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1

Characterization of Lactobacillus coryniformis DSM 20001T Surface Protein Cpf Mediating Coaggregation with and Aggregation among Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic characterization of aggregation phenotypes of Lactobacillus coryniformis revealed that strain DSM 20001T coaggregated with Escherichia coli K88, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni but not with other human pathogens. In addition, cells of these pathogens aggregated in the presence of the spent culture supernatant (SCS) of strain DSM 20001T. Cells of E. coli K88 remained viable in the coaggregates and aggregates for up to 24 h. Both coaggregation and aggregation (co/aggregation) occurred at pH 3.5 to 7.5 and was sensitive to heat (85°C for 15 min) and proteinase K. The co/aggregation-promoting factor (Cpf) was purified, and the gene was identified by PCR with degenerate primers derived from internal amino acid sequences. The cpf gene encoded a 19.9-kDa preprotein with a sec-dependent leader and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The amino acid sequence had no significant similarity to proteins with known functions. Northern analysis revealed not only major transcription from the promoter of cpf but also major transcription from the promoter of the preceding insertion element, ISLco1 belonging to the IS3 family. Recombinant Cpf produced in E. coli mediated aggregation of pathogens comparable to the aggregation obtained with purified Cpf or SCS of strain DSM 20001T. Cpf could be removed from cells of strain DSM 20001T by treatment with 5 M LiCl and could be subsequently reattached to the cell surface by using SCS or recombinant Cpf, which resulted in restoration of the co/aggregation property. These results together with those of the amino acid sequence analysis suggest that Cpf is a novel surface protein of L. coryniformis that mediates co/aggregation of some pathogens. PMID:15574903

Schachtsiek, Martina; Hammes, Walter P.; Hertel, Christian

2004-01-01

2

Description of Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage, and Lactobacillus backii sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, designated IWT246(T) and IWT248, were isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage from Iwate prefecture, Japan, and examined for a taxonomic study. Both organisms were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and homofermentative. The cell wall did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18?:?1?9c and C19 cyclo 9,10/:1. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences revealed that these strains were novel and belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the isolates were most closely related to the type strains of the following members of the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis (96.7?% similarity), L. coryniformis subsp. torquens (96.6?%), L. bifermentans (95.5?%) and L. rennini (94.1?%). However, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of both IWT246(T) and IWT248 were 99.7?% similar to that of 'Lactobacillus backi' JCM 18665; this name has not been validly published. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that these novel strains occupy a unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated genotypic separation of the novel isolates from related Lactobacillus species. The name Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates, with strain IWT246(T) (?=?JCM 18838(T)?=?DSM 26942(T)) as the type strain. Our results also suggest that 'L. backi' does represent a novel Lactobacillus species. The cells did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19 cyclo 9,10/:1 and summed feature 10 (one or more of C18?:?1?11c, C18?:?1?9t, C18?:?1?6t and unknown ECL 17.834). We therefore propose the corrected name Lactobacillus backii sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 18665(T) (?=?LMG 23555(T)?=?DSM 18080(T)?=?L1062(T)). PMID:23687059

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-10-01

3

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

4

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vasquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

5

Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov. and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains 1517(T) and 61D(T) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517(T) and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum, and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61D(T) and Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA-DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517(T) and L. gigeriorum, and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61D(T) and L. johnsonii, L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517(T) ( = CRBIP 24.76(T) = DSM 23907(T)) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61D(T) (=CRBIP 24.179(T) = DSM 23910(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22328611

Cousin, Sylvie; Motreff, Laurence; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Gouyette, Catherine; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Begaud, Evelyne; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2013-01-01

6

Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus  

PubMed Central

Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

2011-01-01

7

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

2013-01-01

8

The Characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: A study of 94 strains of lactobacilli was made. These were divided into three groups by ' sugar ' fermentations and tolerance of sodium chloride and sodium tauroglycocholate. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented amygdalin, cellobiose, salicin and sucrose, were variable in their action on dextrin and maltose, but grew in 2 yo sodium chloride or sodium tauroglycocholate. Strains of

DOROTHY M. WHEATER

1955-01-01

9

Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage se- quences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described

Marco Ventura; Carlos Canchaya; Valentina Bernini; Eric Altermann; Rodolphe Barrangou; Stephen McGrath; Marcus J. Claesson; Yin Li; Sinead Leahy; Carey D. Walker; Ralf Zink; Erasmo Neviani; Jim Steele; Jeff Broadbent; Todd R. Klaenhammer; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Paul W. O'Toole; Douwe van Sinderen

2006-01-01

10

Immunofluorescence microscopic studies on distribution of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Lactobacillus kefir in kefir grains.  

PubMed

Immunofluorescence staining was applied to observe distribution of two Lactobacillus species in kefir grains with cauliflower floret forms. Kefiran-producing, encapsulated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was located all over the grain and increased toward the center, while Lactobacillus kefir populated only a small region at the surface layers. PMID:2261314

Arihara, K; Toba, T; Adachi, S

1990-10-01

11

Fermentation of sorghum dough by genus Lactobacillus  

E-print Network

was studied using baker's yeast, isolated pure Lactobacillus, a combination of baker's yeast and isolated pure Lactobaci llus, and microorganisms that occur naturally in sorghum flour. Changes in pH and percent acidity caused by growth of the var- ious... cultures in sorghum flour were measured. Generally, the dough fermented by pure Lactobacillus had lower final pH values and higher final percent acidity compared to the other starter cultures, except for one strain of isolated Lactobacillus which...

Clark, Susie Hong Nguyen

2012-06-07

12

A selective differential medium for Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of exogenous lactobacilli in faecal samples is frequently required for the evaluation of the intestinal colonization by probiotic bacteria. In this study, a selective and differential medium, designated LPSM, was developed for the culture of exogenous Lactobacillus plantarum. In quantitative assays, LPSM showed a sensitivity similar to those of enriched and Lactobacillus-adapted media. The presence of ciprofloxacin made

Carmen Bujalance; Maria Jiménez-Valera; Encarnacion Moreno; Alfonso Ruiz-Bravo

2006-01-01

13

Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of inhibitory effect, selected probiotic lactobacilli may be used as biological preservative, so, the aim of this study was to present some data on lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sausage. Each isolate of lactobacillus species was identified by biochemical tests and comparing their sugar fermentation pattern. Antibacterial activities were done by an agar spot,

J Nowroozi; M Mirzaii; M Norouzi

14

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

15

Pentitol metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus casei capable of growing on either ribitol or xylitol carry out a heterolactic fermentation producing ethanol, acetate, and a mixture of D- and L-lactate. Following conversion of the pentitols to ribulose 5-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate via enzymatic steps unique to these organisms, the intermediate products are further metabolized by enzymes of the pentose pathway. The initial enzymes of the pathway, i.e., pentitol:phosphoenolypyruvate phosphotransferase and penititol phosphate dehydrogenase, do not appear to be stringently regulated by glucose or intermediate products of glycolysis. PMID:118163

London, J; Chace, N M

1979-01-01

16

Dark chocolates supplemented with Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark chocolate masses and chocolates were supplemented with viable cells of two bacterial strains Lactobacillus caseii and Lactobacillus paracasei with potential probiotic properties, which were lyophilized in milk. Total number of live bacteria in the lyophilizate was\\u000a 7.9109 cfu\\/g. Sucrose or isomalt and aspartame were used as bulking substances and sweeteners. Sensory attributes of these chocolates\\u000a were not different from that

Ewa Nebesny; Dorota ?y?elewicz; Ilona Motyl; Zdzis?awa Libudzisz

2007-01-01

17

KAI KURI? VEIKSNI? ?TAKA LIOFILIZUOT? LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IR LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM GYVYBINGUMUI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The present study was designed to assess the impact of different protective media, the method of concentration and the age of the lactate-fermenting bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum on their viability during the lyophilization. The cultures of L. plantarum and L. fermentum of 18 and 48 hour age were studied. For the concentration of these cultures the following

Vaidas Oberauskas; Jonas Laugalis

18

Lactobacillus  

MedlinePLUS

... Bifidobacterium (HOWARU Protect). Treating a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis. Some research suggests that taking a specific combination ... treat chronic pouchitis, a complication of surgery for ulcerative colitis. Continuous treatment for one year with a specific ...

19

Development of a carotenoid shuttle vector for Lactobacillus  

E-print Network

of Lactobacillus suggest that development of recombinant strains ofLacrobacillus, genetically modified to synthesize P-carotene, could be conviently incorporated into current practices to improve foods. The new recombinant strain of Lactobacillus is a potential... of Lactobacillus suggest that development of recombinant strains ofLacrobacillus, genetically modified to synthesize P-carotene, could be conviently incorporated into current practices to improve foods. The new recombinant strain of Lactobacillus is a potential...

White, Kevin E

2012-06-07

20

Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated strain of a species ofLactobacillus of human origin, designated GG (Lactobacillus GG), has been studied to determine its ability to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. When fed to 76 volunteers as a frozen concentrate or as a fermented preparation in milk or whey,Lactobacillus GG was recovered in the feces of all subjects receiving the fermented milk

Barry R. Goldin; Sherwood L. Gorbach; Maija Saxelin; Susan Barakat; Lisa Gualtieri; Seppo Salminen

1992-01-01

21

Lactobacillus taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from silage.  

PubMed

Strain FIRDI 006T, isolated from silage cattle feed, was characterized by using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The strain was a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium; the cells stained Gram-positive and were catalase-negative, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain belongs phylogenetically to the genus Lactobacillus and can be placed within the Lactobacillus acidophilus-delbrueckii group. Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii were the most closely related species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.53 and 99.46% to the respective type strains. Low gyrB gene sequence similarities (<90%) and low DNA-DNA reassociation values (<45%) were obtained between the strain and the phylogenetically closest neighbours. Based on phenotypic and genetic evidence, the strain is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FIRDI 006T (=BCRC 17755T =DSM 21401T). PMID:19605711

Wang, Li-Ting; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping; Wu, Yen-Chi; Tai, Chun-Ju; Lee, Fwu-Ling

2009-08-01

22

Lactobacillus fermentum, a pathogen in documented cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Lactobacillus species are probiotics proven to exhibit various preventative as well as therapeutic properties. While lactobacillus species have been implicated in the formation of dental caries, endocarditis and bacteremia, their role as pathogens in cholecystitis has not been reported. We present a rare case of Lactobacillus fermentum working as a pathogen in cholecystitis. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 81-year old male was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. His signs, symptoms, laboratory values and imaging were consistent with a diagnosis of cholecystitis with ascending cholangitis. In view of his co-morbidity and severe sepsis, the patient was treated non-operatively with antibiotics and cholecystostomy. L. fermentum, which was vancomycin resistant, was identified from the cholecystostomy aspirate and from anaerobic blood culture. The patient went into septic shock, developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and eventually died. DISCUSSION Commensal bacteria such as L. fermentum are known to modulate immunity, reduce the pathogenicity of gastrointestinal organisms and play a therapeutic role in various disease processes. We isolated L. fermentum as a pathogen in a documented case of cholecystitis with ascending cholangitis. CONCLUSION While the routine use lactobacillus species as a probiotic is supported in the literature, understanding its potential role as a pathogen may allow more judicious use of these bacteria and encourage research to elucidate the pathogenicity of lactobacillus species. PMID:23792476

Chery, Josue; Dvoskin, Dmitriy; Morato, Fernando P.; Fahoum, Bashar

2013-01-01

23

Lactobacillus helveticus: the proteolytic system.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) most commonly used in the production of fermented milk beverages and some types of hard cheese. The versatile nature of this bacterium is based on its highly efficient proteolytic system consisting of cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs), transport system and intracellular peptidases. Besides use of L. helveticus in cheese processing, the production of fermented milk preparations with health promoting properties has become an important industrial application. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products are able to decrease blood pressure, stimulate the immune system, promote calcium absorption, and exert an anti-virulent effect against pathogens. These beneficial effects are produced by a variety of peptides released during the hydrolysis of milk proteins by the proteolytic system of L. helveticus, which provides the bacterium with its nutritional requirements for growth. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding the factors that affect the kinetics of milk protein hydrolysis by specific strains and have concentrated on the effect of pH, temperature, growth phase, and matrix composition on the bacterial enzymatic system. This review focuses on the role of the proteolytic system of L. helveticus in the production of bioactive compounds formed during fermentation of dairy products. Taking advantage of the powerful proteolytic system of this bacterium opens up future opportunities to search for novel food-derived compounds with potential health promoting properties. PMID:23467265

Griffiths, M W; Tellez, A M

2013-01-01

24

Serine metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

This study investigated the metabolism of (L-) serine by Lactobacillus plantarum B3089 isolated from cheese. Serine was deaminated by growing cells to ammonia with the corresponding formation of acetate and formate. Serine was also deaminated by non-growing cells to ammonia but with the formation of acetate only (no production of formate). Phosphoserine and threonine were not catabolised. It is proposed that serine was deaminated by serine dehydratase (deaminase) to ammonia and pyruvate. Pyruvate was further catabolised predominantly to acetate, carbon dioxide and formate in growing cells, catalysed by pyruvate-formate lyase and pyruvate oxidase; some of the pyruvate was converted to acetoin. In non-growing cells, however, pyruvate-formate lyase was inactive and pyruvate oxidase degraded the pyruvate to acetate and carbon dioxide. Serine dehydratase activity could not be detected in cell-free extracts, presumably because of enzyme instability. The growth of L. plantarum was neither enhanced nor stimulated by serine under the current conditions. Whereas there was little difference in serine utilisation between pH 7.0 and pH 5.8, serine utilisation was decreased by 30% at pH 5.0. NaCl of up to 4% (w/v) concentration had little effect on serine utilisation. Serine had no impact on lactose metabolism. Lactose was fermented mainly to lactate (73%) with the remainder converted to an unidentified polysaccharide (27%). PMID:14623392

Liu, S-Q; Holland, R; McJarrow, P; Crow, V L

2003-12-31

25

Carbohydrate Utilization in Lactobacillus sake  

PubMed Central

The ability of Lactobacillus sake to use various carbon sources was investigated. For this purpose we developed a chemically defined medium allowing growth of L. sake and some related lactobacilli. This medium was used to determine growth rates on various carbohydrates and some nutritional requirements of L. sake. Mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (a nonmetabolizable glucose analog) were isolated. One mutant unable to grow on mannose and one mutant deficient in growth on mannose, fructose, and sucrose were studied by determining growth characteristics and carbohydrate uptake and phosphorylation rates. We show here that sucrose, fructose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, and glucose are transported and phosphorylated by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS permease specific for mannose, enzyme II(supMan), was shown to be responsible for mannose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine transport. A second, non-PTS system, which was responsible for glucose transport, was demonstrated. Subsequent glucose metabolism involved an ATP-dependent phosphorylation. Ribose and gluconate were transported by PTS-independent permeases. PMID:16535331

Lauret, R.; Morel-Deville, F.; Berthier, F.; Champomier-Verges, M.; Postma, P.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Zagorec, M.

1996-01-01

26

Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei

Sophie Coudeyras; Helene Marchandin; Celine Fajon; Christiane Forestier

2008-01-01

27

Cell-Free Supernatants from Probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Invasion In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)

Juanita Escamilla; Vatsala Maitin

2012-01-01

28

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK900.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900 fulfills the criteria required for probiotic strains. In this study, we report a whole-genome sequence of this isolate and compare it with other L. rhamnosus complete genome sequences already published. PMID:23950137

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

29

Characterization and electrotransformation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paraplantarum isolated from fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims of the study were to characterize two Lactobacillus plantarum-related strains, Lact.\\u000a plantarum and Lactobacillus paraplantarum isolated from fermented vegetables and, for their potential use as starter strains, compare their growth in various food\\u000a matrices. Species-level identification of the strains belonging to the Lact. plantarum group was performed by multiplex-PCR with species-specific primers and generation of distinct genotypic profiles was

Elina Mäkimattila; Minna Kahala; Vesa Joutsjoki

2011-01-01

30

Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., Two New Species from Kefir Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve strains of homofermentative lactobacilli and two strains of heterofermentative lactobacilli were isolated from kefir grains by using R-CW agar medium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics, DNA guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of these isolates and previously described lactobacilli were compared. Our results indicated that two new species, Lactobacillus kefirgranurn and Lactobacillus parakefir, could be distinguished. The type

S. TAKIZAWA; S. KOJIMA; S. TAMURA; S. FUJINAGA; Y. BENNO

1994-01-01

31

Instability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Yogurt1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidophilus added to yo- gurt decreased in numbers during refriger- ated storage. This instability was caused by substance(s) produced by L. bulgari- cus, a component species of yogurt cul- tures. Hydrogen peroxide produced by L. bulgaricus during the manufacture and\\/or storage of yogurt appeared to be the main substance responsible for the antagonism of L. bulgaricus toward L. acidophilus

S. E. Gilliland; M. L. Speck

1977-01-01

32

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166.  

PubMed

In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains. PMID:24558254

Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Kosarev, Igor V; Abramov, Vyacheslav M

2014-01-01

33

Differentiation of Lactobacillus Species by Molecular Typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 64 type, reference, clinical, health food, and stock isolates of microaerophilic Lactobacillus species were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of particular interest were members of six of the eight species most commonly recovered from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women, namely, Lactobacil- lus jensenii, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. fermentum. Six

WEI ZHONG; KEVIN MILLSAP; HANNA BIALKOWSKA-HOBRZANSKA; GREGOR REID

1998-01-01

34

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.

Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Littleton, CO); Mc Millan, James D. (Boulder, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

1998-01-01

35

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

36

Lactobacillus assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eco-friendly lactobacillus sp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray\\u000a and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles\\u000a as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

K. Prasad; Anal K. Jha; A. R. Kulkarni

2007-01-01

37

Lactobacillus florum sp. nov., a fructophilic species isolated from flowers.  

PubMed

Three strains of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from flowers in South Africa. The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus buchneri phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus homohiochii, Lactobacillus lindneri and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis according to phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that the three strains belonged to the same taxon and formed a genetically distinct group, well separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains produced acids from only two of the 49 carbohydrates tested, i.e. D-glucose and D-fructose. D-Fructose was more rapidly fermented than D-glucose. Good growth was recorded on d-fructose or D-glucose in the presence of external electron acceptors. However, delayed growth was recorded on d-glucose without electron acceptors. The novel strains produced lactic acid, ethanol and acetic acid from D-glucose at a ratio of 1?:?0.8?:?0.2. These characteristics were distinct from other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Based on the data provided, the three isolates represent a fructophilic and novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus florum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F9-1(T) (=JCM 16035(T)=DSM 22689(T)=NRIC 0771(T)). PMID:19965998

Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Kitahara, Maki; Dicks, Leon M T

2010-10-01

38

Eruca sativa might influence the growth, survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and some biological features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

39

Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains  

PubMed Central

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

40

Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass silage.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-negative rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated IWT126(T), was isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage preserved in Hachimantai, Iwate, Japan. The isolate showed growth at 15-45 °C, pH 3.5-7.5 and with 4.0?% (w/v) NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the DNA G+C content was 45.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain IWT126(T) was classified as a member of the genus Lactobacillus and was most closely related to Lactobacillus odoratitofui YIT 11304(T) (98.7?%), Lactobacillus similis JCM 2765(T) (98.5?%), Lactobacillus collinoides JCM 1123(T) (97.6?%), Lactobacillus paracollinoides DSM 15502(T) (97.6?%) and Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51(T) (96.9?%). Based on sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase ?-subunit (pheS) gene, strain IWT126(T) was well separated from its phylogenetic neighbours in the genus Lactobacillus. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic results, as well as low DNA-DNA relatedness to recognized phylogenetic relatives in the genus Lactobacillus, classification of strain IWT126(T) as a representive of a novel species named Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IWT126(T) (?=?JCM 19001(T)?=?DSM 27022(T)). PMID:23919960

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-12-01

41

Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.  

PubMed

Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

2014-11-01

42

Divergence in codon usage of Lactobacillus species.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed codon usage patterns of 70 sequenced genes from different Lactobacillus species. Codon usage in lactobacilli is highly biased. Both inter-species and intra-species heterogeneity of codon usage bias was observed. Codon usage in L. acidophilus is similar to that in L. helveticus, but dissimilar to that in L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. pentosus and L. plantarum. Codon usage in the latter three organisms is not significantly different, but is different from that in L. bulgaricus. Inter-species differences in codon usage can, at least in part, be explained by differences in mutational drift. L. bulgaricus shows GC drift, whereas all other species show AT drift. L. acidophilus and L. helveticus rarely use NNG in family-box (a set of synonymous) codons, in contrast to all other species. This result may be explained by assuming that L. acidophilus and L. helveticus, but not other species examined, use a single tRNA species for translation of family-box codons. Differences in expression level of genes are positively correlated with codon usage bias. Highly expressed genes show highly biased codon usage, whereas weakly expressed genes show much less biased codon usage. Codon usage patterns at the 5'-end of Lactobacillus genes is not significantly different from that of entire genes. The GC content of codons 2-6 is significantly reduced compared with that of the remainder of the gene. The possible implications of a reduced GC content for the control of translation efficiency are discussed. PMID:8152923

Pouwels, P H; Leunissen, J A

1994-01-01

43

Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-01-01

44

Comparison of amylolytic properties of Lactobacillus amylovorus and of Lactobacillus amylophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially purified amylases produced by Lactobacillus amylovorus and L. amylophilus were compared and they differed in several properties. The maximum amylase activity of L. amylovorus was higher than that of L. amylophilus. As estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular mass of the enzymes was 140 kDa for L. amylovorus amylase and 100 kDa for L. amylophilus amylase.

Carlos Castillo Pompeyo; Maricela Suárez Gómez; Sylvie Gasparian; Juliette Morlon-Guyot

1993-01-01

45

Viricidal Effects of Lactobacillus and Yeast Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The survival of selected viruses in Lactobacillus- and yeast-fermented edible waste material was studied to determine the feasibility of using this material as a livestock feed ingredient. Five viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, a porcine picornavirus, frog virus 3, and bovine virus diarrhea, were inoculated into a mixture of ground food waste (collected from a school lunch program) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mixtures were incubated at 20, 30, and 40°C for 216 h. In a second trial, four viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, frog virus 3, and a porcine picornavirus, were inoculated into similar edible waste material containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixtures were incubated at 20 and 30°C for 216 h. Samples were obtained daily for quantitative (trial 1) and qualitative (trial 2) virus isolation. Temperature, pH, and redox potential were monitored. Controlled pH and temperature studies were also done and compared with the inactivation rates in the fermentation processes. In trial 1 (Lactobacillus fermentation), infectious canine hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process but was inactivated below pH 4.5 in the controlled studies. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 8 in the fermentation process and appeared to be primarily heat sensitive and secondarily pH sensitive in the controlled studies. The porcine picornavirus survived the fermentation process for 8 days at 20°C but was inactivated more rapidly at 30 and 40°C. The controlled studies verified these findings. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 in the fermentation process and appeared to be sensitive to low pH in the controlled studies. Bovine virus diarrhea was rapidly inactivated in the fermentation process (less than 2 h) and was pH and temperature sensitive. In trial 2 (yeast fermentation), infectious hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 7 at 20°C and day 6 at 30°C. The porcine picornavirus was inactivated by day 7 at 30°C but survived the entire test period at 20°C. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 at 20°C and day 2 at 30°C. PMID:6414372

Gilbert, Jeannine P.; Wooley, Richard E.; Shotts, Emmett B.; Dickens, J. Andra

1983-01-01

46

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oryzae Strain SG293T  

PubMed Central

We report the 1.86-Mb draft genome and annotation of Lactobacillus oryzae SG293T isolated from fermented rice grains. This genome information may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the fermentation of rice grains. PMID:25169865

Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Mochizuki, Takako; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

2014-01-01

47

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus animalis 381-IL-28 is an integral component of a multistrain commercial culture with food biopreservative and pathogen biocontrol functionality. A draft sequence of the L. animalis 381-IL-28 genome is described in this paper. PMID:24874675

Rajendran, Mahitha; Altermann, Eric

2014-01-01

48

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

49

Quality attributes of yogurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the effect of chain length of inulins on the characteristics of fat-free plain yogurt manufactured with Lactobacillus casei. Probiotic fat-free plain yogurts were manufactured using Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. casei. The treatments were inulins of short (P95), medium (GR) and long (HP) chain lengths. The inulins were incorporated at a concentration of 1.5g\\/100g

Kayanush J. Aryana; Paula McGrew

2007-01-01

50

Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented dairy beverage.  

PubMed

Two Lactobacillus strains, designated LY-73(T) and LY-30B, were isolated from a dairy beverage, sold in Shenzhen market, China. The two isolates were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods that were heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA genes revealed that the two isolates shared 99.5, 99.8 and 99.9?% sequence similarity, which indicates that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the two isolates with the genus Lactobacillus. Strain LY-73(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus harbinensis KACC 12409(T) (97.73%), Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12744(T) (96.96?%) and Lactobacillus selangorensis DSM 13344(T) (93.10?%). Comparative analyses of their rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were significantly different from other Lactobacillus species. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values (50.5?%) were obtained between strain LY-73(T) and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two novel isolates were 56.1 and 56.5 mol%. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C18?:?1?9c (78.85 and 74.29?%) were the dominant components, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the l-Lys-d-Asp type. Based on phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, the novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with LY-73(T) (?=?CCTCC M 2011481(T)?=?KACC 16878(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23002044

Zou, Yuanqiang; Liu, Feng; Fang, Chengxiang; Wan, Daiwei; Yang, Rentao; Su, Qingqing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Jiao

2013-05-01

51

Aglycone production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 during soymilk fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 showed the highest levels of ?-glucosidase and was selected to characterize this enzyme system, among 63 strains of different Lactobacillus species. The maximum activity was obtained at pH 6.4 and 42°C. The enzyme showed weak resistance to thermal inactivation maintaining only 20% of the initial activity when it was exposed at 50°C for 5min. It also, showed

Jose A. Marazza; Marisa S. Garro; Graciela Savoy de Giori

2009-01-01

52

Preservation by freezing of potentially probiotic strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to detect the best conditions to preserve by freezing potentially probiotic strains ofLactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from food. Four strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, the commercial strainLactobacillus GG and the type strain ATCC 7469T were used in the present study. Two different pre-incubation times (5 and 24 h), three\\u000a protective media (Skim milk, Skim

Mariantonietta Succi; Patrizio Tremonte; Anna Reale; Elena Sorrentino; Raffaele Coppola

2007-01-01

53

Production and Regeneration of Lactobacillus casei Protoplasts  

PubMed Central

Methods for the production and regeneration of Lactobacillus casei protoplasts are described. Protoplasts of L. casei strains were obtained by treatment with mutanolysin or with mutanolysin and lysozyme together in a protoplast formation buffer containing 0.02 M HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N?-2-ethanesulfonic acid) (pH 7.0), 1 mM MgCl2, 0.5% gelatin, and 0.3 M raffinose. Cells were regenerated on a complex medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, MgCl2, CaCl2, gelatin, and raffinose. Lengthy digestion with lytic enzymes inhibited the capacity of protoplasts to regenerate. The optimum conditions of protoplast formation varied from strain to strain. Using predetermined optimal conditions it was possible to prepare protoplasts of several L. casei strains and regenerate them with 10 to 40% efficiency. The methods were applicable to other species of lactobacilli as well. Images PMID:16346670

Lee-Wickner, Lyang-Ja; Chassy, Bruce M.

1984-01-01

54

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive brief, about 2 sec, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.

2012-01-01

55

Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641

Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H

2012-02-01

56

Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.  

PubMed

Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) (?=?JCM 17300(T)?=?DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

2013-12-01

57

Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation  

PubMed Central

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55?mg/1010?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33?mg/1010?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Jones, Mitchell L.; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

58

Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

2014-09-01

59

Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov., isolated from chicken crop.  

PubMed

In the early 1980s, a facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, short rod, designated 202(T), was isolated from a chicken crop and identified as a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, clustering within the Lactobacillus acidophilus-delbrueckii group. In this analysis, strain 202(T) appeared to be most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus intestinalis and Lactobacillus amylolyticus, with gene sequence similarities of 96.1 and 96.2?%, respectively. Strain 202(T) was found to differ from these two species, however, when investigated by multilocus sequence analysis, and it also differed in terms of some of its metabolic properties. On the basis of these observations, strain 202(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 202(T) (?=?CRBIP 24.85(T)?=?DSM 23908(T)). PMID:21421927

Cousin, Sylvie; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Motreff, Laurence; Gouyette, Catherine; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2012-02-01

60

Lactobacillus curieae sp. nov., isolated from stinky tofu brine.  

PubMed

A lactic acid bacterium, strain CCTCC M 2011381(T), isolated from the brine of the traditional Chinese snack, stinky tofu, was studied to determine its taxonomic position. It was a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium that did not exhibit catalase activity. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 44.1 % and its peptidoglycan was characterized by the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CCTCC M 2011381(T) and the most closely related species Lactobacillus senioris JCM 17472(T), Lactobacillus parafarraginis JCM 14109(T) and Lactobacillus diolivorans JCM 12183(T) were 96.5, 96.4 and 96.4 %, respectively. Combined with data from high-resolution genomic markers recA, rpoA and pheS, strain CCTCC M 2011381(T) was classified as representing a novel species. The strain could also be distinguished from other related species of the genus Lactobacillus by its physiological and biochemical characteristics. Based on the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data, it is proposed that the new isolate can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus curieae sp. nov. (type strain CCTCC M 2011381(T) = S1L19(T) = JCM 18524(T)) is proposed. PMID:23223818

Lei, Xiao; Sun, Guipeng; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

2013-07-01

61

Lactobacillus ozensis sp. nov., isolated from mountain flowers.  

PubMed

Five strains (Mizu2-1(T), Gon2-7, Koba6-1, Koyu2-2 and Miya2-2) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from flowers in Oze National Park, Japan, using anaerobic cultivation. The five isolates were found to share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known LAB; the closest recognized relatives of strain Mizu2-1(T) were the type strains of Lactobacillus kunkeei (94.9?%), Lactobacillus kefiri (94.1?%) and Lactobacillus buchneri (93.9?%). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and heterofermentative. Anaerobic growth was better than aerobic growth. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus ozensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Mizu2-1(T) (?=?JCM 17196(T) ?=?DSM 23829(T)). PMID:21075903

Kawasaki, Shinji; Kurosawa, Kana; Miyazaki, Madoka; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Niimura, Youichi

2011-10-01

62

Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sanchez, Borja

2013-01-01

63

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food.  

PubMed

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

Crispim, S M; Nascimento, A M A; Costa, P S; Moreira, J L S; Nunes, A C; Nicoli, J R; Lima, F L; Mota, V T; Nardi, R M D

2013-01-01

64

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2014-04-01

65

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2011-04-01

66

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2010-04-01

67

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2012-04-01

68

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2013-04-01

69

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-08-25

70

Molecular analysis and clinical significance of Lactobacillus spp. recovered from clinical specimens presumptively associated with disease.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ?10(5) CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

Martinez, Raquel M; Hulten, Kristina G; Bui, Uyen; Clarridge, Jill E

2014-01-01

71

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

72

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis and Propionibacterium in cheese-based dips and the suitability of dips as effective carriers of probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of cheese-based dips as a delivery vehicle for probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was studied by evaluating the survival of these organisms in dips. Effects of organic acids, oils and gums, l-cysteine and NaHCO3 on the survival of probiotics in cheese-based dips were also studied.

Nalayini Tharmaraj; Nagendra P. Shah

2004-01-01

73

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

74

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

75

Structural identification of novel oligosaccharides produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

?-Galactosidases (?-Gal) of lactic acid bacteria produce oligosaccharides from lactose when suitable acceptor carbohydrates are present. This study aimed to elucidate the structure of oligosaccharides formed by galactosylation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and fucose. Crude cellular extract of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and LacLM of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as sources of ?-Gal activity. Disaccharides obtained by galactosylation of GlcNAc were identified as Gal-?-(1?4)-GlcNAc or Gal-?-(1?6)-GlcNAc by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and comparison with external standards. Trisaccharides were identified as Gal-?-(1?6)-Gal-?-(1?[4 or 6])-GlcNAc by LC-MS, analysis of the MS/MS spectra of selected in-source fragment ions, and their relative retention times. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of five galactosylated fucosides, but their linkage type could not be identified, partly due to the lack of reference compounds. ?-Gal of lactic acid bacteria may serve as suitable tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of therapeutic oligosaccharides. PMID:22497208

Black, Brenna A; Lee, Vivian S Y; Zhao, Yuan Yuan; Hu, Ying; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

2012-05-16

76

Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones. PMID:23335916

Cremonesi, Paola; Chessa, Stefania; Castiglioni, Bianca

2013-01-01

77

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Electron Transport Chains?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. The addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels that are typically found in L. plantarum growth media (1 to 2% [vol/vol] glucose). In contrast, comparable mannitol levels did not inhibit the reduction of nitrate. L. plantarum reduced nitrate with concomitant formation of nitrite and ammonia. Genes that encode a bd-type cytochrome (cydABCD) and a nitrate reductase (narGHJI) were identified in the genome of L. plantarum. The narGHJI operon is part of a cluster of genes that includes the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis genes and narK. Besides a menaquinone source, isogenic mutants revealed that cydA and ndh1 are required for the aerobic-respiration-like response and narG for nitrate reduction. The ndh1 mutant was still able to reduce nitrate. The existence of a nonredundant branched electron transport chain in L. plantarum WCFS1 that is capable of using oxygen or nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor is proposed. PMID:19346351

Brooijmans, R. J. W.; de Vos, W. M.; Hugenholtz, J.

