reach target titratable acidity (0.9) was 11-12 h. The yogurt fermented with DK211 had favorable panelists ratings for most sensory attributes, which were comparable with yogurt fermented with a commercial strain. The results suggest that strains isolated from kimchi could be potential probiotic and starter cultures for use in yogurt manufacturing. PMID:26761848

  11. Two 2[5H]-Furanones as Possible Signaling Molecules in Lactobacillus helveticus

    PubMed Central

    Ndagijimana, Maurice; Vallicelli, Melania; Cocconcelli, P. Sandro; Cappa, Fabrizio; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Two 2[5H]-furanones, in association with medium-chain fatty acids, were released in whey by Lactobacillus helveticus exposed to oxidative and heat stresses. This species plays an important role in cheese technology, particularly for Swiss-type cheeses and Grana cheese. Moreover, it significantly contributes to cheese ripening by means of an early autolysis and the release of enzymes during processing. Experimental evidence of the involvement of the two 2[5H]-furanones, detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid-phase microextraction technique, in the autolysis phenomenon has been obtained. Zymograms performed by using renaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were used to detect the bioactivity of the supernatants containing the two furanones on fresh cells of the same strain. In addition to bands corresponding to known autolysins, new autolysins were detected concomitant with the exposure of Lactobacillus helveticus to the supernatants, which can be regarded as conditioned media (CM), and to a commercial furanone, 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2[5H]-furanone (HEMFi), having spectral data similar to those of the newly described 2[5H]-furanones. Morphological changes were observed when fresh cells were exposed to CM containing the two 2[5H]-furanones and HEMFi. The two furanones produced by Lactobacillus helveticus, which met a number of criteria to be included in cell-cell signaling molecules, have a presumptive molecular mass lower than those of already known 3[2H]-furanones having an autolytic activity and being produced by gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, they present a different chemical structure with respect to the furanones already identified as products of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris or to those identified in some cheeses with Lactobacillus helveticus as a starter culture. PMID:16957229

  12. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus casei lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S F; Baek, S J; Pack, M Y

    1991-01-01

    An allosteric L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. The gene was composed of an open reading frame of 981 bp, starting with a GTG codon and ending with a TAA codon. The sequences for the promoter and ribosome binding site were identified, and a sequence for a structure resembling a rho-independent transcription terminator was also found. Images PMID:1768113

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp90 Isolated from Wine

    PubMed Central

    Lamontanara, Antonella; Caggianiello, Graziano; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Michelotti, Vania; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Renckens, Bernadet; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp90, the first sequenced genome of a L. plantarum strain isolated from wine. This strain has a noticeable ropy phenotype and showed potential probiotic properties. The genome consists of 3,324,076 bp (33 contigs) and contains 3,155 protein coding genes, 34 pseudogenes, and 84 RNA genes. PMID:25767234

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Tao, XueYing; Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a novel strain, was isolated from a breast milk sample from a healthy woman and demonstrated several probiotic functions. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which contains 3,192,587 bp, a G+C content of 44.52%, 3,158 protein-coding genes, and 53 tRNA genes. PMID:26659683

  15. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xia, Xiudong; Chen, Xiaohong; Rui, Xin; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-09-10

    Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 is a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), which was isolated from traditional Sayram ropy fermented milk in southern Xinjiang, China. The genome consists of a circular 2,084,058bp chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain includes a 15.20kb gene cluster involved in EPS biosynthesis. Genome sequencing information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the EPS production. PMID:26065338

  16. Identification of the Repressor-Encoding Gene of the Lactobacillus Bacteriophage A2

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; García, Pilar; Bascarán, Victoria; Herrero, Mónica; Alvarez, Miguel A.; Suárez, Juan E.

    1998-01-01

    The repressor gene of the Lactobacillus phage A2 has the following properties: it (i) encodes a 224-residue polypeptide with DNA binding and RecA cleavage motifs, (ii) is expressed in lysogenic cultures, and (iii) confers superinfection immunity on the host. Adjacent, but divergently transcribed, lies another open reading frame whose product resembles the λ Cro protein. In the 161-bp intergenic segment, putative promoters and operators have been detected. PMID:9642205

  17. Reduction of Lactobacillus in the milks of cows with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, J; Kwok, L; Zhang, J; Gao, P; Zheng, Y; Guo, Z; Hou, Q; Huo, D; Huang, W; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis are the most frequent diseases encountered on dairy farms worldwide, which cause significant economic loss and veterinary cost. The mastitic disease status is associated with increases in both milk bacterial pathogens and somatic cell count (SCC). Although it is well established that the mastitic pathogens generally correlate with the milk SCC, to our knowledge, the correlation between the probiotic genus, Lactobacillus, and the mastitic causative bacteria and SCC have not been determined previously. Thus, in this study, milk samples from 12 mild and 28 severe subclinical mastitic dairy cows were collected from the same farm. The overall milk bacterial load was quantified with the total plate count method. The Lactobacillus genus and 4 common clinical and subclinical mastitic pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Trueperella pyogenes) in the sampled milk were enumerated by quantitative PCR. Mild and severe subclinical mastitic samples were distinctly separated on the principal component analysis score plot generated based on the quantities of these 5 target bacteria, suggesting that clear differences existed in the microbiological composition between the two sample groups. Based on comparison with the pairwise Mann-Whitney test, the mild subclinical mastitic dairy cows had a significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli (P=0.0175), but lower E. coli (P=0.0002), S. aureus (P<0.0001), S. agalactiae (P=0.0001) and T. pyogenes (P=0.0044) quantities, while an opposite trend occurred in the severe subclinical mastitic group. The negative correlation between Lactobacillus and the pathogenic bacteria, as well as the SCC, was confirmed with Spearman correlation analysis. Data generated from the current study may hint to a close relationship between Lactobacillus and the health of bovine udder. PMID:25711409

  18. Evaluation of reuterin production in urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Peter; Wind, Anette; Sommer, Philip; Schaefer, Laura; Crowley, Kate; Britton, Robert A; Reid, Gregor

    2008-08-01

    Classified as a distinct species in 1980, Lactobacillus reuteri strains have been used in probiotic formulations for intestinal and urogenital applications. In the former, the primary mechanism of action of L. reuteri SD2112 (ATCC 55730) has been purported to be its ability to produce the antibiotic 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), also known as reuterin. In the vagina, it has been postulated that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 does not require reuterin production but mediates a restoration of the normal microbiota via hydrogen peroxide, biosurfactant, lactic acid production, and immune modulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strain RC-14 produced reuterin. Using PCR and DNA dot blot analyses, numerous Lactobacillus species, including RC-14, were screened for the presence of the gene encoding the large subunit of glycerol dehydratase (gldC), the enzyme responsible for reuterin production. In addition, lactobacilli were grown in glycerol-based media and both high-performance liquid chromatography and a colorimetric assay were used to test for the presence of reuterin. L. reuteri RC-14 was determined to be negative for gldC sequences, as well as for the production of reuterin when cultured in the presence of glycerol. These findings support that the probiotic effects of L. reuteri RC-14, repeatedly demonstrated during numerous studies of the intestine and vagina, are independent of reuterin production. PMID:18539802

  19. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  20. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus administered post-exposure averts the lethal sequelae of respiratory virus infection.

    PubMed

    Percopo, Caroline M; Rice, Tyler A; Brenner, Todd A; Dyer, Kimberly D; Luo, Janice L; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Porcella, Stephen F; Domachowske, Joseph B; Keicher, Jesse D; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2015-09-01

    We reported previously that priming of the respiratory tract with immunobiotic Lactobacillus prior to virus challenge protects mice against subsequent lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). We present here the results of gene microarray which document differential expression of proinflammatory mediators in response to PVM infection alone and those suppressed in response to Lactobacillus plantarum. We also demonstrate for the first time that intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated L. plantarum or Lactobacillus reuteri promotes full survival from PVM infection when administered within 24h after virus challenge. Survival in response to L. plantarum administered after virus challenge is associated with suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, limited virus recovery, and diminished neutrophil recruitment to lung tissue and airways. Utilizing this post-virus challenge protocol, we found that protective responses elicited by L. plantarum at the respiratory tract were distinct from those at the gastrointestinal mucosa, as mice devoid of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, exhibit survival and inflammatory responses that are indistinguishable from those of their wild-type counterparts. Finally, although L. plantarum interacts specifically with pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and NOD2, the respective gene-deleted mice were fully protected against lethal PVM infection by L. plantarum, as are mice devoid of type I interferon receptors. Taken together, L. plantarum is a versatile and flexible agent that is capable of averting the lethal sequelae of severe respiratory infection both prior to and post-virus challenge via complex and potentially redundant mechanisms. PMID:26145728

  1. Safety Assessment of Two New Lactobacillus Strains as Probiotic for Human Using a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Two previously isolated Lactobacillus strains (L. fermentum HM3 from human milk and L. buchneri FD2 from fermented dates), intended as probiotic for human, were assessed for their safety using acute and subacute oral toxicity tests in rats. In addition, their effects on cecal microflora and harmful bacterial enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase) of the tested animals were also determined. The results showed that L. buchneri FD2, L. fermentum HM3, or a mixture of them were safe up to a level of 1010 CFU/kg BW/day in a 14-day or 28-day treatment period. Both strains were well tolerated and there were no observed adverse effects on growth, feed consumption, cellular blood components and vital organs of the treated animals. The Lactobacillus strains were also able to reduce harmful intestinal bacterial enzymes, and decrease pathogenic bacterial populations while increasing beneficial bacterial populations. These results suggest that the two Lactobacillus strains are safe and could be potential probiotic for human. PMID:27467068

  2. Development of a Lactobacillus Specific T-RFLP Method to Determine Lactobacilli Diversity in Complex Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Teasdale, Matt T.; Kaczmarczyk, Melissa M.; Freund, Gregory G.; Miller, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis has been widely used for studying microbial communities. However, most T-RFLP assays use 16S rDNA as the target and are unable to accurately characterize a microbial subpopulation. In this study, we developed a novel T-RFLP protocol based on Lactobacillus hsp60 to rapidly characterize and compare lactobacilli composition. The theoretical terminal restriction fragment (TRF) profiles were calculated from 769 Lactobacillus hsp60 sequences from online databases. In silico digestion with restriction endonucleases AluI and TacI on hsp60 amplicons generated 83 distinct TRF patterns, of which, 70 were species specific. To validate the assay, five previously sequenced lactobacilli were cultured independently, mixed at known concentrations and subjected to analysis by T-RFLP. All five strains generated the predicted TRFs and a qualitative consistent relationship was revealed. We performed the T-RFLP protocol on fecal samples from mice fed 6 different diets (n=4). Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed that the lactobacilli community was strongly connected to dietary supplementation. Our study demonstrates the potential for using Lactobacillus specific T-RFLP to characterize lactobacilli communities in complex samples. PMID:22981747

  3. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Brazilian regional ovine cheese.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Brandelli, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    Twelve Lactobacillus isolates from Brazilian starter-free ovine cheeses were evaluated for their probiotic potential. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lb. brevis (2), Lb. casei (2) and Lb. parabuchneri (1). All strains showed variable resistance to gastric juices and relative tolerance to pancreatin and bile salts. Only five strains of Lb. plantarum could not deconjugate the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid. Autoaggregation ability after 24 h was above 50% and hydrophobicity was higher than 60% for most strains. All lactobacilli could inhibit linolenic acid oxidation, except Lb. parabuchneri strain, whereas none of them could scavenge DPPH radical. β-Galactosidase activity ranged from 47·7 to 2503 Miller units. Inhibition of food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated and the production of organic acids could be associated with this effect. The Lactobacillus strains from Brazilian regional ovine cheese showed interesting functional characteristics, mainly the strains Lb. brevis SM-B and Lb. plantarum SM-I. Both presented high acid tolerance. In addition, Lb. brevis SM-B also displayed remarkable antioxidant activity and Lb. plantarum SM-I was the highest β-galactosidase producer, exhibited high autoaggregation and hydrophobicity properties. PMID:23171587

  4. Lactobacillus crispatus inhibits the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Paola; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Parolin, Carola; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice; Marangoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus species dominate the vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women and protect the genitourinary tract from the attack of several infectious agents. Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide, can induce severe sequelae, i.e. pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In the present study we investigated the interference of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis, known to be dominant species in the vaginal microbiome, with the infection process of C. trachomatis. Lactobacilli exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Chlamydia infectivity mainly through the action of secreted metabolites in a concentration/pH dependent mode. Short contact times were the most effective in the inhibition, suggesting a protective role of lactobacilli in the early steps of Chlamydia infection. The best anti-Chlamydia profile was shown by L. crispatus species. In order to delineate metabolic profiles related to anti-Chlamydia activity, Lactobacillus supernatants were analysed by (1)H-NMR. Production of lactate and acidification of the vaginal environment seemed to be crucial for the activity, in addition to the consumption of the carbonate source represented by glucose. The main conclusion of this study is that high concentrations of L. crispatus inhibit infectivity of C. trachomatis in vitro. PMID:27354249

  5. Orthogonal array deciphering MRS medium requirements for isolated Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY with cell properties characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ng, I-Son; Yao, Chuanyi; Lu, Yinghua

