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1

The probiotic Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 reduces the vascular pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory status in obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with intestine dysbiosis and is characterized by a low-grade inflammatory status, which affects vascular function. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties, Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, in obese mice fed on an HFD (high-fat diet). The probiotic treatment was given for 12 weeks, and it did not affect the weight evolution, although it reduced basal glycaemia and insulin resistance. L. coryniformis administration to HFD-induced obese mice induced marked changes in microbiota composition and reduced the metabolic endotoxaemia as it decreased the LPS (lipopolysaccharide) plasma level, which was associated with a significant improvement in gut barrier disruption. Furthermore, it lowered TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) expression in liver, improving the inflammatory status, and thus the glucose metabolism. Additionally, the probiotic reversed the endothelial dysfunction observed in obese mice when endothelium- and NO (nitric oxide)-dependent vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine in aortic rings was studied. It also restored the increased vessel superoxide levels observed in obese mice, by reducing NADPH oxidase activity and increasing antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, chronic probiotic administration for 2 weeks also improved endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress induced by in vivo administration of LPS in control mice fed on a standard chow diet. The results of the present study demonstrate an endothelial-protective effect of L. coryniformis CECT5711 in obese mice by increasing NO bioavailability, suggesting the therapeutic potential of this gut microbiota manipulation to prevent vasculopathy in obesity. PMID:24410749

Toral, Marta; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Utrilla, María Pilar; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Rodríguez-Cabezas, María Elena; Olivares, Mónica; Gálvez, Julio; Duarte, Juan

2014-07-01

2

Characterization of a reuterin-producing Lactobacillus coryniformis strain isolated from a goat's milk cheese.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711, a strain isolated from a goat's milk cheese, displayed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; as a consequence, its ability to produce the antagonistic compounds associated to lactic acid bacteria, including bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, acetic acid, and reuterin (3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, 3-HPA) was investigated. Production of bacteriocins or hydrogen peroxide by this strain could not be detected. However, in addition to lactic acid and acetic acid, it produced reuterin and cobalamin, a cofactor required for conversion of glycerol to 3-HPA through a glycerol dehydratase. The gene encoding a glycerol dehydratase subunit was detected by PCR and the corresponding amplicon was sequenced. This strain showed a high survival after exposition to conditions simulating those existing in the gastrointestinal tract as well as a notable ability to adhere to intestinal cells, which suggests that its reuterin-producing ability may be used for the host benefit. In addition, the strain showed a strong beta-galactosidase activity. Production of biogenic amines and degradation of mucin could not be detected. PMID:15975679

Martín, R; Olivares, M; Marín, M L; Xaus, J; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

2005-10-25

3

Production of lactate and acetate by Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM 20004(T) in comparison with Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T).  

PubMed

Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM20004(T) is a d-lactate producer, with a portion of the d-lactate higher than 99.9% of total lactic acid produced. Acetate was identified as the second end-product that appeared at the end of the exponential growth phase in MRS medium when glucose concentration dropped to 38.41mM (6.92g/L). The acetate production was prolonged to the stationary phase, while the concentration of d-lactate remained constant. Other end-products were not identified by HPLC method. The known metabolic pathways of glucose fermentation in lactic acid bacteria do not produce the particular combination of these two end-products, but besides lactate and acetate also formate, ethanol and CO2 are produced. For comparison, the production of lactate and acetate by a d-/l-lactate producer Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T) was also investigated. This strain produced equimolar quantities of d- and l-lactate in the MRS medium. Acetate was produced only when initial concentration of glucose was 55.51mM (10g/L) and production started in the exponential phase when concentration of glucose dropped to 35.52mM (6.40g/L). Similar behavior was observed with the initial concentration of maltose of 29.21mM (10g/L). An unstructured mathematical model was established for the bioprocess simulation. PMID:25617683

Slavica, Anita; Trontel, Antonija; Jelovac, Nuša; Kosovec, Željka; Šantek, Božidar; Novak, Sr?an

2015-05-20

4

Antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids against commensal, probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids (benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) are the most abundant phenolic structures found in fecal water. As an approach towards the exploration of their action in the gut, this paper reports the antimicrobial activity of thirteen phenolic acids towards Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 was inhibited by only four of the phenolic acids tested at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL, whereas pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) was susceptible to ten of them. The genetically manipulated E. coli lpxC/tolC strain was highly susceptible to phenolic acids. The growth of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paraplantarum LCH7, Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17, Lactobacillus fermentum LPH1, L. fermentum CECT 5716, Lactobacillus brevis LCH23, and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711) and pathogens (S. aureus EP167 and C. albicans MY1055) was also inhibited by phenolic acids, but to varying extents. Only P. aeruginosa PAO1 was not susceptible to any of the phenolic compounds tested. Structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids and some of their diet precursors [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] were established, based on multivariate analysis of microbial activities. The antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids reported in this paper might be relevant in vivo. PMID:20451604

Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Bills, Gerald; Vicente, M Francisca; Basilio, Angela; Rivas, Concepción López; Requena, Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Bartolomé, Begoña

2010-06-01

5

Description of Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage, and Lactobacillus backii sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, designated IWT246(T) and IWT248, were isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage from Iwate prefecture, Japan, and examined for a taxonomic study. Both organisms were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and homofermentative. The cell wall did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18?:?1?9c and C19 cyclo 9,10/:1. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences revealed that these strains were novel and belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the isolates were most closely related to the type strains of the following members of the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis (96.7?% similarity), L. coryniformis subsp. torquens (96.6?%), L. bifermentans (95.5?%) and L. rennini (94.1?%). However, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of both IWT246(T) and IWT248 were 99.7?% similar to that of 'Lactobacillus backi' JCM 18665; this name has not been validly published. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that these novel strains occupy a unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated genotypic separation of the novel isolates from related Lactobacillus species. The name Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates, with strain IWT246(T) (?=?JCM 18838(T)?=?DSM 26942(T)) as the type strain. Our results also suggest that 'L. backi' does represent a novel Lactobacillus species. The cells did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19 cyclo 9,10/:1 and summed feature 10 (one or more of C18?:?1?11c, C18?:?1?9t, C18?:?1?6t and unknown ECL 17.834). We therefore propose the corrected name Lactobacillus backii sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 18665(T) (?=?LMG 23555(T)?=?DSM 18080(T)?=?L1062(T)). PMID:23687059

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-10-01

6

A case study on stress preconditioning of a Lactobacillus strain prior to freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying of bacterial cells with retained viability and activity after storage requires appropriate formulation, i.e. mixing of physiologically adapted cell populations with suitable protective agents, and control of the freeze-drying process. Product manufacturing may alter the clinical effects of probiotics and it is essential to identify and understand possible factor co-dependencies during manufacturing. The physical solid-state behavior of the formulation and the freeze-drying parameters are critical for bacterial survival and thus process optimization is important, independent of strain. However, the maximum yield achievable is also strain-specific and strain survival is governed by e.g. medium, cell type, physiological state, excipients used, and process. The use of preferred compatible solutes for cross-protection of Lactobacilli during industrial manufacturing may be a natural step to introduce robustness, but knowledge is lacking on how compatible solutes, such as betaine, influence formulation properties and cell survival. This study characterized betaine formulations, with and without sucrose, and tested these with the model lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3. Betaine alone did not act as a lyo-protectant and thus betaine import prior to freeze-drying should be avoided. Differences in protective agents were analyzed by calorimetry, which proved to be a suitable tool for evaluating the characteristics of the freeze-dried end products. PMID:22266474

Bergenholtz, Åsa Schoug; Wessman, Per; Wuttke, Anne; Håkansson, Sebastian

2012-06-01

7

Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactoba- cillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus ther- mophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propioni- bacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS- NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (na- lidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and

N. Tharmaraj; N. P. Shah

2003-01-01

8

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.  

PubMed

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) (?=?DSM 26257(T)?=?CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) (?=?DSM 26254(T)?=?CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) (?=?DSM 26255(T)?=?CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) (?=?DSM 26256(T)?=?CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) (?=?DSM 26263(T)?=?CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) (?=?DSM 26265(T)?=?CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) (?=?DSM 26262(T)?=?CCUG 63631(T)). PMID:24944337

Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-09-01

9

Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT (?=?DSM 26257T?=?CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT (?=?DSM 26254T?=?CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT (?=?DSM 26255T?=?CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT (?=?DSM 26256T?=?CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT (?=?DSM 26263T?=?CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT (?=?DSM 26265T?=?CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT (?=?DSM 26262T?=?CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

2014-01-01

10

Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus nenjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional pickle and sourdough.  

PubMed

Three Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, 11050(T), 7-19(T) and 11102(T), were isolated from traditional pickle and sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. These bacteria were characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, pheS gene sequence analysis, rpoA gene sequence analysis, dnaK gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 11050(T) belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group and shared 98.0-98.4?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and 84.7-88.9?% dnaK gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus fabifermentans and Lactobacillus xiangfangensis and had 75.9-80.7?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 90.7-92.5?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum LMG 6907(T), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis LMG 9205, Lactobacillus pentosus LMG 10755(T), Lactobacillus paraplantarum LMG 16673(T), Lactobacillus fabifermentans LMG 24284(T) and Lactobacillus xiangfangensis 3.1.1(T), respectively. Strain 7-19(T) was phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus thailandensis, Lactobacillus pantheris and Lactobacillus sharpeae, having 94.1-96.7?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 71.5-82.3?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 71.2-83.4?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus thailandensis, Lactobacillus pantheris and Lactobacillus sharpeae, respectively. Strain 11102(T) was phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus oligofermentans, Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus and Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis. Strain 11102(T) had 99.2?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 81.3?% pheS gene sequence similarity and 96.1?% rpoA gene sequence similarity with Lactobacillus oligofermentans LMG 22743(T), respectively. Strain 11102(T) shared 96.0-96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 73.3-81.0?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 74.6-76.9?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus and Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis, respectively. Based upon the data from polyphasic characterization obtained in the present study, three novel species, Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus nenjiangensis sp. nov., are proposed and the type strains are 11050(T) (?=?LMG 27194(T)?=?CCUG 62991(T)), 7-19(T) (?=?LMG 27191(T)?=?NCIMB 14832(T)?=?CCUG 62990(T)) and 11102(T) (?=?LMG 27192(T)?=?NCIMB 14833(T)), respectively. PMID:23950151

Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

2013-12-01

11

Phospholipids of Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus phospholipid molecular species were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Prominent anions were consistent with presence of the phosphatidylglycerols PG(37:2), PG(36:2), PG(35:1), PG(34:1), and PG(33:1). Diglycosyldiacylglycerol molecular species were also observed, although nitrogen-containing phospholipids were absent. An anion of m/z 759 was derived from an apparently novel type of lipid. PMID:7592401

Drucker, D B; Megson, G; Harty, D W; Riba, I; Gaskell, S J

1995-01-01

12

Protoplast fusion between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the fusion between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus, 8 fusants were selected: Four were able to ferment maltose, lactose, galactose and mannose, but two had greater abilities of acid production than parents. Increased values of up to 7.6–8 % in ß -galactosidase activity were obtained from two when compared to that of L. acidophilus, whereas another 2 had activities

Yeehn Yeeh; Young Bae Jo; Oh Chang Kwon

1996-01-01

13

Exopolysaccharides production in Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei exploiting microfiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiology of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei, extensively used in the dairy industry, was studied in order to evaluate key parameters in the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and to improve their production through novel fermentation processes. Selected strains were studied in shake flasks and in fermentor experiments using glucose and lactose as main carbon sources and bacto casitone

C. Schiraldi; V. Valli; A. Molinaro; M. Cartenì; M. De Rosa

2006-01-01

14

LACTOBACILLUS ARIZONENSIS IS A LATER HETEROTYPIC SYNONYM OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ‘Lactobacillus plantarum-group’ encompasses the taxa L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, L. paraplantarum, L. pentosus and L. arizonensis. In this study, the phylogenetic position of L. arizonensis was examined using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-specific methodo...