2009-01-01

78

Insufficient antilisterial capacity of low inoculum Lactobacillus cultures on long-term stored meats at 4 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the 210 lactobacilli strains isolated from chilled meats produced antilisterial bacteriocins: Lactobacillus sake 265 (Lb 265) and Lactobacillus casei 52 (Lb 52). Factors affecting antilisterial effectiveness of these and two other bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) strains (Lactobacillus sake 706, Lb 706; and Lactobacillus sake 148, Lb 148) at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) were studied in laboratory media and meat systems.

S. Buncic; Sheryl M. Avery; Sandra M. Moorhead

1997-01-01

79

Distribution dynamics of recombinant Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal rats.  

PubMed

One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates. PMID:23544119

Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R; Lin, Jing

2013-01-01

80

Lactobacillus pobuzihii sp. nov., isolated from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia).  

PubMed

Twenty-one homofermentative lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented cummingcordia (pobuzihi), a traditional food in Taiwan. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were distinct from those of other lactobacilli, and their closest neighbours in the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree were strains of Lactobacillus acidipiscis. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between representative pobuzihi isolates and strains of L. acidipiscis were 17% and below. Furthermore, the new isolates could be differentiated clearly from L. acidipiscis NBRC 102163T and NBRC 102164 in terms of acid production from L-arabinose, rhamnose, mannitol, lactose and 5-ketogluconate. It was concluded that the new isolates represent a single novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus pobuzihii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E100301T (=RIFY 6501T =NBRC 103219T =KCTC 13174T). PMID:19783610

Chen, Yi-Sheng; Miyashita, Mika; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Sato, Hajime; Hsu, Jar-Sheng; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-08-01

81

Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices.  

PubMed

Fourteen strains isolated from vegetable sources and identified as belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum presented an atypical pattern of amplification with a species-specific multiplex-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of two protein-encoding genes, recA (encoding the recombinase A protein) and cpn60 (encoding the GroEL chaperonin), as well as phenotypic and genomic traits revealed a homogeneous group of very closely related strains for which subspecies status is proposed, with the name Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis. The type strain is DKO 22(T) (=CIP 108320(T)=DSM 16365(T)). PMID:16014493

Bringel, Françoise; Castioni, Anna; Olukoya, Daniel K; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

2005-07-01

82

Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov., isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica).  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three Lactobacillus-like micro-organisms (strains SG293(T), SG296 and SG310) isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) in Japan was investigated. These heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and did not show catalase activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain SG293(T) revealed that the type strains of Lactobacillus malefermentans (98.3 %), Lactobacillus odoratitofui (96.2 %), Lactobacillus similis (96.1 %), Lactobacillus kimchicus (96.1 %), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (95.9 %) and Lactobacillus collinoides (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours. Additional phylogenetic analysis on the basis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these three strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the novel isolates had a unique taxonomic position. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Because low DNA-DNA hybridization values among the isolates and Lactobacillus malefermentans JCM 12497(T) were observed, it is proposed that these unidentified isolates be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov. The type strain is SG293(T) (= JCM 18671(T) = DSM 26518(T)). PMID:23378109

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidehiko; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-08-01

83

In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets.  

PubMed

Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

2014-01-01

84

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 was isolated in Tibet, China, from kefir grain, a traditional dairy product that is known to provide many health benefits to humans. Here, we present the genome features of L. kefiranofaciens ZW3 and the identification of a gene cluster related to the synthesis of exopolysaccharide, an important constituent of the Tibetan kefir. PMID:21705607

Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jingrui; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bai, Xiaojia; Wang, Jinju

2011-01-01

85

Probiotic-associated aspiration pneumonia due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are low-virulence, commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and are commonly used as "probiotic supplements." Herein, we describe an episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis with bacterial superinfection secondary to administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an 11-month-old female with trisomy 21. PMID:24899028

Doern, Christopher D; Nguyen, Sean T; Afolabi, Folashade; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

2014-08-01

86

Lifestyle of Lactobacillus plantarum in the mouse caecum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the caeca of

M. Marco; T. H. F. Peters; D. Molenaar; Hemert van S; J. L. Sonnenburg; J. Gordon; M. Kleerebezem

2009-01-01

87

Lactobacillus porcinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Vietnamese nem chua.  

PubMed

A species diversity study of lactic acid bacteria occurring in traditional Vietnamese nem chua yielded an isolate, LMG 26767(T), that could not be assigned to a species with a validly published name. The isolate was initially investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which revealed that it belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, with Lactobacillus manihotivorans and Lactobacillus camelliae as the closest relatives (98.9?% and 96.9?% gene sequence similarity to the type strains, respectively). Comparative (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting confirmed the unique taxonomic status of the novel strain. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, DNA G+C content determination, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene, and physiological and biochemical characterization demonstrated that strain LMG 26767(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus porcinae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LMG 26767(T) (?=?CCUG 62266(T)). Biochemically, L. porcinae can be distinguished from L. manihotivorans and L. camelliae by its carbohydrate fermentation profile, absence of growth at 45 °C, and production of d- and l-lactate as end products of glucose metabolism. PMID:22941299

Nguyen, Doan Thi Lam; Cnockaert, Margo; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; De Brandt, Evie; Snauwaert, Isabel; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vuyst, Luc; Le, Binh Thanh; Vandamme, Peter

2013-05-01

88

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhances gastric ulcer healing in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are widely used as functional foods which have been advocated for the maintenance of gastrointestinal microflora equilibrium and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, studying the role of probiotics in peptic ulcer disease is limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on gastric ulcer and to elucidate the

Emily K. Y. Lam; L. Yu; Helen P. S. Wong; William K. K. Wu; Vivian Y. Shin; Emily K. K. Tai; Wallace H. L. So; Patrick C. Y. Woo; C. H. Cho

2007-01-01

89

Identification of Lactobacillus curvatus TMW 1.624 dextransucrase and comparative characterization with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 and Lactobacillus animalis TMW 1.971 dextransucrases.  

PubMed

Recently, it was affirmed that the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of Lactobacillus curvatus TMW 1.624, Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 and Lactobacillus animalis TMW 1.971 improve the quality of gluten-free breads and that they can be produced in situ to levels enabling baking applications. In this study we provide insight into the molecular and biochemical background of EPS production of these three strains. EPS formation strongly correlated with growth and took place during the exponential phase. Gtf genes were heterologously expressed, purified and their enzymatic properties as well as the structures of the EPSs formed were compared. Structural comparison of EPS formed by heterologously expressed glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) and of those formed by the wildtype lactobacilli confirmed that the respective genes/enzymes were identified and examined. The glucan formed by L. animalis Gtf was identified as a linear low molecular weight dextran. Optimal enzymatic conditions were pH 4.4 and 45 °C for the L. reuteri Gtf and pH 4.4 and 31 °C for L. curvatus Gtf. The Gtf from L. animalis had an optimal pH of 5.8 and displayed more than 50% of activity over a broad temperature profile (22-59 °C). The three Gtfs were stimulated by various mono- and divalent metal ions, dextran, as well as levan to different extents. PMID:23498178

Rühmkorf, Christine; Bork, Christian; Mischnick, Petra; Rübsam, Heinrich; Becker, Thomas; Vogel, Rudi F

2013-05-01

90

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei from yogurts and fermented milk drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective medium (LC agar) was developed for enumeration of Lactobacillus casei populations from commercial yogurts and fermented milk drinks that may contain strains of yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria) and L. casei. Appropriate dilutions were pour-plated in specially formulated LC agar acidified to pH 5.1 and the plates incubated

Ramakanth R. Ravula; Nagendra P. Shah

1998-01-01

91

DNA Arrays and Membrane Hybridization Methods for Screening of Six Lactobacillus Species Common in Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dot blot and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) array hybridization assays for the traceability of Lactobacillus species in food have been developed to monitor and validate typical food products. A primer set was designed to amplify the\\u000a 540-bp region located at +157 of the tuf (Elongation factor Tu) gene of the Lactobacillus genus. An oligonucleotide array, containing 73 Lactobacillus species-specific tuf sequences

Palmiro Poltronieri; Oscar Fernando D’Urso; Giuseppe Blaiotta; Maria Morea

2008-01-01

92

Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

93

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

94

Inducible Promoter-Repressor System from the Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim to extend the presently available inducible gene expression systems for lactobacilli, we have isolated a thermoinducible promoter-repressor cassette from the temperate Lactobacillus casei phage FSW-TI in Escherichia coli. The FSW-TI promoter fragment was abutted to the plasmid-borne promoterless -glu- curonidase (gusA) reporter gene and shown to direct its transcription in L. casei. In addition, the functionality of

Phage FSW; Bernhard Binishofer; Isabella Moll; Bernhard Henrich; Udo Blasi

2002-01-01

95

Pleiotropic effects of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lactic acid bacteria, conversion of pyruvic to lactic acid through the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) constitutes the final step of the homofermentative pathway. Lactobacillus casei has two characterized genes encoding Ldh activities. The ldhL gene codes for an L-Ldh, which specifically catalyzes the formation of l-lactate, whereas the hicD gene codes for a d-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase (HicDH), which catalyzes

Rosa Viana; María Jesús Yebra; José Luis Galán; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

2005-01-01

96

Isolation and characterization of ?-galactosidase from Lactobacillus crispatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Galactosidase was isolated from the cell-free extracts ofLactobacillus crispatus strain ATCC 33820 and the effects of temperature, pH, sugars and monovalent and divalent cations on the activity of the enzyme\\u000a were examined.L. crispatus produced the maximum amount of enzyme when grown in MRS medium containing galactose (as carbon source) at 37°C and pH 6.5\\u000a for 2 d, addition of glucose

J.-W. Kim; S. N. Rajagopal

2000-01-01

97

Lactobacillus kimchiensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented food.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium was isolated from a traditional fermented food, kimchi. The morphology, physiology, biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain L133(T) were studied. Strain L133(T) was Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative, with rod-shaped cells that formed cream colonies. Cells grew in the presence of 0-5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1-2?%), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C). Comparative 16S rRNA gene and pheS sequence analysis of strain L133(T) indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. The major fatty acids were identified as C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?0 and C18?:?0, and the cell wall contained peptidoglycan of the L-Lys-D-Asp type. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain L133(T) and related species were below 11±0.4?%. The DNA G+C content of strain L133(T) was 35.7 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as physiological and biochemical tests, identified genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain L133(T) and other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Based on these analyses, strain L133(T) is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, named Lactobacillus kimchiensis. The type strain is L133(T) (?=?KACC 15533(T)?=?JCM 17702(T)?=?DSM 24716(T)). PMID:22798657

Kim, Jandi; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

2013-04-01

98

Endocarditis caused by Lactobacillus jensenii in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, vagina and nasal cavity. In this report, a rare case of Lactobacillus jensenii endocarditis in a 47-year-old immunocompetent patient is described. Blood cultures and a replaced mitral valve were positive for L. jensenii as assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Based on susceptibility tests the patient was successfully treated with a mixture of teicoplanin and meropenem antimicrobial therapy. PMID:20133416

Fradiani, Piera Assunta; Petrucca, Andrea; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Di Nucci, Giandomenico; Teggi, Antonella; Bilancini, Silvia; Cipriani, Paola

2010-05-01

99

Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum?WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L.?plantarum?WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L.?plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L.?plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L.?plantarum?WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

2014-09-01

100

Bacteriocin production and gene sequencing analysis from vaginal Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

The human vagina is a complex and dynamic ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. In women of childbearing age, this system is dominated by Lactobacillus spp. In the present work, seventeen newly isolated vaginal strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. Twelve of the isolated Lactobacillus strains showed activity against one or more microorganisms. Six and five of them produced substances that inhibited the growth of two different Klebsiella strains and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Two lactobacilli strains were active against an Escherichia coli strain, one isolate was active against an Enterococus faecalis strain and another lactobacilli strain showed antimicrobial activity against a Candida parapsilosis strain. The nature of the active compounds was additionally studied, and the presence of bacteriocin-like substances was proved. The genes related to the bacteriocin production in three of the newly isolated strains were identified and sequenced. The presence of gassericin A operon in the genome of the species Lactobacillus crispatus was described for the first time. The presence of antimicrobial activity contributes to their possible use as potential probiotic strains after further research. PMID:24919535

Stoyancheva, Galina; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

2014-09-01

101

TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE DEXTRANSUCRASE SYNTHESIS BY A LACTOBACILLUS  

PubMed Central

Dunican, L. K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York), and H. W. Seeley, Jr. Temperature-sensitive dextransucrase synthesis by a lactobacillus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1079–1083. 1963.—Dextran synthesis was found to be temperature-dependent in Lactobacillus strain RWM-13. Dextran was not formed above 37 C, although growth of cells occurred up to 42 C. Logarithmically growing cells transferred from 30 C to 40 C ceased producing dextran while growth decreased nominally. An examination of the extracts of cells broken by sonic treatment showed that as the temperature of growth was increased above 37 C the production of dextransucrase decreased. By use of an inhibitor of invertase, 10?4m AgNO3, it was shown that invertase replaced dextransucrase activity at temperatures above 37 C. In contrast to dextransucrase in Leuconostoc mesenteroides, the enzyme in Lactobacillus strain RWM-13 was constitutive and thus resembled that of Streptococcus bovis. Thermosensitivity of dextransucrase synthesis has not been observed in Leuconostoc or Streptococcus. PMID:14080775

Dunican, L. K.; Seeley, H. W.

1963-01-01

102

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery  

PubMed Central

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery. PMID:24875844

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J.; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J.; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

103

Comparative Sequence Analyses of the Genes Coding for 16s rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-Related Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structures of the 16s rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lacto- bacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhumnosus were different. The K,,, values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the K,,, values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness

KATSUMI MORI; KOJI YAMAZAKI; TOMOHARU ISHIYAMA; KAYO KOBAYASH; HARUO SHINAN

1997-01-01

104

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules  

PubMed Central

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

2012-01-01

105

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

2012-01-01

106

Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, Francois P.; Ribbera, Angela; Jarvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietila, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

2013-01-01

107

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation on growth and nutrient utilization in Mongrel pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation was studied in eight Mongrel pups of about 10 weeks of age with a mean body weight of 5.2 kg divided into two equal groups, control (group C) and a probiotic supplemented group (group L). Both groups received the same feed (biscuit) which was for group L supplemented with 2 × 10 cfu of a Lactobacillus

K. Pasupathy; A. Sahoo; N. N. Pathak

2001-01-01

108

Diversity and functional characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated throughout the ripening of a hard cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the Lactobacillus spp. intra- and inter- species diversity in a Piedmont hard cheese made of raw milk without thermal treatment and without addition of industrial starter, and to perform a first screening for potential functional properties. A total of 586 isolates were collected during the cheese production and identified by means of molecular methods: three hundred and four were identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two hundred and forty as Lactobacillus helveticus, twenty six as Lactobacillus fermentum, eleven as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, three as Lactobacillus pontis, and two as Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri, respectively. A high genetic heterogeneity was detected by using the repetitive bacterial DNA element fingerprinting (rep-PCR) with the use of (GTG)5 primer resulting in eight clusters of L. helveticus and sixteen clusters in the case of L. rhamnosus. Most of isolates showed a high auto-aggregation property, low hydrophobicity values, and a general low survival to simulated digestion process. However, sixteen isolates showed promising functional characteristics. PMID:24819414

Bautista-Gallego, J; Alessandria, V; Fontana, M; Bisotti, S; Taricco, S; Dolci, P; Cocolin, L; Rantsiou, K

2014-07-01

109

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant honeybee  

E-print Network

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant 2011 Abstract ­ This is the first assay that describes the isolation and identification of strains of honeybees were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees, and Lactobacillus was isolated

110

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Lactobacillus Strains, L. farraginis JCM 14108T and L. composti JCM 14202T, Isolated from Compost of Distilled Sh?ch? Residue.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two type strains of Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus farraginis JCM 14108(T) and Lactobacillus composti JCM 14202(T), isolated from the compost of distilled sh?ch? residue. Their genome information will be useful for studies of ecological and physiological functions of these Lactobacillus species. PMID:24675866

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kitahara, Maki; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

111

Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H2O2 was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance of intestinal microflora in geese and could offer an alternative to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25104766

Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

2014-10-01

112

High-Level Expression of Heme-Dependent Catalase Gene katA from Lactobacillus Sakei Protects Lactobacillus Rhamnosus from Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Lactobacillus sakei YSI8 is one of the very few LAB strains able to degrade H2O2 through the action of a heme-dependent catalase. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains are very important probiotic starter cultures in meat product fermentation, but they are deficient in catalase. In\\u000a this study, the effect of heterologous expression

Haoran An; Hui Zhou; Ying Huang; Guohong Wang; Chunguang Luan; Jing Mou; Yunbo Luo; Yanling Hao

2010-01-01

113

Growth and survival of Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 in yogurt for use as a functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 are considered probiotic agents with therapeutic properties. To prepare mother cultures for these organism bacteria, four formulations were made with milk (1% fat) with 0.33% yeast extract (T1); 0.4% inulin (T2); 0.33% yeast extract and 0.4% inulin (T3); and one with no additives (T4). The media were inoculated with 1% probiotic cultures

Sharareh Hekmat; Hoda Soltani; Gregor Reid

2009-01-01

114

Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment. [Lactobacillus sake; Lactobacillus curvatus; Lactobacillus farciminis; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typimurium  

SciTech Connect

Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D/sub 10/ values (doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1) under CO/sub 2/ packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N/sub 2/. The D/sup 10/ values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D/sup 10/ values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium.

Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

1986-10-01

115

Fructooligosaccharides metabolism and effect on bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses.  

PubMed

Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Among them, the strain L. plantarum LE5 showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enteroccocus faecalis; while the L. plantarum LE27 strain showed antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. This antimicrobial activity in most of the cases was obtained only after FOS supplementation. In summary, these results show the feasibility to increase the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus bacteriocins by supplementing the growth medium with FOS. PMID:22342961

Muñoz, M; Mosquera, A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Melendez, A P; Sánchez, O F

2012-06-01

116

Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov., lactic acid bacteria isolated from mountain flowers.  

PubMed

Five strains (Ryu1-2(T), Gon2-9, Ryu4-3, Nog8-1 and Aza1-1) of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from flowers in mountainous areas in Japan, Oze National Park, Iizuna mountain and the Nikko area. The five isolates were found to share almost identical (99.6-100 % similar) 16S rRNA gene sequences and were therefore deemed to belong to the same species. These isolates exhibited low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known lactic acid bacteria; the closest recognized relatives to strain Ryu1-2(T) were the type strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii (92.8 % similarity), Lactobacillus kefiri (92.7 %), Lactobacillus composti (92.6 %) and Lactobacillus buchneri (92.4 %). Comparative analyses of rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolates did not show significant relationships to other Lactobacillus species. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and homofermentative. The isolates utilized a narrow range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy, including glucose and fructose. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus floricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ryu1-2(T) (?= NRIC 0774(T) ?= JCM 16512(T) ?= DSM 23037(T)). PMID:20601482

Kawasaki, Shinji; Kurosawa, Kana; Miyazaki, Madoka; Yagi, Chisato; Kitajima, Yoritaka; Tanaka, Shigeta; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Okada, Sanae; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Niimura, Youichi

2011-06-01

117

Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov., isolated from subarctic timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage.  

PubMed

Four strains of Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and non-motile lactic acid bacteria, LOOC260(T), LOOC253, LOOC273 and LOOC279, were isolated from timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage produced in Hokkaido, a subarctic region of Japan. These isolates grew at 4-37 °C, indicating the psychrotolerant nature of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these four strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LOOC260(T) demonstrated that the closest neighbours were the type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus (97.7 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans (96.7 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus (96.7 %). Strain LOOC260(T) showed low levels of DNA-DNA association with Lactobacillus suebicus JCM 9504(T) (14.7 ± 3.5 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans JCM 16175(T) (15.1 ± 4.8 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus JCM 1716(T) (10.7 ± 3.0 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LOOC260(T) ( = JCM 18461(T) = DSM 26202(T)). PMID:23223820

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-07-01

118

The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G?+?C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

2013-01-01

119

Sepsis associated with Lactobacillus bacteremia in a patient with ischemic colitis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species is a known commensal of the mouth, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract. However, its isolation on blood cultures is often overlooked and attributed to bench contamination. We present a case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent male who initially presented with altered mental status, but developed sepsis from Lactobacillus bacteremia during his hospital course, while on mechanical ventilation. He was found to have ischemic colitis on colonoscopy. His condition improved with antibiotics and supportive management. Using this example of ischemic colitis, we stress that in the right clinical setting, Lactobacillus bacteremia is a harbinger for a serious underlying pathology and should not be ignored.

Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Khoury, Charbel C.

2014-01-01

120

[Antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine].  

PubMed

The antagonistic activity of 109 lactobacillus strains, isolated from traditional fermented products of Ukraine, has been investigated and it has been shown that the significant part of strains show different levels of inhibition of opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms. It has been shown that the antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the opportunistic and phytopathogenic microorganisms was dependent on the sources of Lactobacillus strains isolation. L. plantarum strains show a higher level of inhibition against phytopathogenic microorganisms than opportunistic test-strains. Eleven strains of L. plantarum demonstrated antagonistic activity for all used test-strains. PMID:25007440

Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L

2014-01-01

121

Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.e., 1-kestose, fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) of the strains were compared. L. paracasei DSM 20020 grew well on all these sugars, while the growth rates of the 4 L. delbrueckii strains were markedly higher on the fructans with a greater degree of polymerization than on fructose and sucrose. Secondly, sugar compositions of spent cultures of the strains of L. delbrueckii and L. paracasei grown in mMRS containing either the fructans or inulin were determined by thin layer chromatography, in which the spent cultures of L. paracasei DSM 20020 showed spots of short fructose and sucrose fractions, whereas those of the L. delbrueckii strains did not show such spots at all. These results suggest that, unlike the L. paracasei strains, the L. delbrueckii strains do not degrade the inulin-type fructans extracellularly, but transport the fructans capable of greater polymerization preferentially into their cells to be degraded intracellularly for their growth. PMID:24936375

TSUJIKAWA, Yuji; NOMOTO, Ryohei; OSAWA, Ro

2013-01-01

122

Conversion of D-Biotin to Biotin Vitamers by Lactobacillus Arabinosus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes D-biotin, biotin sulfoxide, and several vitamers of biotin, whereas Lactobacillus arabinosus responds to biotin and biotin sulfoxide of the naturally occurring forms of the vitamin. The use of these organisms for differen...

J. Birnbaum, H. C. Lichstein

1964-01-01

123

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strain FMNP01, Isolated from Mango Fruit  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum strain FMNP01 is a new strain with probiotic properties that was isolated from fresh mango from Guangzhou, China. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism. PMID:25428967

Li, Xue-Fei; Liao, Xue-Yi; Liu, Yong-Feng; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei

2014-01-01

124

Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by F2CTP: covalent modification  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii, a 76 kDa monomer using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor, catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides and is rapidly (<30 ...

Lohman, Gregory J. S.

125

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23?  

PubMed Central

The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

Maze, Alain; Boel, Gregory; Zuniga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noemie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casaregola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Perez-Martinez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

2010-01-01

126

Growth Response of Lactobacillus Casei (Atcc 7469) to Riboflavin, Fmn, and Fad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growth responses, measured turbidimetrically, of Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) to riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide differ significantly from each other. In the assay of acid extracts of tissues for flavin content, t...

B. W. Langer, S. Charoensiri

1966-01-01

127

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1, an Indian Isolate of Human Gut Origin  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an Indian isolate of the probiotic strain L. fermentum Lf1, isolated from the human gut. PMID:24233584

Sharma, Vineet K.; Mallapa, Rashmi H.; Batish, Virender K.

2013-01-01

128

Lactobacillus yonginensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium with ginsenoside converting activity isolated from Kimchi.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, ?-glucosidase-producing lactic acid bacterium, designated strain THK-V8(T), was isolated from the Korean fermented food, Kimchi, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain THK-V8(T) was able to grow at 4-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 4.0-7.0 (optimum, pH 6.0). Strain THK-V8(T) had the ability to transform ginsenoside Rb? to Rd. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data, strain THK-V8(T) was shown to belong to the genus Lactobacillus. Strain THK-V8(T) was related to Lactobacillus koreensis DCY50(T) (98.8% sequence similarity), Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984(T) (97.7%), Lactobacillus senmaizukei L13(T) (97.5%), Lactobacillus hammesii TMW1.1236(T) (97.3%) and Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14687(T) (97.2%). Subsequently, sequence analysis of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit gene (rpoA) confirmed that strain THK-V8(T) showed a maximum rpoA gene sequence similarity value of 93% with Lactobacillus brevis LMG 6906(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 47.8 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain THK-V8(T) and Lactobacillus parabrevis DCY50(T) and Lactobacillus parabrevis LMG 11984(T) were 46.1 ± 4.9% and 10.6 ± 2.9%, respectively. The major fatty acids were summed feature 7 (comprised of C(19:0) cyclo ?10c/19?6), C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:1)?9c. The cell wall peptidoglycan was of the A4? L-Lys-D-Asp type. The phenotypic and molecular properties indicated that strain THK-V8(T) represents a novel species within the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus yonginensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THK-V8(T) (?=KACC 16236(T)?=JCM 18023(T)). PMID:23475345

Yi, Eun-Ji; Yang, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Yongjin; Park, Sang-Yong; Shin, Heon-Sub; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2013-09-01

129

Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression levels of liver enzymes related to cholesterol metabolism, including the down regulation of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and the upregulation of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Conclusion This study suggested that the two NS lactobacillus strains may affect lipid metabolism and have cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. PMID:23656797

2013-01-01

130

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation on immune status of malnourished pre-school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of Lactobacillus supplementation on immune response of pre school children.\\u000a Thirty malnourished (grade I and grade II) preschool (3–5 years old) children were selected for the study. These were further\\u000a categorized into three groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’, each group comprising of 10 individuals. Groups ‘Ar and ‘B’ were given lactobacillus

Sucharitha Devi; P. Yasoda Devi; M. Siva Prakash

1999-01-01

131

Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus -SDC 2012, 2013 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria exhibit a variety of properties, which are unique to a particular strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 are new strains isolated from Korean infants’ feces. The potential utility of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was studied. Forty IBS patients were randomized into a placebo (n = 20) and probiotics group (n = 20). Four weeks of treatment with L.

Dong Hyun Sinn; Ji Hyun Song; Hoi Jin Kim; Jun Haeng Lee; Hee Jung Son; Dong Kyung Chang; Young-Ho Kim; Jae J. Kim; Jong Chul Rhee; Poong-Lyul Rhee

2008-01-01

132

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11, a strain isolated from Egyptian cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of growth conditions on the maximum activity of bacteriocin production\\u000a by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11. The bacteriocin was produced at maximum activity in M17 broth supplemented with 0.5% lactose (M17L). The maximum growth\\u000a of Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 was obtained at 37°C, while the optimal temperature for the bacteriocin production was 30°C.

Aly E. Abo-Amer

2011-01-01

133

Effect of intestinal Lactobacillus starter cultures on the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus in fermented sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Lactobacillus strains isolated from intestinal tracts for starter cultures of fermented sausage on the growth rate and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were studied at two fermentation temperatures of 20°C and 35°C. Initial inoculated populations in the sausage batter were approx. 104 cfu\\/g for S. aureus and 107 cfu\\/g for the Lactobacillus strain as a starter culture.

T Sameshima; C Magome; K Takeshita; K Arihara; M Itoh; Y Kondo

1998-01-01

134

Investigation into the Potential of Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 for Biopreservation of Raw Turkey Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 was assessed for its potential as a protective culture in the biopreservation of aerobically stored turkey meat.\\u000a This strain produces three bacteriocins, i.e. plantaricins EF, JK and N. The absolute expression of Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 16S rRNA housekeeping gene, as well as l-ldh, plnEF and plnG genes as determined by quantitative, real-time-PCR, revealed

Gyu-Sung Cho; Alexander Hanak; Melanie Huch; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel; Charles M. A. P. Franz

2010-01-01

135

Reduction of Sulfide, Ammonia Compounds, and Adhesion Properties of Lactobacillus casei Strain KE99 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus casei strain KE99 to reduce sulfide, ammonia, and to adhere to bio-surfaces was characterized and compared with three lactobacillus\\u000a reference strains. Sulfide reduction by strain KE99 in MRS broth increased exponentially after 10-h growth and reached a maximum\\u000a (>300 ppm reduction) within 48 h. KE99 demonstrated a maximum reduction of sulfide under anaerobic (341 ppm) growth

A. S. Naidu; X. Xie; D. A. Leumer; S. Harrison; M. J. Burrill; E. A. Fonda

2002-01-01

136

Characterization of a Mobile clpL Gene from Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes encoding ClpL ATPase proteins were identified in a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain, E-97800. Sequence analyses revealed that the genes, designated clpL1 and clpL2, share 80% identity. The clpL2 gene showed the highest degree of identity (98.5%) to a clpL gene from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFSI, while it was not detected in three other L. rhamnosus strains studied. According to

Aki Suokko; Kirsi Savijoki; Erja Malinen; Airi Palva; Pekka Varmanen

2005-01-01

137

Draft genome sequences and description of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains L31, L34, and L35.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a facultative, lactic acid bacterium in the phylum Firmicutes. Lactobacillus spp. are generally considered beneficial, and specific strains of L. rhamnosus are validated probiotics. We describe the draft genomes of three L. rhamnosus strains (L31, L34, and L35) isolated from the feces of Thai breastfed infants, which exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. The three genomes range between 2.8 - 2.9 Mb, and contain approximately 2,700 protein coding genes. PMID:25197459

Boonma, Prapaporn; Spinler, Jennifer K; Qin, Xiang; Jittaprasatsin, Chutima; Muzny, Donna M; Doddapaneni, Harsha; Gibbs, Richard; Petrosino, Joe; Tumwasorn, Somying; Versalovic, James

2014-06-15

138

Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two healthy women were randomized to receive one of three encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 plus Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 probiotic dosage regimens or L. rhamnosus GG by mouth each day for 28 days. However, the vaginal flora, assessed by Nugent scoring, was only normal in 40% of the cases, and 14 patients had asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Treatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1\\/L.

Gregor Reid; Dee Beuerman; Christine Heinemann; Andrew W Bruce

2001-01-01

139

Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of Lactobacillus casei\\/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase\\/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC\\/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L.

Christine Bäuerl; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; Fang Yan; D. Brent Polk; Vicente Monedero

2010-01-01

140

Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov., isolated from fu-tsai and suan-tsai, traditional Taiwanese fermented mustard products.  

PubMed

Three Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from fermented mustard and were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, homofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the type strains of Lactobacillus crustorum (98.7% similarity), Lactobacillus farciminis (98.9%) and Lactobacillus mindensis (97.9%) were the closest neighbours. However, DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were less than 50%. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YM 0097(T) (=JCM 17355(T)=BCRC 80278(T)). PMID:21478397

Chao, Shiou-Huei; Kudo, Yuko; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Watanabe, Koichi

2012-03-01

141

Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium-fortified soymilk.  

PubMed

The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed. PMID:20722939

Tang, Anne Lise; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagandra P; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

2010-08-01

142

Genetic and functional characterization of Lactobacillus panis levansucrase.  

PubMed

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) can affect the rheological properties of foods, act as stabilizers or stimulate preferential growth of bifidobacteria in the gut and therefore function as prebiotics. The latter is referred to fructans, which are synthesized from sucrose by fructosyl transferases (FTFs). In this work, the FTF enzyme of Lactobacillus panis TMW1.648 isolated from sourdough was characterized. The coding gene was identified, sequenced and expressed heterologously in E. coli. Enzyme activity was maximal at pH 4.0-4.6, 45 degrees C and a substrate concentration of 300 mmol l(-1). It produced free fructose, a high molecular fructan and the oligosaccharide kestose from sucrose. Calcium ions proved to be essential for the enzymatic activity. In comparison to published data of other FTF enzymes of lactobacilli the described enzyme showed significant differences. PMID:18607568

Waldherr, Florian W; Meissner, Daniel; Vogel, Rudi F

2008-10-01

143

Molecular characterization of three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus phages.  

PubMed

In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

2014-09-01

144

Complete glutathione system in probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3.  

