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1

Safety assessment of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 and Lactobacillus Gasseri CECT5714  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The object of the present study was to evaluate the oral toxicity of the recently isolated probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 and Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714. Methods and Results: Enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance profile were evaluated in vitro. Then, the oral toxicity was analysed by an in vivo experiment using 20 Balb\\/C mice, which were orally treated with CECT5711

F. Lara-Villoslada; S. Sierra; R. Martin; S. Delgado; J. M. Rodriguez; M. Olivares; J. Xaus

2007-01-01

2

Oral administration of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, enhances the intestinal function of healthy adults.  

PubMed

Modifications in gastrointestinal parameters, intestinal colonization and tolerance are some of the main goals claimed for probiotics. However, although healthy people are the common target for these new functional food products, the number of clinical trials analysing the effects of probiotics in gastrointestinal parameters of healthy subjects is very scarce. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial involving 30 healthy adults was performed to investigate the effect of a fermented product containing two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, on several blood and fecal parameters, most of them related to the host intestinal function. The volunteers were randomly distributed into two groups, one receiving a standard yogurt and the other a similar dairy fermented product in which the Lactobacillus delbreuckii subsp. bulgaricus yogurt strain had been replaced by a combination of the probiotic strains L. gasseri CECT5714 and L. coryniformis CECT5711. The volunteers that received the probiotic strains reported no adverse effects and the strains could be isolated from their feces at a relatively high level. In fact, the concentration of fecal lactic acid bacteria significantly increased in the probiotic group. Additionally, the oral administration of the probiotic strains led to an improvement of parameters such as the production of short chain fatty acids, the fecal moisture and the frequency and volume of the stools. As a result, the volunteers assigned to the probiotic group perceived a clear improvement in their intestinal habits. The study revealed that probiotics may exert a positive effect on healthy adults. PMID:16271414

Olivares, Mónica; Díaz-Ropero, M A Paz; Gómez, Nuria; Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Sierra, Saleta; Maldonado, Juan Antonio; Martín, Rocío; López-Huertas, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Xaus, Jordi

2005-11-03

3

Oral administration of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, enhances the intestinal function of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications in gastrointestinal parameters, intestinal colonization and tolerance are some of the main goals claimed for probiotics. However, although healthy people are the common target for these new functional food products, the number of clinical trials analysing the effects of probiotics in gastrointestinal parameters of healthy subjects is very scarce. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial involving 30

Mónica Olivares; M Díaz-Ropero; Nuria Gómez; Federico Lara-Villoslada; Saleta Sierra; Juan Antonio Maldonado; Rocío Martín; Eduardo López-Huertas; Juan Miguel Rodríguez; Jordi Xaus

2006-01-01

4

Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis Strain Si3 Produces a Broad-Spectrum Proteinaceous Antifungal Compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity spectrum of Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain Si3 was investigated. The strain had strong inhibitory activity in dual-culture agar plate assays against the molds Aspergillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor hiemalis, Talaromyces flavus, Fusarium poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. sporotrichoides. A weaker activity was observed against the yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces

JESPER MAGNUSSON; JOHAN SCHNURER

2001-01-01

5

Optimization of d-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus coryniformis using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New low-cost media for lactic acid fermentation are desired to enhance the economics of the d-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus coryniformis. The aim of this work was to optimize the production of d-lactic acid from glucose by L. coryniformis in a reduced nutritional medium composed of corn steep liquors (CSL), yeast extract (YE) and peptone (P). Response surface methodology has

G Bustos; A. B Moldes; J. L Alonso; M Vázquez

2004-01-01

6

Impact of fermentation pH and temperature on freeze-drying survival and membrane lipid composition of Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the industrial stabilization process, lactic acid bacteria are subjected to several stressful conditions. Tolerance\\u000a to dehydration differs among lactic acid bacteria and the determining factors remain largely unknown. Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3 prevents spoilage by mold due to production of acids and specific antifungal compounds. This strain could be added as\\u000a a biopreservative in feed systems, e.g. silage. We studied

Åsa Schoug; Janett Fischer; Hermann J. Heipieper; Johan Schnürer; Sebastian Håkansson

2008-01-01

7

D-lactic acid production from dry biomass of Hydrodictyon reticulatum by simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation using Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens.  

PubMed

D-lactic acid production from dry biomass of the microalga, Hydrodictyon reticulatum, was carried out in a 5-l jar fermentor (initial pH 6, 34 °C using CaCO(3) as a neutralizing agent) through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation using the Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens. After 36 h, 36.6 g lactic acid/l was produced from 80 g H. reticulatum/l in the medium containing 3 g yeast extract/l and 3 g peptone/l in the absence of mineral salts. The maximum productivity, average productivity and yield were 2.38 g/l h, 1.02 g/l h and 45.8 %, respectively. The optical purity of D-Lactic acid ranged from 95.8-99.6 %. H. reticulatum is thus a promising biomass material for the production of D-Lactic acid. PMID:22932931

Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Kim, Jin-Seog; Song, Jae Kwang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jin-Cheol

2012-08-30

8

Lactobacillus  

MedlinePLUS

... POSSIBLY SAFE. Lactobacillus GG has been used safely in pregnant and breast-feeding women. But other types of lactobacillus have not been studied during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so their safety is unknown. Weakened immune system: There is some ...

9

In vitro assessment of immunomodulating activity of the two Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro immunomodulating capacity of Lactobacillus\\u000a coryniformis subsp torquens T3L (L.\\u000a coryniformis T3L) isolated from traditional fermented yak’s milk in Tibet, China, and Lactobacillus paracasei supsp. paracasei M5L (L. paracasei M5L)isolated from kumiss in Sinkiang, China was used as control. The effects of live bacteria, cell wall and genomic DNA\\u000a of

Yanfeng Tuo; Lanwei Zhang; Xue Han; Ming Du; Yingchun Zhang; Huaxi Yi; Weiqin Zhang; Yuehua Jiao

2011-01-01

10

Dietary deprivation of fermented foods causes a fall in innate immune response. Lactic acid bacteria can counteract the immunological effect of this deprivation.  

PubMed

Extrinsic factors such as maternal microbiota, bacterial load of the environment, diet and medication modulate the intestinal microbiota. Maturation and function of the immune system is influenced by established gut microbiota. In this work we describe the immunological effects of the dietary deprivation of fermented foods of healthy volunteers. Significant decreases in faecal lactobacillus and total aerobes counts and concentration of short chain fatty acids were observed following deprivation of fermented food of the normal diet. Moreover, a decrease in phagocytic activity in leukocytes was observed after two weeks of restricted diet. Therefore, the dietary deprivation of fermented foods could induce a decrease in innate immune response that might affect the capacity to respond against infections. The ingestion of a probiotic product containing the strains Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 or a standard yogurt containing a conventional starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus counteracted the fall in the immune response, although the probiotic product was more effective than the standard yogurt. PMID:16987435

Olivares, Mónica; Paz Díaz-Ropero, Ma; Gómez, Nuria; Sierra, Saleta; Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Martín, Rocío; Miguel Rodríguez, Juan; Xaus, Jordi

2006-09-21

11

Evaluation of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)PCR as a method to differentiate Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus gasseri , and Lactobacillus johnsonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was evaluated as a method to differentiate Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus johnsonii. Representative strains, including the type of each species, were selected from different clusters obtained by numerical analysis of total soluble cell protein patterns. Results obtained by RAPD-PCR corresponded well with results obtained by

Erika M. Du Plessis; Leon M. T. Dicks

1995-01-01

12

Evaluation of vinification lees as a general medium for lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species present high nutritional requirements, so it is necessary to find new low-cost nutrient components for fermentation media. This work compares the utilization of vinification lees (an important residue of wineries) from red and white winemaking technology, distilled or not. An amount of 20 g of lees/L was used as the unique nutrient to obtain lactic acid from glucose using Lactobacillus strains with different properties: L. plantarum CECT-221, L. pentosus CECT-4023, L. casei CECT-5275, and L. coryniformis subsp. torquens CECT-25600. Only L. casei using distilled lees showed values (Pmax = 92.1 g/L and Y(P/S) = 1.05 g/g) similar to those obtained with the MRS broth. The UV spectra of white and red lees, distilled or not, allowed an interpretation of the different phenolic compounds present and their influence on the fermentation. Their detoxification by extraction with organic compounds and fermentation with L. pentosus was also considered. Time courses of glucose and lactic acid were modeled according to reported models to obtain more information about the process. PMID:15291501

Bustos, Guadalupe; Moldes, Ana Belén; Cruz, José Manuel; Domínguez, José Manuel

2004-08-11

13

A case study on stress preconditioning of a Lactobacillus strain prior to freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying of bacterial cells with retained viability and activity after storage requires appropriate formulation, i.e. mixing of physiologically adapted cell populations with suitable protective agents, and control of the freeze-drying process. Product manufacturing may alter the clinical effects of probiotics and it is essential to identify and understand possible factor co-dependencies during manufacturing. The physical solid-state behavior of the formulation and the freeze-drying parameters are critical for bacterial survival and thus process optimization is important, independent of strain. However, the maximum yield achievable is also strain-specific and strain survival is governed by e.g. medium, cell type, physiological state, excipients used, and process. The use of preferred compatible solutes for cross-protection of Lactobacilli during industrial manufacturing may be a natural step to introduce robustness, but knowledge is lacking on how compatible solutes, such as betaine, influence formulation properties and cell survival. This study characterized betaine formulations, with and without sucrose, and tested these with the model lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3. Betaine alone did not act as a lyo-protectant and thus betaine import prior to freeze-drying should be avoided. Differences in protective agents were analyzed by calorimetry, which proved to be a suitable tool for evaluating the characteristics of the freeze-dried end products. PMID:22266474

Bergenholtz, Åsa Schoug; Wessman, Per; Wuttke, Anne; Håkansson, Sebastian

2012-01-15

14

Plasmids in Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

This review describes Lactobacillus plasmids on distribution, structure, function, vector construction, vector stability, application, and prospective. About 38% of species of the genus Lactobacillus were found to contain plasmids with different sizes (from 1.2 to 150 kb) and varied numbers (1 or more). Some Lactobacillus plasmids with small sizes were highly similar to those of single strand plasmids from other Gram-positive bacteria. The extensive sequence homologies of plus origins, replication initiation proteins, minus origins, cointegration sites, and the presence of single strand intermediates supported the fact that these small Lactobacillus plasmids replicate with a rolling-circle replication mechanism. Some Lactobacillus plasmid replicons were of broad host range that could function in other Gram-positive bacteria, and even in Escherichia coli, while replicons of other Gram-positive bacteria also function in Lactobacillus. Although most Lactobacillus plasmids are cryptic, some plasmid-encoded functions have been discovered and applied to vector construction and Lactobacillus identification, detection, and modification. PMID:9306650

Wang, T T; Lee, B H

1997-01-01

15

Continuous D-lactic acid production by a novel thermotolerant Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis QU 41.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized a D-lactic acid-producing lactic acid bacterium (D-LAB), identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis QU 41. When compared to Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens JCM 1166?(T) and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis JCM 1248?(T), which are also known as D-LAB, the QU 41 strain exhibited a high thermotolerance and produced D-lactic acid at temperatures of 50 °C and higher. In order to optimize the culture conditions of the QU 41 strain, we examined the effects of pH control, temperature, neutralizing reagent, and initial glucose concentration on D-lactic acid production in batch cultures. It was found that the optimal production of 20.1 g/l D-lactic acid was acquired with high optical purity (>99.9% of D-lactic acid) in a pH 6.0-controlled batch culture, by adding ammonium hydroxide as a neutralizing reagent, at 43 °C in MRS medium containing 20 g/l glucose. As a result of product inhibition and low cell density, continuous cultures were investigated using a microfiltration membrane module to recycle flow-through cells in order to improve D-lactic acid productivity. At a dilution rate of 0.87 h(-1), the high cell density continuous culture exhibited the highest D-lactic acid productivity of 18.0 g/l/h with a high yield (ca. 1.0 g/g consumed glucose) and a low residual glucose (<0.1 g/l) in comparison with systems published to date. PMID:21165615

Tashiro, Yukihiro; Kaneko, Wataru; Sun, Yanqi; Shibata, Keisuke; Inokuma, Kentaro; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

2010-12-17

16

Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov. and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strains 1517(T) and 61D(T) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517(T) and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum, and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61D(T) and Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA-DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517(T) and L. gigeriorum, and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61D(T) and L. johnsonii, L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517(T) ( = CRBIP 24.76(T) = DSM 23907(T)) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61D(T) (=CRBIP 24.179(T) = DSM 23910(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22328611

Cousin, Sylvie; Motreff, Laurence; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Gouyette, Catherine; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Begaud, Evelyne; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

2012-02-10

17

DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii  

SciTech Connect

From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

1990-06-01

18

Weissella confusa (Basonym: Lactobacillus confusus) Bacteremia: a Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Lactobacillus is rare, and only a handful of species have been identified as being clinically significant: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus leichmannii. The literature contains one case report of bacteremia caused by Weissella confusa (basonym: Lactobacillus confusus), but the clinical significance of the infection was unclear. We describe a case of W. confusa bacteremia in a 46-year-old

ARREL OLANO; JIMMY CHUA; SUZANNE SCHROEDER; AFAF MINARI; MARGARET LA SALVIA; GERRI HALL

2001-01-01

19

Weissella confusa (Basonym: Lactobacillus confusus) Bacteremia: a Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with Lactobacillus is rare, and only a handful of species have been identified as being clinically significant: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus leichmannii. The literature contains one case report of bacteremia caused by Weissella confusa (basonym: Lactobacillus confusus), but the clinical significance of the infection was unclear. We describe a case of W. confusa bacteremia in a 46-year-old

ARREL OLANO; JIMMY CHUA; SUZANNE SCHROEDER; AFAF MINARI; MARGARET LA SALVIA; GERRI HALL

20

The Characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: A study of 94 strains of lactobacilli was made. These were divided into three groups by ' sugar ' fermentations and tolerance of sodium chloride and sodium tauroglycocholate. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented amygdalin, cellobiose, salicin and sucrose, were variable in their action on dextrin and maltose, but grew in 2 yo sodium chloride or sodium tauroglycocholate. Strains of

DOROTHY M. WHEATER

1955-01-01

21

Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage se- quences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described

Marco Ventura; Carlos Canchaya; Valentina Bernini; Eric Altermann; Rodolphe Barrangou; Stephen McGrath; Marcus J. Claesson; Yin Li; Sinead Leahy; Carey D. Walker; Ralf Zink; Erasmo Neviani; Jim Steele; Jeff Broadbent; Todd R. Klaenhammer; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Paul W. O'Toole; Douwe van Sinderen

2006-01-01

22

Inhibitor Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SABINE1 demonstrated the antibiotic-like effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus by growing it in a solid medium in holes cut in a plate seeded with a staphylococcus and Escherichia coli as test organisms. He stated that the inhibition observed was not a result of acidity, since there was no difference in the pH of the agar in the cup, in the inhibition

J. Tramer

1966-01-01

23

Genome sequence of Lactobacillus versmoldensis KCTC 3814.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus versmoldensis KCTC 3814 was isolated from raw fermented poultry salami. The species was present in high numbers and frequently dominated the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations of the products. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus versmoldensis KCTC 3814, isolated from poultry salami, and describe major findings from its annotation. PMID:21914893

Kim, Dae-Soo; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Ryong Nam; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kang, Aram; Kim, Aeri; Park, Hong-Seog

2011-10-01

24

Properties of potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen Lactobacillus strains were characterized for probiotic properties. Of these, 13 of the strains were Lactobacillus plantarum. L. acidophilus and L. pentosus were also included as controls. Among the several requirements, tolerance to acid and bile salts, ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS), ?-galactosidase activity and susceptibility to antibiotics were studied. Acid-tolerant isolates were L. plantarum HU, L. plantarum NCIMB 1193,

Aysun Cebeci; Candan Gürakan

2003-01-01

25

Analysis of the Lactobacillus metabolic pathway.  

PubMed

We performed analyses of the phenotypic and genotypic relationships focusing on biosyntheses of amino acids, purine/pyrimidines, and cofactors in three Lactobacillus strains. We found that Lactobacillus fermentum IFO 3956 perhaps synthesized para-aminobenzoate (PABA), an intermediate of folic acid biosynthesis, by an alternative pathway. PMID:20817812

Kuratsu, Masahiro; Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Dairi, Tohru

2010-09-03

26

Starch-Binding Domain Affects Catalysis in Two Lactobacillus  -Amylases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in -amylases from three lactobacilli (Lacto- bacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus -amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98%

R. Rodriguez-Sanoja; B. Ruiz; J. P. Guyot; S. Sanchez

2005-01-01

27

Effect of Steroidal Saponins from Fructus Tribuli on Growth of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of steroidal saponins from Fructus tribuli on growth of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus casei was studied by measuring optical density at 600nm and pH using MRS media as the control. The addition of steroidal saponins (w\\/v) was 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25%. Results were as follows: addition of steroidal saponins could promote the growth of Lactobacillus reuteri and

He Chen; Liyuan Ji; Guowei Shu; Zhe Ji; Tao Qin; Qi Ma

2011-01-01

28

Current Status of Genetic Engineering of Lactobacillus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a UNIDO publication on genetic engineering of lactobacillus applicable in food fermentation processes and production of lactic acid. It covers: classification of lactobacilli; genetics; development of a recombinant DNA system; vectors; transformat...

C. A. Batt A. J. Sinskey

1985-01-01

29

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus ST1?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus crispatus is a common member of the beneficial microbiota present in the vertebrate gastrointestinal and human genitourinary tracts. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. crispatus ST1, a chicken isolate displaying strong adherence to vaginal epithelial cells.

Ojala, Teija; Kuparinen, Veera; Koskinen, J. Patrik; Alatalo, Edward; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Edelman, Sanna; Westerlund-Wikstrom, Benita; Korhonen, Timo K.; Paulin, Lars; Kankainen, Matti

2010-01-01

30

Dark chocolates supplemented with Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark chocolate masses and chocolates were supplemented with viable cells of two bacterial strains Lactobacillus caseii and Lactobacillus paracasei with potential probiotic properties, which were lyophilized in milk. Total number of live bacteria in the lyophilizate was\\u000a 7.9109 cfu\\/g. Sucrose or isomalt and aspartame were used as bulking substances and sweeteners. Sensory attributes of these chocolates\\u000a were not different from that

Ewa Nebesny; Dorota ?y?elewicz; Ilona Motyl; Zdzis?awa Libudzisz

2007-01-01

31

Lactobacillus yamanashiensis subsp. yamanashiensis and Lactobacillus yamanashiensis subsp. mali sp. and subsp. nov., nom. rev  

Microsoft Academic Search

The name Lactobacillus yamanashiensis (Nonomura et al.) was not included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and currently has no standing in bacterial nomenclature. This name is here revived for the same organism with which it was originally associated. The type strain is 239 (= ATCC 27304). The name Lactobacillus yamanashiensis is not on the Approved Lists of Bacterial

H. NONOMURA

1983-01-01

32

Genotypic diversity of stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus paraplantarum are three closely related species which are widespread in food and non-food environments, and are important as starter bacteria or probiotics. In order to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of stress tolerance in the L. plantarum group and the ability to mount an adaptive heat shock response, the survival of exponential and stationary phase and of heat adapted exponential phase cells of six L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, one L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, one L. pentosus and two L. paraplantarum strains selected in a previous work upon exposure to oxidative, heat, detergent, starvation and acid stresses was compared to that of the L. plantarum WCFS1 strain. Furthermore, to evaluate the genotypic diversity in stress response genes, ten genes (encoding for chaperones DnaK, GroES and GroEL, regulators CtsR, HrcA and CcpA, ATPases/proteases ClpL, ClpP, ClpX and protease FtsH) were amplified using primers derived from the WCFS1 genome sequence and submitted to restriction with one or two endonucleases. The results were compared by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, the amplicons for hrcA and ctsR were sequenced and compared by multiple sequence alignment and polymorphism analysis. Although there was evidence of a generalized stress response in the stationary phase, with increase of oxidative, heat, and, to a lesser extent, starvation stress tolerance, and for adaptive heat stress response, with increased tolerance to heat, acid and detergent, different growth phases and adaptation patterns were found. Principal component analysis showed that while heat, acid and detergent stresses respond similarly to growth phase and adaptation, tolerance to oxidative and starvation stresses implies completely unrelated mechanisms. A dendrogram obtained using the data from multilocus restriction typing (MLRT) of stress response genes clearly separated two groups of L. plantarum strains from the other species but there was no correlation between genotypic grouping and grouping obtained on the basis of the stress response pattern, nor with the phylograms obtained from hrcA and ctsR sequences. Differences in sequence in L. plantarum strains were mostly due to single nucleotide polymorphisms with a high frequency of synonymous nucleotide changes and, while hrcA was characterized by an excess of low frequency polymorphism, very low diversity was found in ctsR sequences. Sequence alignment of hrcA allowed a correct discrimination of the strains at the species level, thus confirming the relevance of stress response genes for taxonomy. PMID:22704047

Ricciardi, Annamaria; Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Ianniello, Rocco Gerardo; Zotta, Teresa; Abu Sayem, S M; Varcamonti, Mario

2012-05-25

33

Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated strain of a species ofLactobacillus of human origin, designated GG (Lactobacillus GG), has been studied to determine its ability to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. When fed to 76 volunteers as a frozen concentrate or as a fermented preparation in milk or whey,Lactobacillus GG was recovered in the feces of all subjects receiving the fermented milk

Barry R. Goldin; Sherwood L. Gorbach; Maija Saxelin; Susan Barakat; Lisa Gualtieri; Seppo Salminen

1992-01-01

34

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an experimentally and clinically well documented probiotic used in different dairy products. The present study aimed to investigate the safety aspects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, particularly with respect to platelet aggregation, the initiating event in thrombosis. Platelet rich plasma was separated from the blood of healthy volunteers, and the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103),

Riitta Korpela; Eeva Moilanen; Maija Saxelin; Heikki Vapaatalo

1997-01-01

35

Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteremia: an emerging clinical entity.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. are ubiquitous commensals of the normal human flora that are only occasionally found in clinical infections. Their role in human disease is established for infectious endocarditis but is controversial for other infections. We sought to characterize clinically associated Lactobacillus spp. We conducted a retrospective study, which consisted of the screening of Lactobacillus isolates obtained in our laboratory from January 2004 to December 2009. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was selected as the gold standard method. The isolates were first identified using API Coryne strips, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Lactobacillus tuf gene-based identification was used when the 16S rRNA results were inconclusive. Among the 60 strains of Lactobacillus spp. obtained in our laboratory, L. rhamnosus was the most commonly isolated species and was found in blood cultures from 16 patients. Combined with 45 patients reported in the literature, we found that patients presenting with L. rhamnosus bacteremia experienced nosocomial infections associated with both immunosuppression (66 %) and catheters (83 %). PMID:22544343

Gouriet, F; Million, M; Henri, M; Fournier, P-E; Raoult, D

2012-04-28

36

Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei

Sophie Coudeyras; Helene Marchandin; Celine Fajon; Christiane Forestier

2008-01-01

37

Cell-Free Supernatants from Probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Invasion In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)

Juanita Escamilla; Vatsala Maitin

2012-01-01

38

Lactobacillus helveticus: the proteolytic system.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) most commonly used in the production of fermented milk beverages and some types of hard cheese. The versatile nature of this bacterium is based on its highly efficient proteolytic system consisting of cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs), transport system and intracellular peptidases. Besides use of L. helveticus in cheese processing, the production of fermented milk preparations with health promoting properties has become an important industrial application. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products are able to decrease blood pressure, stimulate the immune system, promote calcium absorption, and exert an anti-virulent effect against pathogens. These beneficial effects are produced by a variety of peptides released during the hydrolysis of milk proteins by the proteolytic system of L. helveticus, which provides the bacterium with its nutritional requirements for growth. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding the factors that affect the kinetics of milk protein hydrolysis by specific strains and have concentrated on the effect of pH, temperature, growth phase, and matrix composition on the bacterial enzymatic system. This review focuses on the role of the proteolytic system of L. helveticus in the production of bioactive compounds formed during fermentation of dairy products. Taking advantage of the powerful proteolytic system of this bacterium opens up future opportunities to search for novel food-derived compounds with potential health promoting properties. PMID:23467265

Griffiths, M W; Tellez, A M

2013-03-05

39

Lactobacillus helveticus: the proteolytic system  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) most commonly used in the production of fermented milk beverages and some types of hard cheese. The versatile nature of this bacterium is based on its highly efficient proteolytic system consisting of cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs), transport system and intracellular peptidases. Besides use of L. helveticus in cheese processing, the production of fermented milk preparations with health promoting properties has become an important industrial application. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products are able to decrease blood pressure, stimulate the immune system, promote calcium absorption, and exert an anti-virulent effect against pathogens. These beneficial effects are produced by a variety of peptides released during the hydrolysis of milk proteins by the proteolytic system of L. helveticus, which provides the bacterium with its nutritional requirements for growth. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding the factors that affect the kinetics of milk protein hydrolysis by specific strains and have concentrated on the effect of pH, temperature, growth phase, and matrix composition on the bacterial enzymatic system. This review focuses on the role of the proteolytic system of L. helveticus in the production of bioactive compounds formed during fermentation of dairy products. Taking advantage of the powerful proteolytic system of this bacterium opens up future opportunities to search for novel food-derived compounds with potential health promoting properties.

Griffiths, M. W.; Tellez, A. M.

2012-01-01

40

Genomic Diversity of Lactobacillus salivarius? †  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus salivarius are increasingly employed as probiotic agents for humans or animals. Despite the diversity of environmental sources from which they have been isolated, the genomic diversity of L. salivarius has been poorly characterized, and the implications of this diversity for strain selection have not been examined. To tackle this, we applied comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to 33 strains derived from humans, animals, or food. The CGH, based on total genome content, including small plasmids, identified 18 major regions of genomic variation, or hot spots for variation. Three major divisions were thus identified, with only a subset of the human isolates constituting an ecologically discernible group. Omission of the small plasmids from the CGH or analysis by MLST provided broadly concordant fine divisions and separated human-derived and animal-derived strains more clearly. The two gene clusters for exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis corresponded to regions of significant genomic diversity. The CGH-based groupings of these regions did not correlate with levels of production of bound or released EPS. Furthermore, EPS production was significantly modulated by available carbohydrate. In addition to proving difficult to predict from the gene content, EPS production levels correlated inversely with production of biofilms, a trait considered desirable in probiotic commensals. L. salivarius displays a high level of genomic diversity, and while selection of L. salivarius strains for probiotic use can be informed by CGH or MLST, it also requires pragmatic experimental validation of desired phenotypic traits.

Raftis, Emma J.; Salvetti, Elisa; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.; O'Toole, Paul W.

2011-01-01

41

Genetic engineering of Lactobacillus diolivorans.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a toolbox for genetic manipulation of Lactobacillus diolivorans, a promising production organism for 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. Two major findings play a key role for successful transformation of this organism: (1) the absence of a native plasmid, because a native plasmid is a major obstacle for transformation of L. diolivorans, and (2) the absence of DNA methylation. A suitable expression plasmid, pSHM, for homologous and heterologous protein expression in L. diolivorans was constructed. This plasmid is based on the replication origin repA of L. diolivorans. The native glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter is used for constitutive expression of the genes of interest. Functional expression of genes in L. diolivorans was shown with two examples: production of green fluorescent protein resulted in a 40- to 60-fold higher fluorescence of the obtained clones compared with the wild-type strain. Finally, the homologous overexpression of a putatively NADPH-dependent 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase improved 1,3-propanediol production by 20% in batch cultures. PMID:23638657

Pflügl, Stefan; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

2013-05-23

42

Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (CES) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity

Mariya I. Brachkova; Maria A. Duarte; João F. Pinto

2010-01-01

43

Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate

Chonggang Zhang; Markus J. Brandt; Clarissa Schwab; Michael G. Gänzle

2010-01-01

44

Manganese acquisition by Lactobacillus plantarum  

SciTech Connect

Lactobacillus plantarum has an unusually high Mn(II) requirement for growth and accumulated over 30 mM intracellular Mn(II). The acquisition of Mn(II) by L. plantarum occurred via a specific active transport system powered by the transmembrane proton gradient. The Mn(II) uptake system has a K/sub m/ of 0.2 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 24 nmol mg/sup -1/ of protein min/sup -1/. Above a medium Mn(II) concentration of 200 ..mu..M, the intracellular Mn(II) level was independent of the medium Mn(II) and unresponsive to oxygen stresses but was reduced by phosphate limitation. At a pH of 5.5, citrate, isocitrate, and cis-aconitate effectively promoted MN(II) uptake, although measurable levels of 1,5-(/sup 14/C)citrate were not accumulated. When cells were presented with equimolar Mn(II) and Cd(II), Cd(II) was preferentially taken up by the Mn(II) transport system. Both Mn(II) and Cd(II) uptake were greatly increased by Mn(II) starvation. Mn(II) uptake by Mn(II)-starved cells was subject to a negative feedback regulatory mechanism functioning less than 1 min after exposure of the cells to Mn(II) and independent of protein synthesis. When presented with a relatively large amount of exogenous Mn(II), Mn(II)-starved cells exhibited a measurable efflux of their internal Mn(II), but the rate was only a small fraction of the maximal Mn(II) uptake rate.

Archibald, F.S.; Duong, M.N.

1984-04-01

45

Lactobacillus assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eco-friendly lactobacillus sp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40 60 nm are found.

Prasad, K.; Jha, Anal K.; Kulkarni, A. R.

2007-05-01

46

Differentiation of Lactobacillus Species by Molecular Typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 64 type, reference, clinical, health food, and stock isolates of microaerophilic Lactobacillus species were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of particular interest were members of six of the eight species most commonly recovered from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women, namely, Lactobacil- lus jensenii, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. fermentum. Six

WEI ZHONG; KEVIN MILLSAP; HANNA BIALKOWSKA-HOBRZANSKA; GREGOR REID

1998-01-01

47

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) bacteriocin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...

48

Instability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Yogurt1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidophilus added to yo- gurt decreased in numbers during refriger- ated storage. This instability was caused by substance(s) produced by L. bulgari- cus, a component species of yogurt cul- tures. Hydrogen peroxide produced by L. bulgaricus during the manufacture and\\/or storage of yogurt appeared to be the main substance responsible for the antagonism of L. bulgaricus toward L. acidophilus

S. E. Gilliland; M. L. Speck

1977-01-01

49

Genetic heterogeneity among Lactobacillus acidophilus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological characteristics, DNA base composition (% GC) and DNA-DNA reassociation values were determined for 138 Lactobacillus acidophilus strains. Twenty seven strains were received from various culture collections and 111 strains were freshly isolated during a study on the composition of the intestinal lactic microflora of piglets and suckling calves.

P. G. Sarra; M. Magri; V. Bottazzi; F. Dellaglio

1980-01-01

50

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Electron Transport Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce a respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. Addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme- and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels

R. J. W. Brooijmans; Vos de W. M; J. Hugenholtz

2009-01-01

51

Secondary Colony Formation by Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In addition to R outgrowths, strains of Lactobacillus casei growing on a carbohydrate-free medium also formed smooth secondary colonies situated on the primary colonies. These secondary colonies arose after about 6 days of incubation and were of two types : when centrally situated they formed papillae; when near the margin of the mother colony they often spilt over and

H. C. De Klerk; J. N. Coetzee

1962-01-01

52

Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic and electrostatic cell surface properties of eight Lactobacillus strains were characterized by using the microbial adhesion to solvents method and microelectrophoresis, respectively. All strains appeared relatively hydrophilic. The strong microbial adhesion to chloroform, an acidic solvent, in comparison with microbial adhesion to hexadecane, an apolar n-alkane, demonstrated the particularity of lactobacilli to have an important electron donor and basic character and consequently their potential ability to generate Lewis acid-base interactions with a support. Regardless of their electrophoretic mobility (EM), strains were in general slightly negatively charged at alkaline pH. A pH-dependent behavior concerning cell surface charges was observed. The EM decreased progressively with more acidic pHs for the L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains until the isoelectric point (IEP), i.e., the pH value for which the EM is zero. On the other hand, the EM for the L. rhamnosus strains was stable from pH 8 to pH 3 to 4, at which point there was a shift near the IEP. Both L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains were characterized by an IEP of around 4, whereas L. rhamnosus strains possessed a markedly lower IEP of 2. The present study showed that the cell surface physicochemical properties of lactobacilli seem to be, at least in part and under certain experimental conditions, particular to the bacterial species. Such differences detected between species are likely to be accompanied by some particular changes in cell wall chemical composition. PMID:9143109

Pelletier, C; Bouley, C; Cayuela, C; Bouttier, S; Bourlioux, P; Bellon-Fontaine, M N

1997-05-01

53

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.

Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Littleton, CO); Mc Millan, James D. (Boulder, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

1998-01-01

54

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. 184.1924 Section...1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation...nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains...

2010-01-01

55

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. 184.1924 Section...1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation...nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains...

2009-04-01

56

Lactobacillus odoratitofui sp. nov., isolated from stinky tofu brine.  

PubMed

Three Gram-positive-staining strains isolated from fermented stinky tofu brine were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoA and pheS gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Lactobacillus collinoides (98.6?%), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (98.6?%) and Lactobacillus similis (99.6?%) were the closest neighbours. However, DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were less than 10?%. The phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus odoratitofui sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIT 11304(T) (=JCM 15043(T) =BCRC 17810(T) =DSM 19909(T)). PMID:20097799

Chao, Shiou-Huei; Sasamoto, Masae; Kudo, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junji; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Watanabe, Koichi

2010-01-22

57

Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released by Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54 and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were isolated from bacteria in their mid-exponential (4–5 h) and stationary growth phases (18 h) and physicochemical and biochemical properties of the freeze-dried biosurfactants from both growth phases were compared. The mid-exponential and stationary phase biosurfactants were similar in their surface activities, but

Martine M. C. Velraeds; Henny C. van der Mei; Gregor Reid; Henk J. Busscher

1996-01-01

58

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

59

Expression of Clostridium thermocellum Endoglucanase Gene in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii and Characterization of the Genetically Modified Probiotic Lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Endoglucanase A from Clostridium thermocellum resistant to pancreatic proteinase was selected out of a range of microbial cellulases expressed in lactobacilli. Two Lactobacillus–E. coli expression vectors, harboring the endoglucanase gene from C. thermocellum under the control of its own promoter (pSD1) and the Lactococcus lactis lac A promoter (pSD2), were constructed separately. Intestinal Lactobacillus strains, L. gasseri and L.

Jaie-Soon Cho; Yun-Jaie Choi; Dae-Kyun Chung

2000-01-01

60

Intra-specific variation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus in sensitivity towards various bacteriocins.  

