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1

Characterization of Lactobacillus coryniformis DSM 20001T Surface Protein Cpf Mediating Coaggregation with and Aggregation among Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic characterization of aggregation phenotypes of Lactobacillus coryniformis revealed that strain DSM 20001 T coaggregated with Escherichia coli K88, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni but not with other human pathogens. In addition, cells of these pathogens aggregated in the presence of the spent culture supernatant (SCS) of strain DSM 20001 T. Cells of E. coli K88 remained viable in the

Martina Schachtsiek; Walter P. Hammes; Christian Hertel

2004-01-01

2

Higher thermostability of l-lactate dehydrogenases is a key factor in decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from Lactobacillus coryniformis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus coryniformis is known to produce d-lactic acid as a dominant fermentation product at a cultivation temperature of approximately 30°C. However, the considerable production of l-lactic acid is observed when the fermentation temperature is greater than 40°C. Because optically pure lactates are synthesized from pyruvate by the catalysis of chiral-specific d- or l-lactate dehydrogenase, the higher thermostability of l-LDHs is assumed to be one of the key factors decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from L. coryniformis at high temperature. To verify this hypothesis, two types of d-ldh genes and six types of l-ldh genes based on the genomic information of L. coryniformis were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the LDHs tested, five LDHs showed activity and were used to construct polyclonal antibodies. d-LDH1, l-LDH2, and l-LDH3 were found to be expressed in L. coryniformis by Western blotting analysis. The half-life values (t1/2) of the LDHs at 40°C were estimated to be 10.50, 41.76, and 2311min, and the T50(10) values were 39.50, 39.90, and 58.60°C, respectively. In addition, the Tm values were 36.0, 41.0, and 62.4°C, respectively, which indicates that l-LDH has greater thermostability than d-LDH. The higher thermostability of l-LDHs compared with that of d-LDH1 may be a major reason why the enantiopurity of d-lactic acid is decreased at high fermentation temperatures. The key enzymes characterized will suggest a direction for the design of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to produce optically pure d-lactic acid. PMID:24731822

Gu, Sol-A; Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Seil; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

2014-05-10

3

Description of Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage, and Lactobacillus backii sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, designated IWT246(T) and IWT248, were isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage from Iwate prefecture, Japan, and examined for a taxonomic study. Both organisms were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and homofermentative. The cell wall did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18?:?1?9c and C19 cyclo 9,10/:1. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences revealed that these strains were novel and belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the isolates were most closely related to the type strains of the following members of the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis (96.7?% similarity), L. coryniformis subsp. torquens (96.6?%), L. bifermentans (95.5?%) and L. rennini (94.1?%). However, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of both IWT246(T) and IWT248 were 99.7?% similar to that of 'Lactobacillus backi' JCM 18665; this name has not been validly published. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that these novel strains occupy a unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated genotypic separation of the novel isolates from related Lactobacillus species. The name Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates, with strain IWT246(T) (?=?JCM 18838(T)?=?DSM 26942(T)) as the type strain. Our results also suggest that 'L. backi' does represent a novel Lactobacillus species. The cells did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19 cyclo 9,10/:1 and summed feature 10 (one or more of C18?:?1?11c, C18?:?1?9t, C18?:?1?6t and unknown ECL 17.834). We therefore propose the corrected name Lactobacillus backii sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 18665(T) (?=?LMG 23555(T)?=?DSM 18080(T)?=?L1062(T)). PMID:23687059

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-10-01

4

A case study on stress preconditioning of a Lactobacillus strain prior to freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying of bacterial cells with retained viability and activity after storage requires appropriate formulation, i.e. mixing of physiologically adapted cell populations with suitable protective agents, and control of the freeze-drying process. Product manufacturing may alter the clinical effects of probiotics and it is essential to identify and understand possible factor co-dependencies during manufacturing. The physical solid-state behavior of the formulation and the freeze-drying parameters are critical for bacterial survival and thus process optimization is important, independent of strain. However, the maximum yield achievable is also strain-specific and strain survival is governed by e.g. medium, cell type, physiological state, excipients used, and process. The use of preferred compatible solutes for cross-protection of Lactobacilli during industrial manufacturing may be a natural step to introduce robustness, but knowledge is lacking on how compatible solutes, such as betaine, influence formulation properties and cell survival. This study characterized betaine formulations, with and without sucrose, and tested these with the model lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3. Betaine alone did not act as a lyo-protectant and thus betaine import prior to freeze-drying should be avoided. Differences in protective agents were analyzed by calorimetry, which proved to be a suitable tool for evaluating the characteristics of the freeze-dried end products. PMID:22266474

Bergenholtz, Åsa Schoug; Wessman, Per; Wuttke, Anne; Håkansson, Sebastian

2012-06-01

5

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

6

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

7

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.  

PubMed

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) (?=?DSM 26257(T)?=?CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) (?=?DSM 26254(T)?=?CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) (?=?DSM 26255(T)?=?CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) (?=?DSM 26256(T)?=?CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) (?=?DSM 26263(T)?=?CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) (?=?DSM 26265(T)?=?CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) (?=?DSM 26262(T)?=?CCUG 63631(T)). PMID:24944337

Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-09-01

8

Relatedness of Heterofermentative Lactobacillus Species Revealed by Numerical Analysis of Total Soluble Cell Protein Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatedness among strains of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacil- lus confusus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus kandleri, and Lactobacillus viridescens was determined by computer- ized comparison of total soluble cell protein patterns. Two related subgroups of L. buchneri were obtained: the first comprised a tight cluster of strains ATCC 11579 and ATCC

L. M. T. DICKS; H. J. J. VAN VUUREN

9

Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus  

PubMed Central

Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

2011-01-01

10

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

2013-01-01

11

Original article Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

Original article Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M stimulate TNF, IL-6) from Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW- 9595M have been pre- pared from bacterial cultures, isolated exopolysaccharides du Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M. Différence entre les réponses de cellules de sang

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Weissella confusa (Basonym: Lactobacillus confusus) Bacteremia: a Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Lactobacillus is rare, and only a handful of species have been identified as being clinically significant: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus leichmannii. The literature contains one case report of bacteremia caused by Weissella confusa (basonym: Lactobacillus confusus), but the clinical significance of the infection was unclear. We describe a case of W. confusa bacteremia in a 46-year-old

ARREL OLANO; JIMMY CHUA; SUZANNE SCHROEDER; AFAF MINARI; MARGARET LA SALVIA; GERRI HALL

13

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Endocarditis Complicating Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Lactobacillus after an uneventful colonoscopy. The initial empiric treatment with the standard regimen of penicillin-aminoglycoside failed; subsequent treatment with a combination of antibiotics, selected according to the in vitro studies, was successful.

A. Avlami; T. Kordossis; N. Vrizidis; N. V. Sipsas

2001-01-01

14

Intraspecific variation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus in sensitivity towards various bacteriocins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group were identified and typed. They represented 32 clones of Lactobacillus plantarum and 7 clones of Lactobacillus pentosus. Sensitivity of all strains towards bacteriocins of four different producer strains was investigated using a deferred inhibition test (DIT). Substantial intra-specific variation in sensitivity of clones was observed towards bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria producing

G. D. Carl; J. J. Leisner; J. Swings; M. Vancanneyt

2004-01-01

15

Properties of potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen Lactobacillus strains were characterized for probiotic properties. Of these, 13 of the strains were Lactobacillus plantarum. L. acidophilus and L. pentosus were also included as controls. Among the several requirements, tolerance to acid and bile salts, ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS), ?-galactosidase activity and susceptibility to antibiotics were studied. Acid-tolerant isolates were L. plantarum HU, L. plantarum NCIMB 1193,

Aysun Cebeci; Candan Gürakan

2003-01-01

16

Pentitol metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus casei capable of growing on either ribitol or xylitol carry out a heterolactic fermentation producing ethanol, acetate, and a mixture of D- and L-lactate. Following conversion of the pentitols to ribulose 5-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate via enzymatic steps unique to these organisms, the intermediate products are further metabolized by enzymes of the pentose pathway. The initial enzymes of the pathway, i.e., pentitol:phosphoenolypyruvate phosphotransferase and penititol phosphate dehydrogenase, do not appear to be stringently regulated by glucose or intermediate products of glycolysis. PMID:118163

London, J; Chace, N M

1979-01-01

17

Peptidase and proteinase activity of Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Das proteolytische System von mehreren nicht kommerziellenLactococcus- undLactobacillus-Stämmen wurde direkt vom traditionellen spanischen halbfesten Ziegenmilchkäse isoliert und untersucht. Die Aktivität von Aminopeptidase, X-Prolyldipeptidylaminopeptidase, Dipeptidase and Proteinase dieser neuen Stämme wurde in cytoplasmatischen, Zellwand-Membran- und spontan freigesetzten Fraktionen gemessen. Die Aminopeptidase-Aktivität erfolgte ausschließlich intracellular und war höher fürLactobacillus casei subsp. casei als fürLactococcus lactis subsp.lactis. Lactobacillus plantarum zeigte höhere Dipeptidase

Teresa Requena; Carmen Pelaez; Patrick F. Fox

1993-01-01

18

Lactobacillus: host-microbe relationships.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are a subdominant component of the human intestinal microbiota that are also found in other body sites, certain foods, and nutrient-rich niches in the free environment. They represent the types of microorganisms that mammalian immune systems have learned not to react to, which is recognized as a potential driving force in the evolution of the human immune system. Co-evolution of lactobacilli and animals provides a rational basis to postulate an association with health benefits. To further complicate a description of their host interactions, lactobacilli may rarely cause opportunistic infections in compromised subjects. In this review, we focus primarily on human-Lactobacillus interactions. We overview the microbiological complexity of this extraordinarily diverse genus, we describe where lactobacilli are found in or on humans, what responses their presence elicits, and what microbial interaction and effector molecules have been identified. The rare cases of Lactobacillus septicaemia are explained in terms of the host impairment required for such an outcome. We discuss possibilities for exploitation of lactobacilli for therapeutic delivery and mucosal vaccination. PMID:22102141

O'Callaghan, John; O'Toole, Paul W

2013-01-01

19

Viability of Probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and Nonprobiotic Microflora in Argentinian Fresco Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bi- fidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combi- nations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts,

C. G. Vinderola; W. Prosello; D. Ghiberto; J. A. Reinheimer

2000-01-01

20

Original article The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 on mineral absorption and bone health mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to measure (1) the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN strength / mineral bioavailability ­ HN001 : (1) Lb HN001 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) ; (2) Lb HN001

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an experimentally and clinically well documented probiotic used in different dairy products. The present study aimed to investigate the safety aspects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, particularly with respect to platelet aggregation, the initiating event in thrombosis. Platelet rich plasma was separated from the blood of healthy volunteers, and the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103),

Riitta Korpela; Eeva Moilanen; Maija Saxelin; Heikki Vapaatalo

1997-01-01

22

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine  

E-print Network

- cillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus plantarumDraft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine genome sequence of the strain Lactobacillus hominis CRBIP 24.179T, isolated from a human clinical sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Ensiling whole-crop wheat and corn in large containers with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effect of applying Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, at ensiling, on the aerobic stability of wheat and corn silages was studied in 50-l plastic containers. Treatments comprised\\u000a control (no additives), L. plantarum, L. buchneri and a combination of L. plantarum+L. buchneri. After 3 months of storage, the wheat silages treated with L. buchneri had higher

ZG Weinberg; G Ashbell; Y Hen; A Azrieli; G Szakacs; I Filya

2002-01-01

24

Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., Two New Species from Kefir Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve strains of homofermentative lactobacilli and two strains of heterofermentative lactobacilli were isolated from kefir grains by using R-CW agar medium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics, DNA guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of these isolates and previously described lactobacilli were compared. Our results indicated that two new species, Lactobacillus kefirgranurn and Lactobacillus parakefir, could be distinguished. The type

S. TAKIZAWA; S. KOJIMA; S. TAMURA; S. FUJINAGA; Y. BENNO

1994-01-01

25

Hydrolysis of Pork Muscle Sarcoplasmic Proteins by Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus curvatus CECT 904 and Lactobacillus sake CECT 4808 were selected on the basis of their proteolytic activities against synthetic substrates. Further, the effects of whole cells, cell extracts, and a combination of both enzymatic sources on muscle sarcoplasmic proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography anal- yses. Strains of both species displayed

Silvina Fadda; Yolanda Sanz; Graciela Vignolo; M. concepcio N Aristoy; Guillermo Oliver; Fidel Toldra

1999-01-01

26

CD4 detected from Lactobacillus helps understand the interaction between Lactobacillus and HIV.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially infects and destroys CD4+ cells and leads to a gradual decline in the number of CD4 cells. Despite evidence that probiotics increase CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and lower the risk of HIV transmission, little is known about the detailed mechanism underlying these effects. In this study, we investigated the cell surface protein of Lactobacillus and its role in blocking HIV-1 transmission by lactobacilli. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), we detected the CD4 receptor on the surface of Lactobacillus. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) for the CD4 receptor could partially inhibit HIV-1 binding to Lactobacillus. In addition, Lactobacillus could decrease HIV-1 pseudovirus infection of TZM-bl cells in vitro by 60-70%. Our data suggest that Lactobacillus can use this receptor to bind HIV and block HIV infection. This may in turn increase the CD4 T lymphocyte count in patients with HIV. These data provide direct evidence that Lactobacillus expresses the CD4 receptor and utilizes it to block HIV transmission. PMID:23318049

Su, Yan; Zhang, Baojiang; Su, Lingling

2013-06-12

27

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166.  

PubMed

In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains. PMID:24558254

Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Kosarev, Igor V; Abramov, Vyacheslav M

2014-01-01

28

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) bacteriocin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...

29

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

30

Evaluation of Numerical Analysis of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)PCR as a Method to Differentiate Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus grouped into one protein profile cluster at r ? 0.70, separate from Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sake, and Lactobacillus curvatus. Similar sugar fermentation reactions were recorded for representative strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus. Representative strains, including the type of each species, were selected from the different protein profile clusters and\\u000a their genetic relatedness

Carol A. Van Reenen; Leon M. T. Dicks

1996-01-01

31

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098 Produces Cobalamin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found that Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin. The sugar-glycerol cofermentation in vitamin B12-free medium showed that this strain was able to reduce glycerol through a well-known cobalamin-dependent reaction with the formation of 1,3-pro- panediol as a final product. The cell extract of L. reuteri corrected the coenzyme B12 requirement

María P. Taranto; J. L. Vera; J. Hugenholtz; G. F. De Valdez; F. Sesma

2003-01-01

32

Significance of Bile Salt Tolerant Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Probiotic supplements have received worldwide attention due to their health benefits. One of the most commonly used probiotics\\u000a is Lactobacillus reuteri, which has known to help prevent and treat both viral and bacterial diarrhea enhancing the body’s resistance to gastrointestinal\\u000a disease. In order to survive and colonize in the gastrointestinal tract, L. reuteri should express high tolerance to bile salt.

Siham A. Ahmed; Salam A. Ibrahim; Chyer Kim; Abolghasem Shahbazi

33

Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producing bacteriostasis. Images PMID:6090413

Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

1984-01-01

34

Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producing bacteriostasis. PMID:6090413

Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

1984-10-01

35

Dry sausage fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of three probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, E-97800 and LC-705 and one commercial Pediococcus pentosaceus starter strain (control) to produce dry sausage was studied. During the fermentation process the numbers of inoculated lactic acid bacteria increased from approx. 7log10 to 8–9log10 cfu\\/g and the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9–5.0. The sensory test indicated that the dry

Susanna Erkkilä; Maija-Liisa Suihko; Susanna Eerola; Esko Petäjä; Tiina Mattila-Sandholm

2001-01-01

36

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a levansucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 employs a fructosyltransferase (FTF) to synthesize a fructose polymer [a fructan of the levan type, with ?(2?6) linkages] from sucrose or raffinose. Purification of this FTF (a levansucrase), and identification of peptide amino acid sequences, allowed isolation of the first Lactobacillus levansucrase gene (lev), encoding a protein (Lev) consisting of 804 amino acids. Lev showed highest

E. Szalowska; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

37

Characterization of Reutericyclin Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spec- trum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did

MICHAEL G. GANZLE; ALEXANDRA HOLTZEL; JENS WALTER; GUNTHER JUNG; WALTER P. HAMMES

2000-01-01

38

Survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus during storage in the presence of protectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

No significant differences were observed in the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells during freeze-drying in the presence or absence of inositol, sorbitol, fructose, trehalose, monosodium glutamate and propyl gallate. However, survival was higher during storage when drying took place in the presence of these compounds. Sorbitol produced more significant effects than the other compounds toward maintaining viability

A. Sofia Carvalho; Joana Silva; Peter Ho; Paula Teixeira; F. Xavier Malcata; Paul Gibbs

2002-01-01

39

Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains  

PubMed Central

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

40

Eruca sativa might influence the growth, survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and some biological features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

41

Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass silage.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-negative rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated IWT126(T), was isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage preserved in Hachimantai, Iwate, Japan. The isolate showed growth at 15-45 °C, pH 3.5-7.5 and with 4.0?% (w/v) NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the DNA G+C content was 45.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain IWT126(T) was classified as a member of the genus Lactobacillus and was most closely related to Lactobacillus odoratitofui YIT 11304(T) (98.7?%), Lactobacillus similis JCM 2765(T) (98.5?%), Lactobacillus collinoides JCM 1123(T) (97.6?%), Lactobacillus paracollinoides DSM 15502(T) (97.6?%) and Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51(T) (96.9?%). Based on sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase ?-subunit (pheS) gene, strain IWT126(T) was well separated from its phylogenetic neighbours in the genus Lactobacillus. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic results, as well as low DNA-DNA relatedness to recognized phylogenetic relatives in the genus Lactobacillus, classification of strain IWT126(T) as a representive of a novel species named Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IWT126(T) (?=?JCM 19001(T)?=?DSM 27022(T)). PMID:23919960

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-12-01

42

Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.  

PubMed

Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

2014-11-01

43

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis associated with Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Background Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM), a severe infection with a high fatality rate, develops in mediastinal spaces due mainly to deep cervical abscesses. The majority of causative microbes of DNM are Streptococci and oral anaerobes. DNM associated with Lactobacillus-infection is rather rare. Case presentation A 69-year-old male with an unremarkable past medical history was referred to our hospital for surgical resection of advanced laryngeal cancer. Full examination revealed a neck abscess and DNM with a background of untreated diabetes mellitus. Initially, he was treated with meropenem. However, Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from surgical drainage of a mediastinal abscess. Despite using antibiotics capable of eradicating all isolates with susceptibilities not differing significantly from those of the neck and mediastinal abscesses, we attributed DNM to the L. plantarum detected only in the mediastinal abscess. After DNM treatment, he underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection followed by reconstruction using free jejunum. He was discharged fully recovered. Conclusion We concluded that L. plantarum as the sole cause of the mediastinal abscess in the present case cannot be ruled out. As the number of immunocompromised patients increases, we should be cautious regarding this “familiar” microbe. PMID:23987907

2013-01-01

44

Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-01-01

45

Homodimeric ?-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081: Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum and Biochemical Characterization  

PubMed Central

The lacZ gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, encoding a ?-galactosidase of the glycoside hydrolase family GH2, was cloned into different inducible lactobacillal expression vectors for overexpression in the host strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. High expression levels were obtained in laboratory cultivations with yields of approximately 53000 U of ?-galactosidase activity per liter of medium, which corresponds to ?170 mg of recombinant protein per liter and ?-galactosidase levels amounting to 63% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. The wild-type (nontagged) and histidine-tagged recombinant enzymes were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and further characterized. ?-Galactosidase from L. bulgaricus was used for lactose conversion and showed very high transgalactosylation activity. The maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) was approximately 50% when using an initial concentration of 600 mM lactose, indicating that the enzyme can be of interest for the production of GalOS. PMID:22283494

2012-01-01

46

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

47

Identification and Characterization of Novel Surface Proteins in Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri  

PubMed Central

We have identified and sequenced the genes encoding the aggregation-promoting factor (APF) protein from six different strains of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. Both species harbor two apf genes, apf1 and apf2, which are in the same orientation and encode proteins of 257 to 326 amino acids. Multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences of these apf genes demonstrate a very strong sequence conservation of all of the genes with the exception of their central regions. Northern blot analysis showed that both genes are transcribed, reaching their maximum expression during the exponential phase. Primer extension analysis revealed that apf1 and apf2 harbor a putative promoter sequence that is conserved in all of the genes. Western blot analysis of the LiCl cell extracts showed that APF proteins are located on the cell surface. Intact cells of L. johnsonii revealed the typical cell wall architecture of S-layer-carrying gram-positive eubacteria, which could be selectively removed with LiCl treatment. In addition, the amino acid composition, physical properties, and genetic organization were found to be quite similar to those of S-layer proteins. These results suggest that APF is a novel surface protein of the Lactobacillus acidophilus B-homology group which might belong to an S-layer-like family. PMID:12450842

Ventura, Marco; Jankovic, Ivana; Walker, D. Carey; Pridmore, R. David; Zink, Ralf

2002-01-01

48

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oryzae Strain SG293T.  

PubMed

We report the 1.86-Mb draft genome and annotation of Lactobacillus oryzae SG293(T) isolated from fermented rice grains. This genome information may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the fermentation of rice grains. PMID:25169865

Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Mochizuki, Takako; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tohno, Masanori

2014-01-01

49

Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

E-print Network

Note Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp the ACE-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities were analysed in milks fermented by two bacterial of peptide fractions (fermented milks. Concanavalin A (conA), a known

Boyer, Edmond

50

Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.  

PubMed

Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) (?=?JCM 17300(T)?=?DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

2013-12-01

51

Distinct immune response induced by peptidoglycan derived from Lactobacillus sp  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the distinct immune responses induced by Lactobacillus peptidoglycan (PG). METHODS: BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with PG once a day for three consecutive days. Peritoneal macrophage and splenocyte mRNA was extracted and the gene expression profile was studied using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus PG on colon tumor tissue were studied in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles revealed that the TLR-NF-?B and Jak-STAT signaling pathways were highly activated. An inflammatory phenotype was induced when peritoneal macrophages were initially exposed to Lactobacillus PG and switched to a more complex phenotype when BALB/c mice were treated with three doses of Lactobacillus PG. A protective physiological inflammatory response was induced after three consecutive days of PG treatment. It was tending toward Th1 dominant immune response. Lactobacillus PG also appeared to induce a significant in vivo anti-colon tumor effect. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus PG is responsible for certain immune responses induced by Lactobacilli. Anti-tumor effects of Lactobacilli are likely to attribute to the activation of macrophages by PG expressed on the bacterial cell surface. PMID:16419162

Sun, Jin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei; Ma, Xi-Yi

2005-01-01

52

Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.  

PubMed

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55?mg/10(10)?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33?mg/10(10)?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

53

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive brief, about 2 sec, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

2012-01-01

54

Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation  

PubMed Central

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55?mg/1010?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33?mg/1010?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Jones, Mitchell L.; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

55

Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sp. strain GG, which was isolated from the feces of a normal person, produced a substance with potent inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species. It inhibited anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp.), members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., as demonstrated by a microbiological assay; however, it did not inhibit other lactobacilli. The inhibitory activity occurred between pH 3 and 5 and was heat stable. Bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli was demonstrated at a dilution of 1:128. The inhibitory substance was distinct from lactic and acetic acids. It had a low molecular weight (less than 1,000) and was soluble in acetone-water (10:1). Because of these characteristics, the inhibitory material could not be considered a bacteriocin; it most closely resembled a microcin, which has been associated previously with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:3307619

Silva, M; Jacobus, N V; Deneke, C; Gorbach, S L

1987-01-01

56

High efficiency electrotransformation of Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

We investigated whether protocols allowing high efficiency electrotransformation of other lactic acid bacteria were applicable to five strains of Lactobacillus casei (12A, 32G, A2-362, ATCC 334 and BL23). Addition of 1% glycine or 0.9 M NaCl during cell growth, limitation of the growth of the cell cultures to OD600 0.6-0.8, pre-electroporation treatment of cells with water or with a lithium acetate (100 mM)/dithiothreitol (10 mM) solution and optimization of electroporation conditions all improved transformation efficiencies. However, the five strains varied in their responses to these treatments. Transformation efficiencies of 10(6) colony forming units ?g(-1) pTRKH2 DNA and higher were obtained with three strains which is sufficient for construction of chromosomal gene knock-outs and gene replacements. PMID:25670703

Welker, Dennis L; Hughes, Joanne E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

2015-01-01

57

Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1?×?10(10)?CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70?°C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03?±?0.04%, 100% (in 1.16?min), 0.14?±?0.0, 35.20?g H2O/100?g and 4.80?±?0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60?days, the samples stored at -8?°C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0?×?10(9)?CFU/g. PMID:25090592

Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

2014-01-01

58

Genomic Adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

59

Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

2013-01-01

60

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

PubMed Central

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S–23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

Crispim, S.M.; Nascimento, A.M.A.; Costa, P.S.; Moreira, J.L.S.; Nunes, A.C.; Nicoli, J.R.; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; Nardi, R.M.D.

2013-01-01

61

Molecular Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a Strain with Efficient Nitrite Degradation Capacity.  

PubMed

Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001). Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity. PMID:25423449

Fei, Yong-Tao; Liu, Dong-Mei; Luo, Tong-Hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-Gang

2014-01-01

62

The complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus johnsonii reveal extensive differences in chromosome organization and gene content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first comprehensive comparative analysis of lactobacilli was done by comparing the genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum (3?3 Mb) and Lactobacillus johnsonii (2?0 Mb). L. johnsonii is predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract, while L. plantarum is also found on plants and plant-derived material, and is used in a variety of industrial fermentations. The L. plantarum and L. johnsonii chromosomes have

Boekhorst te J; Roland J. Siezen; Marie-Camille Zwahlen; David Vilanova; Raymond D. Pridmore; Annick Mercenier; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos; Harald Brussow; Frank Desiere

2004-01-01

63

The Genome of the Predominant Equine Lactobacillus Species, Lactobacillus equi, Is Reflective of Its Lifestyle Adaptations to an Herbivorous Host  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus equi strain DPC6820, isolated from equine feces. L. equi is a predominant Lactobacillus species in the horse hindgut microbiota. An examination of the genome identified genes and enzymes highlighting L. equi adaptations to the herbivorous gastrointestinal tract of the horse, including fructan hydrolases. This genome sequence may help us further understand the microbial ecology of the equine hindgut and the influence lactobacilli have on it. PMID:24435863

O’Donnell, Michelle M.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; O’Toole, Paul W.

2014-01-01

64

Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from silage, and emended description of the genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated SU 18(T) and SU 83, were isolated from silage prepared with Sudan grass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.]. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. The isolates exhibited ?93.5?% DNA-DNA relatedness to each other and shared the same phenotypic characteristics, which indicated that they belonged to a single species. The DNA G+C content was 58.5-59.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were placed in the genus Lactobacillus. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Lactobacillus manihotivorans JCM 12514(T) and Lactobacillus camelliae JCM 13995(T) (95.9 and 96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with strain SU 18(T)). Ribotyping revealed that strain SU 18(T) was well separated from L. manihotivorans JCM 12514(T) and L. camelliae JCM 13995(T). Strain SU 18(T) exhibited ?23.7?% DNA-DNA relatedness with its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The isolates represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SU 18(T) (?=?JCM 17158(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10801(T)). The description of the genus Lactobacillus is also amended. PMID:21724957

Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya

2012-05-01

65

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2013-04-01

66

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2010-04-01

67

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2014-04-01

68

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2011-04-01

69

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2012-04-01

70

Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacilluscrispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillusamylovorus, Lactobacillusgallinarum and Lactobacillusreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides

K. Cauwerts; F. Pasmans; L. A. Devriese; A. Martel; F. Haesebrouck; A. Decostere

2006-01-01

71

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-08-25

72

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35, on human monocyte-derived immature DCs, using a wide range of bacterial by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018735 Editor

Boyer, Edmond

73

Anti-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress and Increases  

E-print Network

Anti-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress, identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690, protected worms by increasing their viability by 30% and-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress and Increases Lifespan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Lactobacillus bacteremia and endocarditis: review of 45 cases.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are part of normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary flora but are an uncommon cause of bacteremia. We reviewed the cases of 45 patients with clinically significant lactobacillus bacteremia occurring over 15 years. Underlying conditions were common, including cancer (40%), recent surgery (38%), and diabetes mellitus (27%). Twenty-two patients were in the intensive care unit at the time of onset of lactobacillus bacteremia. Eleven of the 45 patients were receiving immunosuppressive therapy, 11 were receiving total parenteral nutrition, and 23 had received antibiotics without activity against Lactobacillus prior to the occurrence of bacteremia. Bacteremia was polymicrobial in 27 patients and developed during hospitalization in 39. Thirty-one patients died, but only one death was attributable to lactobacillus bacteremia. Lactobacilli are relatively avirulent pathogens that produce bacteremia in patients with serious underlying illnesses, many of whom have received prior antibiotic therapy that may select out for the organism. While rarely fatal in itself, lactobacillus bacteremia identifies patients with serious and rapidly fatal illness. PMID:9402355

Husni, R N; Gordon, S M; Washington, J A; Longworth, D L

1997-11-01

75

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

76

Different Immune Regulatory Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei Isolated from Kimchi.  

PubMed

It is known that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have many beneficial health effects, including antioxidative activity and immune regulation. In this study, the immune regulatory effects of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum, which are found in different types of kimchi, were evaluated. L. sakei and its lipoteichoic acid (LTA) have greater immune stimulating potential in IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF-? production as compared with L. plantarum in an in vitro condition. On the other hand, L. plantarum is assumed to repress the Th1 immune response in murine experiments. After being injected with LPS, L. plantarum-fed mice maintained a healthier state, and the level of TNF-? in their blood was lower than in other bacterial strainfed mice and in the LPS-only control mice. Additionally, IL-12 production was significantly decreased and the production of IL-4 was greatly increased in the splenocytes from L. plantarum-fed mice. Further experiments revealed that the pre-injection of purified LTA from L. plantarum (pLTA), L. sakei (sLTA), and S. aureus (aLTA) decreased TNF-? and IL-4 production in LPS-injected mice. Mouse IL-12, however, was significantly increased by aLTA pre-injection. In conclusion, the L. sakei and L. plantarum strains have immune regulation effects, but the effects differ in cytokine production and the regulatory effects of the Th1/Th2 immune response. PMID:25112321

Hong, Yi-Fan; Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Gim, Min Geun; Chung, Dae Kyun

2014-12-28

77

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

78

Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones. PMID:23335916

Cremonesi, Paola; Chessa, Stefania; Castiglioni, Bianca

2013-01-01

79

Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

2013-01-01

80

Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058

Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

2012-01-01

81

Stress Responses in Probiotic Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

2015-01-01

82

Survival and persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum 4.1 and Lactobacillus reuteri 3S7 in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sp. are important inhabitants of the intestines of animals. They are also largely used as probiotics for both humans and animals. To exert beneficial effects, lactobacilli have to survive through the gastrointestinal transit. Based on bile-salt resistance, pH tolerance, antimicrobial activity and heat resistance, Lactobacillus plantarum 4.1 and Lactobacillus reuteri 3S7 were previously selected and used as probiotic additives

Maria De Angelis; Sonya Siragusa; Leonardo Caputo; Adriano Ragni; Roberto Burzigotti; Marco Gobbetti

2007-01-01

83

Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov., isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica).  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three Lactobacillus-like micro-organisms (strains SG293(T), SG296 and SG310) isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) in Japan was investigated. These heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and did not show catalase activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain SG293(T) revealed that the type strains of Lactobacillus malefermentans (98.3 %), Lactobacillus odoratitofui (96.2 %), Lactobacillus similis (96.1 %), Lactobacillus kimchicus (96.1 %), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (95.9 %) and Lactobacillus collinoides (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours. Additional phylogenetic analysis on the basis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these three strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the novel isolates had a unique taxonomic position. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Because low DNA-DNA hybridization values among the isolates and Lactobacillus malefermentans JCM 12497(T) were observed, it is proposed that these unidentified isolates be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov. The type strain is SG293(T) (= JCM 18671(T) = DSM 26518(T)). PMID:23378109

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidehiko; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-08-01

84

Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices.  