PubMed

There is much information about glutathione (GSH) in eukaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about GSH in prokaryotes. Without GSH and glutathione redox cycle lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cannot protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Previously we have shown the presence of GSH in Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (DSM14241). Results of this study show that probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 contains both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. We also present that L. fermentum ME-3 can transport GSH from environment and synthesize GSH. This means that it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover ability that makes L. fermentum ME-3 a perfect protector against oxidative stress. To our best knowledge studies on existence of the complete glutathione system in probiotic LAB strains are still absent and glutathione synthesis in them has not been demonstrated. PMID:21058502

Kullisaar, T; Songisepp, E; Aunapuu, M; Kilk, K; Arend, A; Mikelsaar, M; Rehema, A; Zilmer, M

2010-01-01

145

Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.  

PubMed

The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:24767059

Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

2014-09-15

146

Analysis of Lactobacillus Products for Phages and Bacteriocins That Inhibit Vaginal Lactobacilli  

PubMed Central

Objective: Bacterial vaginosis is associated with an unexplained loss of vaginal lactobacilli. Previously, we have identified certain vaginal lactobacilli-released phages that can inhibit in vitro other vaginal lactobacilli. However, there is no apparent route for phages to be transmitted among women. The purpose of this study was to identify whether certain Lactobacillus products commonly used by women release phages or bacteriocins that can inhibit vaginal lactobacilli. Methods: From 26 Lactobacillus products (2 acidophilus milks, 20 yogurts, 3 Lactobacillus pills, and 1 vaginal douche mix), lactobacilli were isolated with Rogosa SL agar (Difco, Detroit, MI). From these lactobacilli, phages and bacteriocins were induced with mitomycin C and tested against a collection of vaginal Lactobacillus strains. Results: From the 26 products, 43 Lactobacillus strains were isolated. Strains from 11 yogurts released phages, among which 7 inhibited vaginal lactobacilli. Eleven strains released bacteriocins that inhibited vaginal lactobacilli. While about one-half of the vaginal strains were lysed by bacteriocins, less than 20% were lysed by phages. Conclusions: Some vaginal lactobacilli were inhibited in vitro by phages or bacteriocins released from Lactobacillus products used by women, implying that vaginal lactobacilli may be reduced naturally due to phages or bacteriocins from the environment. PMID:18476145

Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Mou, Susan M.; Ma, Wen-ge; Kilic, Ali O.

1997-01-01

147

Lactobacillus sicerae sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from Spanish natural cider.  

PubMed

Strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 were isolated from ropy natural ciders of the Basque Country, Spain, in 2007. Cells are Gram-stain positive, non-spore-forming, motile rods, facultative anaerobes and catalase-negative. The strains are obligately homofermentative (final product dl-lactate) and produce exopolysaccharides from sucrose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the highest similarity to both isolates corresponded to the type strain of Lactobacillus vini (99.1?%), followed by Lactobacillus satsumensis (96.4?%), and Lactobacillus oeni (96.2?%), and for all other established species, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were below 96?%. The species delineation of strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 was evaluated through RAPD fingerprinting. In addition, a random partial genome pyrosequencing approach was performed on strain CUPV261(T) in order to compare it with the genome sequence of Lactobacillus vini DSM 20605(T) and calculate indexes of average nucleotide identity (ANI) between them. Results permit the conclusion that strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus sicerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CUPV261(T) (?=?CECT 8227(T)?=?KCTC 21012(T)). PMID:24899655

Puertas, Ana Isabel; Arahal, David R; Ibarburu, Idoia; Elizaquível, Patricia; Aznar, Rosa; Dueñas, M Teresa

2014-09-01

148

Strain-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus) inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of enterocolitis in humans, leading to diarrhoea and chronic extraintestinal diseases. Although probiotics are effective in preventing other enteric infections, beneficial microorganisms have not been extensively studied with C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to delineate the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce epithelial cell invasion by C. jejuni. Human colon T84 and embryonic intestine 407 epithelial cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus strains and then infected with two prototypic C. jejuni pathogens. Lactobacillus helveticus, strain R0052 reduced C. jejuni invasion into T84 cells by 35-41%, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 did not reduce pathogen invasion. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 also decreased invasion of one C. jejuni isolate (strain 11168) into intestine 407 cells by 55%. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 adhered to both epithelial cell types, which suggest that competitive exclusion could contribute to protection by probiotics. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. The data support the concept of probiotic strain selectivity, which is dependent on the setting in which it is being evaluated and tested. PMID:19765084

Wine, Eytan; Gareau, Mélanie G; Johnson-Henry, Kathene; Sherman, Philip M

2009-11-01

149

Some taxonomical characteristics of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B isolated from kefir grains and characterization of its extracellular polysaccharide.  

PubMed

A capsular polysaccharide-producing strain KPB-167B isolated from kefir grains was identified as a homofermentative Lactobacillus. The carbohydrate fermentation pattern and DNA base composition of the strain were different from those of other capsular Lactobacillus species previously isolated from kefir grains. The polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B was found similar to kefiran by 13C-NMR and methylation analysis. Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B could grow and produce capsular polysaccharide in MRSL medium with better yield than L. kefiranofaciens, which suggested that it is suitable for kefiran production. PMID:1911082

Yokoi, H; Watanabe, T; Fujii, Y; Mukai, T; Toba, T; Adachi, S

1991-08-01

150

Effect of Growth Medium on Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus plantarum ST194BZ, a Strain Isolated from Boza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The cell-free supernatant containing bacteriocin ST194BZ, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST194BZ, inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseu- domonas aeruginosa. Strain ST194BZ produces two bacteriocins, viz. ST194BZ(a) of 3.3 kDa and ST194BZ(b) of 14.0 kDa, based on tricine-SDS-PAGE. Reduction in bacteriocin activity was observed after treatment

Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov; Leon Milner; Theodore Dicks

151

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

152

Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

2013-01-01

153

Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. RESULTS: In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment. PMID:25400470

Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

2014-01-01

154

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 - an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic.  

PubMed

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-04-01

155

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 - an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic  

PubMed Central

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-01-01

156

Shotgun mass mapping of Lactobacillus species and subspecies from caries related isolates by MALDI-MS.  

PubMed

A taxonomical study of 90 isolates of lactobacilli isolated from soft and hard carious dentine of 70 deciduous molars is presented. The Lactobacillus strains were determined by shotgun mass mapping (SMM). This method based on MALDI-MS analysis of Lactobacillus isolates treated with trypsin followed by database comparison against a library of mass spectra derived from 20 reference strains. The SMM method allowed to discriminate different Lactobacillus subspecies. The method was used to analyse Lactobacillus isolates of unknown identity derived from carious dentine. Application of the SMM method to isolates from hard carious dentine revealed a nearly similar distribution of L. paracasei ss paracasei (29%), L. paracasei ss tolerans (32%) and L. casei ss rhamnosus (23%) as dominant subspecies. On the other hand, samples derived from soft carious dentine showed a clear bias only to L. paracasei ss paracasei (60%), whereas L. paracasei ss tolerans (14%) and L. casei ss rhamnosus (12%) were clear minorities. Compared to existent methods, SMM has unique potential for the analysis of Lactobacillus strains on subspecies level. PMID:19260002

Schmidt, Frank; Fiege, Thomas; Hustoft, Hanne K; Kneist, Susanne; Thiede, Bernd

2009-04-01

157

Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) (?=?JCM 18764(T)?=?NRIC 0900(T)?=?DSM 27174(T)). PMID:24876240

Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

2014-08-01

158

Starch-binding domain affects catalysis in two Lactobacillus alpha-amylases.  

PubMed

A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in alpha-amylases from three lactobacilli (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus alpha-amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98% sequence identity. In spite of this identity, the SBD structures seem to be quite different. To investigate whether the observed differences in the SBDs have an effect on the hydrolytic capability of the enzymes, a kinetic study of L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amylases was developed, with both enzymes acting on several starch sources in granular and gelatinized forms. Results showed that the amylolytic capacities of these enzymes are quite different; the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase is, on average, 10 times more efficient than the L. plantarum enzyme in hydrolyzing all the tested polymeric starches, with only a minor difference in the adsorption capacities. PMID:15640201

Rodríguez-Sanoja, R; Ruiz, B; Guyot, J P; Sanchez, S

2005-01-01

159

Some low homogenization pressures improve certain probiotic characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are dairy cultures widely used in the manufacture of cultured dairy products. Commonly used homogenization pressures in the dairy industry are 13.80 MPa or less. It is not known whether low homogenization pressures can stimulate bacteria to improve their probiotic characteristics. Objectives were to determine the effect of homogenization

T. Muramalla; K. J. Aryana

2011-01-01

160

Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum UG1 isolated from dry sausage: characterization, production and bactericidal action of plantaricin UG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum UG1 isolated from dry sausage produced an antimicrobial substance that inhibited other strains of the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, and some foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes. This antibacterial substance was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes and showed a bactericidal mode of action. Consequently, it was characterized as a bacteriocin, and was designated

G. Enan; A. A. El-Essawy; M. Uyttendaele; J. Debevere

1996-01-01

161

Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 2771: Impact on Metabolism of Isoflavonoids in the Fecal Flora from a Male Equol Producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many beneficial effects of probiotics have been reported; however, few have focussed on the effects of Lactobacillus, a probiotic, on the bioconversion of isoflavonoids. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus rhamnosus will modify the metabolism of isoflavone. In an in vitro incubation, L. rhamnosus JCM 2771 produced daidzein from daidzin along with genistein. However, daidzin and genistein were not detected in the

Motoi Tamura; Sachiko Hori; Hiroyuki Nakagawa

2011-01-01

162

The adsorption of ochratoxin a by lactobacillus species.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-09-01

163

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

164

Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 alleviates lead toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Lead causes a broad range of adverse effects in humans and animals. The objective was to evaluate the potency of lactobacilli to bind lead in vitro and the protective effects of a selected Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 against lead-induced toxicity in mice. Nine strains of bacteria were used to investigate their binding abilities of lead in vitro, and L. plantarum CCFM8661 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent lead binding capacity. Both living and dead L. plantarum CCFM8661 were used to treat 90 male Kunming mice during or after the exposure to 1 g/L lead acetate in drinking water. The results showed oral administration of both living and dead L. plantarum CCFM8661 offered a significant protective effect against lead toxicity by recovering blood ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, decreasing the lead levels in blood and tissues, and preventing alterations in the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and reactive oxygen species caused by lead exposure. Moreover, L. plantarum CCFM8661 was more effective when administered consistently during the entire lead exposure, not after the exposure. Our results suggest that L. plantarum CCFM8661 has the potency to provide a dietary strategy against lead toxicity. PMID:22684513

Tian, Fengwei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

2012-12-01

165

CRISPR–Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR–Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR–Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR–Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR–Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR–Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR–Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR–Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR–Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2014-01-01

166

CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2015-01-01

167

Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibits growth of Campylobacter pylori in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter pylori has been implicated as a causative factor in acid-peptic disease. Lactobacillus acidophilus is known to inhibit the growth of pathogens in the human gastrointestinal tract. We recovered C. pylori from gastric antral biopsies of seven patients with acid-peptic disease; the isolates were then cultured in brucella broth. The effect of L. acidophilus (cultured in DeMan-Rogosa-Sharpe broth) on the growth of C. pylori was tested by a mixed culture technique. L. acidophilus inhibited the growth of all seven isolates of C. pylori in vitro. All these isolates were also inhibited by the L. acidophilus culture supernatant (brucella blood agar cup technique) obtained at or after 48 h of incubation. Inhibition of C. pylori growth was also observed with 1 and 3% lactic acid but not with 0.5 and 1% hydrogen peroxide, the L. acidophilus sonic extract, or a citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 4.0). We conclude that the inhibitory action of L. acidophilus on C. pylori is dependent on an extracellular secretory product, probably lactic acid. This inhibitory effect may be of therapeutic relevance in patients with C. pylori-positive acid-peptic disease. PMID:2511224

Bhatia, S J; Kochar, N; Abraham, P; Nair, N G; Mehta, A P

1989-01-01

168

Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer's interest in placing "healthy" food on the market based on the consumer's ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products.To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods.Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

Herbel, Stefan R; Vahjen, Wilfried; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

2013-01-01

169

Kinetics and Modeling of Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

An unstructured model was developed to describe bacterial growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum in cucumber juice. Significant lactic acid production occurred during growth, as well as stationary phases. The percentage of acid produced after growth ceased was a function of the medium composition. Up to 51% of the lactic acid was produced after growth ceased when NaCl was not present in the medium, whereas not more than 18% of the total lactic acid was produced after the growth ceased in presence of NaCl, probably because of an increase in the cell death rate. An equation relating the specific death rate and NaCl concentration was developed. With the kinetic model proposed by R. Luedeking and E. L. Piret (J. Biochem. Microbiol. Technol. Eng. 1:393-412, 1958) for lactic acid production rate, the growth-associated and non-growth-associated coefficients were determined as 51.9 (+/-4.2) mmol/g of cells and 7.2 (+/-0.9) mmol/g of cells h respectively. The model was demonstrated for batch growth of L. plantarum in cucumber juice. Mathematical simulations were used to predict the influence of variations in death rate, proton concentration when growth ceased, and buffer capacity of the juice on the overall fermentation process. PMID:16349339

Passos, F V; Fleming, H P; Ollis, D F; Felder, R M; McFeeters, R F

1994-07-01

170

Purification and biochemical characterization of pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate oxidase (EC 1.2.3.3) was isolated and characterized from Lactobacillus plantarum. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of phosphate and oxygen, yielding acetyl phosphate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide. This pyruvate oxidase is a flavoprotein, with the relatively tightly bound cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine pyrophosphate, and a divalent metal ion, with Mn2+ being the most effective. The enzyme is only slightly inhibited by EDTA, implying that the enzyme-bound metal ion is poorly accessible to EDTA. Only under relatively drastic conditions, such as acid ammonium sulfate precipitation, could a colorless and entirely inactive apoenzyme be obtained. A partial reactivation of the enzyme was only possible by the combined addition of flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine pyrophosphate, and MnSO4. The enzyme has a molecular weight of ca. 260,000 and consists of four subunits with apparently identical molecular weights of 68,000. For catalytic activity the optimum pH is 5.7, and the optimum temperature is 30 degrees C. The Km values for pyruvate, phosphate, and arsenate are 0.4, 2.3, and 1.2 mM, respectively. The substrate specificity revealed that the enzyme reacts also with certain aldehydes and that phosphate can be replaced by arsenate. In addition to oxygen, several artificial compounds can function as electron acceptors. Images PMID:6480556

Sedewitz, B; Schleifer, K H; Götz, F

1984-01-01

171

Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and ?-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations. PMID:24682879

Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

2014-05-01

172

Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

2013-01-01

173

The Adsorption of Ochratoxin A by Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

174

Adhesion properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri to gastrointestinal mucus.  

PubMed

We investigated the mucus-binding properties of aggregating and non-aggregating potentially probiotic strains of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri, using different substrates. All the strains were able to adhere to commercial gastric mucin (MUCIN) and extracted mucus from small intestine (SIM) and colon (CM). The extraction of surface proteins from bacteria using LiCl or NaOH significantly reduced the adhesion of three selected strains (CIDCA 8348, CIDCA 83115 and JCM 5818); although a significant proportion (up to 50%) of S-layer proteins were not completely eliminated after treatments. The surface (S-layer) protein extracts from all the strains of Lb. kefiri were capable of binding to MUCIN, SIM or CM, and no differences were observed among them. The addition of their own surface protein extract increased adhesion of CIDCA 8348 and 83115 to MUCIN and SIM, meanwhile no changes in adhesion were observed for JCM 5818. None of the seven sugars tested had the ability to inhibit the adhesion of whole bacteria to the three mucus extracts. Noteworthy, the degree of bacterial adhesion reached in the presence of their own surface protein (S-layer) extract decreased to basal levels in the presence of some sugars, suggesting an interaction between the added sugar and the surface proteins. In conclusion, the ability of these food-isolated bacteria to adhere to gastrointestinal mucus becomes an essential issue regarding the biotechnological potentiality of Lb. kefiri for the food industry. PMID:24168928

Carasi, Paula; Ambrosis, Nicolás M; De Antoni, Graciela L; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

2014-02-01

175

Human ?-amylase Present in Lower-Genital-Tract Mucosal Fluid Processes Glycogen to Support Vaginal Colonization by Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary ?-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of ?-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of ?-amylase digestion. These studies show that human ?-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. PMID:24737800

Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

2014-10-01

176

Molecular analysis of the composition of the bifidobacterial and lactobacillus microflora of humans.  

PubMed Central

The bifidobacterial and lactobacillus populations of fecal samples collected from two human subjects during a 12-month period were studied. The total numbers of bifidobacteria were stable throughout the study period in both subjects, but lactobacillus numbers were less constant. Analysis of the composition of the bifidobacterial populations by using ribotyping or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to differentiate between bacterial strains demonstrated major differences between the subjects. Subject 1 harbored five strains of bifidobacteria throughout the 12-month period, and one strain was numerically predominant. In contrast, subject 2 harbored a more complex bifidobacterial population (five to six strains per sample) whose composition fluctuated throughout the 12 months. One lactobacillus strain was numerically predominant throughout the study in both subjects. Strains of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli common to both subjects were not detected. PMID:8953730

McCartney, A L; Wenzhi, W; Tannock, G W

1996-01-01

177

Strain-dependent induction of cytokine profiles in the gut by orally administered Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

Different Lactobacillus strains are frequently used in consumer food products. In addition, recombinant lactobacilli which contain novel expression vectors can now be used in immunotherapeutic applications such as oral vaccination strategies and in T cell tolerance induction approaches for autoimmune disease. Both for food and clinical applications of lactobacilli, proper selection of wild type strains is crucial. For that purpose, eight different common Lactobacillus strains were analysed with respect to mucosal induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IgA-producing plasma cells in the gut, as well as systemic antibody responses against a parenterally administered antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis of cytokine-producing cells in the gut villi showed no significant induction of the cytokines IL-1alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-10 after oral administration of wild type Lactobacillus strains. In contrast, oral administration of L. reuteri and L. brevis induced expression of the proinflammatory/Th1 cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-2 and/or IL-1beta. Oral administration of these two strains and L. fermentum also significantly enhanced the IgG response against parenterally administered haptenated chicken gamma globulin (TNP-CGG). The five other strains did not show this adjuvanticity. L. reuteri induced relatively high levels of IgG2a compared to L. murines, a nonadjuving Lactobacillus strain. These findings imply that different Lactobacillus strains induce distinct mucosal cytokine profiles and possess differential intrinsic adjuvanticity. This suggests that rational Lactobacillus strain selection provides a strategy to influence cytokine expression and thereby influence immune responses. PMID:10775795

Maassen, C B; van Holten-Neelen, C; Balk, F; den Bak-Glashouwer, M J; Leer, R J; Laman, J D; Boersma, W J; Claassen, E

2000-05-22

178

Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106. PMID:22021580

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2012-09-01

179

The antimicrobial properties of different strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from kefir.  

PubMed

The characteristics of 58 strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from kefir were studied. These strains were tested for adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, resistance to acidic pH and bile acid, antimicrobial activities against enteropathogenic bacteria and inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium attachment to Caco-2 cells. The best probiotic properties were observed in L. acidophilus CYC 10051 and L. kefiranofaciens CYC 10058. L. kefiranofaciens CYC 10058 produced an exopolysaccharide, which revealed that it was closely related to kefiran, a polysaccharide with antitumoral properties. This is the first in vitro study about the antimicrobial characteristics of the Lactobacillus population of kefir. PMID:14529186

Santos, A; San Mauro, M; Sanchez, A; Torres, J M; Marquina, D

2003-09-01

180

Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods. PMID:25320437

Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Jung, Min-Woong; Kim, Da Hye; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Jane, Mariamichael; Park, Hyung Su; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-12-01

181

EPR polarization studies on Mn catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The binuclear manganese active site of Mn catalase catalyzes redox disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide, forming dioxygen and water. We report here multifrequency EPR and microwave polarization studies of the catalytically active homovalent Mn2+ complex of Lactobacillus plantarum Mn catalase, resolving spectra from each of the thermally accessible multiplet states of the coupled complex by multivariate methods. The experimental spectra have been simulated using computational approaches for the binuclear cluster to predict both intensity and polarization for arbitrary values of the ground state parameters. These two spectroscopic properties define the nature of the ground state wavefunctions and so serve as a sensitive and quantitative measure of the inter-ion interactions in the reduced complex. Interpretation of the spectra in terms of a pair Hamiltonian that includes Heisenberg exchange, dipolar, single site zero field splitting, and Zeeman perturbations leads to the most complete ground state description of the active site metal centers. The results of this spectroscopic analysis support a picture of two high spin ions weakly coupled by exchange interactions (J = 40 cm-1) with relatively small dipole-dipole coupling and single site zero field splittings for the ligand-free reduced enzyme. The coupling between fluoride binding and protonation of the complex has been demonstrated by proton uptake studies. The binding of two fluoride ions in the active site dramatically changes the pair spectra, reflecting a substantially reduced J-coupling (J = 10.5 cm-1) that must be a consequence of perturbation of the bridging ligands. Anion binding to the binuclear Mn complex appears to result in poisoning of the active site by protons, possibly associated with insertion of fluoride into bridging positions of the dimanganese core. PMID:8555195

Meier, A E; Whittaker, M M; Whittaker, J W

1996-01-01

182

Lactobacillus reuteri in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Probiotics have proven to be useful in the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics may compete directly with Helicobacter pylori, possibly by interference with adherence or by the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to inhibit H. pylori in vitro and in vivo, and theoretically may play a role in eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of L. reuteri in H. pylori eradication therapy. This was an open label single center study. H. pylori infection was defined as positive gastric histopathology and (13)C-UBT. Intervention consisted of L. reuteri (DSM 17938) 10(8) cfu plus pantoprazole 20 mg twice a day for 8 weeks. Eradication was defined as a negative (13)C-UBT, 4-6 weeks post therapy. Compliance was considered good if at least 90% of the total number of the pills were taken. 21 of 22 subjects completed the study without protocol violation (mean age 52 years; 36% men). L. reuteri plus pantoprazole twice a day cured 13.6% (3/22; 95% CI 2.9-34.9%) of patients with H. pylori infection by ITT analysis and 14.2% (3/21; 95% CI 3.0-36%) by PP analysis. Overall urease activity assessed before and 4-6 weeks post therapy showed a significant reduction with a difference of mean of 38.8 vs. 25.4 by one-tailed test (P = 0.002). In conclusion, L. reuteri may have a potential role in H. pylori eradication therapy if the cure rate can be improved by changes in dose, dosing interval, or duration of therapy. PMID:24178436

Dore, Maria Pina; Cuccu, Marianna; Pes, Gianni Mario; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Yates

2014-09-01

183

Primary metabolism in Lactobacillus sakei food isolates by proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is an important food-associated lactic acid bacterium commonly used as starter culture for industrial meat fermentation, and with great potential as a biopreservative in meat and fish products. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms underlying the growth performance of a strain to be used for food fermentations is important for obtaining high-quality and safe products. Proteomic analysis was used to study the primary metabolism in ten food isolates after growth on glucose and ribose, the main sugars available for L. sakei in meat and fish. Results Proteins, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source were identified, such as a ribokinase and a D-ribose pyranase directly involved in ribose catabolism, and enzymes involved in the phosphoketolase and glycolytic pathways. Expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were also affected by the change of carbon source. Interestingly, a commercial starter culture and a protective culture strain down-regulated the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the rest of the strains when grown on ribose. The overall two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein expression pattern was similar for the different strains, though distinct differences were seen between the two subspecies (sakei and carnosus), and a variation of about 20% in the number of spots in the 2-DE gels was observed between strains. A strain isolated from fermented fish showed a higher expression of stress related proteins growing on both carbon sources. Conclusions It is obvious from the data obtained in this study that the proteomic approach efficiently identifies differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source. Despite the basic similarity in the strains metabolic routes when they ferment glucose and ribose, there were also interesting differences. From the application point of view, an understanding of regulatory mechanisms, actions of catabolic enzymes and proteins, and preference of carbon source is of great importance. PMID:20412581

2010-01-01

184

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

PubMed Central

The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, the genome encodes all enzymes required for the glycolysis and phosphoketolase pathways, all of which appear to belong to the class of potentially highly expressed genes in this organism, as was evident from the codon-adaptation index of individual genes. Moreover, L. plantarum encodes a large pyruvate-dissipating potential, leading to various end-products of fermentation. L. plantarum is a species that is encountered in many different environmental niches, and this flexible and adaptive behavior is reflected by the relatively large number of regulatory and transport functions, including 25 complete PTS sugar transport systems. Moreover, the chromosome encodes >200 extracellular proteins, many of which are predicted to be bound to the cell envelope. A large proportion of the genes encoding sugar transport and utilization, as well as genes encoding extracellular functions, appear to be clustered in a 600-kb region near the origin of replication. Many of these genes display deviation of nucleotide composition, consistent with a foreign origin. These findings suggest that these genes, which provide an important part of the interaction of L. plantarum with its environment, form a lifestyle adaptation region in the chromosome. PMID:12566566

Kleerebezem, Michiel; Boekhorst, Jos; van Kranenburg, Richard; Molenaar, Douwe; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Leer, Rob; Tarchini, Renato; Peters, Sander A.; Sandbrink, Hans M.; Fiers, Mark W. E. J.; Stiekema, Willem; Lankhorst, Rene M. Klein; Bron, Peter A.; Hoffer, Sally M.; Groot, Masja N. Nierop; Kerkhoven, Robert; de Vries, Maaike; Ursing, Bjorn; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.

2003-01-01

185

LIFESTYLE OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN THE MOUSE CECUM  

PubMed Central

Summary Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the ceca of adult germ-free C57Bl/6J mice fed a standard low-fat rodent chow diet rich in complex plant polysaccharides or a prototypic Western diet high in simple sugars and fat. L. plantarum colonized the digestive tracts of these animals to high levels, although L. plantarum was found in 10-fold higher amounts in the ceca of mice fed the standard chow. Metabolic reconstructions based on the transcriptional datasets revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism form the principal functional group that is up-regulated in vivo compared to exponential phase cells grown in three different culture media, and that a Western diet provides a more nutritionally-restricted, growth limiting milieu for the microbe in the distal gut. A set of bacterial genes encoding cell surface-related functions were differentially regulated in both groups of mice. This set included down-regulated genes required for the D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acids, extracellular structures of L. plantarum that mediate interactions with the host immune system. These results, obtained in a reductionist gnotobiotic mouse model of the gut ecosystem, provide insights about the niches (professions) of this lactic acid bacterium, and a context for systematically testing features that affect epithelial and immune cell responses to this organism in the digestive tract. PMID:19638173

Marco, Maria L.; Peters, Theodorus H.F.; Bongers, Roger S.; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hemert, Saskia; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2010-01-01

186

Exploring Lactobacillus plantarum Genome Diversity by Using Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping of 20 strains of L. plantarum from various sources. The gene categories with the most genes conserved in all strains were those involved in biosynthesis or degradation of structural compounds like proteins, lipids, and DNA. Conversely, genes involved in sugar transport and catabolism were highly variable between strains. Moreover, besides the obvious regions of variance, like prophages, other regions varied between the strains, including regions encoding plantaricin biosynthesis, nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In many cases, these variable regions colocalized with regions of unusual base composition. Two large regions of flexibility were identified between 2.70 and 2.85 and 3.10 and 3.29 Mb of the WCFS1 chromosome, the latter being close to the origin of replication. The majority of genes encoded in these variable regions are involved in sugar metabolism. This functional overrepresentation and the unusual base composition of these regions led to the hypothesis that they represented lifestyle adaptation regions in L. plantarum. The present study consolidates this hypothesis by showing that there is a high degree of gene content variation among L. plantarum strains in genes located in these regions of the WCFS1 genome. Interestingly, based on our genotyping data L. plantarum strains clustered into two clearly distinguishable groups, which coincided with an earlier proposed subdivision of this species based on conventional methods. PMID:16109953

Molenaar, Douwe; Bringel, Francoise; Schuren, Frank H.; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-01-01

187

Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum 80 of xylT, Encoding the D-Xylose-H 1 Symporter of Lactobacillus brevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-kb region, located downstream of the Lactobacillus brevis xylA gene (encoding D-xylose isomerase), was cloned in Escherichia coli TG1. The sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the D-xylulose kinase gene (xylB) and another gene (xylT) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the D-xylose-H 1 symporters of E. coli, XylE (57%),

STEPHANE CHAILLOU; YEOU-CHERNG BOR; CARL A. BATT; PIETER W. POSTMA; PETER H. POUWELS

1998-01-01

188

Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic

Gillian E. Gardiner; Christine Heinemann; Andrew W. Bruce; Dee Beuerman; Gregor Reid

2002-01-01

189

Lactobacillus harbinensis sp. nov., consisted of strains isolated from traditional fermented vegetables ‘Suan cai’ in Harbin, Northeastern China and Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12745  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomical analysis of two genetically distinguished Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional Chinese fermented vegetables ‘Suan cai’ was performed. They formed l-lactate from glucose, were facultatively heterofermentative, and had a DNA G+C content of 53–54mol%. They fermented d- and l-arabinose. They produced lactate, ethanol and acetate from gluconate at a molar ratio of 1.1:0.4:0.7. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that

Mari Miyamoto; Yasuyuki Seto; Dong Hai Hao; Tamaki Teshima; Yan Bo Sun; Toshihide Kabuki; Li Bing Yao; Hadjime Nakajima

2005-01-01

190

Optimization of the freeze-drying media and survival throughout storage of freeze-dried Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for veterinarian probiotic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vaginal probiotic cultures depends on the preservation technologies employed by the related industries.A full two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), considering medium and strain, of the decrease in bacterial viability during freeze-drying was applied. Lactobacillus gasseri CRL1421 was significantly more resistant than L. gasseri CRL1412 to the process. L. gasseri CRL1412 suspended in

María Claudia Otero; María Carolina Espeche; María Elena Nader-Macías

2007-01-01

191

Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.  

PubMed

The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field. PMID:24426140

Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

2013-12-01

192

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate.  

PubMed

The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634

Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

2014-01-01

193

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate  

PubMed Central

The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634

Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J.; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos

2014-01-01

194

Clostridium tertium isolated from gas gangrene wound; misidentified as Lactobacillus spp initially due to aerotolerant feature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium tertium has been increasingly reported as a human pathogen. This organism is an aerotolerant Gram-positive rod that is often mistaken for other organisms, such as Lactobacillus or Bacillus species. We describe a case of a patient with a history of intravenous drug use presenting to UCLA-Olive View Medical Center with gas gangrene of both upper extremities. The organism was

Shigeki Fujitani; Chengxu X. Liu; Sydney M. Finegold; Yuli L. Song; Glenn E. Mathisen

2007-01-01

195

Isolation of histamine-producing Lactobacillus buchneri from Swiss cheese implicated in a food poisoning outbreak.  