PubMed

Fifty-two strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group were identified and typed. They represented 32 clones of Lactobacillus plantarum and 7 clones of Lactobacillus pentosus. Sensitivity of all strains towards bacteriocins of four different producer strains was investigated using a deferred inhibition test (DIT). Substantial intra-specific variation in sensitivity of clones was observed towards bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria producing nisin ( Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454) or pediocin PA-1 ( Pediococcus acidilactici PAC-1.0), while none of the strains were sensitive towards the two remaining bacteriocin producers. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin towards selected strains confirmed the DIT results. No correlation between the susceptibility of fourteen selected strains towards nisin and an array of antibiotics was found. The present study indicates that the variation in bacteriocin-sensitivity within target species might be a potential limitation for the application of bacteriocins as biopreservatives. PMID:15028870

Carl, G D; Leisner, J J; Swings, J; Vancanneyt, M

2004-04-01

61

Differentiation of Lactobacillus Species by Molecular Typing  

PubMed Central

A total of 64 type, reference, clinical, health food, and stock isolates of microaerophilic Lactobacillus species were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Of particular interest were members of six of the eight species most commonly recovered from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women, namely, Lactobacillus jensenii, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. fermentum. Six main groupings were identified on the basis of ribotyping. This technique was able to classify fresh isolates to the species level. In the case of the ribotype A grouping for L. rhamnosus, differences between strains were evident by chromosome typing (chromotyping). Many isolates did not possess plasmids. Six L. rhamnosus strains isolated from four different health food products appeared to be identical to L. rhamnosus ATCC 21052. The molecular typing system is useful for identifying and differentiating Lactobacillus isolates. Studies of strains of potential importance to the urogenital flora should include molecular characterization as a means of comparing genetic traits with those of strains whose characteristics associated with colonization and antagonism against pathogens have been defined.

Zhong, Wei; Millsap, Kevin; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, Hanna; Reid, Gregor

1998-01-01

62

Functional Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum of xylP Encoding the Isoprimeverose Transporter of Lactobacillus pentosus  

PubMed Central

The xylP gene of Lactobacillus pentosus, the first gene of the xylPQR operon, was recently found to be involved in isoprimeverose metabolism. By expression of xylP on a multicopy plasmid in Lactobacillus plantarum 80, a strain which lacks active isoprimeverose and d-xylose transport activities, it was shown that xylP encodes a transporter. Functional expression of the XylP transporter was shown by uptake of isoprimeverose in L. plantarum 80 cells, and this transport was driven by the proton motive force generated by malolactic fermentation. XylP was unable to catalyze transport of d-xylose.

Chaillou, Stephane; Postma, Pieter W.; Pouwels, Peter H.

1998-01-01

63

Decolorization of water and oil-soluble azo dyes by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum to degrade azo dyes was investigated. The bacteria were incubated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of 6 µg\\/ml Methyl\\u000a Red, Ponceau BS, Orange G, Amaranth, Orange II, and Direct Blue 15; 5 µg\\/ml Sudan I and II; or 1.5 µg\\/ml Sudan III and IV\\u000a in deMann–Rogosa–Sharpe broth at 37°C for 36 h, and reduction of

Huizhong Chen; Haiyan Xu; Thomas M. Heinze; Carl E. Cerniglia

2009-01-01

64

Comparative evaluation of automated ribotyping and RAPD-PCR for typing of Lactobacillus spp. occurring in dental caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 67 Lactobacillus spp. strains containing Lactobacillus casei\\/paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius species isolated from early childhood caries and identified to the species level in a previous study (Švec et al., Folia\\u000a Microbiol 54:53–58, 2009) was characterized by automated ribotyping performed by the RiboPrinter® microbial characterization system and by randomly amplified

Pavel Švec; Martina Kukletová; Ivo Sedlá?ek

2010-01-01

65

Bio-control of waterborne pathogens using Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed

Bacteria play a significant role in water contamination. Chemicals are mostly used for the treatment of bacteriologically contaminated water. The use of bacterial interactions is a new approach to limit the pathogens' growth. Detection of antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid bacteria against the waterborne pathogens is the objective of this work. Microbiological and biochemical methods were used to identify lactic acid bacteria having an antimicrobial activity. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity with growth kinetic measurements was performed. Four isolates of lactic acid bacteria obtained from whey and curd were identified. The predominant species belonging to the Lactobacillus genera are: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. The present study revealed that the Lactobacillus consortium is able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus's growth along with Escherichia coli and Vibrio species. In mixed culture, after 24 h, the Lactobacillus consortium reduces the growth of S. aureus by 2.03 log; moreover, the growth of the latter bacteria totally ceased after 72 h of incubation. The protein produced by the Lactobacillus consortium was responsible for arresting the growth of S. aureus. PMID:22131013

Gaikwad, Ghyandeep L; Gupta, Prateksha; Wate, Satish R

2011-12-02

66

Diacetyl Production and Utilization by Lactobacillus Species[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-strain cultures of Lactobaciltus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum aecmnu- lated detectable amounts of diaeetyl when grown in milk culture at both 8 and 30 C, but strains of Laetobaeillus lactis and Lae- tobacillus brevis did not. Lactobacillus casei strains produced relatively large amounts of diaeetyl under these incubation conditions, whereas L. plantarum accumu- lated this compound in levels of less

T. W. Keenan; R. C. Lindsay

1968-01-01

67

Dominance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the Facultative Jejunal Lactobacillus Microbiota of Fistulated Beagles  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 104 to 108 CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), Lactobacillus acidophilus was dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern.

Tang, Yurui; Manninen, Titta J. K.

2012-01-01

68

In vitro antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and lactobacillus salivarius and their fermentative broth on periodontal pathogens  

PubMed Central

As lactobacilli possess an antagonistic growth property, these bacteria may be beneficial as bioprotective agents for infection control. However, whether the antagonistic growth effects are attributed to the lactobacilli themselves or their fermentative broth remains unclear. The antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum as well as their fermentative broth were thus tested using both disc agar diffusion test and broth dilution method, and their effects on periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro at different concentrations and for different time periods were also compared. Both Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum and their concentrated fermentative broth were shown to inhibit significantly the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, although different inhibitory effects were observed for different pathogens. The higher the counts of lactobacilli and the higher the folds of concentrated fermentative broth, the stronger the inhibitory effects are observed. The inhibitory effect is demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Moreover, for the lactobacilli themselves, Lactobacillus fermentum showed stronger inhibitory effects than Lactobacillus salivarius. However, the fermentative broth of Lactobacillus fermentum showed weaker inhibitory effects than that of Lactobacillus salivarius. These data suggested that lactobacilli and their fermentative broth exhibit antagonistic growth activity, and consumption of probiotics or their broth containing lactobacilli may benefit oral health.

Chen, Ling-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hsieh, Chu-Yang; Wang, Pi-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Shih; Wang, Lina; Yang, Chi-Chiang

2012-01-01

69

Lactobacillus uli sp. nov. and Lactobacillus rimae sp. nov. from the Human Gingival Crevice and Emended Descriptions of Lactobacillus minutus and Streptococcus parvulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus uli sp. nov. and Lactobacillus rimae sp. nov. are described. These organisms are short, gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that have DNA G+C contents of 53 and 45 mol%, respectively, produce major amounts of lactic acid, and have been isolated from human gingival crevices and periodontal pockets. The major cellular fatty acid derivatives for both species are Clsz1 cis-9

INGAR OLSEN; JOHN L. JOHNSON; L. V. H. MOORE; W. E. C. MOORE

70

Homodimeric ?-galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081: expression in Lactobacillus plantarum and biochemical characterization.  

PubMed

The lacZ gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, encoding a ?-galactosidase of the glycoside hydrolase family GH2, was cloned into different inducible lactobacillal expression vectors for overexpression in the host strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. High expression levels were obtained in laboratory cultivations with yields of approximately 53000 U of ?-galactosidase activity per liter of medium, which corresponds to ~170 mg of recombinant protein per liter and ?-galactosidase levels amounting to 63% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. The wild-type (nontagged) and histidine-tagged recombinant enzymes were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and further characterized. ?-Galactosidase from L. bulgaricus was used for lactose conversion and showed very high transgalactosylation activity. The maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) was approximately 50% when using an initial concentration of 600 mM lactose, indicating that the enzyme can be of interest for the production of GalOS. PMID:22283494

Nguyen, Tien-Thanh; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Mlynek, Georg; Djinovi?-Carugo, Kristina; Mathiesen, Geir; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Haltrich, Dietmar

2012-02-09

71

Fructophilic Lactobacillus kunkeei and Lactobacillus brevis isolated from fresh flowers, bees and bee-hives.  

PubMed

Two-hundred-and-thirty-six isolates were collected from fresh flowers, bees and bee-hives. Of these, 20 isolates preferred D-fructose as carbon source, produced lactic acid and acetic acid but trace amounts of ethanol and were classified as fructophilic. Poor growth was recorded when strains were incubated anaerobically in the presence of D-glucose as sole carbon source. Good growth was, however, recorded when D-glucose was metabolized in the presence of external electron acceptors such as fructose, pyruvate and oxygen. Nineteen of the strains were classified as Lactobacillus kunkeei and one as Lactobacillus brevis based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA sequences, recA sequences and DNA homology. This is the first description of a fructophilic strain of L. brevis. PMID:22797888

Neveling, Deon P; Endo, Akihito; Dicks, Leon M T

2012-07-15

72

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-09-26

73

Dominance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the facultative jejunal Lactobacillus microbiota of fistulated beagles.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), Lactobacillus acidophilus was dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern. PMID:22843523

Tang, Yurui; Manninen, Titta J K; Saris, Per E J

2012-07-27

74

Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid.

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

75

Isolation and characterization of exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains grown on skim milk produce a viscosifying exocellular watersoluble heteropolysaccharide composed of galactose, glucose and rhamnose in an approximately molar ratio of 4:1:1. The molecular weight is approximately 500.000.

Jutta Cerning; C. Bouillanne; M. J. Desmazeaud; Michèle Landon

1986-01-01

76

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain UCMA 3037  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid of the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UCMA 3037, isolated from raw milk camembert cheese in our laboratory, was sequenced. We present its draft genome sequence with the aim of studying its functional properties and relationship to the cheese ecosystem.

Naz, Saima; Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Vaisse, Melissa; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Celine; Rechenmann, Mathias

2013-01-01

77

Some Slime-Forming Heterofermentative Species of the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus coprophilus subsp. confusus (NCDO 1586) and 18 other strains of slime-forming heterofermentative lactobacilli obtained from diverse sources are considered to form a new species on the basis of their physiological characteristics and similarities of their pyruvate reductases and lactate dehydrogenases. It is suggested that these strains should be named Lactobacillus confusus (Holzapfel & Kandler) comb. nov. (L. coprophilus subsp. confusus Holzapfel & Kandler), reasons being given. The type strain is NCDO 1586 (NCIB 9311, ATCC 10881). Strains of Lactobacillus vermiforme and Lactobacillus viridescens also form slime. However, L. vermiforme was readily separated from the other two by the criteria used. Although physiological characteristics separated L. viridescens from L. confusus, a relationship between these two species and also between them and the leuconostocs was indicated by the properties of the pyruvate reductases and lactate dehydrogenases. The slime produced by all species was found to be a glucan, probably a dextran, containing primarily ?-1-6-glycosidic linkages.

Sharpe, M. Elisabeth; Garvie, Ellen I.; Tilbury, R. H.

1972-01-01

78

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

79

Transport of Aminophosphonic Acids in Lactobacillus Plantarum and Streptococcus Faecalis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aminophosphonic acids analogous to glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and valine were actively accumulated by Lactobacillus plantarum. Uptake was dependent on the availability of glucose and, in all cases, the estimated intracellular concentrations su...

J. T. Holden J. N. A. van Balgooy J. S. Kittredge

1968-01-01

80

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56  

PubMed Central

We announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56 in one contig. This strain shows immunomodulatory and probiotic properties. The strain is also an ingredient of commercially available probiotic products.

Hochwind, Kerstin; Weinmaier, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; van Hemert, Saskia; Hartmann, Anton; Rattei, Thomas

2012-01-01

81

Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls.

Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

1987-05-01

82

Aglycone production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 during soymilk fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL981 showed the highest levels of ?-glucosidase and was selected to characterize this enzyme system, among 63 strains of different Lactobacillus species. The maximum activity was obtained at pH 6.4 and 42°C. The enzyme showed weak resistance to thermal inactivation maintaining only 20% of the initial activity when it was exposed at 50°C for 5min. It also, showed

Jose A. Marazza; Marisa S. Garro; Graciela Savoy de Giori

2009-01-01

83

Batch fermentation with entrapped growing cells of Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing cells ofLactobacillus casei were entrapped in?-carrageenan\\/locust bean gum (LBG) (2:1 or 2.75%:0.25% w\\/w respectively) mixed gel beads (two ranges of diameter: 0.5–1.0 and 1.0–2.0 mm) to fermentLactobacillus Selection (LBS) medium and produce biomass. The results showed significant influence of initial cell loading of the beads and bead size on the fermentation rate. The highest cell release rates were obtained

Christophe Lacroix; Céline Paquin; Jean-Pierre Arnaud

1990-01-01

84

Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented dairy beverage.  

PubMed

Two Lactobacillus strains, designated LY-73(T) and LY-30B, were isolated from a dairy beverage, sold in Shenzhen market, China. The two isolates were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods that were heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA genes revealed that the two isolates shared 99.5, 99.8 and 99.9?% sequence similarity, which indicates that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the two isolates with the genus Lactobacillus. Strain LY-73(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus harbinensis KACC 12409(T) (97.73%), Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12744(T) (96.96?%) and Lactobacillus selangorensis DSM 13344(T) (93.10?%). Comparative analyses of their rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were significantly different from other Lactobacillus species. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values (50.5?%) were obtained between strain LY-73(T) and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two novel isolates were 56.1 and 56.5 mol%. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C18?:?1?9c (78.85 and 74.29?%) were the dominant components, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the l-Lys-d-Asp type. Based on phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, the novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with LY-73(T) (?=?CCTCC M 2011481(T)?=?KACC 16878(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23002044

Zou, Yuanqiang; Liu, Feng; Fang, Chengxiang; Wan, Daiwei; Yang, Rentao; Su, Qingqing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Jiao

2012-09-21

85

Preservation by freezing of potentially probiotic strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to detect the best conditions to preserve by freezing potentially probiotic strains ofLactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from food. Four strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, the commercial strainLactobacillus GG and the type strain ATCC 7469T were used in the present study. Two different pre-incubation times (5 and 24 h), three\\u000a protective media (Skim milk, Skim

Mariantonietta Succi; Patrizio Tremonte; Anna Reale; Elena Sorrentino; Raffaele Coppola

2007-01-01

86

Protoplast formation and regeneration in Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Method for production and regeneration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii protoplasts are described. The protoplasts were obtained by treatment with a mixture of lysozyme and mutanolysin in protoplast buffer at pH 6.5 with different osmotic stabilizers. The protoplasts were regenerated on deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) with various osmotic stabilizers. Maximum protoplast formation was obtained in protoplast buffer with sucrose as an osmotic stabilizer using a combination of lysozyme (1 mg/ml) and mutanolysin (10 ?g/ml). Maximum protoplast regeneration was obtained on MRS medium with sucrose (0.5 M) as an osmotic stabilizer. The regeneration medium was also applicable to other species of lactobacilli as well. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on protoplast formation and efficient regeneration in case of L. delbrueckii. PMID:23100814

Singhvi, Mamta; Joshi, Dipti; Gaikaiwari, Shalaka; Gokhale, Digambar V

2010-03-05

87

Genomic Adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei Group.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

2013-10-08

88

Genomic Adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei Group  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group.

Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

89

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food.  

PubMed

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S-23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

Crispim, S M; Nascimento, A M A; Costa, P S; Moreira, J L S; Nunes, A C; Nicoli, J R; Lima, F L; Mota, V T; Nardi, R M D

2013-03-19

90

Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food  

PubMed Central

Puba or carimã is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 ± 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S–23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba.

Crispim, S.M.; Nascimento, A.M.A.; Costa, P.S.; Moreira, J.L.S.; Nunes, A.C.; Nicoli, J.R.; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; Nardi, R.M.D.

2013-01-01

91

Structural and functional analysis of two cryptic plasmids from Lactobacillus pentosus MD353 and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA sequences of a 2.4 kb plasmid (p353-2) from Lactobacillus pentosus MD353 and a 1.9 kb plasmid (p8014-2) from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 show 81.5% overall similarity. Both plasmids carry elements (replication protein gene, plus-origin and minus-origin of replication), which are typical of plasmids that replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism of replication (RCR). Direct evidence for an RCR mechanism

Rob J. Leer; Nicole van Luijk; Mark Posno; Peter H. Pouwels

1992-01-01

92

The complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus johnsonii reveal extensive differences in chromosome organization and gene content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first comprehensive comparative analysis of lactobacilli was done by comparing the genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum (3?3 Mb) and Lactobacillus johnsonii (2?0 Mb). L. johnsonii is predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract, while L. plantarum is also found on plants and plant-derived material, and is used in a variety of industrial fermentations. The L. plantarum and L. johnsonii chromosomes have

Boekhorst te J; Roland J. Siezen; Marie-Camille Zwahlen; David Vilanova; Raymond D. Pridmore; Annick Mercenier; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos; Harald Brussow; Frank Desiere

2004-01-01

93

Cell-free supernatants from probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease colon cancer cell invasion in vitro.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and levels of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in cultured metastatic human colorectal carcinoma cells. HCT-116 cells were treated with CFS from L. casei, L. rhamnosus, or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a gut commensal); or with uninoculated bacterial growth media. Treatment with CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased colorectal cell invasion but treatment with CFS from B. thetaiotaomicron did not. CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased MMP-9 and increased ZO-1 protein levels. L. rhamnosus CFS also lowered MMP-9 activity. To begin elucidating the secreted bacterial factor conveying these responses, Lactobacillus sp. CFS were fractionated into defined molecular weight ranges and cell invasion assessed. Fractionation revealed that the inhibitory activity was contained primarily in the >100 kDa and 50-100 kDa fractions, suggesting the inhibitory compound may be a macromolecule such as a protein, nucleic acid, or a polysaccharide. PMID:22830611

Escamilla, Juanita; Lane, Michelle A; Maitin, Vatsala

2012-07-25

94

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2013-04-01

95

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-08-25

96

Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from molasses produces bacteriocins active against Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacteriocins, ST28MS and ST26MS, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from molasses, inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanii. The mode of activity of the bacteriocins is bacteriostatic, as observed against L. casei and P. aeruginosa. Reduction in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with Proteinase K, papain,

S. D. Todorov; L. M. T. Dicks

2005-01-01

97

Bacterial Cell Wall-Induced Arthritis: Chemical Composition and Tissue Distribution of Four Lactobacillus Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study what determines the arthritogenicity of bacterial cell walls, cell wall-induced arthritis in the rat was applied, using four strains of Lactobacillus. Three of the strains used proved to induce chronic arthritis in the rat; all were Lactobacillus casei. The cell wall of Lactobacillus fermentum did not induce chronic arthritis. All arthritogenic bacterial cell walls had the same peptidoglycan

M. Rimpilainen; L. Lehtonen; X. Zhang; P. Toivanen

2000-01-01

98

Comparison of fructooligosaccharide utilization by Lactobacillus and Bacteroides species.  

PubMed

The utilization of 1-kestose (GF(2)) and nystose (GF(3)), the main components of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), by Lactobacillus and Bacteroides species was examined. Of seven Lactobacillus and five Bacteroides strains that utilized FOS, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, and L. gasseri utilized only GF(2), whereas L. acidophilus and all the Bacteroides strains utilized both GF(2) and GF(3). Only the strains able to utilize both GF(2) and GF(3) had ?-fructosidase activity in the culture supernatants. The culture supernatants of the Lactobacillus strains had higher ?-fructosidase activity for GF(2) than for GF(3), whereas those of the Bacteroides strains had higher activity for GF(3) than for GF(2). Furthermore, ?-fructosidase activity of the culture supernatants of the Lactobacillus cells grown in the GF(3) medium was much higher than that of the cells grown in the GF(2) medium, whereas the activity of the culture supernatants of the Bacteroides cells grown in the GF(3) medium was almost the same as that of the cells grown in the GF(2) medium. These results indicate that Lactobacillus species metabolize FOS in a different way from that of Bacteroides species. PMID:22232259

Endo, Hiroya; Tamura, Kazuji; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Kanegae, Minoru; Koga, Jinichiro

2012-01-07

99

Starch-Binding Domain Affects Catalysis in Two Lactobacillus ?-Amylases  

PubMed Central

A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in ?-amylases from three lactobacilli (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus ?-amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98% sequence identity. In spite of this identity, the SBD structures seem to be quite different. To investigate whether the observed differences in the SBDs have an effect on the hydrolytic capability of the enzymes, a kinetic study of L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amylases was developed, with both enzymes acting on several starch sources in granular and gelatinized forms. Results showed that the amylolytic capacities of these enzymes are quite different; the L. amylovorus ?-amylase is, on average, 10 times more efficient than the L. plantarum enzyme in hydrolyzing all the tested polymeric starches, with only a minor difference in the adsorption capacities.

Rodriguez-Sanoja, R.; Ruiz, B.; Guyot, J. P.; Sanchez, S.

2005-01-01

100

Evaluation of Lactobacillus strains for selected probiotic properties.  

PubMed

Eleven strains of Lactobacillus collected in the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms (CCDM) were evaluated for selected probiotic properties such as survival in gastrointestinal fluids, antimicrobial activity, and competition with non-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 for adhesion on Caco-2 cells. The viable count of lactobacilli was reduced during 3-h incubation in gastric fluid followed by 3-h incubation in intestinal fluid. All strains showed antimicrobial activity and the three most effective strains inhibited the growth of at least 16 indicator strains. Antimicrobial metabolites of seven strains active against Lactobacillus and Clostridium indicator strains were found to be sensitive to proteinase K and trypsin, which indicates their proteinaceous nature. The degree of competitive inhibition of non-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 adhesion on the surface of Caco-2 cells was strain-dependent. A significant decrease (P?Lactobacillus gasseri CCDM 215, Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 149, and Lactobacillus helveticus CCDM 82. PMID:23135901

Turková, Kristýna; Mavri?, Anja; Narat, Mojca; Rittich, Bohuslav; Spanová, Alena; Rogelj, Irena; Matijaši?, Bojana Bogovi?

2012-11-08

101

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

102

Distribution Dynamics of Recombinant Lactobacillus in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Rats  

PubMed Central

One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates.

Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R.; Lin, Jing

2013-01-01

103

Structural identification of novel oligosaccharides produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

?-Galactosidases (?-Gal) of lactic acid bacteria produce oligosaccharides from lactose when suitable acceptor carbohydrates are present. This study aimed to elucidate the structure of oligosaccharides formed by galactosylation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and fucose. Crude cellular extract of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and LacLM of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as sources of ?-Gal activity. Disaccharides obtained by galactosylation of GlcNAc were identified as Gal-?-(1?4)-GlcNAc or Gal-?-(1?6)-GlcNAc by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and comparison with external standards. Trisaccharides were identified as Gal-?-(1?6)-Gal-?-(1?[4 or 6])-GlcNAc by LC-MS, analysis of the MS/MS spectra of selected in-source fragment ions, and their relative retention times. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of five galactosylated fucosides, but their linkage type could not be identified, partly due to the lack of reference compounds. ?-Gal of lactic acid bacteria may serve as suitable tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of therapeutic oligosaccharides. PMID:22497208

Black, Brenna A; Lee, Vivian S Y; Zhao, Yuan Yuan; Hu, Ying; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

2012-05-03

104

Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough.  

PubMed

Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread. PMID:20227604

Zhang, Chonggang; Brandt, Markus J; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

2009-12-03

105

Viability of probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and nonprobiotic microflora in Argentinian Fresco cheese.  

PubMed

We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bifidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combinations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts, and molds) organisms were counted at 0, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage. Furthermore, the acid resistance of probiotic and starter bacteria was determined from hydrochloric solutions (pH 2 and 3) of Fresco cheese. The results showed that nine different combinations of bifidobacteria and L. acidophilus had a satisfactory viability (count decreases in 60 d <1 log order) in the cheese. Both combinations of bifidobacteria and L. casei cultures assayed also showed a satisfactory survival (counts decreased <1 log order for bifidobacteria but no decrease was detected for L. casei). On the other hand, the three combinations of bifidobacteria, L. acidophilus, and L. casei tested adapted well to the Fresco cheese environment. When a cheese homogenate at pH 3 was used to partially simulate the acidic conditions in the stomach, the probiotic cultures had an excellent ability to remain viable up to 3 h. At pH 2, the cell viability was more affected; B. bifidum was the most resistant organism. This study showed that the Argentinian Fresco cheese could be used as an adequate carrier of probiotic bacteria. PMID:11003217

Vinderola, C G; Prosello, W; Ghiberto, T D; Reinheimer, J A

2000-09-01

106

Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.  

PubMed

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

Sybesma, Wilbert; Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen; Kort, Remco

2013-01-25

107

Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies.

Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

2013-01-01

108

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Electron Transport Chains?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. The addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels that are typically found in L. plantarum growth media (1 to 2% [vol/vol] glucose). In contrast, comparable mannitol levels did not inhibit the reduction of nitrate. L. plantarum reduced nitrate with concomitant formation of nitrite and ammonia. Genes that encode a bd-type cytochrome (cydABCD) and a nitrate reductase (narGHJI) were identified in the genome of L. plantarum. The narGHJI operon is part of a cluster of genes that includes the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis genes and narK. Besides a menaquinone source, isogenic mutants revealed that cydA and ndh1 are required for the aerobic-respiration-like response and narG for nitrate reduction. The ndh1 mutant was still able to reduce nitrate. The existence of a nonredundant branched electron transport chain in L. plantarum WCFS1 that is capable of using oxygen or nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor is proposed.

Brooijmans, R. J. W.; de Vos, W. M.; Hugenholtz, J.

2009-01-01

109

Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic.

Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

2012-01-01

110

Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058

Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

2012-11-19

111

Lactobacillus salivarius: Bacteriocin and probiotic activity.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

2013-06-15

112

Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus regulate inflammatory pathway and improve antioxidant status in collagen-induced arthritic rats.  

PubMed

In view of well-established immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus, present investigation was carried out to evaluate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus, against inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress developed in an experimental model of arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was used. Oral administration of L. casei, L. acidophilus, standard antiarthritic drug indomethacin, and vehicle were started after induced arthritis and continued up to day 28. Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were estimated in serum. In parallel, oxidative stress parameters were also measured from synovial effsuate. All rats were graded for arthritis score at the end of each week. L. casei, L. acidophilus, and indomethacin treatment significantly downregulated proinflammatory and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines at P<0.0001. They have significantly decreased oxidative stress in synovial effsuate (P<0.0001) and also arthritis score (P<0.05). Protection provided by L. casei and L. acidophilus was more pronounced than that of indomethacin. These lines of evidence suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus exert potent protective effect against CIA. It further establishes effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Lactobacillus. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of Lactobacillus in treatment/management of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23030670

Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

2012-10-02

113

Lactobacillus hayakitensis sp. nov., isolated from intestines of healthy thoroughbreds  

PubMed Central

Two strains, KBL13T and GBL13, were isolated as one of intestinal lactobacilli from the faecal specimens from different thoroughbreds of the same farm where they were born in Hokkaido, Japan. They were Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile rods. KBL13T and GBL13 homofermentatively metabolize glucose, and produce lactate as the sole final product from glucose. The 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA–DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content and biochemical characterization indicated that these two strains, KBL13T and GBL13, belong to the same species. In the representative strain, KBL13T, the DNA G+C content was 34.3?mol%. Lactobacillus salivarius JCM 1231T (=ATCC 11741T; AF089108) is the type strain most closely related to the strain KBL13T as shown in the phylogenetic tree, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence identity showed 96.0?% (1425/1484?bp). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of this strain indicated that the two isolated strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and that they formed a branch distinct from their closest relatives, L. salivarius, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus saerimneri and Lactobacillus acidipiscis. DNA–DNA reassociation experiments with L. salivarius and L. aviarius confirmed that KBL13T represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus hayakitensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL13T (=JCM 14209T=DSM 18933T).

Morita, Hidetoshi; Shiratori, Chiharu; Murakami, Masaru; Takami, Hideto; Kato, Yukio; Endo, Akihito; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Takagi, Misako; Akita, Hiroaki; Okada, Sanae; Masaoka, Toshio

2007-01-01

114

Quantitative transcript analysis of the inducible expression system pSIP: comparison of the overexpression of Lactobacillus spp. ?-galactosidases in Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Two sets of overlapping genes, lacLMReu and lacLMAci, encoding heterodimeric ?-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively, have previously been cloned and expressed using the pSIP vector system and Lactobacillus plantarum WCSF1 as host. Despite the high similarity between these lacLM genes and the use of identical cloning and expression strategies, strains harboring lacLMReu produced about twenty-fold more ?-galactosidase

Tien-Thanh Nguyen; Thu-Ha Nguyen; Thomas Maischberger; Philipp Schmelzer; Geir Mathiesen; Vincent GH Eijsink; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens K Peterbauer

2011-01-01

115

Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov., isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica).  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three Lactobacillus-like micro-organisms (strains SG293(T), SG296 and SG310) isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) in Japan was investigated. These heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and did not show catalase activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain SG293(T) revealed that the type strains of Lactobacillus malefermentans (98.3 %), Lactobacillus odoratitofui (96.2 %), Lactobacillus similis (96.1 %), Lactobacillus kimchicus (96.1 %), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (95.9 %) and Lactobacillus collinoides (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours. Additional phylogenetic analysis on the basis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these three strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the novel isolates had a unique taxonomic position. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Because low DNA-DNA hybridization values among the isolates and Lactobacillus malefermentans JCM 12497(T) were observed, it is proposed that these unidentified isolates be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov. The type strain is SG293(T) (= JCM 18671(T) = DSM 26518(T)). PMID:23378109

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidehiko; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-02-01

116

Crystal structure of tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in plants. Hydrolyzable tannins are derivatives of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) or its meta-depsidic forms that are esterified to polyol, catechin, or triterpenoid units. Tannases are a family of esterases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the galloyl ester bond in hydrolyzable tannins to release gallic acid. The enzymes have found wide applications in food, feed, beverage, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries since their discovery more than a century ago, although little is known about them at the molecular level, including the details of the catalytic and substrate binding sites. Here, we report the first three-dimensional structure of a tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum. The enzyme displays an ?/? structure, featured by a large cap domain inserted into the classical serine hydrolase fold. A catalytic triad was identified in the structure, which is composed of Ser163, His451, and Asp419. During the binding of gallic acid, the carboxyl group of the molecule forges hydrogen-bonding interactions with the catalytic triad of the enzyme while the three hydroxyl groups make contacts with Asp421, Lys343, and Glu357 to form another hydrogen-bonding network. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that these residues are indispensable for the activity of the enzyme. Structural studies of the enzyme in complex with a number of substrates indicated that the interactions at the galloyl binding site are the determinant force for the binding of substrates. The single galloyl binding site is responsible for the esterase and depsidase activities of the enzyme. PMID:23648840

Ren, Bin; Wu, Mingbo; Wang, Qin; Peng, Xiaohong; Wen, Hua; McKinstry, William J; Chen, Qianming

2013-05-03

117

Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics. PMID:23292549

Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-01-05

118

Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

1995-01-01

119

Adherence of Lactobacillus Species to Human Fetal Intestinal Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two lactobacilli were tested for ability to adhere to a human fetal in- testinal epithelial cell line. By an in vitro system, two adherence mechanisms were found. One mechanism, requiring calcium in the adherence reaction, was nonspecific and allowed all lactobacilli tested to adhere. The other system, not requiring calcium, was found in four strains, all human Lactobacillus acidopbilus isolates.

E. G. Kleeman; T. R. Klaenhammer

1982-01-01

120

Antibacterial Effect of the Adhering Human Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain LB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Kleb- siella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

MARIE-HELENE COCONNIER; VANESSA LIEVIN; MARIE-FRANCOISE BERNET-CAMARD; SYLVIE HUDAULT; ALAIN L. SERVIN

1997-01-01

121

Stabilization and Preservation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Saccharide Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyophilization and vacuum- or spray-drying are some of the most useful techniques for preserving foods, agricultural products, and pharmaceuticals. Biological materials, however, can be irreversibly damaged during these treatments. Therefore, it is essential to design protective agents to preserve protein activity and cell viability. In this paper we examine the use of ?,?-trehalose–borate systems as protectants for Lactobacillus acidophilus during

Paul B. Conrad; Danforth P. Miller; Peter R. Cielenski; Juan J. de Pablo

2000-01-01

122

Functional properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from kimchi.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable product generally consumed raw as a side-dish with practically every meal. Twelve mild acid producing facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus strains were selected for their potential as starter cultures for fermentation of kimchi, and evaluated for their functional properties. Eleven strains were identified as Lactobacillus sakei and one as Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains identified as L. sakei differed in some physiological features; of particular interest was the fact that 9 of these strains produced L(+) lactic acid from glucose in presence of acetate. All strains were able to survive gastrointestinal conditions simulating stomach and duodenum passage. In addition, they showed higher adherence to HT-29 cells than Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a commercial probiotic strain used worldwide. These strains also showed antimicrobial activity against a number of food-borne pathogens. Their ability to lower cholesterol was demonstrated by BSH (bile salt hydrolytic) activity, and cholesterol assimilation tests in vitro. The results suggest the probiotic potential of these strains for use in kimchi fermentation. PMID:21215484

Lee, Heejae; Yoon, Hongsup; Ji, Yosep; Kim, Hannah; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

2010-12-13

123

The heterocyclic amine binding receptors of Lactobacillus gasseri cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri is a common inhabitant of human intestine. The L. gasseri strains SBT10239 and SBT10241 have shown high antimutagenicity and binding properties with different heterocyclic amines. In order to identify the cell wall components involved in binding with the heterocyclic amines, the cells and cell walls of L. gasseri strains were subjected to different chemical and enzymatical treatments, prior

O Sreekumar; A Hosono

1998-01-01

124

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri Strain 2016.  

PubMed

Different common factors contribute to the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus gasseri toward various pathogens. However, there is strain-to-strain variation in the probiotic properties of this bacterium. The draft genome sequence of L. gasseri strain 2016 determined in this study will assist in understanding the genetic basis for such variation. PMID:23969051

Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Kosarev, Igor V; Khlebnikov, Valentin C; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Abramov, Vyacheslav M

2013-08-22

125

The PTS transporters of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactobacilli can utilize a variety of carbohydrates which reflects the nutrient availability in their respective environments. A common lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract, Lactobacillus gasseri, was selected for further study. The currently available annotation of the L. gasseri ATCC 33323 genome describes numerous putative genes involved in carbohydrate utilization, yet the specific functions of many of these genes

Alyssa L Francl; Taksawan Thongaram; Michael J Miller

2010-01-01

126

Identification of a Growth Stimulant for Lactobacillus sanfrancisco†  

PubMed Central

A compound required for the luxuriant growth of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco in laboratory media was isolated from a freshly prepared yeast extract, purified, and characterized. The stimulant was identified as a small peptide with a molecular weight of approximately 1,065, containing aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, and lysine.

Berg, R. W.; Sandine, W. E.; Anderson, A. W.

1981-01-01

127

Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 is a commercially available probiotic that is widely used in human dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products. We prepared a draft genome sequence consisting of 10 contigs totaling 2,900,620 bases and a G+C content of 46.7% for this strain.

Barreau, Guillaume; de Carvalho, Vanessa G.

2012-01-01

128

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhances gastric ulcer healing in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are widely used as functional foods which have been advocated for the maintenance of gastrointestinal microflora equilibrium and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, studying the role of probiotics in peptic ulcer disease is limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on gastric ulcer and to elucidate the

Emily K. Y. Lam; L. Yu; Helen P. S. Wong; William K. K. Wu; Vivian Y. Shin; Emily K. K. Tai; Wallace H. L. So; Patrick C. Y. Woo; C. H. Cho

2007-01-01

129

Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on saliva-derived microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is shown to hamper the presence of mutans streptococci in saliva and may have positive effects on oral health. We investigated the effects of LGG on the cariogenic potential and microbial composition of saliva-derived microcosms.