    2014-09-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a well-known lactic acid bacterium (LAB), but a new ZY strain was isolated for the first time from commercial probiotic powder recently. Although many studies have focused on developing cost-effective media for the production of LAB, the de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium is still the most common medium for bioprocesses. The aim of the current study is to decipher the composition of MRS based on a statistical approach, which will allow a higher biomass of Lactobacillus to be obtained. In Taguchi's approach, an L27 orthogonal array was adopted to evaluate the significance of 10 ingredients in MRS, in which the effects of the components were ranked according to their effect on biomass at OD600 as dextrose > MnSO4·H2O > beef extract > CH3COONa > MgSO4 > yeast extract > proteose peptone > K2HPO4 > ammonium citrate > Tween 80. Although the individual trace elements of ammonium citrate, K2HPO4, CH3COONa and MgSO4 in MRS had an insignificant influence on the biomass after statistical analysis, the total elimination of trace elements would predominantly affect the cell growth of Lactobacillus. Further characterization of the cell properties through attenuated total reflectance of Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and protein identification via SDS-PAGE coupled with tandem mass spectrometry implied that dextrose as major carbon source in MRS played the most crucial role for L. rhamnosus production. PMID:24721122

  6. Development of a highly efficient protein-secreting system in recombinant Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Ichikawa, Eiko; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2010-02-01

    The available techniques for heterologous protein secretion in Lactobacillus strains are limited. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient protein-secretion system using recombinant lactobacilli for various applications such as live delivery of biotherapeutics. For the construction of expression vectors, the Lactobacillus brevis slpA promoter, Lactobacillus casei prtP signal sequence, and mouse IL-10 sequences were used as a model system. Interestingly, the slpA promoter exhibited strong activity in L. casei contrary to previous observations. In order to stabilize replication of the plasmid in E. coli, a removable terminator sequence was built into the promoter region. For the improvement of secretion efficiency, a DTNSD oligopeptide was added to the cleavage site of signal peptidase. The resulting plasmids provided remarkably efficient IL-10 secretion. Accumulation of the protein in the culture supernatant varied widely according to the pH conditions. By analysis of the secreted protein, formation of homodimers and biological activity, IL-10 was confirmed to be functional. The presently constructed plasmids could be useful tools for heterologous protein-secretion in L. casei. PMID:20208444

  7. Probiotic Potential and Safety Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak Bryndza Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Belicová, Anna; Mikulášová, Mária; Dušinský, Roman

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest β-galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics. PMID:24093103

  8. A Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Induces a Heme Oxygenase Dependent Increase in Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Khalil; Kandiah, Nalaayini; Chau, Jessie; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of feeding with a Lactobacillus species on the immune environment in GALT, and the role of dendritic cells and heme oxygenase-1 in mediating these responses. Feeding with a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced a significant increase in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ functional regulatory T cells in GALT. This increase was greatest in the mesenteric lymph nodes and associated with a marked decrease in TNF and IFNγ production. Dendritic cell regulatory function and HO-1 expression was also increased. The increase in Foxp3+ T cells could be prevented by treatment with a heme oxygenase inhibitor. However, neither inhibition of heme oxygenase nor blockade of IL-10 and TGFβ prevented the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. In conclusion Lactobacillus feeding induced a tolerogenic environment in GALT. HO-1 was critical to the enhancement of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells while additional, as yet unknown, pathways were involved in the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. PMID:23077634

  9. Alternative antimicrobial compounds to control potential Lactobacillus contamination in bioethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Limayem, Alya; Hanning, Irene B; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Illeghems, Koen; Kim, Jin-Woo; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used to control microbial contaminants in yeast-based bioethanol fermentation. Given the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alternative natural antimicrobials were evaluated against the potential contaminant, Lactobacillus. The effects of nisin, ϵ-polylysine, chitosan (CS) and lysozyme were screened against 5 Lactobacillus strains. A standard broth- microdilution method was used in 96-well plates to assess the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). L. delbrueckii subsp lactis ATCC479 exhibited maximal MICs with CS, ϵ-polylysine and nisin (1.87, 0.3125 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Nisin reduced most Lactobacillus strains by 6 log CFU/mL after 48 hours with the exception of L. casei. Synergism occurred when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added with nisin. An MIC of 0.4 mg/mL of nisin combined with the EDTA at an MIC of 1 mg/ml markedly suppressed L .casei by 6 log CFU/mL. In conclusion, alternative antimicrobials proved to be a potential candidate for controlling bacterial contamination in the fermentation process. Synergistic effect of nisin with EDTA successfully inhibited the nisin-resistant contaminant, L. casei. PMID:21879832

  10. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Sardinian dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

  11. Screening and selection of stress resistant Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-In; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Kwan Young; So, Jae-Seong

    2010-10-01

    We attempted to isolate Lactobacillus spp. from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and select stress resistant strains for development of a future marine aquaculture feed adjuvant. A total of 83 lactobacilli strains were isolated from oyster. They were all Gram-positive, rod-shaped and catalase-negative. By performing a stress resistance assay, we selected eighteen isolates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Lactobacillus paracasei was the most prevalent species among the selected isolates. The in vitro antagonistic effect of the selected strains against fish pathogens was assayed by measurement of inhibition diameters. Except for MH44, MH51, MH53 and MH62, most of the isolates showed inhibition of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus (diameters over 15 mm). Lactobacillus rhamnosus MH22 was selected as the most stress resistant strain showing the MICs of 1.8 M NaCl, 14% ethanol and 0.014% hydrogen peroxide. L. rhamnosus MH22 isolated from oyster has a potential to be applied as a microbial feed adjuvant for marine aquaculture. PMID:20633689

  12. Characterization of the Genome of the Dairy Lactobacillus helveticus Bacteriophage ΦAQ113

    PubMed Central

    Scaltriti, Erika; Rossetti, Lia; Guffanti, Alessandro; Armiento, Angelarita; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Grolli, Stefano; Carminati, Domenico; Brini, Elena; Pavan, Paolo; Felsani, Armando; D'Urzo, Annalisa; Moles, Anna; Claude, Jean-Baptiste; Grandori, Rita; Ramoni, Roberto; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of the dairy Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophage ΦAQ113 was determined. Phage ΦAQ113 is a Myoviridae bacteriophage with an isometric capsid and a contractile tail. The final assembled consensus sequence revealed a linear, circularly permuted, double-stranded DNA genome with a size of 36,566 bp and a G+C content of 37%. Fifty-six open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted, and a putative function was assigned to approximately 90% of them. The ΦAQ113 genome shows functionally related genes clustered together in a genome structure composed of modules for DNA replication/regulation, DNA packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, cell lysis, and lysogeny. The identification of genes involved in the establishment of lysogeny indicates that it may have originated as a temperate phage, even if it was isolated from natural cheese whey starters as a virulent phage, because it is able to propagate in a sensitive host strain. Additionally, we discovered that the ΦAQ113 phage genome is closely related to Lactobacillus gasseri phage KC5a and Lactobacillus johnsonii phage Lj771 genomes. The phylogenetic similarities between L. helveticus phage ΦAQ113 and two phages that belong to gut species confirm a possible common ancestral origin and support the increasing consideration of L. helveticus as a health-promoting organism. PMID:23728811

  13. The impact of prulifloxacin on vaginal lactobacillus microflora: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Furneri, P M; Cianci, A; Incognito, T; Marano, M R; Drago, F

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of a repeated-dose regimen with prulifloxacin in comparison to amoxicillin/clavulanate on vaginal lactobacillus microflora. Thirty healthy female volunteers were treated with prulifloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanate in this open, randomized, parallel-group, repeated-dose study. Vaginal signs and symptoms were assessed at the first doctor's Visit 0 (3 weeks prior to the start of the study), and subsequent examinations (1, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (followup). Some volunteers treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate showed increased pH values and 73.3% of them had lower lactobacillus flora at Visit 3. this reduction was still present in 66.7% 3 days after the last dose and in 26.7% of subjects at the follow-up, about 7 - 13 days after the last dose. The situation was completely normalized at the second follow-up about one month after treatment stop. On the contrary, the repeated administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg tablets affected neither the pH nor the lactobacillus component of the vaginal flora in healthy fertile women. The oral administration of prulifloxacin may have advantages over some other antimicrobial agents because it preserves the normal vaginal microbiota in healthy women. PMID:20071288

  14. Bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis: chemical composition and tissue distribution of four Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Simelyte, E; Rimpiläinen, M; Lehtonen, L; Zhang, X; Toivanen, P

    2000-06-01

    To study what determines the arthritogenicity of bacterial cell walls, cell wall-induced arthritis in the rat was applied, using four strains of Lactobacillus. Three of the strains used proved to induce chronic arthritis in the rat; all were Lactobacillus casei. The cell wall of Lactobacillus fermentum did not induce chronic arthritis. All arthritogenic bacterial cell walls had the same peptidoglycan structure, whereas that of L. fermentum was different. Likewise, all arthritogenic cell walls were resistant to lysozyme degradation, whereas the L. fermentum cell wall was lysozyme sensitive. Muramic acid was observed in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes in considerably larger amounts after injection of an arthritogenic L. casei cell wall than following injection of a nonarthritogenic L. fermentum cell wall. The L. casei cell wall also persisted in the tissues longer than the L. fermentum cell wall. The present results, taken together with those published previously, underline the possibility that the chemical structure of peptidoglycan is important in determining the arthritogenicity of the bacterial cell wall. PMID:10816508

  15. The spxB gene as a target to identify Lactobacillus casei group species in cheese.

    PubMed

    Savo Sardaro, Maria Luisa; Levante, Alessia; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Lazzi, Camilla

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on the spxB gene, which encodes for pyruvate oxidase. The presence of spxB in the genome and its transcription could be a way to produce energy and allow bacterial growth during carbohydrate starvation. In addition, the activity of pyruvate oxidase, which produces hydrogen peroxide, could be a mechanism for interspecies competition. Because this gene seems to provide advantages for the encoding species for adaptation in complex ecosystems, we studied spxB in a large set of cheese isolates belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group. Through this study, we demonstrated that this gene is widely found in the genomes of members of the L. casei group and shows variability useful for taxonomic studies. In particular, the HRM analysis method allowed for a specific discrimination between Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei and L. casei. Regarding the coding region, the spxB functionality in cheese was shown for the first time by real-time PCR, and by exploiting the heterogeneity between the L. casei group species, we identified the bacterial communities encoding the spxB gene in this ecosystem. This study allowed for monitoring of the active bacterial community involved in different stages of ripening by following the POX pathway. PMID:27375244

  16. Safety Assessment of Two New Lactobacillus Strains as Probiotic for Human Using a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Two previously isolated Lactobacillus strains (L. fermentum HM3 from human milk and L. buchneri FD2 from fermented dates), intended as probiotic for human, were assessed for their safety using acute and subacute oral toxicity tests in rats. In addition, their effects on cecal microflora and harmful bacterial enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase) of the tested animals were also determined. The results showed that L. buchneri FD2, L. fermentum HM3, or a mixture of them were safe up to a level of 1010 CFU/kg BW/day in a 14-day or 28-day treatment period. Both strains were well tolerated and there were no observed adverse effects on growth, feed consumption, cellular blood components and vital organs of the treated animals. The Lactobacillus strains were also able to reduce harmful intestinal bacterial enzymes, and decrease pathogenic bacterial populations while increasing beneficial bacterial populations. These results suggest that the two Lactobacillus strains are safe and could be potential probiotic for human. PMID:27467068

  17. Lactobacillus crispatus inhibits the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nardini, Paola; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Parolin, Carola; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice; Marangoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus species dominate the vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women and protect the genitourinary tract from the attack of several infectious agents. Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide, can induce severe sequelae, i.e. pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In the present study we investigated the interference of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis, known to be dominant species in the vaginal microbiome, with the infection process of C. trachomatis. Lactobacilli exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Chlamydia infectivity mainly through the action of secreted metabolites in a concentration/pH dependent mode. Short contact times were the most effective in the inhibition, suggesting a protective role of lactobacilli in the early steps of Chlamydia infection. The best anti-Chlamydia profile was shown by L. crispatus species. In order to delineate metabolic profiles related to anti-Chlamydia activity, Lactobacillus supernatants were analysed by 1H-NMR. Production of lactate and acidification of the vaginal environment seemed to be crucial for the activity, in addition to the consumption of the carbonate source represented by glucose. The main conclusion of this study is that high concentrations of L. crispatus inhibit infectivity of C. trachomatis in vitro. PMID:27354249

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

  19. Lactobacillus buchneri Genotyping on the Basis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Locus Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Alexandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with associated sequences (cas) constitute the CRISPR-Cas immune system, which uptakes DNA from invasive genetic elements as novel “spacers” that provide a genetic record of immunization events. We investigated the potential of CRISPR-based genotyping of Lactobacillus buchneri, a species relevant for commercial silage, bioethanol, and vegetable fermentations. Upon investigating the occurrence and diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems in Lactobacillus buchneri genomes, we observed a ubiquitous occurrence of CRISPR arrays containing a 36-nucleotide (nt) type II-A CRISPR locus adjacent to four cas genes, including the universal cas1 and cas2 genes and the type II signature gene cas9. Comparative analysis of CRISPR spacer content in 26 L. buchneri pickle fermentation isolates associated with spoilage revealed 10 unique locus genotypes that contained between 9 and 29 variable spacers. We observed a set of conserved spacers at the ancestral end, reflecting a common origin, as well as leader-end polymorphisms, reflecting recent divergence. Some of these spacers showed perfect identity with phage sequences, and many spacers showed homology to Lactobacillus plasmid sequences. Following a comparative analysis of sequences immediately flanking protospacers that matched CRISPR spacers, we identified a novel putative protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM), 5′-AAAA-3′. Overall, these findings suggest that type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems are valuable for genotyping of L. buchneri. PMID:24271175