PubMed Central

A histamine-producing strain of Lactobacillus buchneri was isolated from Swiss cheese that had been implicated in an outbreak of histamine poisoning. It produced up to 4,070 nmol of histamine per ml in MRS broth supplemented with 0.1% histidine. The identification of this isolate was based on its biochemical, bacteriological, and DNA characterizations. PMID:4083875

Sumner, S S; Speckhard, M W; Somers, E B; Taylor, S L

1985-01-01

196

Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, from a cucumber fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virulent Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, was isolated from a commercial cucumber fermentation. The phage was specific for two related strains of L. plantarum, BI7 and its mutant (deficient in malolactate fermenting ability) MU45, which have been evaluated as starter cultures for controlled cucumber fermentation and as biocontrol microorganisms for minimally processed vegetable products. The phage genome of ?JL-1 was

Z. Lu; F. Breidt Jr; H. P. Fleminga; E. Altermann; T. R. Klaenhammer

2003-01-01

197

Characterization of the tre Locus and Analysis of Trehalose Cryoprotection in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing and lyophilization are common methods used for preservation and storage of microorganisms during the production of concentrated starter cultures destined for industrial fermentations or product formulations. The compatible solute trehalose has been widely reported to protect bacterial, yeast and animal cells against a variety of environmental stresses, particularly freezing and dehydration. Analysis of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM genome revealed

Tri Duong; Rodolphe Barrangou; W. Michael Russell; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2006-01-01

198

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production from  

E-print Network

The effect of feeding silage treated with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum on beef production and finishing beef animals fed untreated and ECOSYL (ECOSUR in France) treated silage. A similar review has). A total of 19 trials studying the effects on beef production (with both growing and finishing cattle

Boyer, Edmond

199

Carbohydrates and the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum: The role of moisture distribution and water activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose, maltose, lactose, trehalose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol were tested for their ability to minimize the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum during fluidized bed drying. Desorption isotherms were measured for starch and L. plantarum, for binary mixtures containing starch and a carbohydrate, and for ternary mixtures composed of L. plantarum, starch and a carbohydrate. The moisture distribution inside the drying

Leonie J. M. Linders; Gerard I. W. de Jong; Gerrit Meerdink; Klaas van't Riet

1997-01-01

200

Identification and Inactivation of Genetic Loci Involved with Lactobacillus acidophilus Acid Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid decarboxylation-antiporter reactions are one of the most important systems for maintaining intracellular pH between physiological limits under acid stress. We analyzed the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM complete genome sequence and selected four open reading frames with similarities to genes involved with decarboxylation reactions involved in acid tolerance in several microorganisms. Putative genes encoding an ornithine decarboxylase, an amino acid

M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril; Eric Altermann; Rebecca L. Hoover-Fitzula; Raul J. Cano; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2004-01-01

201

Regulation and Adaptive Evolution of Lactose Operon Expression in Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis are both used in the dairy industry as homofermentative lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented milk products. After selective pressure for the fast fermentation of milk in the manufacture of yogurts, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus loses its ability to regulate lac operon expression. A series of mutations led to

Luciane Lapierre; Beat Mollet; Jacques-Edouard Germond

2002-01-01

202

Influence of Temperature on Associative Growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compatibility of Streptococcus ther- mophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus during associative growth as dependent on optimum growth temperature was determined. Optimum growth temper- atures for 9 strains of S. thermophilus and 10 strains of L. bulgaricus ranged from 35 to 42°C for S. thermophilus and 43 to 46°C for L. bulgaricus. Streptococ- cus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus strains exhibiting similar to

Lyn C. Radke-Mitchell; W. E. Sandine

1986-01-01

203

An excessively high Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculation level in yogurt lowers product quality during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of manufacturing yogurt with a wide variation in Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculation level while holding the yogurt culture inoculation level constant on the properties of the resulting yogurt was determined to find out if any problems can occur if an excessively high level of L. acidophilus is used in yogurt production. Four batches of plain, set-style yogurt were manufactured

D. W. Olson; K. J. Aryana

2008-01-01

204

Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the biological properties and consequent technological roles of intestinal bacteria with potential health-promoting capacities, and provides selected examples available in the literature that are pertinent to the aforementioned concepts. A comprehensive overview pertaining to the taxonomy and ecology, as well as nutritional and health effects of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus, is provided; particular attention is

Ana M. P. Gomes; F. Xavier Malcata

1999-01-01

205

Selective detection, enumeration and identification of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in mixed bacterial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species constitute a significant proportion of probiotic cultures used in developed countries in ‘microbial adjunct nutrition’. A number of differential plating methodologies have been developed which seek to selectively detect and enumerate these bacterial groups in bioproducts. Differences in oxygen tolerance, nutritional requirements, antibiotic susceptibility, and colony morphology and colour constitute the bases of differentiation in these

William P. Charteris; Phillip M. Kelly; Lorenzo Morelli; J. Kevin Collins

1997-01-01

206

Adhesion of some probiotic and dairy Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of 12 different Lactobacillus strains was studied using Caco-2 cell line as an in vitro model for intestinal epithelium. Some of the strains tested have been used as probiotics, and most of them are used in the dairy and food industry. Human and bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Bacterial adhesion

Seppo J Salminen

1998-01-01

207

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

208

Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 on Alcohol Metabolism and Liver Function in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has numerous health consequences for the human body. For example, heavy drinking on a daily basis causes liver diseases, and certain products such as acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism are more toxic than alcohol itself. Accordingly, the current study evaluated the role of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 to enhance the removal of the toxic effect of alcohol in alcohol

JI-HYUN KIM; HYUN-JIN KIM; JEONG HWA SON; HO-NAM CHUN; JIN-OH YANG; SUNG-JIN CHOI; NAM-SOO PAEK; GYOUNG-HOON CHOI; SUNG-KOO KIM

2003-01-01

209

Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of amino acids into volatile and nonvolatile compounds by lactic acid bacteria in cheese is thought to represent the rate-limiting step in the development of mature flavor and aroma. Because amino acid breakdown by microbes often entails the reversible action of enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways, our group investigated the genetics of amino acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus helveticus

Jason K. Christiansen; Joanne E. Hughes; Dennis L. Welker; B. T. Rodriguez; James L. Steele; Jeff R. Broadbent

2008-01-01

210

Accumulation of Polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and Its Involvement in Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcantara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zuniga, Manuel

2014-01-01

211

Modeling the specific growth rate of Lactobacillus plantarum in cucumber extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive empirical research has been published on the fermentation of vegetables, but little predictive modeling of the process is available. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of key variables involved in cucumber fermentation and to develop models for predicting the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in pure and mixed culture fermentations. The growth medium for the studies

F. V. Passos; H. P. Fleming; D. F. Ollis; H. M. Hassan; R. M. Felder

1993-01-01

212

[Isolation and identification of bacteria of Lactobacillus genus from fermented products in diferent regions of Ukraine].  

PubMed

Seventy one strains of lactobacilli were isolated from fermented animal and vegetable products. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of lactobacilli have been studied. Sixty seven strains were identified by molecular genetic methods and classified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the isolated strains was shown. PMID:25000723

Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L; Oleshchenko, L T

2014-01-01

213

Protection of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the potential probiotic properties in fish of a lactic acid bacterium intended for human use: Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). A probiotic for human use was specifically chosen since it is known to be safe for human use, which is of major importance because the fish are meant for human consumption. The bacterium was administered

Sami Nikoskelainen; Arthur Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Göran Bylund

2001-01-01

214

Effect of LGG yoghurt on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish effect of 14 day consumption of commercially available yoghurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103 - LGG (Bioaktiv LGG, Dukat, Croatia) on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children. Twenty five patients, 6-10 yr old participated in the study. At the inclusion in the study caries risk for every patient was evaluated. The saliva samples were tested with chair side kits for saliva buffer capacity (CRT buffer, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), S. Mutans and Lactobacillus counts (CRT bacteria test, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Seven, 14 and 30d after yoghurt consumption saliva samples were tested again with CRT buffer and CRT bacteria tests. Obtained data were analyzed using chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results showed significant increase in saliva buffer capacity 30d after yoghurt consumption. S. Mutans salivary counts were significantly decreased after 30d. Significant differences in Lactobacillus counts were not observed. It could be concluded that daily consumption of yoghurt containing LGG have an inhibitory effect on oral pathogenic bacteria and may be beneficial in caries prevention. PMID:22816209

Glavina, Domagoj; Gorseta, Kristina; Skrinjari?, Ilija; Vrani?, Dubravka Negoveti?; Mehuli?, Ketij; Kozul, Karlo

2012-03-01

215

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gastricus PS3, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus gastricus is a mostly unknown lactobacilli species associated with mucosal surfaces. We present the draft annotated genome sequence of L. gastricus strain PS3, isolated from a human milk sample, to provide new insights into its biology and to characterize those genes related to advantageous technological and beneficial properties. PMID:23846278

Martín, Virginia; Cárdenas, Nivia; Jiménez, Esther; Maldonado, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fernández, Leonides

2013-01-01

216

Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

Olmos, Alejandro; Henriquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gomez, Marcela; Rodriguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

2014-01-01

217

Effect of curing conditions and Lactobacillus casei CRL705 on the hydrolysis of meat proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. F ADDA, G. V IGNOLO, M.-C. A RISTOY, G. O LIVER A ND F. T OLDRA ´ . 2001. Aims: The effect of the common curing conditions used during the manufacture of dry fermented sausage on the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus casei CRL705 against meat proteins was investigated. Methods and Results: Hydrolysis of pork muscle sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins

S. Fadda; G. Vignolo; M.-C. Aristoy; G. Oliver; F. Toldra

2001-01-01

218

Cloning of a novel specific SCAR marker for species identification in Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

Identifying Lactobacillus species using only phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) techniques yields inaccurate results. The objective of this study was to develop species-specific primers based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting to distinguish species within the closely related Lactobacillus plantarum group. One of these primers, OPD-3, produced a species-specific band that was found only in the tested Lactobacillus pentosus. This specific fragment was isolated from agarose gel and ligated into a vector for DNA sequencing. A pair of primers, SpOPD3Lpen-F1/R1, that were highly specific sequence-characterized-amplified-regions (SCARs) were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of the specific RAPD marker. These primers were used for PCR analysis of the template DNA of the Lactobacillus strains, and a single 542 bp species-specific band was found only in L. pentosus. Using PCR, a novel species-specific primer pair is shown to rapidly, accurately and effectively distinguish L. pentosus from other species in the L. plantarum group of probiotic bacteria. PMID:24675147

Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina

2014-08-01

219

The predicted secretome of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 sheds light on interactions with its environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted extracellular proteins of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying interactions of this bacterium with its environment. Extracellular proteins play important roles in processes ranging from probiotic effects in the gastrointestinal tract to degradation of complex extracellular carbon sources such as those found in plant materials, and they have a primary role

Jos Boekhorst; Michiel Wels; Michiel Kleerebezem; Roland J. Siezen

2006-01-01

220

Degradation of ascorbic acid and potassium sorbate by different Lactobacillus species isolated from packed green olives.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to ascertain the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the degradation of ascorbic acid and/or potassium sorbate, isolated from packed green olives where these additives had diminished. A total of 14 isolates were recovered from samples of different green olive containers. According to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding gene, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus rapi, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans were identified. With the exception of L. pentosus and L. paracollinoides, the other species had not been mentioned in table olives before this study. Only three of the 14 isolates metabolized ascorbic acid in MRS broth, and the products from ascorbic acid in modified MRS broth without carbon sources were acetic and lactic acids. Except for the two L. rapi and the two P. ethanolidurans strains, the remaining 10 isolates depleted potassium sorbate added into MRS broth to some extent. The product generated by three of these strains was confirmed to be trans-4-hexenoic acid. The degradation of ascorbate or sorbate by lactic acid bacteria should be taken into account when these additives are used in food products where this group of bacteria may be present. PMID:23498172

Montaño, Alfredo; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Casado, Francisco Javier; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio

2013-05-01

221

Accumulation of polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and its involvement in stress resistance.  

PubMed

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

2014-03-01

222

Lactobacillus rodentium sp. nov., from the digestive tract of wild rodents.  

PubMed

Three strains of regular, long, Gram-stain-positive bacterial rods were isolated using TPY, M.R.S. and Rogosa agar under anaerobic conditions from the digestive tract of wild mice (Mus musculus). All 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were most similar to sequences of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323T and Lactobacillus johnsonii ATCC 33200T (97.3% and 97.2% sequence similarities, respectively). The novel strains shared 99.2-99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Type strains of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were also most related to the newly isolated strains according to rpoA (83.9-84.0% similarities), pheS (84.6-87.8%), atpA (86.2-87.7%), hsp60 (89.4-90.4%) and tuf (92.7-93.6%) gene sequence similarities. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoA, atpA and pheS gene sequences, other genotypic and many phenotypic characteristics (results of API 50 CHL, Rapid ID 32A and API ZYM biochemical tests; cellular fatty acid profiles; cellular polar lipid profiles; end products of glucose fermentation) showed that these bacterial strains represent a novel species within the genus Lactobacillus. The name Lactobacillus rodentium sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this group of new isolates. The type strain is MYMRS/TLU1T (=DSM 24759T=CCM 7945T). PMID:24478214

Killer, J; Havlík, J; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Pechar, R; Benada, O; Kope?ný, J; Kofro?ová, O; Sechovcová, H

2014-05-01

223

Lactobacillus koreensis sp. nov., isolated from the traditional Korean food kimchi.  

PubMed

A lactic acid bacterium, strain DCY50(T), isolated from the traditional Korean food kimchi, was studied to determine its taxonomic position. The strain was Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped and motile. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49 mol% and the peptidoglycan structure was of the A4? (l-Lys-d-Asp) type. Chemotaxonomic markers of the strain were consistent with its classification in the genus Lactobacillus. Comparisons of 16S rRNA and rpoA gene sequences showed that strain DCY50(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus parabrevis (98.4 and 91.6?% similarity, respectively, for the 16S rRNA and rpoA genes), L. hammesii (98.0 and 91.2?%), L. brevis (97.6 and 93.3?%) and L. senmaizukei (97.4 and 90.5?%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain DCY50(T) to these type strains was below 36?%. According to the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain DCY50(T) could be differentiated from all known Lactobacillus species and should be classified in a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus koreensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is DCY50(T) (?=?KCTC 13530(T) ?=?JCM 16448(T)). PMID:20435754

Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Kim, Yeon-Ju; In, Jun-Gyo; Yang, Deok-Chun

2011-04-01

224

Engineered Vaginal Lactobacillus Strain for Mucosal Delivery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inhibitor Cyanovirin-N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are at significant risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with the cervicovaginal mucosa serving as a major portal for virus entry. Female-initiated preventatives, including topical microbi- cides, are urgently needed to help curtail the HIV\\/AIDS pandemic. Here we report on the development of a novel, live microbicide that employs a natural vaginal strain of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered to

Xiaowen Liu; Laurel A. Lagenaur; David A. Simpson; Kirsten P. Essenmacher; Courtney L. Frazier-Parker; Yang Liu; Daniel Tsai; Srinivas S. Rao; Dean H. Hamer; Thomas P. Parks; Peter P. Lee; Qiang Xu

2006-01-01

225

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Strain MTCC 8711, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Yogurt  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum strain MTCC 8711 is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yogurt. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this strain. The 2,566,297-bp-long genome consisted of a single chromosome and seven plasmids. The genome contains 2,609 protein-coding and 74 RNA genes. PMID:24072868

Jayashree, Sathyanarayanan; Pooja, Sharma; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Vishnu, Udayakumar; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2013-01-01

226

Increased Enterocyte Production in Gnotobiotic Rats Mono-Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific and commercial interest in using beneficial microorganisms (i.e., probiotics) to enhance intestinal health. Of the numerous microbial strains examined, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been most extensively studied. Daily intake of L. rhamnosus GG shortens the course of rotavirus infection by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Comparative studies with germfree and conventional rats have shown

M. Banasaz; E. Norin; R. Holma; T. Midtvedt

2002-01-01

227

Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance ( van) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is a probiotic strain used in fermented dairy products in many countries and is also used as a food supplement in the form of freeze-dried powder. The relationship of the vancomycin resistance factor in L. rhamnosus GG and the vancomycin resistance (van) genes of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium were studied using polymerase chain reaction

Soile Tynkkynen; Kavindra V Singh; Pekka Varmanen

1998-01-01

228

Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L.

Ossowski von I; Vos de W. M; A. Palva

2011-01-01

229

Genome Sequence and Characteristics of Lrm1, a Prophage from Industrial Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain M1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophage Lrm1 was induced with mitomycin C from an industrial Lactobacillus rhamnosus starter culture, M1. Electron microscopy of the lysate revealed relatively few intact bacteriophage particles among empty heads and disassociated tails. The defective Siphoviridae phage had an isometric head of approximately 55 nm and noncontractile tail of about 275 nm with a small baseplate. In repeated attempts, the prophage

Evelyn Durmaz; Michael J. Miller; M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril; Stephen P. Toon; Todd R. Klaenhammer

2008-01-01

230

Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation.  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to find out whether gut colonisation of premature babies with a probiotic, Lactobacillus GG, modified enteric carbohydrate fermentation. Twenty preterm infants were randomised to receive Lactobacillus GG 10(8) colony forming units twice a day for two weeks or to a control group. Faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ethanol, and urinary 2,3-butanediol, were measured in parallel with microbiological studies. Lactobacillus GG colonised nine babies. From 1-28 days of age faecal SCFAs did not differ significantly from controls. Median and ranges were (treated and controls, respectively): acetic acid: 173 (trace-799), 166 (trace-700); propionic acid: 44 (trace-169), 37 (11-229); butyric acid: 31 (5-107), 37 (2-118) mumol/g dry weight. Ethanol was detected in more faecal samples from treated babies (65% v 37%), and at higher concentration (6.3 (trace-40) v 3.3 (0.6-8.8; one 229) mumol/g). 2,3-Butanediol was found in 66% of urine samples from treated babies and 58% from controls. On 83% of these occasions Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, or Serratia sp were cultured from faeces. Lactobacillus GG had no obvious adverse effects on nutritionally important SCFAs. The small increase in ethanol excretion is unlikely to have clinical significance. PMID:8285751

Stansbridge, E M; Walker, V; Hall, M A; Smith, S L; Millar, M R; Bacon, C; Chen, S

1993-01-01

231

Functional Characterization of the Proteolytic System of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T during Growth in Sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysis and amino acid metabolism contribute to the beneficial effects of sourdough fermentation on bread quality. In this work, genes of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strain DSM 20451 involved in peptide uptake and hydrolysis were identified and their expression during growth in sourdough was determined. Screening of the L. sanfranciscensis genome with degenerate primers targeting prt and analysis of proteolytic activity

Nicoline Vermeulen; Melanie Pavlovic; Matthias A. Ehrmann; Michael G. Ganzle; Rudi F. Vogel

2005-01-01

232

[The range of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus bacterial strains on etiologic agents of bacterial vaginosis].  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by uncontrolled sequential overgrowth of some anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Mobiluncus sp. usually occurring in stable numbers in the bacterial flora of healthy women. On the other hand, different species of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, most frequently L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus, form a group of aerobic bacteria dominating in the same environment. The diversity and density of their populations depend on the age and health conditions. Thanks to their antagonistic and adherence properties bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus can maintain a positive balance role in this ecosystem. The aim of this study was to assess the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women against most common agents of bacterial vaginosis. It was found that nearly all of the tested Lactobacillus strains exerted distinct antagonistic activity against anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and quite a number also against Gram-negative rods, while only some of them were able to inhibit Gram-positive aerobic cocci as Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:10865430

Strus, M; Malinowska, M

1999-01-01

233

Studies on Viability of Lactobacillus fermentum by Microencapsulation Using Extrusion Spheronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method of encapsulation of Lactobacillus fermentum was developed to protect it from different stresses such as thermal, oxidative, pH, and bile salts. L. fermentum was encapsulated in microcrystalline cellulose and sodium alginate by extrusion spheronization and tested for its survival. In the present study, the concentration of microcrystalline cellulose, L. fermentum, and sodium alginate were optimized. Further, response

Poonam R. Bajaj; Shrikant A. Survase; Mahesh V. Bule; Rekha S. Singhal

2010-01-01

234

Lactobacillus casei suppresses experimental arthritis by down-regulating T helper 1 effector functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the beneficial effects of probiotics on wide variety of diseases have been shown, little is known about how probiotics modulate the immune system. In this study we elucidated the underlying mechanisms how Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) protects against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression by investigating the effector functions of CD4+ T cells. Oral administration of L. casei suppressed collagen-induced arthritis

Jae-Seon So; Ho-Keun Kwon; Choong-Gu Lee; Hwa-Jung Yi; Jin-A. Park; So-Yeon Lim; Ki-Chul Hwang; Young Ho Jeon; Sin-Hyeog Im

2008-01-01

235

The Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei Induces Activation of the Gut Mucosal Immune System through Innate Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria affect the immune system are unknown yet, but many of them are attributed to an increase in the innate or in the acquired immune response. To study the influence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei in the expression of receptors involved in the innate immune response, this bacterium was orally administered to BALB\\/c mice.

C. Maldonado Galdeano; G. Perdigon

2006-01-01

236

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Bacte´riologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France Abstract The response of the immune system to probiotics remains controversial. Some strains modulate the cytokine production of dendritic

Boyer, Edmond

237

Reduction of acetophenone to R (+)-phenylethanol by a new alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alcohol dehydrogenase catalysing the enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to R(+)-phenylethanol was found in a strain of Lactobacillus kefir. A 70-fold enrichment of the enzyme with an overall yield of 76% was obtained in two steps. The addition of Mg2+ ions was found to be necessary to prevent rapid deactivation. The enzyme depends essentially on NADPH and was inactive

Werner Hummel

1990-01-01

238

Protective action of Lactobacillus kefir carrying Slayer protein against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Lactobacillus kefir strains isolated from different kefir grains were tested for their ability to antagonize Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis) interaction with epithelial cells. L. kefir surface properties such as autoaggregation and coaggregation with Salmonella and adhesion to Caco-2\\/TC-7 cells were evaluated. L. kefir strains showed significantly different adhesion capacities, six strains were able to autoaggregate and four

M. A. Golowczyc; P. Mobili; G. L. Garrote; A. G. Abraham; G. L. De Antoni

2007-01-01

239

Consistent Condom Use Increases the Colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the Vagina  

PubMed Central

Background Non-hormonal contraception methods have been widely used, but their effects on colonization by vaginal lactobacilli remain unclear. Objective To determine the association between non-hormonal contraception methods and vaginal lactobacilli on women’s reproductive health. Methods The cross-sectional study included 164 healthy women between 18–45 years of age. The subjects were divided into different groups on the basis of the different non-hormonal contraception methods used by them. At the postmenstrual visit (day 21 or 22 of the menstrual cycle), vaginal swabs were collected for determination of Nugent score, quantitative culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vaginal lactobacilli. The prevalence, colony counts and 16S rRNA gene expression of the Lactobacillus strains were compared between the different groups by Chi-square and ANOVA statistical analysis methods. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 was more common in the condom group (93.1%) than in the group that used an interuterine device(IUD) (75.4%), (p?=?0.005). The prevalence of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the condom group (82.3%) than in the IUD group (68.2%), (p?=?0.016). There was a significant difference in colony count (mean ± standard error (SE), log10colony forming unit (CFU)/ml) of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus between condom users (7.81±0.14) and IUD users (6.54±0.14), (p?=?0.000). The 16S rRNA gene expression (mean ± SE, log10copies/ml) of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly higher in the condom group (8.09±0.16) than in the IUD group (6.03±0.18), (p?=?0.000). Conclusion Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina and may protect against both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:23894682

Ma, Liyan; Lv, Zhi; Su, Jianrong; Wang, Jianjie; Yan, Donghui; Wei, Jingjuan; Pei, Shuang

2013-01-01

240

Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.  

PubMed

Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P < 0·05) by the supplementation with protein sources. The germination and malting processes significantly improved oats nutrient characteristics demonstrating to be adequate substrates for the fermentation with probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. PMID:24979232

Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

2014-10-01

241

Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov., Associated with Spoilage of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Poultry Products  

PubMed Central

Unidentified lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates which had mainly been detected in spoiled, marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler meat products during two previous studies, were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties and the capability to produce biogenic amines. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. Unexpectedly for a meat-spoilage-associated LAB, the strains utilized glucose very weakly. According to the API 50 CHL test, arabinose and xylose were the only carbohydrates strongly fermented. None of the six strains tested for production of histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were able to produce these main meat-associated biogenic amines in vitro. The polyphasic taxonomy approach showed that these strains represent a new Lactobacillus species. The six isolates sequenced for the 16S rRNA encoding genes shared the highest similarity (95.0 to 96.3%) with the sequence of the Lactobacillus durianis type strain. In the phylogenetic tree, these isolates formed a distinct cluster within the Lactobacillus reuteri group, which also includes L. durianis. Numerical analyses of HindIII-EcoRI ribotypes placed all isolates together in a cluster with seven subclusters well separated from the L. reuteri group reference strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization levels between Lactobacillus sp. nov. isolates varied from 67 to 96%, and low hybridization levels (3 to 15%) were obtained with the L. durianis type strain confirming that these isolates belong to the same species different from L. durianis. The name Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov. is proposed, with strain LMG 22743T (also known as DSM 15707T or AMKR18T) as the type strain. PMID:16085830

Koort, Joanna; Murros, Anna; Coenye, Tom; Eerola, Susanna; Vandamme, Peter; Sukura, Antti; Bjorkroth, Johanna

2005-01-01

242

Protective effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains in hyperlipidemic mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 on hyperlipidemic mice. METHODS: Male Kunming mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 28 d to construct hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic mice and normal mice were assigned to 3 groups which were separately treated with L. plantarum CAI6, L. plantarum SC4, and physiological saline through oral gavage for 28 d. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by commercially available enzyme kits. FACS Calibur flow cytometry was used to examine hepatic and renal nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. The morphology of livers was checked by hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscope observation. RESULTS: Compared with normal mice, hyperlipidemic mice possessed significantly higher TC (3.50 ± 0.43 vs 2.89 ± 0.36, P < 0.01), TG (1.76 ± 0.07 vs 1.10 ± 0.16, P < 0.01), and LDL-C (1.72 ± 0.20 vs 0.82 ± 0.10, P< 0.01) levels, resulting in an increase of atherogenic index (AI) (2.34 ± 1.60 vs 0.93 ± 0.55, P < 0.05) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (1.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.51 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). After treatment with L. plantarum CAI6/L. plantarum SC4, TG (1.43 ± 0.27/1.54 ± 0.10 vs 1.76 ± 0.07, P < 0.01/P < 0.05) and LDL-C (1.42 ± 0.07/1.47 ± 0.12 vs 1.72 ± 0.20, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hyperlipidemic mice significantly decreased. In addition, TC, HDL-C, AI, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were all positively changed. Meanwhile, the treatment markedly alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly stimulated Nrf2 expression (73.79 ± 0.80/72.96 ± 1.22 vs 54.94 ± 1.84, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic mice. CONCLUSION: L. plantarum CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 may protect against cardiovascular disease by lipid metabolism regulation and Nrf2-induced antioxidative defense in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:23716997

Wang, Li-Xin; Liu, Kai; Gao, Da-Wei; Hao, Ji-Kui

2013-01-01

243

Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in L. sakei is highly regulated at the transcription level. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a fine tuning of the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources. PMID:21702908

2011-01-01

244

Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

Trivedi, Disha

2014-01-01

245

Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by F2CTP: adenosylcobalamin destruction and formation of a nucleotide based radical  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, 76 kDa) from Lactobacillus leichmannii is a class II RNR that requires adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor. It catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides ...

Lohman, Gregory J. S.

246

Detection and Identification of Gastrointestinal Lactobacillus Species by Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Species-Specific PCR Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to detect the presence of Lactobacillus species in the stomach contents of mice. Lactobacillus isolates cultured from human and porcine gastrointestinal samples were identified to the species level by using a combination of DGGE and species-specific PCR

J. Walter; G. W. Tannock; A. Tilsala-Timisjarvi; S. Rodtong; D. M. Loach; K. Munro; T. Alatossava

2000-01-01

247

Detection and characterization of a novel antibacterial substance produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST 31 isolated from sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST31 isolated from sourdough produced an antimicrobial substance inhibiting other strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and some foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus. This antimicrobial substance was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes. Consequently, it was characterized as a bacteriocin and was designated plantaricin ST31. This bacteriocin was stable in the pH range 3–8 and it was

S Todorov; B Onno; O Sorokine; J. M Chobert; I Ivanova; X Dousset

1999-01-01

248

Identification of the Most Abundant Lactobacillus Species in the Crop of 1- and 5-Week-Old Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria from crops of 1- and 5-week-old broiler chickens fed with two brands (diets A and B) of wheat-based diets were isolated on Lactobacillus-selective medium and identified (n 300) based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. The most abundant Lactobacillus species were L. reuteri (33%), L. crispatus (18.7%), and L. salivarius (13.3%). Regardless of farm and feed, L. reuteri was

Hanan T. Abbas Hilmi; Anu Surakka; Juha Apajalahti; P. E. J. Saris

2007-01-01

249

The Increase of Lactobacillus Species in the Gut Flora of Newborn Broiler Chicks and Ducks Is Associated with Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Background A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. Methodology Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4×1010 Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000™ system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. Principal Findings Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p?=?0.0162) and 13.5% (p?=?0.0064) more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p?=?0.05) and 14% (p?=?0.035) more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. Conclusions Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain. PMID:20454557

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

2010-01-01

250

Whole Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei N1115, Isolated from Traditional Chinese Fermented Milk  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 is a new strain with probiotic properties isolated from traditional homemade dairy products in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. paracasei N1115, which shows high similarity to the well-studied probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and 3 structures turned out to be inversions, according to the colinearity analysis of the BLAST alignment. PMID:24625864

Wang, Shijie; He, Fang; Luo, Yongkang; Kang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Chun; Feng, Lili; Lu, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuling; Wang, Hua

2014-01-01

251

Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27) induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells. Methods Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites 1 and 2 (LM1 and LM2) were obtained by culturing Lactobacillus sp. A-2 in reconstituted whey medium and whey-inulin medium; the cultured CAL-27 cells were treated with different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 mg/mL) and assayed by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) method; morphological changes of apoptotic cell were observed under fluorescence microscopy by acridine orange (Ao) fluorescent staining; flow cytometry method (FCM) and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to detect the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells treated LM1 and LM2. Results The different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 could restrain the growth of CAL-27 cells, and in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells was obviously induced and was time-dependent. Conclusions Viability of CAL-27 cells was inhibited by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites; Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites could induce CAL-27 cells apoptosis; study on the bioactive compounds in the Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites and their molecular mechanism is in progress. PMID:25141199

ZHANG, Guoliang; ZHANG, Jie; WANG, Xinyu; YANG, Wenqin; SUN, Zhihui; KUMAR, Chaurasia Nitesh; GUAN, Hong; GUAN, Jian

2014-01-01

252

Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-?B with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-?B and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and?>?100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD. PMID:24989059

2014-01-01

253

Dominant cultivable Lactobacillus species from the feces of healthy adults in northern Spain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify numerically dominant cultivable lactobacilli species in the feces of healthy adults. Ten individuals from Asturias, northern Spain, were chosen. Bacterial colonies grown under anoxic conditions on MRS with cysteine were microscopically examined for lactobacilli. Isolates were subsequently grouped based on the analysis of their carbohydrate fermentation profiles and then identified by partial amplification, sequencing, and comparison of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Lactobacilli varied from undetectable levels in three subjects (10(5) CFU/g feces) to around 10(9) CFU/g feces. Among the 71 isolates obtained from seven individuals, 12 Lactobacillus species were identified. High interindividual variation was observed in terms of total numbers, number of species, and dominant species. Lactobacillus paracasei was found in four of the seven individuals; L. gasseri, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum in three. Phenotyping showed that only one strain per species was in the majority in each individual. PMID:17661293

Delgado, Susana; Suárez, Adolfo; Mayo, Baltasar

2007-06-01

254

Protective efficacy of orally administered, heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against influenza A virus.  

PubMed

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus caused the first human pandemic of the 21st century. Although various probiotic Lactobacillus species have been shown to have anti-microbial effects against pneumonia-inducing pathogens, the prophylactic efficacy and mechanisms behind their protection remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against lethal influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus infection in a mouse model. To further define the protective responses induced by b240, we performed virologic, histopathologic, and transcriptomic analyses on the mouse lungs. Although we did not observe an appreciable effect of b240 on virus growth, cytokine production, or histopathology, gene expressional analysis revealed that oral administration of b240 differentially regulates antiviral gene expression in mouse lungs. Our results unveil the possible mechanisms behind the protection mediated by b240 against influenza virus infection and provide new insights into probiotic therapy. PMID:23535544

Kiso, Maki; Takano, Ryo; Sakabe, Saori; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shinya, Kyoko; Uraki, Ryuta; Watanabe, Shinji; Saito, Hiroshi; Toba, Masamichi; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

255

Microbial ketonization of ginsenosides F1 and C-K by Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Ginsenosides are the major pharmacological components in ginseng. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from Kimchi to identify microbial modifications of ginsenosides. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain DCY65-1 belongs to the genus Lactobacillus and is most closely related to Lactobacillus brevis. On the basis of TLC and HPLC analysis, we found two metabolic pathways: F1 ? 6?,12?-dihydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and C-K ? 12?-hydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. These results suggest that strain DCY65-1 is capable of potent ketonic decarboxylation, ketonizing the hydroxyl group at C-3. The F1 metabolite had a more potent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase than did the substrate. Therefore, the F1 and C-K derivatives may be more pharmacologically active compounds, which should be further characterized. PMID:25262121

Jin, Yan; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Dae-Young; Min, Jin-Woo; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok-Chun

2014-12-01

256

Protective efficacy of orally administered, heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus caused the first human pandemic of the 21st century. Although various probiotic Lactobacillus species have been shown to have anti-microbial effects against pneumonia-inducing pathogens, the prophylactic efficacy and mechanisms behind their protection remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus b240 against lethal influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus infection in a mouse model. To further define the protective responses induced by b240, we performed virologic, histopathologic, and transcriptomic analyses on the mouse lungs. Although we did not observe an appreciable effect of b240 on virus growth, cytokine production, or histopathology, gene expressional analysis revealed that oral administration of b240 differentially regulates antiviral gene expression in mouse lungs. Our results unveil the possible mechanisms behind the protection mediated by b240 against influenza virus infection and provide new insights into probiotic therapy. PMID:23535544

Kiso, Maki; Takano, Ryo; Sakabe, Saori; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shinya, Kyoko; Uraki, Ryuta; Watanabe, Shinji; Saito, Hiroshi; Toba, Masamichi; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

257

Purification and characterization of plantaricin Y, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum 510, previously isolated from a koshu vineyard in Japan, was found to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance which was purified and characterized. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mass of this bacteriocin is 4,296.65 Da. A partial sequence, NH2- SSSLLNTAWRKFG, was obtained by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. A BLAST search revealed that this is a unique sequence; this peptide is thus a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510 and was termed plantaricin Y. Plantaricin Y shows strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14845, but no activity against other pathogens tested. Bacteriocin activity decreased slightly after autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min), but was completely inactivated by protease K. Furthermore, trypsin-digested bacteriocin product fragments retained activity against L. monocytogenes BCRC 14845 and exhibited a different inhibitory spectrum. PMID:24493293

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wang, Yan-chong; Chow, Yiou-shing; Yanagida, Fujitoshi; Liao, Chen-chung; Chiu, Chi-ming

2014-03-01

258

A food additive with prebiotic properties of an ?-d-glucan from Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.  