15

Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage se- quences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described

Marco Ventura; Carlos Canchaya; Valentina Bernini; Eric Altermann; Rodolphe Barrangou; Stephen McGrath; Marcus J. Claesson; Yin Li; Sinead Leahy; Carey D. Walker; Ralf Zink; Erasmo Neviani; Jim Steele; Jeff Broadbent; Todd R. Klaenhammer; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Paul W. O'Toole; Douwe van Sinderen

2006-01-01

16

Intraspecific variation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus in sensitivity towards various bacteriocins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group were identified and typed. They represented 32 clones of Lactobacillus plantarum and 7 clones of Lactobacillus pentosus. Sensitivity of all strains towards bacteriocins of four different producer strains was investigated using a deferred inhibition test (DIT). Substantial intra-specific variation in sensitivity of clones was observed towards bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria producing

G. D. Carl; J. J. Leisner; J. Swings; M. Vancanneyt

2004-01-01

17

Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.  

PubMed

Two Gram-stain-positive strains, YIT 12363(T) and YIT 12364(T), were isolated from human faeces. They were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Lactobacillus casei (95.3% similarity), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (95.6%), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans (95.3%) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (95.4%) were the closest neighbours to strain YIT 12363(T). For strain YIT 12364(T), the highest similarity values were observed with the type strains of Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus parafarraginis and Lactobacillus rapi (95.8, 96.0 and 96.0%, respectively). Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these strains each represent a separate novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, and the names Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12363(T)=JCM 17471(T)=DSM 24301(T)) and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12364(T)=JCM 17472(T)=DSM 24302(T)), respectively, are proposed. PMID:21515698

Oki, Kaihei; Kudo, Yuko; Watanabe, Koichi

2012-03-01

18

A selective differential medium for Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of exogenous lactobacilli in faecal samples is frequently required for the evaluation of the intestinal colonization by probiotic bacteria. In this study, a selective and differential medium, designated LPSM, was developed for the culture of exogenous Lactobacillus plantarum. In quantitative assays, LPSM showed a sensitivity similar to those of enriched and Lactobacillus-adapted media. The presence of ciprofloxacin made

Carmen Bujalance; Maria Jiménez-Valera; Encarnacion Moreno; Alfonso Ruiz-Bravo

2006-01-01

19

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and propionibacteria.  

PubMed

Nineteen bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar, MRS-bile agar, MRS-NaCl agar, MRS-lithium chloride agar, MRS-NNLP (nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, lithium chloride and paramomycine sulfate) agar, reinforced clostridial agar, sugar-based (such as maltose, galactose, sorbitol, manitol, esculin) media, sodium lactate agar, arabinose agar, raffinose agar, xylose agar, and L. casei agar. Incubations were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 27, 30, 37, 43, and 45 degrees C for 24, 72 h, and 7 to 9 d. S. thermophilus agar and aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h were suitable for S. thermophilus. L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus could be enumerated using MRS agar (pH 4.58 or pH 5.20) and under anaerobic incubation at 45 degrees C for 72 h. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 43 degrees C for 72 h were suitable to enumerate L. rhamnosus. MRS-vancomycine agar and anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h were selective for L. casei. To estimate the counts of L. casei by subtraction method, counts of L. rhamnosus on MRS-vancomycine agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation could be subtracted from total counts of L. casei and L. rhamnosus enumerated on MRS-vancomycine agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h under anaerobic incubation. L. acidophilus could be enumerated using MRS-agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or Basal agar-maltose agar at 43 degrees C for 72 h or BA-sorbitol agar at 37 degrees C for 72 h, under anaerobic incubation. Bifidobacteria could be enumerated on MRS-NNLP agar under anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h. Propionibacteria could be enumerated on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 to 9 d. A subtraction method was most suitable for counting propionibacteria in the presence of other lactic acid bacteria from a product. For this method, counts of lactic bacteria at d 3 on sodium lactate agar under anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C were subtracted from counts at d 7 of lactic bacteria and propionibacteria. PMID:12906045

Tharmaraj, N; Shah, N P

2003-07-01

20

Efficient System for Directed Integration into the Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus gasseri Chromosomes via Homologous Recombination  

PubMed Central

An efficient method is described for the generation of site-specific chromosomal integrations in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus gasseri. The strategy is an adaptation of the lactococcal pORI system (K. Leenhouts, G. Venema, and J. Kok, Methods Cell Sci. 20:35–50, 1998) and relies on the simultaneous use of two plasmids. The functionality of the integration strategy was demonstated by the insertional inactivation of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM lacL gene encoding ?-galactosidase and of the Lactobacillus gasseri ADH gusA gene encoding ?-glucuronidase. PMID:11526048

Russell, W. M.; Klaenhammer, T. R.

2001-01-01

21

Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov., from wine.  

PubMed

Ten Lactobacillus strains, previously isolated from different Bobal grape wines from the Utiel-Requena Origin Denomination of Spain, were characterized phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed that they form a tight phylogenetic clade that is closely related to reference strains Lactobacillus satsumensis NRIC 0604T, 'Lactobacillus uvarum' 8 and Lactobacillus mali DSM 20444T. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separation of the strains from other Lactobacillus species. Genotypically, the strains could be differentiated from their closest neighbours by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. The strains were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not exhibit catalase activity. Phenotypically, they could be distinguished from their closest relatives by several traits such as their inabilities to grow at pH 3.3, to ferment sucrose, amygdalin and arbutin or to hydrolyse aesculin. The characteristics of the ten wine isolates suggest that they represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 59bT (=CECT 7334T=DSM 19972T). PMID:19567555

Mañes-Lázaro, Rosario; Ferrer, Sergi; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Pardo, Isabel

2009-08-01

22

Isolation and Characterization of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei from Various Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei isolated from yoghurt, different kinds of cheese and a traditional food named 'tarhana' (a fermented food made of a mixture of cereal, yoghurt and thyme), and to determine the antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of these isolates. The identity of the culture was based on characteristics of

Özlem ERDO

23

Lactobacillus  

MedlinePLUS

... Bifidobacterium (HOWARU Protect). Treating a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis. Some research suggests that taking a specific combination ... treat chronic pouchitis, a complication of surgery for ulcerative colitis. Continuous treatment for one year with a specific ...

24

Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

E-print Network

Note Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp strains isolated from Italian dairy products, Enterococcus faecalis TH563 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii of these strains for determining bioactive properties in dairy products. fermented milk / Enterococcus faecalis

Boyer, Edmond

25

Genomic Diversity of Lactobacillus salivarius? †  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus salivarius are increasingly employed as probiotic agents for humans or animals. Despite the diversity of environmental sources from which they have been isolated, the genomic diversity of L. salivarius has been poorly characterized, and the implications of this diversity for strain selection have not been examined. To tackle this, we applied comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to 33 strains derived from humans, animals, or food. The CGH, based on total genome content, including small plasmids, identified 18 major regions of genomic variation, or hot spots for variation. Three major divisions were thus identified, with only a subset of the human isolates constituting an ecologically discernible group. Omission of the small plasmids from the CGH or analysis by MLST provided broadly concordant fine divisions and separated human-derived and animal-derived strains more clearly. The two gene clusters for exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis corresponded to regions of significant genomic diversity. The CGH-based groupings of these regions did not correlate with levels of production of bound or released EPS. Furthermore, EPS production was significantly modulated by available carbohydrate. In addition to proving difficult to predict from the gene content, EPS production levels correlated inversely with production of biofilms, a trait considered desirable in probiotic commensals. L. salivarius displays a high level of genomic diversity, and while selection of L. salivarius strains for probiotic use can be informed by CGH or MLST, it also requires pragmatic experimental validation of desired phenotypic traits. PMID:21131523

Raftis, Emma J.; Salvetti, Elisa; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.; O'Toole, Paul W.

2011-01-01

26

Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei

Sophie Coudeyras; Helene Marchandin; Celine Fajon; Christiane Forestier

2008-01-01

27

Fermentation of sorghum dough by genus Lactobacillus  

E-print Network

produced a lower acidity and higher pH as compared with the pH and acidity of dough fermented by a combination of yeast and Lactobacillus. Yeast did affect the amount of acidity produced in early stages of fermentation with isolated Lactobacillus. Five... 13 14 16 36 39 42 45 48 63 65 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Results of carbohydrate fermentation tests of 6 chosen strains of lactobacilli Page 15 2 Split Plot Analysis of Variance of factors affecting pH and titratable acidity...

Clark, Susie Hong Nguyen

1980-01-01

28

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK900.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900 fulfills the criteria required for probiotic strains. In this study, we report a whole-genome sequence of this isolate and compare it with other L. rhamnosus complete genome sequences already published. PMID:23950137

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek

2013-01-01

29

Evaluation of culture media for enumeration of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared the growth capability of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus La05, Lactobacillus casei Lc01 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12) and non-probiotic (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) cultures on twenty-one culture media grouped according to selectivity: non-selective agars, selective agars without antibiotics and MRS agars containing different combinations of lithium chloride, cystein, bile salts and antibiotics. Four of these media

Kátia Gianni de Carvalho Lima; Monika Francisca Kruger; Jorge Behrens; Maria Teresa Destro; Mariza Landgraf; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

2009-01-01

30

Lactobacillus assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eco-friendly lactobacillus sp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40 60 nm are found.

Prasad, K.; Jha, Anal K.; Kulkarni, A. R.

2007-05-01

31

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) bacteriocin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...

32

The physicochemical surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface and interfacial properties of five strains of Lactobacillus casei, commonly found in cheese, were investigated in an attempt to identify surface properties that might be exploited to effect adsorption of the cells onto milk fat globules. All measures of surface hydrophobicity revealed these strains to be moderately hydrophobic compared to a reference strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis which was

L. Joseph Kiely; Norman F Olson

2000-01-01

33

OPTIMIZATION OF MANNITOL PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. We have discovered that Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 is an exceptionally good producer of mannitol. Therefore, we have investigated whether an industrial fermentation proce...

34

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Electron Transport Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce a respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. Addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme- and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels

R. J. W. Brooijmans; Vos de W. M; J. Hugenholtz

2009-01-01

35

Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophilic and electrostatic cell surface properties of eight Lactobacillus strains were characterized by using the microbial adhesion to solvents method and microelectrophoresis, respectively. All strains appeared relatively hydrophilic. The strong microbial adhesion to chloroform, an acidic solvent, in comparison with microbial adhesion to hexadecane, an apolar n-alkane, demonstrated the particularity of lactobacilli to have an important electron donor and basic character and consequently their potential ability to generate Lewis acid-base interactions with a support. Regardless of their electrophoretic mobility (EM), strains were in general slightly negatively charged at alkaline pH. A pH-dependent behavior concerning cell surface charges was observed. The EM decreased progressively with more acidic pHs for the L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains until the isoelectric point (IEP), i.e., the pH value for which the EM is zero. On the other hand, the EM for the L. rhamnosus strains was stable from pH 8 to pH 3 to 4, at which point there was a shift near the IEP. Both L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains were characterized by an IEP of around 4, whereas L. rhamnosus strains possessed a markedly lower IEP of 2. The present study showed that the cell surface physicochemical properties of lactobacilli seem to be, at least in part and under certain experimental conditions, particular to the bacterial species. Such differences detected between species are likely to be accompanied by some particular changes in cell wall chemical composition. PMID:9143109

Pelletier, C; Bouley, C; Cayuela, C; Bouttier, S; Bourlioux, P; Bellon-Fontaine, M N

1997-01-01

36

Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

2013-01-01

37

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.

Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Littleton, CO); Mc Millan, James D. (Boulder, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

1998-01-01

38

Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 2 probiotic Lactobacillus strains (lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 122460)

Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Eva Benfeldt; Susanne Dam Nielsen; Kim Fleischer Michaelsen; Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen; Niels Henrik Valerius; Anders Paerregaard

2003-01-01

39

A selective differential medium for Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The quantification of exogenous lactobacilli in faecal samples is frequently required for the evaluation of the intestinal colonization by probiotic bacteria. In this study, a selective and differential medium, designated LPSM, was developed for the culture of exogenous Lactobacillus plantarum. In quantitative assays, LPSM showed a sensitivity similar to those of enriched and Lactobacillus-adapted media. The presence of ciprofloxacin made LPSM inhibitory to most intestinal bacteria, including endogenous acid lactic bacteria, whereas exogenous L. plantarum strains grew producing a yellow color caused by acid production from sorbitol in the presence of bromocresol purple. The results showed that LPSM is suitable for detection and enumeration of L. plantarum in faecal samples. PMID:16554099

Bujalance, Carmen; Jiménez-Valera, Maria; Moreno, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso

2006-09-01

40

Biofilm formation by vaginal Lactobacillus in vivo.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation by nonpathogenic bacteria is responsible for their stable maintenance in vivo ecosystems as it promotes long-term permanence on the host's vaginal mucosa. Biofilm formation by Lactobacilli has been reported in vitro but not in vivo. We hypothesize the presence of biofilm formation in vivo could be also documented by microscope photographs (MP) of wet mounts obtained from uninfected vaginal samples satisfying rigorous scientific identification criteria. We analyzed 400 MP from our database, and we were able to determine that 12 MP from 6 different patients contained clues of the formation of biofilm by Lactobacilli. The most probable lactobacillus involved is presumed to be Lactobacillus jensenii. The documentation of biofilm formation by vaginal Lactobacilli at fresh wet mount preparation is significant and has several important clinical preventive and therapeutic implications. PMID:25725906

Ventolini, G; Mitchell, E; Salazar, M

2015-05-01

41

Diversity of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in feces of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores.  

PubMed

The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium population in the feces of 26 animals (16 species) were studied by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Lactobacilli were detected from a few herbivores, all carnivores and some omnivores. Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus vaginalis and Lactobacillus ingluviei were the most dominant lactobacilli in carnivores. These species were, however, not predominant in herbivores and omnivores. Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, usually present in raw plant material, were present in omnivores but not in carnivores. Bifidobacteria were detected in only four herbivores and two omnivores. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was the only Bifidobacterium species detected in herbivores. Bifidobacteria detected in the two omnivores are phylogenetically not closely related to known species and are possible novel species in the genus. PMID:21034840

Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Dicks, Leon M T

2010-12-01

42

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK908.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK908, a patented probiotic strain (Polish patent no. 209987), was isolated from the feces of a healthy 6-year-old girl. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of LOCK908 and identify genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPSs). PMID:24558250

Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara

2014-01-01

43

Draft Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis Strain 15f: Focusing on Neurotransmitter Genes.  

PubMed

The genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum strain 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis strain 15f were isolated from human intestinal microbiota. Both strains synthesize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Detailed genome analyses will help to understand the role of GABA in the interaction of bacteria with human intestinal cells. PMID:25883284

Yunes, Roman A; Klimina, Ksenia M; Emelyanov, Kirill V; Zakharevich, Natalia V; Poluektova, Elena U; Danilenko, Valery N

2015-01-01

44

In vitro antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and lactobacillus salivarius and their fermentative broth on periodontal pathogens  

PubMed Central

As lactobacilli possess an antagonistic growth property, these bacteria may be beneficial as bioprotective agents for infection control. However, whether the antagonistic growth effects are attributed to the lactobacilli themselves or their fermentative broth remains unclear. The antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum as well as their fermentative broth were thus tested using both disc agar diffusion test and broth dilution method, and their effects on periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro at different concentrations and for different time periods were also compared. Both Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum and their concentrated fermentative broth were shown to inhibit significantly the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, although different inhibitory effects were observed for different pathogens. The higher the counts of lactobacilli and the higher the folds of concentrated fermentative broth, the stronger the inhibitory effects are observed. The inhibitory effect is demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Moreover, for the lactobacilli themselves, Lactobacillus fermentum showed stronger inhibitory effects than Lactobacillus salivarius. However, the fermentative broth of Lactobacillus fermentum showed weaker inhibitory effects than that of Lactobacillus salivarius. These data suggested that lactobacilli and their fermentative broth exhibit antagonistic growth activity, and consumption of probiotics or their broth containing lactobacilli may benefit oral health. PMID:24031966

Chen, Ling-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hsieh, Chu-Yang; Wang, Pi-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Shih; Wang, Lina; Yang, Chi-Chiang

2012-01-01

45

Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains  

PubMed Central

The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa). The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power. PMID:25275269

Fratianni, Florinda; Pepe, Selenia; Cardinale, Federica; Granese, Tiziana; Cozzolino, Autilia; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

2014-01-01

46

Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.  

PubMed

Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

2014-11-01

47

Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov., isolated from orchardgrass silage.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-negative rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated IWT126(T), was isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage preserved in Hachimantai, Iwate, Japan. The isolate showed growth at 15-45 °C, pH 3.5-7.5 and with 4.0?% (w/v) NaCl. The cell wall peptidoglycan did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the DNA G+C content was 45.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain IWT126(T) was classified as a member of the genus Lactobacillus and was most closely related to Lactobacillus odoratitofui YIT 11304(T) (98.7?%), Lactobacillus similis JCM 2765(T) (98.5?%), Lactobacillus collinoides JCM 1123(T) (97.6?%), Lactobacillus paracollinoides DSM 15502(T) (97.6?%) and Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51(T) (96.9?%). Based on sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase ?-subunit (pheS) gene, strain IWT126(T) was well separated from its phylogenetic neighbours in the genus Lactobacillus. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic results, as well as low DNA-DNA relatedness to recognized phylogenetic relatives in the genus Lactobacillus, classification of strain IWT126(T) as a representive of a novel species named Lactobacillus silagei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IWT126(T) (?=?JCM 19001(T)?=?DSM 27022(T)). PMID:23919960

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-12-01

48

Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.  

PubMed

To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-01-01

49

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology

2003-09-22

50

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oryzae Strain SG293T  

PubMed Central

We report the 1.86-Mb draft genome and annotation of Lactobacillus oryzae SG293T isolated from fermented rice grains. This genome information may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the fermentation of rice grains. PMID:25169865

Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Mochizuki, Takako; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

2014-01-01

51

Quality attributes of yogurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the effect of chain length of inulins on the characteristics of fat-free plain yogurt manufactured with Lactobacillus casei. Probiotic fat-free plain yogurts were manufactured using Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. casei. The treatments were inulins of short (P95), medium (GR) and long (HP) chain lengths. The inulins were incorporated at a concentration of 1.5g\\/100g

Kayanush J. Aryana; Paula McGrew

2007-01-01

52

Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain.  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sp. strain GG, which was isolated from the feces of a normal person, produced a substance with potent inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species. It inhibited anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp.), members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., as demonstrated by a microbiological assay; however, it did not inhibit other lactobacilli. The inhibitory activity occurred between pH 3 and 5 and was heat stable. Bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli was demonstrated at a dilution of 1:128. The inhibitory substance was distinct from lactic and acetic acids. It had a low molecular weight (less than 1,000) and was soluble in acetone-water (10:1). Because of these characteristics, the inhibitory material could not be considered a bacteriocin; it most closely resembled a microcin, which has been associated previously with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:3307619

Silva, M; Jacobus, N V; Deneke, C; Gorbach, S L

1987-01-01

53

Genetic transformation of Lactobacillus casei by electroporation.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei IAM1045 was transformed with a plasmid pAM beta 1-1, a tra deleted derivative of pAM beta 1, by electroporation. Effective transformation was achieved in electroporation buffers of a wide range of pH values, and in all phases of cell growth tested, with highest frequency in the early log phase. Polyethylene glycol increased the transformation frequency, whereas divalent cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ at 0.25 mM decreased the frequency by 2 to 3 orders. Highly efficient transformation of approximately 10(-4)/viable cell was achieved under optimal conditions. A plasmid harboring the trpD, C, F, B and A genes from L casei RNL7 was introduced by electroporation into tryptophan auxotrophic L casei JCM1053. The resulting transformant was found to express the trp genes introduced. PMID:2116914

Natori, Y; Kano, Y; Imamoto, F

1990-04-01

54

Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

2014-09-01

55

Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.  

PubMed

Three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (Canis mesomelas) and raccoons (Procyron lotor). The isolates formed a subcluster in the Lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus apodemi and Lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic relatives. The three strains were non-motile, obligately homofermentative and produced l-lactic acid as the main end-product from d-glucose. The strains metabolized raffinose. The major cellular fatty acids in the three strains were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C19?:?1 cyclo 9,10. Based on the data provided, it is concluded that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFL13-2(T) (?=?JCM 17300(T)?=?DSM 23956(T)). PMID:23907223

Endo, Akihito; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Salminen, Seppo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Dicks, Leon

2013-12-01

56

Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation  

PubMed Central

Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55?mg/1010?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33?mg/1010?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

Jones, Mitchell L.; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

2014-01-01

57

Genomic adaptation of the Lactobacillus casei group.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (Lactobacillus casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of L. paracasei JCM 8130 and L. casei ATCC 393, and the draft genome sequence of L. paracasei COM0101, all of which were isolated from daily products. Furthermore, we re-annotated the genome of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG), which we have previously reported. We confirmed that ATCC 393 is distinct from other strains previously described as L. paracasei. The core genome of 10 completely sequenced strains of the L. casei group comprised 1,682 protein-coding genes. Although extensive genome-wide synteny was found among the L. casei group, the genomes of ATCC 53103, JCM 8130, and ATCC 393 contained genomic islands compared with L. paracasei ATCC 334. Several genomic islands, including carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, were found at the same loci in the chromosomes of the L. casei group. The spaCBA pilus gene cluster, which was first identified in GG, was also found in other strains of the L. casei group, but several L. paracasei strains including COM0101 contained truncated spaC gene. ATCC 53103 encoded a higher number of proteins involved in carbohydrate utilization compared with intestinal lactobacilli, and extracellular adhesion proteins, several of which are absent in other strains of the L. casei group. In addition to previously fully sequenced L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei strains, the complete genome sequences of L. casei will provide valuable insights into the evolution of the L. casei group. PMID:24116025

Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Takahata, Muneaki; Murakami, Masaru; Takaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Hattori, Masahira; Morita, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

58

Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

2013-01-01

59

Molecular characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a strain with efficient nitrite degradation capacity.  

PubMed

Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001). Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity. PMID:25423449

Fei, Yong-tao; Liu, Dong-mei; Luo, Tong-hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-gang

2014-01-01

60

Molecular Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a Strain with Efficient Nitrite Degradation Capacity  

PubMed Central

Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001). Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity. PMID:25423449

Fei, Yong-tao; Liu, Dong-mei; Luo, Tong-hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-gang

2014-01-01

61

Cell-free supernatants from probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease colon cancer cell invasion in vitro.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and levels of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in cultured metastatic human colorectal carcinoma cells. HCT-116 cells were treated with CFS from L. casei, L. rhamnosus, or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a gut commensal); or with uninoculated bacterial growth media. Treatment with CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased colorectal cell invasion but treatment with CFS from B. thetaiotaomicron did not. CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased MMP-9 and increased ZO-1 protein levels. L. rhamnosus CFS also lowered MMP-9 activity. To begin elucidating the secreted bacterial factor conveying these responses, Lactobacillus sp. CFS were fractionated into defined molecular weight ranges and cell invasion assessed. Fractionation revealed that the inhibitory activity was contained primarily in the >100 kDa and 50-100 kDa fractions, suggesting the inhibitory compound may be a macromolecule such as a protein, nucleic acid, or a polysaccharide. PMID:22830611

Escamilla, Juanita; Lane, Michelle A; Maitin, Vatsala

2012-08-01

62

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2011-04-01

63

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2010-04-01

64

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2013-04-01

65

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the...

2014-04-01

66

21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains the enzyme urease (CAS Reg. No. 9002-13-5), which facilitates the...