  20. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 μm. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  1. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide. PMID:26627851

  2. Evaluation of anti-Listeria meat borne Lactobacillus for biofilm formation on selected abiotic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pérez Ibarreche, Mariana; Castellano, Patricia; Vignolo, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    The ability of meat borne anti-Listeria Lactobacillus to form biofilms under different in vitro conditions and on abiotic surfaces was investigated. Biofilm formation by the adhesion to polystyrene microtiter plates was determined, this being higher for Lactobacillus curvatus CRL1532 and CRL705 and Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862. The physicochemical properties of the cell surface were relatively hydrophilic and acidic in character; L. sakei CRL1862 exhibiting the strongest autoaggregation. The adhesion of lactobacilli to stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) supports at 10°C was found to be maximal for L. sakei CRL1862 on SS after 6 days. When biofilm architecture was characterized by epifluorescence and SEM, L. sakei CRL1862 homogeneously covered the SS surface while cell clusters were observed on PTFE; the extracellular polymeric substance matrix adapted to the topography and hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics of each material. The feasibility of L. sakei CRL1862 to form biofilm on materials used in meat processing highlights its potential as a control strategy for Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. PMID:23933630

  3. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  4. Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii

    PubMed Central

    Million, M; Maraninchi, M; Henry, M; Armougom, F; Richet, H; Carrieri, P; Valero, R; Raccah, D; Vialettes, B; Raoult, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with increased health risk and has been associated with alterations in bacterial gut microbiota, with mainly a reduction in Bacteroidetes, but few data exist at the genus and species level. It has been reported that the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genus representatives may have a critical role in weight regulation as an anti-obesity effect in experimental models and humans, or as a growth-promoter effect in agriculture depending on the strains. Objectives and methods: To confirm reported gut alterations and test whether Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium species found in the human gut are associated with obesity or lean status, we analyzed the stools of 68 obese and 47 controls targeting Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium animalis and seven species of Lactobacillus by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture on a Lactobacillus-selective medium. Findings: In qPCR, B. animalis (odds ratio (OR)=0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–1.01; P=0.056) and M. smithii (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.59–0.97; P=0.03) were associated with normal weight whereas Lactobacillus reuteri (OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.03–3.10; P=0.04) was associated with obesity. Conclusion: The gut microbiota associated with human obesity is depleted in M. smithii. Some Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus species were associated with normal weight (B. animalis) while others (L. reuteri) were associated with obesity. Therefore, gut microbiota composition at the species level is related to body weight and obesity, which might be of relevance for further studies and the management of obesity. These results must be considered cautiously because it is the first study to date that links specific species of Lactobacillus with obesity in humans. PMID:21829158

  5. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  6. Correlation between body mass index and gut concentrations of Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium animalis, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Million, M; Angelakis, E; Maraninchi, M; Henry, M; Giorgi, R; Valero, R; Vialettes, B; Raoult, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genus and species level analysis is the best way to characterize alterations in the human gut microbiota that are associated with obesity, because the clustering of obese and lean microbiotas increases with the taxonomic depth of the analysis. Bifidobacterium genus members have been associated with a lean status, whereas different Lactobacillus species are associated both with a lean and an obese status. Objectives and methods: We analyzed the fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Methanobrevibacter smithii, the genus Lactobacillus, five other Lactobacillus species previously linked with lean or obese populations, Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium animalis in 263 individuals, including 134 obese, 38 overweight, 76 lean and 15 anorexic subjects to test for the correlation between bacterial concentration and body mass index (BMI). Of these subjects, 137 were used in our previous study. Findings: Firmicutes were found in >98.5%, Bacteroidetes in 67%, M. smithii in 64%, E. coli in 51%, Lactobacillus species between 17 and 25% and B. animalis in 11% of individuals. The fecal concentration of Lactobacillus reuteri was positively correlated with BMI (coefficient=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.58; P=0.02) in agreement with what was reported for Lactobacillus sakei. As reported, B. animalis (coefficient=−0.84; 95% CI −1.61 to −0.07; P=0.03) and M. smithii (coefficient=−0.43, 95% CI −0.90 to 0.05; P=0.08) were negatively associated with the BMI. Unexpectedly, E. coli was found here for the first time to negatively correlate with the BMI (coefficient=−1.05; 95% CI −1.60 to −0.50; P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings confirm the specificity of the obese microbiota and emphasize the correlation between the concentration of certain Lactobacillus species and obesity. PMID:23459324

  7. Expression of Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 collagen-binding protein gene in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 increases its adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Hsiang-Yun; Yueh, Pei-Ying; Yu, Bi; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Je-Ruei

    2010-12-01

    The collagen-binding protein gene cnb was cloned from the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain Pg4. The DNA sequence of the cnb gene (792 bp) has an open reading frame encoding 263 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28.5 kDa. The cnb gene was constructed so as to constitutively express under the control of the Lactococcus lactis lacA promoter and was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, a strain isolated from dairy products with poor ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of the transformed strain Lb. casei pNZ-cnb indicated that Cnb was displayed on its cell surface. Lb. casei pNZ-cnb not only showed a higher ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells but also exhibited a higher competition ability against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to Caco-2 cells than Lb. casei ATCC 393. PMID:21070005

  8. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, Malkanthi; Salewski, Ryan P; Christman, Mary C; Girard, Stephanie-Anne; Tompkins, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use can disrupt the gastrointestinal microbiota resulting in diarrhoea. Probiotics may be beneficial in managing this type of diarrhoea. The aim of this 10-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 supplementation on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults. Subjects were randomised to receive 1 week of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg) once per day, plus a daily dose of 8×109 colony-forming units of a multi-strain probiotic (n 80) or placebo (n 80). The probiotic or placebo intervention was maintained for 1 week after completion of the antibiotic. Primary study outcomes of consistency and frequency of bowel movements were not significantly different between the probiotic and placebo groups. The secondary outcomes of diarrhoea-like defecations, Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores, safety parameters and adverse events were not significantly different between the probiotic intervention and the placebo. A post hoc analysis on the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations showed that probiotic intervention reduced the length of these events by 1 full day (probiotic, 2·70 (sem 0·36) d; placebo, 3·71 (sem 0·36) d; P=0·037; effect size=0·52). In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence that L. helveticus R0052 and L. rhamnosus R0011 supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations in healthy adults receiving antibiotics. PMID:27169634

  9. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  10. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky

  11. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Lin, Pei-Rong; Ng, Chang-Chai; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of β-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and microbial changes during and after treatment. Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. All the strains demonstrated the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells, particularly, strain L. plantarum C06 and L. reuteri F03 showed satisfactory abilities, which were similar to that of the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. The strains L. paracasei F08 and L. acidophilus C11 had the highest β-galactosidase activity. Most of the strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin. All the 5 strains elicited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and -negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) pathogens. Moreover, the strains L. reuteri F03, L. paracasei F08, and L. plantarum C06 could grow rapidly in milk without nutrient supplementation and reached 10⁸ cfu/mL after 24 h of fermentation at 37 °C. The viable cell counts of the 3 strains remained above 10⁷ cfu/mL after 21 d of storage at 4 °C. In the animal feeding trial, the number of intestinal lactobacilli increased significantly after administration of milk fermented with the 3 strains, and the counts of fecal coliforms and Clostridium perfringens were markedly reduced

  12. Potential of selected lactic acid bacteria to produce food compatible antifungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    De Muynck, Cassandra; Leroy, Annelies I J; De Maeseneire, Sofie; Arnaut, Filip; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of lactic acid bacteria to inhibit the outgrowth of some common food-spoiling fungi. Culture supernatants of 17 Lactic acid bacterial strains as well as of three commercial probiotic cultures were evaluated for antifungal activity using an agar-diffusion method. The method parameters were chosen in order to reveal compounds for potential use in food (bio)preservation. Thirteen strains showed antifungal activity of which five strains were very promising: Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 9433, L. amylovorus DSM 20532, L. brevis LMG 6906, L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis LMG 9196 and L. plantarum LMG 6907. Four of these five strains were further examined; it was found that the produced antifungal metabolites were pH-dependent. The exact chemical nature of these substances has not been revealed yet. PMID:15646380

  13. Relative Catalytic Efficiency of ldhL- and ldhD-Encoded Products Is Crucial for Optical Purity of Lactic Acid Produced by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Zhang, Haiwei; Gao, Chao; Su, Fei

    2012-01-01

    NAD-dependent l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases coexist in Lactobacillus genomes and may convert pyruvic acid into l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, respectively. Our findings suggest that the relative catalytic efficiencies of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products are crucial for the optical purity of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus strains. PMID:22344644

  14. Modulation of cytokine gene expression by selected Lactobacillus isolates in the ileum, caecal tonsils and spleen of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Yu, Hai; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Sharif, Shayan; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong; Nie, Shao-Ping; Gong, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization in the chicken intestine. Recently, we demonstrated that certain selected Lactobacillus isolates were able to reduce Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver as well as down-regulated Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 virulence gene expression in the chicken caecum. To further understand the mechanisms through which Lactobacillus protected chickens from Salmonella infection, the present study has investigated the Lactobacillus isolate(s)-induced host immune response of chickens to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. A thorough examination of cytokine gene expression in the ileum, caecal tonsils, and spleen on days 1 and 3 post-Salmonella infection showed a dynamic spatial and temporal response to Salmonella infection and Lactobacillus treatments. In most instances, it was evident that treatment of chickens with Lactobacillus isolates could significantly attenuate Salmonella-induced changes in the gene expression profile. These included the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines [lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8], T helper 1 cytokines [IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ], and T helper 2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Another important observation from the present investigation was that the response induced by a combination of Lactobacillus isolates was generally more effective than that induced by a single Lactobacillus isolate. Our results show that administration of certain selected Lactobacillus isolates can effectively modulate Salmonella-induced cytokine gene expression, and thus help reduce Salmonella infection in chickens. PMID:26395945

  15. Effect of fermented oatmeal soup on the cholesterol level and the Lactobacillus colonization of rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Molin, G; Andersson, R; Ahrné, S; Lönner, C; Marklinder, I; Johansson, M L; Jeppsson, B; Bengmark, S

    1992-04-01

    Rats were fed with freeze-dried oatmeal soup fermented by six different Lactobacillus strains from rat and man; the formula is intended for enteral feeding. The serum cholesterol levels after 10 d were lower for rats eating oatmeal as compared to a commercial product, Biosorb Sond. Colonizing ability of the administered strains were evaluated in vivo. Only Lactobacillus reuteri R21c were able to, effectively, colonizing the mucosa; it represented about 30% of the Lactobacillus population 24 d after termination of the administration. L. reuteri R21c was easily recognized by the ability to produce a yellow pigment on agar plates. The identity was confirmed by carbohydrate fermentations (API 50CH), plasmid pattern and endonuclease restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA. PMID:1519914

  16. Cytokine production in arthritis susceptible and resistant rats: a study with arthritogenic and non-arthritogenic Lactobacillus cell walls.

    PubMed

    Simelyte, E; Isomäki, P; Rimpiläinen, M; Zhang, X; Toivanen, P

    2001-02-01

    The basis of the different susceptibility to bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis between Lewis and Fischer rats is unclear. Likewise, it is not known why cell walls of some species of Lactobacillus are arthritogenic and those of others are not. With these two questions in mind, we investigated the role of anti-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4) and proinflammatory (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1 beta) cytokines in Lewis and Fischer rats injected intraperitoneally with cell walls from arthritogenic or nonarthritogenic species of Lactobacillus. Cytokine levels in the serum and in vitro production by peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes were studied. The results obtained indicate that the differences in the production of IL-10, IL-4, TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta do not explain the difference in the arthritis susceptibility between Lewis and Fischer rats. Likewise, the arthritogenicity of different Lactobacillus cell walls appears not to be dependent on their capacity to stimulate cytokine production. PMID:11169216

  17. Derivation of DNA probes for enumeration of a specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in piglet digestive tract samples.