PubMed

An ?-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by ?-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products. PMID:24857877

Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

2014-08-01

259

Lactobacillus acidophilus Protected Organs in Experimental Arthritis by Regulating the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines.  

PubMed

Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of joints. Exact etiology of the disease is not understood yet; but histopathological examination of vital organs like liver, kidney, ovary and knee joint can anticipate immune mediated damage. In this study, Lactobacillus acidophilus was administered orally by both prophylactic and curative protocol in freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Indomethacin was used as standard anti-arthritic drug. Histopathology of liver, kidney, ovary and right hind knee joint were done. Cytokine concentrations were determined by using ELISA. Effects shown by L. acidophilus were comparable with indomethacin. Histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, ovaries and knee joints of L. acidophilus fed groups revealed significantly less damage as compared with other counterparts. Lactobacillus treatment has down-regulated pro-inflammatory level and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines level in serum samples. L. acidophilus managed organs damage associated with arthritis. It has significantly down regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25298628

Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

2014-10-01

260

In vitro fermentation of prebiotic oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed

The utilisation of various prebiotic oligosaccharides by probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated in order to determine the synbiotic potential of various prebiotic/probiotic combinations. Analysis by HPLC and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cell-free medium taken during growth of the three probiotic bacteria showed differences in the consumption of the various oligosaccharides. Analysis of galactooligosaccharides showed that both L. rhamnosus and B. lactis consumed mostly mono- and di-saccharide, while L. acidophilus consumed oligosaccharides up to trisaccharide. Both B. lactis and L. acidophilus utilised fructooligosaccharides and inulin, but showed different patterns of oligosaccharide consumption. Only L. rhamnosus grew on ?-glucan oligosaccharides and preferentially consumed the trisaccharide. The results indicate the synbiotic potential of the various probiotic/prebiotic combinations, particularly L. acidophilus/galactooligosaccharides, L. acidophilus/fructooligosaccharides or inulin and L. rhamnosus/?-glucan oligosaccharides. PMID:24239979

Sims, Ian M; Ryan, Jason L J; Kim, Sang H

2014-02-01

261

Protein A as a fusion partner for the expression of heterologous proteins in Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression system based on the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa) was developed to allow the production and export of proteins in Lactobacillus. Plasmid shuttle vectors were constructed that carried the eZZ gene, a synthetic gene based on the Protein A gene (spa) but lacking the carboxy-terminal membrane-anchoring region. A gene fusion was created between the eZZ gene and

C. Rush; L. Hafner; P. Timms

1997-01-01

262

Rapid PCR-based procedure to identify lactic acid bacteria: application to six common Lactobacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a method allowing rapid identification of the lactic acid bacteria strains in use in the laboratory (Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826; L. fermentum KLD; L. reuteri 100-23; L. salivarius UCC43321; L. paracasei LbTGS1.4; L. casei ATCC393), based on PCR amplification of 16S RNA coding sequences. First, specific forward oligonucleotides were designed in the variable

Patrice Chagnaud; Kalotina Machinis; Armelle Marecat; Annick Mercenier

2001-01-01

263

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Transport, Metabolism, and Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is able to bind the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and thus potentially restrict its rapid absorption from the intestine. In this study we investigated the potential of GG to reduce AFB1 availability in vitro in Caco-2 cells adapted to express cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, such that both transport and toxicity could be assessed. Caco-2

S. Gratz; Q. K. Wu; H. El-Nezami; R. O. Juvonen; H. Mykkanen; P. C. Turner

2007-01-01

264

Nucleotide Sequencing, Purification, and Biochemical Properties of an Arylesterase from Lactobacillus casei LILA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An esterase gene, designated estB, was isolated from a genomic library of Lactobacillus casei LILA. Nucleo- tide sequencing of the estB gene revealed a 954-bp open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 35.7 kDa. The deducedamino acid sequenceof EstBcontained the characteristicGXSXGactive-siteserinemotifidentified in most lipases and esterases. An EstB fusion protein containingaC-terminal6-histidinetagwasconstructed and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography.

K. M. Fenster; K. L. Parkin; J. L. Steele

2003-01-01

265

Intracellular Esterase from Lactobacillus casei LILA: Nucleotide Sequencing, Purification, and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An esterase gene (estC) was isolated from a genomic library of Lactobacillus casei LILA. The estC gene con- sisted of a 777 bp open reading frame encoding a puta- tive peptide of 28.9 kDa. A recombinant EstC fusion protein containing a C-terminal six-histidine tag was constructed and purified to electrophoretic homogene- ity. Characterization of EstC revealed that it was a

K. M. Fenster; K. L. Parkin; J. L. Steele

2003-01-01

266

Peptidoglycan Structure of Lactobacillus casei, a Species Highly Resistant to Glycopeptide Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the peptidoglycan of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, a species highly resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics, was examined. After digestion, 23 muropeptides were identified; monomers represented 44.7% of all muropeptides, with monomer tetrapeptides being the major ones. Fifty-nine percent of the peptidoglycan was O-acetylated. The cross-bridge between D-alanine and L-lysine consisted of one asparagine, although aspartate could be found

DANIELE BILLOT-KLEIN; RAYMOND LEGRAND; BERNARD SCHOOT; JEAN VAN HEIJENOORT

1997-01-01

267

Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication by triple therapy plus Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to triple therapy alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to a triple regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional,\\u000a treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive H. pylori-positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed

J. A. da Silva Medeiros; T. M. F. O. Gonçalves; L. Boyanova; M. I. de Correia Pereira; J. N. da Silva Paiva de Carvalho; A. M. de Sousa Pereira; A. M. Silvério Cabrita

2011-01-01

268

Application of the acetolactate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus casei for accelerated maturation of beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetolactate decarboxylase produced by Lactobacillus casei DSM 2547 has been tested as an aid for accelerated removal\\u000a of the diacetyl precursor acetolactic acid from beer. Addition of the enzyme to freshly fermented beer has been shown to effect\\u000a efficient removal of the diacetyl precursor while addition of the decarboxylase to wort prior to pitching was found to lead\\u000a to

Sven Erik Godtfredsen; Anne Munk Rasmussen; Martin Ottesen; Thomas Mathiasen; Bent Ahrenst-Larsen

1984-01-01

269

Peptide Pheromone Plantaricin A Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Permeabilizes Liver and Kidney Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain antimicrobial peptides from multicellular animals kill a variety of tumor cells at concentrations not affecting normal\\u000a eukaryotic cells. Recently, it was reported that also plantaricin A (PlnA), which is a peptide pheromone with strain-specific\\u000a antibacterial activity produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, permeabilizes cancerous rat pituitary cells (GH4 cells), whereas normal rat anterior pituitary cells are resistant to the peptide. To

Kristin Andersland; Guro F. Jølle; Olav Sand; Trude M. Haug

2010-01-01

270

Production of l (+) lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii immobilized in functionalized alginate matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of functionalized alginate gels as immobilized matrices in production of l (+) lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied. L. delbrueckii cells immobilized in functionalized alginate beads showed enhanced bead stability and selectivity towards production of optically\\u000a pure l (+) lactic acid in higher yields (1.74Yp\\/s) compared to natural alginate. Palmitoylated alginate beads revealed 99% enantiomeric\\u000a selectivity (ee) in

Chaganti Subba Rao; Reddy Shetty Prakasham; Adari Bhaskar Rao; Jhillu S. Yadav

2008-01-01

271

In vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum SK5 isolated from vagina of a healthy woman.  

PubMed

A lactobacillus strain isolated from a vaginal tract of a healthy woman was examined in vitro for its probiotic potential. This strain, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum SK5, was able to survive at pH 3-4 and 0.1-0.2% bile, and unaffected by pepsin (3 g l(-1)) and pancreatin (1 g l(-1)), but was susceptible to all tested antibiotics except metronidazole. L. fermentum SK5 had an antimicrobial potential against gastrointestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and vaginal pathogenic Gardnerella vaginalis. The effective substance was suspected to be a bacteriocin-like compound with a molecular weight of more than 10 kDa, but hydrogen peroxide was also detected. Further studies revealed that L. fermentum SK5 had good autoaggregation characteristic and a high surface hydrophobicity that enhanced its adhesion ability to epithelial cells and for biofilm formation. This lactobacillus showed coaggregation with E. coli and G. vaginalis to affect their adhesion and colonization. The adhesion of L. fermentum SK5 to HeLa, HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and its inhibition of E. coli and G. vaginalis adherence to these cells were demonstrated. These incidences provided evidence of the possible colonization of L. fermentum SK5 that would prevent binding and growth of E. coli and G. vaginalis onto intestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. On the basis of the ability of L. fermentum SK5 to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms through coaggregation and antimicrobial substances, it is likely that this lactobacillus strain could be a potential probiotic candidate for beneficial use in protecting against gastrointestinal and vaginal microbial infections. PMID:23624069

Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Dangmanee, Nattakan; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Srichana, Teerapol; Chulasiri, Malyn; Settharaksa, Sukanya

2013-08-01

272

Influence of temperature on flavour compound production from citrate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrate utilization by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was found to be temperature-dependent. The maximum citrate utilization and incorporation of [1,5-14C]citrate rate were observed at 37°C. At this temperature, maximum citrate lyase activity and specific diacetyl and acetoin production (YDA%) were observed. The high levels of ?-acetolactate synthase and low levels of diacetyl reductase, acetoin reductase and L-lactate dehydrogenase found

R. Medina de Figueroa; G. Oliver; I. L. Benito de Cádenas

2001-01-01

273

Technological and probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from traditionally produced fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and probiotic characteristics of a number of Lactobacillus plantarum strains (previously isolated and identified from traditionally produced fermented vegetables) were compared, with the aim\\u000a of identifying potential starter cultures to be used for the fermentation of vegetables. The L. plantarum strains were differentiated by their plasmid profiles; 12 separate strains with different plasmid profiles were examined.\\u000a Other than

Nihat Karasu; Ömer ?im?ek; Ahmet Hilmi Çon

2010-01-01

274

Antimutagenic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21 isolated from kimchi Korean fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimutagenic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21, isolated from Korean kimchi, was investigated against MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine), NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide), NPD (4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine) and aflatoxin B1 using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. Although all the cell fractions including the culture supernatant, dry cells and cell-free extract exhibited antimutagenic activity against MNNG and NQO, the culture supernatant possessed the highest activity. The antimutagenic ratio

Heui-Dong Park; Chang-Ho Rhee

2001-01-01

275

The choice of strains of Lactobacillus species for the lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for using lactic acid bacteria are to make food durable, to improve its taste and to maintain the nutritive,\\u000a physiological and hygienic value of the fermentation products. Sixteen strains of the genus Lactobacillus were tested on samples of white fresh cabbage and of a sterilized cabbage and carrot juice mixture. After 7 days of lactic\\u000a acid fermentation at

J. Karovi?ová; Milan Drdák; Gabriel Greif; Eva Hybenová

1999-01-01

276

Interrelationships of Microorganisms in Cream. II. Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus lactis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus casei were inoculated individually and in combination with Streptococcus lactis into sterile cream which was incubated at different temperatures and analyzed for protein and fat de- composition, pH, growth and flavor changes. Editor. Measurements of proteolysis by the tryptophan determination of Duggan (8) and water-insoluble acids (W.I.A.) by the Hillig (11) method have been used by

L. G. Harmon; F. E. Nelson

1957-01-01

277

Two 2[5H]-Furanones as Possible Signaling Molecules in Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

Two 2[5H]-furanones, in association with medium-chain fatty acids, were released in whey by Lactobacillus helveticus exposed to oxidative and heat stresses. This species plays an important role in cheese technology, particularly for Swiss-type cheeses and Grana cheese. Moreover, it significantly contributes to cheese ripening by means of an early autolysis and the release of enzymes during processing. Experimental evidence of the involvement of the two 2[5H]-furanones, detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid-phase microextraction technique, in the autolysis phenomenon has been obtained. Zymograms performed by using renaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were used to detect the bioactivity of the supernatants containing the two furanones on fresh cells of the same strain. In addition to bands corresponding to known autolysins, new autolysins were detected concomitant with the exposure of Lactobacillus helveticus to the supernatants, which can be regarded as conditioned media (CM), and to a commercial furanone, 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2[5H]-furanone (HEMFi), having spectral data similar to those of the newly described 2[5H]-furanones. Morphological changes were observed when fresh cells were exposed to CM containing the two 2[5H]-furanones and HEMFi. The two furanones produced by Lactobacillus helveticus, which met a number of criteria to be included in cell-cell signaling molecules, have a presumptive molecular mass lower than those of already known 3[2H]-furanones having an autolytic activity and being produced by gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, they present a different chemical structure with respect to the furanones already identified as products of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris or to those identified in some cheeses with Lactobacillus helveticus as a starter culture. PMID:16957229

Ndagijimana, Maurice; Vallicelli, Melania; Cocconcelli, P. Sandro; Cappa, Fabrizio; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

2006-01-01

278

Culture conditions for the production of esterase from Lactobacillus casei CL96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture conditions in growth and esterase production by a newly isolated Lactobacillus casei CL96 were investigated using a dextrose-free MRS medium supplemented with different sugars in a 2 l fermentor at different pHs (4.0-9.0) and temperatures (20-50°C). The optimal growth was obtained in basal MRS medium containing 1% (w\\/v) lactose at pH 7.0 and 30°C. The maximal esterase production was

Y.-J. Choi; B. Lee

2001-01-01

279

Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the normal intestinal microflora after administration of two antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a comparative study concerning the influence ofLactobacillus acidophilus supplements on the normal intestinal microflora after the administration of two antimicrobial agents, enoxacin and clindamycin, respectively.L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 was given as a fermented milk product containing 5 × 108-2 × 109 CFU\\/ml to ten of the volunteers immediately after the administration of the antimicrobial

A. Lidbeck; C. Edlund; J. Å. Gustafsson; L. Kager; C. E. Nora

1988-01-01

280

Bio-preservative activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus U1during fermentation of fresh minced goat meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of bacteriocinog enic Lactobacillus acidophilus U1 (LacU1) isolated from pygmy goat meat on food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms during the fermentation of minced goat meat. Methodology and results: Bacteriocin obtained from LacU1 was purified and characterized. Survival of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria artificially inoculated aseptically in fermenting minced goat meat was investigated. The

281

Improvement of Raw Sausage Fermentation by Stress-Conditioning of the Starter Organism Lactobacillus sakei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective growth and high acidification activity during meat fermentation are key characteristics of starter lactobacilli\\u000a to ensure hygienic safety and sensory quality of the product. In this study, we demonstrated that the performance of Lactobacillus sakei in sausage fermentation can be improved by preinoculation treatments with sublethal heat, cold, and salt stress. Sausages\\u000a were produced and inoculated with stress-treated cells

Eric Hüfner; Christian Hertel

2008-01-01

282

Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in health-stimulating processes within the host. The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most versatile and flexible

Vries de M. C

2006-01-01

283

Sequencing and expression analysis of sakacin genes in Lactobacillus curvatus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we focused our investigation on two strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, L442 and LTH1174, which are able to produce bacteriocins. L. curvatus LTH1174 is widely studied for its capability to produce curvacin A, while L. curvatus L442 was isolated from traditional Greek fermented sausages and was shown to possess a strong inhibitory activity toward\\u000a Listeria monocytogenes. By polymerase

Luca Cocolin; Kalliopi Rantsiou

2007-01-01

284

Time to turbidity measurement as a tool for modeling spoilage by Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method has been proposed to obtain growth rate estimates from simple time-to-visible-growth measurements by means of inoculum variation. In case the data are censored an algorithm using a maximum likelihood estimation method is given. Growth rates forLactobacillus plantarum obtained by this method have been used to develop a model for the prediction of the growth rate as a

H. G. A. M. Cuppers; J. P. P. M. Smelt

1993-01-01

285

Effect of preculturing conditions on growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on medium containing glucose and citrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus can metabolize citrate through a citrate inducible transport system. The growth curves of L. rhamnosus on medium containing glucose and citrate was found to be highly dependent on preculturing conditions. It exhibited diauxic growth when precultured on glucose, but demonstrated simultaneous consumption when cultured on citrate. The maximum specific growth rate for cells growing on glucose+citrate was 0.38h?1,

B. D. Jyoti; A. K. Suresh; K. V. Venkatesh

2004-01-01

286

Comparison of Fructose1,6Bisphosphatase Gene ( fbp ) Sequences for the Identification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene ( fbp) sequences was evaluated for the differentiation of reference and clinical strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The sequences of 1,971 nucleotides of the fbp gene were determined on both DNA strands for 21 L. rhamnosus strains, representing reference, probiotic, and clinical strains. No PCR amplification of the fbp gene was observed for other species of

Denis Roy; Pierre Ward

2004-01-01

287

Characterization of the SpaCBA Pilus Fibers in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17193-17198, 2009). These pili were found to be encoded by the

J. Reunanen; Ossowski von I; A. P. Hendrickx; A. Palva; Vos de W. M

2012-01-01

288

Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated

M. Kankainen; L. Paulin; S. Tynkkynen; I. von Ossowski; J. Reunanen; P. Partanen; R. Satokari; S. Vesterlund; A. P. A. Hendrickx; S. Lebeer; S. C. J. de Keersmaecker; J. Vanderleyden; T. Hamalainen; S. Laukkanen; N. Salovuori; J. Ritari; E. Alatalo; R. Korpela; T. Mattila-Sandholm; A. Lassig; K. Hatakka; K. T. Kinnunen; H. Karjalainen; M. Saxelin; K. Laakso; A. Surakka; A. Palva; T. Salusjarvi; P. Auvinen; W. M. de Vos

2009-01-01

289

Bile salt and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated at the end of the ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and to investigate an important prerequisite of probiotic interest, such as the capability to survive at low pH and in presence of bile salts. The use of API 50 CH, RAPD-PCR analysis and species-specific PCR allowed

M. Succi; P. Tremonte; A. Reale; E. Sorrentino; L. Grazia; S. Pacifico; R. Coppola

2005-01-01

290

Antibiotic resistance of potential probiotic bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from human gastrointestinal microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from the gastrointestinal microbiome of people from the territory of the former Soviet Union have been studied\\u000a for resistance to 15 antibiotics of different nature, namely, penicillins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, tetracyclines,\\u000a chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. The strains included four strains of L. plantarum, four of L. helveticus, three of L. casei\\/paracasei, one of L. rhamnosus, and one

S. G. Botina; E. U. Poluektova; A. A. Glazova; N. V. Zakharevich; N. V. Koroban; V. V. Zinchenko; M. M. Babykin; O. G. Zhilenkova; A. M. Amerkhanova; V. N. Danilenko

2011-01-01

291

Human vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus harbor mutation in 23S rRNA associated with erythromycin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the diversity and distribution of resistance determinants in human commensal bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for high-level erythromycin resistance among five human vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolates. PCR screening for the presence of ermA, ermB and ermC methylase genes revealed no determinants responsible for detected erythromycin resistance. Therefore, sequences

Jelena Begovic; Geert Huys; Baltasar Mayo; Klaas D'Haene; Ana Belén Florez; Jelena Lozo; Milan Kojic; Ivana Strahinic; Ljubisa Topisirovic

2009-01-01

292

Changes in the predominant human Lactobacillus flora during in vitro fertilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions 16S rRNA genes using pyrosequencing technology is a powerful tool for typing vaginal Lactobacilli to the species level and has been used for investigating the vaginal microbial niche. METHODS: This study has characterized the normal cultivable vaginal Lactobacillus flora at varying estradiol levels in plasma; the study comprised

Tell Jakobsson; Urban Forsum

2008-01-01

293

Synergistic antidigestion effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and bovine colostrums in simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics and bovine colostrums had been proven to be beneficial for human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZDY114 and anti-Helicobacter pylori bovine colostrums were used for the preparation of microecological additives, and their synergistic antidigestion effect\\u000a in the simulated gastrointestinal tract (in vitro) was investigated. Either L. rhamnosus or purified IgG from immune colostrums was very sensitive in simulated gastric environment and

Wei Hua; Xu Yang; Xiong Yonghua; Xu Feng; Liu Gengpin

2007-01-01

294

Coexpression and Secretion of Endoglucanase and Phytase Genes in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

295

Genetic and biochemical characterization of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produces exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which play a role in the rheological properties of fermented food products. Lb. bulgaricus Lfi5 produces a high-molecular-weight EPS composed of galactose, glucose, and rhamnose in the molar ratio 5:1:1. An 18-kb DNA region containing 14 genes, designated epsA to epsN, was isolated by genomic DNA library screening and inverted PCR. The predicted

Gilbert Thierry Lamothe; Laure Jolly; Beat Mollet; Francesca Stingele

2002-01-01

296

Isolation and characterization of two bacteriocins of Lactobacillus acidophilus LF221  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidophilus LF221 produced bacteriocin-like activity against different bacteria including some pathogenic and food-spoilage species.\\u000a Besides some lactic acid bacteria, the following species were inhibited: Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sp., Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus D. L. acidophilus LF221 produced at least two bacteriocins, acidocin LF221?A and acidocin LF221 B, which were purified by ammonium sulphate\\u000a precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction

I. Rogelj; I. F. Nes; H. Holo

1998-01-01

297

Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 (PCC) to enhance the mucosal immune system of elite athletes.Design and settingA double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted over a 4-month period of winter training.Participants20 healthy elite male distance runners.InterventionsPCC was given at a daily dose of 1.26×1010 as a freeze-dried powder in gelatin capsules. Placebo capsules contained an inert

A. J. Cox; D. B. Pyne; P. U. Saunders; P. A. Fricker

2010-01-01

298

Evaluation of immunomodulation by Lactobacillus casei Shirota: Immune function, autoimmunity and gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria are claimed to have immunomodulating effects. Stimulation as well as suppression of T helper (Th)1 mediated immune responses, have been described for various strains. Experiments involving Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) detected mainly enhancement of innate immune responses and promotion of Th1 mediated immune reactivity. To confirm and further investigate modulation of Th1 responses and development of autoimmune

Kirsten A. Baken; Janine Ezendam; Eric R. Gremmer; Arja de Klerk; Jeroen L. A. Pennings; Bianca Matthee; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Henk van Loveren

2006-01-01

299

Induction of local protective immunity to Eimeria acervulina by a Lactobacillus-based probiotic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that resistance to Eimeria acervulina (EA) infection in broiler chickens was enhanced by a probiotic treatment. In the present studies, we examined cytokine and oocyst production under similar conditions using a commercial Lactobacillus-based probiotic. Day-old male broiler chicks were fed control or probiotic diets and were orally challenged with either 2×104 (Experiment 1) or 1×104 (Experiment

Rami A. Dalloul; Hyun S. Lillehoj; Nada M. Tamim; Timothy A. Shellem; John A. Doerr

2005-01-01

300

Functional Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Maasai Traditional Fermented Milk Products in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya.\\u000a Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed\\u000a acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells

Julius Maina Mathara; Ulrich Schillinger; Phillip M. Kutima; Samuel K. Mbugua; Claudia Guigas; Charles Franz; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

2008-01-01

301

Characterization of the polysaccharides from a Lactobacillus brevis and from sugary kefir grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The gel-forming polysaccharide of the sugary kefir grains (11.5% of dry matter) or one taken from aLactobacillus brevis culture were identified as dextrans with some 1)-Gp-(3 links in the main chain, with a ratio (branched\\/total units) of 0.19 and 0.14 respectively, instead of 0.07 for the non-gelling polysaccharide.

M. Pidoux; J. M. Brillouet; B. Quemener

1988-01-01

302

Probiotic abilities of riboflavin-overproducing Lactobacillus strains: a novel promising application of probiotics.  

PubMed

The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, capable of overproducing riboflavin, was investigated. The riboflavin production was quantified in co-cultures of lactobacilli and human intestinal epithelial cells, and the riboflavin overproduction ability was confirmed. When milk and yogurt were used as carrier matrices, L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains displayed a significant ability to survive through simulated gastrointestinal transit. Adhesion was studied on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Both strains adhered strongly on Caco-2 cells, negatively influenced the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and strongly inhibited the growth of three reference pathogenic microbial strains. Resistance to major antibiotics and potential hemolytic activity were assayed. Overall, this study reveals that these Lactobacillus stains are endowed with promising probiotic properties and thus are candidates for the development of novel functional food which would be both enriched in riboflavin and induce additional health benefits, including a potential in situ riboflavin production, once the microorganisms colonize the host intestine. PMID:24903812

Arena, Mattia P; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; López, Paloma; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

303

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against shrimp bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Aquaculture is one amongst the growing and major food producing sectors. Shrimp culture is one of the subsectors of aquaculture that attracts more attention because of the economic interest. However, the shrimp culture systems have been facing severe consequences and economical losses due to disease outbreaks. Risk of disease outbreak can be combated with the application of probiotics. For economically viable production of such probiotic products, the present study provides information on the optimization and partial purification of bacteriocin produced by a goat milk isolate Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against the shrimp bacterial pathogens. Results Bacteriocin production was estimated as a measure of bactericidal activity (arbitrary Unit/ml) over the test strains. The optimum culture conditions and media components for maximum bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR were: pH: 5.0, temperature: 30°C, carbon source: lactose; nitrogen source: ammonium acetate; NaCl: 3.0% and surfactant: Tween 80. MRS medium was found to extend better bacteriocin production than other tested media. Upon partial purification of bacteriocin, the SDS-PAGE analysis had manifested the presence of two peptide bands with the molecular weight of 39.26 and 6.38 kDa, respectively. Conclusion The present results provide baseline trend for the statistical optimization, scale up process and efficient production of bacteriocin by the candidate bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR which could be used to replace the usage of conventional chemotherapeutics in shrimp culture systems. PMID:23725298

2013-01-01

304

Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong ?-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica

2014-01-01

305

The effect of a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on the plaque formation of oral Streptococci.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of biofilm formation among mutans and non mutans oral streptococci and to determine the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079 as a probiotic strain on the adhesion of selected streptococcal strains on the surfaces. The sample comprised 40 isolates of oral streptococci from dental plaque and caries of volunteer persons. Streptococcus mutans ATCC35668 (no24) was as an standard strain. The probiotic strain was Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079. The ability of biofilm formation was investigated with colorimetric method and the strongest isolates were selected. Then the effect of probiotic strain on the adhesion of streptococci isolates was determined in polystyrene microtiter plate simultaneously and 30 minutes before streptococci entrance to the system. The results showed that 42% of mutans streptococci were strongly adherent (SA) and in non mutans streptococci, only 23.5% of isolates were found strongly adherent. The strong biofilm forming bacterium isolated was Streptococcus mutans strain22. In the next step, in the presence of probiotic strain the streptococcal adhesion were reduced, and this reduction was non significantly stronger if the probiotic strain was inoculated to the system before the oral bacteria. The Lactobacillus acidophilus had more effect on adherence of mutans streptococci than non mutans streptococci with significant difference (p < 0.05). Adhesion reduction is likely due to bacterial interactions and colonization of adhesion sites with probiotic strain before the presence of streptococci. Adhesion reduction can be an effective way on decreasing cariogenic potential of oral streptococci. PMID:21342140

Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Kermanshahi, Rooha Kasra

2011-02-01

306

Characterization of pR18, a novel rolling-circle replication plasmid from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum PA18, a strain originally isolated from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius, contains a pR18 plasmid. The pR18 plasmid is a 3211bp circular molecule with a G+C content of 35.8%. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed two putative open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, in which ORF2 was predicted (317 amino acids) to be a replication protein and shared 99% similarity with the Rep proteins of pLR1, pLD1, pC30il, and pLP2000, which belong to the RCR pC194/pUB110 family. Sequence analysis also indicated that ORF1 was predicted to encode linA, an enzyme that enzymatically inactivates lincomycin. The result of Southern hybridization and mung bean nuclease treatment confirmed that pR18 replicated via the RCR mechanism. Phylogenetic tree analysis of pR18 plasmid proteins suggested that horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants without genes encoding mobilization has not only occurred between Bacillus and Lactobacillus but also between unrelated bacteria. Understanding this type of transfer could possibly play a key role in facilitating the study of the origin and evolution of lactobacillus plasmids. Quantitative PCR showed that the relative copy number of pR18 was approximately 39 copies per chromosome equivalent. PMID:24785193

Jalilsood, Tannaz; Baradaran, Ali; Ling, Foo Hooi; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Khatijah; Rahim, Raha Abdul

2014-05-01

307

A Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Induces a Heme Oxygenase Dependent Increase in Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated the consequences of feeding with a Lactobacillus species on the immune environment in GALT, and the role of dendritic cells and heme oxygenase-1 in mediating these responses. Feeding with a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced a significant increase in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ functional regulatory T cells in GALT. This increase was greatest in the mesenteric lymph nodes and associated with a marked decrease in TNF and IFN? production. Dendritic cell regulatory function and HO-1 expression was also increased. The increase in Foxp3+ T cells could be prevented by treatment with a heme oxygenase inhibitor. However, neither inhibition of heme oxygenase nor blockade of IL-10 and TGF? prevented the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. In conclusion Lactobacillus feeding induced a tolerogenic environment in GALT. HO-1 was critical to the enhancement of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells while additional, as yet unknown, pathways were involved in the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. PMID:23077634

Karimi, Khalil; Kandiah, Nalaayini; Chau, Jessie; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul

2012-01-01

308

Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans sp. nov., isolated from kimchi with the ability to transform ginsenosides.  

PubMed

Biotransformation of ginsenosides was examined using lactic acid bacteria isolated from several kinds of kimchi. A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped lactic acid bacterial strain, designated EMML 3041(T), was determined to have ginsenoside-converting activity and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain EMML 3041(T) displayed ?-glucosidase activity that was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the dominant active components of ginseng) to F2 via gypenoside XVII, ginsenoside Rb2 to compound Y via compound O, ginsenoside Rc to compound Mc via compound Mc1, and ginsenoside Rd to ginsenoside F2. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain EMML 3041(T) was shown to belong to the genus Lactobacillus and is closely related to Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.3 % sequence similarity). Polyphasic taxonomy study confirmed that the strain EMML 3041(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. is proposed, with EMML 3041(T) (=KACC 14527(T) = JCM 16719(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23271644

Jung, Hae-Min; Liu, Qing-Mei; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Lee, Sung-Taik; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

2013-04-01

309

A probiotic, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, has antioxidative capacity in soft cheese spreads with different fats.  

PubMed

Our aim was to develop a prototype of a functional spread cheese containing both a specific probiotic and n-3 fatty acids and to analyze the viability of the probiotic and stability of n-3 fatty acids during 4 wk of shelf life. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (Lf ME-3) isolated from a healthy Estonian child has been shown to have probiotic and antioxidative properties in several recent studies. In the current study this promising bacterial strain was combined with vegetable oils rich in nutritionally important alpha-linolenic acid and with unflavored cheese to obtain soft cheese spreads with different fat contents. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 survived well in all cheeses although the viable count did not increase during 4 wk of storage. The fatty acid composition of cheese triacylglycerols remained stable, whereas the profile of volatile compounds changed: hexanal and pentanal disappeared and the proportion of some alcohols increased. The changes in the profile of volatile compounds show the reductive power of Lf ME-3. A functional spread cheese containing n-3 fatty acids can be prepared with the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 strain leading to a reduced need for chemical anti-oxidants. PMID:17582099

Järvenpää, S; Tahvonen, R L; Ouwehand, A C; Sandell, M; Järvenpää, E; Salminen, S

2007-07-01

310

Orthogonal array deciphering MRS medium requirements for isolated Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY with cell properties characterization.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a well-known lactic acid bacterium (LAB), but a new ZY strain was isolated for the first time from commercial probiotic powder recently. Although many studies have focused on developing cost-effective media for the production of LAB, the de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium is still the most common medium for bioprocesses. The aim of the current study is to decipher the composition of MRS based on a statistical approach, which will allow a higher biomass of Lactobacillus to be obtained. In Taguchi's approach, an L27 orthogonal array was adopted to evaluate the significance of 10 ingredients in MRS, in which the effects of the components were ranked according to their effect on biomass at OD600 as dextrose > MnSO4·H2O > beef extract > CH3COONa > MgSO4 > yeast extract > proteose peptone > K2HPO4 > ammonium citrate > Tween 80. Although the individual trace elements of ammonium citrate, K2HPO4, CH3COONa and MgSO4 in MRS had an insignificant influence on the biomass after statistical analysis, the total elimination of trace elements would predominantly affect the cell growth of Lactobacillus. Further characterization of the cell properties through attenuated total reflectance of Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and protein identification via SDS-PAGE coupled with tandem mass spectrometry implied that dextrose as major carbon source in MRS played the most crucial role for L. rhamnosus production. PMID:24721122

Zhang, Yu; Ng, I-Son; Yao, Chuanyi; Lu, Yinghua

2014-09-01

311

Lactobacillus Proteins Are Associated with the Bactericidal Activity against E. coli of Female Genital Tract Secretions  

PubMed Central

Background Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E.) coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined. Methods The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected from 99 healthy women were determined. Results CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [?26, 100] (median [range]). CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p<0.001), but not with cytokines, chemokines or antimicrobial peptides. Four CVL with>90% inhibitory activity (active) and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli. Conclusion Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection. PMID:23185346

Kalyoussef, Sabah; Nieves, Edward; Dinerman, Ellen; Carpenter, Colleen; Shankar, Viswanathan; Oh, Jamie; Burd, Berta; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Fredricks, David N.; Madan, Rebecca P.; Keller, Marla J.; Herold, Betsy C.