Lien Chi Pham; Michel A. Hoogenkamp; Rob A. M. Exterkate; Zewdu Terefework; Johannes J. de Soet; Jacob M. ten Cate; Wim Crielaard; Egija Zaura

2011-01-01

130

CLONING, EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND ANALYSIS OF MANNITOL DEHYDROGENASE OF MTLD AND MTLK GENES FROM LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM AND LACTOBACILLUS BREVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The commercial production of mannitol involves high-pressure hydrogenation of fructose using a nickel catalyst, a fairly costly and inefficient process. Mannitol can be produced through fermentation processes by microorganisms. Currently, a few lactobacillus strains are being used to develop a man...

131

Transformation of, and Heterologous Protein Expression in, Lactobacillus agilis and Lactobacillus vaginalis Isolates from the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are naturally found in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, and there is interest in utilizing autochthonous strains for the delivery of therapeutic proteins. Previously we identified three chicken-derived Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus agilis La3, Lactobacillus vaginalis Lv5, and Lactobacillus crispatus Lc9, which persist in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens fed either a commercial or high-protein diet. In the current study, we investigated the ability to electrotransform these strains, determined plasmid vector stability, and compared reporter gene expression directed by several different promoters. The La3 and Lv5 strains were reproducibly transformed with efficiencies of 108 and 106 transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA, respectively. The third strain tested, L. crispatus Lc9, was recalcitrant to all transformation protocols examined. The plasmid vectors pTRK563 and pTRKH2 were maintained over 100 generations in La3 and Lv5, respectively. The ability of La3 and Lv5 to express the heterologous reporter gene gfp was analyzed using heterologous and homologous promoters. Transformants of both La3 and Lv5 containing the La3 ldhL promoter were the most fluorescent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful transformation and heterologous protein expression in L. agilis and L. vaginalis. The ability of these strains to express heterologous proteins in vitro indicates their potential utility as in vivo delivery vectors for therapeutic peptides to the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

Stephenson, David P.; Moore, Robert J.; Allison, Gwen E.

2011-01-01

132

Inhibition of Growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Clostridia perfringens on Chicken Feed Media by Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dominant strains of lactobacilli isolated from a botanical probiotic were identified and evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit the in vitro growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens on a medium that simulated a normal starter and grower diet for broiler chickens. The two strains identified were Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the inhibition assay

2004-01-01

133

Lactobacillus? and bifidobacterium?mediated antigenotoxicity in the colon of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are proposed to have several beneficial effects, including the inactivation of carcinogens. We have studied the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (from a commercially available yogurt), Lactobacillus gasseri (P79), Lactobacillus confusus (DSM 20196), Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIM 50083), Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum (from human infant stool) to prevent the induction of DNA damage by N?methy?N'?nitro?N?nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 7.5

C. Neudecker; I. Domizlaff; S. Ji; U. Schillinger; C. Rumney; M. Moretti; I. Vilarini; I. Rowland

1996-01-01

134

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric\\u000a juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract.

Pyoung Il Kim; Min Young Jung; Young-Hyo Chang; Saehun Kim; Seong-Jae Kim; Yong-Ha Park

2007-01-01

135

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei from yogurts and fermented milk drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective medium (LC agar) was developed for enumeration of Lactobacillus casei populations from commercial yogurts and fermented milk drinks that may contain strains of yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria) and L. casei. Appropriate dilutions were pour-plated in specially formulated LC agar acidified to pH 5.1 and the plates incubated

Ramakanth R. Ravula; Nagendra P. Shah

1998-01-01

136

Colonization and Fecal Enzyme Activities after Oral Lactobacillus GG Administration in Elderly Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of 2-week oral administration of a Lactobacillus-GG-fermentedwhey drink on fecal enzymes in elderly nursing home residents complaining of difficulties in defecation. The study was divided into three 2-week periods: baseline (2 dl placebo drink\\/day); Lactobacillus GG treatment (2 dl of a Lactobacillus-GG-fermented whey drink containing 108 cfu lactobacilli\\/ml); follow-up (2 dl placebo

W. H. Ling; O. Hänninen; H. Mykkänen; M. Heikura; S. Salminen; A. Von Wright

1992-01-01

137

Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Lactobacillus genus.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are Gram positive rods belonging to the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) group. Their phenotypic traits, such as each species' obligate/facultative, homo/heterofermentation abilities play a crucial role in souring raw milk and in the production of fermented dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt and fermented milk (including probiotics). An up to date safety analysis of these lactobacilli is needed to ensure consumer safety. Lactobacillus genus is a heterogeneous microbial group containing some 135 species and 27 subspecies, whose classification is constantly being reshuffled. With the recent use of advanced molecular methods it has been suggested that the extreme diversity of the Lactobacillus genomes would justify recognition of new subgeneric divisions. A combination of genotypic and phenotypic tests, for example DNA-based techniques and conventional carbohydrate tests, is required to determine species. Pulsed-Field gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) has been successfully applied to strains of dairy origin and is the most discriminatory and reproducible method for differentiating Lactobacillus strains. The bibliographical data support the hypothesis that the ingestion of Lactobacillus is not at all hazardous since lactobacillemia induced by food, particularly fermented dairy products, is extremely rare and only occurs in predisposed patients. Some metabolic features such as the possible production of biogenic amines in fermented products could generate undesirable adverse effects. A minority of starter and adjunct cultures and probiotic Lactobacillus strains may exceptionally show transferable antibiotic resistance. However, this may be underestimated as transferability studies are not systematic. We consider that transferable antibiotic resistance is the only relevant cause for caution and justifies performing antibiotic-susceptibility assays as these strains have the potential to serve as hosts of antibiotic-resistance genes, with the risk of transferring these genes to other bacteria. However, as a general rule, lactobacilli have a high natural resistance to many antibiotics, especially vancomycin, that is not transferable. Safety assessment requirements for Lactobacillus strains of technological interest should be limited to an antibiotic profile and a study to determine whether any antibiotic resistance(s) of medical interest detected is (or are) transferable. This agrees with the recent EFSA proposal suggesting attribution of a QPS status for 32 selected species of lactobacilli. PMID:17889388

Bernardeau, Marion; Vernoux, Jean Paul; Henri-Dubernet, Ségolène; Guéguen, Micheline

2007-08-22

138

Functional Analysis of Three Plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 harbors three plasmids, pWCFS101, pWCFS102, and pWCFS103, with sizes of 1,917, 2,365, and 36,069 bp, respectively. The two smaller plasmids are of unknown function and contain replication genes that are likely to function via the rolling-circle replication mechanism. The host range of the pWCFS101 replicon includes Lactobacillus species and Lactococcus lactis, while that of the pWCFS102 replicon also includes Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Bacillus subtilis. The larger plasmid is predicted to replicate via the theta-type mechanism. The host range of its replicon seems restricted to L. plantarum. Cloning vectors were constructed based on the replicons of all three plasmids. Plasmid pWCFS103 was demonstrated to be a conjugative plasmid, as it could be transferred to L. plantarum NC8. It confers arsenate and arsenite resistance, which can be used as selective markers.

van Kranenburg, Richard; Golic, Natasa; Bongers, Roger; Leer, Rob J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-01-01

139

Biowaste: a Lactobacillus habitat and lactic acid fermentation substrate.  

PubMed

Composite organic waste was assessed for its physical, chemical and microbial suitability to serve as a substrate for the fermentative production of lactic acid. The biowaste studied was highly acidic (pH 4.3) and had high organic carbon content (45%). A clone library identified 90% of the bacterial community were lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by Lactobacilli (70%). Cultivation using semiselective media identified Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and their closest relatives as the dominating taxa. PCR-DGGE using general bacterial and lactic acid bacterial specific primers resulted in little heterogeneity of microbial community. These data indicate that biowaste is a preferred habitat of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting that the unsterilized biowaste and its natural flora could be used in a fermentation process for lactic acid production. Such kind of biowaste application could be an alternative for current substrates and provide a modern, efficient and environmental friendly waste treatment technology. PMID:23816359

Probst, Maraike; Fritschi, Annika; Wagner, Andreas; Insam, Heribert

2013-06-14

140

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and L. reuteri RC14 to prevent or cure bacterial vaginosis among women with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess, among women with HIV, whether long-term oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 supplementation can prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and enhance the cure rate of metronidazole among those with BV.

Ruben Hummelen; John Changalucha; Nicodemus L. Butamanya; Adrian Cook; J. Dik F. Habbema; Gregor Reid

2010-01-01

141

Die Herkunft von Gärungsnebenprodukten bei der Milchsäuregärung von Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of by-products of the lactic acid fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated using specifically labelled glucoses. It could be demonstrated that about 2\\/3 of the CO2 is derived from carbon-1 of the glucose by hexose-monophosphate-shunt. The remaining CO2 and the ethanol originate from the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid formed via the Embden-Meyerhof-pathway. The consequence of these results for

N. Weiss; M. Busse; O. Kandler

1968-01-01

142

Physiological Response of Lactobacillus plantarum to Salt and Nonelectrolyte Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we compared the effects on the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum of raising the medium molarity by high concentrations of KCl or NaCl and iso-osmotic concentrations of nonionic compounds. Analysis of cellular extracts for organic constituents by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that salt-stressed cells do not contain detectable amounts of organic osmolytes, whereas sugar-stressed cells contain sugar

Pieter F. ter Steeg; Frans S. B. Tjan; Erwin Glaasker; Wil N. Konings; Bert Poolman

1998-01-01

143

Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0–4.2), citric acid (6–40g\\/L), and

Sawaminee Nualkaekul; Dimitris Charalampopoulos

2011-01-01

144

Strain improvement of Lactobacillus lactis for d -lactic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mutants, isolated by repeated UV mutagenesis of Lactobacillus lactis NCIM 2368, produced increased d-lactic acid concentrations. These mutants were compared with the wild type using 100 g hydrolyzed cane sugar\\/l in the fermentation\\u000a medium. One mutant, RM2-24, produced 81 g lactic acid\\/l which was over three times that of the wild type. The highest d-lactic acid (110 g\\/l) in batch fermentation was

D. S. Joshi; M. S. Singhvi; J. M. Khire; D. V. Gokhale

2010-01-01

145

Influence of carbohydrates on cell properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli represent normal commensals of the human body, particularly in the gut and vagina where they protect these environments\\u000a from incoming pathogens via a variety of mechanisms. The influence of the carbohydrate source present in reconstituted MRS growth medium on the different\\u000a cell properties of two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were examined. Two human vaginal isolates, BGHV719 and exopolysaccharide producer strain

Jelena Begovic; Djordje Fira; Amarela Terzic-Vidojevic; Ljubisa Topisirovic

2010-01-01

146

Role of ? -oxidation in inhibiting Lactobacillus leichmanii by fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of saturated fatty acids from 6:0 to 16:0 and oleic acid onLactobacillus leichmanii ATCC 4797 growing in non-skim-milk media was determined. The inhibition by lauric acid was higher than that obtained with any other fatty acid. A mutant (MC12) resistant to the fatty acid inhibition with high ß-oxidation activity was also studied. A positive correlation between the ability

Martha S. Núñez de Kairúz; Guillermo Oliver; Aída A. Pesce de Ruiz Holgado; Ricardo N. Farías

1983-01-01

147

Acute onset lactobacillus endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report a case of early lactobacillus endophthalmitis which occurred ten days after trabeculectomy. Case presentation A 76-year-old Caucasian diabetic woman underwent uncomplicated trabeculectomy with a collagen implant as an adjunct, in her left phakic eye, for the treatment of uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma. Ten days post-operatively, our patient complained of left phakic eye discharge pain and visual acuity decreased to "light-perception". The anterior chamber had 3+ cells and flare, and there was also 2 mm layered hypopyon. Vitreous involvement was present obscuring visualization of the fundus. On the same day our patient underwent vitrectomy surgery and intra-vitreal and systemic antibiotics were administered. Vitreous cultures grew Lactobacillus brevis. Our patient responded well to treatment and 30 days after vitrectomy visual acuity improved to 1/10. Six months later our patient underwent cataract surgery. Eight months after initial surgery visual acuity was 2/10 and intra-ocular pressure was 14 mmHg without any anti-glaucoma medication. Conclusions This is the first report of acute lactobacillus endophthalmitis in the phakic eye of a diabetic patient after trabeculectomy. Glaucoma surgeons should be aware of the potential for acute post-operative endophthalmitis due to rare microorganisms, such as lactobacillus, in glaucoma filtration surgery, especially in diabetic patients. The literature shows an increased risk of endophthalmitis when anti-metabolites are used in conjunction with trabeculectomy. Perhaps, any type of wound healing modulation, such as collagen or mitomycin-C may increase this risk. However, it is unclear at this time and more studies need to be done. In this single case, vitrectomy combined with intra-vitreal and systemic antibiotics were efficient in limiting the devastating sequels of this complication.

2010-01-01

148

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid

Michiel Kleerebezem; Jos Boekhorst; Richard van Kranenburg; Douwe Molenaar; Oscar P. Kuipers; Rob Leer; Renato Tarchini; Sander A. Peters; Hans M. Sandbrink; Mark W. E. J. Fiers; Willem Stiekema; René M. Klein Lankhorst; Peter A. Bron; Sally M. Hoffer; Masja N. Nierop Groot; Robert Kerkhoven; Maaike de Vries; Björn Ursing; Willem M. de Vos; Roland J. Siezen

2003-01-01

149

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14.  

PubMed

We present the 1,991,830-bp complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-14 (SD-5212). Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.98% similarity overall to the L. acidophilus NCFM genome. Globally, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (95 SNPs, 16 indels) were observed throughout the genome. Also, a 416-bp deletion in the LA14_1146 sugar ABC transporter was identified. PMID:23788546

Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe

2013-06-20

150

Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods.

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

151

Inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in cheese by Lactobacillus gasseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-hard cheese produced from milk artificially contaminated with Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores (2.5×103mL?1) was used as a model for studying the ability of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (Rifr) to inhibit clostridia. The added lactobacilli did not inhibit the primary starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus), but inhibited non-starter mesophilic lactobacilli. Late blowing as a result of Cl. tyrobutyricum outgrowth and butyric acid

B. Bogovi? Matijaši?; M. Koman Rajšp; B. Perko; I. Rogelj

2007-01-01

152

Lactobacillus gasseri as the cause of septic urinary infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 66-year-old patient developed severe urinary stasis due to a concrement in his right ureter; foudroyant septicemia followed.Lactobacillus gasseri was grown from pyoid urine from the right renal pelvis and in two blood cultures, thus suggesting septic urinary infection caused by lactobacilli. The infection was cured by catheterisation of the right ureter and antibiotic treatment with cefotaxime and amoxicillin.

U. Dickgießer; N. Weiss; D. Fritsche

1984-01-01

153

Lactobacillus surface layer proteins: structure, function and applications.  

PubMed

Bacterial surface (S) layers are the outermost proteinaceous cell envelope structures found on members of nearly all taxonomic groups of bacteria and Archaea. They are composed of numerous identical subunits forming a symmetric, porous, lattice-like layer that completely covers the cell surface. The subunits are held together and attached to cell wall carbohydrates by non-covalent interactions, and they spontaneously reassemble in vitro by an entropy-driven process. Due to the low amino acid sequence similarity among S-layer proteins in general, verification of the presence of an S-layer on the bacterial cell surface usually requires electron microscopy. In lactobacilli, S-layer proteins have been detected on many but not all species. Lactobacillus S-layer proteins differ from those of other bacteria in their smaller size and high predicted pI. The positive charge in Lactobacillus S-layer proteins is concentrated in the more conserved cell wall binding domain, which can be either N- or C-terminal depending on the species. The more variable domain is responsible for the self-assembly of the monomers to a periodic structure. The biological functions of Lactobacillus S-layer proteins are poorly understood, but in some species S-layer proteins mediate bacterial adherence to host cells or extracellular matrix proteins or have protective or enzymatic functions. Lactobacillus S-layer proteins show potential for use as antigen carriers in live oral vaccine design because of their adhesive and immunomodulatory properties and the general non-pathogenicity of the species. PMID:23677442

Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi

2013-05-16

154

Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCOâ, (NHâ)âHPOâ, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for

S. Ghosh; M. P. Henry; P. A. Fedde

1982-01-01

155

Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 Antagonizes Giardia intestinalis In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the in vivo activity of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (NCC533) in Giardia intestinalis- infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Daily administration of lactobacilli in the drinking water from 7 days before inoculation with Giardia trophozoites efficiently prevented G. intestinalis strain WB clone C6 from infecting gerbils. More specifically, shedding of fecal Giardia antigens (GSA65 protein) was diminished in the La1-treated

M. A. Humen; G. L. De Antoni; J. Benyacoub; M. E. Costas; M. I. Cardozo; L. Kozubsky; K.-Y. Saudan; A. Boenzli-Bruand; S. Blum; E. J. Schiffrin; P. F. Perez

2005-01-01

156

Evaluation of alginate-immobilized Lactobacillus casei for lactate production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate production by immobilized Lactobacillus casei has been studied. The cells were immobilized in alginate and the effect of variations in different parameters on product formation and productivity was investigated. The performance of the reaction was evaluated in stirred batch as well as in packed-bed conditions. pH control was a problem in the packed-bed reactor. In stirred batch experiments, nearly

Dong Guoqiang; Rajni Kaul; Bo Mattiasson

1991-01-01

157

Antitumor effect of intrapleural administration of Lactobacillus casei in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumor effect of intrapleural (i.pl.) administration of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 (LC 9018) on Meth A sarcoma in BALB\\/c mice was examined. Inoculation of Meth A cells into the thoracic cavity of BALB\\/c mice caused growth of the cells and the mice died from the tumor with an increased amount of pleural fluid. LC 9018 was given i.pl. to

Takeshi Matsuzaki; Teruo Yokokura; Masahiko Mutai

1988-01-01

158

Spray Drying of a Vaginal Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study of the spray-drying process of a vaginal strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in order to enhance the cells viability and probiotics properties during storage. The results show that the powder obtained presents dried strain viability in the range of 10–10 (CFU\\/g) with product moisture content below 10%. Additionally, the dehydrated strain maintains its viability during two

B. Riveros; J. Ferrer; R. Bórquez

2009-01-01

159

Optimization of Dehydration of Lactobacillus salivarius Using Radiant Energy Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant energy under vacuum (REV) as a rapid dehydration method was employed to dehydrate Lactobacillus salivarius 417 along with different concentrations of skim milk powder as protective medium. Two optimization methods: response surface\\u000a methodology and random centroid analysis (RCO) were applied and compared to optimize the dehydration parameters for maximum\\u000a viability—microwave power, absolute pressure in the drying chamber, and protective

Shafique Ahmad; Parastoo Yaghmaee; Tim Durance

160

The genomes and comparative genomics of Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages are a great source of genetic diversity. Here, the genome sequences of Lb. delbrueckii phages LL-Ku, c5 and JCL1032 were analyzed in detail, and the genetic diversity of Lb. delbrueckii phages belonging to different taxonomic groups was explored. The lytic isometric group b phages LL-Ku (31,080 bp) and c5 (31,841 bp) showed a minimum nucleotide sequence identity of 90%

Katja-Anneli Riipinen; Päivi Forsman; Tapani Alatossava

2011-01-01

161

Purification of Buchnericin LB Produced by Lactobacillus buchneri LB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buchnericin LB produced by Lactobacillus buchneri LB was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and simple three-step purification procedure including freeze drying, silicic acid adsorption\\/desorption and cation-exchange chromatography. After the silicic acid and cation-exchange chromatography steps, the activity of buchnericin LB was recovered by 85 and 25%, and its purity increased about 111 and 2,500 fold, respectively. It was determined

Metin YILDIRIM

2001-01-01

162

Inducible Promoter-Repressor System from the Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim to extend the presently available inducible gene expression systems for lactobacilli, we have isolated a thermoinducible promoter-repressor cassette from the temperate Lactobacillus casei phage FSW-TI in Escherichia coli. The FSW-TI promoter fragment was abutted to the plasmid-borne promoterless -glu- curonidase (gusA) reporter gene and shown to direct its transcription in L. casei. In addition, the functionality of

Phage FSW; Bernhard Binishofer; Isabella Moll; Bernhard Henrich; Udo Blasi

2002-01-01

163

Extracellular proteins of Lactobacillus crispatus enhance activation of human plasminogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundant proteolytic plasminogen (Plg)\\/plasmin system is important in several physiological functions in mammals and also engaged by a number of pathogenic microbial species to increase tissue invasiveness or to obtain nutrients. This paper reports that a commensal bacterium, Lactobacillus crispatus, interacts with the Plg system. Strain ST1 of L. crispatus enhanced activation of human Plg by the tissue-type Plg

Veera Hurmalainen; Sanna Edelman; Jenni Antikainen; Marc Baumann; K. Lahteenmaki; Timo K. Korhonen

2007-01-01

164

Production and secretion of Lactobacillus crispatus ?-galactosidase in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus ?-galactosidases are mostly heterodimeric proteins, which are encoded by the two overlapping genes, lacL and lacM, and produced in recombinant prokaryotic systems for higher yield. This is the first report on the expression of a heterodimeric ?-galactosidase from Lactobacillus crispatus B470 in Pichia pastoris. The overlapping consecutive genes, lacL and lacM, that shared 17 nucleotides were cloned from the genomic DNA of L. crispatus. A recombinant plasmid harboring both expression cassettes of lacL and lacM was constructed and transformed into P. pastoris GS115 competent cells. Two recombinant P. pastoris strains (GSLac01 and GSLac02) showed the highest ?-galactosidase activities of 24.5 and 31.0U/ml in the culture supernatants, respectively. The recombinant ?-galactosidase (LcLacLM) from GSLac02 was purified to electrphoretic homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Similar to most Lactobacillus ?-galactosidases that operate at moderately thermophilic and weak acid to neutral conditions, LcLacLM showed optimal activity at 50°C and pH 5.5-6.5. It's the first report on functional and secretory expression of LacLM-type ?-galactosidase in eukaryotic system. This strategy might be applied to the expression of other overlapping genes. PMID:24012790

Nie, Chunming; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Guofen; Fan, Xiaohu; Ning, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Wei

2013-09-06

165

Antifungal activity of two Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic properties.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin (highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by fungi) contamination is a serious problem worldwide. Modern agriculture and animal production systems need to use high-quality and mycotoxin-free feedstuffs. The use of microorganisms to preserve food has gained importance in recent years due to the demand for reduced use of chemical preservatives by consumers. Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce various antimicrobial compounds that are considered to be important in the biopreservation of food and feed. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 and Lactobacillus fermentum L23 are producers of secondary metabolites, such as organic acids, bacteriocins and, in the case of L60, hydrogen peroxide. The antifungal activity of lactobacilli strains was determined by coculture with Aspergillus section Flavi strains by two qualitative and one quantitative methods. Both L23 and L60 completely inhibited the fungal growth of all aflatoxicogenic strains assayed. Aflatoxin B (1) production was reduced 95.7-99.8% with L60 and 27.5-100% with L23. Statistical analysis of the data revealed the influence of L60 and L23 on growth parameters and aflatoxin B (1) production. These results are important given that these aflatoxicogenic fungi are natural contaminants of feed used for animal production, and could be effectively controlled by Lactobacillus L60 and L23 strains with probiotic properties. PMID:22497448

Gerbaldo, Gisela A; Barberis, Carla; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana; Barberis, Lucila

2012-05-15

166

Comparative Sequence Analyses of the Genes Coding for 16s rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-Related Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structures of the 16s rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lacto- bacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhumnosus were different. The K,,, values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the K,,, values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness

KATSUMI MORI; KOJI YAMAZAKI; TOMOHARU ISHIYAMA; KAYO KOBAYASH; HARUO SHINAN

1997-01-01

167

Probiotic interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is the most important Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC has significant medical and economical impact on women's health and wellbeing. While current antifungal treatment is reasonably effective, supportive and preventive measures such as application of probiotics are required to reduce the incidence of VVC. We investigated the potential of the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 towards control of C. albicans. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lactic acid at low pH plays a major role in suppressing fungal growth. Viability staining following cocultures with lactobacilli revealed that C. albicans cells lost metabolic activity and eventually were killed. Transcriptome analyses showed increased expression of stress-related genes and lower expression of genes involved in fluconazole resistance, which might explain the increased eradication of Candida in a previous clinical study on conjoint probiotic therapy. Our results provide insights on the impact of probiotics on C. albicans survival. PMID:22811591

Köhler, Gerwald A; Assefa, Senait; Reid, Gregor

2012-07-01

168

Probiotic Interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is the most important Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC has significant medical and economical impact on women's health and wellbeing. While current antifungal treatment is reasonably effective, supportive and preventive measures such as application of probiotics are required to reduce the incidence of VVC. We investigated the potential of the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 towards control of C. albicans. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lactic acid at low pH plays a major role in suppressing fungal growth. Viability staining following cocultures with lactobacilli revealed that C. albicans cells lost metabolic activity and eventually were killed. Transcriptome analyses showed increased expression of stress-related genes and lower expression of genes involved in fluconazole resistance, which might explain the increased eradication of Candida in a previous clinical study on conjoint probiotic therapy. Our results provide insights on the impact of probiotics on C. albicans survival.

Kohler, Gerwald A.; Assefa, Senait; Reid, Gregor

2012-01-01

169

Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans include possible antitumor activity.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici were found to inhibit the development and growth of the worm. Compared to Escherichia coli used as the control, L. reuteri and P. acidilactici reduced the lifespan of wild-type and short-lived daf-16 worms. On the contrary, L. salivarius extended the lifespan of daf-16 worms when used live, but reduced it as UV-killed bacteria. The three LAB induced the expression of genes involved in pathogen response and inhibited the growth of tumor-like germ cells, without affecting DAF16 localization or increasing corpse cells. Our results suggest the possible use of C. elegans as a model for studying the antitumor attributes of LAB. The negative effects of these LAB strains on the nematode also indicate their potential use against parasitic nematodes. PMID:22923095

Fasseas, Michael K; Fasseas, Costas; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Syntichaki, Popi

2012-08-26

170

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

2012-01-01

171

Cloning and heterologous expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene from Lactobacillus casei Lc18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the species of Lactobacillus can be considered to be “probiotics” with a variety of benefits, including imparting antioxidative effects to the host. Lactobacillus species evolve different mechanisms to defend themselves against oxygen toxicity, such as superoxide dismutases (SODs), hydroperoxidases\\u000a and high intracellular levels of metal ions. The SODs provide a cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress by scavenging

Qiulin Liu; Xiaomin Hang; Xianglong Liu; Jing Tan; Daotang Li; Hong Yang

172

Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: Symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to com- pare the response of symptoms and cytokine ratios in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with ingestion of probiotic preparations containing a lactobacillus or bifidobacterium strain. Methods: Seventy-seven subjects with IBS were ran- domized to receive either Lactobacillus salivarius UCC4331 or Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, each in a dose of 1 10

Liam O’Mahony; Jane McCarthy; Peter Kelly; George Hurley; Fangyi Luo; Kersang Chen; Gerald C. O’Sullivan; Barry Kiely; J. Kevin Collins; Fergus Shanahan; Eamonn M. M. Quigley

2005-01-01

173

Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei sps. rhamnosus (Lactobacillus GG) (LGG) in reducing the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea when coadministered with an oral antibiotic in children with acute infectious disorders. Study design: Two hundred two children between 6 months and 10 years of age were enrolled; 188 completed all phases of the

Jon A. Vanderhoof; David B. Whitney; Dean L. Antonson; Terri L. Hanner; James V. Lupo; Rosemary J. Young

1999-01-01

174

Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 5462, a strain with probiotic potential.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC 5462 was isolated from infant gastrointestinal flora. The strain exhibited an ability to reduce cholesterol and stimulate immunity. The strain has exhibited positive results in alleviating gastrointestinal discomfort and good potential as a probiotic. We sequenced the whole genome of the strain and compared it to the published genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). PMID:22328760

Prajapati, J B; Khedkar, C D; Chitra, J; Suja, Senan; Mishra, V; Sreeja, V; Patel, R K; Ahir, V B; Bhatt, V D; Sajnani, M R; Jakhesara, S J; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G

2012-03-01

175

Caseicin 80: purification and characterization of a new bacteriocin from Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

When grown in complex or synthetic media, Lactobacillus casei B 80 synthesizes a mitomycin C-inducible polypeptide with very specific bactericidal activity against the sensitive strain Lactobacillus casei B 109. The amount of secreted bacteriocin in the culture solution was low, about 1 mg\\/l. The bacteriocin which we called caseicin 80, was also detectable in cell extracts, although only 2% of

M. Rammelsberg; E. Miiller; F. Radler

1990-01-01

176

Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

177

Lactobacillus casei modulates the inflammation-coagulation interaction in a pneumococcal pneumonia experimental model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration improved the resistance to pneumococcal infection in a mouse model. METHODS: This study examined the effects of the oral administration of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (L. casei) on the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems as well as their inhibitors during a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. RESULTS: The

Cecilia Haro; Julio Villena; Hortensia Zelaya; Susana Alvarez; Graciela Agüero

2009-01-01

178

Restriction Endonuclease Patterns and Multivariate Analysis as a Classification Tool for Lactobacillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Lactobacillus plantarum and seven Lactobacillus reuteri strains were studied by using restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) combined with principal-component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Chromosomal DNAs from the strains were extracted and cleaved with restriction enzymes, and the DNA fragments were separated according to size by agarose gel electrophoresis. Band patterns were read by using

MARIE STAHL; GORAN MOLIN; ANDERS PERSSON; SIV AHRNE; STEN STAHL

1990-01-01

179

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, a commercial probiotic strain.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 is a commercially available strain that is widely used in probiotic preparations. The genome sequence consisted of 2,129,425 bases. Comparative analysis showed that it was unique among L. helveticus strains in that it contained genes encoding mucus-binding proteins similar to those found in Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:23105080

Tompkins, Thomas A; Barreau, Guillaume; Broadbent, Jeffery R

2012-11-01

180

Molecular characterization of the Lactobacillus community in traditional processing of Mozzarella cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural Lactobacillus community involved in traditional Mozzarella cheese production has been investigated. The bacterial associations of whey, curd before stretching and Mozzarella were analyzed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to follow growth kinetics, and 16S rDNA sequencing to identify the taxonomical position of isolated strains. Analysis of RAPD fingerprints revealed that the Lactobacillus community was composed of 13

M Morea; F Baruzzi; F Cappa; P. S Cocconcelli

1998-01-01

181

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, a Commercial Probiotic Strain  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 is a commercially available strain that is widely used in probiotic preparations. The genome sequence consisted of 2,129,425 bases. Comparative analysis showed that it was unique among L. helveticus strains in that it contained genes encoding mucus-binding proteins similar to those found in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Barreau, Guillaume; Broadbent, Jeffery R.

2012-01-01

182

Survival of Lactobacillus casei in the Human Digestive Tract after Consumption of Fermented Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (CNCM number I-1518) reduces the frequency or the duration of epi- sodes of acute diarrhea in young children (20, 21), increases the lactobacillus concentration in the gut microbiota of in- fants (10), and can modulate ex vivo production of proin- flammatory cytokines in Crohn's disease (4). Using mouse models harboring human microbiota, our

Raish Oozeer; Antony Leplingard; Denis D. G. Mater; Agnes Mogenet; Rachel Michelin; Isabelle Seksek; Philippe Marteau; Joel Dore; Jean-Louis Bresson; Gerard Corthier

2006-01-01

183

Production of salami from beef, horse, mutton, Blesbok ( Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and Springbok ( Antidorcas marsupialis) with bacteriocinogenic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum 423, producer of bacteriocin 423, Lactobacillus curvatus DF38, producer of curvacin DF38, and a bacteriocin-negative mutant of L. plantarum 423 (423m) were evaluated as starter cultures in the production of salami from beef, horse, mutton, Blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis). Growth of L. plantarum 423 and L. curvatus DF38 was best supported in Blesbok salami,

S. D. Todorov; K. S. C. Koep; C. A. Van Reenen; L. C. Hoffman; E. Slinde; L. M. T. Dicks

2007-01-01

184

Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 isolated from faeces of the same human infant produce identical cyclic bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reutericin 6, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 that was isolated from the faeces of a human infant at 2 months of age, was purified to homogeneity from broth culture-supernatant by reverse-phase chromatography. Molecular weight (5652) by mass spectrometry and primary structure of reutericin 6 were identical to that of gassericin A produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39 which was

Yasushi Kawai; Yasuyuki Ishii; Koichiro Uemura; Haruki Kitazawa; Tadao Saito; Takatoshi Itoh

2001-01-01

185

Localized Delivery of Interferon-? by Lactobacillus Exacerbates Experimental Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background There have been conflicting reports of the role of Type I interferons (IFN) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical trials have shown potent efficacy of systemic interferon-beta (IFN-?) in inducing remission of ulcerative colitis. Likewise, IFNAR1?/? mice display an increased sensitivity to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, suggesting Type I IFN play a protective role during inflammation of the gut. Curiously, however, there have also been reports detailing the spontaneous development of IBD in patients receiving systemic IFN-? therapy for multiple sclerosis or hepatitis. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the effects of local administration of IFN-? on a murine model of colitis, we developed a transgenic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain that constitutively expresses IFN-? (La-IFN-?). While pretreatment of mice with control Lactobacillus (La-EV) provided slight protective benefits, La-IFN-? increased sensitivity to DSS. Analysis showed colitic mice pretreated with La-IFN-? had increased production of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17A and IL-13 by intestinal tissues and decreased regulatory T cells (Tregs) in their small intestine. Examination of CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) in the Peyer's patches revealed that IFNAR1 expression was dramatically reduced by La-IFN-?. Similarly, bone marrow-derived DCs matured with La-IFN-? experienced a 3-fold reduction of IFNAR1 and were impaired in their ability to induce Tregs. Conclusions/Significance Our IFNAR1 expression data identifies a correlation between the loss/downregulation of IFNAR1 on DCs and exacerbation of colitis. Our data show that Lactobacillus secreting IFN-? has an immunological effect that in our model results in the exacerbation of colitis. This study underscores that the selection of therapeutics delivered by a bacterial vehicle must take into consideration the simultaneous effects of the vehicle itself.

McFarland, Adelle P.; Savan, Ram; Wagage, Sagie; Addison, Augustina; Ramakrishnan, Karthika; Karwan, Megan; Duong, Tri; Young, Howard A.

2011-01-01

186

Characterization of Reutericyclin Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did not affect the growth of gram-negative bacteria; however, the growth of lipopolysaccharide mutant strains of Escherichia coli was inhibited. Reutericyclin exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and B. subtilis and triggered the lysis of cells of L. sanfranciscensis in a dose-dependent manner. Germination of spores of B. subtilis was inhibited, but the spores remained unaffected under conditions that do not permit germination. The fatty acid supply of the growth media had a strong effect on reutericyclin production and its distribution between producer cells and the culture supernatant. Reutericyclin was purified from cell extracts and culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 cultures grown in mMRS by solvent extraction, gel filtration, RP-C8 chromatography, and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by rechromatography by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Reutericyclin was characterized as a negatively charged, highly hydrophobic molecule with a molecular mass of 349 Da. Structural characterization (A. Höltzel, M. G. Gänzle, G. J. Nicholson, W. P. Hammes, and G. Jung, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:2766–2768, 2000) revealed that reutericyclin is a novel tetramic acid derivative. The inhibitory activity of culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 corresponded to that of purified as well as synthetic reutericyclin.

Ganzle, Michael G.; Holtzel, Alexandra; Walter, Jens; Jung, Gunther; Hammes, Walter P.