2012-04-01

67

A comparative study and phage typing of silage-making Lactobacillus bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate basic characteristics of 10 virulent phages active on silage-making lactobacilli, morphological properties, host ranges, protein composition and genome characterization were separated into five groups based on host ranges and basic properties. The seven phages of groups I, II and V were active on Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus. Phage ?PY4 (group III) infected both L. casei and Lactobacillus

Katsumi Doi; Ye Zhang; Yousuke Nishizaki; Akiko Umeda; Sadahiro Ohmomo; Seiya Ogata

2003-01-01

68

Molecular analysis and clinical significance of Lactobacillus spp. recovered from clinical specimens presumptively associated with disease.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ?10(5) CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

Martinez, Raquel M; Hulten, Kristina G; Bui, Uyen; Clarridge, Jill E

2014-01-01

69

Recombinant lactobacillus for fermentation of xylose to lactic acid and lactate  

DOEpatents

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid. 4 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; McMillan, J.D.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-08-25

70

Molecular Analysis and Clinical Significance of Lactobacillus spp. Recovered from Clinical Specimens Presumptively Associated with Disease  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ?105 CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

Martinez, Raquel M.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Bui, Uyen

2014-01-01

71

Discrimination of dairy industry isolates of the Lactobacillus casei group.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are a major part of the microflora of the gut and of many fermented dairy products, and are found in a variety of environments. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus zeae form a closely related taxonomic group within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. The classification and nomenclature of these bacteria are controversial. In this study, relationships between these species were investigated using type strains and dairy industry isolates examined with DNA-based techniques and conventional carbohydrate use tests. Carbohydrate use patterns gave poor discrimination of some species, but DNA PCR using specific primers targeted to sequences of the 16S rRNA gene discriminated 4 types consistent with the currently recognized species. Pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis of chromosomal NotI restriction fragments identified 18 different band patterns from 21 independent Lactobacillus isolates and confirmed the identity of L. casei strains from 2 culture collections (CSCC 5203 and ASCC 290), both representing the type strain of L. casei. Some isolates were reclassified as L. rhamnosus, suggesting that the prevalence of L. rhamnosus as a natural component of the microflora of dairy foods and dairy environments has previously been underestimated. These methods can provide a practical basis for discrimination of the species and identification of individual industrial strains. PMID:16899667

Desai, A R; Shah, N P; Powell, I B

2006-09-01

72

Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough.  

PubMed

Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread. PMID:20227604

Zhang, Chonggang; Brandt, Markus J; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

2010-05-01

73

Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-01-01

74

Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

2013-12-01

75

Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058

Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

2012-01-01

76

Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG  

PubMed Central

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

2013-01-01

77

Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.  

PubMed

We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

Sybesma, Wilbert; Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen; Kort, Remco

2013-04-01

78

Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates  

PubMed Central

In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

2012-01-01

79

Genome sequence and analysis of Lactobacillus helveticus  

PubMed Central

The microbiological characterization of lactobacilli is historically well developed, but the genomic analysis is recent. Because of the widespread use of Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese technology, information concerning the heterogeneity in this species is accumulating rapidly. Recently, the genome of five L. helveticus strains was sequenced to completion and compared with other genomically characterized lactobacilli. The genomic analysis of the first sequenced strain, L. helveticus DPC 4571, isolated from cheese and selected for its characteristics of rapid lysis and high proteolytic activity, has revealed a plethora of genes with industrial potential including those responsible for key metabolic functions such as proteolysis, lipolysis, and cell lysis. These genes and their derived enzymes can facilitate the production of cheese and cheese derivatives with potential for use as ingredients in consumer foods. In addition, L. helveticus has the potential to produce peptides with a biological function, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, in fermented dairy products, demonstrating the therapeutic value of this species. A most intriguing feature of the genome of L. helveticus is the remarkable similarity in gene content with many intestinal lactobacilli. Comparative genomics has allowed the identification of key gene sets that facilitate a variety of lifestyles including adaptation to food matrices or the gastrointestinal tract. As genome sequence and functional genomic information continues to explode, key features of the genomes of L. helveticus strains continue to be discovered, answering many questions but also raising many new ones. PMID:23335916

Cremonesi, Paola; Chessa, Stefania; Castiglioni, Bianca

2013-01-01

80

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 electron transport chains.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 requires both heme and menaquinone to induce respiration-like behavior under aerobic conditions. The addition of these compounds enhanced both biomass production, without progressive acidification, and the oxygen consumption rate. When both heme and menaquinone were present, L. plantarum WCFS1 was also able to reduce nitrate. The ability to reduce nitrate was severely inhibited by the glucose levels that are typically found in L. plantarum growth media (1 to 2% [vol/vol] glucose). In contrast, comparable mannitol levels did not inhibit the reduction of nitrate. L. plantarum reduced nitrate with concomitant formation of nitrite and ammonia. Genes that encode a bd-type cytochrome (cydABCD) and a nitrate reductase (narGHJI) were identified in the genome of L. plantarum. The narGHJI operon is part of a cluster of genes that includes the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis genes and narK. Besides a menaquinone source, isogenic mutants revealed that cydA and ndh1 are required for the aerobic-respiration-like response and narG for nitrate reduction. The ndh1 mutant was still able to reduce nitrate. The existence of a nonredundant branched electron transport chain in L. plantarum WCFS1 that is capable of using oxygen or nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor is proposed. PMID:19346351

Brooijmans, R J W; de Vos, W M; Hugenholtz, J

2009-06-01

81

Vaginal Lactobacillus: biofilm formation in vivo – clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Vaginal lactobacilli provide protection against intrusive pathogenic bacteria. Some Lactobacillus spp. produce in vitro a thick, protective biofilm. We report in vivo formation of biofilm by vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii. The biofilm formation was captured in fresh wet-mount microscopic samples from asymptomatic patients after treatment for recurrent bacterial vaginitis. In vivo documentation of biofilm formation is in our opinion noteworthy, and has significant clinical implications, among which are the possibility to isolate, grow, and therapeutically utilize lactobacilli to prevent recurrent vaginal infections and preterm labor associated with vaginal microbial pathogens. PMID:25733930

Ventolini, Gary

2015-01-01

82

Characterisation of the microbiota of rice sourdoughs and description of Lactobacillus spicheri sp. nov.  

PubMed

The microbiota of two industrially processed rice sourdoughs was characterised by bacteriological culture in combination with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S/28S rDNA sequence analysis. Rice sourdough I was continuously propagated for several years by back-slopping every week, whereas sourdough II was processed by using a commercial starter culture and back-slopping daily for three days. In rice sourdough II Candida krusei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus kimchii, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated at the first day of fermentation. RAPD analysis of lactobacilli revealed identical profiles for each of the species except for L. fermentum and L. pontis indicating the presence of different strains. Fluctuations within the LAB community during fermentation were monitored by PCR-DGGE. L. pontis decreased in numbers over time and L. curvatus became dominant after 3 days of fermentation. Rice sourdough I contained S. cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei (present with three different RAPD types), Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and a Lactobacillus strain which could not be allotted to any valid species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed Lactobacillus brevis as the closest relative (97.3% sequence similarity). Differences in some phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that the strain represents a new Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus spicheri is proposed. PMID:15046303

Meroth, Christiane B; Hammes, Walter P; Hertel, Christian

2004-03-01

83

Protein O-glucosylation in Lactobacillus buchneri  

PubMed Central

Based on the previous demonstration of surface (S-) layer protein glycosylation in Lactobacillus buchneri 41021/251 and because of general advantages of lactic acid bacteria for applied research, protein glycosylation in this bacterial species was investigated in detail. The cell surface of L. buchneri CD034 is completely covered with an oblique 2D crystalline array (lattice parameters, a =5.9 nm; b =6.2 nm; ? ~ 77°) formed by self-assembly of the S-layer protein SlpB. Biochemical and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that SlpB is the most abundant protein and that it is O-glycosylated at four serine residues within the sequence S152-A-S154-S155-A-S157 with, on average, seven Glc(?1-6) residues, each. Subcellular fractionation of strain CD034 indicated a sequential order of SlpB export and glucosylation as evidenced by lack of glucosylation of cytosolic SlpB. Protein glycosylation analysis was extended to strain L. buchneri NRRL B-30929 where an analogous glucosylation scenario could be detected, with the S-layer glycoprotein SlpN containing an O-glycosylation motif identical to that of SlpB. This corroborates previous data on S-layer protein glucosylation of strain 41021/251 and let us propose a species-wide S-layer protein O-glucosylation in L. buchneri targeted at the sequence motif S-A-S-S-A-S. Search of the L. buchneri genomes for the said glucosylation motif revealed one further ORF, encoding the putative glycosyl-hydrolase LbGH25B and LbGH25N in L. buchneri CD034 and NRRL B-30929, respectively, for which we have indications of a glycosylation comparable to that of the S-layer proteins. These findings demonstrate the presence of a distinct protein O-glucosylation system in Gram-positive and beneficial microbes. PMID:24162649

Anzengruber, Julia; Pabst, Martin; Neumann, Laura; Sekot, Gerhard; Heinl, Stefan; Grabherr, Reingard; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

2015-01-01

84

The genome of the virulent phage Lc-Nu of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus , and comparative genomics with Lactobacillus casei phages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The complete 36,466-bp genome sequence of the virulent phage Lc-Nu of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus was determined. The linear dsDNA with a GC-content of 44.2% contained 3? single-stranded cohesive ends of 12 nucleotides.\\u000a A total of 51 putative open reading frames (orfs) were predicted. Lc-Nu showed to be evolutionary closely related to the temperate\\u000a Lactobacillus casei phages phi AT3 and A2.

A. Tuohimaa; K.-A. Riipinen; K. Brandt; T. Alatossava

2006-01-01

85

Some Factors Influencing the Autolysis of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The autolysis,of lactic acid bacteria,is important,for cheese ripening. However, little information is cur- rently,available,on,the,characteristics,of autolytic enzymes,in Lactobacillus,bulgaricus,and,Lactobacil- lus casei spp. The current,study,showed,that tempera- ture, pH, NaCl concentration, and growth phase af- fect the rate and,extent,of autolysis,of Lb. bulgaricus and,Lb. casei when,autolysis,was,assessed,in 0.2 M NaCl at 40°C; the,rate and,extent,of autolysis,ap- peared,to be strain dependent.,Under,our experimen- tal conditions, extensive cell lysis

O. J. Kang; L.-P. Vézinz; S. Laberge; R. E. Simard

1998-01-01

86

Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii using alginate and gellan gum.  

PubMed

Sodium alginate (SA) at 2% (w/v) and low acylated gellan gum (LAG) at 0.2% (w/v) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp lactis by employing the internal ionic gelation technique through water-oil emulsions at three different stirring rates: 480, 800 and 1200 rpm. The flow behavior of the biopolymer dispersions, the activation energy of the emulsion, the microencapsulation efficiency, the size distribution, the microcapsules morphology and the effect of the stirring rate on the culture viability were analyzed. All of the dispersions exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior because the apparent viscosity decreased in value when the shear rate was increased. The activation energy was calculated using the Arrhenius-like equation; the value obtained for the emulsion was 32.59 kJ/mol. It was observed that at 400 rpm, the microencapsulation efficiency was 92.83%, whereas at 800 and 1200 rpm, the stirring rates reduced the efficiency to 15.83% and 4.56%, respectively, evidencing the sensitivity of the microorganisms to the shear rate (13.36 and 20.05 s(-1)). Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed spherical microcapsules with irregular topography due to the presence of holes on its surface. The obtained size distribution range was modified when the stirring rate was increased. At 400 rpm, bimodal behavior was observed in the range of 20-420 ?m; at 800 and 1200 rpm, the behavior became unimodal and the range was from 20 to 200 ?m and 20 to 160 ?m, respectively. PMID:23987441

Rosas-Flores, Walfred; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo

2013-10-15

87

Development of an amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain expressing the Lactobacillus amylovorus alpha-amylase gene.  