2012-01-01

312

The biofilm mode of life boosts the anti-inflammatory properties of Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The predominant form of life for microorganisms in their natural habitats is the biofilm mode of growth. The adherence and colonization of probiotic bacteria are considered as essential factors for their immunoregulatory function in the host. Here, we show that Lactobacillus casei?ATCC334 adheres to and colonizes the gut of zebrafish larvae. The abundance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of macrophages were low when inflammation was induced in probiotic-fed animals, suggesting that these bacteria have anti-inflammatory properties. We treated human macrophage-differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells with supernatants of L.?casei?ATCC334 grown in either biofilm or planktonic cultures. TNF-? production was suppressed and the NF-?B pathway was inhibited only in the presence of supernatants from biofilms. We identified GroEL as the biofilm supernatant compound responsible, at least partially, for this anti-inflammatory effect. Gradual immunodepletion of GroEL demonstrated that the abundance of GroEL and TNF-? were inversely correlated. We confirmed that biofilm development in other Lactobacillus species affects the immune response. The biofilms supernatants of these species also contained large amounts of GroEL. Thus, our results demonstrate that the biofilm enhances the immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus sp. and that secreted GroEL is involved in this beneficial effect. PMID:25052472

Rieu, Aurélie; Aoudia, Nabil; Jego, Gaëtan; Chluba, Johanna; Yousfi, Nadhir; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Gasquet, Benoît; Monedero, Vicente; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

2014-12-01

313

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation on growth and nutrient utilization in mongrel pups.  

PubMed

Effect of lactobacillus supplementation was studied in eight Mongrel pups of about 10 weeks of age with a mean body weight of 5.2 kg divided into two equal groups, control (group C) and a probiotic supplemented group (group L). Both groups received the same feed (biscuit) which was for group L supplemented with 2 x 10(7) cfu of a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain. The feeding trial lasted 13 weeks and included a digestibility trial of six day during which feed and faeces were collected to assess intake and digestibility of nutrients. Growth was recorded as weekly live weight change and the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of stool were examined periodically to assess the effect of lactobacillus on intestinal health. The biscuits contained 89% DM, 32.6% CP, 5.8% ash and 12.7% EE with TDN, GE and ME content of 890 g, 19.6 MJ and 14.6 MJ per kg DM, respectively. The DM, OM, CP and GE digestibilities were between 76% to 79% and the EE digestibility was 93%. The CF digestibility was negligible (22%). There were no significant differences between the two groups. There was an appetite stimulation and a relatively higher DM intake (10 to 15%) which induced higher daily gain, 102 g in group L vs. 92 g in group C up to 19 weeks of age, the difference declined thereafter. The average daily gain during the whole period was 74.5 +/- 8.0 g and 81.6 +/- 6.0 g in group C and L, respectively, and the difference was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). The stools showed similar physical properties and composition with acidic pH in both groups. Lactobacillus supplementation caused a competitive establishment in the gastrointestinal tract of pups. It can be concluded that lactobacillus supplementation shows a positive effect during active growth phase (up to 4.5 months of age), which became insignificant in the later period of life. PMID:12098837

Pasupathy, K; Sahoo, A; Pathak, N N

2001-01-01

314

Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Italian ryegrass silage.  

PubMed

Twenty-three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from three cultivars (Akiaoba, Nagahahikari and Tachiwase) of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage were precisely characterized by a combination of phenotypic tests, genotypic 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and rapid PCR-based analyses, focusing on their useful phenotypes for silage preparation as inoculants. We successfully identified both at the species and subspecies levels: phenotypically novel Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. carnosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Pediococcus parvulus. This is the first report to elucidate the presence of Lactobacillus coryniformis ssp. torquens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum in Italian ryegrass silages. Physiological and biochemical tests revealed that phenotypic characteristics are different among the different strains of the same species and subspecies, and that the isolates show unique and diverse phenotypes related to fermentation factors, such as available carbohydrates, optimal growth pH and temperature. These results suggest that, for various well-preserved silage preparations, the isolates may be useful in producing novel inoculants corresponding to their optimally climatic and ecological niches. PMID:22339691

Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Nomura, Masaru; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Cai, Yimin

2012-02-01

315

Binding Rather Than Metabolism May Explain the Interaction of Two Food-Grade Lactobacillus Strains with Zearalenone and Its Derivative  -Zearalenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two Fusarium mycotoxins, zearalenone (ZEN) and its derivative ´-zearalenol ( ´-ZOL), with two food-grade strains of Lactobacillus was investigated. The mycotoxins (2 gm l 1 ) were in- cubated with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or L. rhamnosus strain LC705. A considerable propor- tion (38 to 46%) of both toxins was recovered from the bacterial pellet, and

Hani El-Nezami; Nektaria Polychronaki; Seppo Salminen; Hannu Mykkanen

2002-01-01

316

Molecular cloning and functional expression in lactobacillus plantarum 80 of xylT, encoding the D-xylose-H+ symporter of Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

A 3-kb region, located downstream of the Lactobacillus brevis xylA gene (encoding D-xylose isomerase), was cloned in Escherichia coli TG1. The sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the D-xylulose kinase gene (xylB) and another gene (xylT) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the D-xylose-H+ symporters of E. coli, XylE (57%), and Bacillus megaterium, XylT (58%), to the D-xylose-Na+ symporter of Tetragenococcus halophila, XylE (57%), and to the L-arabinose-H+ symporter of E. coli, AraE (60%). The L. brevis xylABT genes showed an arrangement similar to that of the B. megaterium xylABT operon and the T. halophila xylABE operon. Southern hybridization performed with the Lactobacillus pentosus xylR gene (encoding the D-xylose repressor protein) as a probe revealed the existence of a xylR homologue in L. brevis which is not located with the xyABT locus. The existence of a functional XylR was further suggested by the presence of xylO sequences upstream of xylA and xylT and by the requirement of D-xylose for the induction of D-xylose isomerase, D-xylulose kinase, and D-xylose transport activities in L. brevis. When L. brevis was cultivated in a mixture of D-glucose and D-xylose, the D-xylose isomerase and D-xylulose kinase activities were reduced fourfold and the D-xylose transport activity was reduced by sixfold, suggesting catabolite repression by D-glucose of D-xylose assimilation. The xylT gene was functionally expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum 80, a strain which lacks proton motive force-linked D-xylose transport activity. The role of the XylT protein was confirmed by the accumulation of D-xylose in L. plantarum 80 cells, and this accumulation was dependent on the proton motive force generated by either malolactic fermentation or by the metabolism of D-glucose. The apparent affinity constant of XylT for D-xylose was approximately 215 microM, and the maximal initial velocity of transport was 35 nmol/min per mg (dry weight). Furthermore, of a number of sugars tested, only 6-deoxy-D-glucose inhibited the transport of D-xylose by XylT competitively, with a Ki of 220 microM. PMID:9835554

Chaillou, S; Bor, Y C; Batt, C A; Postma, P W; Pouwels, P H

1998-12-01

317

Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum 80 of xylT, Encoding the d-Xylose-H+ Symporter of Lactobacillus brevis  

PubMed Central

A 3-kb region, located downstream of the Lactobacillus brevis xylA gene (encoding d-xylose isomerase), was cloned in Escherichia coli TG1. The sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the d-xylulose kinase gene (xylB) and another gene (xylT) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the d-xylose–H+ symporters of E. coli, XylE (57%), and Bacillus megaterium, XylT (58%), to the d-xylose–Na+ symporter of Tetragenococcus halophila, XylE (57%), and to the l-arabinose–H+ symporter of E. coli, AraE (60%). The L. brevis xylABT genes showed an arrangement similar to that of the B. megaterium xylABT operon and the T. halophila xylABE operon. Southern hybridization performed with the Lactobacillus pentosus xylR gene (encoding the d-xylose repressor protein) as a probe revealed the existence of a xylR homologue in L. brevis which is not located with the xyABT locus. The existence of a functional XylR was further suggested by the presence of xylO sequences upstream of xylA and xylT and by the requirement of d-xylose for the induction of d-xylose isomerase, d-xylulose kinase, and d-xylose transport activities in L. brevis. When L. brevis was cultivated in a mixture of d-glucose and d-xylose, the d-xylose isomerase and d-xylulose kinase activities were reduced fourfold and the d-xylose transport activity was reduced by sixfold, suggesting catabolite repression by d-glucose of d-xylose assimilation. The xylT gene was functionally expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum 80, a strain which lacks proton motive force-linked d-xylose transport activity. The role of the XylT protein was confirmed by the accumulation of d-xylose in L. plantarum 80 cells, and this accumulation was dependent on the proton motive force generated by either malolactic fermentation or by the metabolism of d-glucose. The apparent affinity constant of XylT for d-xylose was approximately 215 ?M, and the maximal initial velocity of transport was 35 nmol/min per mg (dry weight). Furthermore, of a number of sugars tested, only 6-deoxy-d-glucose inhibited the transport of d-xylose by XylT competitively, with a Ki of 220 ?M. PMID:9835554

Chaillou, Stephane; Bor, Yeou-Cherng; Batt, Carl A.; Postma, Pieter W.; Pouwels, Peter H.

1998-01-01

318

Lactobacillus Endocarditis with Prosthetic Material: A Case Report on Non-Surgical Management with Corresponding Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are rod shaped gram positive bacteria that naturally colonize the human gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and occasionally cause disease in humans. Lactobacillus infections are found in patients who are immunocompromized or have severe comorbidities. We report Lactobacillus endocarditis in a 17-year-old adolescent girl with cardiac prosthetic material following surgical correction for complex cyanotic congenital heart disease. Accurate identification of the organism can be delayed. Despite in vivo susceptibility to vancomycin, our patient clinically failed vancomycin therapy but ultimately responded to a six-week course of penicillin, in addition to a 4-week course of clindamycin and gentamicin. She recovered without the need for surgical intervention and has been symptom free for one year. Upon review of the literature, we found that Lactobacillus endocarditis has not been reported in a pediatric patient with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

Botros, Mena; Mukundan, Deepa

2014-01-01

319

Probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but not iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years.  

PubMed

Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children, whereas milk calcium alone would improve growth but reduce iron and zinc status. A 6-mo randomized trial was conducted in low-socioeconomic urban communities of Jakarta. Healthy children (n = 494) were randomly assigned to receive low-lactose milk with a low calcium content of ?50 mg/d (LC; n = 124), a regular calcium content of ?440 mg/d (RC group; n = 126), regular calcium with 5 × 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (casei; n = 120), or regular calcium with 5 × 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Growth, anemia, and iron and zinc status were assessed before and after the intervention. Compared with the RC group, the reuteri group had significantly greater weight gain [0.22 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.42) kg], weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) changes [0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.17)], and monthly weight [0.03 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.05) kg/mo] and height [0.03 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.05) cm/mo] velocities. Casei significantly increased monthly weight velocity [0.03 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) kg/mo], but not height. However, the changes in underweight, stunting, anemia prevalence, and iron and zinc status were similar between groups. In conclusion, L. reuteri DSM 17938 modestly improved growth by increasing weight gain, WAZ changes, and weight and height velocity, whereas L. casei CRL 431 modestly improved weight velocity. Independent from probiotics supplementation, regular milk calcium did not affect growth or iron and zinc status. PMID:23700339

Agustina, Rina; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Lukito, Widjaja; Fahmida, Umi; van de Rest, Ondine; Zimmermann, Michael B; Firmansyah, Agus; Wulanti, Ratna; Albers, Ruud; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kok, Frans J

2013-07-01

320

Distinct Immunomodulation of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cell Responses to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 by Two Different Polysaccharides Isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900.  

PubMed

The structures of polysaccharides (PS) isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900 and results from stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) and human embryonal kidney (HEK293) cells stably transfected with Toll-like receptors (TLR) upon exposure to these antigens were studied. L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900 produces PS that differ greatly in their structure. The polymer L900/2, with a high average molecular mass of 830 kDa, is a branched heteropolysaccharide with a unique repeating unit consisting of seven sugar residues and pyruvic acid, whereas L900/3 has a low average molecular mass of 18 kDa and contains a pentasaccharide repeating unit and phosphorus. Furthermore, we found that both described PS neither induce cytokine production and maturation of mouse BM-DC nor induce signaling through TLR2/TLR4 receptors. However, they differ profoundly in their abilities to modulate the BM-DC immune response to the well-characterized human isolate Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Exposure to L900/2 enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production induced by L. plantarum WCFS1, while in contrast, L900/3 enhanced the production of IL-12p70. We conclude that PS, probably due to their chemical features, are able to modulate the immune responses to third-party antigens. The ability to induce regulatory IL-10 by L900/2 opens up the possibility to use this PS in therapy of inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, whereas L900/3 might be useful in reverting the antigen-dependent Th2-skewed immune responses in allergies. PMID:25107979

Górska, Sabina; Schwarzer, Martin; Jachymek, Wojciech; Srutkova, Dagmar; Brzozowska, Ewa; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

2014-10-15

321

Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on hepatic steatosis in Zucker rats.  

PubMed

We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-? levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats. PMID:24852284

Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Abadia-Molina, Francisco; Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

2014-01-01

322

Effect of recombinant lactobacillus expressing canine GM-CSF on immune function in dogs.  

PubMed

Many Lactobacillus strains have been promoted as good probiotics for the prevention and treatment of diseases. We engineered recombinant Lactobacillus casei, producing biologically active canine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (cGM-CSF), and investigated its possibility as a good probiotic agent for dogs. Expression of the cGM-CSF protein in the recombinant Lactobacillus was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting methods. For the in vivo study, 18 Beagle puppies of 7 weeks of age were divided into three groups; the control group was fed only on a regular diet and the two treatment groups were fed on a diet supplemented with either 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU)/day of L. casei or L. casei expressing cGM-CSF protein for 7 weeks. Body weight was measured, and fecal and blood samples were collected from the dogs during the experiment for the measurement of hematology, fecal immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG, circulating IgA and IgG, and canine corona virus (CCV)-specific IgG. There were no differences in body weights among the groups, but monocyte counts in hematology and serum IgA were higher in the group receiving L. casei expressing cGMCSF than in the other two groups. After the administration of CCV vaccine, CCV-specific IgG in serum increased more in the group supplemented with L. casei expressing cGM-CSF than the other two groups. This study shows that a dietary L. casei expressing cGM-CSF enhances specific immune functions at both the mucosal and systemic levels in puppies. PMID:19996694

Chung, Jin Young; Sung, Eui Jae; Cho, Chun Gyu; Seo, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong-Soo; Bhang, Dong Ha; Lee, Hee Woo; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Wan Kyu; Youn, Hwa Young; Kim, Chul Joong

2009-11-01

323

Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat established colitis in SPF TG rats and prevent recurrent disease after antibiotics were stopped. Methods: Germfree B27 TG rats were monoassociated with B vulgatus for four weeks following two weeks of colonisation with L GG or no bacteria. SPF B27 TG rats received oral vancomycin and imipenem for two weeks, or water alone, followed by four weeks of treatment with oral L GG, LP 299v, or water only. Disease activity was quantified by blinded gross and histological scores, caecal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), transforming growth factor ?, and IL-10. Results: L GG did not prevent colitis in B vulgatus co-associated TG rats or treat established disease in SPF rats. However, L GG but not LP 299v prevented colitis relapse in antibiotic treated rats with reduced gross and histological scores, caecal MPO, IL-1?, and TNF whereas caecal IL-10 was increased. Conclusions: L GG does not prevent colitis in gnotobiotic TG rats or treat established disease in SPF rats, but is superior to LP 299v in the prevention of recurrent colitis. These studies suggest that antibiotics and probiotic agents provide synergistic therapeutic effects, perhaps mediated by altered immunomodulation with selective activity of different lactobacillus species. PMID:12584218

Dieleman, L A; Goerres, M S; Arends, A; Sprengers, D; Torrice, C; Hoentjen, F; Grenther, W B; Sartor, R B

2003-01-01

324

Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of ?-galactosidase for the synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was used as a source of ?-galactosidase for the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. ?-galactosidase activity was highest when galactose (1,724 Miller Units) was used as a carbon source compared to lactose, sucrose or glucose at 37 °C, 18 h. Permeabilized cells had the highest transgalactosylation activity resulting in 34 % (w/w) GOS synthesis from 40 % (w/v) lactose at 50 °C over 12 h. HPLC revealed that the GOS were composed of 13 % disaccharides (non-lactose), 17 % trisaccharides and 4 % tetrasaccharides that were further confirmed by ESI–MS. PMID:24078132

Gobinath, Duraiswamy; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

2014-01-01

325

Radioprotection of mice by a single subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei after irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of whole-body gamma-irradiated mice with a preparation of Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018) immediately after irradiation caused a sustained increase in serum colony-stimulating activity which was followed by an enhanced repopulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells in the femoral marrow and spleen. Numbers of blood leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets were increased earlier in the treated mice than in the controls, and the survival rate was elevated significantly. The radioprotective effect was dependent on the dose of LC 9018 as well as on the dose of radiation. These results demonstrate the value of LC 9018 for the treatment of myelosuppression after radiotherapy or radiation accidents.

Nomoto, K.; Yokokura, T.; Tsuneoka, K.; Shikita, M. (Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan))

1991-03-01

326

Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Lactobacillus jensenii enolase  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant Lactobacillus jensenii enolase fused to a C-terminal noncleavable His tag was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by sitting-drop vapor diffusion. A complete data set was collected to 3.25 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.31, c = 99.79 {angstrom}. There were two protein subunits in the asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient V{sub M} of 2.8 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}, corresponding to 55.2% solvent content.

Harris, Paul T.; Raghunathan, Kannan; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Arvidson, Cindy G.; Arvidson, Dennis N. (MSU)

2010-09-02

327

Purification and characterization of a prolidase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei IFPL 731.  

PubMed Central

A peptidase showing a high level of specificity towards dipeptides of the X-Pro type was purified to homogeneity from the cell extract of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei IFPL 731. The enzyme was a monomer having a molecular mass of 41 kDa. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 to 7.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Metal chelating agents completely inhibited enzyme activity, indicating that the prolidase was a metalloenzyme. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) and Vmax for several proline-containing dipeptides were determined. PMID:8979358

Fernández-Esplá, M D; Martín-Hernández, M C; Fox, P F

1997-01-01

328

Cloning and Characterization of a Prolinase Gene (pepR) from Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptidase gene expressing L-proline-b-naphthylamide-hydrolyzing activity was cloned from a gene library of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1\\/6 isolated from cheese. Peptidase-expressing activity was localized in a 1.5-kb SacI fragment. A sequence analysis of the SacI fragment revealed the presence of one complete open reading frame (ORF1) that was 903 nucleotides long. The ORF1-encoded 34.2-kDa protein exhibited 68% identity with the PepR

PEKKA VARMANEN; TERHI RANTANEN; AIRI PALVA; SOILE TYNKKYNEN

1998-01-01

329

Immune enhancement in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) by potential probiotic bacteria ( Lactobacillus rhamnosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the immune enhancement of fish by a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). The bacterium was administered orally at five different doses 7.9×104(LAB4), 2.1×106(LAB6), 2.8×108(LAB8), 1.9×1010(LAB10) and 9.7×1010(LAB11) CFU\\/g feed to rainbow trout for two weeks and the feed was changed to un-supplemented diet. From the onset of feeding supplemented diets at 1, 2,

Sami Nikoskelainen; Arthur C. Ouwehand; Göran Bylund; Seppo Salminen; Esa-Matti Lilius

2003-01-01

330

Inhibition of Candida albicans by Lactobacillus acidophilus: evidence for the involvement of a peroxidase system.  

PubMed

A range of cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus was isolated from patients using oral, vaginal and endocervical swabs. These were investigated for their ability to (1) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and (2) generate peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide and hypothiocyanite. Inhibition of Candida albicans and hydrogen peroxide production was detected in nine out of twelve strains whereas peroxidase production was only detected in three out of twelve strains, all from oral swabs. Hypothiocyanite production was detected in two strains and it was only detected in these strains after growth in MRS medium in aerobic conditions. PMID:7898374

Fitzsimmons, N; Berry, D R

1994-01-01

331

Production of Lactobacillus kefir cells for asymmetric synthesis of a 3,5-dihydroxycarboxylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient fedbatch process for the production of Lactobacillus kefir DSM 20587 cells was developed. An improvement in space time yield of 270% (3.7 gDCW l-1 day-1) and in final enzyme activity of 440% (9.1 U\\/ml) was achieved on a 150 l scale by controlling the oxygen transfer rate to 7–9 mmol l-1 h-1. The cells exhibited good and highly stereoselective reducing activities against tert-butyl 6-chloro-3,5-dioxohexanoate. tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-dihydroxyhexanoate,

Holger Pfruender; Maya Amidjojo; Florian Hang; Dirk Weuster-Botz

2005-01-01

332

Characterization of bacteriocin ST8KF produced by a kefir isolate Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF, isolated from kefir, produced a 3.5kDa bacteriocin (bacST8KF) active against Lb. casei, Lb. salivarius, Lb. curvatus and Listeria innocua. BacST8KF was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2.0 and 10.0, and heat resistant (20min at 121°C). BacST8KF did not adsorb to the surface of the producer cell. Maximum activity (25,600AUmL?1) was recorded in MRS broth

J. E. Powell; R. C. Witthuhn; S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

333

Estimation of 16S rRNA gene copy number in several probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chicken  

PubMed Central

The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in 12 probiotic Lactobacillus strains of poultry origin were analyzed. Genomic DNA of the strains was digested with restriction endonucleases that do not cut within the 16S rRNA gene of the strains. This was followed by Southern hybridization with a biotinylated probe complementary to the 16S rRNA gene. The copy number of the 16S rRNA gene within a Lactobacillus species was found to be conserved. From the hybridization results, Lactobacillus salivarius I 24 was estimated to have seven copies of the 16S rRNA gene, Lactobacillus panis C 17 to have five copies and Lactobacillus gallinarum strains I 16 and I 26 four copies. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of L. gallinarum and L. panis reported in the present study are the first record. Lactobacillus brevis strains I 12, I 23, I 25, I 211, I 218 and Lactobacillus reuteri strains C 1, C 10, C 16 were estimated to have at least four copies of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition, distinct rRNA restriction patterns which could discriminate the strains of L. reuteri and L. gallinarum were also detected. Information on 16S rRNA gene copy number is important for physiological, evolutionary and population studies of the bacteria. PMID:18707622

Lee, Chin Mei; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Ho, Yin Wan

2008-01-01

334

Characterization of a cryptic plasmid pD403 from Lactobacillus plantarum and construction of shuttle vectors based on its replicon.  

PubMed

A cryptic plasmid pD403 was isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum D403 derived from fermented dairy products. It was 2,791 bp in size with a G+C content of 37%. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed two open reading frames, orf1 and orf2. ORF1 (318 amino acids) was identified as a replication protein (RepA). ORF2 (137 amino acids) shared 31% similarity with the transcriptional regulator of Ralstonia pickettii 12D. Functional investigation indicated that ORF2 (Tra) had the ability of improving the transformation efficiency. The origin of replication was predicted, suggesting that pD403 was a rolling-circle-replication (RCR) plasmid. An Escherichia coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vector pCD4032 was constructed based on the pD403 replicon, and proved to be successfully transformed into various lactobacilli including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus brevis. The transformation efficiencies were ranged from 1.3 x 10(2) to 7 x 10(4) transformants per microgram DNA. Furthermore, an expression vector pCD4033 was developed with the promoter of the lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii 11842. The green fluorescent protein (gfp) as a reporter was expressed successfully in various lactobacilli tested, suggesting that the expression vector pCD4033 had the potential to be used as a molecular tool for heterologous gene cloning and expression in lactobacilli. PMID:20077035

Sun, Zhilan; Kong, Jian; Kong, Wentao

2010-05-01

335

Clostridium tertium isolated from gas gangrene wound; misidentified as Lactobacillus spp initially due to aerotolerant feature.  

PubMed

Clostridium tertium has been increasingly reported as a human pathogen. This organism is an aerotolerant Gram-positive rod that is often mistaken for other organisms, such as Lactobacillus or Bacillus species. We describe a case of a patient with a history of intravenous drug use presenting to UCLA-Olive View Medical Center with gas gangrene of both upper extremities. The organism was initially misidentified as a Lactobacillus species on aerobic culture plates. However, terminal spore formation was detected in this isolate on a sub-cultured anaerobic culture plate and this isolate was confirmed as C. tertium biochemically and genetically by 16S rDNA sequencing. Additional DNA cloning libraries made from the formalin-fixed specimen revealed Peptoniphilus species and an uncultured Clostridium clone, but not C. tertium. C. tertium might be a causative organism of gas-producing myonecrosis but such an association has never been described. Clinicians should be aware of the phenomenon of aerotolerance of some anaerobes and need to clarify the identification of organisms if the clinical picture does not fit the isolated organism. PMID:17446094

Fujitani, Shigeki; Liu, Chengxu X; Finegold, Sydney M; Song, Yuli L; Mathisen, Glenn E

2007-01-01

336

Preliminary evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a potential probiotic in dogs.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) has been studied extensively as a probiotic in humans. However, the ability of an organism to survive passage through the intestinal tract and exert beneficial effects cannot be directly extrapolated between species. This study evaluated the ability of LGG to survive gastrointestinal transit in dogs and assessed whether oral administration of LGG is safe, in order to determine whether studies evaluating the efficacy of LGG in the treatment of canine disease are indicated. Dogs were divided into 5 groups receiving doses of 0 (control group, n = 4), 1 x 10(9) (group 1, n = 8), 1 x 10(10) (group 2, n = 8), 5 x 10(10) (group 3, n = 8) and 5 x 10(11) (group 4, n = 4) colony forming units per day, orally, for 5 days. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was detected in the feces of 4/8 dogs in groups 1 and 2, 5/8 dogs in group 3, 4/4 dogs in group 4, and 0/4 dogs in the control group. Fecal colonization was significantly greater in group 4 than in any other group (P < 0.001). Differences between groups 1, 2, and 3 were not significant. No adverse effects were noted. Fecal colonization of LGG in dogs is somewhat variable; however, clinical studies are indicated to evaluate this organism in the treatment and prevention of canine disease. PMID:12395758

Weese, J Scott; Anderson, Maureen E C

2002-10-01

337

Plantaricin LD1: a bacteriocin produced by food isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1.  

PubMed

Plantaricin LD1, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LD1, was characterized for biochemical and antimicrobial properties. Bacteriocin showed stability at high temperatures (100 °C for 20 min and 121 °C for 15 min under 15 psi pressure), in a pH range of 2.0-8.0 and also in the presence of organic solvents, surfactants and detergents. The crude preparation was not affected by catalase, amylase and lipase but activity was reduced in the presence of pepsin, trypsin and proteinase K showing proteinaceous nature of the compound. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was found to be ?6.5 kDa, and antimicrobial activity was confirmed by bioassay. It inhibited not only related strains but also other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus curvatus NRRL B-4562, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NRRL B-1821, Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354, Enterobacter cloacae NRRL B-14298, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, urogenic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio sp. These properties of plantaricin LD1 suggest its applications not only in food safety but in therapeutics as well. PMID:24522411

Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

2014-04-01

338

Enhancement of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1: validation in gas-lift bioreactor.  

PubMed

The optimization of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1 was carried out following the Taguchi methodology. The orthogonal array employed was L18 (2(1) × 3(5)) considering six important factors (pH and temperature, also phosphate, nitrogen, magnesium, and carbon sources) for tannase biosynthesis. The experimental results obtained from 18 trials were processed using the software Statistical version 7.1 using the character higher the better. Optimal culture conditions were pH, 6; temperature, 40 °C; tannic acid, 15.0 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.5 g/L; NH4Cl, 7.0 g/L; and MgSO4, 1.5 g/L which were obtained and further validated resulting in an enhance tannase yield of 2.52-fold compared with unoptimized conditions. Tannase production was further carried out in a 1-L gas-lift bioreactor where two nitrogen flows (0.5 and 1.0 vvm) were used to provide anaerobic conditions. Taguchi methodology allowed obtaining the optimal culture conditions for the production of tannase by L. plantarum CIR1. At the gas-lift bioreactor the tannase productivity yields increase 5.17 and 8.08-fold for the flow rates of 0.5 and 1.0 vvm, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1 has the capability to produce tannase at laboratory-scale. This is the first report for bacterial tannase production using a gas-lift bioreactor. PMID:24861311

Aguilar-Zarate, Pedro; Cruz-Hernandez, Mario A; Montañez, Julio C; Belmares-Cerda, Ruth E; Aguilar, Cristobal N

2014-11-01

339

Characterization of a thiol-dependent endopeptidase from Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32.  

PubMed Central

An endopeptidase gene (pepE) was isolated from a previously constructed genomic library of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32. The pepE gene consisted of a 1,314-bp open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 52.1 kDa. Significant identity was found between the deduced amino acid sequence of pepE and the sequences for aminopeptidase C from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM7290, L. helveticus CNRZ32, Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ302, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. A recombinant PepE fusion protein containing an N-terminal six-histidine tag was constructed and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Characterization of PepE revealed that it was a thiol-dependent protease having a monomeric mass of 50 kDa, with optimum temperature, NaCl concentration, and pH for activity at 32 to 37 degrees C, 0.5%, and 4.5, respectively. PepE had significant activity under conditions which simulate those of ripening cheese (10 degrees C, 4% NaCl, pH 5.1). PepE hydrolyzed internal peptide bonds in Met-enkephalin and bradykinin; however, hydrolysis of alpha-, beta-, and kappa-caseins was not detected. PMID:9098049

Fenster, K M; Parkin, K L; Steele, J L

1997-01-01

340

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

341

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. ?-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. PMID:25306364

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2015-03-01

342

Chromosomal Insertions in the Lactobacillus casei upp Gene That Are Useful for Vaccine Expression  

PubMed Central

To develop a stable and marker-free Lactobacillus strain useful for the expression of vaccines, we developed a temperature-sensitive suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing an HCE promoter, a PgsA anchor, the alpha-toxin gene, and an rrnB T1T2 terminator (PP?T) that uses a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) counterselectable marker for Lactobacillus casei. Three strains containing the correct PP?T expression cassettes were produced via the selective pressure of 5-FU screening. We confirmed that the upp gene was deleted and that the PP?T expression cassettes were inserted into the upp site of L. casei ATCC 393 by genomic PCR amplification and sequencing. 5-FU resistance in recombinant bacteria could be stably inherited for as long as 40 generations following insertion. However, bacteria containing the integrated DNA grew more slowly than wild-type L. casei. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis demonstrated that the alpha-toxin gene was expressed. Also, we visualized expression of the protein on the surface of L. casei cells using laser confocal microscopy. These results taken together demonstrate that these recombinant bacteria should provide a safe tool for effective vaccine production. PMID:24657853

Song, Bai-fen; Ju, Long-zhu

2014-01-01

343

Capsicum annuum enhances L-lactate production by Lactobacillus acidophilus: implication in curd formation.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus acidophilus is commonly used lactic acid bacteria for producing fermented milk products. In general household practice, curdling is known to occur faster in the presence of red chili. Herein we analyzed the enhanced effect of red chili (Capsicum annuum) and its major component, capsaicin, on Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) in the production of L-lactate in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium at various temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 37°C). The addition of red chili showed significant increase in the amount of L-lactate produced by L. acidophilus compared with the control at all temperatures. Similar results were observed with addition of capsaicin alone. This was accompanied by an increase in the consumption of d-glucose. Capsazepine, a known antagonist of capsaicin, inhibited the production of L-lactate by L. acidophilus in the presence of both capsaicin and red chili. Because no increase occurred in the growth of L. acidophilus in the presence of red chili, the enhanced production of L-lactate in the presence of red chili or capsaicin is due to increased metabolic activity. PMID:23660136

Sharma, Smriti; Jain, Sriyans; Nair, Girija N; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

2013-07-01

344

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100-33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100-23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100-33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100-23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100-33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100-23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of 'glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100-33 is present is 'maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta. PMID:22094343

Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

2012-05-01

345

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100–23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100–33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100–23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100–33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100–23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100–33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100–23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of ‘glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100–33 is present is ‘maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta. PMID:22094343

Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

2012-01-01

346

Functional Analysis of the Fructooligosaccharide Utilization Operon in Lactobacillus paracasei 1195?  