2000-01-01

187

Adhesive and chemokine stimulatory properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

Five Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lactobacillus johnsonii strains, stemming either from African traditionally fermented milk products or children's feces, were investigated for probiotic properties in vitro. The relationship between the hydrophobic-hydrophilic cell surface and adhesion ability to HT29 intestinal epithelial cells was investigated, and results indicated that especially the L. johnsonii strains, which exhibited both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface characteristics, adhered well to HT29 cells. Four L. plantarum and two L. johnsonii strains showed high adherence to HT29 cells, generally higher than that of the probiotic control strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Most strains with high adhesion ability also showed high autoaggregation ability. The two L. johnsonii strains coaggregated well with the intestinal pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028. The L. plantarum BFE 1685 and L. johnsonii 6128 strains furthermore inhibited the adhesion of at least two of these intestinal pathogens in coculture with HT29 cells in a strain-dependent way. These two potential probiotic strains also significantly increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) chemokine production by HT29 cells, although modulation of other cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), did not occur. Altogether, our results suggested that L. plantarum BFE 1685 and L. johnsonii BFE 6128 showed good adherence, coaggregated with pathogens, and stimulated chemokine production of intestinal epithelial cells, traits that may be considered promising for their development as probiotic strains. PMID:17265871

Vizoso Pinto, María G; Schuster, Tobias; Briviba, Karlis; Watzl, Bernhard; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

2007-01-01

188

Subspecies diversity in bacteriocin production by intestinal Lactobacillus salivarius strains  

PubMed Central

A recent comparative genomic hybridization study in our laboratory revealed considerable plasticity within the bacteriocin locus of gastrointestinal strains of Lactobacillus salivarius. Most notably, these analyses led to the identification of two novel unmodified bacteriocins, salivaricin L and salivaricin T, produced by the neonatal isolate L. salivarius DPC6488 with immunity, regulatory and export systems analogous to those of abp118, a two-component bacteriocin produced by the well characterized reference strain L. salivarius UCC118. In this addendum we discuss the intraspecific diversity of our seven bacteriocin-producing L. salivarius isolates on a genome-wide level, and more specifically, with respect to their salivaricin loci.

O' Shea, Eileen F.; O' Connor, Paula M.; Raftis, Emma J.; O' Toole, Paul W.; Stanton, Catherine; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

2012-01-01

189

Factors influencing synthesis and activity of ?-galactosidase in Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the type-strainLactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) was inducible; lactose, galactose, melibiose and probably maltose, but not glucose, fructose, mannose, sucrose and cellobiose, induced ß-gal synthesis. Glucose partially inhibited ß-gal-induction by lactose but not by isopropyl-ß-D-thiogalactoside. ß-gal synthesis during cell growth was maximal at 0.4% lactose, stimulated by Ca2+ but inhibited by Mg2+ and Mn2+. ß-gal in the

Tarun Bhowmik; M. C. Johnson; Bibek Ray

1987-01-01

190

Plasmid dna transformation of Lactobacillus strains by electropermeabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thermophilic strains of Lactobacillus were transformed by electroporation; L.fermentum with a maximum of frequency of 1×105\\/ug of plasmid vector pPSC20DNA and 1.4×103\\/ug pSA3DNA. L.helveticus showed a very low frequency of transformation, from 9 to 26 transformants\\/ug DNA in all the experiments carried out with both the vectors. While L.fermentum transformants were very stable, in L.helveticus the acquired plasmid was

Marisa Vescovo; F. Bosi; O. Borsani; V. Bottazzi

1991-01-01

191

Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment. [Lactobacillus sake; Lactobacillus curvatus; Lactobacillus farciminis; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typimurium  

SciTech Connect

Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D/sub 10/ values (doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1) under CO/sub 2/ packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N/sub 2/. The D/sup 10/ values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D/sup 10/ values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium.

Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

1986-10-01

192

Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus are currently used in a variety of clinical practices with limited evidence to support their use. Lactobacillus species are a normal part of gastrointestinal flora, and bacteremia with probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is very uncommon. We describe a case of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 17-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis managed with systemic corticosteroids and infliximab, who presented with fever to 102°F, flushing, and chills 1 week after starting Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG probiotics. Initial blood culture on day 2 of his fever was positive for Lactobacillus, however, subsequent blood cultures on day 3 and 5 were negative. He was treated empirically with antibiotics for 5 days and defervesced by day 8 of his illness. 16 S rRNA sequence analysis identified the organism from the patient's blood culture and probiotic capsule as L. rhamnosus with a 99.78% match for both the strains. This case report highlights the potential risk of Lactobacillus bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients with severe active ulcerative colitis. PMID:23426446

Vahabnezhad, Elaheh; Mochon, Albert Brian; Wozniak, Laura Joyce; Ziring, David Alexander

193

Effect of Lactobacillus challenge on Gardnerella vaginalis biofilms.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common infectious condition in women. It is caused primarily by anaerobic bacteria which rapidly form biofilms recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, elevate vaginal pH, induce inflammatory processes and displace indigenous lactobacilli from the vault. Gardnerella vaginalis is commonly associated with these infections. Microscopy analysis showed that within 72 h, viable G. vaginalis covered a surface area of 567 microm(2), reached a depth of 16 microm and a density of approximately 104 microm(3). They maintained these levels for a further 3 days unless challenged with lactobacilli strains. Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 produced the biggest displacement of Gardnerella. This was not due to pH, which remained between 4.7 and 5.1 for all experiments, nor by hydrogen peroxide which is produced in low amounts by strain L. reuteri RC-14, high amounts by L. crispatus 33820 and not at all by L. rhamnosus GR-1. Deconvolution microscopy showed changes in structure and viability of the biofilms, with loss of dense Gardnerella biofilm pods. For the first time, a strain of L. iners, the most commonly isolated vaginal Lactobacillus in healthy women, was tested for potential probiotic properties. It was found to disrupt Gardnerella biofilm surface area, density and depth, albeit to a lesser extent than L. reuteri RC-14. These studies help to provide insight into the clinical situation in which probiotic and indigenous vaginal lactobacilli can interfere with Gardnerella's presence and reduce the risk of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:17234391

Saunders, Sheri; Bocking, Alan; Challis, John; Reid, Gregor

2006-12-09

194

Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10?h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200?AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1?L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10?h by 10 AP?U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4?h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10?h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72?h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness.

Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

2011-01-01

195

Antifungal activity of sodium acetate and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

The inhibition of molds by sodium acetate in deMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium, along with the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1, was studied by the slope agar plate method. MRS agar prepared with and without sodium acetate was used as the agar substrate. A total of 42 strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Rhizopus were used to compare sensitivities to the inhibitory activity of sodium acetate and L. rhamnosus VT1. It was found that sodium acetate in MRS medium affected the growth of 33 of the 42 mold strains tested to various degrees. The highest sensitivity to sodium acetate was shown by strains of Fusarium, followed by strains of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus. L. rhamnosus VT1 also inhibited mold growth. A significant finding was that sodium acetate and L. rhamnosus VT1 in combination exhibited a possible synergistic action. Thirty-nine of the 42 mold strains tested were completely inhibited by the presence of both antifungal agents. This finding confirms that sodium acetate, a basic component of commercial MRS medium, has strong antifungal properties, and this must be taken into consideration when evaluating the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus cultures grown in MRS broth. PMID:12117257

Stiles, J; Penkar, S; Plocková, M; Chumchalová, J; Bullerman, L B

2002-07-01

196

Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 ?m) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products. PMID:22633536

Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

2012-05-03

197

Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains downregulate proinflammatory genes in an ex vivo system of cultured human colonic mucosa.  

PubMed

Significant health benefits have been demonstrated for certain probiotic strains through intervention studies; however, there is a shortage of experimental evidence relative to the mechanisms of action. Here, noninvasive experimental procedure based on a colon organ culture system has been used that, in contrast to most experimental in vitro models reported, can preserve natural immunohistochemical features of the human mucosa. This system has been used to test whether commensal lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 299v (A(-))) were able to hinder inflammation-like signals induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (IO). Whole genome microarrays have been applied to analyze expression differences, from which mRNA markers could be inferred to monitor the effect of putative probiotic strains under such conditions. Regarding the gene expression, PMA/IO treatment induced not only interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-?), as expected, but also other relevant genes related to immune response and inflammation, such as IL-17A, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 and CXCL11. The ex vivo culturing did not modify the pattern of expression of those genes or others related to inflammation. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that lactobacilli downregulated those genes and triggered a global change of the transcriptional profile that indicated a clear homeostasis restoring effect and a decrease in signals produced by activated T cells. PMID:22669626

Bäuerl, Christine; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Monedero, Vicente; Mata, Manuel; Zúñiga, Manuel; Guarner, Francisco; Pérez Martínez, Gaspar

2012-06-06

198

The effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on gastropathic consequences in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of oral administration of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on gastropathic consequences in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were evaluated, and effects were compared with skim milk- and control dahi-fed groups. The feeding of probiotic dahi did not change the blood glucose levels in chronic hyperglycemic conditions. The rate of charcoal transit was significantly higher in probiotic dahi-fed animals than in those of the diabetic control group (P < .05). Moreover, the oral administration of probiotic dahi significantly increased counts of lactobacilli adherent to epithelial walls and free in the lumen of the small and large intestine, while decreasing attached as well as free coliform counts (P < .05). In addition, probiotic dahi reversed the decrease in total lactobacilli and increase in total coliforms in fecal samples of diabetic animals. It was also shown that oral ingestion of probiotic dahi reduced the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive species in intestinal tissues and glycosylation of hemoglobin (P < .05). All the effects were predominantly higher in the probiotic dahi-fed group than the skim milk- and control dahi-fed groups. The results indicate that probiotic dahi may be used as a therapeutic regimen to diminish the gastropathic consequences of diabetes. PMID:18361739

Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

2008-03-01

199

Bacteriophage endolysins expressed in yeast kill strains of Lactobacillus that contaminate fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Species of Lactobacillus are the predominant contaminants that reduce ethanol yields and cause “stuck” fermentations, decreasing the profitability of biofuel production with expen...

200

Lactobacillus reuteri, A Member of the Gut Bacterial Flora: Studies on Antagonism, Metabolism and Genetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strains of the genus Lactobacillus, isolated from pig intestine, were characterized with physiological tests and DNA/DNA hybridization. L. acidophilus and L. reuteri were the dominating species identified among these strains. Using a novel method, the lac...

L. Axelsson

1990-01-01

201

Growth Response of Lactobacillus Casei (Atcc 7469) to Riboflavin, Fmn, and Fad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growth responses, measured turbidimetrically, of Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) to riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide differ significantly from each other. In the assay of acid extracts of tissues for flavin content, t...

B. W. Langer S. Charoensiri

1966-01-01

202

Efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide for inactivating Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juice makers have traditionally used thermal pasteurization to prevent deterioration by spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum; however this thermal processing causes adverse effects on product quality such as undesirable taste and destruction of heat sensitive nutrients. For this reason,...

203

Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression levels of liver enzymes related to cholesterol metabolism, including the down regulation of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and the upregulation of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Conclusion This study suggested that the two NS lactobacillus strains may affect lipid metabolism and have cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

2013-01-01

204

Adhesion of human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. Seven Lactobacillus strains adhered well to the Caco-2 cells, of which three possessed calcium-independent adhesion properties. A high level of calcium-independent adhesion was observed with the human stool isolate Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this strain adhered to

GILLES CHAUVIERE; M.-H. COCONNIER; SOPHIE KERNEIS; JACKY FOURNIAT; ALAIN L. SERVIN

1992-01-01

205

Cell growth and bacteriocin production of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in different media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, metabolism, and bacteriocin production by seven Lactobacillus strains including five commercial probiotic strains were studied during fermentation in MRS medium and milk medium at constant pH 6.5. These strains were Lactobacillus acidophilus ACC, L. acidophilus IBB 801, L. casei Imunitas, L. casei YIT 9029, L. gasseri K7, L. johnsonii La1, and L. rhamnosus GG. Although the L. casei complex

Lazlo Avonts; Erika Van Uytven; Luc De Vuyst

2004-01-01

206

Domain Closure, Substrate Specificity and Catalysis of d-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD-dependent Lactobacillus bulgaricusd-Lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDHb) catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate into d-lactate. Crystals of d-LDHb complexed with NADH were grown and X-ray data collected to 2.2Å. The structure of d-LDHb was solved by molecular replacement using the dimeric Lactobacillus helveticusd-LDH as a model and was refined to an R-factor of 20.7%. The two subunits of the enzyme display strong

Adelia Razeto; Sunil Kochhar; Herbert Hottinger; Miroslava Dauter; Keith S Wilson; Victor S Lamzin

2002-01-01

207

Expression of Bacillus subtilis levanase gene in Lactobacilus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Lactobacillus-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors, harbouring the levanase gene from Bacillus subtilis under the control of its own promoter (pLPEW1) or behind the E.coli tac promoter (pESIEW2), were constructed. Lactobacillus plantarum showed the same growth characteristics on selective plates and in liquid media containing inulin, after transformation with either pLPEW1 or pESIEW2. L. plantarum transformed with pLPEW1 could be selected

E. Wanker; R. J. Leer; P. H. Pouwels; H. Schwab

1995-01-01

208

Osmotic response in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393: biochemical and biophysical characteristics of membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical and biophysical properties of the membrane and some general characteristics of the response of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 (reclassified Lactobacillus zeae) to hyperosmotic conditions were studied. Under hypertonic conditions, the hydrophobicity and the bile salt sensitivity of the cultures were increased. The glycolipid AcylH3DG is only present in membranes of NaCl containing medium, whereas, H4DG undergoes a significant

M. Cecilia Machado; Claudia S López; Horacio Heras; Emilio A Rivas

2004-01-01

209

Preliminary characterisation of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus TS1 isolated from traditional dahi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activity of 79 strains ofLactobacillus isolated from indigenous dahi were tested against the indicator strains of food pathogens (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi). Among these only eleven isolates produced inhibition zones of variable size against indicator microorganisms. Later on,\\u000a only one strain ofLactobacillus acidophilus (TS1) was found to produce a wider zone of inhibition against all

Shabana Maqsood; Fariha Hasan; Tariq Masud; Mohammad Imran

2008-01-01

210

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11, a strain isolated from Egyptian cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of growth conditions on the maximum activity of bacteriocin production\\u000a by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11. The bacteriocin was produced at maximum activity in M17 broth supplemented with 0.5% lactose (M17L). The maximum growth\\u000a of Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 was obtained at 37°C, while the optimal temperature for the bacteriocin production was 30°C.

Aly E. Abo-Amer

2011-01-01

211

Reduction of Sulfide, Ammonia Compounds, and Adhesion Properties of Lactobacillus casei Strain KE99 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus casei strain KE99 to reduce sulfide, ammonia, and to adhere to bio-surfaces was characterized and compared with three lactobacillus\\u000a reference strains. Sulfide reduction by strain KE99 in MRS broth increased exponentially after 10-h growth and reached a maximum\\u000a (>300 ppm reduction) within 48 h. KE99 demonstrated a maximum reduction of sulfide under anaerobic (341 ppm) growth

A. S. Naidu; X. Xie; D. A. Leumer; S. Harrison; M. J. Burrill; E. A. Fonda

2002-01-01

212

Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Expressing Human Lactoferrin Elevates Antibacterial Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Lactobacillus casei was used to deliver and express human lactoferrin (hLF) to protect the host against bacterial infection. Full-length hLF\\u000a cDNA was cloned into a Lactobacillus-specific plasmid to produce the L. casei transformants (rhLF\\/L. casei). Antimicrobial activity of recombinant hLF was examined in inhibition of bacteria growth in vitro. A mouse model was established\\u000a to test in

Hsiao-Ling Chen; Yi-Wen Lai; Chua-Shun Chen; Te-Wei Chu; Willie Lin; Chih-Ching Yen; Ming-Fong Lin; Ming-Yu Tu; Chuan-Mu Chen

2010-01-01

213

Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of Lactobacillus casei\\/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase\\/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC\\/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L.

Christine Bäuerl; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; Fang Yan; D. Brent Polk; Vicente Monedero

2010-01-01

214

Putative probiotic Lactobacillus spp. from porcine gastrointestinal tract inhibit transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus and enteric bacterial pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 310 bacterial strains isolated from the porcine gastrointestinal tract were tested for their activity against transmissible\\u000a gastroenteritis (TGE) coronavirus and other enteric pathogens. Based on activity, the strains Probio-38 and Probio-37 were\\u000a selected as potential probiotics and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum Probio-38 and Lactobacillus salivarius Probio-37 respectively by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Supernatants of these strains inhibited

Rejish Kumar V. J; Byeong Joo Seo; Mi Ran Mun; Chul-Joong Kim; Insun Lee; Hongik Kim; Yong-Ha Park

2010-01-01

215

Lactobacillus-mediated priming of the respiratory mucosa protects against lethal pneumovirus infection*  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response to respiratory virus infection can be complex and refractory to standard therapy. Lactobacilli, when targeted to the respiratory epithelium, are highly effective at suppressing virus-induced inflammation and protecting against lethal disease. Specifically, wild-type mice primed via intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus reuteri were completely protected against lethal infection with the virulent rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM); significant protection (60% survival) persisted for at least thirteen weeks. Protection was not unique to Lactobacillus species, and was also observed in response to priming with non-pathogenic gram-positive Listeria innocua. Priming with live lactobacilli resulted in diminished granulocyte recruitment, diminished expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines (CXCL10, CXCL1, CCL2, and TNF) and reduced virus recovery, although we have demonstrated clearly that absolute virus titer does not predict clinical outcome. Lactobacillus priming also resulted in prolonged survival and protection against the lethal sequelae of PVM infection in MyD88 gene-deleted (MyD88?/?) mice, suggesting that the protective mechanisms may be Toll-like receptor-independent. Most intriguing, virus recovery and cytokine expression patterns in Lactobacillus-primed MyD88?/? mice were indistinguishable from those observed in control-primed MyD88?/? counterparts, In summary, we have identified and characterized an effective Lactobacillus-mediated innate immune shield, which may ultimately serve as critical and long-term protection against infection in the absence of specific antiviral vaccines.

Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Bachar, Ofir; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Killoran, Kristin E.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2012-01-01

216

Lactobacillus crustorum sp. nov., isolated from two traditional Belgian wheat sourdoughs.  

PubMed

A polyphasic taxonomic study of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population in three traditional Belgian sourdoughs, sampled between 2002 and 2004, revealed a group of isolates that could not be assigned to any recognized LAB species. Initially, sourdough isolates were screened by means of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting. Four isolates displaying unique (GTG)(5)-PCR patterns were further investigated by means of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis and represented a bifurcated branch that could not be allocated to any LAB species present in the in-house pheS database. Their phylogenetic affiliation was determined using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and showed that the four sourdough isolates belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group with Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus farciminis and Lactobacillus nantensis as closest relatives. Further genotypic and phenotypic studies, including whole-cell protein analysis (SDS-PAGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content analysis, growth characteristics and biochemical features, demonstrated that the new sourdough isolates represent a novel Lactobacillus species for which the name Lactobacillus crustorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the new species is LMG 23699(T) (=CCUG 53174(T)). PMID:17625176

Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc; Vancanneyt, Marc

2007-07-01

217

Detection and activity of lactacin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed Central

A total of 52 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were examined for production of bacteriocins. A majority (63%) demonstrated inhibitory activity against all members of a four-species grouping of Lactobacillus leichmannii, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus lactis. Four L. acidophilus strains with this activity also inhibited Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus fermentum, suggesting a second system of antagonism. Under conditions eliminating the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, no inhibition of other gram-positive or -negative genera was demonstrated by L. acidophilus. The agent produced by L. acidophilus N2 and responsible for inhibition of L. leichmannii, L. bulgaricus, L. helveticus, and L. lactis was investigated. Ultrafiltration studies indicated a molecular weight of approximately 100,000 for the crude inhibitor. The agent was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and retained full activity after 60 min at 100 degrees C (pH 5). Activity against sensitive cells was bactericidal but not bacteriolytic. These characteristics identified the inhibitory agent as a bacteriocin, designated lactacin B. Examination of strains of L. acidophilus within the six homology groupings of Johnson et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:53-68, 1980) demonstrated that production of the bacteriocin lactacin B could not be used in classification of neotype L. acidophilus strains. However, the usefulness of employing sensitivity to lactacin B in classification of dairy lactobacilli is suggested. Images

Barefoot, S F; Klaenhammer, T R

1983-01-01

218

Anaerobic sludge digestion in the presence of lactobacillus additive  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory evaluation of a lactobacillus fermentation product was performed to study its effects as an additive on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge under conventional and overloaded high-rate conditions. The overloaded conditions were those experienced in commercial municipal digesters. It was concluded from this work that the use of the additive at low concentrations permits digester operation at least up to double the loading of untreated digesters and at higher methane yields and volatile solids reductions without affecting effluent quality. The additive also imparts iproved digester stability and rapid response to loading rate and detention time excursions and upsets. The beneficial effets of the additive observed in the laboratory remain to be established with other feeds such as biomass, and in large-scale commercial digestion tests that are now in progress.

Ghosh, S.; Klass, D.L.

1980-01-01

219

Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus  

SciTech Connect

Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

1982-01-01

220

Crystallographic and mutational analyses of tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Tannin acylhydrolase (EC 3.1.1.20) referred commonly as tannase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the galloyl ester bond of tannins to release gallic acid. Although the enzyme is useful for various industries, the tertiary structure is not yet determined. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of tannase produced by Lactobacillus plantarum. The tannase structure belongs to a member of ?/?-hydrolase superfamily with an additional "lid" domain. A glycerol molecule derived from cryoprotectant solution was accommodated into the tannase active site. The binding manner of glycerol to tannase seems to be similar to that of the galloyl moiety in the substrate. Proteins 2013; 81:2052-2058. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23836494

Matoba, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Naomi; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

2013-08-23

221

Complete glutathione system in probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3.  

PubMed

There is much information about glutathione (GSH) in eukaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about GSH in prokaryotes. Without GSH and glutathione redox cycle lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cannot protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Previously we have shown the presence of GSH in Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (DSM14241). Results of this study show that probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 contains both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. We also present that L. fermentum ME-3 can transport GSH from environment and synthesize GSH. This means that it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover ability that makes L. fermentum ME-3 a perfect protector against oxidative stress. To our best knowledge studies on existence of the complete glutathione system in probiotic LAB strains are still absent and glutathione synthesis in them has not been demonstrated. PMID:21058502

Kullisaar, T; Songisepp, E; Aunapuu, M; Kilk, K; Arend, A; Mikelsaar, M; Rehema, A; Zilmer, M

222

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Fecal Lactobacillus Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula  

PubMed Central

The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, diarrhea and atopy. However, the Lactobacillus species distribution in breast-fed or formula-fed infants has not yet been determined in great detail. For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5? nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The designed and validated assays were used to determine the amounts of different Lactobacillus species in fecal samples of infants receiving a standard formula (SF) or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in a 9:1 ratio (OSF). A breast-fed group (BF) was studied in parallel as a reference. During the 6-week intervention period a significant increase was shown in total percentage of fecal lactobacilli in the BF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.1% ± 1.5%) and the OSF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.4% ± 1.4%). The Lactobacillus species distribution in the OSF group was comparable to breast-fed infants, with relatively high levels of L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, and L. casei. The SF-fed infants, on the other hand, contained more L. delbrueckii and less L. paracasei compared to breast-fed infants and OSF-fed infants. An infant milk formula containing a specific mixture of prebiotics is able to induce a microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of BF infants.

Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

2006-01-01

223

Marker-free chromosomal integration of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene ( sodA) from Streptococcus thermophilus into Lactobacillus gasseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy for functional gene replacement in the chromosome of Lactobacillus gasseri is described. The phospho-?-galactosidase II gene (lacII) was functionally replaced by the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene (sodA) from Streptococcus thermophilus, by adapting the insertional inactivation method described for lactobacilli [Russell, W.M. and Klaenhammer, T.R. 2001 Efficient system for directed integration into the Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus gasseri

José M. Bruno-Bárcena; Todd R. Klaenhammer; Hosni M. Hassan

2005-01-01

224

Protective effect of selenium-enriched lactobacillus on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To study the protective effects and mechanisms of Se-enriched lactobacillus on liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. METHODS: Seventy-two ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, CCl4-induced model group, low Se-enriched lactobacillus treatment group (L-Se group), and high Se-enriched lactobacillus treatment group (H-Se group). During a 3-wk experimental period,

Long Chen; Dao-Dong Pan; Juan Zhou; Ying-Zi Jiang

225

Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.  

PubMed

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

2012-10-05

226

Assessment of Lactobacillus gasseri as a candidate oral vaccine vector.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species are commensal bacteria that have long been recognized as probiotic microbes and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. We have investigated the use of L. gasseri as a vaccine vector for oral immunization against mucosal pathogens. Recent research has shown that the immune response to different lactobacilli can vary widely depending on the species or subspecies of Lactobacillus being studied. While some lactobacilli seem to induce oral tolerance, others induce an adaptive immune response. This study characterized the systemic and mucosal immune response to wild-type and genetically modified L. gasseri. L. gasseri primarily activates TLR2/6, with additional activation through the TLR2 homodimer. To expand the Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation profile of L. gasseri and the immunogenicity of the vector, a plasmid containing fliC, the gene encoding bacterial flagellin, was introduced which resulted in the strong activation of TLR5. The treatment of human myeloid dendritic cells with recombinant lactobacilli expressing flagellin triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, bacterial treatment also resulted in a statistically significant increase in IL-10 production. In vivo studies established that treatment with L. gasseri led to a diversification of B-cell populations in the lamina propria of the murine colon. Furthermore, treatment with genetically modified L. gasseri led to a significant decrease in the percentage of FoxP3(+) colonic lymphocytes. Taken together, these data clarify the interaction of L. gasseri with the host immune system and support further investigation of the in vivo immunogenicity of L. gasseri expressing both flagellin and candidate vaccine antigens. PMID:21900526

Stoeker, Laura; Nordone, Shila; Gunderson, Sara; Zhang, Lin; Kajikawa, Akinobu; LaVoy, Alora; Miller, Michael; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Dean, Gregg A

2011-09-07

227

Assessment of Lactobacillus gasseri as a Candidate Oral Vaccine Vector ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species are commensal bacteria that have long been recognized as probiotic microbes and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. We have investigated the use of L. gasseri as a vaccine vector for oral immunization against mucosal pathogens. Recent research has shown that the immune response to different lactobacilli can vary widely depending on the species or subspecies of Lactobacillus being studied. While some lactobacilli seem to induce oral tolerance, others induce an adaptive immune response. This study characterized the systemic and mucosal immune response to wild-type and genetically modified L. gasseri. L. gasseri primarily activates TLR2/6, with additional activation through the TLR2 homodimer. To expand the Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation profile of L. gasseri and the immunogenicity of the vector, a plasmid containing fliC, the gene encoding bacterial flagellin, was introduced which resulted in the strong activation of TLR5. The treatment of human myeloid dendritic cells with recombinant lactobacilli expressing flagellin triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, bacterial treatment also resulted in a statistically significant increase in IL-10 production. In vivo studies established that treatment with L. gasseri led to a diversification of B-cell populations in the lamina propria of the murine colon. Furthermore, treatment with genetically modified L. gasseri led to a significant decrease in the percentage of FoxP3+ colonic lymphocytes. Taken together, these data clarify the interaction of L. gasseri with the host immune system and support further investigation of the in vivo immunogenicity of L. gasseri expressing both flagellin and candidate vaccine antigens.

Stoeker, Laura; Nordone, Shila; Gunderson, Sara; Zhang, Lin; Kajikawa, Akinobu; LaVoy, Alora; Miller, Michael; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Dean, Gregg A.

2011-01-01

228

Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria.

Briggiler Marco, Mariangeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

229

Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases  

PubMed Central

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent.

Munoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Collado, Maria Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.

2012-01-01

230

Characterization of two virulent phages of Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea; Moineau, Sylvain

2012-10-05

231

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 and Lactobacillus GG on enhanced vascular permeability of nasal mucosa in experimental allergic rhinitis of rats.  

PubMed

The nasal vascular permeability of ovablumin (OVA)-sensitized Brown Norway rats was evaluated by analyzing a brilliant blue concentration in perfusate from the nose after exposure of the nasal mucus to OVA. Oral administration of Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 significantly inhibited the increase in nasal vascular permeability (P<0.01). The serum IgE of the tested rats also decreased, although the change was not statistically significant. These results indicate that Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 might alleviate nasal allergic symptoms by suppressing the increase in nasal vascular permeability caused by local inflammation associated with allergic rhnititis. PMID:17151443

Kawase, Manabu; He, Fang; Kubota, Akira; Hata, Jun-Ya; Kobayakawa, Shin-Ichiro; Hiramatsu, Masaru

2006-12-07

232

Orally administrated Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 and Lactobacillus GG alleviated nasal blockage of guinea pig with allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus GG (LGG) and L. gasseri TMC0356 (TMC0356) were investigated for their ability to alleviate nasal blockage associated with allergic rhinitis using a guinea pig model. The increases in sRaw at 10 min and 5 hr after the exposure of the nasal mucosa to OVA were significantly alleviated in the guinea pigs orally administrated with LGG and TMC0356 compared with those of the control (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The total numbers of leukocytes, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils from the nasal cavity lavage fluid, and the OVA-specific IgE concentration in the serum were also decreased in the guinea pigs orally administrated with LGG and TMC0356, although the decreases were not statistically significant. These results suggest that LGG and TMC0356 can alleviate antigen-induced nasal blockage in earlyphase and late-phase inflammatory responses associated with allergic rhinitis. PMID:18037788

Kawase, Manabu; He, Fang; Kubota, Akira; Harata, Gaku; Hiramatsu, Masaru

2007-01-01

233

Differentiation of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. paraplantarum by recA Gene Sequence Analysis and Multiplex PCR Assay with recA Gene-Derived Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we succeeded in differentiating Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum by means of recA gene sequence comparison. Short homologous regions of about 360 bp were amplified by PCR with degenerate consensus primers, sequenced, and analyzed, and 322 bp were considered for the inference of phylogenetic trees. Phylograms, obtained by parsimony, maximum likelihood, and analysis of data

SANDRA TORRIANI; GIOVANNA E. FELIS; FRANCO DELLAGLIO

2001-01-01

234

The potential of Lactobacillus as a carrier for oral immunization: Development and preliminary characterization of vector systems for targeted delivery of antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of lactobacilli evokes mucosal and systemic immune responses against epitopes associated with these organisms (Gerritse et al., 1990, 1991). The adjuvant function of different Lactobacillus species was investigated under the conditions of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or oral administration. After i.p. injection of trinitrophenylated chicken ?-globulin, high DTK responses were observed with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum, but low

Peter H. Pouwels; Rob J. Leer; Wim J. A. Boersma

1996-01-01

235

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 - an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic  

PubMed Central

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland.

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-01-01

236

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 - an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic.  

PubMed

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-03-16

237

Lactobacillus-mediated interference of mutans streptococci in caries-free vs. caries-active subjects.  

PubMed

In order to assess whether naturally occurring oral lactobacilli have probiotic properties, lactobacilli were isolated from saliva and plaque from children and adolescents, with or without caries lesions. The interference capacities of these lactobacilli were investigated against a panel of 13 clinical isolates and reference strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, as well as against the subject's autologous mutans streptococci, using the agar-overlay technique. Lactobacillus-mediated inhibition differed significantly between the three subject groups (no caries, arrested caries, or active caries), demonstrating increased inhibition in subjects without present or previous caries experience compared to subjects with arrested caries or subjects presenting with frank lesions. Lactobacilli from subjects lacking S. mutans inhibited the growth of the test panel of mutans streptococci significantly better than lactobacilli from subjects who were colonized. Furthermore, subjects without caries experience harbored lactobacilli that more effectively repressed the growth of their autologous mutans streptococci. Twenty-three Lactobacillus spp. completely inhibited the growth of all mutans streptococci tested. Species with maximum interference capacity against mutans streptococci included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Naturally occurring oral lactobacilli significantly inhibited the growth of both test strains of mutans streptococci and the subject's autologous mutans streptococci in vitro, and this effect was more pronounced in caries-free subjects. PMID:17697171

Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte; Emilson, Claes-Göran; Håkansson, Eva Grahn; Jacobsson, Catharina; Roos, Kristian; Holm, Stig

2007-08-01

238

Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study  

PubMed Central

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is frequently associated with diarrhoea. We compared two 5-FU-based regimens and the effect of Lactobacillus and fibre supplementation on treatment tolerability. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (n=150) were randomly allocated to receive monthly 5-FU and leucovorin bolus injections (the Mayo regimen) or a bimonthly 5-FU bolus plus continuous infusion (the simplified de Gramont regimen) for 24 weeks as postoperative adjuvant therapy. On the basis of random allocation, the study participants did or did not receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation (1–2 × 1010 per day) and fibre (11?g guar gum per day) during chemotherapy. Patients who received Lactobacillus had less grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (22 vs 37%, P=0.027), reported less abdominal discomfort, needed less hospital care and had fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to bowel toxicity. No Lactobacillus-related toxicity was detected. Guar gum supplementation had no influence on chemotherapy tolerability. The simplified de Gramont regimen was associated with fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse effects than the Mayo regimen (45 vs 89%), and with less diarrhoea. We conclude that Lactobacillus GG supplementation is well tolerated and may reduce the frequency of severe diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort related to 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

Osterlund, P; Ruotsalainen, T; Korpela, R; Saxelin, M; Ollus, A; Valta, P; Kouri, M; Elomaa, I; Joensuu, H

2007-01-01

239

Lantibiotics biosynthesis genes and bacteriocinogenic activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from raw milk and cheese.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species are usually used as starters for the production of fermented products, and some strains are capable of producing antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocins. Because these characteristics are highly desirable, research are continually being performed for novel Lactobacillus strains with bacteriocinogenic potential for use by food industries. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacteriocinogenic potential and activity of Lactobacillus isolates. From a lactic acid bacteria culture collection obtained from raw milk and cheese, 27 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus spp. and selected for the detection of lantibiotics biosynthesis genes, bacteriocin production, antimicrobial spectra, and ideal incubation conditions for bacteriocin production. Based on the obtained results, 21 isolates presented at least one of the three lantibiotics biosynthesis genes (lanB, lanC or lamM), and 23 isolates also produced antimicrobial substances with sensitivity to at least one proteinase, indicating their bacteriocinogenic activity. In general, the isolates had broad inhibitory activity, mainly against Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus spp. strains, and the best antimicrobial performance of the isolates occurred when they were cultivated at 25 °C for 24 or 48 h or at 35 °C for 12 h. The present study identified the bacteriocinogenic potential of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from raw milk and cheese, suggesting their potential use as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22447149

Perin, Luana Martins; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Silva, Abelardo; Nero, Luís Augusto

2012-03-24

240

Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-?-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-?-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage. PMID:20800681

Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

2010-08-26

241

Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study.  