PubMed Central

An amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain with the starch-degrading ability displayed by Lactobacillus amylovorus was developed. An active fragment of the gene coding for alpha-amylase production in L. amylovorus was cloned and integrated into the chromosome of the competitive inoculant strain L. plantarum Lp80 at the cbh locus. The alpha-amylase gene fragment was also introduced into L. plantarum Lp80 on an autoreplicative plasmid. Both constructions were also performed in the laboratory strain L. plantarum NCIB8826. All four recombinant strains secreted levels of amylase ranging from 23 to 69 U/liter, compared with 47 U/liter for L. amylovorus. Secretion levels were higher in L. plantarum NCIB8826 than in L. plantarum Lp80 derivatives and were higher in recombinant strains containing autoreplicative plasmids than in the corresponding integrants. The L. plantarum Lp80 derivative containing the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase gene fragment integrated into the host chromosome secreted alpha-amylase to a level comparable to that of L. amylovorus and was stable over 50 generations of growth under nonselective conditions. It grew to a higher cell density than either the parent strain or L. amylovorus in MRS medium containing a mixture of starch and glucose as the fermentable carbohydrate source. This recombinant alpha-amylolytic L. plantarum strain would therefore seem to have considerable potential as a silage inoculant for crops such as alfalfa, in which water-soluble carbohydrate levels are frequently low but starch is present as an alternative carbohydrate source. Images PMID:7986030

Fitzsimons, A; Hols, P; Jore, J; Leer, R J; O'Connell, M; Delcour, J

1994-01-01

88

Development of an amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain expressing the Lactobacillus amylovorus alpha-amylase gene.  

PubMed

An amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain with the starch-degrading ability displayed by Lactobacillus amylovorus was developed. An active fragment of the gene coding for alpha-amylase production in L. amylovorus was cloned and integrated into the chromosome of the competitive inoculant strain L. plantarum Lp80 at the cbh locus. The alpha-amylase gene fragment was also introduced into L. plantarum Lp80 on an autoreplicative plasmid. Both constructions were also performed in the laboratory strain L. plantarum NCIB8826. All four recombinant strains secreted levels of amylase ranging from 23 to 69 U/liter, compared with 47 U/liter for L. amylovorus. Secretion levels were higher in L. plantarum NCIB8826 than in L. plantarum Lp80 derivatives and were higher in recombinant strains containing autoreplicative plasmids than in the corresponding integrants. The L. plantarum Lp80 derivative containing the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase gene fragment integrated into the host chromosome secreted alpha-amylase to a level comparable to that of L. amylovorus and was stable over 50 generations of growth under nonselective conditions. It grew to a higher cell density than either the parent strain or L. amylovorus in MRS medium containing a mixture of starch and glucose as the fermentable carbohydrate source. This recombinant alpha-amylolytic L. plantarum strain would therefore seem to have considerable potential as a silage inoculant for crops such as alfalfa, in which water-soluble carbohydrate levels are frequently low but starch is present as an alternative carbohydrate source. PMID:7986030

Fitzsimons, A; Hols, P; Jore, J; Leer, R J; O'Connell, M; Delcour, J

1994-10-01

89

Improvement of Riboflavin Production by Lactobacillus fermentum Isolated from Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riboflavin production by Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from yogurt was improved by inactivation of folE gene. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) serves as the precursor for both folate as well as riboflavin biosynthesis. The folE gene of Lb. fermentum, which codes for GTP cyclohydrolase I was inactivated by the insertion of erythromycin resistance gene cassette through recombination and the riboflavin production by

S. Jayashree; J. Rajendhran; K. Jayaraman; G. Kalaichelvan; P. Gunasekaran

2011-01-01

90

High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacte- rium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress re- sponse, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to iden- tify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of

R. F. Vogel; M. Pavlovic; S. Hörmann; M. A. Ehrmann

2005-01-01

91

Antibacterial Effect of the Adhering Human Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain LB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Kleb- siella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

MARIE-HELENE COCONNIER; VANESSA LIEVIN; MARIE-FRANCOISE BERNET-CAMARD; SYLVIE HUDAULT; ALAIN L. SERVIN

1997-01-01

92

Molecular Diversity within Lactobacillus helveticus as Revealed by Genotypic Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus helveticus is a homofermentative thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in the manu- facture of Swiss type and long-ripened Italian cheeses, such as Emmental, Grana, and Provolone cheeses. Substantial differences in several technologically important characteristics are found among L. helveticus strains isolated from natural dairy starter cultures. In the present study we investigated the genotypic diver- sity of

GIORGIO GIRAFFA; MONICA GATTI; LIA ROSSETTI; LUCIA SENINI; ERASMO NEVIANI

2000-01-01

93

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Diversity and functional properties of Lactobacillus  

E-print Network

Lactobacillus is the largest and, perhaps, the most important genus of lactic acid bacteria, representatives vegetable or plant fermentations. It is one of a group of mesophilic lactobacilli which may become cheeses, respectively, survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and were considered to be acid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Diacetyl production and growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on multiple substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a heterolactic acid bacterium, which can be used to produce flavour compounds like diacetyl and acetoin. Various startegies have been applied to improve the growth rate and diacetyl yield. The use of multiple substrates affected growth as well as the yield of diacetyl. Growth on a medium containing glucose demonstrated a diauxic growth profile, with the second

B. D. Jyoti; A. K. Suresh; K. V. Venkatesh

2003-01-01

95

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 reuteransucrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 uses sucrose for synthesis of a unique, soluble glucan (‘reuteran’) with mainly ?-(1?4) glucosidic linkages. The gene (gtfA) encoding this glucansucrase enzyme had previously been characterized. Here, a detailed biochemical and molecular analysis of the GTFA enzyme is presented. This is believed to be the first report describing reuteransucrase enzyme kinetics and the oligosaccharides synthesized with

S. Kralj; G. H. van Geel-Schutten; M. J. E. C. van der Maarel; L. Dijkhuizen

2004-01-01

96

Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from tulum cheese.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from Tulum cheese. Seven L. fermentum strains were selected among the isolated and identified lactobacillus strains due to their abundance. When the gastric condition was considered, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 were able to tolerate pH 2.5 and 1% bile salt. All L. fermentum strains had similar enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern but the highest antagonistic effect was detected within LP3, LP4 and LP6. Cholesterol assimilation amount of L. fermentum strains ranged between 12.1 and 45.3% in MRS and 20.7-71.1% in MRS with bile. The highest cholesterol assimilation in MRS and MRS with bile was occurred by LP3 and LP4, respectively. L. fermentum LP2 adhered to caco-2 cells more than Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG where LP3, LP4 and LP5 adhered at similar level. In conclusion, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 fulfilled sufficient criteria to be probiotics for use as a starter culture in the production of tulum cheese or other dairy products. Also this study indicated that some food-associated Lactobacillus strains non-predominant for gut biota have significant probiotic potential. PMID:25270832

Tulumo?lu, ?ener; Kaya, Halil ?brahim; ?im?ek, Ömer

2014-12-01

97

Functional properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from kimchi.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable product generally consumed raw as a side-dish with practically every meal. Twelve mild acid producing facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus strains were selected for their potential as starter cultures for fermentation of kimchi, and evaluated for their functional properties. Eleven strains were identified as Lactobacillus sakei and one as Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains identified as L. sakei differed in some physiological features; of particular interest was the fact that 9 of these strains produced L(+) lactic acid from glucose in presence of acetate. All strains were able to survive gastrointestinal conditions simulating stomach and duodenum passage. In addition, they showed higher adherence to HT-29 cells than Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a commercial probiotic strain used worldwide. These strains also showed antimicrobial activity against a number of food-borne pathogens. Their ability to lower cholesterol was demonstrated by BSH (bile salt hydrolytic) activity, and cholesterol assimilation tests in vitro. The results suggest the probiotic potential of these strains for use in kimchi fermentation. PMID:21215484

Lee, Heejae; Yoon, Hongsup; Ji, Yosep; Kim, Hannah; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

2011-01-31

98

Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.  

PubMed

Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

2015-04-01

99

Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

Dasari, Subramanyam; Shouri, Raju Naidu Devanaboyaina; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

2014-01-01

100

Freezing resistance improvement of Lactobacillus reuteri by using cell immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri shows certain beneficial effects to human health and is recognized as a probiotic. However, its application in frozen foods is still not popular because of its low survival during freezing and frozen storage. Cell immobilization technique could effectively exert protection effects to microbial cells in order to enhance their endurance to unfavorable environmental conditions as well as to

Jen-Horng Tsen; Hui-Ying Huang; Yeu-Pyng Lin; V. An-Erl King

2007-01-01

101

Probiotic-Associated Aspiration Pneumonia Due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are low-virulence, commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and are commonly used as “probiotic supplements.” Herein, we describe an episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis with bacterial superinfection secondary to administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an 11-month-old female with trisomy 21. PMID:24899028

Nguyen, Sean T.; Afolabi, Folashade; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.

2014-01-01

102

Lactobacillus frigidus n.sp. Isolated from Brewery Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Details are given of a new species of the genus Lactobacillus isolated from a sample of brewery yeast. The cells appear as short thick rods, mainly in pairs and small clumps. This organism, which ferments arabinose, xylose, glucose, fructose, mannose and sucrose, has the low optimum temperature of 22-23' and fails to grow above 30'. It has been named

R. R. Bhandari; T. K. Walker

1953-01-01

103

Notes on the Phylogenetic Background to Lactobacillus Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Speculations about the phylogeny and natural relationships of and within the genus Lactobacillus are made, based upon current taxonomic knowledge. Phylogenetic speculation has long held a fascination for biologists who interest themselves in taxonomy and it remains to be seen whether the recent invasion of this field by computers will render this fascination fatal. The present notes are an

G. H. G. Davis

1964-01-01

104

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2  

PubMed Central

We report here a 3.2-Mb draft assembled genome of Lactobacillus casei Lbs2. The bacterium shows probiotic and immunomodulatory activities. The genome assembly and annotation will help to identify molecules and pathways responsible for interaction between the host immune system and the microbe. PMID:25540344

Bhowmick, Swati; Malar, Mathu; Das, Abhishek; Kumar Thakur, Bhupesh; Saha, Piu; Rashmi, H. M.; Batish, Virender K.; Grover, Sunita

2014-01-01

105

Anti-aflatoxigenic activity of Lactobacillus casei pseudoplantarum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei pseudoplantarum 371 isolated from a silage inoculant was found to inhibit aflatoxins B1 and G1 biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus subsp. parasiticus NRRI. 2999, in liquid medium. The inhibitory activity in the Lactobacillus cell-free supernatant was found to be sensitive to proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin, but resistant to pepsin. Lab-Lemco tryptone broth (LTB), supplemented with 20% of dialyzed protein concentrate of the supernatant, totally inhibited the production of aflatoxins B1 and G1. When the protein concentrate was digested with trypsin, the production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 was restored. The inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 10 min at 100 degrees C. A. flavus grown in the Lactobacillus cell-free supernatant did not produce a mutagenic response in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. However, Lactobacillus casei pseudo plantarum 371 did not have an effect on aflatoxin production and mold growth as measured by ergosterol and plate count, when the organisms were inoculated together on sterile steamed rice. PMID:9039560

Gourama, H; Bullerman, L B

1997-02-01

106

Heat shock response in Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Heat stress resistance and response were studied in strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 had decimal reduction times (D values) (D value was the time that it took to reduce the number of cells by 1 log cycle) in sterile milk of 32.9, 14.7, and 7.14 s at 60, 72, and 75 degrees C, respectively. When mid-exponential-phase cells were used, the D values decreased. The temperature increases which caused a 10-fold reduction in the D value ranged from 9 to 20 degrees C, depending on the strain. Part of the cell population treated at 72 degrees C for 90 s recovered viability during incubation at 7 degrees C in sterile milk for 20 days. When mid-exponential- or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were adapted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, the heat resistance at 72 degrees C for 90 s increased ca. 3 and 2 log cycles, respectively. Heat-adapted cells also showed increased growth at pH 5 and in the presence of 6% NaCl. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins expressed by control and heat-adapted cells revealed changes in the levels of expression of 31 and 18 proteins in mid-exponential- and stationary-phase cells, respectively. Twelve proteins were commonly induced. Nine proteins induced in the heat-adapted mid-exponential- and/or stationary-phase cells of L. plantarum DPC2739 were subjected to N-terminal sequencing. These proteins were identified as DnaK, GroEL, trigger factor, ribosomal proteins L1, L11, L31, and S6, DNA-binding protein II HlbA, and CspC. All of these proteins have been found to play a role in the mechanisms of stress adaptation in other bacteria. Antibodies against GroES detected a protein which was induced moderately, while antibodies against DnaJ and GrpE reacted with proteins whose level of expression did not vary after heat adaptation. This study showed that the heat resistance of L. plantarum is a complex process involving proteins with various roles in cell physiology, including chaperone activity, ribosome stability, stringent response mediation, temperature sensing, and control of ribosomal function. The physiological mechanisms of response to pasteurization in L. plantarum are fundamental for survival in cheese during manufacture. PMID:15006751