PubMed Central

The fosABCDXE operon encodes components of a putative fructose/mannose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and a ?-fructosidase precursor (FosE) that are involved in the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) utilization pathway of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195. The presence of an N-terminal signal peptide sequence and an LPQAG cell wall anchor motif in the C-terminal region of the deduced FosE precursor amino acid sequence predicted that the enzyme is cell wall associated, indicating that FOS may be hydrolyzed extracellularly. In this study, cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that the FOS hydrolysis activity was present exclusively in the cell wall extract of L. paracasei previously grown on FOS. In contrast, no measurable FOS hydrolysis activity was detected in the cell wall extract from the isogenic fosE mutant. Induction of ?-fructosidase activity was observed when cells were grown on FOS, inulin, sucrose, or fructose but not when cells were grown on glucose. A diauxic growth pattern was observed when cells were grown on FOS in the presence of limiting glucose (0.1%). Analysis of the culture supernatant revealed that glucose was consumed first, followed by the longer-chain FOS species. Transcription analysis further showed that the fos operon was expressed only after glucose was depleted in the medium. Expression of fosE in a non-FOS-fermenting strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, enabled the recombinant strain to metabolize FOS, inulin, sucrose, and levan. PMID:17644636

Goh, Yong Jun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Hutkins, Robert W.

2007-01-01

347

The genome sequence of the probiotic intestinal bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is a member of the acidophilus group of intestinal lactobacilli that has been extensively studied for their “probiotic” activities that include, pathogen inhibition, epithelial cell attachment, and immunomodulation. To gain insight into its physiology and identify genes potentially involved in interactions with the host, we sequenced and analyzed the 1.99-Mb genome of L. johnsonii NCC 533. Strikingly, the organism completely lacked genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for amino acids, purine nucleotides, and most cofactors. In apparent compensation, a remarkable number of uncommon and often duplicated amino acid permeases, peptidases, and phosphotransferase-type transporters were discovered, suggesting a strong dependency of NCC 533 on the host or other intestinal microbes to provide simple monomeric nutrients. Genome analysis also predicted an abundance (>12) of large and unusual cell-surface proteins, including fimbrial subunits, which may be involved in adhesion to glycoproteins or other components of mucin, a characteristic expected to affect persistence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Three bile salt hydrolases and two bile acid transporters, proteins apparently critical for GIT survival, were also detected. In silico genome comparisons with the >95% complete genome sequence of the closely related Lactobacillus gasseri revealed extensive synteny punctuated by clear-cut insertions or deletions of single genes or operons. Many of these regions of difference appear to encode metabolic or structural components that could affect the organisms competitiveness or interactions with the GIT ecosystem. PMID:14983040

Pridmore, R. David; Berger, Bernard; Desiere, Frank; Vilanova, David; Barretto, Caroline; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Zwahlen, Marie-Camille; Rouvet, Martine; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Mollet, Beat; Mercenier, Annick; Klaenhammer, Todd; Arigoni, Fabrizio; Schell, Mark A.

2004-01-01

348

Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

2014-01-01

349

Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution. PMID:22750793

Van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S; Britton, Robert A

2012-01-01

350

[Revised classification of native probiotic strains of Lactobacillus used in Russian Federation].  

PubMed

Thirteen strains of industrial bacterial cultures of the genus Lactobacillus (from a collection of Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology) were studied. These strains were used for decades in Russian Federation for food and drug production, as ferments for lactic acid products, for production of probiotics, biologically active and veterinary preparations. Complex analysis of data on cultures obtained using microbiological and molecular-genetic methods was conducted for the first time. Biochemical characteristics of these cultures were studied and the sequence of the proximal region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was determined. The employment of the test system API-50CHL was shown to broaden the opportunities of a more accurate biochemical identification of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, in comparison with the set ANAEROTEST-23. According to the results obtained in a comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene, all strains examined show 97-99% homology of the proximal region of this gene with that of the type representatives of studied species. These data allowed taxonomic reclassification of the species position of cultures with consideration of the more advanced level of systematics. Nucleotide sequences of gene fragments of examined lactobacilli strains were recorded in NCBI database (accession numbers of deposits GU560031, GU560032, GU560033, GU560034, GU560035, GU560036, GU560037, GU560038, GU560039, GU560040, GU560041, GU560042, GU560043). PMID:21261060

Botina, S G; Klimina, K M; Koroban, N V; Amerkhanova, A M; Zinchenko, V V; Danilenko, V N

2010-11-01

351

Nonpathogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus activates the inflammasome and antiviral responses in human macrophages  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have utilized global gene expression profiling to compare the responses of human primary macrophages to two closely related, well-characterized Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC705, since our understanding of the responses elicited by nonpathogenic bacteria in human innate immune system is limited. Macrophages are phagocytic cells of the innate immune system that perform sentinel functions to initiate appropriate responses to surrounding stimuli. Macrophages that reside on gut mucosa encounter ingested and intestinal bacteria. Bacteria of Lactobacillus genus are nonpathogenic and used in food and as supplements with health-promoting probiotic potential. Our results demonstrate that live GG and LC705 induced quantitatively different gene expression profiles in macrophages. A gene ontology analysis revealed functional similarities and differences in responses to GG and LC705 that were reflected in host defense responses. Both GG and LC705 induced interleukin-1? production in macrophages that required caspase-1 activity. LC705, but not GG, induced type I interferon -dependent gene activation that correlated with its ability to prevent influenza A virus replication and production of viral proteins in macrophages. Our results indicate that nonpathogenic bacteria are able to activate the inflammasome. In addition, our results suggest that L. rhamnosus may prime the antiviral potential of human macrophages. PMID:22895087

Miettinen, Minja; Pietila, Taija E.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Kankainen, Matti; Latvala, Sinikka; Pirhonen, Jaana; Osterlund, Pamela; Korpela, Riitta; Julkunen, Ilkka

2012-01-01

352

Probiotic Lactobacillus strains protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the capacity of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1506, to protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the preventive treatment with immunomodulatory lactobacilli such as L. casei CRL431 or L. rhamnosus CRL1506 was able to increase immature myeloid progenitors in the BM, allowing an early recovery of myeloid cells after Cy administration. Probiotic lactobacilli were also capable to induce an early recovery of neutrophils in blood, improve phagocytic cells recruitment to infectious sites and increase the resistance against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. Although deeper studies regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic actions are needed, these findings support the idea that strains like CRL431 and CRL1506 may accelerate the recovery of Cy-caused immunosuppression by immunopotentiating myeloid cells. Then, probiotic lactobacilli have the potential to be used as alternatives for lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in cancer patients. PMID:24975836

Salva, Susana; Marranzino, Gabriela; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

2014-09-01

353

The effect of yeast extract supplementation on the production of lactic acid from whey permeate by Lactobacillus helueticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and continuous two-stage cultures have been conducted in order to determine the effect of yeast extract (YE) on the homolactic fermentation of whey permeate byLactobacillus helveticus. Supplementation with YE had a significant effet on lactic acid concentration, volumetric productivity, and substrate conversion, but not on lactic acid yield. Volumetric productivity in the first stage increased from 2 to 9

A. Aeschlimann; U. von Stockar

1990-01-01

354

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327, a Dairy Bacterium with Anti-Inflammatory Properties  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 is a dairy bacterium with anti-inflammatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which appears to contain no less than 215 insertion sequence (IS) elements, an exceptionally high number regarding the small genome size of the strain. PMID:25035318

El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Hammani, Amal; Maguin, Emmanuelle

2014-01-01

355

Antihypertensive Effect of the Peptides Derived from Casein by an Extracellular Proteinase from Lactobacillus helveticus CP790  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Peptides derived from a,l- and 0- caseins by the Lactobacillus helveticus CP790 proteinase were investigated for their inhibitory activities against,an- giotensin I-converting enzyme. The anti- hypertensive,effect of casein hydroly- satesCP791, a variant defective for proteinase activity, did not show,this activity. Results sug-

Naoyuki Yamamoto; Atsuko Akino; Toshiaki Takano

1994-01-01

356

Dynamics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Solution from Soybean Straw Fermentation the Making L-Lactic Acid by Immobile Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean straw is biodegradable cellulose resource, but it has not been utilized for a long time. 2\\/3 straws was combusted and producing resources waste and air pollution. In this study, taking soybean straw as raw material, dynamics of enzymatic hydrolysis solution from soybean straw fermentation and making L-lactic acid by immobile lactobacillus was studied. The dynamics equation of the immobile

Ping Yang; Qian Yang; Zhong Xu; QiuJing Wang

2008-01-01

357

Rheological Properties of Nonfat Yogurt Stabilized Using Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Producing Exopolysaccharide or Using Commercial Stabilizer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of yogurts made using three strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus that produce exopolysaccharide or made with a nonproducing strain, with and without addition of commercial stabilizer blends, were compared. A simple test, deve- loped to measure the extensibility of yogurts, was able to discriminate yogurt made with exopolysaccharide-producing strains from yogurt made with the nonproducing strain and to

S. J. Hess; R. F. Roberts; G. R. Ziegler

1997-01-01

358

In silico prediction of horizontal gene transfer events in Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus reveals protocooperation in yogurt manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, used in yogurt starter cultures, are well known for their stability and protocooperation during their coexistence in milk. In this study, we show that a close interaction between the two species also takes place at the genetic level. We performed an in silico analysis, combining gene composition and gene transfer mechanism-associated features, and predicted horizontally

Mengjin Liu; Roland J. Siezen; Arjen Nauta

2009-01-01

359

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis in yogurts manufactured from cowmilk and soymilk during storage at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of two microbial probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifi- dobacterium infantis, after inoculation into yogurts manufactured from cowmilk and soymilk during storage for 45 days at 4 and 12 °C was investigated. The sensory panel test carried out before the microbiological analyses showed that the flavour of soy yogurts made with cocoa powder or malt did not have the

F. CANGANELLA; D. GIONTELLA; M. L. NESPICA; S. MASSA; L. D. TROVATELLI

360

Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn's disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Experimental studies have shown that luminal bacteria may be involved in Crohn's disease. Probiotics are a possible alternative to antibiotics. The aim of this randomised placebo controlled study was to determine if Lactobacillus GG, given by mouth for one year, could prevent Crohn's recurrent lesions after surgery or to reduce their severity.Methods: Patients operated on for Crohn's

C Prantera; M L Scribano; G Falasco; A Andreoli; C Luzi

2002-01-01

361

The levansucrase and inulosucrase enzymes of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 catalyse processive and non-processive transglycosylation reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial fructosyltransferase (FTF) enzymes synthesize fructan polymers from sucrose. FTFs catalyse two different reactions, depending on the nature of the acceptor, resulting in: (i) transglycosylation, when the growing fructan chain (polymerization), or mono- and oligosaccharides (oligosaccharide synthesis), are used as the acceptor substrate; (ii) hydrolysis, when water is used as the acceptor. Lactobacillus reuteri 121 levansucrase (Lev) and inulosucrase (Inu)

Lukasz K. Ozimek; Slavko Kralj; Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

2006-01-01

362

High-level production of the low-calorie sugar sorbitol by Lactobacillus plantarum through metabolic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a low-calorie sugar alcohol that is largely used as an ingredient in the food industry, based on its sweetness and its high solubility. Here, we investigated the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum, a lactic acid bacterium found in many fermented food products and in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, to produce sorbitol from fructose-6-phosphate by reverting the sorbitol catabolic

Victor Ladero; Ana Ramos; Anne Wiersma; Philippe Goffin; A. Schanck; M. Kleerebezem; J. Hugenholtz; E. J. Smid; P. Hols

2007-01-01

363

Response of Lactobacillus helveticus PR4 to Heat Stress during Propagation in Cheese Whey with a Gradient of Decreasing Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat stress response was studied in Lactobacillus helveticus PR4 during propagation in cheese whey with a gradient of naturally decreasing temperature (55 to 20°C). Growth under a gradient of decreasing temper- ature was compared to growth at a constant temperature of 42°C. Proteinase, peptidase, and acidification activities of L. helveticus PR4 were found to be higher in cells harvested

Raffaella Di Cagno; Maria De Angelis; Antonio Limitone; Patrick F. Fox; Marco Gobbetti

2006-01-01

364

The Relationship of Serine Deamination and Hydrogen Sulfide Production by Lactobacillus casei to Cheddar Cheese Flavor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of certain strains of Lactobacillus casei to deaminate serine has been reported by Kristoffersen and Nelson (6). Strain 7 also produced H_~S in a V-8 juice medium without added carbohydrate. Sherwood (7) found that the addition of some strains of lactobacilli to milk to be used for making Cheddar cheese resulted in \\

T. Kristoffersen; F. E. Nelson

1955-01-01

365

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01, Isolated from Nukadoko, a Pickling Bed of Fermented Rice Bran.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01 was isolated from nukadoko, which is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used in Japan for pickling vegetables. Here, we report the first draft of an annotated genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of L. namurensis. PMID:24504001

Kato, Keita; Toh, Hidehiro; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Hibi, Naruhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

2014-01-01

366

Effect of two plant extracts and Lactobacillus fermentum on colonization of gastrointestinal tract by Salmonella enterica var. Düsseldorf in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to published data, it is well known that essential oils from plants possess antimicrobial activity against a wide\\u000a range of pathogens, including Salmonella strains. The influence of the administration of essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as well as Lactobacillus fermentum on crop, caecum, liver and spleen colonization by Salmonella enterica var. Düsseldorf in chicks

Jana Koš?ová; Radomíra Nemcová; So?a Gancar?íková; Zuzana Jonecová; L’uboslava Sciranková; Alojz Bomba; Viktor Buleca

2006-01-01

367

Metabolism of Biotin and Analogues of Biotin by Microorganisms. Iv. Degradation of Biotin, Oxybiotin, and Desthiobiotin by Lactobacillus Casei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lactobacillus casei degrades biotin when it is present in excess to products not utilizable for growth by L. plantarum or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Degrading activity was initiated in the early stationary phase and was controlled by the pH of the medium. ...

J. Birnbaum, H. C. Lichstein

1966-01-01

368

Effect of preservatives, tween 20, oil content and emulsion structure on the survival of Lactobacillus fructivorans in model salad dressings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of potassium sorbate (PS), nisin, Tween® 20 and oil level on the survival of Lactobacillus fructivorans in model salad dressings was studied. In general, L. fructivorans growth was prevented in formulated emulsions, but the addition of nisin was necessary to inactivate the bacterium throughout the storage time evaluated. The bacteriocin activity showed to be strongly dependent on system

Marcela P. Castro; Ana M. Rojas; Carmen A. Campos; Lía N. Gerschenson

2009-01-01

369

Strain-Dependent Augmentation of Tight-Junction Barrier Function in Human Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Lysates  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain. PMID:23770906

Sultana, Reshma; McBain, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

370

Comparative Functional Genomics of Lactobacillus spp. Reveals Possible Mechanisms for Specialization of Vaginal Lactobacilli to Their Environment  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312

Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J.; Forney, Larry J.

2014-01-01

371

Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain. PMID:23770906

Sultana, Reshma; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

2013-08-01

372

Effect of Emollients Containing Vegetable-Derived Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms: Split-Body Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients suffer from xerosis. Proper skin care, including the use of emollients, may help improve xerosis and minimize disease exacerbation. Lactobacillus sakei probio 65, isolated from the Korean vegetable-based product kimchi, can decrease interleukin 4 and immunoglobulin E levels and inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, it has reportedly shown positive dermatological effects in both animal and clinical studies. Objective To compare the effects of an emollient that contains Lactobacillus (treated) with a normal emollient (control) on AD. Methods This double-blind, randomized, split-body clinical trial involved 28 patients with AD. The patients applied the Lactobacillus-containing emollient on one side of their body and the control emollient on the other side twice daily for 4 weeks. Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance were evaluated and investigator global assessment and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were administered on weeks 0, 1, 2, and 4. Results The treated sides had significantly lower TEWL and VAS values and significantly higher skin capacitance values over time than the control sides. Conclusion Topical application of Lactobacillus-containing emollients may improve the skin permeability of patients with AD. PMID:24882967

Park, Seung Bae; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Lee, Jeung Hoon; Lim, Jeongheui; Park, Yong-Ha

2014-01-01

373

Insight into the Draft Genome Sequence of Human Isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR231, a Bacterium with Probiotic Potential.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain LR231 was isolated from the feces of healthy human subjects. It is observed to be a potential probiotic strain, having a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a wide range of human pathogens and food pathogens. Here, we provide the 2.59-Mb draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus LR231. PMID:24578273

Ambalam, Padma; Pithva, Sheetal; Kothari, Charmy; Kothari, Ramesh; Parmar, Nidhi; Nathani, Neelam M; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Dave, J M; Vyas, B R M

2014-01-01

374

Optimization of medium composition for the production of a probiotic microorganism, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to optimize yeast extract, glucose, and vitamin concentrations; and also culture pH for maximizing the growth of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and to assess the effects of these factors by using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combinations. A polynomial regression model with

S. L. Liew; A. B. Ariff; A. R. Raha; Y. W. Ho

2005-01-01

375

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovensk? Bryndza Ovine Cheese  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements. PMID:24762933

Dzunkova, Maria; Moya, Andres; Tomaska, Martin; Kolosta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

2014-01-01

376

Conversion of Lactobacillus pentosus D-lactate dehydrogenase to a D-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase through a single amino acid replacement.  

PubMed

The single amino acid replacement of Tyr52 with Leu drastically increased the activity of Lactobacillus pentosus NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase toward larger aliphatic or aromatic 2-ketoacid substrates by 3 or 4 orders of magnitude and decreased the activity toward pyruvate by about 30-fold, converting the enzyme into a highly active D-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase. PMID:12897026

Tokuda, Chizuka; Ishikura, Yoshiro; Shigematsu, Mayu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuki, Shino; Nakahira, Yusaku; Tamura, Yusuke; Shinoda, Takeshi; Arai, Kazuhito; Takahashi, O; Taguchi, Hayao

2003-08-01

377

Conversion of Lactobacillus pentosus d-Lactate Dehydrogenase to a d-Hydroxyisocaproate Dehydrogenase through a Single Amino Acid Replacement  

PubMed Central

The single amino acid replacement of Tyr52 with Leu drastically increased the activity of Lactobacillus pentosus NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase toward larger aliphatic or aromatic 2-ketoacid substrates by 3 or 4 orders of magnitude and decreased the activity toward pyruvate by about 30-fold, converting the enzyme into a highly active d-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase. PMID:12897026

Tokuda, Chizuka; Ishikura, Yoshiro; Shigematsu, Mayu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuki, Shino; Nakahira, Yusaku; Tamura, Yusuke; Shinoda, Takeshi; Arai, Kazuhito; Takahashi, O; Taguchi, Hayao

2003-01-01

378

Insight into the Draft Genome Sequence of Human Isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR231, a Bacterium with Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain LR231 was isolated from the feces of healthy human subjects. It is observed to be a potential probiotic strain, having a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a wide range of human pathogens and food pathogens. Here, we provide the 2.59-Mb draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus LR231. PMID:24578273

Ambalam, Padma; Pithva, Sheetal; Kothari, Charmy; Kothari, Ramesh; Parmar, Nidhi; Nathani, Neelam M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.; Dave, J. M.

2014-01-01

379

Analysis of Lactobacillus phages and bacteriocins in American dairy products and characterization of a phage isolated from yogurt.  

PubMed Central

Yogurt and acidophilus milk that contain Lactobacillus acidophilus could promote human health because L. acidophilus can inhibit enteric and food-borne microbial pathogens. To evaluate the stability of diary L. acidophilus cultures, we studied whether some diary lactobacilli could be inhibited by phages or bacteriocins released by other dairy lactobacilli. From 20 yogurts and two acidophilus milks purchased at local food markets, 38 Lactobacillus strains were isolated. Eight Lactobacillus type strains were used as controls. With mitomycin induction and agar spot assay, phages and bacteriocins were isolated from these strains and their activities were analyzed. Lactobacillus strains from 11 yogurts released phages, while the strains from most of the remaining products released bacteriocins. One phage, designated phi y8, was characterized. It was spontaneously released from its host strain L. acidophilus Y8, at a rate of about 10(4)/ml. This phage lysed nine other dairy Lactobacillus strains tested. It had a burst size of 100, an elongated prolate head of 39 by 130 nm, a long, flexible but noncontractile tail of 300 nm, and a 54.3-kb linear double-stranded DNA. DNA fingerprinting analysis indicated that L. acidophilus phages of nine yogurts in this study belonged to the same type as phi y8. Although they may be sensitive to bacteriocins, all lysogens resisted further phage attacks, whereas most nonlysogens were sensitive to both phages and bacteriocins. Therefore, Lacotbacillus cultures of some American yogurts and acidophilus milks may be unstable or unsafe because they can either be inhibited by phages or bacteriocins or release them to inhibit lactobacilli or other diary products. PMID:8787408

Kilic, A O; Pavlova, S I; Ma, W G; Tao, L

1996-01-01

380

Comparative sequence analysis of plasmids from Lactobacillus delbrueckii and construction of a shuttle cloning vector.  

PubMed

While plasmids are very commonly associated with the majority of the lactic acid bacteria, they are only very rarely associated with Lactobacillus delbrueckii, with only four characterized to date. In this study, the complete sequence of a native plasmid, pDOJ1, from a strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was determined. It consisted of a circular DNA molecule of 6,220 bp with a G+C content of 44.6% and a characteristic ori and encoded six open reading frames (ORFs), of which functions could be predicted for three-a mobilization (Mob) protein, a transposase, and a fused primase-helicase replication protein. Comparative analysis of pDOJ1 and the other available L. delbrueckii plasmids (pLBB1, pJBL2, pN42, and pLL1212) revealed a very similar organization and amino acid identities between 85 and 98% for the putative proteins of all six predicted ORFs from pDOJ1, reflecting a common origin for L. delbrueckii plasmids. Analysis of the fused primase-helicase replication gene found a similar fused organization only in the theta replicating group B plasmids from Streptococcus thermophilus. This observation and the ability of the replicon to function in S. thermophilus support the idea that the origin of plasmids in L. delbrueckii was likely from S. thermophilus. This may reflect the close association of these two species in dairy fermentations, particularly yogurt production. As no vector based on plasmid replicons from L. delbrueckii has previously been constructed, an Escherichia coli-L. delbrueckii shuttle cloning vector, pDOJ4, was constructed from pDOJ1, the p15A ori, the chloramphenicol resistance gene of pCI372, and the lacZ polylinker from pUC18. This cloning vector was successfully introduced into E. coli, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. This shuttle cloning vector provides a new tool for molecular analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and other lactic acid bacteria. PMID:17526779

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Halgerson, Jamie S; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; O'Sullivan, Daniel J

2007-07-01

381

Comparative Sequence Analysis of Plasmids from Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Construction of a Shuttle Cloning Vector?  

PubMed Central

While plasmids are very commonly associated with the majority of the lactic acid bacteria, they are only very rarely associated with Lactobacillus delbrueckii, with only four characterized to date. In this study, the complete sequence of a native plasmid, pDOJ1, from a strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was determined. It consisted of a circular DNA molecule of 6,220 bp with a G+C content of 44.6% and a characteristic ori and encoded six open reading frames (ORFs), of which functions could be predicted for three—a mobilization (Mob) protein, a transposase, and a fused primase-helicase replication protein. Comparative analysis of pDOJ1 and the other available L. delbrueckii plasmids (pLBB1, pJBL2, pN42, and pLL1212) revealed a very similar organization and amino acid identities between 85 and 98% for the putative proteins of all six predicted ORFs from pDOJ1, reflecting a common origin for L. delbrueckii plasmids. Analysis of the fused primase-helicase replication gene found a similar fused organization only in the theta replicating group B plasmids from Streptococcus thermophilus. This observation and the ability of the replicon to function in S. thermophilus support the idea that the origin of plasmids in L. delbrueckii was likely from S. thermophilus. This may reflect the close association of these two species in dairy fermentations, particularly yogurt production. As no vector based on plasmid replicons from L. delbrueckii has previously been constructed, an Escherichia coli-L. delbrueckii shuttle cloning vector, pDOJ4, was constructed from pDOJ1, the p15A ori, the chloramphenicol resistance gene of pCI372, and the lacZ polylinker from pUC18. This cloning vector was successfully introduced into E. coli, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. This shuttle cloning vector provides a new tool for molecular analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and other lactic acid bacteria. PMID:17526779

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Halgerson, Jamie S.; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

382

Identification and characterization of domains responsible for self-assembly and cell wall binding of the surface layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 is covered by a regular surface (S-) layer consisting of a 435 amino acid protein SlpA. This protein is completely unrelated in sequence to the previously characterized S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus acidophilus group. RESULTS: In this work, the self-assembly and cell wall binding domains of SlpA were characterized. The C-terminal self-assembly domain encompassed residues 179–435

Silja Åvall-Jääskeläinen; Ulla Hynönen; Nicola Ilk; Dietmar Pum; Uwe B Sleytr; Airi Palva

2008-01-01

383

Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:We examined whether or not the lactobacilli administered to treat Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can suppress the colonization of H. pylori, and we also sought to elucidate the mechanism of such suppression.Methods:We used an in vitro culture system and an H. pylori-infected gnotobiotic murine model.Results:Among the lactobacillus species examined in vitro, Lactobacillus salivarius (L. salivarius) but not L. casei

Yuji Aiba; Nobuyuki Suzuki; Abu M. A. Kabir; Atushi Takagi; Yasuhiro Koga

1998-01-01

384

Lactobacillus Strain Diversity Based on Partial hsp60 Gene Sequences and Design of PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assays for Species Identification and Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetic tree showing diversities among 116 partial (499-bp) Lactobacillus hsp60 (groEL, encoding a 60-kDa heat shock protein) nucleotide sequences was obtained and compared to those previously described for 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequences. The topology of the tree produced in this study showed a Lactobacillus species distribution similar, but not identical, to those previously reported. However, according to

Giuseppe Blaiotta; Vincenzina Fusco; Danilo Ercolini; Maria Aponte; Olimpia Pepe; Francesco Villani

2008-01-01

385

Expression of the catalase gene katA in starter culture Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR850 tolerates oxidative stress and reduces lipid oxidation in fermented meat product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalase gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei SR911 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli UM2 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR850 under strong lactococcal promoter P59 in E. coli–lactococcus expression vector pIL1020. The L. plantarum TISTR850 is a catalase-deficient strain isolated from local fermented meat product. The recombinant L. plantarum TISTR850 was shown to decompose hydrogen peroxide, and catalase activity approximately

W Noonpakdee; S Sitthimonchai; S Panyim; S Lertsiri

2004-01-01

386

Molecular diversity of Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria in the human intestine as determined by specific amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lactobacillus group-specific PCR primer, S-G-Lab-0677-a-A-17, was developed to selectively amplify 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from lactobacilli and related lactic acid bacteria, including members of the genera Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Amplicons generated by PCR from a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tract samples, including those originating from feces and cecum, resulted predominantly in Lactobacillus-like sequences, of which ca. 28 ere

G. H. J. Heilig; Erwin G. Zoetendal; Elaine E. Vaughan; Philippe Marteau; Antoon D. L. Akkermans; Vos de W. M

2002-01-01

387

Dietary therapy with Lactobacillus GG, bovine colostrum or bovine immune colostrum in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis: Evaluation of effect on gut defence mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary therapy with a human Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103), bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum with specific antibodies against anaerobic intestinal\\u000a bacteria on gut defence mechanisms were studied in juvenile chronic arthritis. Thirty patients with juvenile chronic arthritis\\u000a were randomly allocated to receive a freeze-dried powder of Lactobacillus GG, or bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum,

M. Malin; P. Verronen; H. Korhonen; E.-L. Syväoja; S. Salminen; H. Mykkänen; H. Arvilommi; E. Eerola; E. Isolauri

1997-01-01

388

Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica ( Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic activity of two bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus) was evaluated by its effect on the immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), beside its protective effect against challenge infections. Furthermore, their in-vitro inhibitory activity was evaluated.The in-vitro antimicrobial assay showed that Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibited the growth of A. hydrophila. The B. subtilis inhibited the

Salah Mesalhy Aly; Yousef Abdel-Galil Ahmed; Ahlam Abdel-Aziz Ghareeb; Moahmed Fathi Mohamed

2008-01-01

389

The microbial flora of sugary kefir grain (the gingerbeer plant): biosynthesis of the grain from Lactobacillus hilgardii producing a polysaccharide gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The microflora of sugary kefir grains was principally mesophilic and consisted chiefly of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus hilgardii (=brevis),Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp.dextranicum, Streptococcus lactis] and a small proportion of yeasts (Zygosaccharomyces florentinus, Torulospora pretoriensis, Kloeckera apiculata, Candida lambica andC. valida). Few coliforms and faecal streptococci were observed. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the filamentous yeasts adhered

M. Pidoux

1989-01-01

390

Isolation and characterisation of a ropy Lactobacillus strain producing the exopolysaccharide kefiran.  

PubMed

A capsular-polysaccharide-producing strain, LM-17, was isolated from kefir grains and was identified as a slime-forming, rod-shaped Lactobacillus. According to 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data, the exopolysaccharide produced by the isolated bacterial strain is identical to the glucogalactan extracted from kefir grains and therefore known as kefiran. The kefiran produced was characterised by means of viscosity, optical rotatory power, circular dichroism and IR spectral measurements. A batch procedure was set up for the culture and extraction of the exopolysaccharide in laboratory conditions, resulting in a yield of 2 g/l purified kefiran from the culture supernatant of the LM-17 strain. PMID:10645627

Micheli, L; Uccelletti, D; Palleschi, C; Crescenzi, V

1999-12-01

391

Epithelial cell proliferation arrest induced by lactate and acetate from Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve.  

PubMed

In an attempt to identify and characterize how symbiotic bacteria of the gut microbiota affect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epithelial homeostasis, intestinal epithelial cells were co-cultured with either Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium as bona fide symbionts to examine potential gene modulations. In addition to genes involved in the innate immune response, genes encoding check-point molecules controlling the cell cycle were among the most modulated in the course of these interactions. In the m-ICcl2 murine cell line, genes encoding cyclin E1 and cyclin D1 were strongly down regulated by L. casei and B. breve respectively. Cell proliferation arrest was accordingly confirmed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were the effectors of this modulation, alone or in conjunction with the acidic pH they generated. These results demonstrate that the production of SCFAs, a characteristic of these symbiotic microorganisms, is potentially an essential regulatory effector of epithelial proliferation in the gut. PMID:23646174

Matsuki, Takahiro; Pédron, Thierry; Regnault, Béatrice; Mulet, Céline; Hara, Taeko; Sansonetti, Philippe J

2013-01-01

392

Production and Characterization of Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis. It is the first report that lactic acid bacteria produce antifungal Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester. Of these, the antifungal products also have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, namely against Botrytis cinerea, Glomerella cingulate, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium oxysporum, which was identified by the overlay and well-diffusion assay. F. oxysporum, P. citrinum and P. drechsleri Tucker were the most sensitive among molds. PMID:22276116

Wang, HaiKuan; Yan, YanHua; Wang, JiaMing; Zhang, HePing; Qi, Wei

2012-01-01

393

Host-microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract and the Lactobacillus reuteri paradigm  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates engage in symbiotic associations with vast and complex microbial communities that colonize their gastrointestinal tracts. Recent advances have provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiome to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped symbiotic interactions in the gut and the consequences that arise for both the microbes and the host. Here we discuss the biological principles that underlie microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and the potential of the development of mutualism. We then review phylogenetic and experimental studies on the vertebrate symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri that have provided novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary strategy of a gut microbe and its relationship with the host. We argue that a mechanistic understanding of the microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and its evolution will be important to determine how this relationship can go awry, and it may reveal possibilities by which the gut microbiome can be manipulated to support health. PMID:20615995

Walter, Jens; Britton, Robert A.; Roos, Stefan

2011-01-01

394

Biotransformation of caffeoyl quinic acids from green coffee extracts by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533  

PubMed Central

The potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 to metabolize chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract was investigated. Two enzymes, an esterase and a hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCD), were involved in this biotransformation. The complete hydrolysis of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) into caffeic acid (CA) by L. johnsonii esterase occurred during the first 16 h of reaction time. No dihydrocaffeic acid was identified in the reaction mixture. The decarboxylation of CA into 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) started only when the maximum concentration of CA was reached (10 ?mol/ml). CA was completely transformed into 4-VC after 48 h of incubation. No 4-vinylphenol or other derivatives could be identified in the reaction media. In this study we demonstrate the capability of L. johnsonii to transform chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract into 4-VC in two steps one pot reaction. Thus, the enzymatic potential of certain lactobacilli might be explored to generate flavor compounds from plant polyphenols. PMID:23692950

2013-01-01

395

Applications of Lactobacillus rhamnosus spent culture supernatant in cosmetic antioxidation, whitening and moisture retention applications.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant, whitening, and moisture-retention properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus spent culture supernatant (Lr-SCS) in cosmetic applications. Results reveal that Lr-SCS effectively and gradually scavenges 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl as well as 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cations, and increases reducing power in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Lr-SCS can also suppress tyrosinase activity in vitro and effectively promote moisture retention. Heat treatment at 100 °C for 30 min does not influence the functions of Lr-SCS. We conclude that Lr-SCS can be used effectively in skin care cosmetics. PMID:24248144

Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Chan, Chin-Feng; Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Jin-Seng; Chan, Patty; Liu, Ho-Yen; Lin, Yung-Sheng

2013-01-01

396

Immobilization of a recombinant esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum on polypropylene Accurel MP1000.  