PubMed

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is frequently associated with diarrhoea. We compared two 5-FU-based regimens and the effect of Lactobacillus and fibre supplementation on treatment tolerability. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (n=150) were randomly allocated to receive monthly 5-FU and leucovorin bolus injections (the Mayo regimen) or a bimonthly 5-FU bolus plus continuous infusion (the simplified de Gramont regimen) for 24 weeks as postoperative adjuvant therapy. On the basis of random allocation, the study participants did or did not receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation (1-2 x 10(10) per day) and fibre (11 g guar gum per day) during chemotherapy. Patients who received Lactobacillus had less grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (22 vs 37%, P=0.027), reported less abdominal discomfort, needed less hospital care and had fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to bowel toxicity. No Lactobacillus-related toxicity was detected. Guar gum supplementation had no influence on chemotherapy tolerability. The simplified de Gramont regimen was associated with fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse effects than the Mayo regimen (45 vs 89%), and with less diarrhoea. We conclude that Lactobacillus GG supplementation is well tolerated and may reduce the frequency of severe diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort related to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:17895895

Osterlund, P; Ruotsalainen, T; Korpela, R; Saxelin, M; Ollus, A; Valta, P; Kouri, M; Elomaa, I; Joensuu, H

2007-09-25

242

Effect of a lactobacillus preparation on the absorption of oral ampicillin.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus preparations have been demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea resulting from ampicillin. Since the bioavailability of oral ampicillin is known to be affected by food and fluid volume, a study to evaluate the influence of a lactobacillus product on ampicillin bioavailability was performed. Twelve healthy volunteers, male and female, were studied in a randomized three-way cross-over study. Each received ampicillin alone, ampicillin with a lactobacillus preparation, and ampicillin followed 1 h later by the lactobacillus preparation. Blood was sampled over a 6-h time period. Ampicillin content was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Area under the concentration-time curve, area under the first moment of the concentration-time curve, maximum concentration of drug in plasma, time to maximum concentration of drug in plasma, and mean residence time were determined for each study interval. No differences in maximum concentration of drug in plasma, time to maximum concentration of drug in plasma, area under the concentration-time curve, or mean residence time were seen for either males or females or the combined group. The lactobacillus preparation as used in this study did not appear to interfere with the bioavailability of oral ampicillin.

Yost, R L; Gotz, V P

1985-01-01

243

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of an Indian-Origin Lactobacillus helveticus Strain, MTCC 5463, with Probiotic Potential?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 was isolated from a vaginal swab from a healthy adult female. The strain exhibited potential probiotic properties, with their beneficial role in the gastrointestinal tract and their ability to reduce cholesterol and stimulate immunity. We sequenced the whole genome and compared it with the published genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571.

Prajapati, J. B.; Khedkar, C. D.; Chitra, J.; Suja, Senan; Mishra, V.; Sreeja, V.; Patel, R. K.; Ahir, V. B.; Bhatt, V. D.; Sajnani, M. R.; Jakhesara, S. J.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2011-01-01

244

Antimicrobial activity characteristic on Cell-free broth of potential Lactobacillus brevis P-319 isolated from sauerkraut  

Microsoft Academic Search

With respect to the food safety and quality, it is necessary to isolate and apply protective microbes for food preservation. Lactic acid bacteria can produce some antimicrobial substances by metabolism, which are related with biological preservation of foods. Lactobacillus brevis P-319 is a strain isolated from sauerkraut. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus brevis P-319 cell-free broth was studied under some conditions

Yue Li; Yumei Sun; Xiaohong Xu; Fang Cao

2011-01-01

245

Mixed-culture transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular basis of mixed-culture growth in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many food fermentations are performed using mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Interactions between strains are of key importance for the performance of these fermentations. Yogurt fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (basonym, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) is one of the best-described mixed-culture fermentations. These species are believed to stimulate each other's growth by the exchange of metabolites such

S. Sieuwerts; D. Molenaar; Hijum van S. A. F. T; M. Beerthuyzen; M. J. A. Stevens; P. W. Janssen; C. J. Ingham; Bok de F. A. M; Vos de W. M; Hylckama Vlieg van J. E. T

2010-01-01

246

The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp. Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The

Nadja Larsen; Peter Nissen; William G. T. Willats

2007-01-01

247

Some low homogenization pressures improve certain probiotic characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are dairy cultures widely used in the manufacture of cultured dairy products. Commonly used homogenization pressures in the dairy industry are 13.80 MPa or less. It is not known whether low homogenization pressures can stimulate bacteria to improve their probiotic characteristics. Objectives were to determine the effect of homogenization

T. Muramalla; K. J. Aryana

2011-01-01

248

Signalling Mechanisms Involved in the Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG, Endotoxin, and Lipoteichoic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Lactobacillus GG) has been found beneficial in the treatment of viral and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Recently, it has also been shown to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, and have some other immunostimulatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)

Riku Korhonen; Riitta Korpela; Eeva Moilanen

2002-01-01

249

Purification and biochemical characterization of pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate oxidase (EC 1.2.3.3) was isolated and characterized from Lactobacillus plantarum. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of phosphate and oxygen, yielding acetyl phosphate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide. This pyruvate oxidase is a flavoprotein, with the relatively tightly bound cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine pyrophosphate, and a divalent metal ion, with Mn2+ being the most effective. The enzyme is only slightly inhibited by EDTA, implying that the enzyme-bound metal ion is poorly accessible to EDTA. Only under relatively drastic conditions, such as acid ammonium sulfate precipitation, could a colorless and entirely inactive apoenzyme be obtained. A partial reactivation of the enzyme was only possible by the combined addition of flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine pyrophosphate, and MnSO4. The enzyme has a molecular weight of ca. 260,000 and consists of four subunits with apparently identical molecular weights of 68,000. For catalytic activity the optimum pH is 5.7, and the optimum temperature is 30 degrees C. The Km values for pyruvate, phosphate, and arsenate are 0.4, 2.3, and 1.2 mM, respectively. The substrate specificity revealed that the enzyme reacts also with certain aldehydes and that phosphate can be replaced by arsenate. In addition to oxygen, several artificial compounds can function as electron acceptors. Images

Sedewitz, B; Schleifer, K H; Gotz, F

1984-01-01

250

Global transcriptional response of Lactobacillus reuteri to the sourdough environment.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium that is highly adapted to the sourdough environment. It is a dominant member of industrial type II sourdoughs, and is also able to colonize the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans, and birds. In this study, the transcriptional response of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was investigated during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays. Significant changes of mRNA levels were found for 101 genes involved in diverse cellular processes, such as carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell envelope biosynthesis, exopolysaccharide production, stress responses, signal transduction and cobalamin biosynthesis. The results showed extensive changes of the organism's gene expression during growth in sourdough as compared with growth in chemically defined medium, and, thus, revealed pathways involved in the adaptation of L. reuteri to the ecological niche of sourdough. The utilization of starch and non-starch carbohydrates, the remodelling of the cell wall, characterized by reduced D-alanylation, and increased amounts of cell wall-associated polysaccharides, as well as the regulatory function of two component systems for cell wall biogenesis and metabolism were suggested by the gene expression data as being important for growth in sourdough. The impact of several L. reuteri genes for effective growth in sourdough was shown by implementation of mutant strains in sourdough fermentation. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular fundamentals of L. reuteri's ecological competitiveness, and provides a basis for further exploration of genetic traits involved in adaptation to the food environment. PMID:18762399

Hüfner, Eric; Britton, Robert A; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Hertel, Christian

2008-08-30

251

Understanding the physiology of Lactobacillus plantarum at zero growth.  

PubMed

Situations of extremely low substrate availability, resulting in slow growth, are common in natural environments. To mimic these conditions, Lactobacillus plantarum was grown in a carbon-limited retentostat with complete biomass retention. The physiology of extremely slow-growing L. plantarum--as studied by genome-scale modeling and transcriptomics--was fundamentally different from that of stationary-phase cells. Stress resistance mechanisms were not massively induced during transition to extremely slow growth. The energy-generating metabolism was remarkably stable and remained largely based on the conversion of glucose to lactate. The combination of metabolic and transcriptomic analyses revealed behaviors involved in interactions with the environment, more particularly with plants: production of plant hormones or precursors thereof, and preparedness for the utilization of plant-derived substrates. Accordingly, the production of compounds interfering with plant root development was demonstrated in slow-growing L. plantarum. Thus, conditions of slow growth and limited substrate availability seem to trigger a plant environment-like response, even in the absence of plant-derived material, suggesting that this might constitute an intrinsic behavior in L. plantarum. PMID:20865006

Goffin, Philippe; van de Bunt, Bert; Giovane, Marco; Leveau, Johan H J; Höppener-Ogawa, Sachie; Teusink, Bas; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

2010-09-21

252

Effects of cryoprotectants on viability of Lactobacillus reuteri CICC6226.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying is commonly used to preserve probiotics, but it could cause cell damage and loss of viability. The cryoprotectants play an important role in the conservation of viability during freeze-drying. In this study, we investigated the survival rates of Lactobacillus reuteri CICC6226 in the presence of cryoprotectants such as sucrose, trehalose, and reconstituted skim milk (RSM). In addition, we determined the activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ATPases immediately following the freeze-drying. The results showed that the differences in HK and PK activities with and without the cryoprotectants during freeze-drying were not significant, but cell viability and activities of LDH and ATPase were significantly different (P<0.01) prior to and after freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the results showed that the maintenance of the membrane integrity and fluidity was improved in the presence of the 10% trehalose or 10% RSM than other treatments during freeze-drying. These results have provided direct biochemical and metabolic evidence of injured cell during freeze-drying. Freeze-drying damaged membrane structure and function of cell and inactivated enzymes (LDH and ATPases). The results imply that LDH and ATPases are key markers and could be used to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants on viability and metabolic activities of L. reuteri CICC6226 during freeze-drying. PMID:21626024

Li, Baokun; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

2011-05-29

253

Inerolysin, a Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Produced by Lactobacillus iners?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus iners is a common constituent of the human vaginal microbiota. This species was only recently characterized due to its fastidious growth requirements and has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis. Here we present the identification and molecular characterization of a protein toxin produced by L. iners. The L. iners genome encodes an open reading frame with significant primary sequence similarity to intermedilysin (ILY; 69.2% similarity) and vaginolysin (VLY; 68.4% similarity), the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from Streptococcus intermedius and Gardnerella vaginalis, respectively. Clinical isolates of L. iners produce this protein, inerolysin (INY), during growth in vitro, as assessed by Western analysis. INY is a pore-forming toxin that is activated by reducing agents and inhibited by excess cholesterol. It is active across a pH range of 4.5 to 6.0 but is inactive at pH 7.4. At sublytic concentrations, INY activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and allows entry of fluorescent phalloidin into the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Unlike VLY and ILY, which are human specific, INY is active against cells from a broad range of species. INY represents a new target for studies directed at understanding the role of L. iners in states of health and disease at the vaginal mucosal surface.

Rampersaud, Ryan; Planet, Paul J.; Randis, Tara M.; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Aguilar, Jorge L.; Lehrer, Robert I.; Ratner, Adam J.

2011-01-01

254

Production and physicochemical properties of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum tannase.  

PubMed

Tannase is an enzyme with important biotechnological applications in the food industry. Previous studies have identified the tannase encoding gene in Lactobacillus plantarum and also have reported the description of the purification of recombinant L. plantarum tannase through a protocol involving several chromatographic steps. Here, we describe the high-yield production of pure recombinant tannase (17 mg/L) by a one-step affinity procedure. The purified recombinant tannase exhibits optimal activity at pH 7 and 40 degrees C. Addition of Ca(2+) to the reaction mixture greatly increased tannase activity. The enzymatic activity of tannase was assayed against 18 simple phenolic acid esters. Only esters derived from gallic acid and protocatechuic acid were hydrolyzed. In addition, tannase activity was also assayed against the tannins tannic acid, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate. Despite L. plantarum tannase representing a novel family of tannases, which shows no significant similarity to tannases from fungal sources, both families of enzymes shared similar substrate specificity range. The physicochemical characteristics exhibited by L. plantarum recombinant tannase make it an adequate alternative to the currently used fungal tannases. PMID:19601665

Curiel, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Héctor; Acebrón, Iván; Mancheño, José Miguel; De Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

2009-07-22

255

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei.

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

256

Heterologous production of pediocin PA-1 in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

The recombinant DNA pLR5cat_PSAB in which pediocin PA-1 structural and immunity genes (pedAB) fused with the promoter and deduced signal sequence of an alpha-amylase gene from a bifidobacterial strain were inserted in pLR5cat, an Escherichia coli-lactobacilli shuttle vector was transferred to Lactobacillus reuteri KCTC 3679 and the transformant presented bacteriocin activity. The recombinant L. reuteri KCTC 3679 transformed with the shortened pLR5cat(S)_PSAB, where non-essential region for the lactobacilli replicon was removed, also showed bacteriocin activity. The molecular mass of the secreted pediocin PA-1 from the recombinant bacteria was the same as that of native pediocin PA-1 (~4.6 kDa) from Pediococcus acidilactici K10 on a sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel. In co-cultures with Listeria monocytogenes, the recombinant L. reuteri KCTC 3679 effectively reduced the viable cell count of the pathogenic bacterium by a 3 log scale compared with a control where L. monocytogenes was incubated alone. PMID:20798585

Eom, Ji-Eun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Moon, Gi-Seong

2010-08-01

257

Lactobacillus casei combats acid stress by maintaining cell membrane functionality.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei strains have traditionally been recognized as probiotics and frequently used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products where lactic acid stress is a frequently encountered environmental condition. We have investigated the effect of lactic acid stress on the cell membrane of L. casei Zhang [wild type (WT)] and its acid-resistant mutant Lbz-2. Both strains were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats; following challenge by low pH, the cell membrane stress responses were investigated. In response to acid stress, cell membrane fluidity decreased and its fatty acid composition changed to reduce the damage caused by lactic acid. Compared with the WT, the acid-resistant mutant exhibited numerous survival advantages, such as higher membrane fluidity, higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and higher mean chain length. In addition, cell integrity analysis showed that the mutant maintained a more intact cellular structure and lower membrane permeability after environmental acidification. These results indicate that alteration in membrane fluidity, fatty acid distribution, and cell integrity are common mechanisms utilized by L. casei to withstand severe acidification and to reduce the deleterious effect of lactic acid on the cell membrane. This detailed comparison of cell membrane responses between the WT and mutant add to our knowledge of the acid stress adaptation and thus enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress. PMID:22366811

Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2012-02-26

258

Identification of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus casei AST18.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei AST18 was screened as an antifungal lactic acid bacteria which we have reported before. In this research, the antifungal properties of cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from L. casei AST18 were detected, and the antifungal compounds of CCF were prepared by ultrafiltration, and semi-preparative HPLC, and then determined by GC-MS. CCF was sensitive to pH and heat treatment but it was not affected by the treatment of trypsin and pepsin. Through the treatment of ultrafiltration and semi-preparative HPLC there were two parts of CCF which showed antifungal activities: part 1 and part 4. Lactic acid was identified as the main antifungal compound in part 1. In part 4, three small molecular substances were detected with GC-MS. The three potential antifungal substances were cyclo-(Leu-Pro), 2,6-diphenyl-piperidine, and 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a;1',2'-d]pyrazine. The antifungal activity of L. casei AST18 was a synergistic effect of lactic acid and cyclopeptides. PMID:22580887

Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Shuwen; Cui, Wenming; Lv, Jiaping

2012-05-13

259

Spontaneous release of bacteriophage particles by Lactobacillus rhamnosus pen.  

PubMed

The identification of bacteriophage proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pen was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Among the identified proteins, we found a phage-derived major tail protein, two major head proteins, a portal protein, and a host specificity protein. Electron microscopy of a cell surface extract revealed the presence of phage particles in the analyzed samples. The partial sequence of genes encoding the major tail protein for all tested L. rhamnosus strains was determined with specific primers designed in this study. Next, RT-PCR analysis allowed detection of the expression of the major tail protein gene in L. rhamnosus strain Pen at all stages of bacterial growth. The transcription of genes encoding the major tail protein was also proved for other L. rhamnosus strains used in this study. The present work demonstrates the spontanous release of prophage-encoded particles by a commercial probiotic L. rhamnosus strain, which did not significantly affect the bacterial growth of the analyzed strain. PMID:23462009

Jarocki, Piotr; Podle?ny, Marcin; Pawelec, Jaros?aw; Malinowska, Agata; Kowalczyk, Sylwia; Targo?ski, Zdzis?aw

2013-03-01

260

Lactobacillus GG in inducing and maintaining remission of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Alteration of the intestinal microflora by antibiotic or probiotic therapy may induce and maintain remission. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of oral Lactobacillus GG (L. GG) to induce or maintain medically induced remission. Methods Eleven patients with moderate to active Crohn's disease were enrolled in this trial to receive either L. GG (2 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo for six months. All patients were started on a tapering steroid regime and received antibiotics for the week before the probiotic/placebo medication was initiated. The primary end point was sustained remission, defined as freedom from relapse at the 6 months follow-up visit. Relapse was defined as an increase in CDAI of >100 points. Results 5/11 patients finished the study, with 2 patients in each group in sustained remission. The median time to relapse was 16 ± 4 weeks in the L. GG group and 12 ± 4.3 weeks in the placebo group (p = 0.5). Conclusion In this study we could not demonstrate a benefit of L. GG in inducing or maintaining medically induced remission in CD.

Schultz, Michael; Timmer, Antje; Herfarth, Hans H; Sartor, R Balfour; Vanderhoof, Jon A; Rath, Heiko C

2004-01-01

261

The PTS transporters of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacilli can utilize a variety of carbohydrates which reflects the nutrient availability in their respective environments. A common lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract, Lactobacillus gasseri, was selected for further study. The currently available annotation of the L. gasseri ATCC 33323 genome describes numerous putative genes involved in carbohydrate utilization, yet the specific functions of many of these genes remain unknown. Results An enzyme I (EI) knockout strain revealed that a functional phosphotransferase transporter system (PTS) is required to ferment at least 15 carbohydrates. Analysis of the L. gasseri ATCC 33323 genome identified fifteen complete (containing all of the necessary subunits) PTS transporters. Transcript expression profiles in response to various carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose, sucrose and cellobiose) were analyzed for the fifteen complete PTS transporters in L. gasseri. PTS 20 was induced 27 fold in the presence of sucrose and PTS 15 was induced 139 fold in the presence of cellobiose. No PTS transporter was induced by glucose, fructose or mannose. Insertional inactivation of PTS 15 and PTS 20 significantly impaired growth on cellobiose and sucrose, respectively. As predicted by bioinformatics, insertional inactivation of PTS 21 confirmed its role in mannose utilization. Conclusions The experiments revealed the extensive contribution of PTS transporters to carbohydrate utilization by L. gasseri ATCC 33323 and the general inadequacy of the annotated sugar specificity of lactobacilli PTS transporters.

2010-01-01

262

Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25? and 37?. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100? and 121?. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10. PMID:24015075

Chang, Injeong; Kim, Jeong-Dong

2007-06-30

263

Thermal, chemical, and photocatalytic inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophages.  

PubMed

The effect of several biocides, thermal treatments, and photocatalysis on the viability of four Lactobacillus plantarum phages was investigated. Times to achieve 99% inactivation (T99) of phages at 63, 72, and 90 degrees C were evaluated in four suspension media: deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth, reconstituted skim milk, a commercial EM-glucose medium, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer. The four phages studied were highly resistant to 63 degrees C (T99 > 45 min); however, counts < 10 PFU/ml were achieved by heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Higher thermal resistance at 72 degrees C was observed when reconstituted skim milk and EM-glucose medium were assayed. Peracetic acid (0.15%, vol/vol) was an effective biocide for the complete inactivation of all phages studied within 5 min of exposure. Sodium hypochlorite (800 ppm) inactivated the phages completely within 30 min. Ethanol (100%) did not destroy phage particles even after 45 min. Isopropanol did not have any effect on phage viability. Phage counts < 50 PFU/ml were obtained within 180 min of photocatalytic treatment. The results obtained in this work are important for establishing adequate methods for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments. PMID:19517728

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; De Antoni, Graciela L; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

2009-05-01

264

Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25? and 37?. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100? and 121?. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10.

Chang, Injeong

2007-01-01

265

Localization and Characterization of ?-Glucosidase Activity in Lactobacillus brevis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus brevis is found together with the yeast Brettanomyces lambicus during the overattenuation process in spontaneously fermented lambic beer. An isolated L. brevis strain has been shown to produce an ?-glucosidase with many similarities to the glucosidase earlier found in B. lambicus. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel (Sephadex G-150 and Ultrogel AcA-44) filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-50). The molecular weights of the enzyme, as determined by gel chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were about 50,000 and 60,000, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was obtained at 40°C and pH 6.0. The enzyme showed a decrease of hydrolysis with an increase in the degree of polymerization of the substrate. The Km values for p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, maltose, and maltotriose were 0.51, 3.0, and 5.2 mM, respectively. There was lack of inhibition by 0.15 mM acarbose and 0.5 M turanose, but the enzyme was inhibited by Tris (Ki value of 25 mM). The ?-glucosidase of L. brevis together with the enzyme of B. lambicus seems to be a key factor in the overattenuation of lambic beer, although the involvement of other lactic acid bacteria (pediococci) cannot be excluded. Images

De Cort, S.; Kumara, H. M. C. Shantha; Verachtert, H.

1994-01-01

266

A hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei moonlights as a transaminase.  

PubMed

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (K(m) = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (K(m) = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F; Schwab, Wilfried

2013-01-25

267

Exopolysaccharide and Kestose Production by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LTH2590  

PubMed Central

The effect was investigated of sucrose concentration on sucrose metabolism and on the formation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LTH2590 in pH-controlled fermentations with sucrose concentrations ranging from 20 to 160 g liter?1. The EPS production increased and the relative sucrose hydrolysis activity decreased by increasing the sucrose concentration in the medium. The carbon recovery decreased from 95% at a sucrose concentration of 30 g liter?1 to 58% at a sucrose concentration of 160 g liter?1 because of the production of an unknown metabolite by L. sanfranciscensis. This metabolite was characterized as a fructo-oligosaccharide. The oligosaccharide produced by L. sanfranciscensis was purified and characterized as a trisaccharide with a glucose/fructose ratio of 1:2. The comparison of the retention time of this oligosaccharide and that of pure oligosaccharide standards using two different chromatography methods revealed that the oligosaccharide produced by L. sanfranciscensis LTH2590 is 1-kestose. Kestose production increased concomitantly with the initial sucrose concentration in the medium.

Korakli, Maher; Pavlovic, Melanie; Ganzle, Michael G.; Vogel, Rudi F.

2003-01-01

268

Oral administration of heparin or heparosan increases the Lactobacillus population in gut microbiota of rats.  

PubMed

Heparin and heparosan have been confirmed to be effective blockers in inhibiting adhesion of pathogens in vitro. However, their effects on gut microbiota in vivo remain unknown. Here we have studied the effects of oral administration of heparin or heparosan on gut microbiota in rats by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results showed that the predominant bacterial communities in the feces of heparin- or heparosan-treated animals were different from those of the saline-treated animals, with increased Lactobacillus spp. and decreased Enterococcus sp. Different DGGE banding patterns were also observed for the subpopulations of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides groups. In conclusion, heparin or heparosan may be used as an effective gut microbiota modulator by increasing the subpopulation of Lactobacillus. PMID:23544516

Duan, Rongshuai; Chen, Xiang'e; Wang, Fengshan; Zhang, Tianmin; Ling, Peixue

2013-02-01

269

Characterization of a Lactobacillus strain producing white crystals on cheddar cheese.  

PubMed Central

From an enrichment culture of white-crystal deposits from aged Cheddar cheese, an atypical Lactobacillus strain was characterized. The new isolate is facultatively heterofermentative, has a G + C content of 40 mol%, and produces D and L isomers of lactic acid. The strain had a limited ability to ferment carbohydrates. It utilized fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, maltose, mannose, and ribose but was negative for esculin, gluconate, citrate, and several other carbon sources. The isolate also had low DNA-DNA homologies with strains of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. Cheese prepared with milk containing the isolate developed white crystals during curing. Formation of copious D-lactate from unknown substrates during curing probably caused the white-crystal deposits. The strain has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49178). Images

Rengpipat, S; Johnson, E A

1989-01-01

270

Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus plantarum - production, genetic organization and mode of action  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins are biologically active proteins or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action towards usually closely related species. Numerous strains of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum have been isolated in the last two decades from different ecological niches including meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, and milk and cereal products. Several of these plantaricins have been characterized and the aminoacid sequence determined. Different aspects of the mode of action, fermentation optimization and genetic organization of the bacteriocin operon have been studied. However, numerous of bacteriocins produced by different Lactobacillus plantarum strains have not been fully characterized. In this article, a brief overview of the classification, genetics, characterization, including mode of action and production optimization for bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in general, and where appropriate, with focus on bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, is presented.

Todorov, Svetoslav D.

2009-01-01

271

Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri.

Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

2012-01-01

272

A probiotic treatment containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus improves IBS symptoms in an open label trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods: Eighty-five patients [male 32, female 53; age (45.31±11.72) years] were given live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules 1260 mg/d t.i.d.×4 weeks. Syndrome scales were used to evaluate the efficacy in gastrointestinal syndrome. Fecal flora was also measured before and after the treatment. Six bacteria were cultured and the colony forming units were counted in stool. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-four patients finished the follow-up. No side-effect was found. For treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, the effective rate of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules was 56.8% in the second week, 74.3% in the fourth week and 73.0% in the sixth week. Single symptom was improved, especially in abdominal pain and stool character. The probiotica containing live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus could increase bifidobacterium count (P<0.01) and lactobacillus count (P<0.05); decrease bacteroides count (P<0.05) and enterococci count (P<0.01); No obvious changes were observed in clostridium difficile colonitis and enterobacteriaceae (P>0.05). Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that the administration of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus improved the symptom of irritable bowel syndrome and that there was a gradual increase of this effect. Thereafter conditions remained stable for 2 weeks. That improvement may be associated with alterations in gastrointestinal flora.

Fan, Yu-jing; Chen, Shu-jie; Yu, Ying-cong; Si, Jian-min; Liu, Bin

2006-01-01

273

Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106. PMID:22021580

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2011-10-21

274

Lactobacillus GG does not affect D-lactic acidosis in diarrheic calves, in a clinical setting.  

PubMed

D-lactate, produced by gastrointestinal fermentation, is a major contributor to metabolic acidosis in diarrheic calves. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survives gastrointestinal transit in the neonatal calf and does not produce D-lactate. To determine whether this probiotic reduces gastrointestinal D-lactate production or severity of diarrhea or both, 48 calves (mean, 11 days old; range, 2-30 days) admitted to the clinic for treatment of diarrhea were randomly allocated to 2 groups. The experimental group was given Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1 x 10(11) cfu/d) PO, dissolved in milk or oral electrolyte solution, in addition to clinic treatment protocols; the other group served as a control. Serum and fecal samples were obtained at admission and at 24 and 48 hours after initial administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. All samples were analyzed for D- and L-lactate by using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Feces were also analyzed for pathogens, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG recovery, and dry matter. D-lactic acidemia (>3 mmol/L) was present in 37/48 calves at admission. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was recovered in the feces of 13 experimental calves and 0 control calves 24 hours after administration. No difference in serum or fecal D- or L-lactate between the groups was detected at any time point. After therapy, D-lactic acidosis was absent at 48 hours in all but 1 calf. No relation between fecal pathogen (viral, bacterial, or protozoal) and degree of D-lactic acidosis was observed. The reduction in mortality and greater fecal dry matter in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-treated calves was not statistically significant. PMID:16734098

Ewaschuk, Julia B; Zello, Gordon A; Naylor, Jonathan M

275

Dahi containing probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei has a protective effect against Salmonella enteritidis infection in mice.  

PubMed

Salmonella enteritidis infection has received attention during recent years owing to its high prevalence worldwide. In the present study, the protective effect of probiotic dahi (curd) supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei against Salmonella enteritidis infection in mice is investigated. Seven days pre-feeding with probiotic dahi significantly increased anti-S. enteritidis sIgA (secretary IgA) antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation in S. enteritidis infected mice. IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-gamma production were significantly increased in supernatant of cultured splenocytes collected from mice pre-fed with probiotic dahi, while IL-4 levels were not changed significantly. Moreover, activities of beta-galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase, and counts of S. enteritidis in intestine, liver and spleen were decreased, whereas total lactobacilli in faeces were increased in mice pre-fed with probiotic dahi. Pre-feeding of probiotic dahi for 7 days was more effective than 2 days pre-feeding. Thus, the results indicate that, pre-feeding with probiotic dahi ameliorated S. enteritidis infection by stimulating specific and non-specific immune response. Above all, it lowered colonization of gastrointestinal tract as well as translocation of S. enteritidis. PMID:19144289

Jain, S; Yadav, H; Sinha, P R; Naito, Y; Marotta, F

276

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF LACTOBACILLUS 30a FOR GROWTH AND HISTIDINE DECARBOXYLASE PRODUCTION  

PubMed Central

Guirard, Beverly M. (University of California, Berkeley), and Esmond E. Snell. Nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus 30a for growth and histidine decarboxylase production. J. Bacteriol. 87:370–376. 1964.—The nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus 30a include each of the naturally occurring amino acids, several B vitamins, ascorbic acid, glucose, acetate, and oleate. The nutritional requirements for optimal histidine decarboxylase production (up to 900 ?liters of CO2 per hr per mg of cells) differ to some extent from those for optimal growth. Wholly synthetic and partially defined media are described which produce high enzyme activity, together with rapid and luxuriant growth.

Guirard, Beverly M.; Snell, Esmond E.

1964-01-01

277

Intestinal Lactobacillus sp. is associated with some cellular and metabolic characteristics of blood in elderly people.  

PubMed

The higher counts or particular groups (Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes) of intestinal microbiota are related to host metabolic reactions, supporting a balance of human ecosystem. We further explored whether intestinal lactobacilli were associated with some principal cellular and metabolic markers of blood in 38 healthy >65-year-old persons. The questionnaire, routine clinical and laboratory data of blood indices as much as the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and baseline diene conjugates in low-density lipoprotein (BDC-LDL) of blood sera were explored. The PCR-based intestinal Lactobacillus sp. composition and counts of cultivable lactobacilli (LAB) were tested. The facultative heterofermentative lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei) were the most frequent (89 and 97%, respectively) species found, while Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus reuteri were present in almost half of the elderly persons. The number of species simultaneously colonizing the individuals ranged from 1 to 7 (median 4). In elderly consuming probiotics the LAB counts were significantly higher than in these not consuming (median 7.8, range 4.2-10.8 vs. median 6.3, range 3.3-9.7 log cfu/g; p=0.005), adjusted (OR=1.71, CI95 1.04-2.82; p=0.035) for age and body mass index (BMI). The colonization by L. acidophilus was negatively related (r=-0.367, p=0.0275) to L. reuteri, staying significant after adjusting for age, sex and BMI (OR=0.16, CI95 0.04-0.73; p=0.018). However, the blood glucose concentration showed a tendency for a negative correlation for colonization with Lactobacillus fermentum (r=-0.309, p=0.062) adjusted for BMI (Adj. R(2)=0.181; p=0.013) but not for age and sex. The higher white blood cells (WBC) count was positively related (r=0.434, p=0.007) to presence of Lactobacillus reuteri adjusted for age, sex and BMI (Adj. R(2)=0.193, p=0.027). The lower values of ox-LDL were predicted by higher counts of cultivable lactobacilli adjusted by sex, age and BMI (r = -0.389, p = 0.016; Adj. R(2)=0.184 p=0.029). In conclusion, the pilot study of elderly persons shows that the intestinal lactobacilli are tightly associated with WBC count, blood glucose and content of ox-LDL which all serve as risk markers in pathogenesis of inflammation, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:20223288

Mikelsaar, Marika; Stsepetova, Jelena; Hütt, Pirje; Kolk, Helgi; Sepp, Epp; Lõivukene, Krista; Zilmer, Kersti; Zilmer, Mihkel

2010-03-17

278

In vitro colonization ability of human colon mucosa by exogenous Lactobacillus strains.  

PubMed

We have tested five Lactobacillus strains for their in vitro colonization ability in a human colon epithelium culture model. Positive colonization occurred in different degrees in the presence of four Lactobacillus strains. We have found that L. casei GG and L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 induce an intermediate colonization. These two strains, largely investigated by others, have been reported to be beneficial to humans. The use of human intestinal tissue in our study partially reconstitutes the complex architectural specificity of human epithelium with the mucus layer and more closely simulates the in vivo situation. PMID:7557321

Sarem-Damerdji, L; Sarem, F; Marchal, L; Nicolas, J P

1995-09-01

279

Mechanistic studies of ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of action of the adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) was investigated using isotope effect and substrate specificity studies. These experiments were conducted on RTPR purified by a new method from Lactobacillus leichmannii. Isotope effect studies using (3{prime}-{sup 3}H)UTP and (3{prime}-{sup 3}H)ATP demonstrated that the 3{prime} C-H bond of the nucleotide is cleaved in order to cleave the 2{prime} C-OH bond. AdoCbl does not act as a direct H abstractor from the 3{prime} position of the substrate, but instead is thought to act as a radical chain initiator to generate an amino acid radical on the enzyme. Further support for this enzyme mediated cleavage of the 3{prime} C-H bond of the nucleotide and the novel role of AdoCbl came from studies using (3{prime}{sup 3}H)2{prime}-chloro-2{prime}-deoxyuridine 5{prime}-triphosphate ((3{prime}-{sup 3}H)CIUTP). Evidence is presented that during the course of this reaction, the {sup 3}H abstracted from the 3{prime} position of (3{prime}-{sup 3}H)CIUTP was either exchanged with the solvent or returned to the {beta} face of the 2{prime} position to produce (2{prime}{sup 3}H)-2{prime}-deoxy-3{prime}-ketoUTP. This result demonstrates that RTPR is capable of catalyzing a rearrangement reaction. The significance of the RTPR-catalyzed rearrangement with respect to the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes which catalyze rearrangements is discussed.

Harris, G.M.

1984-01-01

280

LIFESTYLE OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN THE MOUSE CECUM  

PubMed Central

Summary Lactobacillus plantarum is a common inhabitant of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts. Strains of L. plantarum are also marketed as probiotics intended to confer beneficial health effects upon delivery to the human gut. To understand how L. plantarum adapts to its gut habitat, we used whole genome transcriptional profiling to characterize the transcriptome of strain WCFS1 during colonization of the ceca of adult germ-free C57Bl/6J mice fed a standard low-fat rodent chow diet rich in complex plant polysaccharides or a prototypic Western diet high in simple sugars and fat. L. plantarum colonized the digestive tracts of these animals to high levels, although L. plantarum was found in 10-fold higher amounts in the ceca of mice fed the standard chow. Metabolic reconstructions based on the transcriptional datasets revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism form the principal functional group that is up-regulated in vivo compared to exponential phase cells grown in three different culture media, and that a Western diet provides a more nutritionally-restricted, growth limiting milieu for the microbe in the distal gut. A set of bacterial genes encoding cell surface-related functions were differentially regulated in both groups of mice. This set included down-regulated genes required for the D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acids, extracellular structures of L. plantarum that mediate interactions with the host immune system. These results, obtained in a reductionist gnotobiotic mouse model of the gut ecosystem, provide insights about the niches (professions) of this lactic acid bacterium, and a context for systematically testing features that affect epithelial and immune cell responses to this organism in the digestive tract.

Marco, Maria L.; Peters, Theodorus H.F.; Bongers, Roger S.; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hemert, Saskia; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2010-01-01

281

Exploring Lactobacillus plantarum Genome Diversity by Using Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping of 20 strains of L. plantarum from various sources. The gene categories with the most genes conserved in all strains were those involved in biosynthesis or degradation of structural compounds like proteins, lipids, and DNA. Conversely, genes involved in sugar transport and catabolism were highly variable between strains. Moreover, besides the obvious regions of variance, like prophages, other regions varied between the strains, including regions encoding plantaricin biosynthesis, nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In many cases, these variable regions colocalized with regions of unusual base composition. Two large regions of flexibility were identified between 2.70 and 2.85 and 3.10 and 3.29 Mb of the WCFS1 chromosome, the latter being close to the origin of replication. The majority of genes encoded in these variable regions are involved in sugar metabolism. This functional overrepresentation and the unusual base composition of these regions led to the hypothesis that they represented lifestyle adaptation regions in L. plantarum. The present study consolidates this hypothesis by showing that there is a high degree of gene content variation among L. plantarum strains in genes located in these regions of the WCFS1 genome. Interestingly, based on our genotyping data L. plantarum strains clustered into two clearly distinguishable groups, which coincided with an earlier proposed subdivision of this species based on conventional methods.