PubMed

Fourteen strains isolated from vegetable sources and identified as belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum presented an atypical pattern of amplification with a species-specific multiplex-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of two protein-encoding genes, recA (encoding the recombinase A protein) and cpn60 (encoding the GroEL chaperonin), as well as phenotypic and genomic traits revealed a homogeneous group of very closely related strains for which subspecies status is proposed, with the name Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis. The type strain is DKO 22(T) (=CIP 108320(T)=DSM 16365(T)). PMID:16014493

Bringel, Françoise; Castioni, Anna; Olukoya, Daniel K; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

2005-07-01

85

Lactobacillus farraginis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parafarraginis sp. nov., heterofermentative lactobacilli isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue.  

PubMed

Five strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue in Japan. The isolates were separated into two groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and two subclusters were formed that comprised micro-organisms closely related to Lactobacillus buchneri, L. diolivorans, L. hilgardii, L. kefiri, L. parabuchneri and L. parakefiri. DNA-DNA relatedness results revealed that the isolates could be separated into two groups, and these groups correlated well with the subclusters generated using the phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness showed clear separation of the two groups from their phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, the two groups represent two novel species, for which the names Lactobacillus farraginis sp. nov. (type strain NRIC 0676(T)=JCM 14108(T)=DSM 18382(T)) and Lactobacillus parafarraginis sp. nov. (type strain NRIC 0677(T)=JCM 14109(T)=DSM 18390(T)) are proposed. PMID:17392191

Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

2007-04-01

86

Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics. PMID:23292549

Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-05-01

87

Metabolism of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactobacillus paracasei 1195†  

PubMed Central

Fermentation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and other oligosaccharides has been suggested to be an important property for the selection of bacterial strains used as probiotics. However, little information is available on FOS transport and metabolism by lactic acid bacteria and other probiotic bacteria. The objectives of this research were to identify and characterize the FOS transport system of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195. Radiolabeled FOS was synthesized enzymatically from [3H]sucrose and purified by column and thin-layer chromatography, yielding three main products: glucose (G) ?-1,2 linked to two, three, or four fructose (F) units (GF2, GF3, and GF4, respectively). FOS hydrolysis activity was detected only in cell extracts prepared from FOS- or sucrose-grown cells and was absent in cell supernatants, indicating that transport must precede hydrolysis. FOS transport assays revealed that the uptake of GF2 and GF3 was rapid, whereas little GF4 uptake occurred. Competition experiments showed that glucose, fructose, and sucrose reduced FOS uptake but that other mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were less inhibitory. When cells were treated with sodium fluoride, iodoacetic acid, or other metabolic inhibitors, FOS transport rates were reduced by up to 60%; however, ionophores that abolished the proton motive force only slightly decreased FOS transport. In contrast, uptake was inhibited by ortho-vanadate, an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette transport systems. De-energized cells had low intracellular ATP concentrations and had a reduced capacity to accumulate FOS. These results suggest that FOS transport in L. paracasei 1195 is mediated by an ATP-dependent transport system having specificity for a narrow range of substrates. PMID:12676703

Kaplan, Handan; Hutkins, Robert W.

2003-01-01

88

In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets.  

PubMed

Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2014-01-01

89

Development of an amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain expressing the Lactobacillus amylovorus alpha-amylase gene.  

PubMed Central

An amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain with the starch-degrading ability displayed by Lactobacillus amylovorus was developed. An active fragment of the gene coding for alpha-amylase production in L. amylovorus was cloned and integrated into the chromosome of the competitive inoculant strain L. plantarum Lp80 at the cbh locus. The alpha-amylase gene fragment was also introduced into L. plantarum Lp80 on an autoreplicative plasmid. Both constructions were also performed in the laboratory strain L. plantarum NCIB8826. All four recombinant strains secreted levels of amylase ranging from 23 to 69 U/liter, compared with 47 U/liter for L. amylovorus. Secretion levels were higher in L. plantarum NCIB8826 than in L. plantarum Lp80 derivatives and were higher in recombinant strains containing autoreplicative plasmids than in the corresponding integrants. The L. plantarum Lp80 derivative containing the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase gene fragment integrated into the host chromosome secreted alpha-amylase to a level comparable to that of L. amylovorus and was stable over 50 generations of growth under nonselective conditions. It grew to a higher cell density than either the parent strain or L. amylovorus in MRS medium containing a mixture of starch and glucose as the fermentable carbohydrate source. This recombinant alpha-amylolytic L. plantarum strain would therefore seem to have considerable potential as a silage inoculant for crops such as alfalfa, in which water-soluble carbohydrate levels are frequently low but starch is present as an alternative carbohydrate source. Images PMID:7986030

Fitzsimons, A; Hols, P; Jore, J; Leer, R J; O'Connell, M; Delcour, J

1994-01-01

90

Two Arginine Repressors Regulate Arginine Biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repression of the carAB operon encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthase leads to Lactobacillus plantarum FB331 growth inhibition in the presence of arginine. This phenotype was used in a positive screening to select spontaneous mutants deregulated in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. Fourteen mutants were genetically characterized for constitutive arginine production. Mutations were located either in one of the arginine repressor genes

H. Nicoloff; F. Arsene-Ploetze; C. Malandain; M. Kleerebezem; F. Bringel

2004-01-01

91

Exploring Lactobacillus plantarum genome diversity by using microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping of 20 strains

Douwe Molenaar; Francoise Bringel; Frank H. Schuren; Willem M. de Vos; Roland J. Siezen; Michiel Kleerebezem

2005-01-01

92

Freezing resistance improvement of Lactobacillus reuteri by using cell immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri shows certain beneficial effects to human health and is recognized as a probiotic. However, its application in frozen foods is still not popular because of its low survival during freezing and frozen storage. Cell immobilization technique could effectively exert protection effects to microbial cells in order to enhance their endurance to unfavorable environmental conditions as well as to

Jen-Horng Tsen; Hui-Ying Huang; Yeu-Pyng Lin; V. An-Erl King

2007-01-01

93

Global transcriptional response of Lactobacillus reuteri to the sourdough environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium that is highly adapted to the sourdough environment. It is a dominant member of industrial type II sourdoughs, and is also able to colonize the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans, and birds. In this study, the transcriptional response of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was investigated during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays.

Eric Hüfner; Robert A. Britton; Stefan Roos; Hans Jonsson; Christian Hertel

2008-01-01

94

Environmental influences on exopolysaccharide formation in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of the corresponding reuteransucrase gene, gtfO, was investigated over time and

Emma Årsköld; Malin Svensson; Halfdan Grage; Stefan Roos; Peter Rådström; Ed W. J. van Niel

2007-01-01

95

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 uses sucrose for synthesis of a unique, soluble glucan (‘reuteran’) with mainly ?-(1?4) glucosidic linkages. The gene (gtfA) encoding this glucansucrase enzyme had previously been characterized. Here, a detailed biochemical and molecular analysis of the GTFA enzyme is presented. This is believed to be the first report describing reuteransucrase enzyme kinetics and the oligosaccharides synthesized with

S. Kralj; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

96

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2.  

PubMed

We report here a 3.2-Mb draft assembled genome of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2. The bacterium shows probiotic and immunomodulatory activities. The genome assembly and annotation will help to identify molecules and pathways responsible for interaction between the host immune system and the microbe. PMID:25540344

Bhowmick, Swati; Malar, Mathu; Das, Abhishek; Kumar Thakur, Bhupesh; Saha, Piu; Das, Santasabuj; Rashmi, H M; Batish, Virender K; Grover, Sunita; Tripathy, Sucheta

2014-01-01

97

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2  

PubMed Central

We report here a 3.2-Mb draft assembled genome of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2. The bacterium shows probiotic and immunomodulatory activities. The genome assembly and annotation will help to identify molecules and pathways responsible for interaction between the host immune system and the microbe. PMID:25540344

Bhowmick, Swati; Malar, Mathu; Das, Abhishek; Kumar Thakur, Bhupesh; Saha, Piu; Rashmi, H. M.; Batish, Virender K.; Grover, Sunita

2014-01-01

98

Studies on bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus isolates from selected Nigerian fermented foods.  

PubMed

Ten bacteriocin-producing (bacteriocinogenic) Lactobacillus isolates obtained from three Nigerian fermented foods namely: kenkey, ogi and wara were tested against the following indicator organisms: Lactobacillus plantarum and food borne pathogens comprising enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas cavice, Salmonella typhimurium, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Staphylococcus aureus. All the bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus were found to inhibit L. plantarum while some inhibited some of the food borne pathogens listed above. The antimicrobial activities of bacteriocins from L. plantarum KKY12 and L. casei OGM12 were caused by proteins detectable in the culture liquids. They are designated Plantacin N and Caseicin A and they have narrow antimicrobial spectra. Plantacin N from L. plantarum KKY12 was active against L. plantarum, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas cavice whereas Caseicin A from L. casei OGM12 inhibited L. plantarum, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Caseicin A is stable at 121 degrees C/15 mins, and both are inactivated by proteolytic enzymes. The bacteriocinogenic properties of the local isolates of Lactobacillus can help to reduce hygienic risk and the spoilage of fermented foods. PMID:8568643

Olasupo, N A; Olukoya, D K; Odunfa, S A

1995-01-01

99

Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from tulum cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from Tulum cheese. Seven L. fermentum strains were selected among the isolated and identified lactobacillus strains due to their abundance. When the gastric condition was considered, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 were able to tolerate pH 2.5 and 1% bile salt. All L. fermentum strains had similar enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern but the highest antagonistic effect was detected within LP3, LP4 and LP6. Cholesterol assimilation amount of L. fermentum strains ranged between 12.1 and 45.3% in MRS and 20.7-71.1% in MRS with bile. The highest cholesterol assimilation in MRS and MRS with bile was occurred by LP3 and LP4, respectively. L. fermentum LP2 adhered to caco-2 cells more than Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG where LP3, LP4 and LP5 adhered at similar level. In conclusion, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 fulfilled sufficient criteria to be probiotics for use as a starter culture in the production of tulum cheese or other dairy products. Also this study indicated that some food-associated Lactobacillus strains non-predominant for gut biota have significant probiotic potential. PMID:25270832

Tulumo?lu, Sener; Kaya, Halil ?brahim; Sim?ek, Omer

2014-12-01

100

Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.  

PubMed

Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

2014-10-01

101

Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

Dasari, Subramanyam; Shouri, Raju Naidu Devanaboyaina; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

2014-01-01

102

Production and stability of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) is considered as a potent antimicrobial substance. Exploration of its application as a food preservative or as a therapeutic auxiliary agent has been documented in the literature. In the present work, factors that may impact on 3-HPA accumulation by Lactobacillus reuteri and on the stability of 3-HPA were investigated. Three media - H2O, milk and MRS broth -

Q. Lüthi-Peng; S. Schärer; Z. Puhan

2002-01-01

103

Wound Healing and Angiogenic Properties of Supernatants from Lactobacillus Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts or supernatants from cultures of Lactobacilli are used for their medicinal effects, including wound healing and im- mune system stimulating activity. We have studied the in vivo and in vitro effects of supernatants from bacterial cultures of two strains of Lactobacillus (LS) on tissue repair and angiogen- esis. Subcutaneous injection of LS into rodent ears led to pro- liferation

J. HALPER; L. S. LESHIN; S. J. LEWIS; W. I. LI

104

Culture conditions of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum produced an extracellular tannase after 24 h growth on minimal medium of amino acids containing 2 g tannic acid l-1. Enzyme production (6 U ml-1) was optimal at 37 °C and pH 6 with 2 g glucose l-1 and 7 g tannic acid l-1 in absence of O2.

Lamia Ayed; Moktar Hamdi

2002-01-01

105

Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10?kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10?kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25095898

Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-12-01

106

Heat Shock Response in Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Heat stress resistance and response were studied in strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 had decimal reduction times (D values) (D value was the time that it took to reduce the number of cells by 1 log cycle) in sterile milk of 32.9, 14.7, and 7.14 s at 60, 72, and 75°C, respectively. When mid-exponential-phase cells were used, the D values decreased. The temperature increases which caused a 10-fold reduction in the D value ranged from 9 to 20°C, depending on the strain. Part of the cell population treated at 72°C for 90 s recovered viability during incubation at 7°C in sterile milk for 20 days. When mid-exponential- or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were adapted to 42°C for 1 h, the heat resistance at 72°C for 90 s increased ca. 3 and 2 log cycles, respectively. Heat-adapted cells also showed increased growth at pH 5 and in the presence of 6% NaCl. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins expressed by control and heat-adapted cells revealed changes in the levels of expression of 31 and 18 proteins in mid-exponential- and stationary-phase cells, respectively. Twelve proteins were commonly induced. Nine proteins induced in the heat-adapted mid-exponential- and/or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were subjected to N-terminal sequencing. These proteins were identified as DnaK, GroEL, trigger factor, ribosomal proteins L1, L11, L31, and S6, DNA-binding protein II HlbA, and CspC. All of these proteins have been found to play a role in the mechanisms of stress adaptation in other bacteria. Antibodies against GroES detected a protein which was induced moderately, while antibodies against DnaJ and GrpE reacted with proteins whose level of expression did not vary after heat adaptation. This study showed that the heat resistance of L. plantarum is a complex process involving proteins with various roles in cell physiology, including chaperone activity, ribosome stability, stringent response mediation, temperature sensing, and control of ribosomal function. The physiological mechanisms of response to pasteurization in L. plantarum are fundamental for survival in cheese during manufacture. PMID:15006751

De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Huet, Claude; Crecchio, Carmine; Fox, Patrick F.; Gobbetti, Marco

2004-01-01

107

The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

Salaj, Rastislav; Stofilová, Jana; Soltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter; Bomba, Alojz

2013-01-01

108

The Effects of Two Lactobacillus plantarum Strains on Rat Lipid Metabolism Receiving a High Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

Salaj, Rastislav; Štofilová, Jana; Šoltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter

2013-01-01

109

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and L. reuteri RC14 to prevent or cure bacterial vaginosis among women with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess, among women with HIV, whether long-term oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 supplementation can prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and enhance the cure rate of metronidazole among those with BV.

Ruben Hummelen; John Changalucha; Nicodemus L. Butamanya; Adrian Cook; J. Dik F. Habbema; Gregor Reid

2010-01-01

110

ISL 2 , a new mobile genetic element in Lactobacillus helveticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous, phenotypically stable mutations at the ß-galactosidase locus (lacL-lacM) in Lactobacillus helveticus were identified and analyzed. We found that a significant number of mutations were caused by integration of a new IS element, ISL2, into these lac genes. ISL2 is 858 by long, flanked by 16-bp perfect inverted repeats and generates 3-bp target duplications upon insertion. It contains one open

Marie-Camille Zwahlen; Beat Mollet

1994-01-01

111

The Characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. helveticus and L. casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The characteristics of 152 strains of lactobacilli were examined, and strains divided into three groups. Lactobacillus helveticus fermented inositol, sorbose, glycerol and rhamnose but not melibiose or raffinose, failed to grow in 4 yo bile salt, but gave EL positive Voges-Proskauer reaction and a rapid acid clot in Yeastrel glucose litmus milk (Y.G.L.M.). L. casei would not ferment these

DOROTHY M. WHEATER

1955-01-01

112

Das „Malatenzym” von Lactobacillus plantarum und Leuconostoc mesenteroides  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The “malic enzyme” was partially purified from induced cells of Lactobacillus plantarum B 38 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 99. Specific activities of 170 or 17.5 u\\/mg protein respectively were obtained by precipitation with manganese chloride and protamine sulphate, chromatography on Sephadex and hydroxyapatite.2.Fractions containing “malic enzyme” without lactate dehydrogenase were obtained from L. plantarum by gel filtration, chromatography with hydroxyapatite or

M. Schütz; F. Radler

1973-01-01

113

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic bacterium, and oral pathogenic bacteria have not been studied adequately. This study examined the effects of\\u000a L. reuteri on the proliferation of periodontopathic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia, and on the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Human-derived L. reuteri strains (KCTC 3594 and KCTC 3678) and rat-derived

Mi-Sun Kang; Jong-Suk Oh; Hyun-Chul Lee; Hoi-Soon Lim; Seok-Woo Lee; Kyu-Ho Yang; Nam-Ki Choi; Seon-Mi Kim

2011-01-01

114

Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the ?-(1?4) glucosidic type (~70%). This reuteran also contains ?-(1?6)-linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted ?-glucosyl units at the branching points. The

S. Kralj; E. Stripling; P. Sanders; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; L. Dijkhuizen

2005-01-01

115

Expression of a Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase gene in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant plasmid pM25 containing the celE gene of Clostridium thermocellum, which codes for an enzymatically active endoglucanase, was transformed into Lactobacillus plantarum by electroporation. Strains harboring pM25 expressed thermostable endoglucanase, which was found predominantly in the culture medium. Two other plasmids, pGK12 and pSA3, were transformed into L. plantarum, and the stability of each plasmid was evaluated. Images PMID:2782880

Bates, E E; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G P; Huckle, J; Laurie, J I; Mann, S P

1989-01-01

116

Transport of ?-Galactosides in Lactobacillus plantarum NC2 †  

PubMed Central

The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum NC2 to transport thiomethyl-?-d-galactoside in the presence or absence of various inhibitors was investigated to determine the mechanism of ?-galactoside transport in this bacterium. A novel system employing l-arabinose as an energy-generating compound is described, and evidence that this transport is energized by an ATP-driven proton motive force is presented. PMID:16348259

Jeffrey, Scott R.; Dobrogosz, Walter J.

1990-01-01

117

The electronic structure of Slayer proteins from Lactobacillus brevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence electronic structure of the S-layer of Lactobacillus brevis is determined using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Spectra are compared to experimental work on amino-acids and S-layers of Bacillus sphaericus. While it is indeed possible to identify energy levels with those of natural amino-acids, distinct energy shifts are indeed observed which cannot be reconciled using such

Susan M. Graham; Nicola L. Asquith; Karyn Wilde; Ken Short; Peter Holden; Anton P. J. Stampfl; A. J. Holmes; A. Ruys; P. Stojanov; J. D. Riley; Liang-Jen Fang; Yaw-Wen Yang; Yeukuang Hwu

2008-01-01

118

Lactobacillus arizonensis sp. nov., isolated from jojoba meal.  

PubMed

Five strains of simmondsin-degrading, lactic-acid-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented jojoba meal. These isolates were facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped organisms. They grew singly and in short chains, produced lactic acid but no gas from glucose, and did not exhibit catalase activity. Growth occurred at 15 and 45 degrees C. All strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, melibiose, D-ribose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose. Some strains fermented L-(-)-arabinose and L-rhamnose. D-Xylose was not fermented and starch was not hydrolysed. The mean G+C content of the DNA was 48 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA established that the isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA reassociation of 45% or less was obtained between the new isolates and the reference strains of species with G+C contents of about 48 mol%. The isolates were differentiated from other homofermentative Lactobacillus spp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence divergence, DNA relatedness, stereoisomerism of the lactic acid produced, growth temperature and carbohydrate fermentation. The data support the conclusion that these organisms represent strains of a new species, for which the name Lactobacillus arizonensis is proposed. The type strain of L. arizonensis is NRRL B-14768T (= DSM 13273T). PMID:11034490

Swezey, J L; Nakamura, L K; Abbott, T P; Peterson, R E

2000-09-01

119

Comparative genomics analysis of Lactobacillus species associated with weight gain or weight protection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Some Lactobacillus species are associated with obesity and weight gain while others are associated with weight loss. Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria represent a major bacterial population of the small intestine where lipids and simple carbohydrates are absorbed, particularly in the duodenum and jejunum. The objective of this study was to identify Lactobacillus spp. proteins involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with weight modifications. METHODS: We examined a total of 13 complete genomes belonging to seven different Lactobacillus spp. previously associated with weight gain or weight protection. We combined the data obtained from the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology, Batch CD-Search and Gene Ontology to classify gene function in each genome. RESULTS: We observed major differences between the two groups of genomes. Weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. appear to lack enzymes involved in the catabolism of fructose, defense against oxidative stress and the synthesis of dextrin, L-rhamnose and acetate. Weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. encoded a significant gene amount of glucose permease. Regarding lipid metabolism, thiolases were only encoded in the genome of weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. In addition, we identified 18 different types of bacteriocins in the studied genomes, and weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. encoded more bacteriocins than weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed that weight protection-associated Lactobacillus spp. have developed defense mechanisms for enhanced glycolysis and defense against oxidative stress. Weight gain-associated Lactobacillus spp. possess a limited ability to breakdown fructose or glucose and might reduce ileal brake effects. PMID:24567124

Drissi, F; Merhej, V; Angelakis, E; El Kaoutari, A; Carrière, F; Henrissat, B; Raoult, D

2014-01-01

120

Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.  

PubMed

A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

2015-01-01

121

Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt  

PubMed Central

A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

2015-01-01

122

Peptidoglycan hydrolases as species-specific markers to differentiate Lactobacillus helveticus from Lactobacillus gallinarum and other closely related homofermentative lactobacilli.  

PubMed

We propose a new method that allows accurate discrimination of Lactobacillus helveticus from other closely related homofermentative lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus gallinarum. This method is based on the amplification by PCR of two peptidoglycan hydrolytic genes, Lhv_0190 and Lhv_0191. These genes are ubiquitous and show high homology at the intra-species level. The PCR method gave two specific PCR products, of 542 and 747 bp, for 25 L. helveticus strains coming from various sources. For L. gallinarum, two amplicons were obtained, the specific 542 bp amplicon and another one with a size greater than 1,500 bp. No specific PCR products were obtained for 12 other closely related species of lactobacilli, including the L. acidophilus complex, L. delbrueckii, and L. ultunensis. The developed PCR method provided rapid, precise, and easy identification of L. helveticus. Moreover, it enabled differentiation between the two closely phylogenetically related species L. helveticus and L. gallinarum. PMID:24362553

Jebava, Iva; Chuat, Victoria; Lortal, Sylvie; Valence, Florence

2014-04-01

123

Comparison of exopolysaccharide production by strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei grown in chemically defined medium and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was compared among three strains of lactobacilli. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 9595M can be classified among the highest EPS-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria reported to date with a maximum\\u000a EPS production of 1275?mg?L?1. Under controlled pH, no significant differences in the quantity of EPS produced could be detected between carbon source\\u000a (glucose or lactose) or fermentation temperature

I Dupont; D Roy; G Lapointe

2000-01-01

124

Fecal recovery following oral administration of Lactobacillus Strain GG (ATCC 53103) in gelatine capsules to healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of the suggested probiotic strain Lactobacillus GG in feces was studied after oral administration. Lactobacillus GG was given to 20 healthy human volunteers for 7 days in gelatine capsules with daily doses of 1.6 × 108 cfu and 1.2 × 1010 cfu. All the volunteers in the higher dose group had detectable numbers of Lactobacillus GG in their feces

Maija Saxelin; Tanja Pessi; Seppo Salminen

1995-01-01

125

Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

2013-01-01

126

Comparative genomic and functional analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains marketed as probiotics.  

PubMed

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

2013-03-01

127

Construction of vectors for inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus sakei and L. plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed vectors for inducible expression of genes in Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum. The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and sakacin P and the genes encoding the cognate histidine protein kinase and response regulator that are necessary to activate this promoter upon induction by a

Elisabeth Sørvig; Sonja Grönqvist; Kristine Naterstad; Geir Mathiesen; Vincent G. H. Eijsink; Lars Axelsson

2003-01-01

128

Restriction Endonuclease Patterns and Multivariate Analysis as a Classification Tool for Lactobacillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Lactobacillus plantarum and seven Lactobacillus reuteri strains were studied by using restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) combined with principal-component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Chromosomal DNAs from the strains were extracted and cleaved with restriction enzymes, and the DNA fragments were separated according to size by agarose gel electrophoresis. Band patterns were read by using

MARIE STAHL; GORAN MOLIN; ANDERS PERSSON; SIV AHRNE; STEN STAHL

1990-01-01

129

Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

130

Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatants on body weight and leptin expression in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus extracts and supernatants have been used as probiotics in human and veterinary medicine for their ability to enhance wound healing and immunity. Previous data from our laboratory demonstrated that Lactobacillus supernatant (LS) stimulated wound healing, angiogenesis and proliferation of embryonic cells after topical application. This current study shows that LS after its administration into the cerebral ventricles of

Renato Sousa; Jaroslava Halper; Jian Zhang; Stephen J Lewis; Wan-I O Li

2008-01-01

131

Diversity and functional characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated throughout the ripening of a hard cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the Lactobacillus spp. intra- and inter- species diversity in a Piedmont hard cheese made of raw milk without thermal treatment and without addition of industrial starter, and to perform a first screening for potential functional properties. A total of 586 isolates were collected during the cheese production and identified by means of molecular methods: three hundred and four were identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two hundred and forty as Lactobacillus helveticus, twenty six as Lactobacillus fermentum, eleven as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, three as Lactobacillus pontis, and two as Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri, respectively. A high genetic heterogeneity was detected by using the repetitive bacterial DNA element fingerprinting (rep-PCR) with the use of (GTG)5 primer resulting in eight clusters of L. helveticus and sixteen clusters in the case of L. rhamnosus. Most of isolates showed a high auto-aggregation property, low hydrophobicity values, and a general low survival to simulated digestion process. However, sixteen isolates showed promising functional characteristics. PMID:24819414

Bautista-Gallego, J; Alessandria, V; Fontana, M; Bisotti, S; Taricco, S; Dolci, P; Cocolin, L; Rantsiou, K

2014-07-01

132

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108T and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202T, isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira

2014-01-01

133

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108(T) and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202(T), isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

134

Hydrolyzed caseinomacropeptide conjugated galactooligosaccharides support the growth and enhance the bile tolerance in Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

In this study bioactive caseinomacropeptide was conjugated with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (hCMP:GOS) by Maillard reaction to synthesize value added prebiotic compounds to Lactobacillus strains. Growth study showed the ability of hCMP:GOS to serve as a sole carbon source for Lactobacillus strains. A significant amount of acetate and lactate was detected in cell free culture supernatant by HPLC. It demonstrated the ability of Lactobacillus strains to ferment the hCMP:GOS as a carbon source. In addition, hCMP:GOS grown Lactobacillus cells exhibited enhanced bile tolerance and retained 90% viability. Overall results of this study indicate that the hCMP conjugated GOS can be potential multipurpose prebiotic substrates to enhance the growth and bile tolerance in Lactobacillus strains and serve as a fermentable substrate to produce beneficial metabolites in the host. PMID:22686275

Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Hernandez-Hernandez, Oswaldo; Moreno, F Javier; Sanz, Maria Luz; Ricke, Steven C

2012-07-11

135

Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H2O2 was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance of intestinal microflora in geese and could offer an alternative to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25104766

Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

2014-10-01

136

The Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability, and Ruminal Degradability of Low Dry Matter Corn and Sorghum Silages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in com- bination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermen- tation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were ap- plied at 1 × 106 cfu\\/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiledin1.5-Lanaerobicjars.Threejarspertreatment were

I. Filya

2003-01-01

137

Growth and survival of Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 in yogurt for use as a functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 are considered probiotic agents with therapeutic properties. To prepare mother cultures for these organism bacteria, four formulations were made with milk (1% fat) with 0.33% yeast extract (T1); 0.4% inulin (T2); 0.33% yeast extract and 0.4% inulin (T3); and one with no additives (T4). The media were inoculated with 1% probiotic cultures

Sharareh Hekmat; Hoda Soltani; Gregor Reid

2009-01-01

138

Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 isolated from faeces of the same human infant produce identical cyclic bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reutericin 6, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 that was isolated from the faeces of a human infant at 2 months of age, was purified to homogeneity from broth culture-supernatant by reverse-phase chromatography. Molecular weight (5652) by mass spectrometry and primary structure of reutericin 6 were identical to that of gassericin A produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 which was

Yasushi Kawai; Yasuyuki Ishii; Koichiro Uemura; Haruki Kitazawa; Tadao Saito; Takatoshi Itoh

2001-01-01

139

Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host’s mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019)

J. S. Zhou; P. K. Gopal; H. S. Gill

2001-01-01

140

Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study enrolled 125 premenopausal women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by presence of vaginal irritation, discharge and ‘fishy’ odor, and Nugent criteria and detection of sialidase enzyme. The subjects were treated with oral metronidazole (500mg) twice daily from days 1 to 7, and randomized to receive oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (1×109) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (1×109) or placebo twice

Kingsley Anukam; Emmanuel Osazuwa; Ijeoma Ahonkhai; Michael Ngwu; Gibson Osemene; Andrew W. Bruce; Gregor Reid

2006-01-01

141

Characterization of Reutericyclin Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did not affect the growth of gram-negative bacteria; however, the growth of lipopolysaccharide mutant strains of Escherichia coli was inhibited. Reutericyclin exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and B. subtilis and triggered the lysis of cells of L. sanfranciscensis in a dose-dependent manner. Germination of spores of B. subtilis was inhibited, but the spores remained unaffected under conditions that do not permit germination. The fatty acid supply of the growth media had a strong effect on reutericyclin production and its distribution between producer cells and the culture supernatant. Reutericyclin was purified from cell extracts and culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 cultures grown in mMRS by solvent extraction, gel filtration, RP-C8 chromatography, and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by rechromatography by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Reutericyclin was characterized as a negatively charged, highly hydrophobic molecule with a molecular mass of 349 Da. Structural characterization (A. Höltzel, M. G. Gänzle, G. J. Nicholson, W. P. Hammes, and G. Jung, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:2766–2768, 2000) revealed that reutericyclin is a novel tetramic acid derivative. The inhibitory activity of culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 corresponded to that of purified as well as synthetic reutericyclin. PMID:11010877

Gänzle, Michael G.; Höltzel, Alexandra; Walter, Jens; Jung, Günther; Hammes, Walter P.

2000-01-01

142

A system for heterologous expression of bacteriocins in Lactobacillus sake.  

PubMed

A system for efficient heterologous expression of class II bacteriocins is described that is based on introducing two plasmids in a bacteriocin-negative Lactobacillus sake strain. The first plasmid (pSAK20) contains the genes necessary for transcriptional activation of the Sakacin A promoter as well as export and processing of bacteriocin precursors. The second plasmid (a pLPV111 derivative) contains the structural and immunity genes for the bacteriocin of interest fused to the sakacin A promoter. Using this system, various bacteriocins were produced at levels equal to or higher than those obtained with the corresponding wild-type producer strains. PMID:9812374

Axelsson, L; Katla, T; Bjørnslett, M; Eijsink, V G; Holck, A

1998-11-01

143

Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus are currently used in a variety of clinical practices with limited evidence to support their use. Lactobacillus species are a normal part of gastrointestinal flora, and bacteremia with probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is very uncommon. We describe a case of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 17-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis managed with systemic corticosteroids and infliximab, who presented with fever to 102°F, flushing, and chills 1 week after starting Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG probiotics. Initial blood culture on day 2 of his fever was positive for Lactobacillus, however, subsequent blood cultures on day 3 and 5 were negative. He was treated empirically with antibiotics for 5 days and defervesced by day 8 of his illness. 16 S rRNA sequence analysis identified the organism from the patient's blood culture and probiotic capsule as L. rhamnosus with a 99.78% match for both the strains. This case report highlights the potential risk of Lactobacillus bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients with severe active ulcerative colitis. PMID:23426446

Vahabnezhad, Elaheh; Mochon, Albert Brian; Wozniak, Laura Joyce; Ziring, David Alexander

2013-01-01

144

Fructooligosaccharides metabolism and effect on bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses.  