De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Huet, Claude; Crecchio, Carmine; Fox, Patrick F; Gobbetti, Marco

2004-03-01

107

The Effects of Two Lactobacillus plantarum Strains on Rat Lipid Metabolism Receiving a High Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

Salaj, Rastislav; Štofilová, Jana; Šoltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter

2013-01-01

108

Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Strains for Probiotic Properties  

PubMed Central

Background: Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. Objectives: The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes’ milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. Results: The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L. brevis LB32 was able to reduce approximately 86% of cholesterol compared to L. pentosus LP05, which showed only 69% of reduction. Higher aggregation and coaggregation percentage and adherence to Caco-2 cell line was observed in L. pentosus LP05 compared to L. brevis LB32. Conclusions: This research study proved the presence of viable probiotic LAB microflora in the ewe milk with enhanced health benefits. The 2 selected Lactobacillus strains could be exploited in dairy or pharmaceutical industry in future.

Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

2015-01-01

109

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei from yogurts and fermented milk drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective medium (LC agar) was developed for enumeration of Lactobacillus casei populations from commercial yogurts and fermented milk drinks that may contain strains of yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria) and L. casei. Appropriate dilutions were pour-plated in specially formulated LC agar acidified to pH 5.1 and the plates incubated

Ramakanth R. Ravula; Nagendra P. Shah

1998-01-01

110

Identification of lactobacilli from sourdough and description of Lactobacillus pontis sp. nov.  

PubMed

The microflora of sourdough preparations was investigated by examining the physiological characteristics, whole-cell protein patterns, and 16S rRNA sequences of Lactobacillus isolates. Strains isolated from sourdough were placed in the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfrancisco, and Lactobacillus reuteri. 16S rRNA sequences were determined for L. brevis, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus fermentum, L. sanfrancisco, and L. reuteri, and oligonucleotide probes for fast specific identification of these sourdough lactobacilli were deduced. The physiological characteristics, protein patterns, and 16S rRNA sequences of these organisms were compared with data for other sourdough lactobacilli and additional reference strains. Strains of a Lactobacillus species were isolated from rye sourdough; these strains may account for most of the flora in sourdough made from wheat or rye. These organisms were differentiated from other sourdough lactobacilli by their protein pattern, 16S rRNA sequence, G + C content, and physiological properties. The 16S rRNA sequence of this species was determined, and we constructed a phylogenetic tree which reflected the relationships of this species to other lactobacilli. This organism is closely related to L. reuteri. A new Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus pontis, is proposed. The type strain is L. pontis LTH 2587 (= DSM 8475 = LMG 14187). We describe a general strategy in which a polyphasic approach was used to characterize a new species. PMID:8186088

Vogel, R F; Böcker, G; Stolz, P; Ehrmann, M; Fanta, D; Ludwig, W; Pot, B; Kersters, K; Schleifer, K H; Hammes, W P

1994-04-01

111

Assimilation ofCholesterol byLactobacillus acidophilust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable variation was found among strains ofLactobacillus acidophilus isolated fromthefecal flora of pigs withregard totheability togrow well inthepresenceofbile andtoassimilate cholesterol fromalaboratory growth medium.Theuptake ofcholesterol occurred onlywhentheculture(s) was growing inthepresenceof bile underanaerobic conditions. Consumption ofL.acidophilus RP32,which was selected forits ability togrow wellinthepresenceofbile andtoassimilate cholesterol fromthelaboratory medium,significantly inhibited increases inserum cholesterol levels ofpigs(P< 0.05) feda high-cholesterol diet. Consumption ofL. acidophilus P47,which was

S. E. GILLILAND; C. R. NELSON; C. MAXWELL

1985-01-01

112

Characteristics of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus LA-1 (referred to as acidophilicin LA-1) was studied. Acidophilicin LA-1 was active against seven strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus (2501, 2505, 1515, 2517, 2519, LB-3 and LB-4), one strain each of L. casei (2603), L. helveticus (2700) and L. jugurti (2819), but not against other lactic acid bacteria. The production of bacteriocin occurred

Rajiv I Dave; Nagendra P Shah

1997-01-01

113

Distribution of Megaplasmids in Lactobacillus salivarius and Other Lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 includes a 242-kb megaplasmid, pMP118. We now show that 33 strains of L. salivarius isolated from humans and animals all harbor a megaplasmid, which hybridized with the repA and repE replication origin probes of pMP118. Linear megaplasmids that did not hybridize with the pMP118 repA probe were also found in some strains of L.

Yin Li; Carlos Canchaya; Fang Fang; Emma Raftis; Kieran A. Ryan; Jan-Peter van Pijkeren; Douwe van Sinderen; Paul W. O'Toole

2007-01-01

114

Lactobacillus surface layer proteins: structure, function and applications.  

PubMed

Bacterial surface (S) layers are the outermost proteinaceous cell envelope structures found on members of nearly all taxonomic groups of bacteria and Archaea. They are composed of numerous identical subunits forming a symmetric, porous, lattice-like layer that completely covers the cell surface. The subunits are held together and attached to cell wall carbohydrates by non-covalent interactions, and they spontaneously reassemble in vitro by an entropy-driven process. Due to the low amino acid sequence similarity among S-layer proteins in general, verification of the presence of an S-layer on the bacterial cell surface usually requires electron microscopy. In lactobacilli, S-layer proteins have been detected on many but not all species. Lactobacillus S-layer proteins differ from those of other bacteria in their smaller size and high predicted pI. The positive charge in Lactobacillus S-layer proteins is concentrated in the more conserved cell wall binding domain, which can be either N- or C-terminal depending on the species. The more variable domain is responsible for the self-assembly of the monomers to a periodic structure. The biological functions of Lactobacillus S-layer proteins are poorly understood, but in some species S-layer proteins mediate bacterial adherence to host cells or extracellular matrix proteins or have protective or enzymatic functions. Lactobacillus S-layer proteins show potential for use as antigen carriers in live oral vaccine design because of their adhesive and immunomodulatory properties and the general non-pathogenicity of the species. PMID:23677442

Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi

2013-06-01

115

Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

2013-01-01

116

Physiological responses to folate overproduction in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Using a functional genomics approach we addressed the impact of folate overproduction on metabolite formation and gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. We focused specifically on the mechanism that reduces growth rates in folate-overproducing cells. RESULTS: Metabolite formation and gene expression were determined in a folate-overproducing- and wild-type strain. Differential metabolomics analysis of intracellular metabolite pools indicated that the

Arno Wegkamp; Astrid E Mars; Magda Faijes; Douwe Molenaar; Ric CH de Vos; Sebastian MJ Klaus; Andrew D Hanson; Willem M de Vos; Eddy J Smid

2010-01-01

117

d-(-)-Mandelic acid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus curvatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production, purification and characterization of the NAD(H)-dependent d-mandelate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus curvatus was studied. An enzyme level of about 150 U\\/1 could be obtained by anaerobic cultivation in liquid broth. The specific enzyme activity in the crude extract was 1—3 U\\/mg. Purification by liquidliquid extraction and ion exchange chromatography led to a preparation of 2100 U\\/mg. The molecular weight of

Werner Hummel; Horst Schiitte; Maria-Regina Kula

1988-01-01

118

Synthesis of arginine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine by Lactobacillus arabinosus  

E-print Network

of serine does not appear to go through the oxidation level of formate in the synthesis of methyl groups. They suggest that leucovorin, if it is the biological form of folic acid, has a function other than as a carrier of these one-carbon units.... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION..........................................1 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON THE BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS ........................5 SECTION I. THE BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF ARGININE BY LACTOBACILLUS ARABINOSUS...

Ory, Robert Louis

1954-01-01

119

Pleiotropic effects of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lactic acid bacteria, conversion of pyruvic to lactic acid through the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) constitutes the final step of the homofermentative pathway. Lactobacillus casei has two characterized genes encoding Ldh activities. The ldhL gene codes for an L-Ldh, which specifically catalyzes the formation of l-lactate, whereas the hicD gene codes for a d-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase (HicDH), which catalyzes

Rosa Viana; María Jesús Yebra; José Luis Galán; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez

2005-01-01

120

Comparative analysis of iol clusters in Lactobacillus casei strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to expand genetic knowledge of myo\\u000a -inositol (MI) metabolism in Lactobacillus casei. Twenty-four L. casei isolates of dairy origin were tested for the presence of iol cluster. PCR screening revealed eight strains encoded functions involved in MI utilization, of which one strain was able\\u000a to use MI as carbon source. To gain a deeper understanding

Wen Yi Zhang; Zhi Hong Sun; Dong Liang Yu; Caicike Airideng; Wei Chen; He Meng; He Ping Zhang

2010-01-01

121

ISL 1 : a new transposable element in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome structures of a temperate Lactobacillus phage, ?FSW, and its virulent mutants, ?FSVs, were examined by restriction, heteroduplex and nucleotide-sequence analyses. The results showed that two out of three ?FSVs had the same 1.3 kbp insertion (designated as ISL1) at different positions in the ?FSW sequence. ISL1 was 1,256 bp long and contained at least two long open reading

Mariko Shimizu-Kadota; Mayumi Kiwaki; Hideo Hirokawa; Nobuo Tsuchida

1985-01-01

122

Plasmid-encoded ropiness production in Lactobacillus casei SSP. casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genetic determinants of the Muc+ character were investigated in two ropy strains,Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus 201 andL. casei ssp.casei NCIB 4114, which secrete a large amount of slime in culture media. Plasmid DNA analysis revealed the presence of two plasmids (4.5 and 2.3 Mdal) inL. casei ssp.casei, whileL. delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus was plasmid free, suggesting a chromosomal location of Muc+ character

Marisa Vescovo; G. L. Scolari; V. Bottazzi

1989-01-01

123

The genomes and comparative genomics of Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii phages are a great source of genetic diversity. Here, the genome sequences of Lb. delbrueckii phages LL-Ku, c5 and JCL1032 were analyzed in detail, and the genetic diversity of Lb. delbrueckii phages belonging to different taxonomic groups was explored. The lytic isometric group b phages LL-Ku (31,080 bp) and c5 (31,841 bp) showed a minimum nucleotide sequence identity of 90%

Katja-Anneli Riipinen; Päivi Forsman; Tapani Alatossava

2011-01-01

124

Modelling the acidifying activity profile of Lactobacillus bulgaricus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that fully describes the typical pH(t) profile representing the lactic acid production kinetics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus cultures is reported. The model, a four-parameter function [pH = (A-D)\\/(1 + (t\\/C)B) + D], is able to fit any change on the experimental pH-time curves, due to variations on the inoculum cell concentration of the culture. The four fitting parameters(A, B,

B. S. Torrestiana; E. Fuente; C. Lacroix; L. Choplin

1994-01-01

125

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery  

PubMed Central

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery. PMID:24875844

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J.; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J.; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

126

Heat resistance of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. are the dominant organisms in mature Cheddar cheese. The heat resistance of broth grown cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum DPC1919 at temperatures between 50 and 57.5 degrees C, Lact. plantarum DPC2102 at temperatures between 48 and 56 degrees C and Lact. paracasei DPC2103 at temperatures between 50 and 67.5 degrees C was determined. The z-values for Lact. plantarum DPC1919, Lact. Plantarum DPC2102 and Lact. paracasei DPC2103 were 6.7 degrees C, 6.2 degrees C and 5.3 degrees C, respectively. Lactobacillus paracasei DPC2103 showed evidence of injury and recovery, especially at higher temperatures. Milk grown cultures of strains DPC2102 and DPC2103 showed greater heat resistance than broth grown cultures, tailing of the death curves and a nonlinear z-curve. Of the three strains, Lact. paracasei DPC2103 had the potential to survive pasteurization temperatures, whether grown in milk or broth. PMID:10499302

Jordan, K N; Cogan, T M

1999-08-01

127

Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum?WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L.?plantarum?WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L.?plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L.?plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L.?plantarum?WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

2014-09-01

128

In vitro evaluation of the probiotic and functional potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented food and human intestine.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the functional and probiotic characteristics of eight indigenous Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The selected lactobacilli include strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All strains tolerated both pH 2 for 3 h and 1% bile salt for 24 h. The strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 were the most adhesive strains producing the highest quantity of EPS. Although a wide variation in the ability of the eight strains to deplete cholesterol and nitrite, antagonize pathogens, scavenge free radical, and stimulate innate immune response were observed, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 showed the widest range of these useful traits. Taken together, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 exhibited the best probiotic properties with the potential for use in the production of probiotic fermented foods. PMID:25046742

Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Ye, Fei; Liu, Cunxia; Liu, Hongfeng; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Jin, Ningyi

2014-12-01

129

Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.  