Molenaar, Douwe; Bringel, Francoise; Schuren, Frank H.; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2005-01-01

282

Primary metabolism in Lactobacillus sakei food isolates by proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is an important food-associated lactic acid bacterium commonly used as starter culture for industrial meat fermentation, and with great potential as a biopreservative in meat and fish products. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms underlying the growth performance of a strain to be used for food fermentations is important for obtaining high-quality and safe products. Proteomic analysis was used to study the primary metabolism in ten food isolates after growth on glucose and ribose, the main sugars available for L. sakei in meat and fish. Results Proteins, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source were identified, such as a ribokinase and a D-ribose pyranase directly involved in ribose catabolism, and enzymes involved in the phosphoketolase and glycolytic pathways. Expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were also affected by the change of carbon source. Interestingly, a commercial starter culture and a protective culture strain down-regulated the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the rest of the strains when grown on ribose. The overall two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein expression pattern was similar for the different strains, though distinct differences were seen between the two subspecies (sakei and carnosus), and a variation of about 20% in the number of spots in the 2-DE gels was observed between strains. A strain isolated from fermented fish showed a higher expression of stress related proteins growing on both carbon sources. Conclusions It is obvious from the data obtained in this study that the proteomic approach efficiently identifies differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source. Despite the basic similarity in the strains metabolic routes when they ferment glucose and ribose, there were also interesting differences. From the application point of view, an understanding of regulatory mechanisms, actions of catabolic enzymes and proteins, and preference of carbon source is of great importance.

2010-01-01

283

Mechanism of maltose uptake and glucose excretion in Lactobacillus sanfrancisco.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sanfrancisco LTH 2581 can use only glucose and maltose as sources of metabolic energy. In maltose-metabolizing cells of L. sanfrancisco, approximately half of the internally generated glucose appears in the medium. The mechanisms of maltose (and glucose) uptake and glucose excretion have been investigated in cells and in membrane vesicles of L. sanfrancisco in which beef heart cytochrome c oxidase had been incorporated as a proton-motive-force-generating system. In the presence of ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), and cytochrome c, the hybrid membranes facilitated maltose uptake against a concentration gradient, but accumulation of glucose could not be detected. Similarly, in intact cells of L. sanfrancisco, the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha-methylglucoside was taken up only to the equilibration level. Selective dissipation of the components of the proton and sodium motive force in the hybrid membranes indicated that maltose is transported by a proton symport mechanism. Internal [14C]maltose could be chased with external unlabeled maltose (homologous exchange), but heterologous maltose/glucose exchange could not be detected. Membrane vesicles of L. sanfrancisco also catalyzed glucose efflux and homologous glucose exchange. These activities could not be detected in membrane vesicles of glucose-grown cells. The results indicate that maltose-grown cells of L. sanfrancisco express a maltose-H+ symport and glucose uniport system. When maltose is the substrate, the formation of intracellular glucose can be more rapid than the subsequent metabolism, which leads to excretion of glucose via the uniport system.

Neubauer, H; Glaasker, E; Hammes, W P; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

1994-01-01

284

Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves  

PubMed Central

Abstract Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37°C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS.

2004-01-01

285

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

PubMed Central

The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, the genome encodes all enzymes required for the glycolysis and phosphoketolase pathways, all of which appear to belong to the class of potentially highly expressed genes in this organism, as was evident from the codon-adaptation index of individual genes. Moreover, L. plantarum encodes a large pyruvate-dissipating potential, leading to various end-products of fermentation. L. plantarum is a species that is encountered in many different environmental niches, and this flexible and adaptive behavior is reflected by the relatively large number of regulatory and transport functions, including 25 complete PTS sugar transport systems. Moreover, the chromosome encodes >200 extracellular proteins, many of which are predicted to be bound to the cell envelope. A large proportion of the genes encoding sugar transport and utilization, as well as genes encoding extracellular functions, appear to be clustered in a 600-kb region near the origin of replication. Many of these genes display deviation of nucleotide composition, consistent with a foreign origin. These findings suggest that these genes, which provide an important part of the interaction of L. plantarum with its environment, form a lifestyle adaptation region in the chromosome.

Kleerebezem, Michiel; Boekhorst, Jos; van Kranenburg, Richard; Molenaar, Douwe; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Leer, Rob; Tarchini, Renato; Peters, Sander A.; Sandbrink, Hans M.; Fiers, Mark W. E. J.; Stiekema, Willem; Lankhorst, Rene M. Klein; Bron, Peter A.; Hoffer, Sally M.; Groot, Masja N. Nierop; Kerkhoven, Robert; de Vries, Maaike; Ursing, Bjorn; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.

2003-01-01

286

Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37 degrees C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS. PMID:15581218

Ewaschuk, Julia B; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Zello, Gordon A

2004-10-01

287

Lactobacillus protected bone damage and maintained the antioxidant status of liver and kidney homogenates in female wistar rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate protective property of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus in minimizing oxidative stress associated with arthritis from liver and kidney. Subsequently, protective property of Lactobacillus against the bone damage was also taken into consideration. Arthritis was induced by injecting freund's complete adjuvant (100 ?l) into sub plantar surface of hind paw. Oral administration of culture, vehicle, and drug started after induction of arthritis (i.e. on day 9th). Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. Radiographic analysis of the hind paw knee joint was also done at the end of the 21st day. Oxidative stress parameters were studied from liver and kidney homogenate. Histopathology of liver and kidney was also performed. Lactobacillus treatment significantly rescued the enzymatic level of catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase in both liver and kidney homogenates, whereas it has decreased the malonaldehyde accumulation. Oral administration of Lactobacillus also significantly decreased the serum ceruloplasmin level. Radiographic analysis also corroborated these findings. Lactobacillus treatment maintained the normal histopathology of liver and kidney. Results of this study clearly suggest that L. casei and L. acidophilus, alone or in combination, decreased the bone damaged and effectively restored antioxidant status of liver and kidney. Lactobacillus has a significant antiarthritic and antioxidant activity against freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. PMID:22661381

Amdekar, Sarika; Kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir; Singh, Vinod

2012-06-04

288

Modulation of the murine microbiome with a concomitant anti-obesity effect by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28.  

PubMed

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) constitutes the major part of the total human microbiome and is considered to be an important regulator of human health and host metabolism. Numerous investigations in recent years have focused on the connection between the human microbiota and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Yet, little is known about the impact of probiotic consumption on the GIT microbial population and the potential effect on chronic diseases. In this study, the modulation of the microbial community in the murine small intestine resulting from probiotic feeding was investigated and was found to be associated with an anti-obesity effect. Changes in the microbiota of the mouse faeces and small intestine were monitored using quantitative real-time PCR and by following the mRNA expression levels of various obesity-related biomarkers following probiotic feeding in a mouse model. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28 (a putative probiotic strain isolated from kimchi) were administered at a daily level of approximately 1×10(8) viable bacteria per mouse (C57BL/6J mice) for up to three weeks. Feeding these strains resulted in a significant reduction of epididymal fat mass, as well as obesity-related biomarkers like acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in the liver. The total number and ratio of the microbial groups, i.e. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp. were modulated in the small intestine, and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was decreased. In contrast, no noticeable effect of probiotic feeding could be detected on the faecal microbiota, neither quantitatively, nor with regard to the bacterial groups (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Clostridium cluster I and XIVab, and Lactobacillus spp.) studied. PMID:22348905

Ji, Y S; Kim, H N; Park, H J; Lee, J E; Yeo, S Y; Yang, J S; Park, S Y; Yoon, H S; Cho, G S; Franz, C M A P; Bomba, A; Shin, H K; Holzapfel, W H

2012-03-01

289

Optimization of the freeze-drying media and survival throughout storage of freeze-dried Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for veterinarian probiotic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vaginal probiotic cultures depends on the preservation technologies employed by the related industries.A full two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), considering medium and strain, of the decrease in bacterial viability during freeze-drying was applied. Lactobacillus gasseri CRL1421 was significantly more resistant than L. gasseri CRL1412 to the process. L. gasseri CRL1412 suspended in

María Claudia Otero; María Carolina Espeche; María Elena Nader-Macías

2007-01-01

290

Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic

Gillian E. Gardiner; Christine Heinemann; Andrew W. Bruce; Dee Beuerman; Gregor Reid

2002-01-01

291

Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri as expression systems: evaluation of different origins of replication for the design of suitable shuttle vectors.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to establish transformation protocols for Lactobacillus plantarum CD033 and Lactobacillus buchneri CD034, two industrial silage strains and to test the influence of selected origins of replication on plasmid copy number, plasmid stability, and plasmid incompatibility in these strains. Electro-transformation protocols were optimized by examination of the influence of different electroporation solutions and cell wall weakening agents on transformation efficiency. Using Lithium acetate as cell wall weakening agent, we could achieve transformation efficiencies of 8 × 10(4) transformants per 1 ?g DNA for L. buchneri CD034 which is to our knowledge the highest described for this species up to now. In order to test feasibility of previously described origins of replication derived from Bacillus subtilis, L. plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and two novel L. buchneri CD034 plasmids to drive replication in our two selected Lactobacillus strains, six shuttle vectors were constructed. Results indicate that, in terms of stable propagation and high gene copy numbers (up to 238 copies/chromosome), the most suitable origins of replication for the construction of expression vectors for the selected silage strains were the ones derived from the novel L. buchneri CD034 plasmids. PMID:22081307

Spath, Katharina; Heinl, Stefan; Egger, Esther; Grabherr, Reingard

2012-09-01

292

Characteristics of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis from women with or without bacterial vaginosis and their relationships in gnotobiotic mice.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate in vitro the production of antagonistic compounds against Gardnerella vaginalis by Lactobacillus strains isolated from women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to select one of the better Lactobacillus producers of such a substance to be tested in vivo using a gnotobiotic animal model challenged with one of the more sensitive G. vaginalis isolates. A total of 24 isolates from women with and without BV were identified as G. vaginalis. A higher frequency (P<0.05) of this bacterium was observed in women with BV (56.7%) when compared to healthy women (17.6%). A total of 86 strains of Lactobacillus were obtained from healthy women and women with BV. Lactobacillus strains were more frequently present (P<0.05) in healthy women (97.5%) than in women with BV (76.7%). Lactobacillus crispatus was the predominating strain in both healthy women and women with BV. Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus vaginalis were isolated with an intermediate frequency in the two groups. In vitro antagonism assays were performed using as indicators 17 reference strains and the G. vaginalis strains isolated from women with BV and from healthy women. Lactobacillus isolated from healthy women showed the higher antagonistic activity against all the indicator strains when compared with isolates from women with BV. Concerning the indicator strains, G. vaginalis found in women with BV was more resistant to the antagonism, particularly when Lactobacillus isolates from women with BV were used as producer strains. A high vaginal population level of G. vaginalis was obtained by intravaginal inoculation of germ-free mice, and this colonization was accompanied by vaginal histopathological lesions. A tenfold decrease in vaginal population level of G. vaginalis and a reduction of histological lesions were observed when the pathogenic challenge was performed in mice previously monoassociated with an L. johnsonii strain. Concluding, results of the present study suggest that progression of G. vaginalis-associated BV depends in part on a simultaneous presence of Lactobacillus populations with a low antagonistic capacity and of a G. vaginalis strain with a high resistance to this antagonism. The results could also explain why G. vaginalis is frequently found in the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women. PMID:22539000

Teixeira, G S; Carvalho, F P; Arantes, R M E; Nunes, A C; Moreira, J L S; Mendonça, M; Almeida, R B; Farias, L M; Carvalho, M A R; Nicoli, J R

2012-04-26

293

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, or a chemical preservative on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.  

PubMed

Several microorganisms and one chemical preservative were tested for their effects on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. Whole-plant corn (one-half milk line, 31.3% dry matter) was ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos untreated or after the following treatments: Lactobacillus buchneri at 1 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage; two different strains of L. plantarum, each at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g; and a buffered propionic acid-based product at 0.1% of fresh forage weight. After 100 d of ensiling, silage treated with L. buchneri (1 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a lower concentration of lactic acid compared with the untreated silage, but was similar to other treated silages. The silage treated with the high (1 x 10(6) cfu/g), but not the moderate rate (1 x 10(5) cfu/g) of L. buchneri also had a greater concentration of acetic acid (3.60%) and less yeasts (2.01 log cfu/g) when compared with other treatments (average of 1.88% acetic acid and 5.85 log cfu of yeasts/g). Silages treated with L. plantarums, the moderate rate of L. buchneri, and the chemical preservative took longer to heat than untreated silage when exposed to air, but improvements were numerically small (6.3 to 10.5 h). In contrast, silage treated with the high rate of L. buchneri never heated throughout a 900-h period of monitoring. Inoculating corn silage with 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of L. buchneri resulted in a more heterolactic fermentation and dramatically improved the aerobic stability of corn silage. PMID:10750111

Ranjit, N K; Kung, L

2000-03-01

294

Nutritional Requirements and Nitrogen-Dependent Regulation of Proteinase Activity of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062 were determined with a simplified chem- ically defined medium (SCDM) and compared with those of L. helveticus CRL 974 (ATCC 15009). Both strains were found to be prototrophic for alanine, glycine, asparagine, glutamine, and cysteine. In addition, CRL 1062 also showed prototrophy for lysine and serine. The microorganisms also required riboflavin, calcium

ELVIRA M. HEBERT; RAUL R. RAYA; GRACIELA S. DE GIORI

2000-01-01

295

Improvement of the Resistance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to Freezing by Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria are often produced as frozen or freeze-dried cultures that can be used for the direct inoculation of milk in cheese and fermented milk pro- duction processes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the resistance of Lactobacillus del- brueckii ssp. bulgaricus to freezing could be improved by natural selection. Three parallel cultures of strain CFL1

C. Monnet; C. Béal; G. Corrieu

2003-01-01

296

Intraspecific Genotypic Characterization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Intended for Probiotic Use and Isolates of Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 118 strains of the species Lactobacillus rhamnosus was collected, including probiotic strains, research strains with potential probiotic properties, food starter cultures, and human isolates. The majority of the strains were collected from companies, hospitals, or culture collections or were obtained after contacting authors who reported clinical case studies in the literature. The present work aimed to reveal

M. Vancanneyt; G. Huys; K. Lefebvre; V. Vankerckhoven; H. Goossens; J. Swings

2006-01-01

297

Convergence in probiotic Lactobacillus gut-adaptive responses in humans and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria provide unique opportunities to study the global responses and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of gut-associated microorganisms in the human digestive tract. In this study, we show by comparative transcriptome analysis using DNA microarrays that the established probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v specifically adapts its metabolic capacity in the human intestine for carbohydrate acquisition and expression of exopolysaccharide and

Maria L Marco; Maaike C de Vries; Michiel Wels; Douwe Molenaar; Peter Mangell; Siv Ahrne; Willem M de Vos; Elaine E Vaughan; Michiel Kleerebezem

2010-01-01

298

The treatment of mice with Lactobacillus casei induces protection against Babesia microti infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report that administration of Lactobacillus casei confers protection to mice against the intracellular protozoan Babesia microti. Mice treated with L. casei orally or intraperitoneally were inoculated 7 days later with an infectious dose of B. microti. Mice treated with lactobacilli showed significant reduction in the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) compared to untreated mice. When mice were

C. R. Bautista-Garfias; M. B. Gómez; B. R. Aguilar; O. Ixta; F. Martínez; J. Mosqueda

2005-01-01

299

Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider using radio frequency electric fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing is effective at inactivating Gram negative bacteria in fruit juices at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be shown to be effective at reducing Gram positive bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 49445, a Gram positive bacterium, was inocula...

300

Proteomic Approach for Molecular Mechanisms under Ethanol Stress in Lactobacillus buchneri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria have potential to serve as microbial catalysts for production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 is a novel strain that belongs to the hetero-fermentative group of lactic acid bacteria. It was isolated from a fuel ethanol p...

301

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Among Lactobacillus Species of the Subgenus Strepto bacterium Orla-Jensen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) relationship among Lacto bacillus species of the subgenus Streptobacterium Orla-Jensen was assessed by means of DNA\\/ DNA hybridization experiments. High genetic homologies were found among Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, L. cusei subsp. alactosus, L. cusei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans; however, there was only a low level of homology between the DNA of L.

F. DELLAGLIO; V. BOTTAZZI; MARISA VESCOVO

1975-01-01

302

Lactobacillus plantarum effects on silage fermentation and in vitro microbial yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four alfalfa trials, one corn, and one bmr corn were treated with no inoculant (Control), Lactobacillus plantarum (MTD/1) and formic acid (FA), ensiled in 1-L mini-silos, and fermented for 60 d at room temperature (22 C). Mini-silos were opened and analyzed for fermentation characteristics and solub...

303

SELECTION OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP FROM POULTRY INTESTINE PROVIDING NEW PROBIOTIC STRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We isolated strains of Lactobacillus spp. from 24-day old chicken intestines. Our purpose was to select the most desirable isolates enabling the creation of effective probiotics. We hypothesized that the primary selection criteria for effective probiotics included: 1) the degree of strain colonizati...

304

Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Nosocomial diarrhea is a major problem in pediatric hospitals worldwide. We evaluated the efficacy of orally administered Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the prevention of this disease in young children. Study design: Eighty-one children aged 1 to 36 months who were hospitalized for reasons other than diarrhea were enrolled in a double-blind trial and randomly assigned at admission to receive

Hanna Szajewska; Maria Kotowska; Jacek Z. Mrukowicz; Malgorzata Armánska; Wieslaw Mikolajczyk

2001-01-01

305

LIMITING GALACTOSE REQUIREMENT FOR CITRATE UTILIZATION BY LACTOBACILLUS CASEI IS ANNULLED IN CHEDDAR CHEESE EXTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate is utilized by this microorganism in modified chemically defined media as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of other more readily metabolized carbon sources (i.e. ga...

306

Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

Nakamura, L.K.

1981-01-01

307

Molecular analysis of mutated Lactobacillus acidophilus promoter-like sequence P15.  

PubMed

The promoter-like sequence P15 that was previously cloned from the chromosome of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 is active in Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Escherichia coli, but not in Lactococcus lactis. N-methyl-N-nitroso-N-guanidine (MNNG) mutagenesis of P15 was used to select for a promoter active in L. lactis MG1363. Molecular analysis of the mutated promoter (designated P16) revealed a 90 bp deletion and a T-->A transversion. This deletion, in combination with the addition to the transversion, created a promoter with putative -35 and -10 hexamers identical to the consensus promoter sequence found in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis vegetative promoters. The activity of P16 was measured by its ability to promote chloramphenicol resistance in different bacteria when inserted in the promoter-probe plasmid pBV5030 (designated pLA16). The MIC of chloramphenicol in L. lactis, L. reuteri, L. plantarum, E. coli, and L. acidophilus harbouring pLA16 were 30, 170, 180, > 500, and 3 micrograms/mL, respectively. This represents an increase in promoter activity compared to P15 in L. reuteri of 3-fold, in L. plantarum of 9-fold, and in E. coli of at least 2.5-fold, but a decrease in L. acidophilus of 7-fold. PMID:11068681

Arsenijevic, S; Topisirovic, L

2000-10-01

308

Impact of Respiration on Resistance of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to Acid Stress  

PubMed Central

This study shows that growth under respiration conditions has a negative impact on the survival of stationary-phase cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 at low pHs and that viability loss at critical values is associated with the formation of radicals and loss of membrane integrity.

Watanabe, Masayuki; van der Veen, Stijn

2012-01-01

309

Survival of Lactobacillus casei in the Human Digestive Tract after Consumption of Fermented Milk  

PubMed Central

A human trial was carried out to assess the ileal and fecal survival of Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 ingested in fermented milk. Survival rates were up to 51.2% in the ileum and 28.4% in the feces. The probiotic bacterium has the capacity to survive during its transit through the human gut.

Oozeer, Raish; Leplingard, Antony; Mater, Denis D. G.; Mogenet, Agnes; Michelin, Rachel; Seksek, Isabelle; Marteau, Philippe; Dore, Joel; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Corthier, Gerard

2006-01-01

310

Bacteriocin Involved in Premature Death of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM During Growth at pH 61  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidopbilus NCFM main- tained at pH 6 during growth in lacto- bacilli MRS broth appeared to exhibit premature death. However, during ex- tended incubation, the culture reinitiated growth. Spent broth collected from the culture when it began the premature death was very toxic to the culture, but growth did occur during extended incuba- tion of the assay tubes. When

C. L. Ferreira; S. E. Gilliland

1988-01-01

311

Incorporation of Cholesterol into the Cellular Membrane of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 431211  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol that was assimilated by Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 was not metabolically degraded; most of it was recovered with the cells. Cells that were grown in the presence of cholesterol micelles and bile salts were more resistant to lysis by sonication than were those grown in their absence, suggesting a possible alteration of the cell wall or membrane. Cholesterol assimilation

D. O. Noh; S. H. Kim; S. E. Gilliland

1997-01-01

312

Adhesion and aggregation ability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus M92  

Microsoft Academic Search

B. K OS, J. SUSKOVIC ´ ,S. V U K O V I C´ ,M. SIMPRAGA, J. F RECE A ND S. M ATOSIC ´ . 2003. Aims: To investigate aggregation and adhesiveness of Lactobacillus acidophilus M92 to porcine ileal epithelial cells in vitro, and the influence of cell surface proteins on autoaggregation and adhesiveness of this strain. Methods and

B. Kos; J. Suskovic; S. Vukovic; M. Simpraga; J. Frece; S. Matosic

2003-01-01

313

Growth Enhancement of Bifidobacterium lactis Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus Ki by Milk Hydrolyzates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the best conditions of prepa- ration of a (tentatively) probiotic starter culture that might be suitable for cheese making composed solely of Bifidobacterium lactis Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus Ki is critical if a consistently reliable acid production is to be achieved, especially because bifidobacteria have stringent requirements for growth. Therefore, we determined whether B. lactis Bo and

Ana M. P. Gomes; F. Xavier Malcata; Frank A. M. Klaver

1998-01-01

314

Strain improvement of Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2365 for lactic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii (NCIM 2365). None of the nitrogen source gave lactic acid concentration as high as that for yeast extract. The effect of yeast extract could have been due to its B vitamin content. Acclimatization and ultraviolet mutagenesis were used to develop strains of L. delbrueckii

Sachin R. Kadam; Sudarshan S. Patil; Kulbhushan B. Bastawde; Jayant M. Khire; Digambar V. Gokhale

2006-01-01

315

Supplementation of whey with glucose and different nitrogen sources for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown at room temperature in static culture. When whey (total sugar 30 g l?1) was supplemented with different concentrations of yeast extract, lactic acid production increased. When glucose (20 g l?1) was added to whey, 20 g l?1 yeast extract supplementation was found to be most suitable. Among the different nitrogen sources supplemented to whey [yeast extract,

Vasanthy Arasaratnam; Appadurai Senthuran; Kandiah Balasubramaniam

1996-01-01

316

Effect of medium supplementation on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW9595M in whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M was studied in whey permeate medium supplemented with different nitrogen sources or with yeast extract and vitamins, salts and amino acids used in the formulation of defined basal minimum medium (BMM). All nitrogen sources tested exhibited very limited or no effect on biomass production using acidification and automated spectrophotometry test. A multilevel-factorial design

M. G. Macedo; C. Lacroix; N. J. Gardner; C. P. Champagne

2002-01-01

317

Isolation of Aroma-Bearing Material from Lactobacillus helveticus Culture and Cheese1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In whey permeate supplemented with amino acids and inoculated with Lacto- bacillus betveticus, methionine was neces- sary for good aroma development. The aroma of Lactobacillus belveticus cultures could be removed by passing the culture fluid through either acid or basic ion- exchange resins. When the ion-exchange resins were eluted with appropriate volatile acid or base and the eluates were evaporated,

J. Kowalewska; H. Zelazowska; A. Babuchowski; E. G. Hammond; B. A. Glatz; F. Ross

1985-01-01

318

Isolation of histamine-producing Lactobacillus buchneri from Swiss cheese implicated in a food poisoning outbreak.  

PubMed

A histamine-producing strain of Lactobacillus buchneri was isolated from Swiss cheese that had been implicated in an outbreak of histamine poisoning. It produced up to 4,070 nmol of histamine per ml in MRS broth supplemented with 0.1% histidine. The identification of this isolate was based on its biochemical, bacteriological, and DNA characterizations. PMID:4083875

Sumner, S S; Speckhard, M W; Somers, E B; Taylor, S L

1985-10-01

319

Isolation of histamine-producing Lactobacillus buchneri from Swiss cheese implicated in a food poisoning outbreak.  

PubMed Central

A histamine-producing strain of Lactobacillus buchneri was isolated from Swiss cheese that had been implicated in an outbreak of histamine poisoning. It produced up to 4,070 nmol of histamine per ml in MRS broth supplemented with 0.1% histidine. The identification of this isolate was based on its biochemical, bacteriological, and DNA characterizations.

Sumner, S S; Speckhard, M W; Somers, E B; Taylor, S L

1985-01-01

320

Genome Sequence of the Cheese-Starter Strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.  

PubMed

We report the genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (1,911,137 bp, GC 49.7%), a proteolytic strain isolated from a homemade Argentinian hard cheese which has a key role in bacterial nutrition and releases bioactive health-beneficial peptides from milk proteins. PMID:23929489

Hebert, Elvira María; Raya, Raúl R; Brown, Lucía; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Taranto, María Pía

2013-08-08

321

Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. The reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. In this study Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 has

Liam A. M. Ryan; Emanuele Zannini; Fabio Dal Bello; Agata Pawlowska; Peter Koehler; Elke K. Arendt

2011-01-01

322

Effect of microencapsulation on viability and other characteristics in Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 were microencapsulated with sodium alginate by dropping method. The effects of microencapsulation on the changes in survival rate of the L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 during exposure to artificial gastrointestinal and on the change in heat susceptibility of L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 during the heat treatment were studied. In addition, cholesterol assimilation and intestinal adhesion of non-encapsulated

Se-Jin Kim; Seung Yong Cho; Sae Hun Kim; Ok-Ja Song; II-Shik Shin; Dong Su Cha; Hyun Jin Park

2008-01-01

323

Effect of microencapsulated precipitants of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on Helicobacter pylori eradication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitants of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393-loaded chitosan microspheres were prepared by electrostatic interaction between chitosan (CS) and poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA). The loading efficiency was approximately 80%, and the zeta potential of the microspheres became more positively charged as the molar ratio of the chitosan amino group was increased. The particles were confirmed to have a spherical shape by optical microscopy.

J. A. Ko; H. J. Lim; H. J. Park

2011-01-01

324

Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at

Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi; Ernani S. Sant; Luiz H. Beirão

325

Rapid Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 by Multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many functional foods containing probiotic strains have been developed recently. Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 is one of the most frequently used cultures in probiotic products. The present study aimed to develop a method for the detection and identification of L. casei ATCC 393 based on genetic polymorphisms of the hsp60 gene. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed,

Athanasios Karapetsas; Eleftherios Vavoulidis; Alex Galanis; Raphael Sandaltzopoulos; Yiannis Kourkoutas

2010-01-01

326

Lactobacterium zeae Kuznetsov, a Later Subjective Synonym of Lactobacillus casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen and Lessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacterium zeae Kuznetsov strain USSR RIA 482, here designated as the type strain of Lactobacterium zeae, was accessioned by the American Type Culture Collection (as ATCC 15820), where, on the basis of its phenetic characters, it was identified as belonging to Lactobacillus casei. To confirm this identification, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base compositions of and the nucleic-acid homology between this

CHARLES K. MILLS; ERWIN F. LESSEL

327

An improved method for the transformation of Lactobacillus strains using electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their widespread industrial and medical importance, there is considerable interest in the manipulation and improvement of Lactobacillus strains using modern genetic engineering techniques. However, most reports have focused on industrial strains and often have resulted in non-reproducible transformation efficiencies. We have developed an optimised protocol for electroporating foreign plasmid DNA into clinical strains of lactobacilli. Treatment of the

Ming-Qian Wei; Catherine M. Rush; Julianne M. Norman; Louise M. Hafner; Ronald J. Epping; Peter Timms

1995-01-01

328

Complete genomic sequence of the temperate bacteriophage ?AT3 isolated from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genomic sequence of a temperate bacteriophage ?AT3 isolated from Lactobacillus (Lb.) casei ATCC 393 is reported. The phage consists of a linear DNA genome of 39,166 bp, an isometric head of 53 nm in diameter, and a flexible, noncontractile tail of approximately 200 nm in length. The number of potential open reading frames on the phage genome is

Ta-Chun Lo; Tsung-Chieh Shih; Chao-Fen Lin; Hung-Wen Chen; Thy-Hou Lin

2005-01-01

329

Anaerobic Induction of Adherence to Laminin in Lactobacillus gasseri Strains by Contact with Solid Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of growth conditions on adhesion was studied in six species belonging to Lactobacillus acidophilus homology groups. Namely, 17 strains including 6 fresh isolates of L. gasseri from human feces were assessed for their adherence to immobilized fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen. These extracellular matrix proteins were used as a model of damaged intestinal mucosa. When the bacteria

Masanori Horie; Takatomo Murakami; Takumi Sato; Yukiko Tarusawa; Shingo Nakamura; Takahiro Toba

2005-01-01

330

Characterization of a Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T lipoteichoic acid with a novel glycolipid anchor structure.  

PubMed

We determined the chemical structure of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131(T). The repeating unit was comprised of glycerolphosphate and 2-alanylglycerolphosphate. The glycolipid anchor was tetrahexosylglycerol with two or three acyl groups. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a tetrahexose structure in an LTA glycolipid anchor. PMID:23503311

Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Morita, Naoki; Fukiya, Satoru; Tomita, Satoru; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Yokota, Atsushi

2013-03-15

331

Transformation of folate-consuming Lactobacillus gasseri into a folate producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five genes essential for folate biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis were cloned on a broad-host-range lactococcal vector and were transferred to the folate auxotroph Lactobacillus gasseri. As a result L. gasseri changed from a folate consumer to a folate producer. This principle can be used to increase folate levels in many fermented food products.

H. B. A. Wegkamp; Marjo Starrenburg; Vos de W. M; Jeroen Hugenholtz; Wilbert Sybesma

2004-01-01

332

A comprehensive approach to determine the probiotic potential of human-derived Lactobacillus for industrial use.  

PubMed

Specific strains should only be regarded as probiotics if they fulfill certain safety, technological and functional criteria. The aim of this work was to study, from a comprehensive point of view (in vitro and in vivo tests), three Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 and Lactobacillus gasseri 37) isolated from feces of local newborns, determining some parameters of technological, biological and functional relevance. All strains were able to adequately grow in different economic culture media (cheese whey, buttermilk and milk), which were also suitable as cryoprotectants. As selective media, LP-MRS was more effective than B-MRS for the enumeration of all strains. The strains were resistant to different technological (frozen storage, high salt content) and biological (simulated gastrointestinal digestion after refrigerated storage in acidified milk, bile exposure) challenges. L. rhamnosus 64 and L. gasseri 37, in particular, were sensible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin, increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage and induced the proliferation of IgA producing cells in small intestine when administered to mice. Even when clinical trails are still needed, both strains fulfilled the main criteria proposed by FAO/WHO to consider them as potential probiotics for the formulation of new foods. PMID:23498174

Gregoret, V; Perezlindo, M J; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J; Binetti, A

2012-11-27

333

UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri, one of the predominant lactobacilli in human intestinal tracts, is utilized for probiotics and dairy starter cultures. However, since L. gasseri is relatively sensitive to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite (essential compounds for meat products), it is difficult to utilize this species for conventional fermented meat products. In this study, efforts were directed to generate mutants of L.

Keizo Arihara; Makoto Itoh

2000-01-01

334

In Vitro Fermentation of Breast Milk Oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) function as a prebiotic for bifidobacteria, yet this activity has not been adequately investigated. In this study, Bifidobacterium infantis was shown to ferment purified HMO as a sole carbon source, while another gut commensal, Lactobacillus gasseri, did not ferment HMO. Our results support the hypothesis that HMO selectively amplify bacterial populations

Robert E. Ward; Milady Ninonuevo; David A. Mills; Carlito B. Lebrilla; J. Bruce German

2006-01-01

335

Primary Structure and Functional Analysis of the Lysis Genes ofLactobacillus gasseriBacteriophage fadh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage fadh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted

BERNHARD HENRICH; BERNHARD BINISHOFER; ANDUDO BLASI

1995-01-01

336

Effects of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 on a murine breast cancer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to the lactic acid bacteria and their products of fermentation. Previous studies in mice demonstrated that bioactive compounds released in milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 contribute to its immunoenhancing and antitumour properties. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of the consumption of milk fermented

Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc; Chantal Matar; Nicole LeBlanc; Gabriela Perdigón

2005-01-01

337

Effect of curing conditions and Lactobacillus casei CRL705 on the hydrolysis of meat proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. F ADDA, G. V IGNOLO, M.-C. A RISTOY, G. O LIVER A ND F. T OLDRA ´ . 2001. Aims: The effect of the common curing conditions used during the manufacture of dry fermented sausage on the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus casei CRL705 against meat proteins was investigated. Methods and Results: Hydrolysis of pork muscle sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins

S. Fadda; G. Vignolo; M.-C. Aristoy; G. Oliver; F. Toldra

2001-01-01

338

Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

339

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (from the fermented milk product Yakult (Yakult Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)) on Helicobacter pylori by using (i) in vitro inhibition assays with H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain 1) and nine H. pylori clinical isolates and (ii) the in vivo H. pylori SS1 mouse model of infection over a period of

D. Sgouras; P. Maragkoudakis; K. Petraki; B. Martinez-Gonzalez; E. Eriotou; S. Michopoulos; G. Kalantzopoulos; E. Tsakalidou; A. Mentis

2004-01-01

340

Genome Sequence of the Naturally Plasmid-Free Lactobacillus plantarum Strain NC8 (CCUG 61730)  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is a highly versatile lactic acid bacterium found in various ecological niches, such as fermented vegetable, meat, and dairy products and the gastrointestinal tract. We sequenced the genome of L. plantarum NC8, a naturally plasmid-free strain, which has been used as a model strain in many laboratories worldwide.

Rud, Ida; Naterstad, Kristine; Blom, Hans; Renckens, Bernadet; Boekhorst, Jos; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha; Siezen, Roland J.

2012-01-01

341

Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov., a tannase-producing species isolated from wild mouse faeces.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming bacterium, strain ASB1(T), able to degrade tannin, was isolated from faeces of the Japanese large wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain could be assigned as a member of the genus Lactobacillus. The nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Lactobacillus animalis DSM 20602(T) (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus murinus ASF 361 (98.9 %). Subsequent polyphasic analysis, including automated ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, confirmed that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain is 38.5 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan is of type A4alpha L-lys-D-asp. The type strain is ASB1(T) (=DSM 16634(T)=CIP 108913(T)). PMID:16825652

Osawa, Ro; Fujisawa, Tomohiko; Pukall, Rüdiger

2006-07-01

342

Evidence for Four Deoxynucleoside Kinase Activities in Extracts of Lactobacillus leichmannii  

PubMed Central

Extracts of Lactobacillus leichmannii (ATCC 7830) catalyze the phosphorylation of the four principal deoxynucleosides. Thymidine, deoxyguanosine, and deoxycytidine kinase activities were found to be optimal with deoxyadenosine triphosphate as the phosphoryl donor, whereas deoxycytidine triphosphate was the optimal donor for deoxyadenosine kinase activity. L. leichmannii catalyzes the conversion of deoxycytidine to deoxyuridylic acid, probably by a pathway involving deoxycytidylate deaminase.