PubMed

A recombinant esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum was immobilized on hydrophobic support polypropylene Accurel MP1000 by adsorption. Adsorption efficiency was 83%, and the immobilized protein was 12.4 mg/g of support. Esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as substrate, and highest activities were observed at 50 °C for immobilized enzyme and 30 °C for free enzyme extract. Concerning thermal stability, after enzyme incubation at 80 °C for 30 min, immobilized and free enzyme retained 91% and 56% of initial activity, respectively. Immobilized enzyme presented lower V(max) and higher K(m) than free enzyme. Protein was not released from the support, and esterase activity increased after 3 cycles of reuse. PMID:20652764

Kolling, Deise Juliana; Suguino, Willian Alexandre; Brod, Fábio Cristiano Angonesi; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

2011-01-01

397

Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.  

PubMed

The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72?Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical ? and ? D-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography. PMID:23192019

Lobley, Carina M C; Aller, Pierre; Douangamath, Alice; Reddivari, Yamini; Bumann, Mario; Bird, Louise E; Nettleship, Joanne E; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Owens, Raymond J; O'Toole, Paul W; Walsh, Martin A

2012-12-01

398

Proteomic analysis of the response to NaCl stress of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus bulgaricus is commonly used in dairy products as a starter culture. Its viability during freeze-drying is of commercial interest. Here a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in survival rate of L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was achieved during freeze-drying when it was prestressed with 2 % (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. To understand the mechanism of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, protein synthesis was analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis. Nine protein spots were significantly altered by NaCl and were subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The functions of the proteins included stress-related protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, transport systems, and vitamin biosynthesis. These findings provide a considerable background regarding the NaCl stress response of L. bulgaricus. PMID:25048227

Li, Chun; Li, Pei-Zhao; Sun, Jin-Wei; Huo, Gui-Cheng; Liu, Li-Bo

2014-11-01

399

Biomedical Applications of Fermenticin HV6b Isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC10770  

PubMed Central

Fermenticin HV6b is a class IIa antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC 10770 isolated from human vaginal ecosystem. It shows growth inhibition of a wide range of opportunistic pathogens of humans, for example, Bacteroides, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Staphylococci, and Streptococci, associated with bacterial vaginosis in humans. It does possess an impressive sperm immobilization and spermicidal activity tested against human sperms which makes it an attractive proposition for formulating antibacterial vaginosis and contraceptive products. Apart from this, in vitro studies conducted against four different tissue models have indicated its potential to be used as a component of anticancerous drug therapy as it is reported to induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. This information could be integrated in future studies focusing on in vivo assessment of anticancerous activity of lactic acid bacterial toxins or bacteriocins. PMID:23984320

Kaur, Baljinder; Balgir, Praveen P.; Mittu, Bharti; Kumar, Balvir; Garg, Neena

2013-01-01

400

Optimization of ?-amino butyric acid production in a newly isolated Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

An isolate from kimchi, identified as Lactobacillus brevis, accumulated ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the culture medium. Optimal culture conditions for growth of L. brevis and production of GABA were 6 % (w/v) l-glutamic acid, 4 % (w/v) maltose, 2 % (w/v) yeast extract, 1 % (w/v) NaCl, 1 % (w/v) CaCl2, 2 g Tween 80/l, and 0.02 mM pyridoxal 5?-phosphate at initial pH 5.25 and 37 °C. GABA reached 44.4 g/l after 72 h cultivation with a conversion rate 99.7 %, based on the amount (6 %) of l-glutamic acid added. GABA was purified using ion exchange column chromatography with 70 % recovery and 97 % purity. PMID:24078124

Binh, Tran Thi Thanh; Ju, Wan-Taek; Jung, Woo-Jin; Park, Ro-Dong

2014-01-01

401

Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.  

PubMed

The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in ?-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in ?-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity. PMID:24128554

Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

2014-02-15

402

Modeling and investigation of submerged fermentation process to produce extracellular polysaccharide using Lactobacillus confusus.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study is to investigate and optimize the Submerged fermentation (SMF) process parameters such as addition of coconut water, NaCl dose, incubation time and temperature on the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production using Lactobacillus confuses. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with four factors three level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to model the SMF process. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. Three dimentional (3D) response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on SMF process. The optimum process conditions for the maximum production of EPS and biomass were found to be as follows; addition of coconut water of 40%, NaCl dose of 15%, incubation time of 24h and temperature of 35°C. Under these conditions, 10.57 g/L of EPS and 3.9 g/L of biomass were produced. PMID:25263862

Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

2014-12-19

403

Effects of Citrate on the Composition and Metabolism of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 converted small amounts of citrate to diacetyl, other volatile compounds, and lipids. Citrate was accumulated passively by the organism. The presence of citrate in the growth medium decreased the uptake of acetate and its conversion to cellular lipids. Cells grown in citrate media contained more protein per cell than did controls. This increased protein content was reflected mainly in the soluble fraction when cells were subjected to sonic lysis. Soluble fractions from cells cultured in the presence of citrate contained more total protein as well as more individual proteins than these fractions from control cells. The presence of citrate caused extensive flocculation and increased the susceptibility of cells to lysis. PMID:4327613

Branen, A. L.; Keenan, T. W.

1971-01-01

404

Characterization of a versatile arylesterase from Lactobacillus plantarum active on wine esters.  

PubMed

The gene lp_1002 from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 encoding a putative lipase/esterase was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified Lp_1002 protein was biochemically characterized. Lp_1002 is an arylesterase which showed high hydrolytic activity on phenyl acetate. Although to a lesser extent, Lp_1002 also hydrolyzed most of the esters assayed including relevant wine aroma compounds. Importantly, Lp_1002 exhibited hydrolytic activity at winemaking conditions, although optimal catalytic activity is observed at 40 °C and pH 5-7. The effect of wine compounds on Lp_1002 activity was assayed. From the compounds assayed (ethanol, sodium metabisulfite, and malic, tartaric, lactic and citric acids), only malic acid slightly inhibited Lp_1002 activity. Lp_1002 is the first arylesterase described in a wine lactic acid bacteria and possessed suitable biochemical properties to be used during winemaking. PMID:24856385

Esteban-Torres, María; Barcenilla, José María; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

2014-06-01

405

Fermentation performance of an exopolysaccharide-producing strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.  

PubMed

The formation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular metabolites was studied in a strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (NCFB 2483), grown under batch culture conditions in a semi-defined medium incorporating lactose and casein hydrolysate. Performance parameters were derived from the fermentation data, and kinetic models were applied in order to describe the production of EPS, extracellular metabolites, and biomass produced. Lactose was split intracellularly, with the resultant galactose being exported from the cell, and the glucose being metabolised further to EPS and lactic acid. Production of EPS, lactate, and galactose was closely growth-associated and followed a pattern of primary kinetics. A marginally lower galactose level relative to the modelled levels throughout most of the time course of the fermentation suggests that not all galactose is exported from the cell, and that a low level of flux to other metabolites, such as EPS, might exist. PMID:14618406

Welman, A D; Maddox, I S

2003-11-01

406

Exopolysaccharide and extracellular metabolite production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, grown on lactose in continuous culture.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2483, when grown on lactose in continuous culture, showed increasing specific yields and volumetric productivities of exopolysaccharide (EPS) with increasing dilution rate. Specific and volumetric productivities of lactate and galactose, as extracellular metabolites, increased in response to the incremental changes in the dilution rate up to 0.4 h(-1). Elevated Y(p/s) values determined for EPS (0.025 g EPS x g lactose(-1)) at the dilution rates of 0.3 h(-1)-0.4 h(-1), relative to those determined at lower dilution rates, suggest a diversion of carbon flux towards EPS being associated with the higher rates of growth. PMID:14571975

Welman, Alan; Maddox, Ian; Archer, Richard

2003-09-01

407

Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus. PMID:25135489

Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

2014-11-01

408

Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533.  

PubMed

Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533. The probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is relatively sensitive to oxidative stress; the presence of oxygen causes a lower biomass yield due to early growth stagnation. We show however that oxygen can also be beneficial to this organism as it relieves the requirement for acetate and CO2 during growth. Both on agar- and liquid-media, anaerobic growth of L. johnsonii NCC 533 requires CO2 supplementation of the gas phase. Switching off the CO2 supply induces growth arrest and cell death. The presence of molecular oxygen overcomes the CO2 dependency. Analogously, L. johnsonii NCC 533 strictly requires media with acetate to sustain anaerobic growth, although supplementation at a level that is 100-fold lower (120 microM) than the concentration in regular growth medium for lactobacilli already suffices for normal growth. Analogous to the CO2 requirement, oxygen supply relieves this acetate-dependency for growth. The L. johnsonii NCC 533 genome indicates that this organism lacks genes coding for pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), both CO2 and acetyl-CoA producing systems. Therefore, C1- and C2- compound production is predicted to largely depend on pyruvate oxidase activity (POX). This proposed role of POX in C2/C1-generation is corroborated by the observation that in a POX deficient mutant of L. johnsonii NCC 533, oxygen is not able to overcome acetate dependency nor does it relieve the CO2 dependency. PMID:23468944

Hertzberger, Rosanne Y; Pridmore, R David; Gysler, Christof; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teixeira de Mattos, M Joost

2013-01-01

409

Preventive effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity.

QIAN, YU; SUO, HUAYI; DU, MUYING; ZHAO, XIN; LI, JIAN; LI, GUI-JIE; SONG, JIA-LI; LIU, ZHENHU

2015-01-01

410

Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

PubMed Central

The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by ?-acetolactate synthase and ?-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio

2013-01-01

411

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1: Vaginal Isolate from a Healthy Premenopausal Woman  

PubMed Central

The vaginal microbiota, in particular Lactobacillus species, play an important role in female health through modulation of immunity, countering pathogens and maintaining a pH below 4.7. We report the isolation and genome sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus strain KCA1 (formally known as L. plantarum) from the vagina of a healthy Nigerian woman. The genome was sequenced using Illumina GA II technology. The resulting 16,920,226 paired-end reads were assembled with the Velvet tool. Contigs were annotated using the RAST server, and manually curated. A comparative analysis with the available genomes of L. pentosus IG1 and L. plantarum WCFS1 showed that over 15% of the predicted functional activities are found only in this strain. The strain has a chromosome sequence of 3,418,159 bp with a G+C content of 46.4%, and is devoid of plasmids. Novel gene clusters or variants of known genes relative to the reference genomes were found. In particular, the strain has loci encoding additional putative mannose phosphotransferase systems. Clusters of genes include those for utilization of hydantoin, isopropylmalate, malonate, rhamnosides, and genes for assimilation of polyglycans, suggesting the metabolic versatility of L. pentosus KCA1. Loci encoding putative phage defense systems were also found including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), abortive infection (Abi) systems and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA). A putative cluster of genes for biosynthesis of a cyclic bacteriocin precursor, here designated as pentocin KCA1 (penA) were identified. These findings add crucial information for understanding the genomic and geographic diversity of vaginal lactobacilli. PMID:23527145

Anukam, Kingsley C.; Macklaim, Jean M.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor; Boekhorst, Jos; Renckens, Bernadet; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Siezen, Roland J.

2013-01-01

412

Construction of a constitutively expressed homo-fermentative pathway in Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid producing strain that simultaneously utilizes glucose and xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysate without carbon catabolic repression and inhibition. The production of by-products acetic acid and ethanol has been the major drawback of this strain. Two genes, pfkA (fructose-6-phosphate kinase [PFK]) and fbaA (fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase [FBA]), that encode the key enzymes of the EMP/glycolytic pathway from Lactobacillus rhamnosus, were fused to the downstream of the strong promoter P32 and expressed in L. brevis s3f4 as a strategy to minimize the formation of by-products. By expressing the two enzymes, a homo-fermentative pathway for lactic acid production was constructed. The lactic acid yields achieved from glucose in the transformants were 1.12 and 1.16 mol/mol, which is higher than that of the native strain (0.74 mol/mol). However, the lactic acid yield from xylose in the transformants stayed the same as that of the native strain. Enzyme assay indicated that the activity of the foreign protein FBA in the transformants was much higher than that of the native strains, but was ten times lower than that in L. rhamnosus. This result was consistent with the metabolic flux analysis, which indicated that the conversion efficiency of the expressed PFK and FBA was somewhat low. Less than 20 % of the carbons accumulated in the form of fructose-6-phosphate were converted into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) by the expressed PFK and FBA. Metabolic flux analysis also indicated that the enzyme phosphoketolase (XPK) played an important role in splitting the carbon flow from the pentose phosphate pathway to the phosphoketolase pathway. This study suggested that the lactic acid yield of L. brevis could be improved by constructing a homo-fermentative pathway. PMID:24728715

Guo, Wei; He, Ronglin; Ma, Lijuan; Jia, Wendi; Li, Demao; Chen, Shulin

2014-08-01

413

Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Attenuates the Stressor-Enhanced Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection  

PubMed Central

Stressor exposure has been shown to enhance host susceptibility and the severity of a plethora of illnesses, including gastrointestinal disease. In mice, susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium has been shown to be dependent on host genetics as well as the composition of the intestinal microbiota, but the effects of stressor exposure on this gastrointestinal pathogen have not been elucidated fully. Previously, our lab showed that exposure to the prolonged-restraint stressor prior to a challenge with C. rodentium alters the intestinal microbiota community structure, including a reduction of beneficial genera such as Lactobacillus, which may contribute to stressor-enhanced C. rodentium-induced infectious colitis. To test the effects of stressor exposure on C. rodentium infection, we exposed resistant mice to a prolonged-restraint stressor concurrent with pathogen challenge. Exposure to prolonged restraint significantly enhanced C. rodentium-induced infectious colitis in resistant mice, as measured by increases in colonic histopathology, colonic inflammatory mediator gene production, and pathogen translocation from the colon to the spleen. It was further tested if the beneficial bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri could reduce the stressor-enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium-enhanced infectious colitis. While L. reuteri treatment did not reduce all aspects of stressor-enhanced infectious colitis, it did significantly reduce pathogen translocation from the colon to the spleen. Taken together, these data demonstrate the deleterious effects that prolonged stressor exposure can have at the onset of a gastrointestinal infection by its ability to render a resistant mouse highly susceptible to C. rodentium. Probiotic treatment ameliorated the systemic manifestations of stress on colonic infection. PMID:23798531

Mackos, Amy R.; Eubank, Tim D.; Parry, Nicola M. A.

2013-01-01

414

Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 improved "gut health" in the SHIME® reactor  

PubMed Central

Background How to maintain “gut health” is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. Methods The SHIME® model was used to study the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus 1014 on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2-wk using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-wk control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-wk treatment period by adding 5 mL of sterile peptone water with L. acidophilus CRL1014 at the concentration of 108 CFU/mL to vessel one (the stomach compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonium analyses were carried out for monitoring of the microbial community from the colon compartments. Results A significant increase (p?Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed changes in the lactobacilli community from the colon compartments of the SHIME® reactor. The (SCFA) concentration increased (p?

2013-01-01

415

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.  

PubMed

A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients. PMID:25035097

Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Luty?ska, A

2014-12-01

416

Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri attenuates the stressor-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium infection.  

PubMed

Stressor exposure has been shown to enhance host susceptibility and the severity of a plethora of illnesses, including gastrointestinal disease. In mice, susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium has been shown to be dependent on host genetics as well as the composition of the intestinal microbiota, but the effects of stressor exposure on this gastrointestinal pathogen have not been elucidated fully. Previously, our lab showed that exposure to the prolonged-restraint stressor prior to a challenge with C. rodentium alters the intestinal microbiota community structure, including a reduction of beneficial genera such as Lactobacillus, which may contribute to stressor-enhanced C. rodentium-induced infectious colitis. To test the effects of stressor exposure on C. rodentium infection, we exposed resistant mice to a prolonged-restraint stressor concurrent with pathogen challenge. Exposure to prolonged restraint significantly enhanced C. rodentium-induced infectious colitis in resistant mice, as measured by increases in colonic histopathology, colonic inflammatory mediator gene production, and pathogen translocation from the colon to the spleen. It was further tested if the beneficial bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri could reduce the stressor-enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium-enhanced infectious colitis. While L. reuteri treatment did not reduce all aspects of stressor-enhanced infectious colitis, it did significantly reduce pathogen translocation from the colon to the spleen. Taken together, these data demonstrate the deleterious effects that prolonged stressor exposure can have at the onset of a gastrointestinal infection by its ability to render a resistant mouse highly susceptible to C. rodentium. Probiotic treatment ameliorated the systemic manifestations of stress on colonic infection. PMID:23798531

Mackos, Amy R; Eubank, Tim D; Parry, Nicola M A; Bailey, Michael T

2013-09-01

417

Biochemical characterization of the major N-acetylmuramidase from Lactobacillus buchneri.  

PubMed

Bacterial cell wall hydrolases are essential for peptidoglycan remodelling in regard to bacterial cell growth and division. In this study, peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) of different Lactobacillus buchneri strains were investigated. First, the genome sequence of L. buchneri CD034 and L. buchneri NRRL B-30929 was analysed in silico for the presence of PGHs. Of 23 putative PGHs with different predicted hydrolytic specificities, the glycosyl hydrolase family 25 domain-containing homologues LbGH25B and LbGH25N from L. buchneri CD034 and NRRL B-30929, respectively, were selected and characterized in detail. Zymogram analysis confirmed hydrolysing activity on bacterial cell walls for both enzymes. Subsequent reversed-phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the peptidoglycan breakdown products from L. buchneri strains CD034 and NRRL B-30929, and from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which served as a reference, revealed that LbGH25B and LbGH25N have N-acetylmuramidase activity. Both enzymes were identified as cell wall-associated proteins by means of immunofluorescence microscopy and cellular fractionation, as well as by the ability of purified recombinant LbGH25B and LbGH25N to bind to L. buchneri cell walls in vitro. Moreover, similar secondary structures mainly composed of ?-sheets and nearly identical thermal stabilities with Tm values around 49 °C were found for the two N-acetylmuramidases by far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy. The functional and structural data obtained are discussed and compared to related PGHs. In this study, a major N-acetylmuramidase from L. buchneri was characterized in detail for the first time. PMID:24858286

Anzengruber, Julia; Courtin, Pascal; Claes, Ingmar J J; Debreczeny, Monika; Hofbauer, Stefan; Obinger, Christian; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Vanderleyden, Jos; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

2014-08-01

418

Modulation of Lactobacillus plantarum Gastrointestinal Robustness by Fermentation Conditions Enables Identification of Bacterial Robustness Markers  

PubMed Central

Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are applied worldwide in the production of a variety of fermented food products. Additionally, specific Lactobacillus species are nowadays recognized for their health-promoting effects on the consumer. To optimally exert such beneficial effects, it is considered of great importance that these probiotic bacteria reach their target sites in the gut alive. Methodology/Principal Findings In the accompanying manuscript by Bron et al. the probiotic model organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was cultured under different fermentation conditions, which was complemented by the determination of the corresponding molecular responses by full-genome transcriptome analyses. Here, the gastrointestinal (GI) survival of the cultures produced was assessed in an in vitro assay. Variations in fermentation conditions led to dramatic differences in GI-tract survival (up to 7-log) and high robustness could be associated with low salt and low pH during the fermentations. Moreover, random forest correlation analyses allowed the identification of specific transcripts associated with robustness. Subsequently, the corresponding genes were targeted by genetic engineering, aiming to enhance robustness, which could be achieved for 3 of the genes that negatively correlated with robustness and where deletion derivatives displayed enhanced survival compared to the parental strain. Specifically, a role in GI-tract survival could be confirmed for the lp_1669-encoded AraC-family transcription regulator, involved in capsular polysaccharide remodeling, the penicillin-binding protein Pbp2A involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and the Na+/H+ antiporter NapA3. Moreover, additional physiological analysis established a role for Pbp2A and NapA3 in bile salt and salt tolerance, respectively. Conclusion Transcriptome trait matching enabled the identification of biomarkers for bacterial (gut-)robustness, which is important for our molecular understanding of GI-tract survival and could facilitate the design of culture conditions aimed to enhance probiotic culture robustness. PMID:22802934

van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Lee, I-Chiao; Marco, Maria L.; Wels, Michiel; Bron, Peter A.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2012-01-01

419

Development and validation of an extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products.  

PubMed

A new and extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was developed and validated for processed and unprocessed products of seafood and meat. The new model was developed by refitting and expanding an existing cardinal parameter model for growth and the growth boundary of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in processed seafood (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, J. Food Prot. 70. 2485-2497, 2007). Initially, to estimate values for the maximum specific growth rate at the reference temperature of 25 °C (?ref) and the theoretical minimum temperature that prevents growth of psychrotolerant LAB (T(min)), the existing LAB model was refitted to data from experiments with seafood and meat products reported not to include nitrite or any of the four organic acids evaluated in the present study. Next, dimensionless terms modelling the antimicrobial effect of nitrite, and acetic, benzoic, citric and sorbic acids on growth of Lactobacillus sakei were added to the refitted model, together with minimum inhibitory concentrations determined for the five environmental parameters. The new model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters, as well as their interactive effects, was successfully validated using 229 growth rates (?(max) values) for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products. Average bias and accuracy factor values of 1.08 and 1.27, respectively, were obtained when observed and predicted ?(max) values of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. were compared. Thus, on average ?(max) values were only overestimated by 8%. The performance of the new model was equally good for seafood and meat products, and the importance of including the effect of acetic, benzoic, citric and sorbic acids and to a lesser extent nitrite in order to accurately predict growth of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was clearly demonstrated. The new model can be used to predict growth of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products e.g. prediction of the time to a critical cell concentration of bacteria is considered useful for establishing the shelf life. In addition, the high number of environmental parameters included in the new model makes it flexible and suitable for product development as the effect of substituting one combination of preservatives with another can be predicted. In general, the performance of the new model was unacceptable for other types of LAB including Carnobacterium spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Weissella spp. PMID:24140806

Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

2013-10-15

420

Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet  

PubMed Central

Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p < 0.05), with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, both fecal cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p < 0.05). Intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism. PMID:21722398

2011-01-01

421

Identification and Characterization of the Novel LysM Domain-Containing Surface Protein Sep from Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 and Its Use as a Peptide Fusion Partner in Lactobacillus and Lactococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of supernatant fractions from broth cultures of Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 revealed the presence of a number of proteins, including a 27-kDa protein termed Sep. The amino-terminal sequence of Sep was determined, and the gene encoding it was cloned and sequenced. Sep is a 205-amino-acid protein and contains a 30-amino-acid secretion signal and has overall homology (between 39 and 92%

Mark S. Turner; Louise M. Hafner; Terry Walsh; Philip M. Giffard

2004-01-01

422

Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus in milk whey.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that colonizes diverse ecological niches and that has found broad commercial application. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of biomass production, lactic acid production, and substrate consumption of Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus cultured in deproteinized milk whey. Batch culture experiments were performed in an instrumented, 2-L, stirred tank bioreactor using different inoculum concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 g/L) and lactose levels (35 to 70 g/L). The time series of experimental data corresponding to biomass growth, lactose consumption, and lactic acid formation were differentiated to calculate the corresponding kinetic rates. Strong exponentially dependent product inhibition effects were evident at low lactic acid concentrations, and lactic acid production rate was partially associated with biomass growth. A mathematical model is presented that reproduces the experimental lactose, biomass, and lactic acid concentration profiles. PMID:21094727

Alvarez, M M; Aguirre-Ezkauriatza, E J; Ramírez-Medrano, A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, A

2010-12-01

423

Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women. PMID:18288237

Czaja, Christopher A.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E.

2007-01-01

424

Vaginal Microbiota of Healthy Pregnant Mexican Women is Constituted by Four Lactobacillus Species and Several Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (n = 64) of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78%) followed by L. iners (54%), L. gasseri (20%), and L. delbrueckii (6%). 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21%) followed by BVAB1 (17%) and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%). Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions. PMID:21960733

Hernandez-Rodriguez, Cesar; Romero-Gonzalez, Roberto; Albani-Campanario, Mario; Figueroa-Damian, Ricardo; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; Hernandez-Guerrero, Cesar

2011-01-01

425

Mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show enhanced resistance to benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the formation of single and mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes strains EGD-e and LR-991, with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as secondary species, and their resistance to the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid. Modulation of growth, biofilm formation, and biofilm composition was achieved by addition of manganese sulfate and\\/or glucose to the BHI medium. Composition analyses of the

Stijn van der Veen; Tjakko Abee

2011-01-01

426

Effect of Powdered Fermented Milk with Lactobacillus helveticus on Subjects with High-Normal Blood Pressure or Mild Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Two tripeptides (Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro) that have inhibitory activities for angiotensin I-converting enzyme are produced in milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus. In this study we evaluated the effect and safety of powdered fermented milk with L. helveticus CM4 on subjects with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted using 40 subjects with

Kotaro Aihara; Osami Kajimoto; Hiroshi Hirata; Rei Takahashi; Yasunori Nakamura

427

A study of cornstarch granule digestion by an unusually high molecular weight ? -amylase secreted by Lactobacillus amylovorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cells ofLactobacillus amylovorus (NRRL B-4540), grown in a medium containing 2% cornstarch as the sole carbon source, secreted an amylase activity that rapidly solubilized cornstarch. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analyses showed that 80–90% of starch was consumed by bacteria in a 10-day-old culture medium. The remnant of starch granules digested in the culture medium inoculated with the cells

Syed H. Imam; Anthony Burgess-Cassler; Gregory L. Cote; Sherald H. Gordon; Frederick L. Baker

1991-01-01

428

Continuous Production of Lactic Acid from Whey Perméate by Free and Calcium Alginate Entrapped Lactobacillus helveticus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus belveticus strain milano was used for the continuous fermentation of lactic acid in cheese whey-yeast extract permeate medium. The best productivity of lactic acid was with the free cell system, which was 9.7 g\\/L per h at a dilution rate of .352 h -1. Under such conditions, lactose conversion was 87.5%, based on the lactose concentration of 37.4 g\\/L

Denis Roy; Jacques Goulet; Anh Le Duy

1987-01-01

429

Direct measurement of pH profiles in gel beads immobilizing Lactobacillus helveticus using a pH sensitive microelectrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A H+-selective liquid membrane microelectrode was prepared and used to measure the pH profile evolution during colonization of gel beads immobilizing Lactobacillus helveticus in a whey permeate medium. A large pH gradient was observed in a highly active periferal layer thickness that decreased from 500 to 300 µm for an immobilized cell population that increased from 5.8 × 109 to

Fabrice Massen; Christophe Lacroix; Céline Paquin

1994-01-01

430

Sorbitol synthesis by an engineered Lactobacillus casei strain expressing a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene within the lactose operon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is claimed to have important health-promoting effects and Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium relevant as probiotic and used as a cheese starter culture. A sorbitol-producing L. casei strain might therefore be of considerable interest in the food industry. A recombinant strain of L. casei was constructed by the integration of a d-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene (gutF) in the

Lorenzo Nissen; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

2005-01-01

431

Purification and Characterization of an Antihypertensive Peptide from a Yogurt-Like Product Fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus CPN4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey peptides in a yogurt-like product fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus CPN4 were fractionated by a Sep-pak C-18 cartridge followed by two-step reverse-phase HPLC. The antihypertensive activity was measured by systolic blood pressure in spontane- ously hypertensive rats after oral administration of each fraction. Five major peptides in the final fraction were further purified by reverse-phase HPLC and were measured for

Naoyuki Yamamoto; Masafumi Maeno; Toshiaki Takano

1999-01-01

432

Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by Lysostaphin-Expressing Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in a Modified Genital Tract Secretion Medium?†  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in maintaining an acidic vaginal environment thought to contribute to the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. However, during menstruation the pH of the vaginal environment increases to neutrality, a pH conducive for Staphylococcus aureus proliferation and the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) in susceptible women. In order to generate Lactobacillus species capable of expressing lysostaphin (an endopeptidase that cleaves the cell wall of S. aureus) in a modified genital tract secretion medium (mGTS) under neutral-pH conditions, six prominent proteins from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 spent medium were identified by mass spectrometry. Sequences for promoters, signal peptides, and mature lysostaphin were used to construct plasmids that were subsequently transformed into L. plantarum WCFS1. The promoter and signal sequences of Lp_3014 (putatively identified as a transglycosylase) or the promoter sequence of Lp_0789 (putatively identified as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) with the signal sequence of Lp_3014 exhibited lysostaphin activity on buffered medium containing heat-killed S. aureus. The cassettes were integrated into the chromosome of L. plantarum WCFS1, but only the cassette containing the promoter and signal sequence from Lp_3014 had integrated into the appropriate site. Coculture assays using buffered mGTS showed that lysostaphin expressed from L. plantarum WCFS1 reduced the growth of TSST-1-producing strains of S. aureus under neutral-pH conditions. This study provides the basis for determining whether lysostaphin-producing Lactobacillus strains could potentially be used as a means to inhibit the growth of S. aureus during menstruation. PMID:21984245

Liu, Huanli; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Li-Rong; Jones, Richard C.; Elkins, Christopher A.; Hart, Mark E.

2011-01-01

433

Effect of Lactobacillus GG Supplementation on Antibiotic-Associated Gastrointestinal Side Effects during Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: One-week triple therapy is currently regarded as the reference of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment. However, antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects are among the major pitfalls of such regimens. Probiotic supplementation may be regarded as a therapeutic tool to prevent or reduce these troublesome drug-related manifestations. Aim: To determine whether the addition of the probiotic Lactobacillus GG to an anti-H. pylori standard

A. Armuzzi; F. Cremonini; V. Ojetti; F. Bartolozzi; F. Canducci; M. Candelli; L. Santarelli; G. Cammarota; A. De Lorenzo; P. Pola; G. Gasbarrini; A. Gasbarrini

2001-01-01

434

Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing\\u000a Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of\\u000a the ldh1 gene, encoding the main l-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a

Reinout De Boeck; Luz Adriana Sarmiento-Rubiano; Inmaculada Nadal; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; María J. Yebra

2010-01-01

435

Conditions required for citrate utilization during growth of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 in chemically defined medium and Cheddar Cheese extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate was utilized by this microorganism in modified Chemically Defined Media (mCDM) as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of galactose. The presence of glucose inhibited citrate utilization by this microorganism even when added in limiting concentrations. Utilization of citrate occurred at pH 6.0 ± 0.2 and

Ilenys Díaz-Muñiz; James L. Steele

2006-01-01

436

Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either

SANDRA TORRIANI; GIACOMO ZAPPAROLI; FRANCO DELLAGLIO

1999-01-01

437

Antagonistic Activity against Helicobacter Infection In Vitro and In Vivo by the Human Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain LB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the activity of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB, which secretes an antibacterial substance(s) against Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. The spent culture supernatant (SCS) of the strain LB (LB-SCS) dramatically decreased the viability of H. pylori in vitro independent of pH and lactic acid levels. Adhesion of H.

MARIE-HELENE COCONNIER; VANESSA LIEVIN; ELISABETH HEMERY; ALAIN L. SERVIN

1998-01-01

438

Electron microscope studies on the host cell energy requirement for injection of PL1 phage DNA into Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of genome DNA injection, after adsorption, by phage PL-1 intoLactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 was monitored by electron microscopy. The DNA injection depended on the incubation temperature, and the apparent activation energy was about 11 kcal. It was inhibited when the cells had been previously starved, where their intracellular ATP contents was lowered less than one-hundredth that of the

Kenji Watanabe; Mitsuhiro Shirabe; Tomoharu Fukuzaki; Yukari Kakita; Yukihiko Nakashima; Fumio Miake

1993-01-01

439

Involvement of host cell energy in the transfection of Lactobacillus casei protoplasts with phage PL1 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfection of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 protoplasts with phage PL-1 DNA was studied under various conditions. The process of transfection was dependent on the incubation temperature, and the apparent activation energy was calculated to be about 11 kcal\\/mol. Transfection was inhibited by treating the cells before protoplasting either with monoiodoacetate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), or NaN3, without affecting both the viability of

Kenji Watanabe; Yukari Kakita; Yukihiko Nakashima; Fumio Miake

1995-01-01

440

Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy study of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of self-assembly domain containing recombinant truncation mutants of Lactobacillus brevis surface layer protein SlpA in aqueous solution was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The proteins were found out to interact with ea