PubMed

Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Among them, the strain L. plantarum LE5 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enteroccocus faecalis; while the L. plantarum LE27 strain showed antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. This antimicrobial activity in most of the cases was obtained only after FOS supplementation. In summary, these results show the feasibility to increase the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus bacteriocins by supplementing the growth medium with FOS. PMID:22342961

Muñoz, M; Mosquera, A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Melendez, A P; Sánchez, O F

2012-06-01

145

B cells are not essential for Lactobacillus-mediated protection against lethal pneumovirus infection.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that priming of respiratory mucosa with live Lactobacillus species promotes robust and prolonged survival from an otherwise lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice, a property known as heterologous immunity. Lactobacillus priming results in a moderate reduction in virus recovery and a dramatic reduction in virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production; the precise mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. Because B cells have been shown to promote heterologous immunity against respiratory virus pathogens under similar conditions, in this study we explore the role of B cells in Lactobacillus-mediated protection against acute pneumovirus infection. We found that Lactobacillus-primed mice feature elevated levels of airway Igs IgG, IgA, and IgM and lung tissues with dense, B cell (B220(+))-enriched peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates with germinal centers consistent with descriptions of BALT. No B cells were detected in lung tissue of Lactobacillus-primed B cell deficient ?MT mice or Jh mice, and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice had no characteristic infiltrates or airway Igs. Nonetheless, we observed diminished virus recovery and profound suppression of virus-induced proinflammatory cytokines CCL2, IFN-?, and CXCL10 in both wild-type and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice. Furthermore, Lactobacillus plantarum-primed, B cell-deficient ?MT and Jh mice were fully protected from an otherwise lethal pneumonia virus of mice infection, as were their respective wild-types. We conclude that B cells are dispensable for Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity and were not crucial for promoting survival in response to an otherwise lethal pneumovirus infection. PMID:24748495

Percopo, Caroline M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Shaffer, Arthur L; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

2014-06-01

146

Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov., isolated from subarctic timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage.  

PubMed

Four strains of Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and non-motile lactic acid bacteria, LOOC260(T), LOOC253, LOOC273 and LOOC279, were isolated from timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage produced in Hokkaido, a subarctic region of Japan. These isolates grew at 4-37 °C, indicating the psychrotolerant nature of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these four strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LOOC260(T) demonstrated that the closest neighbours were the type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus (97.7 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans (96.7 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus (96.7 %). Strain LOOC260(T) showed low levels of DNA-DNA association with Lactobacillus suebicus JCM 9504(T) (14.7 ± 3.5 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans JCM 16175(T) (15.1 ± 4.8 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus JCM 1716(T) (10.7 ± 3.0 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LOOC260(T) ( = JCM 18461(T) = DSM 26202(T)). PMID:23223820

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-07-01

147

Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the virulence of Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract. This pathogen causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in animals and humans. Antibiotic-associated diseases may be treated with probiotics, and interest is increasing in such uses of probiotics. This study investigated the effect of Lactobacillus strains on the quorum-sensing signals and toxin production of C. difficile. In addition, an in vivo experiment was designed to assess whether Lactobacillus acidophilus GP1B is able to control C. difficile-associated disease. Autoinducer-2 activity was measured for C. difficile using the Vibrio harveyi coupled bioluminescent assay. Cell extract (10?g/mL) of L. acidophilus GP1B exhibited the highest inhibitory activity among 5 to 40?g/mL cell-extract concentrations. Real-time PCR data indicated decreased transcriptional levels in luxS, tcdA, tcdB, and txeR genes in the presence of 10?g/mL of cell extract of L. acidophilus GP1B. Survival rates at 5d for mice given the pathogen alone with L. acidophilus GP1B cell extract or L. acidophilus GP1B were 10, 70, and 80%, respectively. In addition, the lactic acid-produced L. acidophilus GP1B exhibits an inhibitory effect against the growth of C. difficile. Both the L. acidophilus GP1B and GP1B cell extract have significant antipathogenic effects on C. difficile. PMID:24856984

Yun, B; Oh, S; Griffiths, M W

2014-08-01

148

Functional analysis of three plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 harbors three plasmids, pWCFS101, pWCFS102, and pWCFS103, with sizes of 1,917, 2,365, and 36,069 bp, respectively. The two smaller plasmids are of unknown function and contain replication genes that are likely to function via the rolling-circle replication mechanism. The host range of the pWCFS101 replicon includes Lactobacillus species and Lactococcus lactis, while that of the pWCFS102 replicon also includes Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Bacillus subtilis. The larger plasmid is predicted to replicate via the theta-type mechanism. The host range of its replicon seems restricted to L. plantarum. Cloning vectors were constructed based on the replicons of all three plasmids. Plasmid pWCFS103 was demonstrated to be a conjugative plasmid, as it could be transferred to L. plantarum NC8. It confers arsenate and arsenite resistance, which can be used as selective markers. PMID:15746322

van Kranenburg, Richard; Golic, Natasa; Bongers, Roger; Leer, Rob J; de Vos, Willem M; Siezen, Roland J; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-03-01

149

Functional Analysis of Three Plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 harbors three plasmids, pWCFS101, pWCFS102, and pWCFS103, with sizes of 1,917, 2,365, and 36,069 bp, respectively. The two smaller plasmids are of unknown function and contain replication genes that are likely to function via the rolling-circle replication mechanism. The host range of the pWCFS101 replicon includes Lactobacillus species and Lactococcus lactis, while that of the pWCFS102 replicon also includes Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Bacillus subtilis. The larger plasmid is predicted to replicate via the theta-type mechanism. The host range of its replicon seems restricted to L. plantarum. Cloning vectors were constructed based on the replicons of all three plasmids. Plasmid pWCFS103 was demonstrated to be a conjugative plasmid, as it could be transferred to L. plantarum NC8. It confers arsenate and arsenite resistance, which can be used as selective markers. PMID:15746322

van Kranenburg, Richard; Golic, Natasa; Bongers, Roger; Leer, Rob J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-01-01

150

The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G?+?C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

2013-01-01

151

Sepsis associated with Lactobacillus bacteremia in a patient with ischemic colitis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species is a known commensal of the mouth, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract. However, its isolation on blood cultures is often overlooked and attributed to bench contamination. We present a case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent male who initially presented with altered mental status, but developed sepsis from Lactobacillus bacteremia during his hospital course, while on mechanical ventilation. He was found to have ischemic colitis on colonoscopy. His condition improved with antibiotics and supportive management. Using this example of ischemic colitis, we stress that in the right clinical setting, Lactobacillus bacteremia is a harbinger for a serious underlying pathology and should not be ignored. PMID:25249745

Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Khoury, Charbel C.

2014-01-01

152

Exopolysaccharides producing Lactobacillus fermentum strain for enhancing rheological and sensory attributes of low-fat dahi.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus fermentum V10 was able to show large capsules surrounding the cell surface and produced 247.37?±?0.76 mg/L polysaccharides in fermentation medium. The effect on technological properties of low-fat dahi found to be significantly (P?Lactobacillus fermentum V10 than control dahi made by EPS(+) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 285 and EPS(-) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 09 cultures. Low fat dahi prepared by exopolysaccharides producing Lactobacillus fermentum V10 exhibited optimum acid production, lesser whey separation, higher viscosity, increased adhesiveness and stickiness whereas decreased firmness and work of shear as compared to control dahi. PMID:24426040

Behare, Pradip V; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ravinder; Rao, K H

2013-12-01

153

Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains downregulate proinflammatory genes in an ex vivo system of cultured human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

Significant health benefits have been demonstrated for certain probiotic strains through intervention studies; however, there is a shortage of experimental evidence relative to the mechanisms of action. Here, noninvasive experimental procedure based on a colon organ culture system has been used that, in contrast to most experimental in vitro models reported, can preserve natural immunohistochemical features of the human mucosa. This system has been used to test whether commensal lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 299v (A(-))) were able to hinder inflammation-like signals induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (IO). Whole genome microarrays have been applied to analyze expression differences, from which mRNA markers could be inferred to monitor the effect of putative probiotic strains under such conditions. Regarding the gene expression, PMA/IO treatment induced not only interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-?), as expected, but also other relevant genes related to immune response and inflammation, such as IL-17A, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL11. The ex vivo culturing did not modify the pattern of expression of those genes or others related to inflammation. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that lactobacilli downregulated those genes and triggered a global change of the transcriptional profile that indicated a clear homeostasis restoring effect and a decrease in signals produced by activated T cells. PMID:22669626

Bäuerl, Christine; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Monedero, Vicente; Mata, Manuel; Zúñiga, Manuel; Guarner, Francisco; Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

2013-03-01

154

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strain FMNP01, Isolated from Mango Fruit  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum strain FMNP01 is a new strain with probiotic properties that was isolated from fresh mango from Guangzhou, China. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism. PMID:25428967

Li, Xue-Fei; Liao, Xue-Yi; Liu, Yong-Feng; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei

2014-01-01

155

Bacteriophage endolysins expressed in yeast kill strains of Lactobacillus that contaminate fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Species of Lactobacillus are the predominant contaminants that reduce ethanol yields and cause “stuck” fermentations, decreasing the profitability of biofuel production with expen...

156

Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.  

PubMed

The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2010-05-01

157

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23?  

PubMed Central

The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2010-01-01

158

Influence of Lactobacillus E1 on the storage stability in emulsion immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coacervation method with double emulsion strategy (w\\/o\\/w) was used to prepare immobilized Lactobacillus E1. Diatomite was chosen as the carrier for bacteria. Sodium alginate, dextrin and gelatin were used as protective solutes\\u000a for the preservation of Lactobacillus E1 and their effects on the storage viability during storage were discussed. The influence of storage temperature on the\\u000a storage viability was

Xin Sun; Xiguang Chen; Chengsheng Liu; Dongsu Cha; Hongni Peng

2009-01-01

159

Reduction of Sulfide, Ammonia Compounds, and Adhesion Properties of Lactobacillus casei Strain KE99 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus casei strain KE99 to reduce sulfide, ammonia, and to adhere to bio-surfaces was characterized and compared with three lactobacillus\\u000a reference strains. Sulfide reduction by strain KE99 in MRS broth increased exponentially after 10-h growth and reached a maximum\\u000a (>300 ppm reduction) within 48 h. KE99 demonstrated a maximum reduction of sulfide under anaerobic (341 ppm) growth

A. S. Naidu; X. Xie; D. A. Leumer; S. Harrison; M. J. Burrill; E. A. Fonda

2002-01-01

160

Structure and functions of exopolysaccharide produced by gut commensal Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 together with a Lactobacillus-free mouse model, provides a system with which the molecular traits underpinning bacterial commensalism in vertebrates can be studied. A polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing liquid cultures of strain 100-23. Chemical analysis showed that this exopolysaccharide was a levan (?-2, 6-linked fructan). Mutation of the fructosyl transferase (ftf) gene resulted in loss of

Ian M Sims; Steven A Frese; Jens Walter; Diane Loach; Michelle Wilson; Kay Appleyard; Jocelyn Eason; Megan Livingston; Margaret Baird; Gregory Cook; Gerald W Tannock

2011-01-01

161

Differentiation of Lactobacillus-probiotic strains by visual comparison of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, distinctive RAPD fingerprints were generated for 12 Lactobacillus-probiotic strains from 5 Lactobacillus species (L. brevis, L. reuteri, L. gallinarium, L. salivarius and L. panis) after optimization of the RAPD parameters such as MgCl2, Taq polymerase, primer concentration and type of primer. The strains were differentiated under the same PCR protocol but different concentration of primer OPM-05

Norlida Abdul Manan; Sieo Chin Chin; Norhani Abdullah; Ho Yin Wan

2009-01-01

162

Gut commensal Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 stimulates an immunoregulatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 is a bacterial commensal of the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Previous studies have shown that colonization of the murine gut by this strain stimulates small-bowel enterocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines. This is associated with a mild, transitory inflammatory response 6 days after inoculation of formerly Lactobacillus-free animals. The inflammation subsides by 21 days after colonization, although lactobacilli

Megan Livingston; Diane Loach; Michelle Wilson; Gerald W Tannock; Margaret Baird

2010-01-01

163

Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus -SDC 2012, 2013 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria exhibit a variety of properties, which are unique to a particular strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 are new strains isolated from Korean infants’ feces. The potential utility of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was studied. Forty IBS patients were randomized into a placebo (n = 20) and probiotics group (n = 20). Four weeks of treatment with L.

Dong Hyun Sinn; Ji Hyun Song; Hoi Jin Kim; Jun Haeng Lee; Hee Jung Son; Dong Kyung Chang; Young-Ho Kim; Jae J. Kim; Jong Chul Rhee; Poong-Lyul Rhee

2008-01-01

164

Antimicrobial activity of different Lactobacillus species against multi- drug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacilli are the well known friendly bacteria for their probiotic activities against pathogens. The inhibitory activity of different strains of lactobacilli either obtained as commercial products or isolated from human feces was investigated against the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates were selected as the most resistant strains when challenged with anti-pseudomonal antibiotics already in clinical practice. Materials and Methods Both the plate spot test as well as the agar cup method were used for screening of Lactobacillus strains against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results A Lactobacillus acidophilus strain isolated from feces of an Iranian child showed a strong anti-pseudomonal activity (90 percent after 72h incubation) against the multi-drug resistant clinical isolates while a Lactobacillus reuteri strain isolated from a commercial oral product resulted in relatively weak response and a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain isolated from a commercial vaginal product did not show any inhibitory activity. In a kinetic study the lactobacillus sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a significant bacteriostatic activity in vitro in the presence of lactobacillus supernatants. Conclusion Some lactobacilli exhibit significant inhibitory activity against the multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22347578

Jamalifar, H; Rahimi, HR; Samadi, N; Shahverdi, AR; Sharifian, Z; Hosseini, F; Eslahi, H; Fazeli, MR

2011-01-01

165

Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.  

PubMed

The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:24767059

Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

2014-09-15

166

Characterization of a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene from Lactobacillus zymae.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented vegetable food. LAB accumulating GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) in the culture media were screened by TLC analysis. One isolate, GU240, produced the highest amount of GABA among the 3,000 isolates and identified as a Lactobacillus zymae strain. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene was cloned and over-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using pET26b(+). The recombinant GAD was purified by using a Ni-NTA column. Its size was 53 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Maximum GAD activity was at pH 4.5 and 41 °C and the activity was dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Km and Vmax of LzGAD were 1.7 mM and 0.01 mM/min, respectively, when glutamate was used as a substrate. PMID:24770872

Park, Ji Yeong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-09-01

167

Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently found in the fermentation of plant-derived food products, where hydroxycinnamoyl esters are abundant. L. plantarum WCFS1 cultures were unable to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters; however, cell extracts from the strain partially hydrolyze methyl ferulate and methyl p-coumarate. In order to discover whether the protein Lp_0796 is the enzyme responsible for this hydrolytic activity, it was recombinantly overproduced and enzymatically characterized. Lp_0796 is an esterase that, among other substrates, is able to efficiently hydrolyze the four model substrates for feruloyl esterases (methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl p-coumarate, and methyl sinapinate). A screening test for the detection of the gene encoding feruloyl esterase Lp_0796 revealed that it is generally present among L. plantarum strains. The present study constitutes the description of feruloyl esterase activity in L. plantarum and provides new insights into the metabolism of hydroxycinnamic compounds in this bacterial species. PMID:23793626

Esteban-Torres, María; Reverón, Inés; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

2013-01-01

168

Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

169

Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.  

PubMed

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

2012-12-01

170

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. PMID:24961744

Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

2015-02-01

171

Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory gene rsiR modulates histamine production and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P; Gao, C; Pflughoeft, K J; Thomas, C M; Saulnier, D M; Spinler, J K; Versalovic, J

2013-12-01

172

Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

2013-01-01

173

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

174

Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Setting Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous portions of their lungs or lobes removed as treatment for lung cancer (normal lung function controls (n=28), persons with mild (GOLD 1) (n=21) and moderate (GOLD 2) COPD (n=25)). Outcome measures Primary outcome measure was GD1 positivity within each group and whether or not this impacted quantitative histological measures of lung inflammation. Secondary outcome measures included Lactobacillus presence and quantification, and quantitative histological measurements of inflammation and remodelling in early COPD. Results Total bacterial count (p>0.05) and prevalence of Lactobacillus (p>0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the GD1 gene was detected more frequently in the controls (14%) than in either mild (5%) or moderate (0%) COPD (p<0.05) samples. Macrophage and neutrophil volume fractions (0.012±0.005 (mean±SD) vs 0.026±0.017 and 0.005±0.002 vs 0.015±0.014, respectively) in peripheral lung tissue were reduced in samples positive for the GD1 gene (p<0.0035). Conclusions A reduction in GD1 positivity is associated with an increased tissue immune inflammatory response in early stage COPD. There is potential for Lactobacillus to be used as a possible therapeutic, however, validation of these results need to be completed before an anti-inflammatory role of Lactobacillus in COPD can be confirmed. PMID:25652802

Sze, Marc A; Utokaparch, Soraya; Elliott, W Mark; Hogg, James C; Hegele, Richard G

2015-01-01

175

Arginine Catabolism by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Purification and Characterization of the Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmic extracts of 70 strains of the most frequently isolated sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened initially for arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), and carbamate kinase (CK) activities, which comprise the ADI (or arginine dihydrolase) pathway. Only obligately heterofermentative strains such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1; Lactobacillus brevis AM1, AM8, and 10A; Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B; and Lactobacillus fructivorans DD3

Maria De Angelis; Liberato Mariotti; Jone Rossi; Maurizio Servili; Patrick F. Fox; Graciela Rollan; Marco Gobbetti

2002-01-01

176

A High-Molecular-Mass Surface Protein (Lsp) and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B (MsrB) Contribute to the Ecological Performance of Lactobacillus reuteri in the Murine Gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Lactobacillus are common inhabitants of the gut, yet little is known about the traits that contribute to their ecological performance in gastrointestinal ecosystems. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 persists in the gut of the reconstituted Lactobacillus-free mouse after a single oral inoculation. Recently, three genes of this strain that were specifically induced (in vivo induced) in the murine

Jens Walter; Patrice Chagnaud; Gerald W. Tannock; Diane M. Loach; Fabio Dal Bello; Howard F. Jenkinson; Walter P. Hammes; Christian Hertel

2005-01-01

177

Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry.  

PubMed

In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract. PMID:25477944

Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

2014-01-01

178

Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215T, was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced D-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215T had 98.7-99.6% sequence similarity to that of the type strain of three Lactobacillus (L. farciminis BCRC 14043T, L. futsaii BCRC 80278T and L. crustorum JCM 15951T). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215T was well separated from the reference strains of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain S15T had DNA related to the three types of Lactobacillus (33-66%). The DNA G+C content of strain S215T was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the D-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18:1 ?9c (41.5%), C16:0 (23.4%) and C19:0 cyclo ?10c/19?6 (22.8%). Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represented a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain was S215T = NBRC 109509T = BCRC 80582T). PMID:25281727

Chang, Chi-Huan; Chen, Yi-Sheng; Lee, Tzu-Tai; Chang, Yu-Chung; Yu, Bi

2014-10-01

179

Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)  

PubMed Central

Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

2013-01-01

180

Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.  

PubMed

Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ?10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P < 0.05 for E. coli ATCC; t = -6.19, P < 0.05 for E. coli clinical isolates; t = -6.16, P < 0.05 for Enterobacter sp; t = -11.92, P < 0.05 for Salmonella typhi, t = -1.10, P > 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ?10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity. PMID:25153762

Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

2015-01-01

181

Effect of prebiotic carbohydrates on the growth and tolerance of Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Resistance to gastrointestinal conditions is a requirement for bacteria to be considered probiotics. In this work, we tested the resistance of six different Lactobacillus strains and the effect of carbon source to four different gastrointestinal conditions: presence of ?-amylase, pancreatin, bile extract and low pH. Novel galactooligosaccharides synthesized from lactulose (GOS-Lu) as well as commercial galactooligosaccharides synthesized from lactose (GOS-La) and lactulose were used as carbon sources and compared with glucose. In general, all strains grew in all carbon sources, although after 24 h of fermentation the population of all Lactobacillus strains was higher for both types of GOS than for glucose and lactulose. No differences were found among GOS-Lu and GOS-La. ?-amylase and pancreatin resistance was retained at all times for all strains. However, a dependence on carbon source and Lactobacillus strain was observed for bile extract and low pH resistance. High hydrophobicity was found for all strains with GOS-Lu when compared with other carbon sources. However, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids were higher in glucose and lactulose than GOS-Lu and GOS-La. These results show that the resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and hydrophobicity is directly related with the carbon source and Lactobacillus strains. In this sense, the use of prebiotics as GOS and lactulose could be an excellent alternative to monosaccharides to support growth of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and improve their survival through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22365348

Hernandez-Hernandez, O; Muthaiyan, A; Moreno, F J; Montilla, A; Sanz, M L; Ricke, S C

2012-06-01

182

Severe oral infection due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

We report a case of severe oral infection with a high fever due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. The patient did not improve on treatment with meropenem, clindamycin, or vancomycin until neutrophil recovery. Since L. rhamnosus GG is used in dairy products, and the patient ingested dairy products daily before starting chemotherapy, we suspected an association between the ingestion of dairy products and the development of infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using two different restriction enzymes showed that the strain isolated from the patient was identical to the L. rhamnosus GG strain isolated from dairy products and ATCC #53103. This was confirmed by a PCR assay with species-specific L. rhamnosus GG primers. Since Lactobacillus infection, particularly L. rhamnosus infection, can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts, we should consider Lactobacillus as a causative organism when Gram-positive rods are detected during treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and vancomycin. The causal association between the ingestion of dairy products containing Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus infection in immunocompromised hosts warrants further study. PMID:25115834

Ishihara, Yuko; Kanda, Junya; Tanaka, Kaori; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Yamazaki, Rie; Kako, Shinichi; Nishida, Junji; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

2014-12-01

183

Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of lactic acid bacteria as live vehicles for the production and delivery of therapeutic molecules is being actively investigated today. For future applications it is essential to be able to establish dose-response curves for the targeted biological effect and thus to control the production of a heterologous biopeptide by a live lactobacillus. We therefore implemented in Lactobacillus plantarum

SONIA PAVAN; PASCAL HOLS; JEAN DELCOUR; MARIE-CLAUDE GEOFFROY; CORINNE GRANGETTE; MICHIEL KLEEREBEZEM; ANNICK MERCENIER

2000-01-01

184

The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp. Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The

Nadja Larsen; Peter Nissen; William G. T. Willats

2007-01-01

185

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain wikim 22, Isolated from Kimchi in Chungcheong Province, South Korea  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei strain wikim 22, a Lactobacillus species isolated from kimchi in North Chungcheong Province, South Korea, having 155 contigs with 2,447 genes and an average G+C content of 40.61%. PMID:25502679

Lim, Hyeong In; Lee, Jina; Jang, Ja Young; Park, Hae Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Mi Ran

2014-01-01

186

The Adsorption of Ochratoxin A by Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-01-01

187

Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and ?-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations. PMID:24682879

Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

2014-05-01

188

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.  

PubMed

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an essential component of the antimicrobial repertoire and represent an effective means by which neutrophils capture, contain, and kill microorganisms. However, the uncontrolled or excessive liberation of NETs also damages surrounding cells and can contribute to disease pathophysiology. Alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as the presence of local and systemic markers of inflammation, are strongly associated with the manifestation of a spectrum of intestinal disorders, including chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotics exert beneficial effects on gut homeostasis, their direct effect on neutrophils, which are abundant in the setting of intestinal inflammation, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of nonpathogenic, enteropathogenic, and probiotic bacteria on the dynamics of NET formation. Using murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils and the neutrophil-differentiated human myeloid cell line d.HL-60, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG inhibits both PMA- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced formation of NETs. Moreover, probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG had potent antioxidative activity: dampening reactive oxygen species production and phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils while protecting against cell cytotoxicity. Within the milieu of the gut, this represents a novel mechanism by which probiotics can locally dampen innate immune responses and confer desensitization toward luminal Ags. PMID:24465012

Vong, Linda; Lorentz, Robert J; Assa, Amit; Glogauer, Michael; Sherman, Philip M

2014-02-15

189

The adsorption of ochratoxin a by lactobacillus species.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-09-01

190

CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2014-01-01

191

Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2013-01-01

192

Lactobacillus rhamnosus as additive for maize and sorghum ensiling.  

PubMed

The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus AT195, a potential probiotic microorganism cultured in buffalo "scotta" whey, on chemical and microbiological composition in maize and sorghum ensiling were evaluated. Both crops were harvested, chopped, and treated or not with the selected strain prior to ensiling in fiberglass vertical silos; 90 days after ensiling, silages were sensorially evaluated and sampled. Different chemical components were evaluated both on fresh crops and silages: in particular, the water-soluble carbohydrates content was investigated by high-field NMR spectroscopy and the carbohydrate fermentation profile was performed by GC. Besides phenotypic identification and typing, microbiological studies included Lb. rhamnosus genotype typing by RAPD-PCR. All silages, inoculated or not, were well preserved, as their chemical and microbiological data along with the fermentation profiles showed. The selected strain used as inoculum influenced the lactic acid population of silages and evidenced a good survival performance during the ensiling process of both maize and sorghum. Moreover, the use of Lb. rhamnosus strain efficiently improved the quality of the multifactorial ensiling process by significantly reducing the ammonia nitrogen content of both maize and sorghum silages. PMID:17929890

Salimei, Elisabetta; Capilongo, Valeria; Simoni, Andrea; Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Maglieri, Cristina; Romano, Cristina A; Mannina, Luisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

2007-11-14

193

Induction of Pleomorphy and Calcium Ion Deficiency in Lactobacillus bifidus  

PubMed Central

The induction of pleomorphism of Lactobacillus bifidus by NaCl was completely inhibited by CaCl2. When the organism was cultivated in calcium-free medium, growth of the bifid form was exclusively observed. Supplementation of calcium ion in the medium caused bacilloid growth. Chemical analyses indicated that calcium content of the bifid form organisms was significantly less than that of the bacilloid form; i.e., in the former type, there was an approximately 30% decrease of calcium in the whole cells, and an 82% decrease in the cell wall, as compared with the respective content of the latter. These results indicate a suppressing role of calcium ion in the induction of pleomorphism of L. bifidus. Besides calcium content, sugar and amino acid compositions were shown to be different between the bifid and bacilloid forms. In the cell wall especially, the content of glucose in the bifid form was larger than that in the bacilloid form. Methionine and phenylalanine were present in the bifid form, but not in the bacilloid form. Cell walls of the bifid form organisms lacked a larger molecular weight peptidoglycan (7.5S) which was clearly detected in the bacilloid form. Evidence has been given for the relationships of calcium ion and cell wall components to the pleomorphism in L. bifidus. Images PMID:5437726

Kojima, Masami; Suda, Shozo; Hotta, Susumu; Hamada, Koyata

1970-01-01

194

Towards a better understanding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - host interactions  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most widely used probiotic strains. Various health effects are well documented including the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal infections and diarrhea, and stimulation of immune responses that promote vaccination or even prevent certain allergic symptoms. However, not all intervention studies could show a clinical benefit and even for the same conditions, the results are not univocal. Clearly, the host phenotype governed by age, genetics and environmental factors such as the endogenous microbiota, plays a role in whether individuals are responders or non-responders. However, we believe that a detailed knowledge of the bacterial physiology and the LGG molecules that play a key role in its host-interaction capacity is crucial for a better understanding of its potential health benefits. Molecules that were yet identified as important factors governing host interactions include its adhesive pili or fimbriae, its lipoteichoic acid molecules, its major secreted proteins and its galactose-rich exopolysaccharides, as well as specific DNA motifs. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to correlate specific health effects to these molecular effectors in LGG, and also in other probiotic strains. PMID:25186587

2014-01-01

195

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut.  

PubMed

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J

2014-07-29

196

Exclusion of uropathogen adhesion to polymer surfaces by Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

The ability of bacteria to adhere to surfaces is a major cause of concern in the use of biomaterial substrates. The adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1938 was examined using image analysis and was found not to correlate with polymer surface tension, unlike that of Lactobacillus acidophilus, which adhered to more hydrophobic polymers. A fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli strain showed very low levels of adherence to the biomaterials. Precoating the polymers with lactobacilli significantly reduced the staphylococcal and E. coli adhesion, a result which could have clinical significance. An additional finding was that the interaction of staphylococci and E. coli with lactobacilli coated polymers altered the adhesion profile of the latter. Lactobacilli appeared to detach from polymers of low surface tension and reattach to polymers with high surface tensions. This resulted in the highest levels of exclusion of uropathogens being found for lactobacilli-coated glass and sulfonated polystyrene, both of which are hydrophilic (with high surface tensions). These results demonstrate that lactobacilli can be used to coat biomaterial surfaces leading to a reduced adhesion of uropathogens. PMID:2105962

Hawthorn, L A; Reid, G

1990-01-01

197

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

198

Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related probiotic genera.  

PubMed

Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4 Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic genomes than their pathogenic members. The pan- and core genome of each genus was defined. Pairwise BLASTP genome comparison was performed within and between genera. It turned out that pathogenic Streptococcus and Enterococcus shared more gene families than did the non-pathogenic genomes. In silico multilocus sequence typing was carried out for all genomes per genus, and the variable gene content of genomes was compared within the genera. Informative BLAST Atlases were constructed to visualize genomic variation within genera. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classes of all genes in the pan- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature. This study illustrates how over 80 genomes can be broadly compared using simple bioinformatic tools, leading to both confirmation of known information as well as novel observations. PMID:22031452

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W; Wassenaar, Trudy M

2012-04-01

199

Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

2012-01-01

200

Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the ?-(1?4) glucosidic type (?70%). This reuteran also contains ?-(1?6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted ?-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing ?-(1?4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of ?-(1?4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G. H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

2005-01-01

201

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut  

PubMed Central

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

2014-01-01

202

Thermal, chemical, and photocatalytic inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophages.  

PubMed

The effect of several biocides, thermal treatments, and photocatalysis on the viability of four Lactobacillus plantarum phages was investigated. Times to achieve 99% inactivation (T99) of phages at 63, 72, and 90 degrees C were evaluated in four suspension media: deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth, reconstituted skim milk, a commercial EM-glucose medium, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer. The four phages studied were highly resistant to 63 degrees C (T99 > 45 min); however, counts < 10 PFU/ml were achieved by heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Higher thermal resistance at 72 degrees C was observed when reconstituted skim milk and EM-glucose medium were assayed. Peracetic acid (0.15%, vol/vol) was an effective biocide for the complete inactivation of all phages studied within 5 min of exposure. Sodium hypochlorite (800 ppm) inactivated the phages completely within 30 min. Ethanol (100%) did not destroy phage particles even after 45 min. Isopropanol did not have any effect on phage viability. Phage counts < 50 PFU/ml were obtained within 180 min of photocatalytic treatment. The results obtained in this work are important for establishing adequate methods for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments. PMID:19517728

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; De Antoni, Graciela L; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

2009-05-01

203

Lactobacillus GG in inducing and maintaining remission of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Alteration of the intestinal microflora by antibiotic or probiotic therapy may induce and maintain remission. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of oral Lactobacillus GG (L. GG) to induce or maintain medically induced remission. Methods Eleven patients with moderate to active Crohn's disease were enrolled in this trial to receive either L. GG (2 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo for six months. All patients were started on a tapering steroid regime and received antibiotics for the week before the probiotic/placebo medication was initiated. The primary end point was sustained remission, defined as freedom from relapse at the 6 months follow-up visit. Relapse was defined as an increase in CDAI of >100 points. Results 5/11 patients finished the study, with 2 patients in each group in sustained remission. The median time to relapse was 16 ± 4 weeks in the L. GG group and 12 ± 4.3 weeks in the placebo group (p = 0.5). Conclusion In this study we could not demonstrate a benefit of L. GG in inducing or maintaining medically induced remission in CD. PMID:15113451

Schultz, Michael; Timmer, Antje; Herfarth, Hans H; Sartor, R Balfour; Vanderhoof, Jon A; Rath, Heiko C

2004-01-01

204

Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the alpha-(1-->4) glucosidic type ( approximately 70%). This reuteran also contains alpha-(1-->6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted alpha-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing alpha-(1-->4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of alpha-(1-->4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

Kralj, S; Stripling, E; Sanders, P; van Geel-Schutten, G H; Dijkhuizen, L

2005-07-01

205

Evaluation in vitro of the antagonistic substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from chickens  

PubMed Central

To determine the inhibitory capacity of lactic acid bacteria due to the action of antagonistic substances, we tested 474 isolates of Lactobacillus from the crop and cecum of chickens against gram-positive and gram-negative indicator microorganisms by the spot-on-the-lawn and well-diffusion antagonism methods. Of the 474 isolates, 265 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganisms. Isolates identified as L. reuteri, L. salivarius, or Lactobacillus spp. inhibited Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. but not L. casei, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, or L. helveticus by the well-diffusion simultaneous antagonism method under anaerobic incubation conditions. The antagonistic substances produced by some of the Lactobacillus isolates were inactivated after treatment by proteolytic enzymes, which suggested that the substances could be antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins. PMID:17479773

Lima, Edna T.; Andreatti Filho, Raphael L.; Okamoto, Adriano S.; Noujaim, José C.; Barros, Mércia R.; Crocci, Adalberto J.