Powell, J. W.; Wachsman, J. T.

1973-01-01

343

Bactericidal action of oleuropein extracted from green olives against Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compound oleuropein extracted from green olives was shown to be bactericidal against nine strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from green olive fermentation brines. Heat-treated oleuropein also demonstrated a strong bacteri- cidal effect but not alkali-treated oleuropein, which allowed survival of most of the strains tested. The bactericidal effect was accompanied by changes in the typical bacillary structure and

J. L. Ruiz-Barba; A. Garrido-Fernandez; R. Jimenez-Diaz

1991-01-01

344

Hop-resistant Lactobacillus brevis contains a novel plasmid harboring a multidrug resistance-like gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bitter-tasting compounds derived from the flowers of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) protect beer from bacterial spoilage. However, a few lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli, are resistant to these compounds and sometimes cause serious spoilage in the beer industry. It is important to elucidate the mechanisms of hop-resistance in lactic acid bacteria. We selected mutants of Lactobacillus brevis

Manabu Sami; Hiroshi Yamashita; Tatsuhiko Hirono; Hiroshi Kadokura; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Koji Yoda; Makari Yamasaki

1997-01-01

345

The effect of Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk on acute changes in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: Milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus ( L. helveticus) has been shown to lower blood pressure and to increase bone mineral content in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effect of L.helveticus may be due to better calcium availability. Aim of the study: In the present study the effect of milk fermented with L. helveticus on acute changes in calcium metabolism

Mirkka Narva; Riikka Nevala; Tuija Poussa; Riitta Korpela

2004-01-01

346

ISOLATION OF A LACTOBACILLUS SALIVARIUS: ITS BACTERIOCIN IS INHIBITORY TO CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity among >1,200 isolates of lactic acid bacteria. One, Lactobacillus salivarius (NRRL B-30514), was selected for further study. The cell-free, ammonium sulfate precipitate from the broth culture was termed the crude antimicrobial preparation (CAP). Ten...

347

Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

2000-01-01

348

Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.  

PubMed Central

In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents.

Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

1996-01-01

349

Effect of B vitamin supplementation on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract (YE) in terms of their usefulness for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. None of these nitrogen sources gave lactic acid concentrations as high as that for YE during 48 h of fermentation. On the basis of the amount of B vitamins in YE, various amounts of five essential

Ik-Keun Yoo; Ho Nam Chang; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Seung-Hyeon Moon

1997-01-01

350

A novel regulatory switch mediated by the FNR-like protein of Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

FNR (regulator for fumarate and nitrate reduction) and CRP (CAMP receptor protein) are global regulators which regulate the transcription of overlapping modulons of target genes in response to anaerobiosis and carbon source in Escherichia coli. An ORF, designated flp because it encodes an FNR-like protein of the FNR-CRP family, has been found in Lactobacillus casei. The product of the flp

D. O. Gostick; J. Green; A. S. Irvine; M. J. Gasson; J. R. Guest

1998-01-01

351

The Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei Induces Activation of the Gut Mucosal Immune System through Innate Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria affect the immune system are unknown yet, but many of them are attributed to an increase in the innate or in the acquired immune response. To study the influence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei in the expression of receptors involved in the innate immune response, this bacterium was orally administered to BALB\\/c mice.

C. Maldonado Galdeano; G. Perdigon

2006-01-01

352

Lactic acid production by immobilized Lactobacillus casei in recycle batch reactor: a step towards optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different nutritional and process parameters influencing lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei, adsorbed to Poraver beads in a recycle batch reactor system, were studied in an attempt to set up a system having a long operational lifetime and permitting use of high substrate concentrations for maximal conversion to the product. The presence of lactose, even as a minor fraction of

Appadurai Senthuran; Vasanthe Senthuran; Rajni Hatti-Kaul; Bo Mattiasson

1999-01-01

353

Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation.  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to find out whether gut colonisation of premature babies with a probiotic, Lactobacillus GG, modified enteric carbohydrate fermentation. Twenty preterm infants were randomised to receive Lactobacillus GG 10(8) colony forming units twice a day for two weeks or to a control group. Faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ethanol, and urinary 2,3-butanediol, were measured in parallel with microbiological studies. Lactobacillus GG colonised nine babies. From 1-28 days of age faecal SCFAs did not differ significantly from controls. Median and ranges were (treated and controls, respectively): acetic acid: 173 (trace-799), 166 (trace-700); propionic acid: 44 (trace-169), 37 (11-229); butyric acid: 31 (5-107), 37 (2-118) mumol/g dry weight. Ethanol was detected in more faecal samples from treated babies (65% v 37%), and at higher concentration (6.3 (trace-40) v 3.3 (0.6-8.8; one 229) mumol/g). 2,3-Butanediol was found in 66% of urine samples from treated babies and 58% from controls. On 83% of these occasions Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, or Serratia sp were cultured from faeces. Lactobacillus GG had no obvious adverse effects on nutritionally important SCFAs. The small increase in ethanol excretion is unlikely to have clinical significance.

Stansbridge, E M; Walker, V; Hall, M A; Smith, S L; Millar, M R; Bacon, C; Chen, S

1993-01-01

354

A LOW-COST MEDIUM FOR MANNITOL PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NNRL B-3693, using molasses as an inexpensive carbon source, was evaluated. The bacterium produced mannitol (104.4 ± 0.6 g/L) from molasses and fructose syrups (1:1; total sugars, 150 g/L; fructose:glucose, 4:1) in 16 h. Several kinds of inex...

355

Genome-wide analysis of signal peptide functionality in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus plantarum is a normal, potentially probiotic, inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The bacterium has great potential as food-grade cell factory and for in situ delivery of biomolecules. Since protein secretion is important both for probiotic activity and in biotechnological applications, we have carried out a genome-wide experimental study of signal peptide (SP) functionality. RESULTS: We have

Geir Mathiesen; Anita Sveen; May Bente Brurberg; Lasse Fredriksen; Lars Axelsson; Vincent GH Eijsink

2009-01-01

356

Optimization of media and fermentation conditions for the growth of Lactobacillus sakei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factorial experiments, empirical model building and response surface analysis were used to optimize media composition and fermentation conditions for the propagation of Lactobacillus sakei, a species used as a starter in the manufacture of fermented sausages. Yeast extract, Lab-Lemco and, to a minor extent, Bacteriological peptone were found to be good sources of peptides and growth factors for L. sakei,

T. LECHIANCOLE; A. RICCIARDI; E. PARENTE

357

Modelling and optimization of environmental conditions for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was established, in which the effects of pH, substrate and product on cell growth, exopolysaccharide formation and substrate assimilation were considered. The model gave a good representation both of the formation of exopolysaccharides (which are not only attached to cells but also released into the medium) and of the time courses

B. Cheirsilp; H. Shimizu; S. Shioya

2001-01-01

358

Different probiotic properties for Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from swine and poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic procedures were used to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) strains isolated from swine and poultry. The major properties included their capabilities to adhere to the intestinal epithelium of swine and poultry, the inhibition on pathogenic bacteria, and their tolerance to the gastric juice and bile salts. Results showed that L. fermentum strains from poultry digestive

Wen-Hsin Lin; Bi Yu; Sheng-Hon Jang; Hau-Yang Tsen

2007-01-01

359

Effect of malic acid on the growth kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fermentation kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum was studied in a specially designed broth formulated from commercially available, dehydrated components (YTA - yeast extract, trypticase, and ammonium sulfate) in batch and continuous culture. During batch growth in the absence of malic acid in t...

360

Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during

Elizabeth W. Ng; Marie Yeung; Phillip S. Tong

2011-01-01

361

Functional Characterization of a Composite Bacteriocin Locus from Malt Isolate Lactobacillus sakei 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sakei 5, isolated from malted barley, produces three bacteriocins. Genetic and functional analysis of the purified bacteriocins showed that this strain produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is identical to sakacin P, as well as two novel, chromosomally encoded bacteriocins, which were designated sakacin T and sakacin X. The structural genes specifying sakacin T and sakacin X are part of

Anne Vaughan; Vincent G. H. Eijsink; Douwe van Sinderen

2003-01-01

362

Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, from a cucumber fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virulent Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, was isolated from a commercial cucumber fermentation. The phage was specific for two related strains of L. plantarum, BI7 and its mutant (deficient in malolactate fermenting ability) MU45, which have been evaluated as starter cultures for controlled cucumber fermentation and as biocontrol microorganisms for minimally processed vegetable products. The phage genome of ?JL-1 was

Z. Lu; F. Breidt Jr; H. P. Fleminga; E. Altermann; T. R. Klaenhammer

2003-01-01

363

Bacteriophage-encoded lytic enzymes control growth of contaminating Lactobacillus found in fuel ethanol fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Reduced yields of ethanol due to bacterial contamination in fermentation cultures weakens the economics of biofuel production. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the most problematic, and surveys of commercial fuel ethanol facilities have found that species of Lactobacillus are predomin...

364

ETHANOL FERMENTATION BY OVEREXPRESSING A GRAM-POSITIVE PDC GENE IN LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM STRAIN TF103  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the current research is to convert the lactic acid fermentation capacities of select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) into that of ethanol production. Lactobacillus plantarum ferments glucose to pyruvate through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, and pyruvate is then converte...

365

EFFECT OF SALT NUTRIENTS ON MANNITOL PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of four salt nutrients (ammonium citrate, sodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and manganese sulfate) on the production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 in a simplified medium containing 300 g fructose, 5 g soy peptone, and 50 g corn steep liquor per L in pH-controlle...

366

In Vitro Assessment of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains from Infant Gut Microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus isolates from infant feces were identified and investigated in vitro for their probiotic properties. The isolates belonged to the species L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. fermentum, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. cellobiosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. crispatus. The strains were examined for acid and bile tolerance, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antibiotic susceptibility and

Maria G. Kotsou; Evdokia K. Mitsou; Ioannis G. Oikonomou; Adamantini A. Kyriacou

2008-01-01

367

Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L.

Ossowski von I; Vos de W. M; A. Palva

2011-01-01

368

Inhibition of in vitro growth of enteropathogens by new Lactobacillus isolates of human intestinal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three human Lactobacillus strains, coded B21060, B21070 and B21190, have recently been isolated. The strains show a series of features (acid and bile resistance, adhesion to various types of mucosal cell) which make them particularly promising for the preparation of probiotic products. In the present study, the ability of the strains to inhibit the growth of pathogens in coculture was

Lorenzo Drago; Maria Rita Gismondo; Alessandra Lombardi; Christoph de Haën; Luigia Gozzini

1997-01-01

369

Lactobacillus tucceti sp. nov., a new lactic acid bacterium isolated from sausage.  

PubMed

Following the application of several molecular techniques strain R 19c, isolated from sausage by Reuter in 1970 and deposited at the DSMZ as Lactobacillus sp., has been identified as pertaining to a new species. It showed singular ISR-DdeI and ISR-HaeIII profiles that allowed its differentiation from 68 lactic acid bacteria reference strains analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences places this strain in the genus Lactobacillus within the Lactobacillus alimentarius group. Species L. versmoldensis is the closest phylogenetic neighbor with 96.3% sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed the independent status at species level of this strain. Species-specific primers for PCR detection of this new species have been developed. Phenotypically it can be distinguished from the closest relative L. versmoldensis by several traits such as the peptidoglycan type (L-Lys-Gly-D-Asp), acid production from L-rhamnose, D-mannitol and L-fucose and its inability to ferment d-galactose, d-melibiose and d-sucrose. The name Lactobacillus tucceti sp. nov. is proposed with strain R 19c(T) (=DSM 20183(T)= CECT 5920(T)) as the type strain. PMID:16824960

Chenoll, Empar; Carmen Macián, M; Aznar, Rosa

2005-10-19

370

Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130 in static and shake flask fermentation was investigated. Shake flasks proved to be a better fermentation system for this purpose. Substitution of yeast extract with other low cost protein sources did not improve lactic acid production. The maximum lactic acid concentration was achieved without treatment of molasses. A

Ch. Kotzamanidis; T. Roukas; G. Skaracis

2002-01-01

371

Influence of growth supplements on lactic acid production in whey ultrafiltrate by Lactobacillus helveticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations have been carried out on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 303 in whey ultrafiltrate. Addition of beet molasses was investigated with good results, although yeast extract proved to be more effective. The size of inoculum and the preculture medium also played a significant role in determining the amount of lactic acid produced during the fermentation process. High

Luigi Chiarini; Luisa Mara; Silvia Tabacchioni

1992-01-01

372

Adhesion of some probiotic and dairy Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of 12 different Lactobacillus strains was studied using Caco-2 cell line as an in vitro model for intestinal epithelium. Some of the strains tested have been used as probiotics, and most of them are used in the dairy and food industry. Human and bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Bacterial adhesion

Seppo J Salminen

1998-01-01

373

Selective detection, enumeration and identification of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in mixed bacterial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species constitute a significant proportion of probiotic cultures used in developed countries in ‘microbial adjunct nutrition’. A number of differential plating methodologies have been developed which seek to selectively detect and enumerate these bacterial groups in bioproducts. Differences in oxygen tolerance, nutritional requirements, antibiotic susceptibility, and colony morphology and colour constitute the bases of differentiation in these

William P. Charteris; Phillip M. Kelly; Lorenzo Morelli; J. Kevin Collins

1997-01-01

374

Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the biological properties and consequent technological roles of intestinal bacteria with potential health-promoting capacities, and provides selected examples available in the literature that are pertinent to the aforementioned concepts. A comprehensive overview pertaining to the taxonomy and ecology, as well as nutritional and health effects of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus, is provided; particular attention is

Ana M. P. Gomes; F. Xavier Malcata

1999-01-01

375

Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper provides an overview on the use of probiotic organisms as live supplements, with particular emphasis on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. The therapeutic potential of these bacteria in fermented dairy products is dependent on their survival during manufacture and storage. Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used in food and pharmaceutical applications to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related

Kaila Kailasapathy; James Chin

2000-01-01

376

Detection and Localization of a Peptidoglycan Hydrolase in Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidoglycan hydrolase activities in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were detected by analysis of bacterial extracts on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing lyophilized Micrococcus ly- sodeikticus cells as substrate. A hydrolase with an esti- mated molecular mass of 80 kDa was found to cross- react on Western blot with monoclonal antibodies raised against muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae. These antibodies were also

O. J. Kang; S. Laberge; R. E. Simard

2003-01-01

377

Cloning and Characterization of Two Lactobacillus casei Genes Encoding a Cystathionine Lyase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds are key flavor compounds in several cheese types. To better understand the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, which certainly plays a key role in the release of volatile sulfur compounds, we searched the genome database of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 for genes encoding putative homologs of enzymes known to degrade cysteine, cystathionine, and methionine. The search revealed

Stefan Irmler; Sylvie Raboud; Beata Beisert; Doris Rauhut; Helene Berthoud

2008-01-01

378

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the effect of three weeks' intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP, TNF-? and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults. METHODS: We performed UPLC\\/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26) in a

Riina A Kekkonen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo; Riitta Korpela

2008-01-01

379

Lactobacillus Plantarum: Characterization of the Species and Application in Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a heterofermentative microaerophilic Gram-positive microorganism, with rod morphology, occurring singly or grouped in short chains. This species has well accepted GRAS status and numerous strains of L. plantarum have been isolated from different ecological niches including meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, milk, and cereal products. L. plantarum has been used as a starter culture in various food fermentation

Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov; Bernadette Dora Gombossy De Melo Franco

2010-01-01

380

Complete Resequencing and Reannotation of the Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Genome  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on human health. The genome of L. plantarum WCFS1, first sequenced in 2001, was resequenced using Solexa technology. We identified 116 nucleotide corrections and improved function prediction for nearly 1,200 proteins, with a focus on metabolic functions and cell surface-associated proteins.

Francke, Christof; Renckens, Bernadet; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.

2012-01-01

381

Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 on Alcohol Metabolism and Liver Function in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has numerous health consequences for the human body. For example, heavy drinking on a daily basis causes liver diseases, and certain products such as acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism are more toxic than alcohol itself. Accordingly, the current study evaluated the role of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 to enhance the removal of the toxic effect of alcohol in alcohol

JI-HYUN KIM; HYUN-JIN KIM; JEONG HWA SON; HO-NAM CHUN; JIN-OH YANG; SUNG-JIN CHOI; NAM-SOO PAEK; GYOUNG-HOON CHOI; SUNG-KOO KIM

2003-01-01

382

Fermentation of citrate by Lactobacillus plantarum in the presence of a yeast under acid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

At pH 3.6, Lactobacillus plantarum is unable to grow on citrate or to ferment it in the absence of another carbon source such as glucose. In a defined medium containing glucose and citrate, with a higher concentration of the former than the latter, as in many fermented alcoholic beverages, L. plantarum will first ferment the sugar. The production of lactate

C. Kennes; H. C. Dubourguier; G. Albagnac; H. Naveau; M. Veiga; E. J. Nyns

1991-01-01

383

Assessment of Aflatoxin B1 Binding to Lactobacillus reuteri by Microscopy and Fluorescence Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this research were to study the applicability of flow cytometry to detect aflatoxin bound to Lactobacillus reuteri based on fluorescence intensity patterns, and to evaluate the aflatoxin\\/bacteria interaction by microscopy techniques based on fluorescent staining and disruption of the cell wall structure. Our results demonstrated a specific interaction between the AFB1 bound to the cell surface and

Adrian Hernandez-Mendoza; Liliana Rivas-Jimenez; Hugo S. Garcia

2011-01-01

384

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of lactobacillus GG in infantile diarrhea.  

PubMed

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 229 infants hospitalized for acute diarrhea in rural India were given a 10-day course of Lactobacillus rhammosus GG (minimum dose, 10 degrees bacteria) or placebo. There was no difference in groups in the duration of diarrhea or numbers of stool on days 3, 6, or 10 of treatment. PMID:19559297

Misra, Sudipta; Sabui, Tapas K; Pal, Nishith K

2009-07-01

385

AT oligonucleotides inducing B lymphocyte activation exist in probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined oligonucleotide sequences of mitogenic DNA derived from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The chromosomal DNA, which was purified from 12 out of 16 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus group LAB, induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. When DNA from L. gasseri JCM1131T was cloned and amplified using PCR, the mitogenic activities of B lymphocytes were significantly increased by 108 of

Haruki Kitazawa; Satoshi Ueha; Shihoko Itoh; Hiroshi Watanabe; Kei Konno; Yasushi Kawai; Tadao Saito; Takatoshi Itoh; Takahiro Yamaguchi

2001-01-01

386

Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, CpG-like motif exists in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAI B6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic B cells. Only the DNA from L. bulgaricus NIAI B6

Haruki Kitazawa; Hiroshi Watanabe; Takeshi Shimosato; Yasushi Kawai; Takatoshi Itoh; Tadao Saito

2003-01-01

387

Purification and Properties of NAD-dependent Lactic Dehydrogenases of Different Species of Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Six nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent lactic dehydro- genases, four specific for D(-) lactate and two specific for L(+) lactate have been purified from different Lactobacillus species. Four of these enzymes appeared to be pure by several criteria. Some of the physical and catalytic properties of these enzymes are described and compared with those previously reported for the D- and

F. GASSER; M. DOUDOROFF; REBECCA CONTOPOULOS

1970-01-01

388

Quantitative analysis of diverse Lactobacillus species present in advanced dental caries.  

PubMed

Our previous analysis of 65 advanced dental caries lesions by traditional culture techniques indicated that lactobacilli were numerous in the advancing front of the progressive lesion. Production of organic acids by lactobacilli is considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. The present study was undertaken to define more precisely the diversity of lactobacilli found in this environment and to quantify the major species and phylotypes relative to total load of lactobacilli by real-time PCR. Pooled DNA was amplified by PCR with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers for subsequent cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons, 18 different phylotypes of lactobacilli were detected, including strong representation of both novel and gastrointestinal phylotypes. Specific PCR primers were designed for nine prominent species, including Lactobacillus gasseri, L. ultunensis, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. crispatus, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and L. gallinarum. More than three different species were identified as being present in most of the dentine samples, confirming the widespread distribution and numerical importance of various Lactobacillus spp. in carious dentine. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed various proportions of the nine species colonizing carious dentine, with higher mean loads of L. gasseri and L. ultunensis than of the other prevalent species. The findings provide a basis for further characterization of the pathogenicity of Lactobacillus spp. in the context of extension of the carious lesion. PMID:15243071

Byun, Roy; Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Martin, F Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A; Hunter, Neil

2004-07-01

389

Transformation of Lactobacillus plantarum by electroporation with in vitro modified plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the electrotransformation of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 (ATCC 8014) with plasmid DNA isolated from Escherichia coli is described. The two main modifications with respect to existing methods are: (i) isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli JM110 grown in minimal medium and (ii) in vitro modification of the DNA by cell-free extracts of the host L.

M. Teresa Alegre; M. Carmen Rodr??guez; Juan M. Mesas

2004-01-01

390

Activity of a Lactobacillus acidophilus ?Based Douche for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by alteration of the normal vaginal microflora, in which a mixed anaerobic bacterial flora becomes prevalent over the population of lacobacilli. Because administration of probiotics might be of some utility in restoring a normal flora, the present study aimed to evaluate the ef- fect of a Lactobacillus acidophilus-strain-based douche on the vaginal environment in bacterial

Lorenzo Drago; Elena De Vecchi; Lucia Nicola; Elisa Zucchetti; Maria Rita Gismondo; Franco Vicariotto

2007-01-01

391

Proteomics and Transcriptomics Characterization of Bile Stress Response in Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts,

K. Koskenniemi; K. Laakso; J. Koponen; M. Kankainen; D. Greco; P. Auvinen; K. Savikoki; Vos de W. M; P. Varmanen

2011-01-01

392

Bebek Mamalari ve Çocuk Ek Besinlerinde Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Kullaniminin Sa?lik Üzerine Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics can be defined as living microorganisms of which has proved beneficial effects on health of the host and that modulate the intestinal flora. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the widely used probiotic. In recent years the organism is frequently used in infants formulas and children's food due to preventive and curing effects on diarrho ea, dental caries, allergy

Zeynep Canbulat; Tülay Özcan

393

Increased Enterocyte Production in Gnotobiotic Rats Mono-Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific and commercial interest in using beneficial microorganisms (i.e., probiotics) to enhance intestinal health. Of the numerous microbial strains examined, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been most extensively studied. Daily intake of L. rhamnosus GG shortens the course of rotavirus infection by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Comparative studies with germfree and conventional rats have shown

M. Banasaz; E. Norin; R. Holma; T. Midtvedt

2002-01-01

394

Flow cytometry assessment of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) response to non-electrolytes stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a probiotic of human origin, known to have health beneficial effects can be exposed to osmotic stress when applied in food production as important quantities of sugars are added to the food product. The aim of this study is to assess the mode of action of non-electrolytes stress on its viability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Investigations were

E. O. Sunny-Roberts; E. Ananta; D. Knorr

2007-01-01

395

Heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Modulates Urocortin and Cytokine Release in Primary Trophoblast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies are showing that probiotic treatment induces an anti-inflammatory state. Intrauterine infection can lead to preterm delivery by modulating immune function and efforts to prevent this condition are ongoing nowadays. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic known to ameliorate inflammation by increasing local anti-inflammatory mediators in urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The present study then analyzed the

E. Bloise; M. Torricelli; R. Novembri; L. E. Borges; P. Carrarelli; F. M. Reis; F. Petraglia

2010-01-01

396

Effect of different media on production of lactic acid from whey by Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 lactose was fermented to lactic acid in batch process by Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The impact of 5 different media with change in volume percent of whey and nutrient was investigated at 32 ± ± ± ± 0.5°C. Substrate consumption and lactic acid production were determined at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h. In these experiments, the volume

Mostafa Ghasemi; Ghasem Najafpour; Mostafa Rahimnejad; Pouyan Aeineh Beigi; Mehdi Sedighi; Babak Hashemiyeh

397

Genome sequence of Lactobacillus amylovorus GRL1118, isolated from pig ileum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus amylovorus is a common member of the beneficial microbiota present in the pig gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the genome sequence of the surface layer (S-layer) protein-carrying and potentially probiotic strain L. amylovorus GRL1118, which was isolated from porcine ileum and which shows strong adherence to pig intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:21478337

Kant, Ravi; Paulin, Lars; Alatalo, Edward; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

2011-04-08

398

Influence of Fermentation Medium Composition on Physicochemical Surface Properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the simple and complex basic components of a fermentation medium on the surface properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCC2628 is studied by physicochemical methods, such as electrophoresis, inter- facial adhesion, and X-ray photonelectron spectroscopy, and by transmission electron microscopy. Starting from an optimized complete medium, the effect of carbohydrates, peptones, and yeast extracts on the physi- cochemical properties

Prisca Schar-Zammaretti; Marie-Lise Dillmann; Nicola D'Amico; Michael Affolter; Job Ubbink

2005-01-01

399

Degradation of ascorbic acid and potassium sorbate by different Lactobacillus species isolated from packed green olives.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to ascertain the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the degradation of ascorbic acid and/or potassium sorbate, isolated from packed green olives where these additives had diminished. A total of 14 isolates were recovered from samples of different green olive containers. According to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding gene, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus rapi, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans were identified. With the exception of L. pentosus and L. paracollinoides, the other species had not been mentioned in table olives before this study. Only three of the 14 isolates metabolized ascorbic acid in MRS broth, and the products from ascorbic acid in modified MRS broth without carbon sources were acetic and lactic acids. Except for the two L. rapi and the two P. ethanolidurans strains, the remaining 10 isolates depleted potassium sorbate added into MRS broth to some extent. The product generated by three of these strains was confirmed to be trans-4-hexenoic acid. The degradation of ascorbate or sorbate by lactic acid bacteria should be taken into account when these additives are used in food products where this group of bacteria may be present. PMID:23498172

Montaño, Alfredo; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Casado, Francisco Javier; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio

2012-11-27

400

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Strain MTCC 8711, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Yogurt  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum strain MTCC 8711 is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yogurt. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this strain. The 2,566,297-bp-long genome consisted of a single chromosome and seven plasmids. The genome contains 2,609 protein-coding and 74 RNA genes.

Jayashree, Sathyanarayanan; Pooja, Sharma; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Vishnu, Udayakumar; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2013-01-01

401

The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bulgaricus reveals extensive and ongoing reductive evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a representative of the group of lactic acid-producing bacteria, mainly known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. The genome sequence of this bacterium has been determined and shows the signs of ongoing specialization, with a substantial number of pseudogenes and incomplete metabolic pathways and relatively few regulatory functions. Several unique features of

M. van de Guchte; S. Penaud; C. Grimaldi; V. Barbe; K. Bryson; P. Nicolas; C. Robert; S. Oztas; S. Mangenot; A. Couloux; V. Loux; R. Dervyn; R. Bossy; A. Bolotin; J.-M. Batto; T. Walunas; J.-F. Gibrat; P. Bessières; J. Weissenbach; S. D. Ehrlich; E. Maguin

2006-01-01

402

Lactobacillus strain ecology and persistence within broiler chickens fed different diets: identification of persistent strains.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are autochthonous residents in the chicken gastrointestinal tract, where they may potentially be used as probiotics, competitive exclusion agents, or delivery vehicles. The aim of this study was to use an in vivo model to investigate the effect of diet and competing lactic acid bacteria on the colonization of inoculated Lactobacillus strains, with the goal of identifying strains which can consistently colonize or persist for an extended period of several weeks. Chicken-derived Lactobacillus strains were genetically marked with rifampin resistance and administered on day 0 to chickens fed either a normal commercial diet or a specially formulated high-protein diet. Chickens fed the high-protein diet were also coinoculated with two different mixes of additional lactic acid bacteria. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR (ERIC-PCR) was used to identify rifampin-resistant isolates recovered from chickens. Three strains, belonging to the species Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus crispatus, and Lactobacillus vaginalis, were commonly reisolated from the chickens on both diets at days 21 and 42. The ability of these strains to persist was confirmed in a second chicken trial. All three strains persisted throughout the production period in the chickens fed a commercial diet, while only the L. agilis and L. vaginalis strains persisted in the chickens fed the high-protein diet. In both in vivo trials, competing lactic acid bacteria modified representation of the strains recovered, with all three stains capable of competing in the presence of one or both mixes of coinoculated strains. The in vivo model successfully identified three persistent strains that will be characterized further. PMID:20693442

Stephenson, David P; Moore, Robert J; Allison, Gwen E

2010-08-06

403

Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov., Associated with Spoilage of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Poultry Products  

PubMed Central

Unidentified lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates which had mainly been detected in spoiled, marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler meat products during two previous studies, were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties and the capability to produce biogenic amines. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. Unexpectedly for a meat-spoilage-associated LAB, the strains utilized glucose very weakly. According to the API 50 CHL test, arabinose and xylose were the only carbohydrates strongly fermented. None of the six strains tested for production of histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were able to produce these main meat-associated biogenic amines in vitro. The polyphasic taxonomy approach showed that these strains represent a new Lactobacillus species. The six isolates sequenced for the 16S rRNA encoding genes shared the highest similarity (95.0 to 96.3%) with the sequence of the Lactobacillus durianis type strain. In the phylogenetic tree, these isolates formed a distinct cluster within the Lactobacillus reuteri group, which also includes L. durianis. Numerical analyses of HindIII-EcoRI ribotypes placed all isolates together in a cluster with seven subclusters well separated from the L. reuteri group reference strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization levels between Lactobacillus sp. nov. isolates varied from 67 to 96%, and low hybridization levels (3 to 15%) were obtained with the L. durianis type strain confirming that these isolates belong to the same species different from L. durianis. The name Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov. is proposed, with strain LMG 22743T (also known as DSM 15707T or AMKR18T) as the type strain.

Koort, Joanna; Murros, Anna; Coenye, Tom; Eerola, Susanna; Vandamme, Peter; Sukura, Antti; Bjorkroth, Johanna

2005-01-01

404

Vanadium and Experimental Caries. VII. Action of Vanadium on the Development of Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Streptococcus Lactis (Vanadio E Carie Sperimentale. VII. Azione del Vanadio sullo Sviluppo del Lactobacillus Acidophilus e dello Streptococcus Lactis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action of solutions with different contents of vanadium on the development and on the production of lactic acid of cultures of lactobacillus acidophilus and streptococcus lactis was investigated by the authors. The authors have established that there ...

G. Santacatterina G. Grippaudo F. Valfre G. Cecchetti

1972-01-01

405

Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices.  

PubMed

The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0-4.2), citric acid (6-40 g/L), and ascorbic acid (100-1000 mg/L). In total, 17 experimental runs were carried out. The initial cell concentration in the model solutions was approximately 1 × 10(8)CFU/mL; the solutions were stored at 4°C for 6 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the stepwise regression demonstrated that a second order polynomial model fits well the data. The results demonstrated that high pH and citric acid concentration enhanced cell survival; one the other hand, ascorbic acid did not have an effect. Cell survival during storage was also investigated in various types of juices, including orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, pineapple, pomegranate, cranberry and lemon juice. The model predicted well the cell survival in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple, however it failed to predict cell survival in grapefruit and pomegranate, indicating the influence of additional factors, besides pH and citric acid, on cell survival. Very good cell survival (less than 0.4 log decrease) was observed after 6 weeks of storage in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple juice, all of which had a pH of about 3.8. Cell survival in cranberry and pomegranate decreased very quickly, whereas in the case of lemon juice, the cell concentration decreased approximately 1.1 logs after 6 weeks of storage, albeit the fact that lemon juice had the lowest pH (pH~2.5) among all the juices tested. Taking into account the results from the compositional analysis of the juices and the model, it was deduced that in certain juices, other compounds seemed to protect the cells during storage; these were likely to be proteins and dietary fibre In contrast, in certain juices, such as pomegranate, cell survival was much lower than expected; this could be due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds. PMID:21411170

Nualkaekul, Sawaminee; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris

2011-03-14

406

Helicobacter pylori eradication: Sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the role of sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) supplementation, in the eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 90 adult dyspeptic patients. Patients were excluded if previously treated for H. pylori infection or if they were taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), H2-receptor antagonist or antibiotics. Patients were assigned to receive one of the following therapies: (1) 7-d triple therapy (PPI plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole) plus L. reuteri supplementation during antibiotic treatment; (2) 7-d triple therapy plus L. reuteri supplementation after antibiotic treatment; (3) sequential regimen (5-d PPI plus amoxicillin therapy followed by a 5-d PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole) plus L. reuteri supplementation during antibiotic treatment; and (4) sequential regimen plus L. reuteri supplementation after antibiotic treatment. Successful eradication therapy was defined as a negative urea breath test at least 4 wk following treatment. RESULTS: Ninety adult dyspeptic patients were enrolled, and 83 (30 male, 53 female; mean age 57 ± 13 years) completed the study. Nineteen patients were administered a 7-d triple treatment: 11 with L. reuteri supplementation during and 8 after therapy. Sixty-four patients were administered a sequential regimen: 32 with L. reuteri supplementation during and 32 after therapy. The eradication rate was significantly higher in the sequential group compared with the 7-d triple regimen (88% vs 63%, P = 0.01). No difference was found between two types of PPI. No difference in eradication rates was observed between patients submitted to L. reuteri supplementation during or after antibiotic treatment. Compliance with therapy was excellent in all patients. No difference in adverse effects was observed between the different antibiotic treatments and between patients submitted to L. reuteri supplementation during and after antibiotic treatment. There was a low incidence of adverse effects in all groups of patients with sequential therapy, probably due to the presence of the L. reuteri supplementation. CONCLUSION: The sequential treatment regimen achieved a significantly higher eradication rate of H. pylori compared with standard 7-d regimen. L. reuteri supplementation could reduce the frequency and the intensity of antibiotic-associated side-effects.

Efrati, Cesare; Nicolini, Giorgia; Cannaviello, Claudio; O'Sed, Nicole Piazza; Valabrega, Stefano

2012-01-01

407

Bifidobacterium longum PL03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A, and Lactobacillus plantarum PL02 in the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the efficacy of a combination of Bifidobacterium longum PL03, Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL53A and Lactobacillus plantarum PL02 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Methods: Seventy-eight children (age: 5 months to 16 years) with otitis media, and\\/or respiratory tract infections, and\\/or urinary tract infections were enrolled in a double-blind randomized control trial in which they received standard

Kinga Kowalska-Duplaga; Hania Szajewska

2008-01-01

408

Environmental Interactions of Lactobacillus reuteri. Signal Transduction, Gene Expression and Extracellular Proteins of a Lactic Acid Bacterium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The commensal bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri inhabits the human gastrointestinal tract and possesses putative probiotic, i.e. health-promoting, properties. In this thesis, features important for the ecological performance of L. reuteri and for interactio...

T. Wall

2005-01-01

409

Dendritic Cell Targeting of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efficient vaccines potentiate antibody avidity and increase T cell longevity, which confer protection against microbial lethal challenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antige...