    PubMed Central

    Rodtong, S; Dobbinson, S; Thode-Andersen, S; McConnell, M A; Tannock, G W

    1993-01-01

    Four DNA probes were derived that hybridized specifically to DNA from Lactobacillus acidophilus O. The probes were constructed by randomly cloning lactobacillus DNA in plasmid vector pBR322. Two of the probes (pSR1 and pSR2) were composed of vector and plasmid DNA inserts (3.6 and 1.6 kb, respectively); the others (pSR3 and pSR4) were composed of vector and chromosomally derived inserts (6.9 and 1.4 kb, respectively). The probes were used to enumerate, by colony hybridization, strain O in digestive tract samples collected from piglets inoculated 24 hours previously with a culture of the strain. The probes did not hybridize to DNA from lactobacilli inhabiting the digestive tract of uninoculated piglets. Strain O made up about 10% of the total lactobacillus population of the pars esophagea and about 20% of the population in other digestive tract samples. Images PMID:8285690

  18. A phase trial of the oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine polarizes Th2 cell immunity against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Hou, Xingyu; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Ma, Guangpeng; Li, Yijing

    2016-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a member of the genus Coronavirus, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. TGEV is an enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes highly fatal acute diarrhoea in newborn pigs. An oral Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus developed in our laboratory was used to study mucosal immune responses. In this L. casei vaccine, repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei (specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT)) were repeated 20 times and the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S) protein was repeated 6 times. Immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus is crucial for investigations of the effect of immunization, such as the first immunization time and dose. The first immunization is more important than the last immunization in the series. The recombinant Lactobacillus elicited specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Recombinant L. casei had a strong potentiating effect on the cellular immunity induced by the oral L. casei vaccine. However, during TGEV infection, the systemic and local immune responses switched from Th1 to Th2-based immune responses. The systemic humoral immune response was stronger than the cellular immune response after TGEV infection. We found that the recombinant Lactobacillus stimulated IL-17 expression in both the systemic and mucosal immune responses against TGEV infection. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus vaccine stimulated an anti-TGEV infection Th17 pathway. The histopathological examination showed tremendous potential for recombinant Lactobacillus to enable rapid and effective treatment for TGEV with an intestinal tropism in piglets. The TGEV immune protection was primarily dependent on mucosal immunity. PMID:27020282

  19. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization method using Peptide Nucleic Acid probes for rapid detection of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella spp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection occurring in women of reproductive age. It is widely accepted that the microbial switch from normal microflora to BV is characterized by a decrease in vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus species together with an increase of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobes. Our goal was to develop and optimize a novel Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence in situ Hybridization assay (PNA FISH) for the detection of Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis in mixed samples. Results Therefore, we evaluated and validated two specific PNA probes by using 36 representative Lactobacillus strains, 22 representative G. vaginalis strains and 27 other taxonomically related or pathogenic bacterial strains commonly found in vaginal samples. The probes were also tested at different concentrations of G. vaginalis and Lactobacillus species in vitro, in the presence of a HeLa cell line. Specificity and sensitivity of the PNA probes were found to be 98.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 87.8 to 99.9%) and 100% (95% CI, from 88.0 to 100.0%), for Lactobacillus spp.; and 100% (95% CI, from 92.8 to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, from 81.5 to 100.0%) for G. vaginalis. Moreover, the probes were evaluated in mixed samples mimicking women with BV or normal vaginal microflora, demonstrating efficiency and applicability of our PNA FISH. Conclusions This quick method accurately detects Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis species in mixed samples, thus enabling efficient evaluation of the two bacterial groups, most frequently encountered in the vagina. PMID:23586331

  20. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    PubMed Central

    Pirotta, Marie; Gunn, Jane; Chondros, Patty; Grover, Sonia; Hurley, Susan; Garland, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group) is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i) oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii) vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo. PMID:15046642

  1. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects. PMID:27435508

  2. Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2001-01-22

    The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host's mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) to degrade mucin in vitro was evaluated, in order to assess their potential pathogenicity and local toxicity. The LAB strains were incubated in medium containing hog gastric mucin (HGM, 0.3%) at 37 degrees C for 48 h, following which any decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentration in the ethanol-precipitated portion of the culture medium was determined, using phenol-sulphuric acid and bicinchonic acid (BCA) protein assays, respectively. The change in molecular weight of mucin glycoproteins, following incubation with the test strains, was monitored by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In order to expose any ability of the test strains to degrade mucin visually and more directly, the test strains were also cultured on agarose containing 0.3% HGM and incubated anaerobically for 72 h at 37 degrees C. No significant change in the carbohydrate or protein concentration in mucin substrates was found following incubation with the test strains. No mucin fragments were derived from the mucin suspension incubated with test strains, and no mucinolysis zone was identified on agarose. These results demonstrate that the potential probiotic LAB strains tested here were unable to degrade gastrointestinal mucin in vitro, which suggests that these novel probiotic candidates are likely to be non-invasive and non-toxic at the mucosal interface. PMID:11205957

  3. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  4. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    PubMed

    Filya, I

    2003-11-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity. PMID:14672188

  5. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE 5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 Promote Cholesterol Excretion Through the Up-Regulation of ABCG5/8 in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hong-Sup; Ju, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Jieun; Park, Hyun-Joon; Ji, Yosep; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Do, Myoung-Sool; Lee, Jung-Min; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    The effect of two putative probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74, on the control of cholesterol efflux in enterocytes was assessed by focusing on the promotion of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Differentiated Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with live bacteria, heat-killed bacteria, a bacterial cell wall fraction, and metabolites and were subjected to cholesterol uptake assay, mRNA analysis, and protein analyses. Following LXR-transfection by incubation with CHO-K1 cells in DNA-lipofectin added media, the luciferase assay was conducted for LXR analysis. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with L. rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from traditional fermented Maasai milk) and L. plantarum NR74 (isolated from Korean kimchi) resulted in the up-regulation of LXR, concomitantly with the elevated expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8. This was associated with the promotion of cholesterol efflux at significantly higher levels compared to the positive control strain L. rhamnosus GG (LGG). The experiment with CHO-K1 cells confirmed up-regulation of LXR-beta by the test strains, and treatment with the live L. rhamnosus BFE5264 and L. plantarum NR74 strains significantly increased cholesterol efflux. Heat-killed cells and cell wall fractions of both LAB strains induced the upregulation of ABCG5/8 through LXR activation. By contrast, LAB metabolites did not show any effect on ABCG5/8 and LXR expression. Data from this study suggest that LAB strains, such as L. rhamnosus BFE5264 and L. plantarum NR74, may promote cholesterol efflux in enterocytes, and thus potentially contribute to the prevention of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:26781680

  7. Effects of lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 on pig growth and pork quality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus plantarum is a plant-associated bacterial species but it has also been found in human, mouse and porcine gastrointestinal tracts. It can ferment a broad spectrum of plant carbohydrates; it is tolerant of bile salts and low pH, and it has antagonistic potential against intestinal pathogens. However, experiments reporting the use of L. plantarum as a probiotic are limited. In this study, the effects of L. plantarum ZJ316 isolated from infant fecal samples on pig growth and pork quality were investigated. Results One hundred and fifty newly weaned pigs were selected randomly and divided into five groups. Group 1 was fed a diet supplemented with the antibiotic mequindox; Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed a diet supplemented with L. plantarum and no antibiotic; and Group 5 was fed a mixture of mequindox and L. plantarum. After a 60 days initial treatment, samples were collected for evaluation. The results showed that, the L. plantarum ZJ316 has probiotic effects on pig growth and that these effects are dose dependent. The effects of a dose of 1 × 109 CFU/d were more pronounced than those of a dose of 5 × 109 CFU/d or 1 × 1010 CFU/d. In Group 2 (1 × 109 CFU/d), the diarrhea (p = 0.000) and mortality rates (p = 0.448) were lower than in antibiotic-treated pigs (Group 1), and the daily weight gain (p = 0.001) and food conversion ratios were better (p = 0.005). Improved pork quality was associated with Lactobacillus treatment. pH (45 min, p = 0.020), hardness (p = 0.000), stickiness (p = 0.044), chewiness (p = 0.000), gumminess (p = 0.000) and restoring force (p = 0.004) were all significantly improved in Lactobacillus-treated pigs (Group 2). Although we found that L. plantarum exerted probiotic effects on pig growth and pork quality, the mechanisms underlying its action require further study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that the gut

  8. Lactobacillus reuteri protects epidermal keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-induced cell death by competitive exclusion.

    PubMed

    Prince, Tessa; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the topical application of probiotic bacteria can improve skin health or combat disease. We have utilized a primary human keratinocyte culture model to investigate whether probiotic bacteria can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection. Evaluation of the candidate probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, Lactobacillus rhamnosus AC413, and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 demonstrated that both L. reuteri and L. rhamnosus, but not L. salivarius, reduced S. aureus-induced keratinocyte cell death in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte survival was significantly higher if the probiotic was applied prior to (P < 0.01) or simultaneously with (P < 0.01) infection with S. aureus but not when added after infection had commenced (P > 0.05). The protective effect of L. reuteri was not dependent on the elaboration of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid. L. reuteri inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion (P = 0.026). L. salivarius UCC118, however, did not inhibit S. aureus from adhering to keratinocytes (P > 0.05) and did not protect keratinocyte viability. S. aureus utilizes the α5β1 integrin to adhere to keratinocytes, and blocking of this integrin resulted in a protective effect similar to that observed with probiotics (P = 0.03). This suggests that the protective mechanism for L. reuteri-mediated protection of keratinocytes was by competitive exclusion of the pathogen from its binding sites on the cells. Our results suggest that use of a topical probiotic prophylactically could inhibit the colonization of skin by S. aureus and thus aid in the prevention of infection. PMID:22582077

  9. Individual strains of Lactobacillus paracasei differentially inhibit human basophil and mouse mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Cassard, Lydie; Lalanne, Ana Inés; Garault, Peggy; Cotillard, Aurélie; Chervaux, Christian; Wels, Michiel; Smokvina, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The microbiota controls a variety of biological functions, including immunity, and alterations of the microbiota in early life are associated with a higher risk of developing allergies later in life. Several probiotic bacteria, and particularly lactic acid bacteria, were described to reduce both the induction of allergic responses and allergic manifestations. Although specific probiotic strains were used in these studies, their protective effects on allergic responses also might be common for all lactobacilli. Methods To determine whether allergic effector cells inhibition is a common feature of lactobacilli or whether it varies among lactobacilli strains, we compared the ability of 40 strains of the same Lactobacillus paracasei species to inhibit IgE‐dependent mouse mast cell and human basophil activation. Results We uncovered a marked heterogeneity in the inhibitory properties of the 40 Lactobacillus strains tested. These segregated into three to four clusters depending on the intensity of inhibition. Some strains inhibited both mouse mast cell and human basophil activation, others strains inhibited only one cell type and another group induced no inhibition of activation for either cell type. Conclusions Individual Lactobacillus strains of the same species differentially inhibit IgE‐dependent activation of mouse mast cells and human basophils, two cell types that are critical in the onset of allergic manifestations. Although we failed to identify specific bacterial genes associated with inhibition by gene‐trait matching analysis, our findings demonstrate the complexity of the interactions between the microbiota and the host. These results suggest that some L. paracasei strains might be more beneficial in allergies than others strains and provide the bases for a rational screening of lactic acid bacteria strains as next‐generation probiotics in the field of allergy. PMID:27621812

  10. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    PubMed

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments. PMID:25744647

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Cell Death by Competitive Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Tessa; McBain, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the topical application of probiotic bacteria can improve skin health or combat disease. We have utilized a primary human keratinocyte culture model to investigate whether probiotic bacteria can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection. Evaluation of the candidate probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, Lactobacillus rhamnosus AC413, and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 demonstrated that both L. reuteri and L. rhamnosus, but not L. salivarius, reduced S. aureus-induced keratinocyte cell death in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte survival was significantly higher if the probiotic was applied prior to (P < 0.01) or simultaneously with (P < 0.01) infection with S. aureus but not when added after infection had commenced (P > 0.05). The protective effect of L. reuteri was not dependent on the elaboration of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid. L. reuteri inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion (P = 0.026). L. salivarius UCC118, however, did not inhibit S. aureus from adhering to keratinocytes (P > 0.05) and did not protect keratinocyte viability. S. aureus utilizes the α5β1 integrin to adhere to keratinocytes, and blocking of this integrin resulted in a protective effect similar to that observed with probiotics (P = 0.03). This suggests that the protective mechanism for L. reuteri-mediated protection of keratinocytes was by competitive exclusion of the pathogen from its binding sites on the cells. Our results suggest that use of a topical probiotic prophylactically could inhibit the colonization of skin by S. aureus and thus aid in the prevention of infection. PMID:22582077

  12. Codominance of Lactobacillus plantarum and obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Giusi; Alfonzo, Antonio; Galluzzo, Paola; Corona, Onofrio; Francesca, Nicola; Caracappa, Santo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen sourdoughs produced in western Sicily (southern Italy) were analysed by classical methods for their chemico-physical characteristics and the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were mostly in the range commonly reported for similar products produced in Italy, but the fermentation quotient (FQ) of the majority of samples was above 4.0, due to the low concentration of acetic acid estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific counts of LAB showed levels higher than 10(8) CFU g(-1) for many samples. The colonies representing various morphologies were isolated and, after the differentiation based on phenotypic characteristics, divided into 10 groups. The most numerous group was composed of facultative heterofermentative isolates, indicating a relevance of this bacterial group during fermentation. The genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCRs identified 33 strains as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus graminis. Due to the consistent presence of L. plantarum, it was concluded that this species codominates with obligate heterofermentative LAB in sourdough production in this geographical area. In order to evaluate the performances at the basis of their fitness, the 29 L. plantarum strains were investigated for several technological traits. Twelve cultures showed good acidifying abilities in vitro and L. plantarum PON100148 produced the highest concentrations of organic acids. Eleven strains were positive for extracellular protease activity. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) production and antifungal activity was scored positive for several strains, included L. plantarum PON100148 which was selected as starter for experimental sourdough production. The characteristics of the sourdoughs and the resulting breads indicated that the best productions were obtained in presence of L

  13. Effect of recombinant lactobacillus expressing canine GM-CSF on immune function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Young; Sung, Eui Jae; Cho, Chun Gyu; Seo, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong-Soo; Bhang, Dong Ha; Lee, Hee Woo; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Wan Kyu; Youn, Hwa Young; Kim, Chul Joong

    2009-11-01

    Many Lactobacillus strains have been promoted as good probiotics for the prevention and treatment of diseases. We engineered recombinant Lactobacillus casei, producing biologically active canine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (cGM-CSF), and investigated its possibility as a good probiotic agent for dogs. Expression of the cGM-CSF protein in the recombinant Lactobacillus was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting methods. For the in vivo study, 18 Beagle puppies of 7 weeks of age were divided into three groups; the control group was fed only on a regular diet and the two treatment groups were fed on a diet supplemented with either 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU)/day of L. casei or L. casei expressing cGM-CSF protein for 7 weeks. Body weight was measured, and fecal and blood samples were collected from the dogs during the experiment for the measurement of hematology, fecal immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG, circulating IgA and IgG, and canine corona virus (CCV)-specific IgG. There were no differences in body weights among the groups, but monocyte counts in hematology and serum IgA were higher in the group receiving L. casei expressing cGMCSF than in the other two groups. After the administration of CCV vaccine, CCV-specific IgG in serum increased more in the group supplemented with L. casei expressing cGM-CSF than the other two groups. This study shows that a dietary L. casei expressing cGM-CSF enhances specific immune functions at both the mucosal and systemic levels in puppies. PMID:19996694

  14. Identification and purification of a protein that induces production of the Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteriocin lactacin B.