2007-01-01

206

Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus plantarum – production, genetic organization and mode of action  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins are biologically active proteins or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action towards usually closely related species. Numerous strains of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum have been isolated in the last two decades from different ecological niches including meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, and milk and cereal products. Several of these plantaricins have been characterized and the aminoacid sequence determined. Different aspects of the mode of action, fermentation optimization and genetic organization of the bacteriocin operon have been studied. However, numerous of bacteriocins produced by different Lactobacillus plantarum strains have not been fully characterized. In this article, a brief overview of the classification, genetics, characterization, including mode of action and production optimization for bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in general, and where appropriate, with focus on bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, is presented. PMID:24031346

Todorov, Svetoslav D.

2009-01-01

207

Lactobacillus composti sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, strains NRIC 0689(T) and NRIC 0690, were isolated from a compost of distilled shochu residue in Japan. The isolates showed quite low sequence similarity to known species of lactic acid bacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence; the highest sequence similarities to NRIC 0689(T) were shown by the type strains of Lactobacillus satsumensis, L. plantarum, L. hilgardii, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri (92.9, 92.9, 92.8, 92.6 and 92.5 %, respectively). The isolates formed a distinct subcluster in the Lactobacillus casei-Pediococcus phylogenetic cluster. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon. Therefore, the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRIC 0689(T) (=JCM 14202(T)=DSM 18527(T)). PMID:17392222

Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

2007-04-01

208

Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C–50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

Kasra – Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

2010-01-01

209

Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov., from the digestive tract of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris).  

PubMed

Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus were isolated from the digestive tracts of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris) using MRS agar under anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as undescribed members of the genus Lactobacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.9?%) to the uncharacterized bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. Mboho2r2 isolated from the stomach of a European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Lactobacillus tucceti was found to be the closest related species with a validly published name, with 92.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain. However, phylogenetic analyses based on different markers revealed that this species is phylogenetically very distant from the novel strains. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain BTLCH M1/2(T) is 37.8 mol%. The fatty acids C(19?:?1)?6c and/or C(19?:?0) cyclo ?10c/19?6, C(18?:?1)?9c and C(16?:?0) were predominant in all strains. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, seven glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids were detected in the novel strains. Growth was observed at 47 °C. The peptidoglycan type A4? L-Lys-D-Asp was determined for strain BTLCH M1/2(T). Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on the phylogenetic markers hsp60, pheS, rpoA and tuf as well as phenotypic characteristics and the results of chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the new isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BTLCH M1/2(T) (?=?DSM 26517(T)?=?CCM 8440(T)). PMID:24824637

Killer, J; Votavová, A; Valterová, I; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Hroncová, Z

2014-08-01

210

Lactobacillus-mediated priming of the respiratory mucosa protects against lethal pneumovirus infection*  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response to respiratory virus infection can be complex and refractory to standard therapy. Lactobacilli, when targeted to the respiratory epithelium, are highly effective at suppressing virus-induced inflammation and protecting against lethal disease. Specifically, wild-type mice primed via intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus reuteri were completely protected against lethal infection with the virulent rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM); significant protection (60% survival) persisted for at least thirteen weeks. Protection was not unique to Lactobacillus species, and was also observed in response to priming with non-pathogenic gram-positive Listeria innocua. Priming with live lactobacilli resulted in diminished granulocyte recruitment, diminished expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines (CXCL10, CXCL1, CCL2, and TNF) and reduced virus recovery, although we have demonstrated clearly that absolute virus titer does not predict clinical outcome. Lactobacillus priming also resulted in prolonged survival and protection against the lethal sequelae of PVM infection in MyD88 gene-deleted (MyD88?/?) mice, suggesting that the protective mechanisms may be Toll-like receptor-independent. Most intriguing, virus recovery and cytokine expression patterns in Lactobacillus-primed MyD88?/? mice were indistinguishable from those observed in control-primed MyD88?/? counterparts, In summary, we have identified and characterized an effective Lactobacillus-mediated innate immune shield, which may ultimately serve as critical and long-term protection against infection in the absence of specific antiviral vaccines. PMID:21169550

Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Bachar, Ofir; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Killoran, Kristin E.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2012-01-01

211

Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Induces a Protective Immune Response in Mice with Lyme Disease?  

PubMed Central

Mucosal immunization is advantageous over other routes of antigen delivery because it can induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Our goal was to develop a mucosal delivery vehicle based on bacteria generally regarded as safe, such as Lactobacillus spp. In this study, we used the Lyme disease mouse model as a proof of concept. We demonstrate that an oral vaccine based on live recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum protects mice from tick-transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Our method of expressing vaccine antigens in L. plantarum induces both systemic and mucosal immunity after oral administration. This platform technology can be applied to design oral vaccine delivery vehicles against several microbial pathogens. PMID:18632920

del Rio, Beatriz; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Aroso, Miguel; Neves, Vera; Meirelles, Luciana; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

2008-01-01

212

Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage  

PubMed Central

Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

2014-01-01

213

Tuning constitutive recombinant gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Background Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes a well-recognized food-grade system for the expression of recombinant proteins in the field of industrial and medical biotechnology. For applications in vivo or in biotechnological processes, the level of expression of e.g. antigens or enzymes is often critical, as expression levels should be of a certain effectiveness, yet, without putting too much strain to the overall system. The key factors that control gene expression are promoter strength, gene copy number and translation efficiency. In order to estimate the impact of these adjusting screws in L. plantarum CD033, we have tested several constitutive promoters in combination with high and low copy number plasmid backbones and varying space between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the start-codon.ResultsBy combining strong promoters, such as transcription elongation factor promoters, isolated from L. plantarum CD033 and L. buchneri CD034, a synthetic promoter, originally derived from L. plantarum WCSF1 and a heterologous promoter derived from L. buchneri CD034 with a high and a low copy number origin of replication we demonstrated various expression levels of the model protein mCherry. All promoters were feasible for protein expression and in all cases, the high copy number origin of replication increased expression twofold. We found that the optimal spacer between the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the start codon in L. plantarum consists of 8 nucleotides and elongation as well as shortening this sequence gradually down-regulates gene expression.ConclusionsWe have evaluated the effects of a set of gene regulatory tools to fine tune recombinant gene expression in L. plantarum CD033. We have thus, provided potential expression vectors useful for constitutive protein expression in lactic acid bacteria ranging from moderate to strong production levels. PMID:25410118

Tauer, Christopher; Heinl, Stefan; Egger, Esther; Heiss, Silvia; Grabherr, Reingard

2014-11-20

214

Lactobacillus reuteri in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Probiotics have proven to be useful in the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics may compete directly with Helicobacter pylori, possibly by interference with adherence or by the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to inhibit H. pylori in vitro and in vivo, and theoretically may play a role in eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of L. reuteri in H. pylori eradication therapy. This was an open label single center study. H. pylori infection was defined as positive gastric histopathology and (13)C-UBT. Intervention consisted of L. reuteri (DSM 17938) 10(8) cfu plus pantoprazole 20 mg twice a day for 8 weeks. Eradication was defined as a negative (13)C-UBT, 4-6 weeks post therapy. Compliance was considered good if at least 90% of the total number of the pills were taken. 21 of 22 subjects completed the study without protocol violation (mean age 52 years; 36% men). L. reuteri plus pantoprazole twice a day cured 13.6% (3/22; 95% CI 2.9-34.9%) of patients with H. pylori infection by ITT analysis and 14.2% (3/21; 95% CI 3.0-36%) by PP analysis. Overall urease activity assessed before and 4-6 weeks post therapy showed a significant reduction with a difference of mean of 38.8 vs. 25.4 by one-tailed test (P = 0.002). In conclusion, L. reuteri may have a potential role in H. pylori eradication therapy if the cure rate can be improved by changes in dose, dosing interval, or duration of therapy. PMID:24178436

Dore, Maria Pina; Cuccu, Marianna; Pes, Gianni Mario; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Yates

2014-09-01

215

Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods. PMID:25320437

Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Jung, Min-Woong; Kim, Da Hye; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Jane, Mariamichael; Park, Hyung Su; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-12-01

216

Gastric emptying is involved in Lactobacillus colonisation in mouse stomach.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are indigenous microbes of the stomach of rodents, with much lower numbers being present in mice fed a purified diet than in those fed a non-purified diet. We postulated that gastric emptying (GE) is responsible for the different colonisation levels of lactobacilli and tested this hypothesis in the present study. BALB/cCr Slc mice were fed either a non-purified diet or a purified diet for 2 weeks. The number of gastric tissue-associated lactobacilli was lower in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. GE, estimated by measuring the food recovered from the stomach, was higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet and correlated negatively with the number of lactobacilli. Mice fed the non-purified diet exhibited lower GE rates even when lactobacilli were eliminated by ampicillin administration through the drinking-water, suggesting that GE is the cause but not the consequence of different Lactobacillus colonisation levels. The plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, a gastric hormone that promotes GE, were higher in mice fed the purified diet than in those fed the non-purified diet. There was a negative correlation between GE and the number of lactobacilli in mice fed the non-purified diet, the purified diet, and the purified diet supplemented with sugarbeet fibre (200 g/kg diet) or carboxymethyl cellulose (40 g/kg diet). We propose that a higher GE rate contributes, at least in part, to lower gastric colonisation levels of lactobacilli in mice fed a purified diet. PMID:24933648

Sahasakul, Yuraporn; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei

2014-08-01

217

Rapid Adoption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A 2007 meta-analysis showed probiotics, specifically Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), shorten diarrhea from acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by 24 hours and decrease risk of progression beyond 7 days. In 2005, our institution published a guideline recommending consideration of probiotics for patients with AGE, but only 1% of inpatients with AGE were prescribed LGG. The objective of this study was to increase inpatient prescribing of LGG at admission to >90%, for children hospitalized with AGE, within 120 days. METHODS: This quality improvement study included patients aged 2 months to 18 years admitted to general pediatrics with AGE with diarrhea. Diarrhea was defined as looser or ?3 stools in the preceding 24 hours. Patients with complex medical conditions or with presumed bacterial gastroenteritis were excluded. Admitting and supervising clinicians were educated on the evidence. We ensured LGG was adequately stocked in our pharmacies and updated an AGE-specific computerized order set to include a default LGG order. Failure identification and mitigation were conducted via daily electronic chart review and e-mail communication. Primary outcome was the percentage of included patients prescribed LGG within 18 hours of admission. Intervention impact was assessed with run charts tracking our primary outcome over time. RESULTS: The prescribing rate increased to 100% within 6 weeks and has been sustained for 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Keys to success were pharmacy collaboration, use of an electronic medical record for a standardized order set, and rapid identification and mitigation of failures. Rapid implementation of evidence-based practices is possible using improvement science methods. PMID:23457156

Schaffzin, Joshua K.; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Yau, Connie; Vonderhaar, Karen; Guiot, Amy; Brinkman, William B.; White, Christine M.; Simmons, Jeffrey M.; Gerhardt, Wendy E.; Kotagal, Uma R.; Conway, Patrick H.

2013-01-01

218

Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. Results: PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1?×?10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60?min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics. PMID:25265366

Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; P P Oliveira, Maria Beatriz

2014-09-29

219

LIFESTYLE OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN THE MOUSE CECUM  

PubMed Central

Summary Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the ceca of adult germ-free C57Bl/6J mice fed a standard low-fat rodent chow diet rich in complex plant polysaccharides or a prototypic Western diet high in simple sugars and fat. L. plantarum colonized the digestive tracts of these animals to high levels, although L. plantarum was found in 10-fold higher amounts in the ceca of mice fed the standard chow. Metabolic reconstructions based on the transcriptional datasets revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism form the principal functional group that is up-regulated in vivo compared to exponential phase cells grown in three different culture media, and that a Western diet provides a more nutritionally-restricted, growth limiting milieu for the microbe in the distal gut. A set of bacterial genes encoding cell surface-related functions were differentially regulated in both groups of mice. This set included down-regulated genes required for the D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acids, extracellular structures of L. plantarum that mediate interactions with the host immune system. These results, obtained in a reductionist gnotobiotic mouse model of the gut ecosystem, provide insights about the niches (professions) of this lactic acid bacterium, and a context for systematically testing features that affect epithelial and immune cell responses to this organism in the digestive tract. PMID:19638173

Marco, Maria L.; Peters, Theodorus H.F.; Bongers, Roger S.; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hemert, Saskia; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2010-01-01

220

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 uses sucrose for synthesis of a unique, soluble glucan ('reuteran') with mainly alpha-(1-->4) glucosidic linkages. The gene (gtfA) encoding this glucansucrase enzyme had previously been characterized. Here, a detailed biochemical and molecular analysis of the GTFA enzyme is presented. This is believed to be the first report describing reuteransucrase enzyme kinetics and the oligosaccharides synthesized with various acceptors. Alignments of the GTFA sequence with glucansucrases from Streptococcus and Leuconostoc identified conserved amino-acid residues in the catalytic core critical for enzyme activity. Mutants Asp1024Asn, Glu1061Gln and Asp1133Asn displayed 300- to 1000-fold-reduced specific activities. To investigate the role of the relatively large N-terminal variable domain (702 amino acids) and the relatively short C-terminal putative glucan-binding domain (267 amino acids, with 11 YG repeats), various truncated derivatives of GTFA (1781 amino acids) were constructed and characterized. Deletion of the complete N-terminal variable domain of GTFA (GTFA-Delta N) had little effect on reuteran characteristics (size, distribution of glycosidic linkages), but the initial transferase activity of the mutant enzyme increased drastically. Sequential C-terminal deletions (up to six YG repeats) in GTFA-Delta N also had little effect on reuteran characteristics. However, enzyme kinetics drastically changed. Deletion of 7, 8 or 11 YG repeats resulted in dramatic loss of total enzyme activity (43-, 63- and 1000-fold-reduced specific activities, respectively). Characterization of sequential C-terminal deletion mutants of GTFA-Delta N revealed that the C-terminal domain of reuteransucrase has an important role in glucan binding. PMID:15256553

Kralj, S; van Geel-Schutten, G H; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L

2004-07-01

221

Environmental influences on exopolysaccharide formation in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of the corresponding reuteransucrase gene, gtfO, was investigated over time and the results indicated that the expression increased with growth during the exponential phase and subsequently decreased in the stationary phase. Fermentation with glucose and/or sucrose as carbon and energy source revealed that gtfO was constitutively expressed and that the activity profile was independent of the sugar source. In the applied ranges of parameter values, temperature and pH were the most important factors for EPS formation and only temperature for growth. The best EPS yield, 1.4 g g(-1) CDW, was obtained at the conditions 37 degrees C, pH 4.5 and 100 g l(-1) sucrose, which were close to the estimated optimal conditions: pH 4.56 and 100 g l(-1) sucrose. No EPS formation could be detected with glucose. In addition, no direct connection between the expression and the activity of reuteransucrase could be established. Finally, the strain ATCC 55730 was benchmarked against 14 other L. reuteri strains with respect to EPS production from sucrose and abilities to metabolise sucrose, glucose and fructose. Eight strains were able to produce glucan and a corresponding glucansucrase gene was confirmed for each of them. PMID:17316859

Arsköld, Emma; Svensson, Malin; Grage, Halfdan; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W J

2007-05-01

222

Rational transformation of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase into a dextransucrase.  

PubMed

Glucansucrase or glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzymes of lactic acid bacteria display high sequence similarity but catalyze synthesis of different alpha-glucans (e.g., dextran, mutan, alternan, and reuteran) from sucrose. The variations in glucosidic linkage specificity observed in products of different glucansucrase enzymes appear to be based on relatively small differences in amino acid sequences in their sugar-binding acceptor subsites. This notion was derived from mutagenesis of amino acids of GTFA (reuteransucrase) from Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 putatively involved in acceptor substrate binding. A triple amino acid mutation (N1134S:N1135E:S1136V) in a region immediately next to the catalytic Asp1133 (putative transition state stabilizing residue) converted GTFA from a mainly alpha-(1-->4) ( approximately 45%, reuteran) to a mainly alpha-(1-->6) ( approximately 80%, dextran) synthesizing enzyme. The subsequent introduction of mutation P1026V:I1029V, involving two residues located in a region next to the catalytic Asp1024 (nucleophile), resulted in synthesis of an alpha-glucan containing only a very small percentage of alpha-(1-->4) glucosidic linkages ( approximately 5%) and a further increased percentage of alpha-(1-->6) glucosidic linkages ( approximately 85%). This changed glucosidic linkage specificity was also observed in the oligosaccharide products synthesized by the different mutant GTFA enzymes from (iso)maltose and sucrose. Amino acids crucial for glucosidic linkage type specificity of reuteransucrase have been identified in this report. The data show that a combination of mutations in different regions of GTF enzymes influences the nature of both the glucan and oligosaccharide products. The amino acids involved most likely contribute to sugar-binding acceptor subsites in glucansucrase enzymes. PMID:15966745

Kralj, Slavko; van Geel-Schutten, Ineke G H; Faber, Elly J; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

2005-06-28

223

Glucan synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus: isolation and characterization of glucansucrase genes, enzymes and glucan products from six different strains.  

PubMed

Members of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc synthesize various alpha-glucans (dextran, alternan and mutan). In Lactobacillus, until now, the only glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme that has been characterized is gtfA of Lactobacillus reuteri 121, the first GTF enzyme synthesizing a glucan (reuteran) that contains mainly alpha-(1-->4) linkages together with alpha-(1-->6) and alpha-(1-->4,6) linkages. Recently, partial sequences of glucansucrase genes were detected in other members of the genus Lactobacillus. This paper reports, for the first time, isolation and characterization of dextransucrase and mutansucrase genes and enzymes from various Lactobacillus species and the characterization of the glucan products synthesized, which mainly have alpha-(1-->6)- and alpha-(1-->3)-glucosidic linkages. The four GTF enzymes characterized from three different Lb. reuteri strains are highly similar at the amino acid level, and consequently their protein structures are very alike. Interestingly, these four Lb. reuteri GTFs have relatively large N-terminal variable regions, containing RDV repeats, and relatively short putative glucan-binding domains with conserved and less-conserved YG-repeating units. The three other GTF enzymes, isolated from Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus parabuchneri, contain smaller variable regions and larger putative glucan-binding domains compared to the Lb. reuteri GTF enzymes. PMID:15528655

Kralj, S; van Geel-Schutten, G H; Dondorff, M M G; Kirsanovs, S; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L

2004-11-01

224

The Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, or a Chemical Preservative on the Fermentation and Aerobic Stability of Corn Silage1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several microorganisms and one chemical preserva- tive were tested for their effects on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. Whole-plant corn (one-half milk line, 31.3% dry matter) was ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos untreated or after the following treatments: Lactobacillus buchneri at 1 × 105 and 1 × 106 cfu\\/g of fresh forage; two different strains of

N. K. Ranjit; L. Kung Jr

2000-01-01

225

Glutaminase activity of Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC3594 and expression of the activity in other Lactobacillus spp. by introduction of the glutaminase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the properties of glutaminase activity of Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC3594 and expressed the glutaminase gene (EC 3.5.1.2) heterologously. The enzyme activity was optimal at pH 7.5 and 40°C. High salt-tolerance of the enzyme was observed as 50% of the initial activity although it still remained at 20% (w\\/v) NaCl for 30 min. The glutaminase gene was cloned from L.

Jeong-Min Jeon; Hae-In Lee; Jae-Seong So

226

Modulation of the murine microbiome with a concomitant anti-obesity effect by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28.  

PubMed

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) constitutes the major part of the total human microbiome and is considered to be an important regulator of human health and host metabolism. Numerous investigations in recent years have focused on the connection between the human microbiota and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Yet, little is known about the impact of probiotic consumption on the GIT microbial population and the potential effect on chronic diseases. In this study, the modulation of the microbial community in the murine small intestine resulting from probiotic feeding was investigated and was found to be associated with an anti-obesity effect. Changes in the microbiota of the mouse faeces and small intestine were monitored using quantitative real-time PCR and by following the mRNA expression levels of various obesity-related biomarkers following probiotic feeding in a mouse model. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28 (a putative probiotic strain isolated from kimchi) were administered at a daily level of approximately 1×10(8) viable bacteria per mouse (C57BL/6J mice) for up to three weeks. Feeding these strains resulted in a significant reduction of epididymal fat mass, as well as obesity-related biomarkers like acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in the liver. The total number and ratio of the microbial groups, i.e. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp. were modulated in the small intestine, and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was decreased. In contrast, no noticeable effect of probiotic feeding could be detected on the faecal microbiota, neither quantitatively, nor with regard to the bacterial groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp.) studied. PMID:22348905

Ji, Y S; Kim, H N; Park, H J; Lee, J E; Yeo, S Y; Yang, J S; Park, S Y; Yoon, H S; Cho, G S; Franz, C M A P; Bomba, A; Shin, H K; Holzapfel, W H

2012-03-01

227

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 differently influence metabolic and immunological parameters in high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis.  

PubMed

In this study, two Lactobacillus strains (L. rhamnosus LA68 and L. plantarum WCFS1) were evaluated for their effects on high fat diet induced pathology in mice. The aim was to determine whether the administration of lactic acid bacteria had beneficial effects on ameliorating pathology. C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet were orally administered with the Lactobacillus strains. Both the metabolic and immunological parameters were analyzed. The administration of both of the strains had beneficial effects on mouse weight, serum cholesterol, TNF-? levels and liver histology. LA68 lowered the total cholesterol and HDL levels more prominently, whereas WCFS1 was more potent in lowering the TG and LDL levels. Leptin and adiponectin levels were increased in all experimental groups to different extents. The administration of L. plantarum WCFS1 led to a marked increase in leptin levels, as well as an increase in CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ cells, and a decrease of CD25+ cells, and had a lowering effect on IL-6 production and cell metabolic activity. In conclusion, active administration of both Lactobacillus strains had a positive effect on HFD-induced pathology. Although both of the tested strains had beneficial effects, oral administration of WCFS1 increased leptin levels and had a more prominent immunomodulatory effect, which should be taken into consideration in case of humane usage. PMID:25518825

Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Radojevic Skodric, Sanja; Zivkovic, Irena; Djordjevic, Brizita

2015-02-11

228

Parameters affecting the adsorption of plantaricin 423, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 423 isolated from sorghum beer.  

PubMed

Plantaricin 423 is bactericidal to logarithmic and stationary-phase cells of Enterococcus sp. HKLHS and L. sakei DSM 20017. Detection of extracellular DNA and beta-galactosidase suggests that the mode of action is most probably by destabilizing of the cell membrane. Adsorption of plantaricin 423 to target cells ranged from 17% for Streptococcus caprinus ATCC 700066 to 67% for Lactobacillus plantarum LMG 13556, Lactobacillus curvatus DF38, Listeria innocua LMG 13568 and Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017. Treatment of Enterococcus sp. HKLHS and L. sakei DSM 20017 with Triton X-100, Triton X-114 and chloroform increased the adsorption of plantaricin. PMID:16892267

Todorov, Svetoslav D; Dicks, Leon M T

2006-04-01

229

Characterization of the tre Locus and Analysis of Trehalose Cryoprotection in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing and lyophilization are common methods used for preservation and storage of microorganisms during the production of concentrated starter cultures destined for industrial fermentations or product formulations. The compatible solute trehalose has been widely reported to protect bacterial, yeast and animal cells against a variety of environmental stresses, particularly freezing and dehydration. Analysis of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM genome revealed

Tri Duong; Rodolphe Barrangou; W. Michael Russell; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2006-01-01

230

Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

2014-01-01

231

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production from  

E-print Network

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production little information published on the effects of these inoculants on animal performance. The purpose and finishing beef animals fed untreated and ECOSYL (ECOSUR in France) treated silage. A similar review has

Boyer, Edmond

232

Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides by Lactobacillus plantarum strains from spontaneous cassava fermentation and other microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium sclerotiorum were screened for 19 enzymatic activities using the commercial kit API zym (Bio Mérieux). This activity was compared to the ability of degrading the toxic cyanogenic glycosides amygdalin, linamarin, and linseed cyanogens (a mixture of linustatin and neolinustatin). Good correlation between the ?-glucosidase activity found in the API zym

Vicki Lei; Wisdom Kofi Asa Amoa-Awua; Leon Brimer

1999-01-01

233

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The short-chain fatty acids formed in the human colon by the bacterial fermentation of fiber may have an antiin- flammatory effect, may reduce insulin production, and may improve lipid metabolism. We previously showed in hypercholes- terolemic patients that supplementation with the probiotic bacte- ria Lactobacillus plantarum 299v significantly lowers concentra- tions of LDL cholesterol and fibrinogen. Objective: We determined

Marek Naruszewicz; Marie-Louise Johansson; Danuta Zapolska-Downar; Hanna Bukowska

234

Enhancement of polyphenols in olive oil by contact with fermented olive mill wastewater by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) phenolic compounds with low and high molecular weight depolymerisation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the transport of phenolics from OMW to olive oil was studied. Incubation of olive oil samples with fermented OMW by L. plantarum caused polyphenols to decrease in OMW and increase in oil with multiple biological effects. The lower total phenolic

Faten Kachouri; Moktar Hamdi

2004-01-01

235

Lactobacillus plantarum—survival, functional and potential probiotic properties in the human intestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile lactic acid bacterium that is encountered in a range of environmental niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies describe the effects of L. plantarum consumption on human physiology. The availability of the complete genome sequence of L. plantarum WCFS1 makes

Maaike C. de Vries; Elaine E. Vaughan; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

2006-01-01

236

Carbohydrates and the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum: The role of moisture distribution and water activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose, maltose, lactose, trehalose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol were tested for their ability to minimize the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum during fluidized bed drying. Desorption isotherms were measured for starch and L. plantarum, for binary mixtures containing starch and a carbohydrate, and for ternary mixtures composed of L. plantarum, starch and a carbohydrate. The moisture distribution inside the drying

Leonie J. M. Linders; Gerard I. W. de Jong; Gerrit Meerdink; Klaas van't Riet

1997-01-01

237

Spatial and temporal expression of Lactobacillus plantarum genes in the gastrointestinal tracts of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, and L. plantarum strain WCFS1 is a human isolate with a known genome sequence. L. plantarum WCFS1 survives intestinal passage in an active form, and its transit time and transcriptional activities were monitored in 15 BALB\\/c mice at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h after being fed a single

Maria L. Marco; Roger S. Bongers; Vos de W. M; Michiel Kleerebezem

2007-01-01

238

Transformation of Lactobacillus plantarum by electroporation with in vitro modified plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the electrotransformation of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 (ATCC 8014) with plasmid DNA isolated from Escherichia coli is described. The two main modifications with respect to existing methods are: (i) isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli JM110 grown in minimal medium and (ii) in vitro modification of the DNA by cell-free extracts of the host L.

M. Teresa Alegre; M. Carmen Rodr??guez; Juan M. Mesas

2004-01-01

239

Cloning of a novel specific SCAR marker for species identification in Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

Identifying Lactobacillus species using only phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) techniques yields inaccurate results. The objective of this study was to develop species-specific primers based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting to distinguish species within the closely related Lactobacillus plantarum group. One of these primers, OPD-3, produced a species-specific band that was found only in the tested Lactobacillus pentosus. This specific fragment was isolated from agarose gel and ligated into a vector for DNA sequencing. A pair of primers, SpOPD3Lpen-F1/R1, that were highly specific sequence-characterized-amplified-regions (SCARs) were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of the specific RAPD marker. These primers were used for PCR analysis of the template DNA of the Lactobacillus strains, and a single 542 bp species-specific band was found only in L. pentosus. Using PCR, a novel species-specific primer pair is shown to rapidly, accurately and effectively distinguish L. pentosus from other species in the L. plantarum group of probiotic bacteria. PMID:24675147

Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina

2014-08-01

240

Biodiversity-based identification and functional characterization of the mannose-specific adhesin of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a frequently encountered inhabitant of the human intestinal tract, and some strains are marketed as probiotics. Their ability to adhere to mannose residues is a potentially interesting characteristic with regard to proposed probiotic features such as colonization of the intestinal surface and competitive exclusion of pathogens. In this study, the variable capacity of 14 L. plantarum strains

Gabriele Pretzer; Johannes Snel; Douwe Molenaar; Anne Wiersma; Peter A. Bron; Jolanda Lambert; Vos de W. M; Roelof van der Meer; Mari A. Smits; Michiel Kleerebezem

2005-01-01

241

Contribution of reutericyclin production to the stable persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri in an industrial sourdough fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reutericyclin is a small molecular weight antibiotic produced by the sourdough isolate Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584. This strain was isolated from an industrial sourdough, SER, in 1988. To determine whether reutericyclin formation contributes to the stable persistence of L. reuteri in sourdough, evaluations were made on whether reutericyclin-producing strains were among L. reuteri isolates from the SER sourdough obtained in 1994

Michael G Gänzle; Rudi F Vogel

2003-01-01

242

Strain-dependent induction of cytokine profiles in the gut by orally administered Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different Lactobacillus strains are frequently used in consumer food products. In addition, recombinant lactobacilli which contain novel expression vectors can now be used in immunotherapeutic applications such as oral vaccination strategies and in T cell tolerance induction approaches for autoimmune disease. Both for food and clinical applications of lactobacilli, proper selection of wild type strains is crucial.For that purpose, eight

Catharina B. M. Maassen; Conny van Holten-Neelen; Fräncis Balk; Marie-Joan Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer; Rob J. Leer; Jon D. Laman; Wim J. A. Boersma; Eric Claassen

2000-01-01

243

The potential of biodetoxification activity as a probiotic property of Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on the metabolism of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 anticipated a variability in the use of organic electron acceptors as a means to relieve metabolic redox problems. Therefore, investigations focusing on this unique metabolism of L. reuteri may reveal a basis for new probiotic properties. For instance, L. reuteri may use reactive aldehydes and ketones as electron acceptors to

Ed W. J. van Niel; Christer U. Larsson; Elke M. Lohmeier-Vogel; Peter Rådström

244

Quantitation by enzyme immunoassay of spirosin from Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three EIA methods (Direct, Indirect and Sandwich EIA) were studied to quantify spirosin in Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli cultured under various conditions in an attempt to get some insight into the function of spirosome. Both Direct and Indirect EIA were suited well for the quantitation of L. reuteri spirosin while Direct EIA was appropriate for spirosin of E. coli.

Masayuki Yamato; Mie Hayashi; Yasuhisa Shiomoto; Fusao Ota

1997-01-01

245

Arginine catabolism and acid tolerance response in Lactobacillus reuteri isolated from sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological role of arginine degradation by the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway and its relationship with the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 cells, a lactic acid bacterium of sourdough origin, were studied. The activity of the ADI pathway enzymes (ADI, ornithine transcarbamoylase and carbamate kinase) in L. reuteri CRL 1098 grown in presence of arginine and

G. Rollan; G. L. Lorca

2003-01-01

246

Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri biofilms produce antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Commensal-derived probiotic bacteria inhibit enteric pathogens and regulate host immune responses in the gastrointestinal tract, but studies examining specific functions of beneficial microbes in the context of biofilms have been limited in scope. RESULTS: Lactobacillus reuteri formed biofilms that retained functions potentially advantageous to the host including modulation of cytokine output and the production of the antimicrobial agent, reuterin.