M. Mohamadzadeh S. J. Sandwick T. Duong T. Hoover T. R. Klaenhammer

2008-01-01

410

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei 8700:2 Degrades Inulin-Type Fructans Exhibiting Different Degrees of Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten strains of lactobacilli were assessed for their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans, which are well-known prebiotics. Both oligofructose and inulin were tested. The dairy isolate Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 degraded only oligofructose. The human isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei 8700:2 degraded oligofructose and long-chain inulin and grew rapidly on both energy sources. In both cases, fractions of different degrees

Lefteris Makras; Gerald Van Acker; Luc De Vuyst

2005-01-01

411

Time-dependent persistence of enhanced immune response by a potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible time-dependent role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in immunomodulation was investigated in BALB\\/c mice fed daily with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (108 colony forming units) for 3, 6, and 9 weeks, and following feeding with Lactobacillus-free food for a further 7 days. We observed up-regulation of the antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells, and expression of natural killer group-2

Yueh-Ting Tsai; Po-Ching Cheng; Chia-Kwung Fan; Tzu-Ming Pan

2008-01-01

412

Use of a Continuous-Culture Biofilm System To Study the Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus have been shown to grow to high titers in a simple biofilm system. This system was used in the present investigation to compare the biofilm-eradicating concentrations (BECs) of amoxicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and metronidazole to standard tube MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) results. With the lactobacillus, the BEC\\/tube MBC ratio was at least 16:1, while

F. MULI; J. K. STRUTHERS

1998-01-01

413

Lactobacillus mucosae sp. nov., a new species with in vitro mucus-binding activity isolated from pig intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Lactobacillus species from pig small intestine has been identified. In an attempt to isolate Lactobacillus reuteri strains carrying the putative colonization-factor gene (mub, for mucus binding) a mub-derived gene probe was used to screen pig intestinal material. A number of isolates were obtained and primary characterization showed that they were Gram-positive, catalase- negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. Growth occurred

Stefan Roos; Fredrik Karner; Lars Axelsson; Hans Jonsson; Swedish Microbiology

414

Detection and Identification of Gastrointestinal Lactobacillus Species by Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Species-Specific PCR Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to detect the presence of Lactobacillus species in the stomach contents of mice. Lactobacillus isolates cultured from human and porcine gastrointestinal samples were identified to the species level by using a combination of DGGE and species-specific PCR

J. Walter; G. W. Tannock; A. Tilsala-Timisjarvi; S. Rodtong; D. M. Loach; K. Munro; T. Alatossava

2000-01-01

415

Comparative study on factors influencing the codon and amino acid usage in Lactobacillus sakei 23K and 13 other lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, major factors shaping codon and amino acid usage variation Lactobacillus sakei 23K were investigated. It included 13 other Lactobacillus species for a comparative analysis. The correspondence analysis (COA) showed that in 13 species the major trend of synonymous\\u000a codon usage was highly correlated with gene expression level as assessed by the “Codon Adaptation Index” (CAI) values. In

Kinshuk Chandra Nayak

416

Relatedness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Isolated from Clinical Specimens and Such from Food-stuffs, Humans and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hundred and fifty-nine samples of food-stuffs, nonindustrial starter cultures and feces from pigs, cows and healthy humans were screened for the presence ofLactobacillus rhamnosus, and in total 45 strains were isolated.Lactobacillus rhamnosuswas frequently found in human feces (39.9%), hard cheese (27.3%) and soft cheese from raw milk (25%) but rarely in raw-milk pools (1.6%) and not at all in

Andreas Baumgartner; Marianne Kueffer; Alice Simmen; Marius Grand

1998-01-01

417

rRNA gene restriction patterns as a characterization tool for Lactobacillus sake strains producing ropy slime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes) of 69 ropy slime producing Lactobacillus sake strains isolated mainly from vacuum-packaged meat products of ten meat plants were determined. Ribotypes were compared to the corresponding patterns of non-ropy L. sake strains, and also to other species of the genus Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium and Weissella associated with meat products. Ropy slime-producing L. sake strains were

Johanna Björkroth; Hannu Korkeala

1996-01-01

418

Identification of the Most Abundant Lactobacillus Species in the Crop of 1- and 5-Week-Old Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria from crops of 1- and 5-week-old broiler chickens fed with two brands (diets A and B) of wheat-based diets were isolated on Lactobacillus-selective medium and identified (n 300) based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. The most abundant Lactobacillus species were L. reuteri (33%), L. crispatus (18.7%), and L. salivarius (13.3%). Regardless of farm and feed, L. reuteri was

Hanan T. Abbas Hilmi; Anu Surakka; Juha Apajalahti; P. E. J. Saris

2007-01-01

419

A strategy to prevent the occurrence of Lactobacillus strains using lactate-tolerant yeast Candida glabrata in bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of Lactobacillus sp. in the fermentation broth of bioethanol production decreases ethanol production efficiency. Although the addition of\\u000a lactate to the broth can effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sp., it also greatly reduces the fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To overcome this conflict, lactate-tolerant yeast strains were screened. Candida glabrata strain NFRI 3164 was found to exhibit both

Itsuki Watanabe; Toshihide Nakamura; Jun Shima

2008-01-01

420

Effects of combining Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 with various lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to compare the effectiveness of combining Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 with three lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation, aerobic stability and nutritive value of corn silage. Freshly chopped whole plant corn was untreated or treated with L. buchneri 40788 paired with Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, or Pediococcus pentosaceus. L. buchneri was added to achieve 4×105CFU\\/g of fresh forage

Lindsey J. Reich; Limin Kung Jr.

2010-01-01

421

Strain identification of probiotic Lactobacillus casei-related isolates with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typing of reference strains and isolates identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei or Lactobacillus rhamnosus was carried out using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses. Strains of L. paracasei were mainly grouped in the same cluster as those of L. casei. The RAPD fingerprints of strains ATCC 393 and ATCC 15820 differ from those of the L. rhamnosus

Denis Roy; Pierre Ward; Daniel Vincent

1999-01-01

422

Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis. PMID:23990812

Yoda, Kazutoyo; He, Fang; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang

2012-06-18

423

A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.  

PubMed

Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes. PMID:23587394

Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

2013-04-12

424

Use of modified Lactobacillus selective medium and Bifidobacterium iodoacetate medium for differential enumeration of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in powdered nutritional products.  

PubMed

Modified Lactobacillus selective agar (APT agar + sodium acetate and glacial acetic acid; mLBS) was compared to selective modified Lactobacillus selective medium (LBS agar + tomato juice and acetic acid; mLSM) and nonselective de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar for the enumeration of Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic-containing powdered nutritional products. The mLBS agar was equivalent to MRS agar and superior to the mLSM agar for enumerating L. acidophilus in products stored in sealed cans at 22 degrees C. When samples were analyzed for L. acidophilus concentration after high temperature storage in sealed cans or storage in open cans at high relative humidity, the mLBS and MRS agars were highly correlated (r2 = 0.93). Modified Bifidobacterium iodoacetate medium (12.5 mg iodoacetic acid/liter; mBIM) was compared to MRS agar + bile, cysteine, and dicloxacillin (MRS + BCD) for enumerating Bifidobacterium infantis or Bifidobacterium lactis in the nutritional products. The two media were equivalent for enumerating B. infantis in product stored at 22 degrees C in sealed cans. However, the two media were poorly correlated (r2<0.50) for enumeration of B. infantis and B. lactis in products stored in sealed cans at high temperature or in open cans at high relative humidity. The mLBS medium has potential industry application as a relatively inexpensive, convenient differential enumeration method for L. acidophilus. The mBIM medium cannot be recommended as a sole medium for enumeration of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. in powdered nutritional products stored under high temperature and/or high relative humidity conditions. PMID:9921834

Ingham, S C

1999-01-01

425

Prevention of vaginal SHIV transmission in macaques by a live recombinant Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Most HIV transmission in women occurs through the cervicovaginal mucosa, which is coated by a bacterial biofilm including Lactobacillus. This commensal bacterium plays a role in maintaining healthy mucosa and can be genetically engineered to produce anti-viral peptides. Here, we report a 63% reduction in transmission of a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162P3) after repeated vaginal challenges of macaques treated with Lactobacillus jensenii expressing the HIV-1 entry inhibitor cyanovirin-N. Furthermore, peak viral loads in colonized macaques with breakthrough infection were reduced 6-fold. Colonization and prolonged anti-viral protein secretion by the genetically engineered lactobacilli did not cause any increase in proinflammatory markers. These findings lay the foundation for an accessible and durable approach to reduce heterosexual transmission of HIV in women that is coitally independent, inexpensive, and enhances the natural protective effects of the vaginal microflora.

Lagenaur, Laurel A; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E; Brichacek, Beda; Pal, Ranajit; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Yang; Yu, Rosa; Venzon, David; Lee, Peter P; Hamer, Dean H

2012-01-01

426

Production and Mode of Action of Lactocin 27: Bacteriocin from a Homofermentative Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus strain LP27 produced a bacteriocin, lactocin 27, in dialyzable and nondialyzable forms. No evidence was obtained to indicate that lactocin 27 was under the control of extrachromosomal plasmids. Lactocin 27 had a bacteriostatic effect on the indicator, Lactobacillus helveticus strain LS18. It inhibited primarily protein synthesis without affecting deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis or adenosine 5?-triphosphate levels. Treatment of susceptible cells with the lactocin did not cause leakage of ultraviolet-absorbing material, but caused the efflux of potassium ions and the influx of sodium ions. It adsorbed non-specifically to various bacterial species irrespective of their susceptibility to lactocin 27. However, the presence of specific receptors has not been ruled out. Images

Upreti, G. C.; Hinsdill, R. D.

1975-01-01

427

Abating colon cancer polyposis by Lactobacillus acidophilus deficient in lipoteichoic acid  

PubMed Central

An imbalance of commensal bacteria and their gene products underlies mucosal and, in particular, gastrointestinal inflammation and a predisposition to cancer. Lactobacillus species have received considerable attention as examples of beneficial microbiota. We have reported previously that deletion of the phosphoglycerol transferase gene that is responsible for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) biosynthesis in Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCK2025) rendered this bacterium able to significantly protect mice against induced colitis when delivered orally. Here we report that oral treatment with LTA-deficient NCK2025 normalizes innate and adaptive pathogenic immune responses and causes regression of established colonic polyps. This study reveals the proinflammatory role of LTA and the ability of LTA-deficient L. acidophilus to regulate inflammation and protect against colonic polyposis in a unique mouse model.

Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Zadeh, Mojgan; Khan, Mohammad W.; Bere, Praveen; Gounari, Fotini; Dennis, Kirsten; Blatner, Nichole R.; Owen, Jennifer L.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

2012-01-01

428

Characterization of the Tn916 Conjugative Transposon in a Food-Borne Strain of Lactobacillus paracasei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-borne antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria have received growing attention in the past few years. We have recently identified tetracycline-resistant Lactobacillus paracasei in samples of milk and natural whey starter cultures employed in the manufacturing process of a typical Italian fermented dairy product, Mozza- rella di Bufala Campana. In the present study, we have characterized at the molecular level the genetic

Chiara Devirgiliis; Doriana Coppola; Simona Barile; Bianca Colonna; Giuditta Perozzi

2009-01-01

429

Genetic and biochemical characterization of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produces exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which play a role in the rheological properties of fermented food products. Lb. bulgaricus Lfi5 produces a high-molecular-weight EPS composed of galactose, glucose, and rhamnose in the molar ratio 5:1:1. An 18-kb DNA region containing 14 genes, designated epsA to epsN, was isolated by genomic DNA library screening and inverted PCR. The predicted

Gilbert Thierry Lamothe; Laure Jolly; Beat Mollet; Francesca Stingele

2002-01-01

430

Metabolic engineering of a Lactobacillus plantarum double ldh knockout strain for enhanced ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum ferments glucose through the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway: the central metabolite pyruvate is converted into lactate via\\u000a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). By substituting LDH with pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity, pyruvate may be redirected toward\\u000a ethanol production instead of lactic acid fermentation. A PDC gene from the Gram-positive bacterium Sarcina ventriculi (Spdc) was introduced into an LDH-deficient strain, L. plantarum TF103, in

Siqing Liu; Nancy N. Nichols; Bruce S. Dien; Michael A. Cotta

2006-01-01

431

In vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum SK5 isolated from vagina of a healthy woman.  

PubMed

A lactobacillus strain isolated from a vaginal tract of a healthy woman was examined in vitro for its probiotic potential. This strain, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum SK5, was able to survive at pH 3-4 and 0.1-0.2% bile, and unaffected by pepsin (3 g l(-1)) and pancreatin (1 g l(-1)), but was susceptible to all tested antibiotics except metronidazole. L. fermentum SK5 had an antimicrobial potential against gastrointestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and vaginal pathogenic Gardnerella vaginalis. The effective substance was suspected to be a bacteriocin-like compound with a molecular weight of more than 10 kDa, but hydrogen peroxide was also detected. Further studies revealed that L. fermentum SK5 had good autoaggregation characteristic and a high surface hydrophobicity that enhanced its adhesion ability to epithelial cells and for biofilm formation. This lactobacillus showed coaggregation with E. coli and G. vaginalis to affect their adhesion and colonization. The adhesion of L. fermentum SK5 to HeLa, HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and its inhibition of E. coli and G. vaginalis adherence to these cells were demonstrated. These incidences provided evidence of the possible colonization of L. fermentum SK5 that would prevent binding and growth of E. coli and G. vaginalis onto intestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. On the basis of the ability of L. fermentum SK5 to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms through coaggregation and antimicrobial substances, it is likely that this lactobacillus strain could be a potential probiotic candidate for beneficial use in protecting against gastrointestinal and vaginal microbial infections. PMID:23624069

Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Dangmanee, Nattakan; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Srichana, Teerapol; Chulasiri, Malyn; Settharaksa, Sukanya

2013-04-25

432

Effective cellulose production by a coculture of Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Lactobacillus mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial colony that contained a marked amount of cellulose was isolated from vineyard soil. The colony was formed by the associated growth of two bacterial strains: a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium (st-60-12) and a lactic acid bacterium (st-20). The 16S rDNA-based taxonomy indicated that st-60-12 belonged to Gluconacetobacter xylinus and st-20 was closely related to Lactobacillus mali. Cocultivation of

Akira Seto; Yu Saito; Mayumi Matsushige; Hiroki Kobayashi; Yasuyuki Sasaki; Naoto Tonouchi; Takayasu Tsuchida; Fumihiro Yoshinaga; Kenji Ueda; Teruhiko Beppu

2006-01-01

433

Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in health-stimulating processes within the host. The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most versatile and flexible

Vries de M. C

2006-01-01

434

Improved immunogenicity of oral D x RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for new strategies to improve oral vaccination, the effect of orally administered Lactobacillus casei strain GG (LGG) in conjunction with D x RRV rhesus-human reassortant live oral rotavirus vaccine was tested in 2–5-month-old infants. Infants who received LGG showed an increased response with regard to rotavirus-specific IgM secreting cells, measured using an ELISPOT technique, on day 8

Erika Isolauri; Jaana Joensuu; Hanna Suomalainen; Mari Luomala; Timo Vesikari

1995-01-01

435

Inducible Gene Expression in Lactobacillus reuteri LTH5531 during Type II Sourdough Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH5531 is a dominant member of the microbiota of type II sourdough fermentations. To investigate the genetic background of the ecological performance of LTH5531, in vivo expression technology was used to identify promoters that show elevated levels of expression during growth of this organism in a type II sourdough fermentation. Thirty-eight sourdough-induced fusions were detected, and 29 genes

Fabio Dal Bello; Jens Walter; Stefan Roos; Hans Jonsson; Christian Hertel

2005-01-01

436

Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 Attenuates Allergy Development in a Pig Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProbiotics have been studied as immunomodulatory agents of allergy. Several human probiotic trials tracking the development of eczema and other forms of allergy have yielded inconsistent results. A recent infant study demonstrated that pre and postnatal Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) supplementation decreased the prevalence of eczema and IgE associated eczema. However, the influence of HN001 on the incidence of wheeze,

Debra J. Thomas; Robert J. Husmann; Mauricio Villamar; Timothy R. Winship; Rachael H. Buck; Federico A. Zuckermann; Jacques Zimmer

2011-01-01

437

Enhanced production of d (?)-lactic acid by mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 9649  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chemical mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was used to develop strains ofLactobacillus delbrueckii (ATCC 9649) that tolerated increased lactic acid concentrations while continuously producing the acid. Three mutants (DP2, DP3 and DP4) were compared with wild-typeL. delbrueckii by standing fermentations with different glucose concentrations. All three mutants produced higher levels of lactic acid than the wild-type. In pH-controlled (pH 6.0)

Ali Demirci; Anthony L. Pometto

1992-01-01

438

Influence of temperature on flavour compound production from citrate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrate utilization by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was found to be temperature-dependent. The maximum citrate utilization and incorporation of [1,5-14C]citrate rate were observed at 37°C. At this temperature, maximum citrate lyase activity and specific diacetyl and acetoin production (YDA%) were observed. The high levels of ?-acetolactate synthase and low levels of diacetyl reductase, acetoin reductase and L-lactate dehydrogenase found

R. Medina de Figueroa; G. Oliver; I. L. Benito de Cádenas

2001-01-01

439

Production of three anti-listerial peptides by Lactobacillus curvatus in MRS broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel bioactive peptides (BAP1–3) from Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 were isolated and purified using de Man, Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth by a three-step protein purification protocol including ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic C18 Sep-Pak column and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). This procedure allowed the recovery of chromatographically pure antimicrobial peptides with the yields of 19%, 10% and 15%

Hakim Ghalfi; Noreddine Benkerroum; Marc Ongena; Maryam Bensaid; Philippe Thonart

2010-01-01

440

The Effect of Oral Feeding of Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on Immunoglobulin E Production in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of oral feeding of heat- killed Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on im- munoglobulin E (IgE) production in mice. The strain was orally administered to BALB\\/c mice that had been preinjected intraperitoneally with ovalbumin, and the level of IgE in serum was determined. Results indicated that the oral feeding of L. casei strain Shirota was effective in

T. Matsuzaki; R. Yamazaki; S. Hashimoto; T. Yokokura

1998-01-01

441

Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene–deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Intestinal luminal microflora, or their products, are likely an important initiating factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine the role of colonic aerobic luminal bacteria and Lactobacillus species in the development of colitis in interleukin (IL)-10 gene–deficient mice. Methods: Intestine from 2–16-week-old mice was scored histologically and cultured

Karen L. Madsen; Jason S. Doyle; Laurence D. Jewell; Michele M. Tavernini; Richard N. Fedorak

1999-01-01

442

Purification and amino acid sequence of sakacin A, a bacteriocin from Lactobacillus sake Lb706  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sakacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake Lb706 and which inhibits the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion-exchange, hydrophobic- interaction and reversed-phase chromatography. The complete amino acid sequence of sakacin A was determined by Edman degradation. The bacteriocin consisted of 41 amino acid residues and had a calculated Mc of 4308.7,

ASKILD HOLCK; LARS AXELSSON; STEIN-ERIK BIRKELAND; THEA AUKRUST; HANS BLOM

1992-01-01

443

Applicability of rep-PCR fingerprinting for identification of Lactobacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements fingerprinting using the (GTG)5 primer ((GTG)5-PCR) was proven to be useful for differentiation of a wide range of lactobacilli (i.e. 26 different (sub)species) at the species, subspecies and potentially up to the strain level. Using this rapid and reproducible genotypic technique, new Lactobacillus isolates recovered from different types of fermented dry sausage could

Dirk Gevers; Geert Huys; Jean Swings

2001-01-01

444

Molecular Analysis of the Composition of the Bifidobacterial and Lactobacillus Microflora of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thebifidobacterialandlactobacilluspopulationsoffecalsamplescollectedfromtwohumansubjectsduring a 12-month period were studied. The total numbers of bifidobacteria were stable throughout the study period in both subjects, but lactobacillus numbers were less constant. Analysis of the composition of the bifidobac- terial populations by using ribotyping or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to differentiate between bacterial strains demonstrated major differences between the subjects. Subject 1 harboredfive strains of bifidobacteria throughoutthe12-monthperiod,andonestrainwasnumericallypredominant.Incontrast,subject2harbored

ANNE L. MCCARTNEY; WANG WENZHI; ANDGERALD W. TANNOCK

1996-01-01

445

Oat ?-glucan and xylan hydrolysates as selective substrates for Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel oligomers that resist digestion in the upper gut were prepared from oat mixed-linked ?-glucan and xylan by enzymatic\\u000a hydrolysis with lichenase of Bacillus subtilis and xylanase of Trichoderma reesei respectively. The low-molecular-mass hydrolysis products of ?-glucan and xylan were compared with fructooligomers and raffinose\\u000a in their ability to provide growth substrates for probiotic (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) and intestinal (Bacteroides,

J. Jaskari; P. Kontula; A. Siitonen; H. Jousimies-Somer; T. Mattila-Sandholm; K. Poutanen

1998-01-01

446

Multi-spectrometric analyses of lipoteichoic acids isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoteichoic acid is a major cell wall virulence factor of gram-positive bacteria. LTAs from various bacteria have differential immunostimulatory potentials due to heterogeneity in their structures. Although recent studies have demonstrated that LTA isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) has anti-inflammatory properties and is less inflammatory than LTAs from pathogenic bacteria, little is known about the structure of pLTA. In this

Kyoung-Soon Jang; Jung Eun Baik; Seung Hyun Han; Dae Kyun Chung; Byung-Gee Kim

2011-01-01

447

Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the normal intestinal microflora after administration of two antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a comparative study concerning the influence ofLactobacillus acidophilus supplements on the normal intestinal microflora after the administration of two antimicrobial agents, enoxacin and clindamycin, respectively.L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 was given as a fermented milk product containing 5 × 108-2 × 109 CFU\\/ml to ten of the volunteers immediately after the administration of the antimicrobial

A. Lidbeck; C. Edlund; J. Å. Gustafsson; L. Kager; C. E. Nora

1988-01-01

448

The complete genome sequence of the meat-borne lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei 23K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sakei is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium found naturally on fresh meat and fish. This microorganism is widely used in the manufacture of fermented meats and has biotechnological potential in biopreservation and food safety. We have explored the 1,884,661-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome of strain 23K encoding 1,883 predicted genes. Genome sequencing revealed a specialized metabolic repertoire, including purine nucleoside

Stéphane Chaillou; Marie-Christine Champomier-Vergès; Monique Cornet; Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq; Anne-Marie Dudez; Véronique Martin; Sophie Beaufils; Emmanuelle Darbon-Rongère; Robert Bossy; Valentin Loux; Monique Zagorec

2005-01-01

449

Effect of manganese on Lactobacillus casei fermentation to produce lactic acid from whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentations were performed to investigate the effect of manganese addition, in the form of MnSO4·H2O, on the performance of Lactobacillus casei for producing l-lactic acid from whey permeate supplemented with yeast extract. There was a particular emphasis on evaluating how little yeast extract and MnSO4·H2O is required while still obtaining high sugar conversion and lactic acid yield, as nutrient

John J. Fitzpatrick; Malte Ahrens; Shara Smith

2001-01-01

450

Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid down-regulated Shigella flexneri peptidoglycan-induced inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial peptidoglycans (PGNs) are recognized by the host's innate immune system. This process is mediated by the NOD\\/CARD family of proteins, which induces inflammation by activating nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Excessive activation of monocytes by Shigella flexneri PGN (flexPGN) leads to serious inflammatory diseases such as intestinal bowel diseases (IBD) and Crohn's disease. In this study, we examined whether Lactobacillus plantarum

Han Geun Kim; Seung Yeon Lee; Na Ra Kim; Hea Young Lee; Mi Yeon Ko; Bong Jun Jung; Chul Min Kim; Jung Min Lee; Jong Hwan Park; Seung Hyun Han; Dae Kyun Chung

2011-01-01

451

Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in frozen-stored Kashkaval cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Kashkaval cheeses of varying aging times, stored at ?10 to ?12°C for 12 months, was studied. It was established that the\\u000a proteolysis of Kashkaval cheese induced by the starter culture was significantly delayed by freezing. The noncasein nitrogen\\u000a (NCN\\/TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN\\/TN) as a percentage of total nitrogen increased

Zhelyazko I. Simov; Galin Y. Ivanov

2005-01-01

452

Production and Characterization of Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis.

HaiKuan Wang; YanHua Yan; JiaMing Wang; HePing Zhang; Wei Qi

2012-01-01

453

Robustness of Lactobacillus plantarum starters during daily propagation of wheat flour sourdough type I.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the robustness of selected sourdough strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Seven strains were singly used as sourdough type I starters under daily back-slopping propagation (ten days) using wheat flour. Cell numbers of presumptive lactic acid bacteria varied slightly (median values of 9.13-9.46 log cfu g(-1)) between and within started sourdoughs, as well as the acidifying activity (median values of 1.24-1.33). After three days also the control sourdough (unstarted) had the same values. As shown by RAPD-PCR analysis, five (DB200, 3DM, G10C3, 12H1 and LP20) out of seven strains maintained elevated cell numbers (ca. 9 log cfu g(-1)) throughout ten days. The other two strains progressively decreased to less than 5 log cfu g(-1). As identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and recA genes, L. plantarum (11 isolates), pediococci (7), Lactobacillus casei (3) and Lactobacillus rossiae (2) dominated the flour microbiota. Monitoring of lactic acid bacteria during sourdough propagation was carried out by culture dependent approach and using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Except for the sourdough started with L. plantarum LP20, in all other sourdoughs at least one autochthonous strain of L. plantarum emerged. All emerging strains of L. plantarum showed different RAPD-PCR profiles. L. rossiae and Pediococcus pentosaceus were only found in the control and sourdough started with strain 12H1. The characterization of the catabolic profiles of sourdoughs (Biolog System) showed that sourdoughs containing persistent starters behaved similarly and their profiles were clearly differentiated from the others. One persistent strain (DB200) of L. plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LS44, previously shown to be persistent (Siragusa et al., 2009), were used as the mixed starter to produce a wheat flour sourdough. Both strains cohabited and dominated during ten days of propagation. PMID:20688231

Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pinto, Daniela; Siragusa, Sonya; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

2010-06-01

454

Thymol-triggered lysis of Escherichia coli expressing Lactobacillus phage LL-H muramidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Effective disruption of Escherichia coli cells is achieved by the intracellularly accumulated recombinant murein hydrolase (Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H muramidase) after the addition of 5 mM thymol. Thymol destroys the integrity and electric potential of\\u000a the cytoplasmic membrane, and as a consequence the muramidase can access and hydrolyze the cell wall murein leading to cell\\u000a lysis. Lysis occurred within 5 min

A Vasala; R Isomäki; L Myllykoski; T Alatossava

1999-01-01

455

Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: an integrated process using Lactobacillus brevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for bio-based chemical production is problematic due to the high\\u000a processing costs of pretreatment and saccharifying enzymes combined with low product yields. Such low product yield can be\\u000a attributed, in large part, to the incomplete utilization of the various carbohydrate sugars found in the lignocellulosic biomass.\\u000a In this study, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus

Jae-Han Kim; David E. Block; Sharon P. Shoemaker; David A. Mills

2010-01-01

456

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yoghurt during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of five brands of commercial yoghurt were obtained directly from the processors and enumeration of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum and determination of pH was carried out at three-day intervals over a five-week period. Three of the five products contained 107–108 g?1 viable cells of L. acidophilus, whereas the other two products contained ? 105 of this organism

Nagendra P. Shah; Warnakulasuriya E. V. Lankaputhra; Margaret L. Britz; William S. A. Kyle

1995-01-01

457

Preparation of alginate\\/chitosan\\/carboxymethyl chitosan complex microcapsules and application in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was encapsulated with alginate, chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan by extrusion method and the product could increase the cell numbers of L. casei to be 108cfu\\/g in the dry state after storage at 4°C for 4 weeks. After incubation in simulated gastric (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile juices (1%, 6h), the encapsulated L. casei cell numbers were

Xiao Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Zhong Wu Sun; Hyun Jin Park; Dong-Su Cha

2011-01-01

458

Peptidoglycan Structure of Lactobacillus casei, a Species Highly Resistant to Glycopeptide Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the peptidoglycan of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, a species highly resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics, was examined. After digestion, 23 muropeptides were identified; monomers represented 44.7% of all muropeptides, with monomer tetrapeptides being the major ones. Fifty-nine percent of the peptidoglycan was O-acetylated. The cross-bridge between D-alanine and L-lysine consisted of one asparagine, although aspartate could be found

LAURENT GUTMANN

1997-01-01

459

Effects of a Lactobacillus casei 393 fermented milk product on bone metabolism in ovariectomised rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a Lactobacillus casei 393 fermented milk product (FMP) on bone metabolism were examined. FMP (>0.1 mg mL?1) supplementation significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells proliferation whereas skim milk powder supplementation did not show any positive effect up to 1 mg mL?1. The FMP (1%) supplemented ovariectomised rats had increased bone weight, bone mineral density, and bone breaking force compared with control ovariectomised

Jong Gun Kim; Eungsuk Lee; Sae Hun Kim; Kwang Youn Whang; Sejong Oh; Jee-Young Imm

2009-01-01

460

Purification and Characterization of an Intracellular ?-Glucosidase from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacterium,Lactobacillus casei, produces an intracellular ?-glucosidase when grown on Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium with cellobiose as carbon source. The\\u000a ?-glucosidase activity is produced intracellulary, and no extracellulary activity was detected. The enzyme was purified by\\u000a ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of the purified intracellular ?-glucosidase as estimated\\u000a by gel filtration was 480 kDa, consisting of

S. Coulon; P. Chemardin; Y. Gueguen; A. Arnaud; P. Galzy

1998-01-01

461

Taxonomic Lactobacillus Composition of Feces from Human Newborns during the First Few Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal microbiota comprise a complex ecosystem whose equilibrium is crucial for the health of animal species. For humans,\\u000a data exist on the microbiota composition in adult subjects, but few studies have addressed the microbiota composition in infants.\\u000a In particular, data on the presence and species distribution of members of the genus Lactobacillus in newborns (less than one week old) are

L. Morelli; C. Cesena; C. de Haën; L. Gozzini

1998-01-01

462

Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus casei lactate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed Central

An allosteric L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. The gene was composed of an open reading frame of 981 bp, starting with a GTG codon and ending with a TAA codon. The sequences for the promoter and ribosome binding site were identified, and a sequence for a structure resembling a rho-independent transcription terminator was also found. Images

Kim, S F; Baek, S J; Pack, M Y

1991-01-01

463

Actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto etanólico de propóleo peruano sobre Streptococcus mutans y Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the intention of determining the antibacterial action of the ethanolic extract of Peruvian propolis (EEPP) originally from Oxapampa's Valley (Pasco); using the method of diffusion in Plate the vine-stocks Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 were used, and faced to the solutions: 0,8, 20 and 30 % v\\/v of the EEPP, and compared them to the

Marly Eguizábal A; Hilda Moromi Nakata

464

Effect of Trehalose and Drying Process on the Survival of Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was prepared by extrusion technology with rice shell powder and alginate followed by drying at 4°C. Drying at 4°C was beneficial to the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 compared with freeze drying. Trehalose had a positive effect on the survival of dried L. casei ATCC 393; the live cell numbers remained over 10 cfu\\/g after

Xiao Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Cheng Sheng Liu; Hong Ni Peng; Dong Su Cha

2008-01-01

465

Efficient secretion of the model antigen M6-gp41E in Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Lactobacillus strains (Lb. plantarum NCIMB 8826, Lb. paracasei LbTGS1.4, Lb. casei ATCC 393 and Lb. fermentum KLD) were tested for their ability to produce and secrete heterologous proteins. These strains were first screened with an a-amylase reporter under the control of a set of expression or expression\\/secretion signals from various lactic acid bacteria. With most of the constructions tested,

Pascal Hols; Philippe Slos; Philippe Dutot; Jacqueline Reymund; Paul Chabot; Brigitte Delplace; Jean Delcour; Annick Mercenier

1997-01-01

466

Establishing a model to study the regulation of the lactose operon in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomally encoded lactose-specific phosphoenol pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been investigated in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 [pLZ15-] and it was considered an excellent system to study the regulation of the lactose operon. This chromosomal operon has been cloned and sequenced, being 99% homologous to that encoded on the plasmid pLZ64. Expression of the lactose operon in different mutants of

Mar??a José Gosalbes; Vicente Monedero; Carl-Alfred Alpert; Gaspar Pérez-Mart??nez

1997-01-01

467

PepR1, a CcpA-like transcription regulator of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PepR1 protein from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290 shares extensive homology with catabolite-control proteins from various Gram- positive bacteria. Expression of the subcloned pepR1 gene allowed for partial complementation of a ccpA defect in Staphylococcus xylosus. The influence of PepR1 on transcription of the prolidase gene pepQ, which is located adjacent to pepR1, was examined by use of

Joachim Schick; Beate Weber; R. Klein; Bernhard Henrich; Fachbereich Biologie

468

Identification and Cloning of gusA, Encoding a New  Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gusA gene, encoding a new b-glucuronidase enzyme, has been cloned from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH. This is the first report of a b-glucuronidase gene cloned from a bacterial source other than Escherichia coli .A plasmid library of L. gasseri chromosomal DNA was screened for complementation of an E. coli gus mutant. Two overlapping clones that restored b-glucuronidase activity in the

W. M. Russell; T. R. Klaenhammer

2001-01-01

469

Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus sakei with emphasis on strains from meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium important in food microbiology mainly due to its ability to ferment and preserve meat. The genome\\u000a sequence of L. sakei strain 23K has revealed specialized metabolic capacities that reflect the bacterium’s adaption to meat products, and that\\u000a differentiate it from other LAB. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core

O. Ludvig Nyquist; Anette McLeod; Dag A. Brede; Lars Snipen; Ågot Aakra; Ingolf F. Nes

2011-01-01

470

Primary structure and features of the genome of the Lactobacillus gasseri temperate bacteriophage ?adh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete DNA sequence of the Lactobacillus (Lb.) gasseri temperate phage ?adh was determined. The linear and double-stranded genome consists of 43.785bp with a G+C content of 35.3% and 3? protruding cohesive ends of 12nt. Sixty-two possible ORFs were identified. On the basis of homology comparisons, some of them could be assigned to possible functions, such as a helicase, a

Eric Altermann; Jürgen R Klein; Bernhard Henrich

1999-01-01

471

Lactobacillus gasseri LF221 and K7 — from isolation to application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents research findings on two human strains with probiotic activity. On the basis of API 50 CHL fermentation\\u000a pattern, PCR by species-specific primers and sequencing of the V2–V3 region of 16S rRNA both strains designated as LF221 and\\u000a K7 were identified as members of the Lactobacillus gasseri species. Two LF221 bacteriocins, acidocin LF221 A and B were purified

Irena Rogelj; Bojana Bogovi? Matijaši?

2006-01-01

472

Enzymatic characterization of a maltogenic amylase from Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 expressed in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene corresponding to a maltogenic amylase (MAase) in Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 (lgma) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant LGMA was efficiently purified 24.3-fold by one-step Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The final yield and specific activity of the purified recombinant LGMA were 68% and 58.7 U\\/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity for ?-CD hydrolysis at

Ko-Woon Oh; Myo-Jeong Kim; Hae-Yeong Kim; Byung-Yong Kim; Moo-Yeol Baik; Joong-Hyuck Auh; Cheon-Seok Park

2005-01-01

473

A novel immunostimulating aspect of Lactobacillus gasseri: induction of “Gasserokine” as chemoattractants for macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemotactic activity of the culture supernatants from 14 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. gasseri was examined for murine macrophages. Significant macrophage chemotactic activity was observed in three strains of L. acidophilus and all strains of L. gasseri. The highest activity was observed in the supernatant (1131-sup) from 24-h cultures of L. gasseri JCM1131T. The chemotactic factor from 1131-sup,

Haruki Kitazawa; Tomohiko Ino; Yasushi Kawai; Takatoshi Itoh; Tadao Saito

2002-01-01

474