    PubMed Central

    Barefoot, S F; Chen, Y R; Hughes, T A; Bodine, A B; Shearer, M Y; Hughes, M D

    1994-01-01

    Lactacin B is a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus N2 that is active against closely related lactobacilli, including Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (formerly Lactobacillus leichmannii) ATCC 4797. Pure producer cultures propagated in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5) contain no lactacin B; it is detected only in cultures maintained at pH 5.0 to 6.0 and produced optimally at pH 6.0 S. F. Barefoot and T. R. Klaenhammer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:328-334, 1984). Associative growth of producer and indicator, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797, resulted in production of an inhibitor identical to lactacin B. Associative growth increased lactacin B production from nondetectable levels (< 100 activity units [AU]/ml) to between 3,200 and 6,400 AU/ml in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5) and resulted in early but equal production of lactacin B (approximately 25,600 AU/ml) in broth maintained at pH 6.0. Indicator cells, but not spent culture filtrates, induced lactacin B production. Indicator cells disrupted by a French pressure cell yielded cell-free filtrates containing inducing activity. Chromatofocusing and gel filtration high-performance liquid chromatography of cell-free filtrates yielded a protein with a pI of 4.1 and a molecular size of approximately 58 kDa that induced lactacin B production. Analytical isoelectric focusing yielded a single protein band. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels contained a 28-kDa protein suggesting a two-subunit structure. Protein sequencing identified an N-terminal serine and 18 additional amino acids. To our knowledge, there are not previous descriptions of proteins that induce bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:7986029

  15. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Methods Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. Results The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the detection rate of two of the 11 Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05) in UC patients. Relative quantitative analysis revealed that eight Lactobacillus species declined significantly in UC patients (P < 0.05), while three Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05). The CCTCC M206110 treatment group had less weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P < 0.05), while the CCTCC M206119 treatment group had greater weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P < 0.05). NCIMB8826 improved weight loss and colon length shortening (P < 0.05) with no significant influence on DAI and histologic damage in the colitis model. Conclusions Administration of an L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 supplement aggravated

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri modulates cytokines production in exhaled breath condensate of children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Brunetti, Luigia; Tesse, Riccardina; Natile, Miria; Armenio, Lucio; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2010-05-01

    We measured the concentration of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in the exhaled breath condensate of children with atopic and nonallergic dermatitis receiving a probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730) or placebo for 8 weeks. We demonstrated that the levels of these cytokines increased and decreased respectively only in atopic subjects receiving active treatment. Our data suggest that the oral administration of a specific probiotic strain in patients with atopic dermatitis can modulate in vivo the cytokine pattern at a different site from intestine. PMID:20639717

  17. Immune Regulatory Effect of Newly Isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii from Indian Traditional Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Jang, Soojin; Chung, Dae Kyun; Kim, Hangeun

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits. Here, we isolated LAB from Indian fermented foods, such as traditional Yogurt and Dosa. LAB from Yogurt most significantly induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, whereas LAB from Dosa induced mild cytokine production. After 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, a Yogurt-borne lactic acid bacterium was identified and classified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and it was renamed L. delbrueckii K552 for the further studies. Our data suggest that the newly isolated L. delbrueckii can be used for the treatment of immune deficiency disorders. PMID:25839333

  18. Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay of folic acid derivatives in 96-well microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Horne, D W; Patterson, D

    1988-11-01

    Microbiological assay is still widely used for estimating folic acid derivatives in serum and other biological samples. We describe here a modification of this procedure involving use of 96-well microtiter plates. This procedure, used with modern, computer-interfaced microtiter-plate readers and data-reduction software, greatly shortens the time and minimizes reagent costs for this assay. Under the conditions of our assay procedures, all folic acid derivatives tested gave equal growth response for Lactobacillus casei. Results for assays of rat liver extracts showed excellent agreement between the standard bioassay and the 96-well procedure. PMID:3141087

  19. Protein Degradation in Wheat Sourdough Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum M616.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanli; Wang, Jinshui; Yang, Sen; Feng, Jingli; Jia, Feng; Zhang, Changfu

    2015-06-01

    Hydrolysis of wheat proteins during sourdough fermentation was determined in the present study. Sourdoughs were characterized with respect to cell counts, pH, TTA, and proteolytic activity as well as the quantity of total proteins and water-soluble proteins. Moreover, composition analysis of total proteins and water-soluble proteins using SDS-PAGE was carried out. Sourdough fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum showed a decrease in pH and increase in TTA during fermentation. Fermentation resulted in hydrolysis and solubilization of wheat proteins. It demonstrated that protein hydrolysis in sourdough was mainly caused by pH-dependent activation of cereal enzymes according to change in proteolytic activity. PMID:26199213

  20. In vitro activity of commercial probiotic Lactobacillus strains against uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Delley, Michèle; Bruttin, Anne; Richard, Michel; Affolter, Michael; Rezzonico, Enea; Brück, Wolfram M

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent infections in humans. In ≥80% of cases, the etiologic agents are strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which commonly reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacilli have been shown to prevent UTI reoccurrence by restoring the urogenital microbiota when administered vaginally or orally. The goal of this study was to determine if commercial probiotic Lactobacillus spp. reduce or clear UPEC in vitro. Results show that it is likely that lactobacilli may, in addition to restoring a healthy urogenital microbiota through acidification of their environment, also displace adhering UPEC and cause a reduction of infection. PMID:26078118

  1. [The effect of PH on the growth of lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutan

    PubMed

    Gu, S P; Liu, Z; Song, P Z

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of pH of culture media on the growth of lactobacillus and streptococcus mutan.METHODS: In this study the growth of two bacteria in differential pH culture media was measured by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: It was found that the growth of the bacteria was equal when the pH of the culture media was 6.2. CONCLUSION: This pH should be selected for the culture media which is used for the analysis of the cariogenicity of the two bacteria. PMID:15071633

  2. Effect of transient acid stress on the proteome of intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Pi, KyungBae

    2010-04-01

    We report the acid tolerance response and changes in the level of protein expression of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to transient (1.5 h) acid stress at pH 3.0. Sixteen acid-responsive proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting including members of five broad functional categories: metabolism, transcription/translation, DNA replication/repair, transport and binding proteins, and pH homeostasis and stress responses. This work can provide some new and relevant information on the inducible mechanisms underlying the capacity of probiotic L. reuteri to tolerate acid stress. PMID:20618135

  3. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T): Insight into its probiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Beiwen; Jiang, Xiawei; Cheng, Hong; Xu, Zemin; Li, Ang; Hu, Xinjun; Xiao, Yonghong

    2015-12-20

    Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T) is a potential probiotic isolated from traditional Chinese pickle. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this strain. The complete genome is 2,790,548bp with the GC content of 37.5% and devoid of plasmids. Sets of genes involved in the biosynthesis of riboflavin and folate were identified in the genome, which revealed its potential application in biotechnological industry. The genome sequence of L. heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T) now provides the fundamental information for future studies. PMID:26432337

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506, an Immunomodulatory Strain Isolated from Goat Milk.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Lucila; Hebert, Elvira María; Albarracin, Leonardo; Salva, Susana; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506, a probiotic strain with immunomodulatory properties isolated from goat milk. The reads generated by a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) strategy on an Illumina MiSeq sequencer were assembled into contigs with a total size of 3,228,096 bp. The draft genome sequence of L. plantarum CRL1506 will be useful for further studies of specific genetic features of this strain and for understanding the mechanisms of its immunobiotic properties. PMID:26966208

  5. Lactobacillus Sepsis and Probiotic Therapy in Newborns: Two New Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Coviello C, Caterina; Corsini I, Iuri; Arena, Fabio; Antonelli, Alberto; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-03-01

    Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause-effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG can cause sepsis in high-risk patients on rare occasions. PMID:26929865

  6. Physical and genetic characterization of the genome of Lactobacillus lactis bacteriophage LL-H.

    PubMed Central

    Trautwetter, A; Ritzenthaler, P; Alatossava, T; Mata-Gilsinger, M

    1986-01-01

    Bacteriophage LL-H is a virulent phage of Lactobacillus lactis LL23. A restriction map of the phage genome was constructed with various restriction endonucleases. This chromosome has a 34-kilobase size and seems to be circularly permuted. We used a bank of LL-H restriction fragments to study the expression of five of the seven main phage particle proteins. Immunoblotting experiments permitted the mapping on the chromosome of several genes coding for phage particle proteins. We also show that the gene of the main capsid protein is expressed from its own promoter in an Escherichia coli strain. PMID:3016319

  7. Prebiotic Effects of Agave salmiana Fructans in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Cultures.

    PubMed

    Castro-Zavala, Adriana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan R; Alcocer-Gouyonnet, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Agave salmiana is a fructan rich species that is widely distributed in Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to extract the fructans of A. salmiana and evaluate their prebiotic effect in 48 hours in vitro cultures of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and to compare this effect with other available fructan sources. A significant difference in pH, optical density and biomass was found in the cultures depending on the source of fructans and the type of bacteria. It was possible to determine a dose-response effect of the A. salmiana fructans and the growth of the studied strains. PMID:26749843

  8. Extraction of serum vitamin B12 for radio-isotopic and Lactobacillus leichmannii assay.

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J L; Robson, M B

    1975-01-01

    The protein precipitates discarded during the extraction process of the Lactobacillus leichmannii vitamin B12 assay have been shown to contain significant amounts of vitamin B12. This loss of vitamin B12 provide a satisfactory explanation for many of the descrepancies between the serum vitamin B12 values obtained by the L. leichmannii method and the radio-isotopic method of Raven et al (1969). It is possible to produce lower results by the method of Raven et al (1969)by incorporating into that method the L. leichmannii extraction process; it is also possible to produce higher results by the L. leichmannii method using a papain extraction process. Images PMID:1150894

  9. Lactobacillus Sepsis and Probiotic Therapy in Newborns: Two New Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Carlo; Coviello C, Caterina; Corsini I, Iuri; Arena, Fabio; Antonelli, Alberto; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause–effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG can cause sepsis in high-risk patients on rare occasions. PMID:26929865

  10. Effect of amino acid availability on vitamin B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Santos, Filipe; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe; van Heck, Maurice; Wels, Michiel; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional genomics and genome-scale modeling approaches indicated that B(12) production in Lactobacillus reuteri could be improved by optimization of the medium. Here we show that a series of systematic single-amino-acid omissions could significantly modulate the production of B(12) from nearly undetectable levels (with omission of isoleucine) to levels 20-fold higher than the levels previously reported (with omission of cysteine). Using cDNA microarray experiments, we analyzed the transcriptional response of L. reuteri to medium lacking cysteine. The results supported the observed high level of B(12) production and provided new avenues for future improvement of production of vitamin B(12). PMID:19376900

  11. PCR screening and sequence analysis of iol clusters in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Sun, Z; Sun, T; Zhang, H

    2010-11-01

    The iol cluster (consisting of genes involved in myo-inositol utilization) was investigated in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss. Ten strains were tested for the presence of iol cluster by PCR screening; three strains encoded this cluster. Full-sequencing procedure was conducted; the iol cluster was identical to that of L. casei BL23 (GenBank access. no. FM177140) except for an upstream transposase. The iol cluster is not a common feature for L. casei strains isolated from koumiss. PMID:21253906

  12. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CAUH18, a potential probiotic strain originated from koumiss.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; An, Haoran; Zhai, Zhengyuan; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jiaxi; Hao, Yanling