Sara E Jones; James Versalovic

2009-01-01

247

Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic supplementation may provide health benefits, especially for individuals with an underlying disease state that makes them more susceptible to infections. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri ingestion by subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-nine subjects consumed a freeze-dried preparation of L. reuteri or a placebo for 21

B. W. Wolf; K. B. Wheeler; D. G. Ataya; K. A. Garleb

1998-01-01

248

The Evolution of Host Specialization in the Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiota to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped this symbiosis. In the present study, we showed in experiments with gnotobiotic mice that the evolution of Lactobacillus reuteri with rodents resulted in the emergence of host specialization. To identify genomic events marking

Steven A. Frese; Andrew K. Benson; Gerald W. Tannock; Diane M. Loach; Jaehyoung Kim; Min Zhang; Phaik Lyn Oh; Nicholas C. K. Heng; Prabhu B. Patil; Nathalie Juge; Donald A. MacKenzie; Bruce M. Pearson; Alla L. Lapidus; Eileen Dalin; Hope Tice; Eugene Goltsman; Miriam L Land; Loren John Hauser; Natalia Ivanova; Nikos C. Kyrpides; Jens Walter

2011-01-01

249

Lactobacillus reuteri-induced Regulatory T cells Protect against an Allergic Airway Response in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: We have previously demonstrated that oral treatment with live Lactobacillus reuteri can attenuate major characteristics of the asthmatic response in a mouse model of allergic airway in- flammation. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that regulatory T cells play a major role in mediating L. reuteri-induced attenuation of the allergic

Khalil Karimi; Mark D. Inman; John Bienenstock; Paul Forsythe

250

Colonization and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent

Nana Valeur; Peter Engel; Noris Carbajal; Eamonn Connolly; Karin Ladefoged

2004-01-01

251

Proteomic analysis of the effect of bile salts on the intestinal and probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is a resident of the human and animal intestinal tracts. The ability of L. reuteri to survive passage through the intestinal tract is a key point in its function as a probiotic. In order to examine the nature of bile salt tolerance by L. reuteri, its protein synthesis was analyzed in liquid cultures containing two different bile salt

KiBeom Lee; Hong-Gu Lee; Yun-Jaie Choi

2008-01-01

252

Genomic and Genetic Characterization of the Bile Stress Response of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression

Kristi Whitehead; James Versalovic; Stefan Roos; Robert A. Britton

2008-01-01

253

A comprehensive approach to determine the probiotic potential of human-derived Lactobacillus for industrial use.  

PubMed

Specific strains should only be regarded as probiotics if they fulfill certain safety, technological and functional criteria. The aim of this work was to study, from a comprehensive point of view (in vitro and in vivo tests), three Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 and Lactobacillus gasseri 37) isolated from feces of local newborns, determining some parameters of technological, biological and functional relevance. All strains were able to adequately grow in different economic culture media (cheese whey, buttermilk and milk), which were also suitable as cryoprotectants. As selective media, LP-MRS was more effective than B-MRS for the enumeration of all strains. The strains were resistant to different technological (frozen storage, high salt content) and biological (simulated gastrointestinal digestion after refrigerated storage in acidified milk, bile exposure) challenges. L. rhamnosus 64 and L. gasseri 37, in particular, were sensible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin, increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage and induced the proliferation of IgA producing cells in small intestine when administered to mice. Even when clinical trails are still needed, both strains fulfilled the main criteria proposed by FAO/WHO to consider them as potential probiotics for the formulation of new foods. PMID:23498174

Gregoret, V; Perezlindo, M J; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J; Binetti, A

2013-05-01

254

Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 with antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 is a probiotic bacterium, which shows high antibacterial activity. The genome consists of a circular 3,033,693-bp chromosome and six plasmids. Bioinformatics inspection of the genome revealed a gene cluster relating to bacteriocin production. Genome information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the bacteriocin production. PMID:25444879

Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping

2015-01-10

255

Genome Sequence of the Heteropolysaccharide-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.  

PubMed

Exopolysaccharide-synthesizing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 is a heterofermentative strain, which has demonstrated cholesterol-lowering properties in an animal model of lipid-driven atherosclerosis. The genome revealed a plethora of homologues linked to carbohydrate metabolism and mucin binding. PMID:25593248

Ryan, Paul M; Guinane, Caitriona M; London, Lis E E; Kelleher, Philip R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Caplice, Noel M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

2015-01-01

256

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

257

Role of asparagine 1134 in glucosidic bond and transglycosylation specificity of reuteransucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri 121  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria convert sucrose into various ?-glucans that differ greatly with respect to the glucosidic bonds present (e.g. dextran, mutan, alternan and reuteran). This study aimed to identify the structural features of the reuteransucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 (GTFA) that determine its reaction specificity. We here report a detailed mutational analysis of a conserved region immediately next

Slavko Kralj; Wieger Eeuwema; Tom H. Eckhardt; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2006-01-01

258

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate  

PubMed Central

The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634

Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J.; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos

2014-01-01

259

Protective action of Lactobacillus kefir carrying Slayer protein against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Lactobacillus kefir strains isolated from different kefir grains were tested for their ability to antagonize Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis) interaction with epithelial cells. L. kefir surface properties such as autoaggregation and coaggregation with Salmonella and adhesion to Caco-2\\/TC-7 cells were evaluated. L. kefir strains showed significantly different adhesion capacities, six strains were able to autoaggregate and four

M. A. Golowczyc; P. Mobili; G. L. Garrote; A. G. Abraham; G. L. De Antoni

2007-01-01

260

Reduction of acetophenone to R (+)-phenylethanol by a new alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alcohol dehydrogenase catalysing the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to R(+)-phenylethanol was found in a strain of Lactobacillus kefir. A 70-fold enrichment of the enzyme with an overall yield of 76% was obtained in two steps. The addition of Mg2+ ions was found to be necessary to prevent rapid deactivation. The enzyme depends essentially on NADPH and was inactive

Werner Hummel

1990-01-01

261

Bacteremia due to Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium or Lactobacillus; twenty-one cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one cases of bacteremia due to Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus are described. Transient bacteremic episodes with these organisms may follow trauma to the mouth, intestine, or vagina. The majority of the patients were female and most had an underlying condition that may have predisposed to bacteremia. Ten of the patients died despite antibiotic treatment. PMID:749356

Bourne, K. A.; Beebe, J. L.; Lue, Y. A.; Ellner, P. D.

1978-01-01

262

Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri  

PubMed Central

The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade lactic acid under anoxic conditions, without requiring an external electron acceptor. Each mole of lactic acid was converted into approximately 0.5 mol of acetic acid, 0.5 mol of 1,2-propanediol, and traces of ethanol. Based on stoichiometry studies and the high levels of NAD-linked 1,2-propanediol-dependent oxidoreductase (530 to 790 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1), a novel pathway for anaerobic lactic acid degradation is proposed. The anaerobic degradation of lactic acid by L. buchneri does not support cell growth and is pH dependent. Acidic conditions are needed to induce the lactic-acid-degrading capacity of the cells and to maintain the lactic-acid-degrading activity. At a pH above 5.8 hardly any lactic acid degradation was observed. The exact function of anaerobic lactic acid degradation by L. buchneri is not certain, but some results indicate that it plays a role in maintaining cell viability. PMID:11133436

Oude Elferink, Stefanie J. W. H.; Krooneman, Janneke; Gottschal, Jan C.; Spoelstra, Sierk F.; Faber, Folkert; Driehuis, Frank

2001-01-01

263

Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356  

PubMed Central

We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M.; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

2015-01-01

264

Coexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Lactobacillus brevis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 is able to metabolize xylose into lactate and acetate but not ethanol. In an attempt to transform L. brevis into an ethanologen that uses xylose, a Gram-positive gene for pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvat...

265

Genome Sequence of the Heteropolysaccharide-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426  

PubMed Central

Exopolysaccharide-synthesizing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 is a heterofermentative strain, which has demonstrated cholesterol-lowering properties in an animal model of lipid-driven atherosclerosis. The genome revealed a plethora of homologues linked to carbohydrate metabolism and mucin binding. PMID:25593248

Ryan, Paul M.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; London, Lis E. E.; Kelleher, Philip R.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Caplice, Noel M.; Ross, R. Paul

2015-01-01

266

Monitoring of Lactobacillus fermentation process by using ion chromatography with a series piezoelectric quartz crystal detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method monitoring Lactobacillus fermentation process, which combines ion chromatography (IC) with a series piezoelectric quartz crystal (SPQC) technique, is presented in this paper. Monitoring of the fermentation process was realized by examining the rate of production of lactic acid. An automatic membrane dialyser was used for the pretreatment of the sample in on-line monitoring. A mixture of p-hydroxybenzoic

Jinzhong Zhang; Youtao Xie; Xinyu Dai; Wanzhi Wei

2001-01-01

267

Effect of malic acid on the growth kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fermentation kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum was studied in a specially designed broth formulated from commercially available, dehydrated components (YTA - yeast extract, trypticase, and ammonium sulfate) in batch and continuous culture. During batch growth in the absence of malic acid in t...

268

Carbohydrate utilization and detection of a nucleotide hydrolase in Lactobacillus buchneri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus buchneri strains NRRL 1837, DSM 5987, and NRRL B-30929 were examined for capacity to metabolize various carbohydrates via growth and fermentation analyses. Carbon sources used for this study included D-melibiose, inosine, uridine, D-melezitose, maltotriose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, suc...

269

Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

2014-01-01

270

Clostridium tertium isolated from gas gangrene wound; misidentified as Lactobacillus spp initially due to aerotolerant feature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium tertium has been increasingly reported as a human pathogen. This organism is an aerotolerant Gram-positive rod that is often mistaken for other organisms, such as Lactobacillus or Bacillus species. We describe a case of a patient with a history of intravenous drug use presenting to UCLA-Olive View Medical Center with gas gangrene of both upper extremities. The organism was

Shigeki Fujitani; Chengxu X. Liu; Sydney M. Finegold; Yuli L. Song; Glenn E. Mathisen

2007-01-01

271

Growth Enhancement of Bifidobacterium lactis Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus Ki by Milk Hydrolyzates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the best conditions of prepa- ration of a (tentatively) probiotic starter culture that might be suitable for cheese making composed solely of Bifidobacterium lactis Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus Ki is critical if a consistently reliable acid production is to be achieved, especially because bifidobacteria have stringent requirements for growth. Therefore, we determined whether B. lactis Bo and

Ana M. P. Gomes; F. Xavier Malcata; Frank A. M. Klaver

1998-01-01

272

Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

273

Complete Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus Phages J-1 and PL-1  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus phages J-1 and PL-1 were isolated during the 1960s from abnormal fermentations of Yakult. The genomes are almost identical, but PL-1 has a deletion in the genetic switch region and also differs in a gene coding for a putative tail protein. PMID:24385573

Dieterle, Maria Eugenia; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel; Hatfull, Graham

2014-01-01

274

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

2011-01-01

275

LIMITING GALACTOSE REQUIREMENT FOR CITRATE UTILIZATION BY LACTOBACILLUS CASEI IS ANNULLED IN CHEDDAR CHEESE EXTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate is utilized by this microorganism in modified chemically defined media as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of other more readily metabolized carbon sources (i.e. ga...

276

Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely

Yousef I. Hassan; Lloyd B. Bullerman

2008-01-01

277

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains of the Lactobacillus plantarum species were investigated to identify genes of L. plantarum with the

Saskia van Hemert; Marjolein Meijerink; Douwe Molenaar; Peter A Bron; Paul de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Jerry M Wells; Maria L Marco

2010-01-01

278

Screening of exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

Using phenotypic approaches, we have detected that 17% of human intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains could be exopolysaccharide (EPS) producers. However, PCR techniques showed that only 7% harbored genes related to the synthesis of heteropolysaccharides. This is the first work to screen the human intestinal ecosystem for the detection of EPS-producing strains. PMID:17483284

Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Moreno, José Antonio; Salazar, Nuria; Delgado, Susana; Mayo, Baltasar; Margolles, Abelardo; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

2007-07-01

279

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (from the fermented milk product Yakult (Yakult Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)) on Helicobacter pylori by using (i) in vitro inhibition assays with H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain 1) and nine H. pylori clinical isolates and (ii) the in vivo H. pylori SS1 mouse model of infection over a period of

D. Sgouras; P. Maragkoudakis; K. Petraki; B. Martinez-Gonzalez; E. Eriotou; S. Michopoulos; G. Kalantzopoulos; E. Tsakalidou; A. Mentis

2004-01-01

280

Detection and Localization of a Peptidoglycan Hydrolase in Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidoglycan hydrolase activities in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were detected by analysis of bacterial extracts on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing lyophilized Micrococcus ly- sodeikticus cells as substrate. A hydrolase with an esti- mated molecular mass of 80 kDa was found to cross- react on Western blot with monoclonal antibodies raised against muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae. These antibodies were also

O. J. Kang; S. Laberge; R. E. Simard

2003-01-01

281

Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum F-6 isolated from raw milk.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus fermentum F-6 was isolated from raw milk in Inner Mongolia of China with desirable probiotic properties. The genome contains a circular 2.06Mb chromosome and has no plasmid. Further in silico analysis revealed its genetic basis for adhesion, exopolysaccharides production and citrate fermentation, which makes it a strain of high industrial potential. PMID:25533399

Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Wenyi; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping

2015-01-20

282

Some Lactobacillus l-Lactate Dehydrogenases Exhibit Comparable Catalytic Activities for Pyruvate and Oxaloacetate  

PubMed Central

The nonallosteric and allosteric l-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus pentosus and L. casei, respectively, exhibited broad substrate specificities, giving virtually the same maximal reaction velocity and substrate Km values for pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Replacement of Pro101 with Asn reduced the activity of the L. pentosus enzyme toward these alternative substrates to a greater extent than the activity toward pyruvate. PMID:11114942

Arai, Kazuhito; Kamata, Takeo; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

2001-01-01

283

Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

2011-06-01

284

Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.  

PubMed

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

2014-03-01

285

Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b  

PubMed Central

We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food. PMID:24435875

Ladero, Victor; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martinez, Noelia; del Río, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz

2014-01-01

286

Functional Characterization of the Proteolytic System of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T during Growth in Sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysis and amino acid metabolism contribute to the beneficial effects of sourdough fermentation on bread quality. In this work, genes of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strain DSM 20451 involved in peptide uptake and hydrolysis were identified and their expression during growth in sourdough was determined. Screening of the L. sanfranciscensis genome with degenerate primers targeting prt and analysis of proteolytic activity

Nicoline Vermeulen; Melanie Pavlovic; Matthias A. Ehrmann; Michael G. Ganzle; Rudi F. Vogel

2005-01-01

287

Organization and characterization of three genes involved in d-xylose catabolism in Lactobacillus pentosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster of three genes involved in d-xylose catabolism (viz. xylose genes) in Lactobacillus pentosus has been cloned in Escherichia coli and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. The deduced gene products show considerable sequence similarity to a repressor protein involved in the regulation of expression of xylose genes in Bacillus subtilis (58%), to E. coli and B. subtilisd-xylose isomerase (68%

B. Christien Lokman; Pieter van Santen; Jan C. Verdoes; Jaap Kriise; Rob J. Leer; Mark Posno; Peter H. Pouwels

1991-01-01

288

Functional Characterization of a Composite Bacteriocin Locus from Malt Isolate Lactobacillus sakei 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sakei 5, isolated from malted barley, produces three bacteriocins. Genetic and functional analysis of the purified bacteriocins showed that this strain produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is identical to sakacin P, as well as two novel, chromosomally encoded bacteriocins, which were designated sakacin T and sakacin X. The structural genes specifying sakacin T and sakacin X are part of

Anne Vaughan; Vincent G. H. Eijsink; Douwe van Sinderen

2003-01-01

289

EFFECT OF SALT NUTRIENTS ON MANNITOL PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of four salt nutrients (ammonium citrate, sodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and manganese sulfate) on the production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 in a simplified medium containing 300 g fructose, 5 g soy peptone, and 50 g corn steep liquor per L in pH-controlle...

290

Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2.  

PubMed

Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia; Trombert, Annette N

2014-01-01

291

The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

292

Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

2000-01-01

293

Genome-shuffling improved acid tolerance and l-lactic acid volumetric productivity in Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome shuffling is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of industrially important microbial phenotypes. Here we improved the acid tolerance and volumetric productivity of an industrial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 11443 by genome shuffling. Five strains with subtle improvements in pH tolerance and volumetric productivity were obtained from the populations generated by ultraviolet irradiation and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, and then

Yuhua Wang; Yan Li; Xiaolin Pei; Lei Yu; Yan Feng

2007-01-01

294

Increased Enterocyte Production in Gnotobiotic Rats Mono-Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific and commercial interest in using beneficial microorganisms (i.e., probiotics) to enhance intestinal health. Of the numerous microbial strains examined, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been most extensively studied. Daily intake of L. rhamnosus GG shortens the course of rotavirus infection by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Comparative studies with germfree and conventional rats have shown

M. Banasaz; E. Norin; R. Holma; T. Midtvedt

2002-01-01

295

Probiotic activities of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus: in vitro adherence to intestinal cells and antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest of probiotics as remedies for a broad number of gastrointestinal and other infectious diseases has gained wide interest over the last few years, but little is known about their underlying mechanism of action. In this study, the probiotic activities of a human isolate of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus strain (Lcr35) were investigated. Using intestinal Caco-2 cell line in

Christiane Forestier; Christophe De Champs; Catherine Vatoux; Bernard Joly

2001-01-01

296

Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance ( van) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is a probiotic strain used in fermented dairy products in many countries and is also used as a food supplement in the form of freeze-dried powder. The relationship of the vancomycin resistance factor in L. rhamnosus GG and the vancomycin resistance (van) genes of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium were studied using polymerase chain reaction

Soile Tynkkynen; Kavindra V Singh; Pekka Varmanen

1998-01-01

297

Effect of medium supplementation on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW9595M in whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M was studied in whey permeate medium supplemented with different nitrogen sources or with yeast extract and vitamins, salts and amino acids used in the formulation of defined basal minimum medium (BMM). All nitrogen sources tested exhibited very limited or no effect on biomass production using acidification and automated spectrophotometry test. A multilevel-factorial design

M. G. Macedo; C. Lacroix; N. J. Gardner; C. P. Champagne

2002-01-01

298

Protection of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the potential probiotic properties in fish of a lactic acid bacterium intended for human use: Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). A probiotic for human use was specifically chosen since it is known to be safe for human use, which is of major importance because the fish are meant for human consumption. The bacterium was administered

Sami Nikoskelainen; Arthur Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Göran Bylund

2001-01-01

299

Dichotomy between Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Klebsiella pneumoniae on dendritic cell phenotype and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of the intestinal immune system to intestinal bacteria shows striking differences between various bacterial strains. Whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae induces a fierce proinflammatory reaction, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus has clear anti-inflammatory effect in gastrointestinal disease and allergy. The molecular basis for this dichotomy is poorly understood but is likely to involve different modulation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC)

Henri Braat; Esther C. de Jong; Jan M. H. van den Brande; Martien L. Kapsenberg; Maikel P. Peppelenbosch; Eric A. F. van Tol; Sander J. H. van Deventer

2004-01-01

300

Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

301

Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.  

PubMed

Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P < 0·05) by the supplementation with protein sources. The germination and malting processes significantly improved oats nutrient characteristics demonstrating to be adequate substrates for the fermentation with probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. PMID:24979232

Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

2014-10-01

302

Protective effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains in hyperlipidemic mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 on hyperlipidemic mice. METHODS: Male Kunming mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 28 d to construct hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic mice and normal mice were assigned to 3 groups which were separately treated with L. plantarum CAI6, L. plantarum SC4, and physiological saline through oral gavage for 28 d. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by commercially available enzyme kits. FACS Calibur flow cytometry was used to examine hepatic and renal nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. The morphology of livers was checked by hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscope observation. RESULTS: Compared with normal mice, hyperlipidemic mice possessed significantly higher TC (3.50 ± 0.43 vs 2.89 ± 0.36, P < 0.01), TG (1.76 ± 0.07 vs 1.10 ± 0.16, P < 0.01), and LDL-C (1.72 ± 0.20 vs 0.82 ± 0.10, P< 0.01) levels, resulting in an increase of atherogenic index (AI) (2.34 ± 1.60 vs 0.93 ± 0.55, P < 0.05) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (1.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.51 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). After treatment with L. plantarum CAI6/L. plantarum SC4, TG (1.43 ± 0.27/1.54 ± 0.10 vs 1.76 ± 0.07, P < 0.01/P < 0.05) and LDL-C (1.42 ± 0.07/1.47 ± 0.12 vs 1.72 ± 0.20, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hyperlipidemic mice significantly decreased. In addition, TC, HDL-C, AI, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were all positively changed. Meanwhile, the treatment markedly alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly stimulated Nrf2 expression (73.79 ± 0.80/72.96 ± 1.22 vs 54.94 ± 1.84, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic mice. CONCLUSION: L. plantarum CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 may protect against cardiovascular disease by lipid metabolism regulation and Nrf2-induced antioxidative defense in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:23716997

Wang, Li-Xin; Liu, Kai; Gao, Da-Wei; Hao, Ji-Kui

2013-01-01

303

Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in L. sakei is highly regulated at the transcription level. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a fine tuning of the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources. PMID:21702908

2011-01-01

304

PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

305

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei LS25, a Commercial Starter Culture Strain for Fermented Sausage  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium associated primarily with fermented meat and fish. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of L. sakei subsp. sakei strain LS25, a commercial starter culture strain for fermented sausage. PMID:23846274

McLeod, Anette; Brede, Dag Anders; Rud, Ida

2013-01-01

306

Whole Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei N1115, Isolated from Traditional Chinese Fermented Milk.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 is a new strain with probiotic properties isolated from traditional homemade dairy products in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. paracasei N1115, which shows high similarity to the well-studied probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and 3 structures turned out to be inversions, according to the colinearity analysis of the BLAST alignment. PMID:24625864

Wang, Shijie; Zhu, Hong; He, Fang; Luo, Yongkang; Kang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Chun; Feng, Lili; Lu, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuling; Wang, Hua

2014-01-01

307

Identification of the Most Abundant Lactobacillus Species in the Crop of 1- and 5-Week-Old Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria from crops of 1- and 5-week-old broiler chickens fed with two brands (diets A and B) of wheat-based diets were isolated on Lactobacillus-selective medium and identified (n 300) based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. The most abundant Lactobacillus species were L. reuteri (33%), L. crispatus (18.7%), and L. salivarius (13.3%). Regardless of farm and feed, L. reuteri was

Hanan T. Abbas Hilmi; Anu Surakka; Juha Apajalahti; P. E. J. Saris

2007-01-01

308

In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties of galactooligosaccharides synthesised by a-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stirred, pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures were used to evaluate the in vitro utilisation by canine gut microflora of novel a-galactooligosaccharides synthesised with an enzyme extract from a canine Lactobacillus reuteri strain. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS), melibiose and raffinose were used as reference carbohydrates for the prebiotic properties of the synthesised oligosaccharide (galactosyl melibiose mixture—GMM). Addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus was used as control

G. Tzortzis; A. K. Goulas; M.-L. A. Baillon; G. R. Gibson; R. A. Rastall

2004-01-01

309

The Increase of Lactobacillus Species in the Gut Flora of Newborn Broiler Chicks and Ducks Is Associated with Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Background A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. Methodology Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4×1010 Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000™ system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. Principal Findings Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p?=?0.0162) and 13.5% (p?=?0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p?=?0.05) and 14% (p?=?0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. Conclusions Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain. PMID:20454557

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

2010-01-01

310

Glucan synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus: isolation and characterization of glucansucrase genes, enzymes and glucan products from six different strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc synthesize various ?-glucans (dextran, alternan and mutan). In Lactobacillus, until now, the only glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme that has been characterized is gtfA of Lactobacillus reuteri 121, the first GTF enzyme synthesizing a glucan (reuteran) that contains mainly ?-(1?4) linkages together with ?-(1?6) and ?-(1?4,6) linkages. Recently, partial sequences of glucansucrase genes were detected

S. Kralj; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; M. M. G. Dondorff; S. Kirsanovs; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

311

Efficacy of combined or single use of Lactobacillus crispatus LT116 and L. johnsonii LT171 on broiler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of combined or single use of Lactobacillus crispatus LT116 and Lactobacillus johnsonii LT171 on broiler performance.2. A total of 320 one-d-old male Ross broiler chicks were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 6 weeks. The experimental treatments received a maize–soybean meal basal diet that was supplemented as follows: ‘control’,

H. R. Taheri; H. Moravej; F. Tabandeh; M. Zaghari; M. Shivazad

2010-01-01

312

Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-?B with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-?B and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and?>?100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD. PMID:24989059

2014-01-01

313

A food additive with prebiotic properties of an ?-d-glucan from Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.  

PubMed

An ?-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by ?-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products. PMID:24857877

Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

2014-08-01

314

Phytase gene expression in Lactobacillus and analysis of its biochemical characteristics.  

PubMed

A 1.4-kb DNA containing the coding region of phytase gene from Aspergillus ficuum (A. ficuum) was connected with the plasmid of pIAbeta8 to construct shuffling vector, which was inserted into Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) by electroporation. The Lactobacillus with phytase gene was selected and incubated in anaerobic liquid medium. The results indicated that the highest phytase activities in the supernatant and cells were 22.12 and 4.49 Uml(-1) (P<0.05) at the fourth day of incubation; the optimum pH and temperature of phytase were 5.0 and 40-80 degrees C, respectively (P<0.05); the lowest pH value in the anaerobic medium was 3.35 (P<0.05) at the third day incubation; and the molecular weight of the expressed phytase was 39.2 kDa. PMID:19717291

Zuo, Ruiyu; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Chen, Liying; Chen, Qixin; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Qiuhong; Ren, Guangzhi; Feng, Hua

2010-05-30

315

Prevention of vaginal SHIV transmission in macaques by a live recombinant Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Most HIV transmission in women occurs through the cervicovaginal mucosa, which is coated by a bacterial biofilm including Lactobacillus. This commensal bacterium plays a role in maintaining healthy mucosa and can be genetically engineered to produce anti-viral peptides. Here, we report a 63% reduction in transmission of a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162P3) after repeated vaginal challenges of macaques treated with Lactobacillus jensenii expressing the HIV-1 entry inhibitor cyanovirin-N. Furthermore, peak viral loads in colonized macaques with breakthrough infection were reduced 6-fold. Colonization and prolonged anti-viral protein secretion by the genetically engineered lactobacilli did not cause any increase in proinflammatory markers. These findings lay the foundation for an accessible and durable approach to reduce heterosexual transmission of HIV in women that is coitally independent, inexpensive, and enhances the natural protective effects of the vaginal microflora. PMID:21734653

Lagenaur, Laurel A; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E; Brichacek, Beda; Pal, Ranajit; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Yang; Yu, Rosa; Venzon, David; Lee, Peter P; Hamer, Dean H

2012-01-01

316

Protective efficacy of orally administered, heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus caused the first human pandemic of the 21st century. Although various probiotic Lactobacillus species have been shown to have anti-microbial effects against pneumonia-inducing pathogens, the prophylactic efficacy and mechanisms behind their protection remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against lethal influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus infection in a mouse model. To further define the protective responses induced by b240, we performed virologic, histopathologic, and transcriptomic analyses on the mouse lungs. Although we did not observe an appreciable effect of b240 on virus growth, cytokine production, or histopathology, gene expressional analysis revealed that oral administration of b240 differentially regulates antiviral gene expression in mouse lungs. Our results unveil the possible mechanisms behind the protection mediated by b240 against influenza virus infection and provide new insights into probiotic therapy. PMID:23535544

Kiso, Maki; Takano, Ryo; Sakabe, Saori; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shinya, Kyoko; Uraki, Ryuta; Watanabe, Shinji; Saito, Hiroshi; Toba, Masamichi; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

317

Effects of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 on the induced endometriosis in rats.  

PubMed

We have reported an inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 (OLL2809) on the growth of mouse endometrial tissue in the abdominal cavity. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 (OLL2809) on pre-existing endometriosis implanted on the abdominal wall in diestrus Wistar-Imamichi female rats. One week after implantation, the volume of the endometrial tissue was measured after laparotomy. OLL2809 and dienogest were administered for 4 weeks. OLL2809 significantly enhanced the decrease in the volume (p<0.01) as compared with control. Complete healing was observed in two of nine rats, but in none of the control group. Dienogest did not show significant efficacy. These findings suggest that OLL2809 is useful not only in therapy of pre-existing endometriosis but also in the prevention of the growth of endometrial tissue. PMID:24018664

Uchida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Orie

2013-01-01

318

Production and Mode of Action of Lactocin 27: Bacteriocin from a Homofermentative Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus strain LP27 produced a bacteriocin, lactocin 27, in dialyzable and nondialyzable forms. No evidence was obtained to indicate that lactocin 27 was under the control of extrachromosomal plasmids. Lactocin 27 had a bacteriostatic effect on the indicator, Lactobacillus helveticus strain LS18. It inhibited primarily protein synthesis without affecting deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis or adenosine 5?-triphosphate levels. Treatment of susceptible cells with the lactocin did not cause leakage of ultraviolet-absorbing material, but caused the efflux of potassium ions and the influx of sodium ions. It adsorbed non-specifically to various bacterial species irrespective of their susceptibility to lactocin 27. However, the presence of specific receptors has not been ruled out. Images PMID:1137365

Upreti, G. C.; Hinsdill, R. D.

1975-01-01

319

Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene expression in Lactobacillus. This vector is also able to replicate in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The usage of pRCR as a promoter probe was validated in Lactobacillus acidophilus by characterizing the regulation of lactacin B expression. The results show that the regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level, with lbaB gene expression being specifically induced by co-culture of the L. acidophilus bacteriocin producer and the S. thermophilus STY-31 inducer bacterium. PMID:25533634

Mohedano, M Luz; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Pérez-Ramos, Adrián; Gaiser, Rogier A; Requena, Teresa; López, Paloma

2015-02-01

320

Genetic diversity of the genus Lactobacillus bacteria from the human gastrointestinal microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species and strain genetic diversity of bacterial cultures belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, which were isolated from the gastrointestinal microbiome of the human population living in the former Soviet Union in the\\u000a years 1960–1980, was studied. The bacteria demonstrated probiotic characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the\\u000a gene coding for 16S rRNA detected earlier by us, showed that the

S. G. Botina; N. V. Koroban; K. M. Klimina; A. A. Glazova; N. V. Zakharevich; V. V. Zinchenko; V. N. Danilenko

2010-01-01

321

Effect of Trehalose and Drying Process on the Survival of Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was prepared by extrusion technology with rice shell powder and alginate followed by drying at 4°C. Drying at 4°C was beneficial to the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 compared with freeze drying. Trehalose had a positive effect on the survival of dried L. casei ATCC 393; the live cell numbers remained over 10 cfu\\/g after

Xiao Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Cheng Sheng Liu; Hong Ni Peng; Dong Su Cha

2008-01-01

322

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus H9, a probiotic strain originated from kurut.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus H9 is a probiotic strain that is able to produce antihypertensive peptides during milk fermentation. Its genome has a circular 1.87Mb chromosome. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the component of proteinases, peptide transport systems and peptidases in L. helveticus appeared to be strain-specific. Such information may help us to understand how the proteolytic system is related to its probiotic properties. PMID:25499075

Chen, Yongfu; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Meng, Bilighe; Zhang, Heping

2015-01-20

323

A synthetic promoter library for constitutive gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic promoter library (SPL) for Lactobacillus plantarum has been developed, which generalizes the approach for obtaining synthetic promoters. The consensus sequence, derived from rRNA promoters extracted from the L. plantarum WCFS1 genome, was kept constant, and the non-consensus sequences were randomized. Construction of the SPL was performed in a vector (pSIP409) previously developed for high-level, inducible gene expression in

Ida Rud; Peter Ruhdal Jensen; Kristine Naterstad; Lars Axelsson

2006-01-01

324

Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum spp in an alginate matrix coated with whey proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey proteins were used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in calcium alginate beads. L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum 800 and L. plantarum CIP A159 were used in this study. Inactivation experiments were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Cross-sections of freeze-dried beads revealed the random distribution of bacteria

Gildas Komenan Gbassi; Thierry Vandamme; Saïd Ennahar; Eric Marchioni

2009-01-01

325

Measuring and modelling the glucose-fermenting activity of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH decrease in a phosphate buffer due to fermentation of glucose to lactic acid by non-growing Lactobacillus plantarum cells has been studied. The method used offers a quick and reproducible way of measuring the glucose-fermenting activity of L. plantarum. The maximum observed velocity of pH decrease is linear with the biomass concentration and is defined as the activity of

Lou C. Lievense; Riet van't K; Ad Noomen

1990-01-01

326

Effect of bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus spp. on the shelf life of fufu, a traditional fermented cassava product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative determination of antimicrobial compounds produced by the Lactobacillus strains under test was carried out. L. plantarum F1 produced the highest quantity of lactic acid (16.4 g\\/l) while the lowest amount (0.3 g\\/l) was produced by L. jensenii F9. All the test organisms produced hydrogen peroxide, with L. brevis OG1 having the highest yield of 0.037 g\\/l. Diacetyl was also

S. T. Ogunbanwo; A. I. Sanni; A. A. Onilude

2004-01-01

327

Cloning, expression, and characterization of cadmium and manganese uptake genes from Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake gene, mntA, was cloned from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 into Escherichia coli. Its expression conferred on E. coli cells increased Cd{sup 2+} sensitivity as well as energy-dependent Cd{sup 2+} uptake activity. Both transcription and translation of mntA were induced by Mn{sup 2+} starvation in L. plantarum, as indicated by reverse transcriptase PCR and

ZHIQI HAO; SHAOLIN CHEN; DAVID B. WILSON

1999-01-01

328

Degradation of tannic acid by cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T to degrade hydrolysable tannins was evaluated. Three commercial tannic acids were incubated in presence of cell-free extracts containing soluble proteins from L. plantarum. By HPLC analyses, almost a complete tannic acid degradation was observed in the three samples assayed. By using HPLC-DAD\\/ESI-MS, we partially determined the composition of tannic acid from Quercus infectoria

Héctor Rodríguez; Blanca de las Rivas; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; Rosario Muñoz

2008-01-01

329

Comparison of quenching and extraction methodologies for metabolome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A reliable quenching and metabolite extraction method has been developed for Lactobacillus plantarum. The energy charge value was used as a critical indicator for fixation of metabolism. RESULTS: Four different aqueous quenching solutions, all containing 60% of methanol, were compared for their efficiency. Only the solutions containing either 70 mM HEPES or 0.85% (w\\/v) ammonium carbonate (pH 5.5) caused

Magda Faijes; Astrid E Mars; Eddy J Smid

2007-01-01

330

Making sense of quorum sensing in lactobacilli: a special focus on Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silico identification criteria were defined to predict if genes encoding histidine protein kinases (HPKs) and response regulators (RRs) could be part of peptide-based quorum sensing (QS) two-component regulatory systems (QS-TCSs) in Firmicutes. These criteria were used to screen HPKs and RRs annotated on the completed genome sequences of Lactobacillus species, and several (putative) QS-TCSs were identified in this way.