PubMed

A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

2015-01-01

130

Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt  

PubMed Central

A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

2015-01-01

131

Comparative Sequence Analyses of the Genes Coding for 16s rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-Related Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structures of the 16s rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lacto- bacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhumnosus were different. The K,,, values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the K,,, values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness

KATSUMI MORI; KOJI YAMAZAKI; TOMOHARU ISHIYAMA; KAYO KOBAYASH; HARUO SHINAN

1997-01-01

132

Synergistic impact of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and vincristine on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sp. is the most dominant probiotic strain of bacteria. Evidence indicates that the consumption of Lactobacillus sp. reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in animal models. The present study was carried out to determine whether administration of Lactobacillus fermentum/ Lactobacillus plantarum alone or in combination with vincristine have a synergistic impact on the control of colorectal cancer in an animal model. Mice with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) hydrochloride-induced colon cancer were fed with L. fermentum and L. plantarum isolated along with vincristine. An increase in body weight, a decrease in ammonia concentration, a decrease in ? glucosidase and ? glucuronidase enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of crypts in the mice in the pre-carcinogen-induced group was noted when compared to these variables in the post-carcinogen-induced group. The body weight of the mice fed L. fermentum along with vincristine was increased (6.5 g), and was found to be 3.5 times higher compared to that of the control. A marked decrease in the ammonia concentration (240 mg), and ? glucosidase (0.0023 IU) and ? glucopyranose enzyme activity (0.0027 IU) was observed; 22.59% less ammonia concentration, 73.26% less ? glucosidase activity and 56.46% less ? glucuronidase enzyme activity was noted when compared to the control. A significant reduction in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (90%) was observed when compared to the control. Maximum protection was observed in the mice fed the probiotics and vincristine prior to cancer induction. Among the different dietary combinations tested in the present study, L. fermentum and vincristine showed a more extensive reduction in ammonia concentration, ? glucosidase, ? glucuronidase activity and the number of ACF. PMID:22970015

ASHA; GAYATHRI, DEVARAJA

2012-01-01

133

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules  

PubMed Central

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

2012-01-01

134

Comparative genomic and functional analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains marketed as probiotics.  

PubMed

Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-?B response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

2013-03-01

135

A simple identification method for vaginal secretions using relative quantification of Lactobacillus DNA.  

PubMed

In criminal investigations there are some cases in which identifying the presence of vaginal secretions provides crucial evidence in proving sexual assault. However, there are no methods for definitively identifying vaginal secretions. In the present study, we focused on Lactobacillus levels in vaginal secretions and developed a novel identification method for vaginal secretions by relative quantification based on real time PCR. We designed a Lactobacillus conserved region primer pair (LCP) by aligning 16S rRNA gene sequences from major vaginal Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus jensenii), and selected the human specific primer pair (HSP) as an endogenous control for relative quantification. As a result, the ?Ct (?Ct=Ct[LCP]-Ct[HSP]) values of vaginal secretions (11 out of 12 samples) were significantly lower than those of saliva, semen and skin surface samples, and it was possible to discriminate between vaginal secretions and other body fluids. For the one remaining sample, it was confirmed that the predominant species in the microflora was not of the Lactobacillus genus. The ?Ct values in this study were calculated when the total DNA input used from the vaginal secretions was 10pg or more. Additionally, the ?Ct values of samples up to 6-months-old, which were kept at room temperature, remained unchanged. Thus, we concluded in this study that the simple ?Ct method by real time PCR is a useful tool for detecting the presence of vaginal secretions. PMID:24905338

Doi, Masanori; Gamo, Shinsuke; Okiura, Tatsuyuki; Nishimukai, Hiroaki; Asano, Migiwa

2014-09-01

136

Adhesion of Lactobacillus species in urine and phosphate buffer to silicone rubber and glass under flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coating uroepithelial cells or catheter materials with lactobacilli has been shown to retard the development of a uropathogenic biofilm, with biosurfactant production and strong adhesion being two prerequisite properties of the Lactobacillus strains to be employed. In this paper, adhesion of six selected Lactobacillus strains to silicone rubber and glass in urine and in a phosphate buffer was studied using

K. W. Millsap; G. Reid; H. C. van der Mei; H. J. Busscher

1997-01-01

137

The barrier to HIV transmission provided by genital tract Lactobacillus colonization.  

PubMed

While resistance to HIV transmission is due to multiple mechanisms such as the epithelium, a lower genital tract microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus appears to play an important role. This article reviews selected recent research on genital tract microbiota in women including how microbiota impacts HIV resistance and factors affecting Lactobacillus colonization. PMID:24661438

Mirmonsef, Paria; Spear, Gregory T

2014-06-01

138

Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60?% sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66?% relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?0 and C19?:?0 cyclo ?10c/C19?:?1?6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) (?=?NBRC 109509(T)?=?BCRC 80582(T)). PMID:25281727

Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

2015-01-01

139

Survival of Lactobacillus casei in the Human Digestive Tract after Consumption of Fermented Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (CNCM number I-1518) reduces the frequency or the duration of epi- sodes of acute diarrhea in young children (20, 21), increases the lactobacillus concentration in the gut microbiota of in- fants (10), and can modulate ex vivo production of proin- flammatory cytokines in Crohn's disease (4). Using mouse models harboring human microbiota, our

Raish Oozeer; Antony Leplingard; Denis D. G. Mater; Agnes Mogenet; Rachel Michelin; Isabelle Seksek; Philippe Marteau; Joel Dore; Jean-Louis Bresson; Gerard Corthier

2006-01-01

140

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant honeybee  

E-print Network

Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant and species of Lactobacillus from the honey stomach of the Asiatic giant honeybee, Apis dorsata. Samples acid bacteria (LAB) found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans, honeybees (Rada et al. 1997; Killer

141

Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health  

PubMed Central

The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies.

Petrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

2015-01-01

142

Impact of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei strains on cytokine responses in whole blood cell cultures of children with atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-inactivated Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, L. casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 strains, applied to blood cell cultures obtained from children with atopic dermatitis induced production of anti-allergic\\u000a TH1 cytokines (interleukin-12, interleukin-18, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?) and regulatory transforming growth factor-?1), but did not stimulate pro-allergic interleukin-5. The lactobacilli-mixture remarkably enhanced the TH1 response compared to single strains.

B. Cukrowska; I. Rosiak; E. Klewicka; I. Motyl; M. Schwarzer; Z. Libudzisz; H. Kozakova

2010-01-01

143

Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study enrolled 125 premenopausal women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by presence of vaginal irritation, discharge and ‘fishy’ odor, and Nugent criteria and detection of sialidase enzyme. The subjects were treated with oral metronidazole (500mg) twice daily from days 1 to 7, and randomized to receive oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (1×109) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (1×109) or placebo twice

Kingsley Anukam; Emmanuel Osazuwa; Ijeoma Ahonkhai; Michael Ngwu; Gibson Osemene; Andrew W. Bruce; Gregor Reid

2006-01-01

144

Characterization of reutericyclin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri LTH2584 exhibits antimicrobial activity that can be attributed neither to bacteriocins nor to the production of reuterin or organic acids. We have purified the active compound, named reutericyclin, to homogeneity and characterized its antimicrobial activity. Reutericyclin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum including Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria innocua. It did not affect the growth of gram-negative bacteria; however, the growth of lipopolysaccharide mutant strains of Escherichia coli was inhibited. Reutericyclin exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and B. subtilis and triggered the lysis of cells of L. sanfranciscensis in a dose-dependent manner. Germination of spores of B. subtilis was inhibited, but the spores remained unaffected under conditions that do not permit germination. The fatty acid supply of the growth media had a strong effect on reutericyclin production and its distribution between producer cells and the culture supernatant. Reutericyclin was purified from cell extracts and culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 cultures grown in mMRS by solvent extraction, gel filtration, RP-C(8) chromatography, and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by rechromatography by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Reutericyclin was characterized as a negatively charged, highly hydrophobic molecule with a molecular mass of 349 Da. Structural characterization (A. Höltzel, M. G. Gänzle, G. J. Nicholson, W. P. Hammes, and G. Jung, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:2766-2768, 2000) revealed that reutericyclin is a novel tetramic acid derivative. The inhibitory activity of culture supernatant of L. reuteri LTH2584 corresponded to that of purified as well as synthetic reutericyclin. PMID:11010877

Gänzle, M G; Höltzel, A; Walter, J; Jung, G; Hammes, W P

2000-10-01

145

Megaplasmid pMP118 of Lactobacillus salivarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 habours a multiple-replicon genome, including a 242 kb megaplasmid designated pMP118. pMP118 carries a number of contingency\\u000a genes, which work in conjunction with chromosomally encoded genes and pathways to broaden the metabolic flexibility of this\\u000a strain. This increases the potential viability of UCC118 in the competitive environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Annotation\\u000a and functional studies have indicated

Paul W. O'Toole; Emma J. Raftis

146

Endocarditis of the native aortic valve caused by Lactobacillus jensenii.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are Gram-positive anaerobic rods or coccobacilli, commonly found as commensals in human mucosa. Rarely, they can cause serious infections such as infective endocarditis (IE), and the most frequently implicated species causing serious infections are L. casei and L. rhamnosus. IE caused by Lactobacillus jensenii is very rare, with only six reported cases so far, to the best of our knowledge. We present a case of native aortic valve endocarditis caused by L. jensenii, complicated by root abscess and complete heart block, and requiring emergent surgical intervention. PMID:25750218

Patnaik, Soumya; Davila, Carlos Daniel; Chennupati, Anupama; Rubin, Alexander

2015-01-01

147

Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov., isolated from subarctic timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage.  