    2016-04-20

    Here we report the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CAUH18, a new strain isolated from traditional fermented dairy product koumiss. Its genome has a circular 2.16Mb chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain harbors a gene cluster involved in a novel exopolysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis and a gene encoding cell-surface aggregation-promoting factors (APFs) to facilitate its colonization in gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This genome sequence provides a basis for further studies about its molecular genetics and probiotic functions. PMID:26953745

  13. Identification of Lactobacillus brevis using a species-specific AFLP-derived marker.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Quero, Grazia Marina; Chieffi, Daniele; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-09-01

    A simple and specific method for the rapid detection and identification of Lactobacillus brevis was developed. A fAFLP (Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) marker for L. brevis was used to design oligonucleotide primers for a species-specific PCR assay, targeting a 125bp fragment of the gene encoding the aldo/keto reductase of the diketogulonate-reductase family of L. brevis. This assay resulted in 100% inclusivity and exclusivity of assignment of strains to the species L. brevis. The analytical specificity of this assay was successfully tested to identify L. brevis isolates from sourdoughs. PMID:27289191

  14. The growth of Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in Sorbarod biofilms.

    PubMed

    Muli, F W; Struthers, J K

    1998-05-01

    Sorbarod biofilms were investigated for their suitability in establishing continuous culture biofilms for the study of bacterial vaginosis. Two important organisms in the condition, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, were studied. In contrast to growth in broth culture, both organisms were maintained for at least 96 h in a steady state on the biofilms. With G. vaginalis, the haemolytic activity was consistently maintained in the biofilms in contrast to short-term activity in broth culture which matched the bacterial titre. The simple Sorbarod system appears to be suitable for studying the growth conditions of bacteria in continuous culture and has potential for investigating interactions between micro-organisms. PMID:9879940

  15. Isolation and characteristics of a skatole-producing Lactobacillus sp. from the bovine rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, M T; Carlson, J R; Holdeman, L V

    1977-01-01

    A bacterium that is capable of decarboxylating indoleacetic acid to skatole (3-methylindole) has been isolated from an L-tryptophan enrichment of bovine rumen fluid. The bacterium is a gram-positive, nonmotile, nonsporeforming rod. It is an obligate anaerobe, and strains predominatly produce D-(-)-lactic acid, with smaller amounts of L-(+)-lactic acid and acetic acid, from sugar. All four strains isolated gave a negative reaction to the indole test because they cannot form skatole directly from tryptophan. This is the first report of indoleacetic acid decarboxylation to skatole in pure culture and the demonstration of skatole production by a Lactobacillus species. Images PMID:563703

  16. Detection and Identification of Lactobacillus Species in Crops of Broilers of Different Ages by Using PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Le Luo; Hagen, Karen E.; Tannock, Gerald W.; Korver, Doug R.; Fasenko, Gaylene M.; Allison, Gwen E.

    2003-01-01

    The microflora of the crop was investigated throughout the broiler production period (0 to 42 days) using PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and selective bacteriological culture of lactobacilli followed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The birds were raised under conditions similar to those used in commercial broiler production. Lactobacilli predominated and attained populations of 108 to 109 CFU per gram of crop contents. Many of the lactobacilli present in the crop (61.9% of isolates) belonged to species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and could not be differentiated by PCR-DGGE. A rapid and simple ARDRA method was developed to distinguish between the members of the L. acidophilus group. HaeIII-ARDRA was used for preliminary identification of isolates in the L. acidophilus group and to identify Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius. MseI-ARDRA generated unique patterns for all species of the L. acidophilus group, identifying Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gallinarum among crop isolates. The results of our study provide comprehensive knowledge of the Lactobacillus microflora in the crops of birds of different ages using nucleic acid-based methods of detection and identification based on current taxonomic criteria. PMID:14602636

  17. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces. PMID:21204871

  18. Characterization of tetracycline resistance lactobacilli isolated from swine intestines at western area of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Tsai, Chen-Yen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Yu-Chih; Wang, I-Kuan; Chung, Tung-Ching

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the frequency of tetracycline resistance (Tet-R) lactobacilli in pig intestines, a total of 256 pig colons were analyzed and found to contain typical colonies of Tet-R lactic acid bacteria in every sample, ranging from 3.2 × 10(3) to 6.6 × 10(5) CFU/cm(2). From these samples, a total of 159 isolates of Tet-R lactobacilli were obtained and identified as belonging to 11 species, including Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus ruminis, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus letivazi. Based on the EFSA (2008) breakpoints, all isolates, after MIC analysis, were qualified as Tet-R, from which the significant high Tet-R MIC(50) and MIC(90) values indicated an ecological distribution of Tet-R lactobacilli mostly with high resistance potency in pig colons. PCR-detection identified 5 tet genes in these isolates, the most predominant one being tet (W), followed by tet (M), (L), (K), and (Q). Their detection rates were 82.0%, 22.5%, 14.4%, 8.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Noteworthily, isolates of the same species carrying identical tet gene(s) usually had a wide different MIC values. Furthermore, strain-subtyping of these isolates by REP-PCR demonstrated a notable genotypic biodiversity % (average = 62%). PMID:21906691

  19. Reutericyclin producing Lactobacillus reuteri modulates development of fecal microbiota in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Le, Minh H A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is used as probiotic culture in food and feed applications; however, strain specific properties of L. reuteri that mediate probiotic activity remain unknown. This study aimed to determine effects of feed fermentation with exopolysaccharide and reutericyclin producing L. reuteri on the transition of the gut microbiome of piglets after weaning. The reutericyclin and reuteran producing L. reuteri TMW1.656 was compared to the reutericyclin negative and levan producing L. reuteri LTH5794 and unfermented controls. Both strains were fermented at conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation, or at conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Fecal microbiota were characterized by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and by quantitative PCR targeting clostridial toxins. The transition to solid food resulted in a transient increase of Proteobacteria to 12% of total bacteria, and increased bacterial diversity by increasing the abundance of anaerobic fiber fermenting Firmicutes. Three weeks after weaning, Prevotella and Lactobacillus were among the dominant bacterial genera. Feed fermentation with L. reuteri affected the abundance of few bacterial taxa and particularly reduced the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05) when compared to unfermented controls. Reutericyclin producing L. reuteri increased the abundance of Dialister spp. and Mitsuokella spp. (P < 0.05) but did not influence the abundance of clostridial toxins in the feces. In conclusion, data on the contribution of specific metabolic activities of L. reuteri to probiotic activity will facilitate the strain selection for probiotic applications in food and feed. PMID:26284047

  20. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Weng, Wei-Lien; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Hsien; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of specific probiotics on alleviating obesity-related disorders. Here we aimed to identify probiotics with potential antiobesity activity among 88 lactic acid bacterial strains via in vitro screening assays, and a Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 was found to harbor abilities required for hydrolyzing bile salt, reducing cholesterol, and inhibiting the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, effects of K21 on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were examined. Male C57Bl/6J mice received a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with K21 administration (109 CFU in 0.2 mL PBS/day) for eight weeks. Supplementation of K21, but not placebo, appeared to alleviate body weight gain and epididymal fat mass accumulation, reduce plasma leptin levels, decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and mitigate liver damage in DIO mice. Moreover, the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) related to adipogenesis was significantly downregulated in DIO mice by K21 intervention. We also found that K21 supplementation strengthens intestinal permeability and modulates the amount of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium perfringens in the cecal contents of DIO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that dietary intake of K21 protects against the onset of HFD-induced obesity through multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:25802537

  1. Growth Characteristics, Bile Sensitivity, and Freeze Damage in Colonial Variants of Lactobacillus acidophilus†

    PubMed Central

    Klaenhammer, T. R.; Kleeman, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Rough (R) and smooth (S) colonial variants were isolated from a heterogeneous culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus RL8K. R and S types were stable upon repeated transfer on agar, but revertant colonies did appear after broth transfers. When propagated in commercial MRS broth, R and S cultures showed similar growth characteristics, and both cell types were insensitive to freezing and frozen storage at −20°C. Alternatively, during growth in scratch MRS broth, R cultures shifted to a reduced rate of growth during the late logarithmic phase. R cells grown under these conditions were susceptible to death by freezing and injury at −20°C. Microscopically, R cells were observed as long gram-positive rods with small nonstainable blebs protruding from the cell wall. In bile sensitivity studies of R and S cells plated on MRS agar plus oxgall, the S culture was resistant to 1% bile, whereas the R culture was sensitive to 0.6% bile. Differences in the bile resistance and freeze damage of R and S cells suggest that colonial and cellular morphologies are important considerations for the selection of Lactobacillus strains as dietary adjuncts and for the development of growth conditions for preparing frozen concentrated cultures from either cell type. Images PMID:16345799

  2. Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S; Britton, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution. PMID:22750793

  3. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  4. Effect of probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshibumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukuda, Minoru; Kawakami, Hayato; Takahashi, Hidemi; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    The effects of nine probiotic strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on the growth, adhesion activity, and biofilm formation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were examined. The culture supernatant of the E. faecium strain, with or without pH adjustment to a neutral pH, had a strong bactericidal effect on EAggEC, including induction of membrane damage and cell lysis. Supernatants of the L. casei ss. casei and L. casei ss. rhamnosus strains also had a bactericidal effect on EAggEC, but this activity was abolished by pH adjustment to a neutral pH. No inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants of Bifidobacterium or E. faecalis strains was detected. Adhesion of EAggEC to intestinal epithelial cells was not inhibited by the bacterial strains tested. Two strains of L. casei enhanced EAggEC biofilm formation, which was characterized by increased bacterial proliferation. These results suggest that the three different bacterial species; Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, have different effects on EAggEC, and that further analysis is required for the practical use of these bacteria as probiotics against EAggEC infection. PMID:20054601

  5. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.

    PubMed

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  6. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hirofumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Fujishiro, Midori; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Kamata, Hideaki; Asahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuto; Chonan, Osamu; Iwashita, Misaki; Nishimura, Fusanori; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2013-12-01

    Gut microbiota alterations are associated with various disorders. In this study, gut microbiota changes were investigated in a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model, and the effects of administering Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on the development of NASH were also investigated. Mice were divided into three groups, given the normal chow diet (NCD), MCD diet, or the MCD diet plus daily oral administration of LcS for 6 wk. Gut microbiota analyses for the three groups revealed that lactic acid bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in feces were markedly reduced by the MCD diet. Interestingly, oral administration of LcS to MCD diet-fed mice increased not only the L. casei subgroup but also other lactic acid bacteria. Subsequently, NASH development was evaluated based on hepatic histochemical findings, serum parameters, and various mRNA and/or protein expression levels. LcS intervention markedly suppressed MCD-diet-induced NASH development, with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide concentrations, suppression of inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, and reduced colon inflammation. Therefore, reduced populations of lactic acid bacteria in the colon may be involved in the pathogenesis of MCD diet-induced NASH, suggesting normalization of gut microbiota to be effective for treating NASH. PMID:24113768

  7. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) (EC 3.4.21.26), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in the future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients. PMID:24752841

  8. Lactobacillus reuteri glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase functions in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Hai-Feng; Gao, Kan; Wang, Cong; Liu, Li; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2015-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify key surface proteins mediating the adhesion of lactobacilli to intestinal epithelial cells. By using Caco-2 and IPEC-J2 cells labeled with sulfo-NHS-biotin in the western blotting, a protein band of an approximately 37 kDa was detected on the surface layer of Lactobacillus reuteri strains ZJ616, ZJ617, ZJ621, and ZJ623 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Mass spectrometry analysis using the adhesion-related protein from L. reuteri ZJ617 showed that it was 100% homologous to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of L. reuteri JCM 1112 (GenBank: YP_001841377). The ability of L. reuteri ZJ617 to adhere to epithelial cells decreased significantly by treatment with LiCl or by blocking with an anti-GAPDH antibody, in comparison with the untreated strain (p < 0.05). Immunoelectron microscopic and immunofluorescence analyses confirmed that GAPDH is located on the surface layer of L. reuteri ZJ617. The results indicated that the GAPDH protein of L. reuteri ZJ617 acts as an adhesion component that plays an important role in binding to the intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:25867279

  9. Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23

    PubMed Central

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D. Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria PMID:21178363

  10. Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers often display resistance toward tetracycline antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cauwerts, K; Pasmans, F; Devriese, L A; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus, L. reuteri, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum, and L. salivarius subsp. salivarius strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline and minocycline. Acquired resistance percentages to these antibiotics were extremely high for L. crispatus, L. reuteri, L. gallinarum, and L. salivarius subsp. salivarius (75%-100%). L. amylovorus on the contrary, displayed lower resistance percentages (25%) toward minocycline and tetracycline. In several strains, resistance against the tetracycline antibiotics was associated with the presence of the resistance genes tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(W), and tet(Z). To our knowledge, this is the first report of tet(Z) in lactobacilli and tet(K), tet(L), and tet(W) in lactobacilli identified to species level. Our findings strengthen the evidence of intestinal Lactobacillus species acting as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes urging the need for prudent use of tetracycline antibiotics in poultry production. PMID:17227215

  11. Viability and growth characteristics of Lactobacillus in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-02-01

    Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli. PMID:19961357

  12. Isolation and characterization of a novel virulent phage (phiLdb) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohua; Kong, Jian; Gao, Chen; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoyong

    2010-01-31

    A new virulent phage (phiLdb) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was isolated from a Chinese yogurt sample showing slow acidification. It belonged to the Siphoviridae family with an icosahedral capsid of 47.7+/-0.9 nm in diameter and a long tail of 129.8+/-2 nm. The genome of phage phiLdb was estimated to be approximately 41kbp, and did not contain cohesive ends. One-step growth kinetics of its lytic development revealed latent and burst periods of 45 min and 75 min, respectively, with a burst size of 56+/-2 phage particles per infected cell. Phage phiLdb was highly specific for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The presence of calcium or magnesium ions was necessary to accelerate cell lysis and improve plaque formation. Phage phiLdb was able to survive in a pH range between 2 and 10, and resist ethanol and isopropanol. However, a treatment of 90 degrees C for 40 min was observed to inactive phage phiLdb thoroughly. Calcium ions, pH as well as temperature did not show significant influence on phage adsorption, and the adsorption kinetics were similar on viable and nonviable cells. The characterization of this novel phage was helpful to establish a basis for adopting the most effective phage control strategies in industrial plants. PMID:19923031

  13. Application of Lactobacillus johnsonii expressing phage endolysin for control of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, T; Lo Curto, R; Minniti, E; Narbad, A; Mayer, M J

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens is frequently found in food and the environment and produces potent toxins that have a negative impact on both human and animal health and particularly on the poultry industry. Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785, isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract, has been demonstrated to exclude Cl. perfringens in poultry. We have investigated the interaction of wild-type Lact. johnsonii FI9785 or an engineered strain expressing a cell wall-hydrolysing endolysin with Cl. perfringens in vitro, using a batch culture designed to simulate human gastrointestinal tract conditions. Co-culture experiments indicated that acid production by Lact. johnsonii is important in pathogen control. The co-culture of the endolysin-secreting Lact. johnsonii with Cl. perfringens showed that the engineered strain had the potential to control the pathogen, but the ability to reduce Cl. perfringens numbers was not consistent. Results obtained indicate that survival of high numbers of Lact. johnsonii will be essential for effective pathogen control. Significance and impact of the study: The bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785 reduces numbers of the pathogen Clostridium perfringens in vitro. Biocontrol was improved by engineering the strain to produce and export a cell wall-hydrolysing endolysin, but good survival of the producer strain is essential. The production of bacteriophage endolysins by commensal bacteria has the potential to improve competitive exclusion of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24961379

  14. [Revised classification of native probiotic strains of Lactobacillus used in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Botina, S G; Klimina, K M; Koroban, N V; Amerkhanova, A M; Zinchenko, V V; Danilenko, V N

    2010-11-01

    Thirteen strains of industrial bacterial cultures of the genus Lactobacillus (from a collection of Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology) were studied. These strains were used for decades in Russian Federation for food and drug production, as ferments for lactic acid products, for production of probiotics, biologically active and veterinary preparations. Complex analysis of data on cultures obtained using microbiological and molecular-genetic methods was conducted for the first time. Biochemical characteristics of these cultures were studied and the sequence of the proximal region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was determined. The employment of the test system API-50CHL was shown to broaden the opportunities of a more accurate biochemical identification of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, in comparison with the set ANAEROTEST-23. According to the results obtained in a comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene, all strains examined show 97-99% homology of the proximal region of this gene with that of the type representatives of studied species. These data allowed taxonomic reclassification of the species position of cultures with consideration of the more advanced level of systematics. Nucleotide sequences of gene fragments of examined lactobacilli strains were recorded in NCBI database (accession numbers of deposits GU560031, GU560032, GU560033, GU560034, GU560035, GU560036, GU560037, GU560038, GU560039, GU560040, GU560041, GU560042, GU560043). PMID:21261060

  15. Plantaricin LD1: a bacteriocin produced by food isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Plantaricin LD1, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LD1, was characterized for biochemical and antimicrobial properties. Bacteriocin showed stability at high temperatures (100 °C for 20 min and 121 °C for 15 min under 15 psi pressure), in a pH range of 2.0-8.0 and also in the presence of organic solvents, surfactants and detergents. The crude preparation was not affected by catalase, amylase and lipase but activity was reduced in the presence of pepsin, trypsin and proteinase K showing proteinaceous nature of the compound. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was found to be ∼6.5 kDa, and antimicrobial activity was confirmed by bioassay. It inhibited not only related strains but also other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus curvatus NRRL B-4562, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NRRL B-1821, Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354, Enterobacter cloacae NRRL B-14298, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, urogenic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio sp. These properties of plantaricin LD1 suggest its applications not only in food safety but in therapeutics as well. PMID:24522411

  16. Lactobacillus sakei lipoteichoic acid inhibits MMP-1 induced by UVA in normal dermal fibroblasts of human.

    PubMed

    You, Ga-Eun; Jung, Bong-Jun; Kim, Hye-Rim; Kim, Han-Geun; Kim, Tae-Rahk; Chung, Dae-Kyun

    2013-10-28

    Human skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging. UVA increases the activity of MMP-1 in dermal fibroblasts through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, signaling. The irradiation of keratinocytes by UVA results in the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the stimulation of MMP-1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of the cell wall of gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. of bacteria. LTA is well known as an anti-inflammation molecule. LTA of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum has an anti-photoaging effect, but the potential anti-photoaging effect of the other bacteria has not been examined to date. The current study showed that L. sakei LTA (sLTA) has an immune modulating effect in human monocyte cells. Our object was whether inhibitory effects of sLTA on MMP-1 are caused from reducing the MAPK signal in NHDFs. It inhibits MMP-1 and MAPK signaling induced by UVA in NHDFs. We also confirmed effects of sLTA suppressing TNF-α inducing MMP-1 in NHDFs. PMID:23851272

  17. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  18. High-resolution structures of Lactobacillus salivarius transketolase in the presence and absence of thiamine pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Lukacik, Petra; Lobley, Carina M C; Bumann, Mario; Arena de Souza, Victoria; Owens, Raymond J; O'Toole, Paul W; Walsh, Martin A

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic bacterial strains have been shown to enhance the health of the host through a range of mechanisms including colonization, resistance against pathogens, secretion of antimicrobial compounds and modulation of the activity of the innate immune system. Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 is a well characterized probiotic strain which survives intestinal transit and has many desirable host-interaction properties. Probiotic bacteria display a wide range of catabolic activities, which determine their competitiveness in vivo. Some lactobacilli are heterofermentative and can metabolize pentoses, using a pathway in which transketolase and transaldolase are key enzymes. L. salivarius UCC118 is capable of pentose utilization because it encodes the key enzymes on a megaplasmid. The crystal structures of the megaplasmid-encoded transketolase with and without the enzyme cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate have been determined. Comparisons with other known transketolase structures reveal a high degree of structural conservation in both the catalytic site and the overall conformation. This work extends structural knowledge of the transketolases to the industrially and commercially important Lactobacillus genus. PMID:26457526

  19. Lactobacillus protects the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier damaged by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qinghua; Yuan, Lixia; Deng, Jun; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens invade intestinal mucosal barrier through phagocytosis of antigen presenting cells (dendritic cell, microfold cells), or through the invasion into the intestinal epithelial directly. Some pathogens could damage the cell junction between epithelial cells and use the paracellular pathway as an entrance to invade. Moreover, some Lactobacillus could inhibit the adhesion of the pathogens and protect the integrity of the cell junction and mucosal barrier. This research focused on the potential therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus fructosus (L. fructosus) C2 to attenuate ETEC K88 or S. typhimurium SL1344 induced changes to mucosal barrier. The results demonstrated that treatment of polarized Caco-2 cells with L. fructosus C2 reduced the permeation of dextran, and expression of IL-8, p-ERK, and p-JNK when cells were infected with pathogenic bacteria. The findings indicated that L. fructosus C2 exerted a protective effect against the damage to the integrity of Caco-2 cells by ETEC or S. typhimurium infection. PMID:25859435

  20. Construction of a food-grade cell surface display system for Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Kong, Jian; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction. PMID:24598012

  1. Bioconversion of kitchen garbage to lactic acid by two wild strains of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Hongzhi; Ren, Nanqi

    2005-01-01

    To enhance lactic acid (LA) production from kitchen garbage, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastics production, the application of high-performance lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as inocula was investigated. Two wild strains of Lactobacillus species, designated as TH165 and TD175, were isolated and screened from kitchen garbage. Strain TH165 was capable of hydrolyzing starch to produce LA; 49.5% of starch was broken down in fermentation medium containing 8.52 g/L of soluble starch, and 4.01 g/L of LA was produced after 24 h fermentation at 37 degrees C without pH control. Strain TD175 could produce 16.06 g/L of LA, 66.9% higher than that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ACCC11058 in fermentation medium containing 2.0% glucose at 30 degrees C without pH control. Furthermore, coinoculation of strains TH165 and TD175 enhanced the LA production, resulting in 33.80 g/L of LA concentration and 0.46 g/g (DW) of LA yield from nonautoclaved kitchen garbage after 72 h fermentation with pH maintained at 5.5-6.0, values 36.9% higher than those of the fermentation without inoculum (control). This study shows that enhancement of LA production from kitchen garbage can be realized by using high-performance LAB. This recycling system is conducive to clear away pollutants and to reduce cost of LA production. PMID:16194915

  2. Activity and Stability of Biofilm Uricase of Lactobacillus plantarum for Uric Acid Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswantini, Dyah; Rachmatia, Rescy; Diana, Novita Rose; Nurhidayat, Novik; Akhiruddin; Saprudin, Deden

    2016-01-01

    Research of uric acid biosensor used a Lactobacillus plantarum was successfully conducted. Lactobacillus plantarum could produce uricase that could be used as uric acid biosensor. Therefore, lifetime of bacteria were quite short that caused the bacteria could not detect uric acid for a long time. To avoid this problem, development of biofilm for uric acid biosensor is important. Biofilms is a structured community of bacterial cells, stick together and are able to maintain a bacteria in an extreme environments. The purpose of present study was to determine and compare the activity of uricase produced by L. plantarum, deposited whithin biofilm and planktonic bacteria on glassy carbon electrode (GCEb & GCE), also to determine the stability of biofilm. The optimization process was conducted by using temperature, pH, and substrate concentration as the parameters. It showed that the activity of uricase within biofilm was able to increase the oxidation current. GCEb and GCE yielded the oxidation current in the amount of 47.24 μA and 23.04 μA, respectively, under the same condition. Results indicated that the optimum condition for uric acid biosensor using biofilm were pH 10, temperature of 40 oC, and uric acid concentration of 5 mM. The stability of GCEb decreased after 10 hours used, with decreasing percentage over 86.33%. This low stability probably caused by the unprotected active site of the enzyme that the enzyme is easier to experience the denaturation.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Lactobacillus plantarum DB200.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Siragusa, Sonya; Campanella, Daniela; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the relative abundance of extracellular and cell wall associated proteins (exoproteome), cytoplasmic proteins (proteome), and related phenotypic traits of Lactobacillus plantarum grown under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Lactobacillus plantarum DB200 was preliminarily selected due to its ability to form biofilms and to adhere to Caco2 cells. As shown by fluorescence microscope analysis, biofilm cells became longer and autoaggregated at higher levels than planktonic cells. The molar ratio between glucose consumed and lactate synthesised was markedly decreased under biofilm compared to planktonic conditions. DIGE analysis showed a differential exoproteome (115 protein spots) and proteome (44) between planktonic and biofilm L. plantarum DB200 cells. Proteins up- or downregulated by at least twofold (p < 0.05) were found to belong mainly to the following functional categories: cell wall and catabolic process, cell cycle and adhesion, transport, glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, exopolysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolisms, fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, purine and nucleotide metabolism, stress response, oxidation/reduction process, and energy metabolism. Many of the above proteins showed moonlighting behavior. In accordance with the high expression levels of stress proteins (e.g., DnaK, GroEL, ClpP, GroES, and catalase), biofilm cells demonstrated enhanced survival under conditions of environmental stress. PMID:25728239

  4. High-resolution structures of Lactobacillus salivarius transketolase in the presence and absence of thiamine pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lukacik, Petra; Lobley, Carina M. C.; Bumann, Mario; Arena de Souza, Victoria; Owens, Raymond J.; O’Toole, Paul W.; Walsh, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic bacterial strains have been shown to enhance the health of the host through a range of mechanisms including colonization, resistance against pathogens, secretion of antimicrobial compounds and modulation of the activity of the innate immune system. Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 is a well characterized probiotic strain which survives intestinal transit and has many desirable host-interaction properties. Probiotic bacteria display a wide range of catabolic activities, which determine their competitiveness in vivo. Some lactobacilli are heterofermentative and can metabolize pentoses, using a pathway in which transketolase and transaldolase are key enzymes. L. salivarius UCC118 is capable of pentose utilization because it encodes the key enzymes on a megaplasmid. The crystal structures of the megaplasmid-encoded transketolase with and without the enzyme cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate have been determined. Comparisons with other known transketolase structures reveal a high degree of structural conservation in both the catalytic site and the overall conformation. This work extends structural knowledge of the transketolases to the industrially and commercially important Lactobacillus genus. PMID:26457526