M. H. J. Sturme; C. Francke; R. J. Siezen; W. M. de Vos; M. Kleerebezem

2007-01-01

331

Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Inhibits Escherichia coli-Induced Intestinal Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to investigate whether a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, could affect Escherichia coli-induced passage of mannitol across the intestinal wall. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated for one week by either tube feeding with L. plantarum 299v twice daily, free access to L. plantarum 299v by adding the bacterium in the drinking water, or negative control

Peter Mangell; Pernilla Nejdfors; Mei Wang; SIV AHRNE ´; Björn Weström; Henrik Thorlacius; Bengt Jeppsson

2002-01-01

332

Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum PH04, a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum PH04 was isolated from infant feces and tested positive for bile\\/acid tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity. It was evaluated as a potential probiotic with cholesterol-lowering effect. Bile salt hydrolase activity was nine times greater in stationary phase than in exponential phase cells and increased when the cells were exposed to conjugated bile salts. L. plantarum

T. D. T. Nguyen; J. H. Kang; M. S. Lee

2007-01-01

333

Cloning and expression of cellulase and xylanase genes in Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven cellulase genes from Gram-positive bacteria were cloned in a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculum. Eight of these genes were expressed as active enzymes from their original promotors and translation signals. Where tested, the enzymes produced by transformed L.plantarum had the same temperature and pH optimum as enzymes produced in the original host, or in transformed Escherichia coli. Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

Trees Scheirlinck; Jan De Meutter; Greta Arnaut; Henk Joos; Marc Claeyssens; Frank Michiels

1990-01-01

334

Efflux of bile acids in Lactobacillus reuteri is mediated by ATP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of work  To study whether an active bile acid (BA) efflux occurs in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 as well as the nature (ATP or proton motive force [PMF] mediated primary transport) of the BA extrusion mechanism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a BAs are powerful detergents which disorganize the lipid bilayer structure of cellular membranes. Specific bile resistance\\u000a mechanisms (bile efflux, bile salt hydrolysis, and intrinsic

Ana Yanina Bustos; Raúl Raya; María Pía Taranto

335

Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 treatment on renal fibrosis in diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperglycemia is the most important factor in the progression of renal fibrosis in diabetic kidney. Prevention and treatment of renal fibrosis may improve diabetic nephropathy. To explore whether probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 treatment was linked to altered hyperglycemia-mediated renal fibrosis in diabetic kidney, the mechanisms of L. reuteri GMNL-263 treatment responsible for the inhibition of renal fibrosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced

Ying-Chen Lu; Li-Te Yin; Wen-Teng Chang; Jau-Shyang Huang

2010-01-01

336

Microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase producing Lactobacillus reuteri for oral targeted delivery in the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study of its kind to screen probiotic lactic acid bacteria for the purpose of microencapsulating a highly\\u000a bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active strain. A Lactobacillus reuteri strain and a Bifidobacterium longum strain were isolated as the highest BSH producers among the candidates. Microcapsules were prepared with a diameter of 619?±?31 ?m\\u000a and a cell load of 5?×?109 cfu\\/ml. Post

Christopher Martoni; Jasmine Bhathena; Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska; Satya Prakash

2008-01-01

337

Protective effect of the bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri against bile salt cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial bile salt hydrolysis is considered a risk factor for the development of colon cancer because of the risk of forming\\u000a harmful secondary bile salts after an initial deconjugation step. In this study, the influence of enhanced bacterial bile\\u000a salt transformation by the bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri was studied in batch culture using the microbial suspension of the Simulator

P. De Boever; R. Wouters; L. Verschaeve; P. Berckmans; G. Schoeters; W. Verstraete

2000-01-01

338

Partial Purification and Characterization of Glutaminase from Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC3594  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we attempted to purify and characterize glutaminase (EC. 3.5.1.2) from Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC3594. The glutaminase was purified approximately 21-fold from the cell-free extract of L. reuteri KCTC3594 by protamine sulfate treatment and chromatography methods including anion exchange and gel filtration. The sizes\\u000a of two major bands of the enzyme were presumed to be 70 and 50 kDa by

Jeong-Min Jeon; Hae-In Lee; Sang-Hyun Han; Chung-Soon Chang; Jae-Seong So

2010-01-01

339

Microbiological and sensory quality of dry fermented sausages containing alginate-microencapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri was added to dry sausage batter, without or after being microencapsulated in alginate using either extrusion or emulsion technology. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus were added at 7 log cfu\\/g as starter cultures for fermentation. The sausage batter was stuffed in 55 mm fibrous casings and fermented, with smoking, at ?26 °C and 88% relative humidity (RH) for

Parthiban Muthukumarasamy; Richard A. Holley

2006-01-01

340

Inhibition of binding of Helicobacter pylori to the glycolipid receptors by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the competition of binding of Lactobacillus reuteri and Helicobacter pylori to gangliotetraosylceramide (asialo-GM1) and sulfatide which are putative glycolipid receptor molecules of H. pylori, and identified a possible sulfatide-binding protein of the L. reuteri strain. Among nine L. reuteri strains, two (JCM1081 and TM105) were shown to bind to asialo-GM1 and sulfatide, and to inhibit binding of H.

Takao Mukai; Tomoko Asasaka; Eri Sato; Kenichi Mori; Mitsuyo Matsumoto; Hitoshi Ohori

2002-01-01

341

Cystathionine  Lyase Is a Component of Cystine-Mediated Oxidative Defense in Lactobacillus reuteri BR11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 possesses a novel mechanism of oxidative defense involving an abundant cystine ABC transporter encoded by the cyuABC gene cluster. Large amounts of thiols, including H2S, are secreted upon cystine uptake by the CyuC transporter. A cystathionine -lyase (cgl) gene is cotranscribed with the cyu genes in several L. reuteri strains and was hypothesized to participate in cystine-mediated

Raquel Lo; Mark S. Turner; Daniel G. Barry; Revathy Sreekumar; Terence P. Walsh; Philip M. Giffard

2009-01-01

342

Rapid and Simple Method for the Encapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri in the Production of Lactic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lactic acid (LA) is the most widely used multifunctional organic acid and approximately 50% of it is produced by biotechnological\\u000a process. Immobilizing microbial cells not only improves cell retention but also protects cells from harsh environmental conditions\\u000a during LA production. The objectives of this research were therefore to develop a simple method to encapsulate (immobilize)\\u000a Lactobacillus reuteri for the continuous

Salam A. Ibrahim; Somphavanh Phetsomphou; Chyer Kim; Abolghasem Shahbazi; Chung W. Seo; Amer AbuGhazaleh; Moussa M. E. Salem

343

Coexpression of rumen microbial ?-glucanase and xylanase genes in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to clone and coexpress two rumen fibrolytic enzyme genes in Lactobacillus reuteri. The ability of the genetically modified strain to degrade ?-glucan and xylan was evaluated. The Fibrobacter succinogenes ?-glucanase (1,3–1,4-?-d-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase [EC 3.2.1.73]) gene and the Neocallimastix patriciarum xylanase gene, xynCDBFV, were constructed to coexpress and secrete under control of the Lactococcus lactis

Je-Ruei Liu; Bi Yu; Xin Zhao; Kuo-Joan Cheng

2007-01-01

344

Sucrose utilization and impact of sucrose on glycosyltransferase expression in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases of lactic acid bacteria are associated with biofilm formation, bacterial stress response and sucrose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of glycosyltransferases to sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 expressing the glucosyltransferase GtfA and the inulosucrase Inu, and L. reuteri LTH 5448 expressing the fructosyltransferase FtfA.Transcriptional analysis using quantitative real time PCR revealed that

Clarissa Schwab; Jens Walter; Gerald W. Tannock; Rudi F. Vogel; Michael G. Gänzle

2007-01-01

345

Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri demonstrate antimicrobial activities targeting diverse enteric bacterial pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal-derived anaerobic probiotic that resides in the human gastrointestinal tract. L. reuteri converts glycerol into a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound, reuterin, which inhibits the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we compared four human-derived L. reuteri isolates (ATCC 55730, ATCC PTA 6475, ATCC PTA 4659 and ATCC PTA 5289) in their ability to

Jennifer K. Spinler; Malai Taweechotipatr; Cheryl L. Rognerud; Ching N. Ou; Somying Tumwasorn; James Versalovic

2008-01-01

346

Lactobacillus reuteri in bovine milk fermented decreases the oral carriage of mutans streptococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri against one of the major cariogenic organism, Streptococcus mutans, was studied. Yogurt products containing L.reuteri showed a significant growth inhibitory effect against S. mutans, whilst yoghurts with lactobaccilli other than L. reuteri did not show such inhibition. Further, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that consuming yogurt with L. reuteri significantly reduced the oral carriage of mutans

H. Nikawa; S. Makihira; H. Fukushima; H. Nishimura; Y. Ozaki; K. Ishida; S. Darmawan; T. Hamada; K. Hara; A. Matsumoto; T. Takemoto; R. Aimi

2004-01-01

347

Shifts in the fermentation balance of Lactobacillus reuteri. In the presence of glycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of glycerol (100 mM) on the growth kinetic and the end-products formation by Lactobacillus reuteri growing on maltose (29 mM) was examined in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. The presence of glycerol in aerated cultures changed the maltose consumption but not the growth rate nor the fermentation balance. In a nitrogen atmosphere, L. reuteri was not able to grow on

A. Ragout; F. Siñeriz; H. Diekmann; G. F. Valdez

1996-01-01

348

Carbohydrate and protein sources influence the induction of ?- and ?-galactosidases in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of ?- and ?-galactosidases in six strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) by six carbohydrate sources and four protein sources was studied. L. reuteri grown on raffinose had the highest ?-galactosidase activity (10.55 GalU\\/ml), while lactose exhibited the highest ?-galactosidase activity (43.82 GalU\\/ml) when compared to other carbohydrate sources. L. reuteri grown on yeast extract exhibited the highest

A. Y. Alazzeh; S. A. Ibrahim; D. Song; A. Shahbazi; A. A. AbuGhazaleh

2009-01-01

349

Effect of membrane lateral pressure on the expression of fructosyltransferases in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of environmental conditions on the production of homo-polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose and the regulation of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for biosynthesis of homo-polysaccharides was determined in Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 (reutericyclin-producer) and LTH5448 (reutericyclin-negative). Strain L. reuteri TMW 1.106 harbours the glycosyltransferase genes gtfA and inu, strain LTH5448 harbours a fructosyltransferase, ftfA. Fructan and fructose-oligosaccharide (FOS) production in both

Clarissa Schwab; Michael G. Gänzle

2006-01-01

350

Expression of Rumen Microbial Fibrolytic Enzyme Genes in Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the cloning and expression of three rumen microbial fibrolytic enzyme genes in a strain of Lactobacillus reuteri and investigating the probiotic characteristics of these genetically modified lactobacilli. The Neocallimastix patriciarum xylanase gene xynCDBFV, the Fibrobacter succinogenes -glucanase (1,3-1,4--D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73)) gene, and the Piromyces rhizinflata cellulase gene eglA were cloned in a strain

Je-Ruei Liu; Bi Yu; Fu-Hwa Liu; Kuo-Joan Cheng; Xin Zhao

2005-01-01

351

Synergistic antidigestion effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums in simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and

Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin

2007-01-01

352

Characterization of the polysaccharides from a Lactobacillus brevis and from sugary kefir grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The gel-forming polysaccharide of the sugary kefir grains (11.5% of dry matter) or one taken from aLactobacillus brevis culture were identified as dextrans with some 1)-Gp-(3 links in the main chain, with a ratio (branched\\/total units) of 0.19 and 0.14 respectively, instead of 0.07 for the non-gelling polysaccharide.

M. Pidoux; J. M. Brillouet; B. Quemener

1988-01-01

353

Plasmid profiles of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus isolates from African fermented foods.  

PubMed

Fourteen of 200 Lactobacillus isolates from African fermented foods, viz. 'wara', 'kenkey', 'ugba', 'ogi', 'kunuzarki', 'fufu' and 'iru' were found to produce bacteriocins against L. plantarum and only three bacteriocinogenic isolates inhibited some of the food pathogens. Plasmid analysis of the 14 bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli showed that only 5 isolates harbored plasmids ranging in size from 3.1 to 55.5 kb. PMID:7995600

Olasupo, N A; Olukoya, D K; Odunfa, S A

1994-01-01

354

Application of the acetolactate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus casei for accelerated maturation of beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetolactate decarboxylase produced by Lactobacillus casei DSM 2547 has been tested as an aid for accelerated removal\\u000a of the diacetyl precursor acetolactic acid from beer. Addition of the enzyme to freshly fermented beer has been shown to effect\\u000a efficient removal of the diacetyl precursor while addition of the decarboxylase to wort prior to pitching was found to lead\\u000a to

Sven Erik Godtfredsen; Anne Munk Rasmussen; Martin Ottesen; Thomas Mathiasen; Bent Ahrenst-Larsen

1984-01-01

355

Decreased gum bleeding and reduced gingivitis by the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to assess if the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri could be effective in the treatment of gingivitis and further to evaluate the influence of the probiotic on plaque and the lactobacilli population in the saliva. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind study was performed over 2 weeks. Fifty-nine patients with moderate to severe gingivitis were included and given one of two different Lactobacillus reuteri formulations (LR-1 or LR-2) at a dose of 2 x 10(8) CFU per day, or a corresponding placebo. At baseline (day 0) gingival index and plaque index were measured on two surfaces and saliva for lactobacilli determination was collected. The patients were instructed how to brush and floss efficiently and study treatment was started.The patients returned on day 14 for final assessment of gingivitis and plaque and saliva was collected. 20 patients were randomised to LR-1, 21 to LR-2 and 18 to placebo. Gingival index fell significantly in all 3 groups (p < 0.0001). LR-1, but not LR-2 improved more than placebo (p < 0.0001). Plaque index fell significantly in LR-1 (p < 0.05) and in LR-2 (p < 0.01) between day o and day 14 but there was no significant change in the placebo group. At day 14, 65% of the patients in LR-1 were colonised with Lactobacillus reuteri and 95% in the LR-2 group. Lactobacillus reuteri was efficacious in reducing both gingivitis and plaque in patients with moderate to severe gingivitis. PMID:16878680

Krasse, Per; Carlsson, Birgitta; Dahl, Carina; Paulsson, Annette; Nilsson, Asa; Sinkiewicz, Gabriela

2006-01-01

356

Coexpression and Secretion of Endoglucanase and Phytase Genes in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

357

Coexpression and secretion of endoglucanase and phytase genes in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

358

Modulation of Lactobacillus plantarum Gastrointestinal Robustness by Fermentation Conditions Enables Identification of Bacterial Robustness Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLactic acid bacteria (LAB) are applied worldwide in the production of a variety of fermented food products. Additionally, specific Lactobacillus species are nowadays recognized for their health-promoting effects on the consumer. To optimally exert such beneficial effects, it is considered of great importance that these probiotic bacteria reach their target sites in the gut alive.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn the accompanying manuscript by

Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen; I-Chiao Lee; Maria L. Marco; Michiel Wels; Peter A. Bron; Michiel Kleerebezem

2012-01-01

359

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes that are induced in the gastrointestinal tract of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Moreover, this lactic acid bacterium can survive passage through the human or mouse stomach in an active form. To investigate the genetic background of this persistence, resolvase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) was performed in L. plantarum WCFS1 by

Peter A. Bron; Corinne Grangette; Annick Mercenier; Vos de W. M; Michiel Kleerebezem

2004-01-01

360

Production and Characterization of Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis.

HaiKuan Wang; YanHua Yan; JiaMing Wang; HePing Zhang; Wei Qi

2012-01-01

361

Regulation of expression of the Lactobacillus pentosus XylAB operon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The xylose cluster of Lactobacillus pentosus consists of five genes, two of which, xylAB, form an operon and code for the enzymes involved in the catabolism of xylose, while a third encodes a regulatory protein, XylR. By introduction of a multicopy plasmid carrying the xyl operator and by disruption of the chromosomal xylR gene, it was shown that L. pentosus

B. CHRISTIEN LOKMAN; MARGREET HEERIKHUISEN; ROB J. LEER; ANNIEK VAN DEN BROEK; YVONNE BORSBOOM; STEPHANE CHAILLOU; PIETER W. POSTMA; PETER H. POUWELS

1997-01-01

362

Relative Ability of Orally Administered Lactobacillus murinus To Predominate and Persist in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Five porcine-derived Lactobacillus or Pediococcus isolates administered to pigs (n = 4), either singly or as a combination at ?1010 CFU per day varied with respect to intestinal survival and persistence. Two Lactobacillus murinus strains survived best and were excreted at ?107 to 108 CFU/g of feces. In contrast, Pediococcus pentosaceus DPC6006 had the lowest fecal count at ?105 CFU/g and was excreted at a significantly lower level than both L. murinus strains. Fecal L. murinus DPC6003 counts were also significantly higher than both Lactobacillus salivarius DPC6005 and Lactobacillus pentosus DPC6004 (?106 CFU/g). The L. murinus strains persisted for at least 9 days postadministration in both the feces and the cecum. Animals fed a combination of all five strains excreted ?107 CFU of the administered strains/g, with L. murinus predominating, as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. Postadministration, variation was observed between animals fed the strain combination, but in general, L. murinus DPC6002 and DPC6003 and L. pentosus DPC6004 predominated in the feces and the cecum while P. pentosaceus DPC6006 was detected only in the cecum. Fifteen days after the start of culture administration, mean fecal Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in some of the treatment groups. In addition, when mean preadministration counts were compared with those obtained after 21 days of culture administration, Enterobacteriaceae counts were reduced by ?87 to 98% in pigs fed L. salivarius DPC6005, P. pentosaceus DPC6006, L. pentosus DPC6004, and the culture mix. In conclusion, the porcine intestinal isolates have potential as probiotic feed additives for pigs, with differences in strain performance highlighting the advantages of using culture combinations. PMID:15066778

Gardiner, Gillian E.; Casey, Pat G.; Casey, Garrett; Lynch, P. Brendan; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

2004-01-01

363

Limitation of growth and lactic acid production in batch and continuous cultures of Lactobacillus helveticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous and batch cultures of Lactobacillus helveticus operated under different conditions were studied with respect to the limitation of growth and lactic acid production by increasing undissociated lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentrations, respectively. In a single-stage continuous culture without pH control a final pH of 3.8 and 65 mm undissociated lactic acid was obtained. In two-stage continuous cultures provided

Günther Gätje; Gerhard Gottschalk

1991-01-01

364

Promotor analysis and transcriptional regulation of Lactobacillus pentosus genes involved in xylose catabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The xyl genes in Lactobacillus pentosus are induced by xylose and repressed by glucose, ribose, and arabinose. Northern blot analysis showed that regulation is mediated at the transcriptional level. Under inducing conditions, two xylA transcripts were detected, a major transcript of 1·5 kb and a minor transcript of 3 kb. The 3 kb transcript also comprises sequences from xylB, suggesting

B. Christien Lokman; Rob J. Leer; Renée Sorge; Peter H. Pouwels

1994-01-01

365

Improvement of Raw Sausage Fermentation by Stress-Conditioning of the Starter Organism Lactobacillus sakei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective growth and high acidification activity during meat fermentation are key characteristics of starter lactobacilli\\u000a to ensure hygienic safety and sensory quality of the product. In this study, we demonstrated that the performance of Lactobacillus sakei in sausage fermentation can be improved by preinoculation treatments with sublethal heat, cold, and salt stress. Sausages\\u000a were produced and inoculated with stress-treated cells

Eric Hüfner; Christian Hertel

2008-01-01

366

Expression of a chitinase gene from Serratia marcescens in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chitinase gene from the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens BJL200 was cloned in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 and in the silage inoculum strain Lactobacillus plantarum E19b. The chitinase gene was expressed as an active enzyme at a low level in Lactococcus lactis, when cloned in the same transcriptional orientation as the gene specifying the replication protein of the vector

M. B. Brurberg; A. J. Haandrikman; K. J. Leenhouts; G. Venema; I. F. Nes

1994-01-01

367

Biosynthesis of Lipoteichoic Acid in Lactobacillus rhamnosus: Role of DltD in D-Alanylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dlt operon (dltA to dltD )o fLactobacillus rhamnosus 7469 encodes four proteins responsible for the esterification of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by D-alanine. These esters play an important role in controlling the net anionic charge of the poly (GroP) moiety of LTA. dltA and dltC encode the D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp), respectively. Whereas the

DMITRI V. DEBABOV; MICHAEL Y. KIRIUKHIN; FRANCIS C. NEUHAUS

2000-01-01

368

Factors affecting the sequestration of aflatoxin by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of a potent carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), with a probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (GG), has been investigated. The binding of AFB1 to GG in the late exponential–early stationary phase was studied for viable, heat-killed and acid-killed bacteria. In general, viable, heat-killed and acid-killed GG responded in a similar manner. The effects of

Carolyn Haskard; Charlotte Binnion; Jorma Ahokas

2000-01-01

369

Effects of complete cell recycling on product formation by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in continuous cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteriumLactobacillus casei ssprhamnosus was cultivated in a system with complete cell recycling in order to obtain information on how this cultivation technique affected the microorganisms. Cultivations at two different glucose concentrations (25 g\\/L and 50 g\\/L) were performed. Hollow fiber filters were used for separating the cells from the spent broth. The cell recycling was carried out

Sigridur Hjörleifsdottir; Sulojana Seevaratnam; Olle Holst; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

370

Cellular injuries and storage stability of spray-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the applicability of spray drying in the production of skim milk-based preparations containing probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). Furthermore, oligofructose-based or polydextrose-based prebiotic substances were also included in the carrier matrix to assess their protection capacity. When reconstituted, skim milk was used as a spray drying carrier; a microbial survival

E. Ananta; M. Volkert; D. Knorr

2005-01-01

371

Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated

M. Kankainen; L. Paulin; S. Tynkkynen; I. von Ossowski; J. Reunanen; P. Partanen; R. Satokari; S. Vesterlund; A. P. A. Hendrickx; S. Lebeer; S. C. J. de Keersmaecker; J. Vanderleyden; T. Hamalainen; S. Laukkanen; N. Salovuori; J. Ritari; E. Alatalo; R. Korpela; T. Mattila-Sandholm; A. Lassig; K. Hatakka; K. T. Kinnunen; H. Karjalainen; M. Saxelin; K. Laakso; A. Surakka; A. Palva; T. Salusjarvi; P. Auvinen; W. M. de Vos

2009-01-01

372

Suppression of T-cell activation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-degraded bovine casein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier data indicate that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (L. GG), a commensal intestinal bacterial strain, promotes the degradation of proteins in the gut in vivo, and bovine casein hydrolysed with L. GG-derived proteases suppresses lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of L. GG-degraded bovine casein on T-cell activation, i.e. IL-2 mRNA expression and

Tanja Pessi; Erika Isolauri; Yelda Sütas; Hannu Kankaanranta; Eeva Moilanen; Mikko Hurme

2001-01-01

373

Bile salt and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated at the end of the ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and to investigate an important prerequisite of probiotic interest, such as the capability to survive at low pH and in presence of bile salts. The use of API 50 CH, RAPD-PCR analysis and species-specific PCR allowed

M. Succi; P. Tremonte; A. Reale; E. Sorrentino; L. Grazia; S. Pacifico; R. Coppola

2005-01-01

374

Binding of aflatoxin B1 to cell wall components of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) has previously been shown to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) effectively, it being a food-borne carcinogen produced by certain species of Aspergillus fungi. To establish which components of the cell envelope are involved in the AFB1 binding process, exopolysaccharides and a cell wall isolate containing peptidoglycan were extracted from LGG and its AFB1

S. J. Lahtinen; C. A. Haskard; A. C. Ouwehand; S. J. Salminen; J. T. Ahokas

2004-01-01

375

Assessment of high pressure induced damage on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the mode of action of high-pressure treatment on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) a flow cytometric analysis was applied. This fluorescence-based approach could give additional insights on process-induced changes of cellular events, which were not explicitly assessable by culture techniques, such as cellular inactivation sites, specific metabolic activities, etc. To achieve this goal, combined staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA)

E Ananta; V Heinz; D Knorr

2004-01-01

376

Growth and lactic acid production in batch culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a defined medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate metabolic analysis, batch fermentations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus were carried out in a new defined medium. Biomass at 10.5 g\\/l and lactic acid at 67 g\\/l with a YP\\/S of 0.84 were achieved. The maximum specific growth rate and the average productivity were 0.49\\/h and 2.48 g\\/l.h, respectively. These are comparable to those of this organism and related organisms in complex media.

Andrew R. Berry; Christopher M. M. Franco; Wei Zhang; Anton P. J. Middelberg

1999-01-01

377

Characterization of a Bacteriocin-Like Substance Produced by a Vaginal Lactobacillus salivarius Strain  

PubMed Central

A novel bacteriocin-like substance produced by vaginal Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL 1328 with activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was characterized. The highest level of production of this heat-resistant peptide or protein occurred during the late exponential phase. Its mode of action was shown to be bactericidal. L. salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL 1328 could be used for the design of a probiotic to prevent urogenital infections. PMID:10584033

Ocaña, Virginia S.; Pesce de Ruiz Holgado, Aída A.; Nader-Macías, María Elena

1999-01-01

378

Immunological Relationships Among Lactic Dehydrogenases in the Genera Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc  

PubMed Central

Antisera were prepared against pure nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent d-lactic dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus leichmannii, L. jensenii, and L. fermenti. When tested against these three antisera, crude extracts of almost all species of Lactobacillus containing a d-lactic dehydrogenase give cross-reactions. Extensive pairwise comparisons between cross-reacting crude extracts by double diffusion experiments permit the recognition of groups of identical antigenic specificity among the lactic dehydrogenases of the various nomenspecies of Lactobacillus. The same groups are revealed by each of the three antisera. By analyses of spur formation, the groups of identical antigenic specificity can be arranged in order of decreasing similarity to the homologous d-lactic dehydrogenase used as the reference point. From the combined results obtained with the three antisera, a map of the antigenic relationships among the d-lactic dehydrogenases of lactobacilli can be constructed. Microcomplement fixation experiments with two of the three anti-d-lactic dehydrogenases antisera support the conclusions drawn from double diffusion experiments and provide a quantitative estimation of the antigenic relationships among the various d-lactic dehydrogenases. An antiserum was also prepared against the pure l-lactic dehydrogenase of L. acidophilus group III. It cross-reacts with extracts of almost all lactobacilli containing an l-lactic dehydrogenase. With respect to species that contain both d- and l-lactic dehydrogenases, this antiserum reveals the same groups of identical antigenic specificity as do the antisera directed against d-lactic dehydrogenases. Other than the genus Lactobacillus, only extracts of Leuconostoc cross-react with anti-d-lactic dehydrogenase. No extrageneric cross-reactions were obtained with the anti-l-lactic dehydrogenase. Images PMID:4323961

Gasser, F.; Gasser, Charlotte

1971-01-01

379

Probiotic Potential and Safety Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak Bryndza Cheese  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest ?-galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics. PMID:24093103

Belicová, Anna; Mikulášová, Mária; Dušinský, Roman

2013-01-01

380

Preliminary evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Sardinian dairy products.  

PubMed

Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong ?-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

2014-01-01

381

Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans sp. nov., isolated from kimchi with the ability to transform ginsenosides.  

PubMed

Biotransformation of ginsenosides was examined using lactic acid bacteria isolated from several kinds of kimchi. A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped lactic acid bacterial strain, designated EMML 3041(T), was determined to have ginsenoside-converting activity and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain EMML 3041(T) displayed ?-glucosidase activity that was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the dominant active components of ginseng) to F2 via gypenoside XVII, ginsenoside Rb2 to compound Y via compound O, ginsenoside Rc to compound Mc via compound Mc1, and ginsenoside Rd to ginsenoside F2. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain EMML 3041(T) was shown to belong to the genus Lactobacillus and is closely related to Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.3 % sequence similarity). Polyphasic taxonomy study confirmed that the strain EMML 3041(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. is proposed, with EMML 3041(T) (=KACC 14527(T) = JCM 16719(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23271644

Jung, Hae-Min; Liu, Qing-Mei; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Lee, Sung-Taik; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

2013-04-01

382

Probiotic abilities of riboflavin-overproducing Lactobacillus strains: a novel promising application of probiotics.  

PubMed

The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, capable of overproducing riboflavin, was investigated. The riboflavin production was quantified in co-cultures of lactobacilli and human intestinal epithelial cells, and the riboflavin overproduction ability was confirmed. When milk and yogurt were used as carrier matrices, L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains displayed a significant ability to survive through simulated gastrointestinal transit. Adhesion was studied on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Both strains adhered strongly on Caco-2 cells, negatively influenced the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and strongly inhibited the growth of three reference pathogenic microbial strains. Resistance to major antibiotics and potential hemolytic activity were assayed. Overall, this study reveals that these Lactobacillus stains are endowed with promising probiotic properties and thus are candidates for the development of novel functional food which would be both enriched in riboflavin and induce additional health benefits, including a potential in situ riboflavin production, once the microorganisms colonize the host intestine. PMID:24903812

Arena, Mattia P; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; López, Paloma; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

383

Purification and characterization of anti-Alicyclobacillus bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 20975 produces a 6,502-Da bacteriocin, named bacteriocin RC 20975, active against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Bacillus subtilis, and Listeria innocua. This bacteriocin is not quite heat stable but is effective after refrigerated storage and freeze-thaw cycles. Bacteriocin RC 20975 was added at a concentration of 256 AU/ml to the endospores of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922; no viable cells were detected after 24 h. The primary mode of action of bacteriocin RC 20975 seems to be the formation of pores, as indicated by K? efflux from metabolically active cells of A. acidoterrestris. However, efflux of larger cytoplasmic content was not observed within the first 30 min after bacteriocin RC 20975 treatment. In addition, adsorption of bacteriocin RC 20975 to target cells at different temperatures and pH levels and in the presence of surfactants was studied. Finally, the effect that different media, media components, and addition of vitamins to the media had on bacteriocin RC 20975 production was also studied. PMID:23992502

Yue, Tianli; Pei, Jinjin; Yuan, Yahong

2013-09-01

384

Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, ?-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

1988-01-01

385

Identification and characterization of bile salt hydrolase genes from the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC 8711.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus fermentum is a lactic acid bacterium of probiotic importance, which is found ubiquitously in fermented milk products. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) has a significant role in affording probiotic properties to lactobacilli. In the present study, two bsh genes encoding BSH1 and BSH2 were identified from the draft genome sequence of L. fermentum MTCC 8711. Nucleotide comparison revealed no significant similarity between bsh1 and bsh2 genes, whereas the deduced amino acid sequences showed 26 % sequence similarity between both BSH1 and BSH2. Pfam analysis revealed the presence of cys-2 active site residues in the catalytic pocket of both BSH1 and BSH2 highly essential for catalysis. Phylogentic analysis of BSH1 and BSH2 revealed the possible independent origin of these proteins in Lactobacillus. We cloned these genes in pSLp111.3, a Lactobacillus expression vector with signal peptide A (slpA) and expressed in the native L. fermentum strain for overexpression and extracellular secretion. The bsh1 gene failed to express and to produce promising BSH activity. However, bsh2 gene was overexpressed and the recombinant strain showed improved BSH activity. Induction of the recombinant strain with an optimal 2 % xylose concentration secreted 0.5 U/ml of the BSH into extracellular medium. Furthermore, the recombinant strain was able to completely assimilate the 100-?g/ml cholesterol within 24 h, whereas the native strain took 72 h for the complete assimilation of cholesterol. PMID:25099376

Jayashree, Sathyanarayanan; Pooja, Sharma; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

2014-09-01

386

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against shrimp bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Aquaculture is one amongst the growing and major food producing sectors. Shrimp culture is one of the subsectors of aquaculture that attracts more attention because of the economic interest. However, the shrimp culture systems have been facing severe consequences and economical losses due to disease outbreaks. Risk of disease outbreak can be combated with the application of probiotics. For economically viable production of such probiotic products, the present study provides information on the optimization and partial purification of bacteriocin produced by a goat milk isolate Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against the shrimp bacterial pathogens. Results Bacteriocin production was estimated as a measure of bactericidal activity (arbitrary Unit/ml) over the test strains. The optimum culture conditions and media components for maximum bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR were: pH: 5.0, temperature: 30°C, carbon source: lactose; nitrogen source: ammonium acetate; NaCl: 3.0% and surfactant: Tween 80. MRS medium was found to extend better bacteriocin production than other tested media. Upon partial purification of bacteriocin, the SDS-PAGE analysis had manifested the presence of two peptide bands with the molecular weight of 39.26 and 6.38 kDa, respectively. Conclusion The present results provide baseline trend for the statistical optimization, scale up process and efficient production of bacteriocin by the candidate bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR which could be used to replace the usage of conventional chemotherapeutics in shrimp culture systems. PMID:23725298

2013-01-01

387

Natural killer cell activities of synbiotic Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei in conjunction with dextran  

PubMed Central

We have reported previously that Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, together with specific substrate dextran, exhibited an adjuvant effect of stimulating humoral immune responses against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. In the present study, among the Lactobacillus species tested, L. casei ssp. casei with dextran significantly elevated the natural killer (NK) cell activites in spleen mononuclear cells from BALB/c mice in comparison to L. casei ssp. casei alone or other Lactobacillus species with or without dextran. Oral administration of L. casei ssp. casei together with dextran also resulted in a significant increase of NK cell activities in healthy human volunteers. Further, L. casei ssp. casei induced significant production of interleukin (IL)-12 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IL-15 mRNA expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. L. casei ssp. casei with dextran in food also significantly elevated the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing Meth-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dietary synbiotic supplementation which is a combination of the L. casei ssp. casei used as a probiotic together with the dextran, a specific substrate as a prebiotic, efficiently elicits murine and human NK cell activities. PMID:16367940

Ogawa, T; Asai, Y; Tamai, R; Makimura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Hashikawa, S; Yasuda, K

2006-01-01

388

Characterization of the genome of the dairy Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophage {Phi}AQ113.  

PubMed

The complete genomic sequence of the dairy Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophage ?AQ113 was determined. Phage ?AQ113 is a Myoviridae bacteriophage with an isometric capsid and a contractile tail. The final assembled consensus sequence revealed a linear, circularly permuted, double-stranded DNA genome with a size of 36,566 bp and a G+C content of 37%. Fifty-six open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted, and a putative function was assigned to approximately 90% of them. The ?AQ113 genome shows functionally related genes clustered together in a genome structure composed of modules for DNA replication/regulation, DNA packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, cell lysis, and lysogeny. The identification of genes involved in the establishment of lysogeny indicates that it may have originated as a temperate phage, even if it was isolated from natural cheese whey starters as a virulent phage, because it is able to propagate in a sensitive host strain. Additionally, we discovered that the ?AQ113 phage genome is closely related to Lactobacillus gasseri phage KC5a and Lactobacillus johnsonii phage Lj771 genomes. The phylogenetic similarities between L. helveticus phage ?AQ113 and two phages that belong to gut species confirm a possible common ancestral origin and support the increasing consideration of L. helveticus as a health-promoting organism. PMID:23728811

Zago, Miriam; Scaltriti, Erika; Rossetti, Lia; Guffanti, Alessandro; Armiento, Angelarita; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Grolli, Stefano; Carminati, Domenico; Brini, Elena; Pavan, Paolo; Felsani, Armando; D'Urzo, Annalisa; Moles, Anna; Claude, Jean-Baptiste; Grandori, Rita; Ramoni, Roberto; Giraffa, Giorgio

2013-08-01

389

Lactobacillus durianis sp. nov., isolated from an acid-fermented condiment (tempoyak) in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the predominant micro-organisms in tempoyak, a Malaysian acid-fermented condiment. In a study on the diversity of LAB in this product, three isolates could not be identified using SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins or API 50 CH. The taxonomic position of the three isolates was clarified in the present study. 16S rDNA sequencing classified a representative strain in the genus Lactobacillus, clearly separated from all known species, and most closely related to the Lactobacillus reuteri phylogenetic group. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and an extensive phenotypic description confirm that the strains represent a single and separate novel species among the obligately heterofermentative lactobacilli. The three isolates are distinguished at the intra-species level by plasmid profiling, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of macro-restriction fragments and biochemical features. The name Lactobacillus durianis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel taxon and the type strain is LMG 19193T (= CCUG 45405T). PMID:12054259

Leisner, J J; Vancanneyt, M; Lefebvre, K; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Hoste, B; Vilalta, N Euras; Rusul, G; Swings, J

2002-05-01

390

Brain and liver fatty acid composition changes upon consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68.  

PubMed

Abstract Recent reports suggest that the metabolic activity of the enteric microbiota may influence the fatty acid composition of the host tissue. There are many studies dealing with the influence of lactobacilli on various pathological conditions, and some of the effects are strain-specific. This study was designed to test the effects of a particular Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 on fatty acid composition of the liver and the brain of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of an underlying pathological condition. Female mice were supplemented with live L. rhamnosus LA68 bacteria for the duration of 1 month. Serum biochemistry was analyzed and liver and brain fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Significant changes in liver and brain fatty acid composition were detected. In the liver tissue we detected an increase in palmitoleic acid (p?=?0.038), while in the brain compartment we found an increase in palmitic (p?=?0.042), stearic (p?=?0.017), arachidonic acid (p?=?0.009) and docosahexaenoic acid (p?=?0.004) for control versus experimental group. These results show discrete changes caused by LA68 strain consumption. Even short duration of administration of LA68 influences the fatty acid composition of the host which adds to the existing knowledge about Lactobacillus host interaction, and adds to the growing knowledge of metabolic intervention possibilities. PMID:25431181

Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Djuricic, Ivana; Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Zivkovic, Irena; Djordjevic, Brizita

2015-02-01

391

Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is associated with increased health risk and has been associated with alterations in bacterial gut microbiota, with mainly a reduction in Bacteroidetes, but few data exist at the genus and species level. It has been reported that the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genus representatives may have a critical role in weight regulation as an anti-obesity effect in experimental models and humans, or as a growth-promoter effect in agriculture depending on the strains. Objectives and methods: To confirm reported gut alterations and test whether Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium species found in the human gut are associated with obesity or lean status, we analyzed the stools of 68 obese and 47 controls targeting Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium animalis and seven species of Lactobacillus by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture on a Lactobacillus-selective medium. Findings: In qPCR, B. animalis (odds ratio (OR)=0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–1.01; P=0.056) and M. smithii (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.59–0.97; P=0.03) were associated with normal weight whereas Lactobacillus reuteri (OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.03–3.10; P=0.04) was associated with obesity. Conclusion: The gut microbiota associated with human obesity is depleted in M. smithii. Some Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus species were associated with normal weight (B. animalis) while others (L. reuteri) were associated with obesity. Therefore, gut microbiota composition at the species level is related to body weight and obesity, which might be of relevance for further studies and the management of obesity. These results must be considered cautiously because it is the first study to date that links specific species of Lactobacillus with obesity in humans. PMID:21829158

Million, M; Maraninchi, M; Henry, M; Armougom, F; Richet, H; Carrieri, P; Valero, R; Raccah, D; Vialettes, B; Raoult, D

2012-01-01

392

Adhesive ability means inhibition activities for lactobacillus against pathogens and S-layer protein plays an important role in adhesion.  

PubMed

Eighty-five strains of lactobacillus were isolated from the pig intestine and identified by sequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, from which five lactobacillus strains with high adhesive ability were selected. The inhibition ability of the five lactobacillus strains with or without S-layer proteins against adherence of Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella enteritidis 50335 to Caco-2 was evaluated in vitro with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) as a positive control. In addition, tolerance of lactobacilli to heat, acid, bile, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were assessed. All five selected strains, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 (JN981856), Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ616 (JN981858), L. reuteri ZJ617 (JN981859), L. reuteri ZJ621 (JN981863) and L. reuteri ZJ623 (JN981865), showed inhibition against the two pathogens, E. coli K88 and S. enteritidis 50335. L. reuteri ZJ621 showed higher inhibition ability than the others to S. enteritidis 50335 (P < 0.05). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that all five strains had abundant bands with molecular weight ranging from 34 to 130 KDa as well as had a common band of approximately 42 KDa. After treatment with 5 M LiCl to remove S-layer protein, the inhibition activities of the lactobacilli against pathogens decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The results showed that higher adhesive ability means higher inhibition activity for lactobacillus against pathogen, in which S-layer proteins plays an important role. PMID:23792230

Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yunhao; Gao, Kan; Zhang, Juan

2013-08-01

393

Correlation between body mass index and gut concentrations of Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium animalis, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background: Genus and species level analysis is the best way to characterize alterations in the human gut microbiota that are associated with obesity, because the clustering of obese and lean microbiotas increases with the taxonomic depth of the analysis. Bifidobacterium genus members have been associated with a lean status, whereas different Lactobacillus species are associated both with a lean and an obese status. Objectives and methods: We analyzed the fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Methanobrevibacter smithii, the genus Lactobacillus, five other Lactobacillus species previously linked with lean or obese populations, Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium animalis in 263 individuals, including 134 obese, 38 overweight, 76 lean and 15 anorexic subjects to test for the correlation between bacterial concentration and body mass index (BMI). Of these subjects, 137 were used in our previous study. Findings: Firmicutes were found in >98.5%, Bacteroidetes in 67%, M. smithii in 64%, E. coli in 51%, Lactobacillus species between 17 and 25% and B. animalis in 11% of individuals. The fecal concentration of Lactobacillus reuteri was positively correlated with BMI (coefficient=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.58; P=0.02) in agreement with what was reported for Lactobacillus sakei. As reported, B. animalis (coefficient=?0.84; 95% CI ?1.61 to ?0.07; P=0.03) and M. smithii (coefficient=?0.43, 95% CI ?0.90 to 0.05; P=0.08) were negatively associated with the BMI. Unexpectedly, E. coli was found here for the first time to negatively correlate with the BMI (coefficient=?1.05; 95% CI ?1.60 to ?0.50; P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings confirm the specificity of the obese microbiota and emphasize the correlation between the concentration of certain Lactobacillus species and obesity. PMID:23459324

Million, M; Angelakis, E; Maraninchi, M; Henry, M; Giorgi, R; Valero, R; Vialettes, B; Raoult, D

2013-01-01

394

Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.  

PubMed

The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (?94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ?0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures. PMID:25380798

Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

2014-11-01

395

Relative catalytic efficiency of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products is crucial for optical purity of lactic acid produced by lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

NAD-dependent l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases coexist in Lactobacillus genomes and may convert pyruvic acid into l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, respectively. Our findings suggest that the relative catalytic efficiencies of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products are crucial for the optical purity of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus strains. PMID:22344644

Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Ma, Cuiqing; Zhang, Haiwei; Gao, Chao; Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

2012-05-01

396

Effects of lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 on pig growth and pork quality  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus plantarum is a plant-associated bacterial species but it has also been found in human, mouse and porcine gastrointestinal tracts. It can ferment a broad spectrum of plant carbohydrates; it is tolerant of bile salts and low pH, and it has antagonistic potential against intestinal pathogens. However, experiments reporting the use of L. plantarum as a probiotic are limited. In this study, the effects of L. plantarum ZJ316 isolated from infant fecal samples on pig growth and pork quality were investigated. Results One hundred and fifty newly weaned pigs were selected randomly and divided into five groups. Group 1 was fed a diet supplemented with the antibiotic mequindox; Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed a diet supplemented with L. plantarum and no antibiotic; and Group 5 was fed a mixture of mequindox and L. plantarum. After a 60?days initial treatment, samples were collected for evaluation. The results showed that, the L. plantarum ZJ316 has probiotic effects on pig growth and that these effects are dose dependent. The effects of a dose of 1?×?109?CFU/d were more pronounced than those of a dose of 5?×?109?CFU/d or 1?×?1010?CFU/d. In Group 2 (1?×?109?CFU/d), the diarrhea (p?=?0.000) and mortality rates (p?=?0.448) were lower than in antibiotic-treated pigs (Group 1), and the daily weight gain (p?=?0.001) and food conversion ratios were better (p?=?0.005). Improved pork quality was associated with Lactobacillus treatment. pH (45?min, p?=?0.020), hardness (p?=?0.000), stickiness (p?=?0.044), chewiness (p?=?0.000), gumminess (p?=?0.000) and restoring force (p?=?0.004) were all significantly improved in Lactobacillus-treated pigs (Group 2). Although we found that L. plantarum exerted probiotic effects on pig growth and pork quality, the mechanisms underlying its action require further study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that the gut bacterial communities in Lactobacillus- and antibiotic-treated pigs were very similar and the quantity of L. plantarum ZJ316 was below the detection limits of DGGE-band sequencing. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids in Lactobacillus- and antibiotic-treated fecal samples were not significantly different (p?=?0.086). However, the villus height of ilea (p?=?0.003), jejuna (p?=?0.000) and duodena (p?=?0.036) were found to be significantly improved by Lactobacillus treatment. Conclusion L. plantarum ZJ316 was found to have probiotic effects, improving pig growth and pork quality. The probiotic mechanism might not involve L. plantarum colonization and alteration of the gut bacterial community. Rather, it might be related to the inhibition of the growth of opportunistic pathogens and promotion of increased villus height. PMID:22731747

2012-01-01

397

Effects of the Peptide Pheromone Plantaricin A and Cocultivation with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DPPMA174 on the Exoproteome and the Adhesion Capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum DC400  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at investigating the extracellular and cell wall-associated proteins (exoproteome) of Lactobacillus plantarum DC400 when cultivated on modified chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with the chemically synthesized pheromone plantaricin A (PlnA) or cocultured with L. plantarum DPPMA20 or Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DPPMA174. Compared to monoculture, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis showed that the exoproteome of L. plantarum DC400 was affected by PlnA and cocultivation with strains DPPMA20 and, especially, DPPMA174. The highest similarity of the 2-DE maps was found between DC400 cells cultivated in monoculture and in coculture with strain DPPMA20. Almost all extracellular proteins (22 spots) and cell wall-associated proteins (40 spots) which showed decreased or increased levels of synthesis during growth in CDM supplemented with PlnA and/or in coculture with strain DPPMA20 or DPPMA174 were identified. On the basis of the sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, changes to the exoproteome concerned proteins involved in quorum sensing (QS), the transport system, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and glycolysis, oxidation/reduction processes, the proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, cell wall and catabolic processes, and cell shape, growth, and division. Cultivation with PlnA and cocultivation with strains DPPMA20 and, especially, DPMMA174 markedly increased the capacity of L. plantarum DC400 to form biofilms, to adhere to human Caco-2 cells, and to prevent the adhesion of potential intestinal pathogens. These phenotypic traits were in part related to oversynthesized moonlighting proteins (e.g., DnaK and GroEL, pyruvate kinase, enolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) in response to QS mechanisms and interaction with L. plantarum DPPMA20 and, especially, L. sanfranciscensis DPPMA174. PMID:23396346

Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Campanella, Daniela; Minervini, Fabio; Gobbetti, Marco

2013-01-01

398

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.  

PubMed

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity. PMID:14672188

Filya, I

2003-11-01

399

Microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability of whole crop corn and a total mixed ration ensiled with and without inoculation of Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri.  

PubMed

Whole crop corn (DM 29.2%) and a total mixed ration (TMR, DM 56.8%) containing wet brewers grains, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, cracked corn, soybean meal, and molasses at a ratio of 5:1:1:1:1:1 on fresh weight basis, were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri in laboratory silos. The effects of inoculation on microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability were determined after 10 and 60 d. Untreated corn silage was well preserved with high lactic acid content, whereas large numbers of remaining yeasts resulted in low stability on exposure to air. Inoculation with L. casei suppressed heterolactic fermentation, but no improvements were found in aerobic stability. The addition of L. buchneri markedly enhanced the aerobic stability, while not affecting the DM loss and NH3-N production. Large amounts of ethanol were found when the TMR was ensiled, and the content of ethanol overwhelmed that of lactic acid in untreated silage. This fermentation was related to high yeast populations and accounted for a large loss of DM found in the initial 10 d. The ethanol production decreased when inoculated with L. casei and L. buchneri, but the effects diminished at 60 d of ensiling. Inoculation with L. buchneri lowered the yeasts in TMR silage from the beginning of storage; however, the populations decreased to undetectable levels when stored for 60 d, regardless of inoculation. No heating was observed in TMR silage during aerobic deterioration test for 7 d. This stability was achieved even when a high population of yeasts remained and was not affected by either inoculation or ensiling period. The results indicate that inoculation with L. buchneri can inhibit yeast growth and improve aerobic stability of corn and TMR silage; however, high stability of TMR silage can be obtained even when no treatments were made and high population (>10(5) cfu/g) of yeasts were detected. PMID:15328280

Nishino, N; Wada, H; Yoshida, M; Shiota, H

2004-08-01

400

Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on Hepatic Steatosis in Zucker Rats  

PubMed Central

We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-? levels decreased in the Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats. PMID:24852284

Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Abadia-Molina, Francisco; Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

2014-01-01

401

Distinct immunomodulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell responses to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 by two different polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900.  

PubMed

The structures of polysaccharides (PS) isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900 and results from stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) and human embryonal kidney (HEK293) cells stably transfected with Toll-like receptors (TLR) upon exposure to these antigens were studied. L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900 produces PS that differ greatly in their structure. The polymer L900/2, with a high average molecular mass of 830 kDa, is a branched heteropolysaccharide with a unique repeating unit consisting of seven sugar residues and pyruvic acid, whereas L900/3 has a low average molecular mass of 18 kDa and contains a pentasaccharide repeating unit and phosphorus. Furthermore, we found that both described PS neither induce cytokine production and maturation of mouse BM-DC nor induce signaling through TLR2/TLR4 receptors. However, they differ profoundly in their abilities to modulate the BM-DC immune response to the well-characterized human isolate Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Exposure to L900/2 enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production induced by L. plantarum WCFS1, while in contrast, L900/3 enhanced the production of IL-12p70. We conclude that PS, probably due to their chemical features, are able to modulate the immune responses to third-party antigens. The ability to induce regulatory IL-10 by L900/2 opens up the possibility to use this PS in therapy of inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, whereas L900/3 might be useful in reverting the antigen-dependent Th2-skewed immune responses in allergies. PMID:25107979

Górska, Sabina; Schwarzer, Martin; Jachymek, Wojciech; Srutkova, Dagmar; Brzozowska, Ewa; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

2014-10-01

402

Lactobacillus reuteri Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Cell Death by Competitive Exclusion  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested that the topical application of probiotic bacteria can improve skin health or combat disease. We have utilized a primary human keratinocyte culture model to investigate whether probiotic bacteria can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection. Evaluation of the candidate probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, Lactobacillus rhamnosus AC413, and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 demonstrated that both L. reuteri and L. rhamnosus, but not L. salivarius, reduced S. aureus-induced keratinocyte cell death in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte survival was significantly higher if the probiotic was applied prior to (P < 0.01) or simultaneously with (P < 0.01) infection with S. aureus but not when added after infection had commenced (P > 0.05). The protective effect of L. reuteri was not dependent on the elaboration of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid. L. reuteri inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion (P = 0.026). L. salivarius UCC118, however, did not inhibit S. aureus from adhering to keratinocytes (P > 0.05) and did not protect keratinocyte viability. S. aureus utilizes the ?5?1 integrin to adhere to keratinocytes, and blocking of this integrin resulted in a protective effect similar to that observed with probiotics (P = 0.03). This suggests that the protective mechanism for L. reuteri-mediated protection of keratinocytes was by competitive exclusion of the pathogen from its binding sites on the cells. Our results suggest that use of a topical probiotic prophylactically could inhibit the colonization of skin by S. aureus and thus aid in the prevention of infection. PMID:22582077

Prince, Tessa; McBain, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

403

Lactobacillus sakei modulates mule duck microbiota in ileum and ceca during overfeeding.  

PubMed

The supplementation with Lactobacillus sakei as probiotic on the ileal and cecal microbiota of mule ducks during overfeeding was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. The ducks were overfed with or without L. sakei for 12 d with 56% ground corn and 42% whole corn. Samples were collected before the overfeeding period (at 12 wk), at 13 wk (meal 12 of overfeeding), and at 14 wk (meal 24), 3 h postfeeding. Whatever the digestive segment and the level of intake, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in the bacterial community of mule ducks (at least 90%). Before overfeeding, ileal samples were dominated by Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Gammaproteobacteria (80% and up), and cecal samples by Bacteroidia and Clostridia (around 85%). The richness and diversity decreased in the ileum and increased in the ceca after overfeeding. Overfeeding increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and especially the Lactobacillus group in ileal samples. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling profiles separated the bacterial communities with respect to overfeeding only in cecal samples. Richness indicators decreased after L. sakei has been added at mid-overfeeding only in the ileum. In the ceca, the decrease of these indexes only occurred at the end of overfeeding. The addition of L. sakei triggers major changes in the ileum, whereas the ceca are not affected. Lactobacillus sakei decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides at mid-overfeeding and the relative abundance of Enterobacteria at the end of overfeeding in the ileum. PMID:24706969

Vasaï, F; Ricaud, K Brugirard; Cauquil, L; Daniel, P; Peillod, C; Gontier, K; Tizaoui, A; Bouchez, O; Combes, S; Davail, S

2014-04-01

404

Intestinal Origin of Sourdough Lactobacillus reuteri Isolates as Revealed by Phylogenetic, Genetic, and Physiological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus reuteri is both a gut symbiont and a stable member of sourdough microbiota. This study employed multilocus sequence analysis and an analysis of host-specific physiological and genetic traits to assign five sourdough isolates to rodent- or human-specific lineages. Comparative genome hybridization revealed that the model sourdough isolate LTH2584 had a genome content very similar to that of the model rodent isolate 100-23. These results demonstrate that sourdough isolates of L. reuteri are of intestinal origin. PMID:22798372

Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Walter, Jens

2012-01-01

405

Genomic diversity and versatility of Lactobacillus plantarum, a natural metabolic engineer  

PubMed Central

In the past decade it has become clear that the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum occupies a diverse range of environmental niches and has an enormous diversity in phenotypic properties, metabolic capacity and industrial applications. In this review, we describe how genome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization and comparative genomics has provided insight into the underlying genomic diversity and versatility of L. plantarum. One of the main features appears to be genomic life-style islands consisting of numerous functional gene cassettes, in particular for carbohydrates utilization, which can be acquired, shuffled, substituted or deleted in response to niche requirements. In this sense, L. plantarum can be considered a “natural metabolic engineer”. PMID:21995294

2011-01-01

406

Production of Lactobacillus kefir cells for asymmetric synthesis of a 3,5-dihydroxycarboxylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient fedbatch process for the production of Lactobacillus kefir DSM 20587 cells was developed. An improvement in space time yield of 270% (3.7 gDCW l-1 day-1) and in final enzyme activity of 440% (9.1 U\\/ml) was achieved on a 150 l scale by controlling the oxygen transfer rate to 7–9 mmol l-1 h-1. The cells exhibited good and highly stereoselective reducing activities against tert-butyl 6-chloro-3,5-dioxohexanoate. tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-dihydroxyhexanoate,

Holger Pfruender; Maya Amidjojo; Florian Hang; Dirk Weuster-Botz

2005-01-01

407

Characterization of bacteriocin ST8KF produced by a kefir isolate Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF, isolated from kefir, produced a 3.5kDa bacteriocin (bacST8KF) active against Lb. casei, Lb. salivarius, Lb. curvatus and Listeria innocua. BacST8KF was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2.0 and 10.0, and heat resistant (20min at 121°C). BacST8KF did not adsorb to the surface of the producer cell. Maximum activity (25,600AUmL?1) was recorded in MRS broth

J. E. Powell; R. C. Witthuhn; S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

408

Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of ?-galactosidase for the synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was used as a source of ?-galactosidase for the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. ?-galactosidase activity was highest when galactose (1,724 Miller Units) was used as a carbon source compared to lactose, sucrose or glucose at 37 °C, 18 h. Permeabilized cells had the highest transgalactosylation activity resulting in 34 % (w/w) GOS synthesis from 40 % (w/v) lactose at 50 °C over 12 h. HPLC revealed that the GOS were composed of 13 % disaccharides (non-lactose), 17 % trisaccharides and 4 % tetrasaccharides that were further confirmed by ESI–MS. PMID:24078132

Gobinath, Duraiswamy; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

2014-01-01

409

Cloning and Heterologous Expression of Hematin-Dependent Catalase Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ 1228  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ 1228 exhibited heme-dependent catalase activity under environmental conditions similar to those encountered during sausage fermentation. The 1,455-bp catalase gene (katL) was cloned and encoded a protein of 484 amino acids. Expression of katL in a heterologous host showed that katL encodes a functional catalase. PCR screening of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria for katL indicated the presence of similar genes in other strains of lactobacilli. PMID:14711694

Abriouel, Hikmate; Herrmann, Anette; Stärke, Joachim; Yousif, Nuha M. K.; Wijaya, Agus; Tauscher, Bernhard; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

2004-01-01

410

Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese  

PubMed Central

In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

2013-01-01

411

Synthesis of Fucosyl-N-Acetylglucosamine Disaccharides by Transfucosylation Using ?-l-Fucosidases from Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

AlfB and AlfC ?-l-fucosidases from Lactobacillus casei were used in transglycosylation reactions, and they showed high efficiency in synthesizing fucosyldisaccharides. AlfB and AlfC activities exclusively produced fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and fucosyl-?-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. The reaction kinetics showed that AlfB can convert 23% p-nitrophenyl-?-l-fucopyranoside into fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and AlfC at up to 56% into fucosyl-?-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:23542622

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Carbajo, Rodrigo J.; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Monedero, Vicente

2013-01-01

412

PCR screening and sequence analysis of iol clusters in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss.  

PubMed

The iol cluster (consisting of genes involved in myo-inositol utilization) was investigated in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss. Ten strains were tested for the presence of iol cluster by PCR screening; three strains encoded this cluster. Full-sequencing procedure was conducted; the iol cluster was identical to that of L. casei BL23 (GenBank access. no. FM177140) except for an upstream transposase. The iol cluster is not a common feature for L. casei strains isolated from koumiss. PMID:21253906

Zhang, W; Sun, Z; Sun, T; Zhang, H

2010-11-01

413

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Lactobacillus jensenii enolase  

PubMed Central

Recombinant Lactobacillus jensenii enolase fused to a C-terminal noncleavable His tag was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by sitting-drop vapor diffusion. A complete data set was collected to 3.25?Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.31, c = 99.79?Å. There were two protein subunits in the asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient V M of 2.8?Å3?Da?1, corresponding to 55.2% solvent content. PMID:20693674

Harris, Paul T.; Raghunathan, Kannan; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Arvidson, Cindy G.; Arvidson, Dennis N.

2010-01-01

414

Immune enhancement in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) by potential probiotic bacteria ( Lactobacillus rhamnosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the immune enhancement of fish by a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). The bacterium was administered orally at five different doses 7.9×104(LAB4), 2.1×106(LAB6), 2.8×108(LAB8), 1.9×1010(LAB10) and 9.7×1010(LAB11) CFU\\/g feed to rainbow trout for two weeks and the feed was changed to un-supplemented diet. From the onset of feeding supplemented diets at 1, 2,

Sami Nikoskelainen; Arthur C. Ouwehand; Göran Bylund; Seppo Salminen; Esa-Matti Lilius

2003-01-01

415

Cloning and Characterization of a Prolinase Gene (pepR) from Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptidase gene expressing L-proline-b-naphthylamide-hydrolyzing activity was cloned from a gene library of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1\\/6 isolated from cheese. Peptidase-expressing activity was localized in a 1.5-kb SacI fragment. A sequence analysis of the SacI fragment revealed the presence of one complete open reading frame (ORF1) that was 903 nucleotides long. The ORF1-encoded 34.2-kDa protein exhibited 68% identity with the PepR

PEKKA VARMANEN; TERHI RANTANEN; AIRI PALVA; SOILE TYNKKYNEN

1998-01-01

416

Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001: In vitro Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity and Effect on Growth Performance and Antioxidant Status in Weaning Piglets  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 and its effects on growth performance and antioxidant status in weaning piglets. The survival in hydrogen peroxide and free radical-scavenging activity of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 were analysed in vitro. The Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 showed high viability in 1.0 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide and high scavenging ability against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals which was dose dependent. Ninety-six weaning piglets were selected (7.45±0.79 kg) and divided into three groups comprising of negative control without any supplementation, treatment group with supplemented 6.8×107 Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 CFU/g of diet, and positive control with antibiotic treatment (chlorotetracycline, 80 mg/kg diet). The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 supplementation enhanced feed conversion rates in piglets compared with control (p<0.05). Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 increased the concentration of superoxide dismutase (p<0.05), glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) and catalase in serum (p<0.10), while decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (p<0.05). The present study implies that the strain Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001 had high antioxidant ability and its supplementation improved the growth performance and antioxidant status of weaning piglets, so it can be considered useful to alleviate oxidative stress and increase productive performance of pigs. (Key Words: Probiotic, Antioxidant Capacity, Weaning Piglet) PMID:25049675

Wang, J.; Ji, H. F.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, D. Y.; Liu, H.; Shan, D. C.; Wang, Y. M.

2012-01-01

417

Adhesion of indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum to gut extracellular matrix and its physicochemical characterization.  

PubMed

Adhesion to the human intestinal epithelial cell is considered as one of the important selection criteria of lactobacilli for probiotic attributes. Sixteen Lactobacillus plantarum strains from human origins were subjected for adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and their physiochemical characterization, incubation time course and effect of different pH on bacterial adhesion in vitro were studied. Four strains showed significant binding to both fibronectin and mucin. After pretreatment with pepsin and trypsin, the bacterial adhesion to ECM reduced to the level of 50 % and with lysozyme significantly decreased by 65-70 %. Treatment with LiCl also strongly inhibited (90 %) the bacterial adhesion to ECM. Tested strains showed highest binding efficacy at time course of 120 and 180 min. Additionally, the binding of Lp91 to ECM was highest at pH 6 (155 ± 2.90 CFU/well). This study proved that surface layer components are proteinaceous in nature, which contributed in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. Further, the study can provide a better platform for introduction of new indigenous probiotic strains having strong adhesion potential for future use. PMID:25212764

Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

2015-03-01

418

Enhancement of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1: validation in gas-lift bioreactor.  