  5. Properties of Lactobacillus reuteri chitosan-calcium-alginate encapsulation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Yi-Ju; King, V An-Erl; Chou, Jen-Wei; Tsen, Jen-Horng

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri and the retention of the bacterium's probiotic properties under simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Viable counts and the remaining probiotic properties of calcium (Ca)-alginate encapsulated (A group), chitosan-Ca-alginate encapsulated (CA group), and unencapsulated, free L. reuteri (F group) were determined. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. reuteri subjected to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, with the greatest protective effect achieved in the CA group. The degree of cell membrane injury increased with increasing bile salt concentrations at constant pH, but the extent of injury was less in the encapsulated than in the free cells. Adherence rates were, in descending order: CA (0.524%)>A (0.360%)>F (0.275%). Lactobacillus reuteri cells retained their antagonistic activity toward Listeria monocytogenes even after incubation of the lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Displacement of the pathogen by cells released from either of the encapsulation matrices was higher than that by free cells. The safety of L. reuteri was demonstrated in an in vitro invasion assay. PMID:26415668

  6. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  7. The effect of temperature on L-lactic acid production and metabolite distribution of Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hao; Gong, Sai-Sai; Ge, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the growth and L-lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei G-03 was investigated in a 7-L bioreactor. It was found that the maximum specific growth rate (0.27 hr⁻¹) and L-lactic acid concentration (160.2 g L⁻¹) were obtained at a temperature of 41°C. Meanwhile, the maximum L-lactic acid yield, productivity, and dry cell weight were up to 94.1%, 4.44 g L⁻¹ hr⁻¹, and 4.30 g L⁻¹, respectively. At lower or higher temperature, the Lactobacillus casei G-03 showed lower acid production and biomass. Moreover, the main metabolite distribution of strain G-03 response to variations in temperatures was studied. The results suggested that temperature has a remarkable effect on metabolite distribution, and the maximum carbon flux toward lactic acid at the pyruvate node was obtained at 41°C, which had the minimum carbon flux toward acetic acid. PMID:23030467

  8. 454 pyrosequencing reveals changes in the faecal microbiota of adults consuming Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Zhuang; Sun, Zhihong; Gesudu, Qimu; Kwok, Laiyu; Menghebilige; Zhang, Heping

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics are believed to help to maintain a healthy balance of the human gut microbiota. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) is a novel potential probiotic isolated from the naturally fermented food koumiss. To better understand the impact of this potential probiotic on human intestinal microbiota, 24 subjects were randomly recruited for a longitudinal study: the subjects were required to consume LcZ for 28 days, and faecal samples were collected prior to, during and after the LcZ consumption phase. Alterations in the gut microbiota were monitored using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction(q-PCR) technologies. We found that the consumption of LcZ significantly altered the composition of intestinal microbiota (P < 0.001) and the gut microbiota diversity. Further analysis at the genus level revealed a positive correlation between LcZ and Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Propionibacterium, Bifidobacterium and an unidentified genus from Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae and a negative correlation between LcZ administration and the presence of Clostridium, Phascolarctobacterium, Serratia, Enterococcus, Shigella and Shewanella. Furthermore, these changes were confirmed by q-PCR data. PMID:24702028

  9. Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Results Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. Conclusions These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process. PMID:24044741

  10. Functional analysis of the p40 and p75 proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria. PMID:21178363

  11. Reutericyclin producing Lactobacillus reuteri modulates development of fecal microbiota in weanling pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Le, Minh H. A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is used as probiotic culture in food and feed applications; however, strain specific properties of L. reuteri that mediate probiotic activity remain unknown. This study aimed to determine effects of feed fermentation with exopolysaccharide and reutericyclin producing L. reuteri on the transition of the gut microbiome of piglets after weaning. The reutericyclin and reuteran producing L. reuteri TMW1.656 was compared to the reutericyclin negative and levan producing L. reuteri LTH5794 and unfermented controls. Both strains were fermented at conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation, or at conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Fecal microbiota were characterized by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and by quantitative PCR targeting clostridial toxins. The transition to solid food resulted in a transient increase of Proteobacteria to 12% of total bacteria, and increased bacterial diversity by increasing the abundance of anaerobic fiber fermenting Firmicutes. Three weeks after weaning, Prevotella and Lactobacillus were among the dominant bacterial genera. Feed fermentation with L. reuteri affected the abundance of few bacterial taxa and particularly reduced the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05) when compared to unfermented controls. Reutericyclin producing L. reuteri increased the abundance of Dialister spp. and Mitsuokella spp. (P < 0.05) but did not influence the abundance of clostridial toxins in the feces. In conclusion, data on the contribution of specific metabolic activities of L. reuteri to probiotic activity will facilitate the strain selection for probiotic applications in food and feed. PMID:26284047

  12. A Lactobacillus mutant capable of accumulating long-chain polyphosphates that enhance intestinal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Asako; Ishida, Yasuaki; Segawa, Shuichi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) was previously identified as a probiotic-derived substance that enhances intestinal barrier function. PolyP-accumulating bacteria are expected to have beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we selected Lactobacillus paracasei JCM 1163 as a strain with the potential to accumulate polyP, because among the probiotic bacteria stored in our laboratory, it had the largest amount of polyP. The chain length of polyP accumulated in L. paracasei JCM 1163 was approximately 700 phosphate (Pi) residues. L. paracasei JCM 1163 accumulated polyP when Pi was added to Pi-starved cells. We further improved the ability of L. paracasei JCM 1163 to accumulate polyP by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutant accumulated polyP at a level of 1500 nmol/mg protein-approximately 190 times that of the wild-type strain. PolyP extracted from the L. paracasei JCM 1163 significantly suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in mouse small intestine. In conclusion, we have succeeded in breeding the polyP-accumulating Lactobacillus mutant that is expected to enhance intestinal barrier function. PMID:26966939

  13. Study and use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chengli; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Liu, Hong; Qiao, Shiyan

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that provide a wide variety of health benefits to the host when ingested in adequate amounts. The bacterial strains most frequently used as probiotic agents are lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, which is one of the few endogenous Lactobacillus species found in the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans, rats, pigs and chickens. L. reuteri is one of the most well documented probiotic species and has been widely utilized as a probiotic in humans and animals for many years. Initially, L. reuteri was used in humans to reduce the incidence and the severity of diarrhea, prevent colic and necrotic enterocolitis, and maintain a functional mucosal barrier. As interest in alternatives to in-feed antibiotics has grown in recent years, some evidence has emerged that probiotics may promote growth, improve the efficiency of feed utilization, prevent diarrhea, and regulate the immune system in pigs. In this review, the characteristics of L. reuteri are described, in order to update the evidence on the efficacy of using L. reuteri in pigs. PMID:25954504

  14. Assessment of potentially probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens.

    PubMed

    Kizerwetter-Świda, M; Binek, M

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to isolate lactobacilli from chicken droppings and to select strains with the most promising probiotic properties. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from a flock of healthy laying hens. The first selection criterion was the ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. Then the tolerance to low pH and bile salt, the ability to coaggregate with pathogenic bacteria and hydrogen peroxide production were evaluated. Four isolates showing the best antagonistic activity against Salmonella Enetritidis were selected for further research. All isolates tested tolerated low pH and bile salt, likewise all produced hydrogen peroxide. They efficiently coaggregated with C. perfringens and relatively less with E. coli. Isolate 03'04 displayed above-average results in all criteria, thus it is considered as a potential probiotic for chickens, and will be further evaluated for health promoting effect in animals. The results presented in this study confirm the strain specific probiotic properties and prove the probiotic potential of isolate 03'04. Strong antagonistic properties against C. perfringens exhibited by certain Lactobacillus strains indicate the possibility to use them as a component of probiotic supplement in necrotic enteritis of poultry. PMID:27096783

  15. Comparative proteome cataloging of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and Lc705.

    PubMed

    Savijoki, Kirsi; Lietzén, Niina; Kankainen, Matti; Alatossava, Tapani; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A

    2011-08-01

    The present study reports an in-depth proteome analysis of two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, the well-known probiotic strain GG and the dairy strain Lc705. We used GeLC-MS/MS, in which proteins are separated using 1-DE and identified using nanoLC-MS/MS, to generate high-quality protein catalogs. To maximize the number of identifications, all data sets were searched against the target databases using two search engines, Mascot and Paragon. As a result, over 1600 high-confidence protein identifications, covering nearly 60% of the predicted proteomes, were obtained from each strain. This approach enabled identification of more than 40% of all predicted surfome proteins, including a high number of lipoproteins, integral membrane proteins, peptidoglycan associated proteins, and proteins predicted to be released into the extracellular environment. A comparison of both data sets revealed the expression of more than 90 proteins in GG and 150 in Lc705, which lack evolutionary counterparts in the other strain. Differences were noted in proteins with a likely role in biofilm formation, phage-related functions, reshaping the bacterial cell wall, and immunomodulation. The present study provides the most comprehensive catalog of the Lactobacillus proteins to date and holds great promise for the discovery of novel probiotic effector molecules. PMID:21615180

  16. The inhibitory effect of a Lactobacillus acidophilus derived biosurfactant on biofilm producer Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhfard, Maliheh; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Shahandashti, Roya Vahedi; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Teimourian, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Serratia marcescens is one of the nosocomial pathogen with the ability to form biofilm which is an important feature in the pathogenesis of S. marcescens. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-adhesive properties of a biosurfactant isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, on S. marcescens strains. Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was selected as a probiotic strain for biosurfactant production. Anti-adhesive activities was determined by pre-coating and co- incubating methods in 96-well culture plates. Results: The FTIR analysis of derived biosurfactant revealed the composition as protein component. Due to the release of such biosurfactants, L. acidophilus was able to interfere with the adhesion and biofilm formation of the S. marcescens strains. In co-incubation method, this biosurfactant in 2.5 mg/ml concentration showed anti-adhesive activity against all tested strains of S. marcescens (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results show that the anti-adhesive properties of L. acidophilus biosurfactant has the potential to be used against microorganisms responsible for infections in the urinary, vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as skin, making it a suitable alternative to conventional antibiotics. PMID:26730335

  17. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus maintained oxidative stress from reproductive organs in collagen-induced arthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXTS: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced organ damage is a well-known fact. Previous studies suggest that Lactobacillus scavenge the free radicals from liver and kidney and also protect animals from arthritis. AIMS: Comparing protective properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus in reducing oxidative stress from reproductive organs developed during collagen-induced arthritis in animal model. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in Wistar rats. Oral administration of L. acidophilus, indomethacin, and distilled water were all started on the same day. Arthritis scores were calculated for each group. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in testis and ovary homogenates. Histopathology of ovary and testis was also performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: L. acidophilus decreased arthritis score (P < 0.001) as well as maintained normal histology of reproductive organs. L. acidophilus maintained oxidative stress parameters from ovaries and testis (P < 0.001). These results provide strong evidence that NSAIDs increase oxidative stress in reproductive organs while L. acidophilus not only scavenges free radicals from reproductive organs but also protects rats from arthritis symptoms. PMID:27110077

  19. Impact of kefir derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the mucosal immune response and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Carasi, P; Racedo, S M; Jacquot, C; Romanin, D E; Serradell, M A; Urdaci, M C

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the impact of probiotics on host health could help to understand how they can be used in the prevention of diseases. On the basis of our previous studies and in vitro assays on PBMC and Caco-2 ccl20:luc reporter system presented in this work, the strain Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected and administrated to healthy Swiss mice daily for 21 days. The probiotic treatment increased IgA in feces and reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators in Peyer Patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, where it also increased IL-10. In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-1β genes were downregulated. Moreover, ileum and colon explants showed the anti-inflammatory effect of L. kefiri since the LPS-induced increment of IL-6 and GM-CSF levels in control mice was significantly attenuated in L. kefiri treated mice. Regarding fecal microbiota, DGGE profiles allowed differentiation of experimental groups in two separated clusters. Quantitative PCR analysis of different bacterial groups revealed only significant changes in Lactobacillus population. In conclusion, L. kefiri is a good candidate to be used in gut inflammatory disorders. PMID:25811034

  20. Safety issues of Lactobacillus bulgaricus with respect to human gelatinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, Iva; Meurman, Jukka H; Kari, Kirsti; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Baltadjieva, Maria

    2007-10-01

    In oral medicine and dentistry probiotics have shown promising results in controlling dental diseases and yeast infections. This study was made to investigate the effect of eight strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and their effects on human matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The hypothesis was that these bacteria used in yoghurt production for centuries are not proteolytic and thus can be safely used in the development of probiotic preparations. Bacterial cell fractions and supernatant specimens were prepared and studied with gelatinase zymography and MMP-9 activation was assessed by immunoblotting. The effect of synthetic MMP inhibitors and a serine protease inhibitor (Pefabloc) on bacterial proteinases was studied with zymography. The results showed very low gelatinolytic activity. There was a slight difference between the supernatant and cell fractions so that the supernatant specimens produced weak gelatinolytic bands in zymography while hardly anything was seen in the cell fraction series. The tested synthetic MMP inhibitors and Pefabloc did not affect the proteolytic activity of the lactobacilli strains. The lactobacilli did not seem to induce the conversion of proMMP-9 to its active form. Consequently, our study hypothesis was confirmed and the studied Lactobacillus strains are not likely to degrade host tissue components. PMID:17854478