PubMed

The optimization of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1 was carried out following the Taguchi methodology. The orthogonal array employed was L18 (2(1) × 3(5)) considering six important factors (pH and temperature, also phosphate, nitrogen, magnesium, and carbon sources) for tannase biosynthesis. The experimental results obtained from 18 trials were processed using the software Statistical version 7.1 using the character higher the better. Optimal culture conditions were pH, 6; temperature, 40 °C; tannic acid, 15.0 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.5 g/L; NH4Cl, 7.0 g/L; and MgSO4, 1.5 g/L which were obtained and further validated resulting in an enhance tannase yield of 2.52-fold compared with unoptimized conditions. Tannase production was further carried out in a 1-L gas-lift bioreactor where two nitrogen flows (0.5 and 1.0 vvm) were used to provide anaerobic conditions. Taguchi methodology allowed obtaining the optimal culture conditions for the production of tannase by L. plantarum CIR1. At the gas-lift bioreactor the tannase productivity yields increase 5.17 and 8.08-fold for the flow rates of 0.5 and 1.0 vvm, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1 has the capability to produce tannase at laboratory-scale. This is the first report for bacterial tannase production using a gas-lift bioreactor. PMID:24861311

Aguilar-Zarate, Pedro; Cruz-Hernandez, Mario A; Montañez, Julio C; Belmares-Cerda, Ruth E; Aguilar, Cristobal N

2014-11-01

419

A small variation in diet influences the Lactobacillus strain composition in the crop of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Feed composition has the potential to influence the activities of bacteria that colonize the digestive tract of broiler chickens with important consequences for animal health, well being, and food safety. In this study, the gut microbiota of two groups of broiler chickens raised in immediate vicinity but fed either a standard corn/soybean meal ration (corn-soy, CS) or a ration high in wheat middlings (high wheat, HW) was characterized. The findings revealed that this small variation in feed composition did not influence the distribution of microbial species present in the microbial community throughout the digestive tract. However, diet variation markedly influenced the Lactobacillus strain composition in the crop. Most striking, the dominant type in birds on the CS diet (Lactobacillus agilis type R5), which comprised 25% of the isolates, was not detected in birds fed the HW diet. The latter birds harbored a different strain of L. agilis (type R1) in a significantly higher ratio than birds on the CS diet. Several other strains were also specific to the particular diet. In conclusion, this study showed that a small variation in the composition of chicken feed that does not result in detectable differences in species composition can still have an impact on which microbial strains become dominant in the digestive tract. This finding has relevance in the application of probiotics and other direct-fed microbials in poultry husbandry. PMID:20554146

Hammons, Susan; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Martínez, Inés; Clark, Kenzi; Schlegel, Vicki L; Sitorius, Emily; Scheideler, Sheila E; Walter, Jens

2010-08-01

420

Characterization of a thiol-dependent endopeptidase from Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32.  

PubMed Central

An endopeptidase gene (pepE) was isolated from a previously constructed genomic library of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32. The pepE gene consisted of a 1,314-bp open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 52.1 kDa. Significant identity was found between the deduced amino acid sequence of pepE and the sequences for aminopeptidase C from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM7290, L. helveticus CNRZ32, Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ302, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. A recombinant PepE fusion protein containing an N-terminal six-histidine tag was constructed and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Characterization of PepE revealed that it was a thiol-dependent protease having a monomeric mass of 50 kDa, with optimum temperature, NaCl concentration, and pH for activity at 32 to 37 degrees C, 0.5%, and 4.5, respectively. PepE had significant activity under conditions which simulate those of ripening cheese (10 degrees C, 4% NaCl, pH 5.1). PepE hydrolyzed internal peptide bonds in Met-enkephalin and bradykinin; however, hydrolysis of alpha-, beta-, and kappa-caseins was not detected. PMID:9098049

Fenster, K M; Parkin, K L; Steele, J L

1997-01-01

421

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain reduces anxiety and improves cognitive function in the hyperammonemia rat.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that the hyperammonemia (HA)-induced neuroinflammation and alterations in the serotonin (5-HT) system may contribute to cognitive decline and anxiety disorder during hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics that maintain immune system homeostasis and regulate the 5-HT system may be potential treatment for HA-mediated neurological disorders in HE. In this study, we tested the efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus strain NS8 in preventing cognitive decline and anxiety-like behavior in HA rats. Chronic HA was induced by intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate for four weeks in male Sprague-Dawley rats. HA rats were then given Lactobacillus helveticus strain NS8 (10(9) CFU mL(-1)) in drinking water as a daily supplementation. The Morris water maze task assessed cognitive function, and the elevated plus maze test evaluated anxiety-like behavior. Neuroinflammation was assessed by measuring the inflammatory markers: inducible nitric oxide synthase, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-1 ? in the brain. 5-HT system activity was evaluated by measuring 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, and the 5-HT precursor, tryptophan. Probiotic treatment of HA rats significantly reduced the level of inflammatory markers, decreased 5-HT metabolism, restored cognitive function and improved anxiety-like behavior. These results indicate that probiotic L. helveticus strain NS8 is beneficial for the treatment of cognitive decline and anxiety-like behavior in HA rats. PMID:24554471

Luo, Jia; Wang, Tao; Liang, Shan; Hu, Xu; Li, Wei; Jin, Feng

2014-03-01

422

Plantaricin LD1: a bacteriocin produced by food isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1.  

PubMed

Plantaricin LD1, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LD1, was characterized for biochemical and antimicrobial properties. Bacteriocin showed stability at high temperatures (100 °C for 20 min and 121 °C for 15 min under 15 psi pressure), in a pH range of 2.0-8.0 and also in the presence of organic solvents, surfactants and detergents. The crude preparation was not affected by catalase, amylase and lipase but activity was reduced in the presence of pepsin, trypsin and proteinase K showing proteinaceous nature of the compound. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was found to be ?6.5 kDa, and antimicrobial activity was confirmed by bioassay. It inhibited not only related strains but also other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus curvatus NRRL B-4562, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NRRL B-1821, Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354, Enterobacter cloacae NRRL B-14298, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, urogenic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio sp. These properties of plantaricin LD1 suggest its applications not only in food safety but in therapeutics as well. PMID:24522411

Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

2014-04-01

423

Clostridium tertium isolated from gas gangrene wound; misidentified as Lactobacillus spp initially due to aerotolerant feature.  

PubMed

Clostridium tertium has been increasingly reported as a human pathogen. This organism is an aerotolerant Gram-positive rod that is often mistaken for other organisms, such as Lactobacillus or Bacillus species. We describe a case of a patient with a history of intravenous drug use presenting to UCLA-Olive View Medical Center with gas gangrene of both upper extremities. The organism was initially misidentified as a Lactobacillus species on aerobic culture plates. However, terminal spore formation was detected in this isolate on a sub-cultured anaerobic culture plate and this isolate was confirmed as C. tertium biochemically and genetically by 16S rDNA sequencing. Additional DNA cloning libraries made from the formalin-fixed specimen revealed Peptoniphilus species and an uncultured Clostridium clone, but not C. tertium. C. tertium might be a causative organism of gas-producing myonecrosis but such an association has never been described. Clinicians should be aware of the phenomenon of aerotolerance of some anaerobes and need to clarify the identification of organisms if the clinical picture does not fit the isolated organism. PMID:17446094

Fujitani, Shigeki; Liu, Chengxu X; Finegold, Sydney M; Song, Yuli L; Mathisen, Glenn E

2007-01-01

424

In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant  

PubMed Central

Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar after exposure to the oxidizing agent peracetic acid (PAA). An automated microscope stage allowed us to analyse a much larger number of cells over extended periods of incubation. After PAA treatment, the lag time increased markedly, and extensive variation in morphology, ?max as well as stress resistance was observed between and within the tested Lactobacillus brevis strains. The results suggest that aerobic cultivation increased the oxidative stress tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis. The results also show that dead cells are randomly distributed in a microcolony and the majority of non-growing individual cells do not stain with a membrane impermanent dye (Propidium iodide), which indicates that PAA may not destroy the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the developed microscopic analysis of individual cells on MRS agar can provides faster results and more details of cell physiology compared to the traditional CFU method. PMID:25505451

Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

2014-01-01

425

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

426

Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72  

PubMed Central

Background The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Results Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. Conclusions These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process. PMID:24044741

2013-01-01

427

Compositional Development of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Microbiota Is Linked with Crying and Fussing in Early Infancy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our aim was to establish whether there is an interconnection between the compositional development of the gut microbiota and the amount of fussing and crying in early infancy. Methods Behavioral patterns of 89 infants during the 7th and 12th week of life were recorded in parental diaries. Total distress was defined as the sum of daily amounts of crying and fussing. Infants' gut microbiota profiles were investigated by several molecular assays during the first six months of life. Results The median (range) duration of total distress among the infants was 106 (0–478) minutes a day during the 7th and 58 (0–448) minutes a day during the 12th week. The proportion of Bifidobacterium counts to total bacterial counts was inversely associated with the amount of crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life (p?=?0.03), although the number of Bifidobacterium breve was positively associated with total distress (p?=?0.02). The frequency of Lactobacillus spp. at the age of 3 weeks was inversely associated with total infant distress during the 7th week of life (p?=?0.02). Conclusions Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus appear to protect against crying and fussing. Identification of specific strains with optimal protective properties would benefit at-risk infants. PMID:22403665

Pärtty, Anna; Kalliomäki, Marko; Endo, Akihito; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

2012-01-01

428

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC01 positively modulates intestinal microflora in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC01 (LC01) can tolerate intestinal stresses and has antioxidant activity. To evaluate the effect of the bacterium on human intestinal microflora, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial was carried out. Fifty-two healthy adult volunteers were randomized equally to two groups. One group consumed 12% (wt/vol) skimmed milk supplemented with 10(10) CFU of LC01 each day for the 4-week treatment period, and then consumed placebo in the next treatment period, separated by a 2-week washout. The other group followed the reverse order. Group-specific real-time PCR and biochemical analyses was used to determine the intestinal bacterial composition of fecal samples collected at the end of every period, and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia. A significant inhibition in fecal Escherichia coli and increase in Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Roseburia intestinalis were observed after consumption of LC01. Acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly higher in the probiotic stage and fecal ammonia was significantly lower. The results indicated a modulation effect of LC01 on the intestinal microflora of young adults, suggesting a beneficial effect on bowel health. LC01 may have potential value as a probiotic. PMID:24385355

Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xianting; Hong, Chuan; Zhu, Yuanbo; Liu, Aiping; Li, Siqi; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

2013-12-01

429

Functional analysis of the p40 and p75 proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria. PMID:21178363

Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Monedero, Vicente

2010-01-01

430

Influence of manufacturing processes on cell surface properties of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35(®).  

PubMed

The influence of the industrial process on the properties of probiotics, administered as complex manufactured products, has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we comparatively assessed the cell wall characteristics of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® together with three of its commercial formulations with intestinal applications. Putative secreted and transmembrane-protein-encoding genes were initially searched in silico in the genome of L. rhamnosus Lcr35®. A total of 369 candidate genes were identified which expressions were followed using a custom Lactobacillus DNA chip. Among them, 60 or 67 genes had their expression either upregulated or downregulated in the Lcr Restituo® packet or capsule formulations, compared to the native Lcr35® strain. Moreover, our data showed that the probiotic formulations (Lcr Lenio®, Lcr restituo® capsule and packet) showed a better capacity to adhere to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells than the native Lcr35® strain. Microbial (MATS) tests showed that the probiotic was an electron donor and that they were more hydrophilic than the native strain. The enhanced adhesion capacity of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to epithelial Caco-2 cells and their antipathogen effect could be due to this greater surface hydrophilic character. These findings suggest that the manufacturing process influences the protein composition and the chemical properties of the cell wall. It is therefore likely that the antipathogen effect of the formulation is modulated by the industrial process. Screening of the manufactured products' properties would therefore represent an essential step in evaluating the effects of probiotic strains. PMID:25280746

Nivoliez, Adrien; Veisseire, Philippe; Alaterre, Elina; Dausset, Caroline; Baptiste, Fabrice; Camarès, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bonnet, Muriel; Forestier, Christiane; Bornes, Stéphanie

2015-01-01

431

Probiotic Lactobacillus strains protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the capacity of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1506, to protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the preventive treatment with immunomodulatory lactobacilli such as L. casei CRL431 or L. rhamnosus CRL1506 was able to increase immature myeloid progenitors in the BM, allowing an early recovery of myeloid cells after Cy administration. Probiotic lactobacilli were also capable to induce an early recovery of neutrophils in blood, improve phagocytic cells recruitment to infectious sites and increase the resistance against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. Although deeper studies regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic actions are needed, these findings support the idea that strains like CRL431 and CRL1506 may accelerate the recovery of Cy-caused immunosuppression by immunopotentiating myeloid cells. Then, probiotic lactobacilli have the potential to be used as alternatives for lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in cancer patients. PMID:24975836

Salva, Susana; Marranzino, Gabriela; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

2014-09-01

432

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. ?-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. PMID:25306364

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2015-03-01

433

Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese  

PubMed Central

Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods.

Mahmoudi, Razzaqh; Tajik, Hossein; Ehsani, Ali; Zare, Payman

2012-01-01

434

Purification and Molecular Characterization of a Tripeptidase (PepT) from Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

A tripeptidase (PepT) from a thermophilic dairy starter strain of Lactobacillus helveticus was purified by four chromatographic steps. PepT appeared to be a trimeric metallopeptidase with a molecular mass of 150 kDa. PepT exhibited maximum activity against hydrophobic tripeptides, with the highest activity for Met-Gly-Gly (Km, 2.6 mM; Vmax, 80.2 ?mol · min?1 · ?g?1). Some of the hydrophobic dipeptides were slowly hydrolyzed, distinguishing the Lactobacillus PepT from its counterpart in mesophilic Lactococcus lactis. No activity against tetrapeptides or amino acid p-nitroanilide derivatives was observed. The pepT gene and its flanking regions were isolated by PCR and sequenced by cyclic sequencing. The sequence analyses revealed open reading frames (ORFs) 816 bp (ORF1) and 1,239 bp (ORF2) long. ORF2 encoded a 47-kDa PepT protein which exhibited 53% identity with the PepT from L. lactis. The mRNA analyses indicated that pepT conforms a novel operon structure with an ORF1 located upstream. Several putative ?35/?10 regions preceded the operon, but only one transcription start site located downstream of the first putative ?10 region was identified. An inverted repeat structure with ?G of ?64.8 kJ/mol was found downstream of the PepT-encoding region. PMID:10653753

Savijoki, Kirsi; Palva, Airi

2000-01-01

435

Effect of Medium Components on Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus Pentosus ST151BR, a Strain Isolated from Beer Produced by the Fermentation of Maize, Barley and Soy Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus pentosus ST151BR, isolated from home-brewed beer, produces a 3.0 kDa antibacterial peptide (bacteriocin ST151BR) active against Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Treatment with Proteinase K or Pronase resulted in loss of activity. Bacteriocin levels of 6400 AU\\/ml were recorded in MRSbb\\u000a (De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without Tween 80) at pH 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5.

S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2004-01-01

436

Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

437

Effect of Emollients Containing Vegetable-Derived Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms: Split-Body Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients suffer from xerosis. Proper skin care, including the use of emollients, may help improve xerosis and minimize disease exacerbation. Lactobacillus sakei probio 65, isolated from the Korean vegetable-based product kimchi, can decrease interleukin 4 and immunoglobulin E levels and inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, it has reportedly shown positive dermatological effects in both animal and clinical studies. Objective To compare the effects of an emollient that contains Lactobacillus (treated) with a normal emollient (control) on AD. Methods This double-blind, randomized, split-body clinical trial involved 28 patients with AD. The patients applied the Lactobacillus-containing emollient on one side of their body and the control emollient on the other side twice daily for 4 weeks. Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance were evaluated and investigator global assessment and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were administered on weeks 0, 1, 2, and 4. Results The treated sides had significantly lower TEWL and VAS values and significantly higher skin capacitance values over time than the control sides. Conclusion Topical application of Lactobacillus-containing emollients may improve the skin permeability of patients with AD. PMID:24882967

Park, Seung Bae; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Lee, Jeung Hoon; Lim, Jeongheui; Park, Yong-Ha

2014-01-01

438

Structure and organisation of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway genes in Lactobacillus plantarum: a PCR strategy for sequencing without cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the sequence and structural organisation of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway genes of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 1904. It also describes an in vitro technique based on PCR for sequencing without cloning. This new technique was developed because it was impossible to clone certain parts of the L. plantarum genomic DNA in the Escherichia coli host. L. plantarum pyr

Aram Elagöz; Akila Abdi; Jean-Claude Hubert; Benoit Kammerer

1996-01-01

439

Study of the inhibitory activity of phenolic compounds found in olive products and their degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is the main species responsible for the spontaneous fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. Olives and virgin oil provide a rich source of phenolic compounds. This study was designed to evaluate inhibitory growth activities of nine olive phenolic compounds against four L. plantarum strains isolated from different sources, and to explore the L. plantarum metabolic activities against these phenolic

José María Landete; José Antonio Curiel; Héctor Rodríguez; Blanca de las Rivas; Rosario Muñoz

2008-01-01

440

Cultivation-Independent Analysis of the Development of the Lactobacillus spp. Community in the Intestinal Tract of Newborn Piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular diversity and development of the Lactobacillus community in the intestinal tract, as influenced by age and intestinal compartment, were studied in one litter of 12 conventionally raised piglets. Piglets were euthanized at each week (3 animals per time). Digesta and tissue samples from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon, and rectum were collected and analysed by using 16S ribosomal

Wen YAO; Wei-yun ZHU; Hauke Smidt; Martin WA Verstegen

2011-01-01

441

Exploring Metabolic Pathway Reconstruction and Genome-Wide Expression Profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to Define Functional Probiotic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the

Delphine M. Saulnier; Filipe Santos; Stefan Roos; Toni-Ann Mistretta; Jennifer K. Spinler; Douwe Molenaar; Bas Teusink; James Versalovic

2011-01-01

442

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of ?-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and

Chung-Yi Wang; Pei-Rong Lin; Chang-Chai Ng; Yuan-Tay Shyu

2010-01-01

443

Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 Produces Cobalamin-Dependent Diol Dehydratase in Metabolosomes and Metabolizes 1,2-Propanediol by Disproportionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lactobacillus reuteri strain isolated from sourdough is known to produce the vitamin cobalamin. The organism requires this for glycerol cofermentation by a cobalamin-dependent enzyme, usually termed glycerol dehydratase, in the synthesis of the antimicrobial substance reuterin. We show that the cobalamin-synthesizing capacity of another L. reuteri strain (20016, the type strain, isolated from the human gut and recently sequenced

Dinesh Diraviam Sriramulu; Mingzhi Liang; Diana Hernandez-Romero; Evelyne Raux-Deery; Heinrich Lunsdorf; Joshua B. Parsons; Martin J. Warren; Michael B. Prentice

2008-01-01

444

Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) Versus Simethicone in the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The goal was to test the hypothesis that oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri in a prospective randomized study would improve symptoms of infantile colic. METHODS. Ninety breastfed colicky infants were assigned randomly to receive either the probiotic L reuteri (108 live bacteria per day) or simethicone (60 mg\\/day) each day for 28 days. The mothers avoided cow's milk in

Francesco Savino; Emanuela Pelle; Elisabetta Palumeri; Roberto Oggero; Roberto Miniero

445

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov., isolated from dolo wort, an alcoholic fermented beverage in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into five subspecies based on phenotypic and genotypic differences. A novel isolate, designated ZN7a-9(T), was isolated from malted sorghum wort used for making an alcoholic beverage (dolo) in Burkina Faso. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization and peptidoglycan cell-wall structure type analyses indicated that it belongs to the species L. delbrueckii. The genome sequence of isolate ZN7a-9(T) was determined by Illumina-based sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and split-decomposition analyses were performed on seven concatenated housekeeping genes obtained from the genome sequence of strain ZN7a-9(T) together with 41 additional L. delbrueckii strains. The results of the MLST and split-decomposition analyses could not establish the exact subspecies of L. delbrueckii represented by strain ZN7a-9(T) as it clustered with L. delbrueckii strains unassigned to any of the recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii. Strain ZN7a-9(T) additionally differed from the recognized type strains of the subspecies of L. delbrueckii with respect to its carbohydrate fermentation profile. In conclusion, the cumulative results indicate that strain ZN7a-9(T) represents a novel subspecies of L. delbrueckii closely related to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for which the name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZN7a-9(T)?=?DSM 26046(T)?=?LMG 27067(T). PMID:23645015

Adimpong, David B; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Kim I; Vogensen, Finn K; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

2013-10-01

446

Applicability of a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk.  

PubMed

The ability of 55 strains from different Lactobacillus species to produce folate was investigated. In order to evaluate folic acid productivity, lactobacilli were cultivated in the folate-free culture medium (FACM). Most of the tested strains needed folate for growth. The production and the extent of vitamin accumulation were distinctive features of individual strains. Lactobacillus amylovorus CRL887 was selected for further studies because of its ability to produce significantly higher concentrations of vitamin (81.2 ± 5.4 ?g/L). The safety of this newly identified folate producing strain was evaluated through healthy experimental mice. No bacterial translocation was detected in liver and spleen after consumption of CRL887 during 7 days and no undesirable side effects were observed in the animals that received this strain. This strain in co-culture with previously selected folate producing starter cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus CRL871, and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL803 and CRL415) yielded a yogurt containing high folate concentrations (263.1 ± 2.4 ?g/L); a single portion of which would provide 15% of the recommended dietary allowance. This is the first report where a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain was successfully used as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk. PMID:25217720

Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Juarez del Valle, Marianela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy Joseph

2014-11-17

447

Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

448

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10Hydroxy12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or

JUN OGAWA; KENJI MATSUMURA; SHIGENOBU KISHINO; YORIKO OMURA; SAKAYU SHIMIZU

2001-01-01

449

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Metabolites from Lactobacillus Strains on Candida Species Implicated in Candida Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Research from developing countries, such as Nigeria, on Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract and their role as a barrier to vaginal infection is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical biotherapeutic potential of indigenous Lactobacillus species. Methods: Antimicrobial metabolites production were characterised using simple and easily reproducible qualitative and quantitative methods. The in vitro inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus antimicrobials on vulvovaginal candidiasis–associated Candida species was investigated using modified agar spot and agar well-diffusion methods. Results: The maximum levels of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl from 20 vaginal Lactobacillus strains from diseased subjects were 1.46 mg/L, 1.36 mmol/L, and 1.72 mg/L respectively. From the 4 healthy subjects, the maximum level of lactic acid was 1.08 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide, 1.36 mmol/L; and diacetyl, 0.86 mg/L. The maximum productions of these substances occurred between 72 and 120 hours of incubation. The in vitro antagonistic activities of vaginal L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. jensenii from diseased subjects inhibited a maximum of 5.71% of the 35 Candida species tested, while vaginal L. acidophilus and L. plantarum from healthy subjects inhibited between 57.1% and 68.6% of Candida species in vitro. Conclusion: Antimicrobial-producing lactobacilli can be considered as adjunct biotherapeutic candidates for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:22589669

Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Mopelola A; Bello, Victoria B

2011-01-01

450

Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

451

COMPARATIVE HIGH-DENSITY MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION DURING GROWTH OF LACTOBACILLUS HELVETICUS IN MILK VS. RICH MEDIUM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus Helveticus is one of 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) undergoing structural, functional, and comparative genomic studies by the Lactic Acid Bacteria Genome Consortium and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute. L. helveticus is a homofermentative, probiotic, lactic-acid-p...

452

Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in Balb/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

453

Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

454

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Meningitis following Recurrent Episodes of Bacteremia in a Child Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of meningitis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a child undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Four episodes of bacteremia involving strains with pulsotypes identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid isolate preceded meningitis. After several courses of clindamycin, no relapse occurred during the patient follow-up. PMID:20844225

Robin, Frédéric; Paillard, Catherine; Marchandin, Hélène; Demeocq, François; Bonnet, Richard; Hennequin, Claire

2010-01-01

455

Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

456

Comparative functional genomics of Lactobacillus spp. reveals possible mechanisms for specialization of vaginal lactobacilli to their environment.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312

Mendes-Soares, Helena; Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J; Forney, Larry J

2014-04-01

457

Isolation of Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) and characterization of its bacteriocin and spectra of antimicrobial activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...

458

Effects of Oral Administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 on the Symptoms and Serum Markers of Atopic Dermatitis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have investigated the complementary effects of long-term oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus on traditional medical therapy in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods: The Atopic Dermatitis Area and Severity Index was used to evaluate AD severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the symptom score. The effect of medical therapy was evaluated by adding the

Shinpei Torii; Akiko Torii; Komei Itoh; Atsuo Urisu; Akihiko Terada; Takao Fujisawa; Kazue Yamada; Hiromi Suzuki; Yu Ishida; Futoshi Nakamura; Hiroki Kanzato; Daisuke Sawada; Atsuko Nonaka; Misaki Hatanaka; Shigeru Fujiwara

2011-01-01

459

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain AY01, Isolated from the Raw Material of Fermented Goat Milk Cheese  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic that is isolated mostly from fermented foods. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of L. plantarum strain AY01, isolated from the raw material of fermented goat milk cheese. This bacterium, with optimum growth at 30°C, has a G+C content of 43.68%. PMID:24115537

Li, Xiao-Ran; Gong, Fu-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Luo, Yi-Yong

2013-01-01

460

Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini Form a Stable Ethanol-Producing Consortium in a Commercial Alcohol Production Process?  

PubMed Central

The ethanol production process of a Swedish alcohol production plant was dominated by Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini, with a high number of lactic acid bacteria. The product quality, process productivity, and stability were high; thus, D. bruxellensis and L. vini can be regarded as commercial ethanol production organisms. PMID:17483277

Passoth, Volkmar; Blomqvist, Johanna; Schnürer, Johan

2007-01-01

461

Feeding Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp. Does Not Improve Growth or Survival of Channel Catfish Experimentally Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major problem in the channel catfish industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Feeding probiotics may prove beneficial in improving disease resistance. The first study examined the effects of a Lactobacillus probiotic (Flor...

462

Immune responses in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss induced by a potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 1136  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the effect of supplementing a suggested probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 1136 in feed on immune response and gut flora composition of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The probiotic bacteria were incorporated into a commercial feed to constitute two experimental diets containing either 109 or 1011 colony forming unit of live bacteria\\/g of feed while

A. Panigrahi; V. Kiron; T. Kobayashi; J. Puangkaew; S. Satoh; H. Sugita

2004-01-01

463

Optimization of medium composition for the production of a probiotic microorganism, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to optimize yeast extract, glucose, and vitamin concentrations; and also culture pH for maximizing the growth of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and to assess the effects of these factors by using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combinations. A polynomial regression model with

S. L. Liew; A. B. Ariff; A. R. Raha; Y. W. Ho

2005-01-01

464

LACTOBACILLUS CASEI METABOLIC POTENTIAL TO UTILIZE CITRATE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE IN RIPENING CHEESE: A BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research describes a unique PCAC for Lactobacillus casei. Additionally, it describes the citric acid catabolism end-product by this non-starter lactic acid bacteria during growth, and under conditions similar to those present in ripening cheese. It provides insights on pathways preferably util...

465

Comparison of adhesive gut bacteria composition, immunity, and disease resistance in juvenile hybrid tilapia fed two different Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

This study compares the effects of two Lactobacillus strains, highly adhesive Lactobacillus brevis JCM 1170 (HALB) and less-adhesive Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM 1132 (LALB), on the survival and growth, adhesive gut bacterial communities, immunity, and protection against pathogenic bacterial infection in juvenile hybrid tilapia. During a 5-week feeding trial the fish were fed a diet containing 0 to 10(9) cells/g feed of the two Lactobacillus strains. Samples of intestine, kidney, and spleen were taken at the start and at 10, 20, and 35 days for analysis of stress tolerance and cytokine gene mRNA levels and to assess the diversity of adhesive gut bacterial communities. A 14-day immersion challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 was also performed following the feeding trial. The results showed no significant differences in survival rate, weight gain, or feed conversion in the different dietary treatments. The adhesive gut bacterial communities were strikingly altered in the fish fed either the HALB or the LALB, but the response was more rapid and substantial with the adhesive strain. The two strains induced similar changes in the patterns (upregulation or downregulation) of intestinal, splenic or kidney cytokine expression, but they differed in the degree of response for these genes. Changes in intestinal HSP70 expression levels coincided with changes in the similarity coefficient of the adhesive gut bacterial communities between the probiotic treatments. The highest dose of the HALB appeared to protect against the toxic effects of immersion in A. hydrophila (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the degree to which Lactobacillus strains adhere to the gut may be a favorable criterion in selecting probiotic strain for aquaculture. PMID:23608032

Liu, Wenshu; Ren, Pengfei; He, Suxu; Xu, Li; Yang, Yaling; Gu, Zemao; Zhou, Zhigang

2013-07-01

466

Lactobacillus satsumensis sp. nov., isolated from mashes of shochu, a traditional Japanese distilled spirit made from fermented rice and other starchy materials.  

PubMed

Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile lactic acid bacteria (strains NRIC 0603, NRIC 0604T, NRIC 0605 and NRIC 0606) were isolated from shochu mashes using an enrichment culture approach. These strains clustered in the Lactobacillus casei-Pediococcus group and were closely related to Lactobacillus nagelii and Lactobacillus mali on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed genotypic separation of the four isolates from the above two species. The isolates are therefore considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus satsumensis is proposed. The type strain is NRIC 0604T (=JCM 12392T=DSM 16230T). PMID:15653857

Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

2005-01-01

467

Expression of the catalase gene katA in starter culture Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR850 tolerates oxidative stress and reduces lipid oxidation in fermented meat product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalase gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei SR911 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli UM2 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR850 under strong lactococcal promoter P59 in E. coli–lactococcus expression vector pIL1020. The L. plantarum TISTR850 is a catalase-deficient strain isolated from local fermented meat product. The recombinant L. plantarum TISTR850 was shown to decompose hydrogen peroxide, and catalase activity approximately

W Noonpakdee; S Sitthimonchai; S Panyim; S Lertsiri

2004-01-01

468

Production of plantaricin NC8 by Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 is induced in the presence of different types of gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 was shown to produce plantaricin NC8 (PLNC8), a recently purified and genetically characterized inducible class IIb bacteriocin, only when it was co-cultured with other gram-positive bacteria. Among 82 strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Listeria, Pediococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, 41 were shown to induce PLNC8 production in L. plantarum NC8. There was apparently

Antonio Maldonado; JoséLuis Ruiz-Barba; Rufino Jiménez-Díaz

2004-01-01

469

Identification and characterization of the propanediol utilization protein PduP of Lactobacillus reuteri for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from glycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the de novo biosynthetic mechanism of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in glycerol-fermenting microorganisms is still\\u000a unclear, the propanediol utilization protein (PduP) of Lactobacillus species has been suggested to be a key enzyme in this regard. To verify this hypothesis, a pduP gene from Lactobacillus reuteri was cloned and expressed, and the encoded protein was characterized. Recombinant L. reuteri PduP exhibited

Lian Hua Luo; Jeong-Woo Seo; Jin-Oh Baek; Baek-Rock Oh; Sun-Yeon Heo; Won-Kyung Hong; Dae-Hyuk Kim; Chul Ho Kim

2011-01-01

470

The microbial flora of sugary kefir grain (the gingerbeer plant): biosynthesis of the grain from Lactobacillus hilgardii producing a polysaccharide gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The microflora of sugary kefir grains was principally mesophilic and consisted chiefly of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus hilgardii (=brevis),Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp.dextranicum, Streptococcus lactis] and a small proportion of yeasts (Zygosaccharomyces florentinus, Torulospora pretoriensis, Kloeckera apiculata, Candida lambica andC. valida). Few coliforms and faecal streptococci were observed. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the filamentous yeasts adhered

M. Pidoux

1989-01-01

471

Production of lactic acid from date juice extract with free cells of single and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of lactic acid from date juice by single and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis was investigated. In the present conditions, the highest concentration of lactic acid (60.3 g l?1) was obtained in the mixed culture system while in single culture fermentations of Lactobacillus casei or Lactococcus lactis, the maximum concentration of lactic acid was 53 and 46 g l?1,

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Joseph Boudrant

2009-01-01