PubMed

Four strains of Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and non-motile lactic acid bacteria, LOOC260(T), LOOC253, LOOC273 and LOOC279, were isolated from timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) silage produced in Hokkaido, a subarctic region of Japan. These isolates grew at 4-37 °C, indicating the psychrotolerant nature of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these four strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LOOC260(T) demonstrated that the closest neighbours were the type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus (97.7 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans (96.7 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus (96.7 %). Strain LOOC260(T) showed low levels of DNA-DNA association with Lactobacillus suebicus JCM 9504(T) (14.7 ± 3.5 %), Lactobacillus oligofermentans JCM 16175(T) (15.1 ± 4.8 %) and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus JCM 1716(T) (10.7 ± 3.0 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LOOC260(T) ( = JCM 18461(T) = DSM 26202(T)). PMID:23223820

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-07-01

148

Lactobacillus casei prevents impaired barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The exact effect of probiotics on epithelial barrier function is not well understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate cytokine-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and to study the role of probiotics in the prevention of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Caco-2 cells grown on transwell chambers were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? or interferon (IFN)-? basolaterally. Probiotic, Lactobacillus casei, was added 1 h before cytokine stimulation. MAPK inhibitors were added 15 min before L. casei stimulation. The electrical resistance and paracellular permeability of Caco-2 monolayers were measured. Distribution of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein was assessed by immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses for ZO-1, p-Akt, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 were performed. Both TNF-? and IFN-? stimulation on Caco-2 cells decreased transepithelial resistance (TER), increased epithelial permeability, and decreased ZO-1 expression of Caco-2 cells. In contrast, pretreatment of L. casei reversed the cytokine-induced dysfunction of TER, epithelial permeability, and ZO-1 expression. Reversal of cytokine-induced dysfunction of TER and intestinal permeability by L. casei was abrogated with MAPK inhibitor treatment. Lactobacillus casei stimulation on Caco-2 cells increased TLR2 and p-Akt expression. Probiotic, L. casei, prevents cytokine-induced epithelial barrier dysfunctions in IECs. PMID:21143526

Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Yong Seok; Han, Dong Soo; Choi, Joo Hyun; Lee, A Reum; Park, Yoon Kyung

2011-01-01

149

The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G?+?C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

2013-01-01

150

Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10?h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200?AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1?L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10?h by 10 AP?U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4?h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10?h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72?h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

2011-01-01

151

Two genes encoding the beta-galactosidase of Lactobacillus sake.  

PubMed

The beta-galactosidase of Lactobacillus sake DSM 20017 is encoded by two genes located on its chromosome. These genes designated lacL and lacM were cloned in Escherichia coli NM 554 on an 8.65 kbp HindIII fragment inserted in vector pRB473. Deletion analysis of the originally cloned fragment revealed that both genes are required for the formation of a functional beta-galactosidase. lacL and lacM are transcribed as a single transcript of approximately 2.9 kbp starting 34 bp upstream of the translational start codon. The proteins derived from lacL and lacM share only 18-59% homology with other beta-galactosidases. The genes encoding the beta-galactosidase are scattered with multiple direct and inverted repeats of 9-12 bp. However, comparison with the plasmid-encoded Leuconostoc lactis beta-galactosidase revealed equal distribution of conserved amino acid residues and suggests that the genes have a common origin. Specific deletions or insertions resulting from the presence of the repeats were not observed. The L. sake beta-galactosidase was phenotypically expressed in E. coli NM 554 and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1432. Its two genes can be used to replace antibiotic reporter genes to develop food-grade vectors and alpha-complementation systems for self-cloning in meat lactobacilli. PMID:8574399

Obst, M; Meding, E R; Vogel, R F; Hammes, W P

1995-12-01

152

Sepsis associated with Lactobacillus bacteremia in a patient with ischemic colitis  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species is a known commensal of the mouth, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract. However, its isolation on blood cultures is often overlooked and attributed to bench contamination. We present a case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent male who initially presented with altered mental status, but developed sepsis from Lactobacillus bacteremia during his hospital course, while on mechanical ventilation. He was found to have ischemic colitis on colonoscopy. His condition improved with antibiotics and supportive management. Using this example of ischemic colitis, we stress that in the right clinical setting, Lactobacillus bacteremia is a harbinger for a serious underlying pathology and should not be ignored. PMID:25249745

Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Khoury, Charbel C.

2014-01-01

153

Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.e., 1-kestose, fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) of the strains were compared. L. paracasei DSM 20020 grew well on all these sugars, while the growth rates of the 4 L. delbrueckii strains were markedly higher on the fructans with a greater degree of polymerization than on fructose and sucrose. Secondly, sugar compositions of spent cultures of the strains of L. delbrueckii and L. paracasei grown in mMRS containing either the fructans or inulin were determined by thin layer chromatography, in which the spent cultures of L. paracasei DSM 20020 showed spots of short fructose and sucrose fractions, whereas those of the L. delbrueckii strains did not show such spots at all. These results suggest that, unlike the L. paracasei strains, the L. delbrueckii strains do not degrade the inulin-type fructans extracellularly, but transport the fructans capable of greater polymerization preferentially into their cells to be degraded intracellularly for their growth. PMID:24936375

TSUJIKAWA, Yuji; NOMOTO, Ryohei; OSAWA, Ro

2013-01-01

154

Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

Sozzi, T; Smiley, M B

1980-11-01

155

Bacteriophage endolysins expressed in yeast kill strains of Lactobacillus that contaminate fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Species of Lactobacillus are the predominant contaminants that reduce ethanol yields and cause “stuck” fermentations, decreasing the profitability of biofuel production with expen...

156

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei AR114 Isolated from Honey Bee Gut.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus kunkeei is a common inhabitant in honey bee gut, being present in several parts of the world. Here, we describe the draft genome of L. kunkeei AR114, an isolate from late foraging season in Norway. PMID:25792062

Porcellato, Davide; Frantzen, Cyril; Rangberg, Anbjørg; Umu, Ozgun C; Gabrielsen, Christina; Nes, Ingolf F; Amdam, Gro V; Diep, Dzung B

2015-01-01

157

Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by F2CTP: covalent modification  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii, a 76 kDa monomer using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor, catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides and is rapidly (<30 ...

Lohman, Gregory J. S.

158

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei AR114 Isolated from Honey Bee Gut  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus kunkeei is a common inhabitant in honey bee gut, being present in several parts of the world. Here, we describe the draft genome of L. kunkeei AR114, an isolate from late foraging season in Norway. PMID:25792062

Frantzen, Cyril; Rangberg, Anbjørg; Umu, Ozgun C.; Gabrielsen, Christina; Nes, Ingolf F.; Amdam, Gro V.; Diep, Dzung B.

2015-01-01

159

Reduction of Sulfide, Ammonia Compounds, and Adhesion Properties of Lactobacillus casei Strain KE99 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus casei strain KE99 to reduce sulfide, ammonia, and to adhere to bio-surfaces was characterized and compared with three lactobacillus\\u000a reference strains. Sulfide reduction by strain KE99 in MRS broth increased exponentially after 10-h growth and reached a maximum\\u000a (>300 ppm reduction) within 48 h. KE99 demonstrated a maximum reduction of sulfide under anaerobic (341 ppm) growth

A. S. Naidu; X. Xie; D. A. Leumer; S. Harrison; M. J. Burrill; E. A. Fonda

2002-01-01

160

Complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid plca36 isolated from Lactobacillus casei Zhang  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete 36,487bp sequence of plasmid plca36 from Lactobacillus casei Zhang was determined. Plca36 contains 44 predicted coding regions, and to 23 of them functions could be assigned. For the first time, we identified a relBE toxin–antitoxin (TA) locus in a Lactobacillus genus, perhaps indicating a potential role for plca36 in host survival under extreme nutritional stress. A region encoding

Wenyi Zhang; Dongliang Yu; Zhihong Sun; Xia Chen; Qiuhua Bao; He Meng; Songnian Hu; Heping Zhang

2008-01-01

161

Phytase activity from Lactobacillus spp. in calcium-fortified soymilk.  

PubMed

The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed. PMID:20722939

Tang, Anne Lise; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagandra P; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

2010-08-01

162

Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.  

PubMed

Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used. PMID:25827218

Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

2015-05-01

163

Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is frequently found in the fermentation of plant-derived food products, where hydroxycinnamoyl esters are abundant. L. plantarum WCFS1 cultures were unable to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamoyl esters; however, cell extracts from the strain partially hydrolyze methyl ferulate and methyl p-coumarate. In order to discover whether the protein Lp_0796 is the enzyme responsible for this hydrolytic activity, it was recombinantly overproduced and enzymatically characterized. Lp_0796 is an esterase that, among other substrates, is able to efficiently hydrolyze the four model substrates for feruloyl esterases (methyl ferulate, methyl caffeate, methyl p-coumarate, and methyl sinapinate). A screening test for the detection of the gene encoding feruloyl esterase Lp_0796 revealed that it is generally present among L. plantarum strains. The present study constitutes the description of feruloyl esterase activity in L. plantarum and provides new insights into the metabolism of hydroxycinnamic compounds in this bacterial species. PMID:23793626

Esteban-Torres, María; Reverón, Inés; Mancheño, José Miguel; de las Rivas, Blanca

2013-01-01

164

Screening and identification of functional Lactobacillus specific for vegetable fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, functional lactic acid bacteria (LAB) specific for vegetable fermentation were screened from Chinese sauerkraut brine by designing purpose media. The selected LAB strains showed excellent tolerance to high concentrations of bile salt and acids. They can also survive passage through the simulated gastric fluid and may be able to reach to the intestine. Through the performance measurements of vegetable fermentation, one of these strains, NCU116 was found to have the best fermentation ability, and further subjected to a series of analyses including identification of physiological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA and pheS sequencing. Taken together, the strain NCU116 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum. These results laid a good foundation for the fermentation research in the future. PMID:23278440

Xiong, Tao; Song, Suhua; Huang, Xuhui; Feng, Chao; Liu, Guangquan; Huang, Jinqing; Xie, Mingyong

2013-01-01

165

Molecular characterization of three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus phages.  

PubMed

In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

2014-09-01

166

The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

2014-01-01

167

Production of cholera toxin B subunit in Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The intracellular expression of the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) was first achieved in Lactobacillus paracasei LbTGS1.4 with an expression cassette including the P25 promoter of Streptococcus thermophilus combined with the translation initiation region from the strongly expressed L. pentosus D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhD). Secretion of CTB was next attempted in L. paracasei LbTGS1.4 and L. plantarum NCIMB8826 with four different signal sequences from exported proteins of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis Usp45 and PrtP, Enterococcus faecalis unknown protein and S. pyogenes M6 protein). Host-dependent secretion of CTB was clearly observed: whereas none of the secretion cassettes led to detectable CTB in the extracellular fraction of L. paracasei LbTGS1.4, secretion of CTB molecules was clearly achieved with three of the selected signal sequences in L. plantarum NCIMB8826. PMID:9851032

Slos, P; Dutot, P; Reymund, J; Kleinpeter, P; Prozzi, D; Kieny, M P; Delcour, J; Mercenier, A; Hols, P

1998-12-01

168

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as an Effective Probiotic for Murine Giardiasis  

PubMed Central

The gut microflora is an important constituent in the intestinal mucosal barrier and has been introduced as the concept of probiotic therapy that beneficially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to explore the protective potential of various lactobacilli strains for murine giardiasis. By experimentation, it was found that the probiotic supplementation of either Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, or L. rhamnosus GG, 7 days prior to inoculation with G. lamblia trophozoites, reduced the rate of cyst excretion compared with Giardia-infected mice. Interestingly, L. GG was found to be the most effective probiotic in reducing the duration of giardia cycle and acts as an effective prophylactic probiotic for murine giardiasis but needs to be clinically correlated due to entirely different human microflora. PMID:21760784

Goyal, Nisha; Tiwari, Ram Prakash; Shukla, Geeta

2011-01-01

169

Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.  

PubMed

The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:24767059

Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

2014-09-15

170

Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 Modulates Urea Hydrolysis in the Murine Stomach  

PubMed Central

Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach. Inactivation of the ureC gene reduced the acid tolerance of strain 100-23 in vitro, and the mutant was outcompeted by the wild type in the gut of ex-Lactobacillus-free mice. Urine analysis showed that stable isotope-labeled urea, administered by gavage, was metabolized to a greater extent in Lactobacillus-free mice than animals colonized by strain 100-23. This surprising observation was associated with higher levels of urease activity and fecal-type bacteria in the stomach digesta of Lactobacillus-free mice. Despite the modulation of urea hydrolysis in the stomach, recycling of urea nitrogen in the murine host was not affected since the essential amino acid isoleucine, labeled with a stable isotope, was detected in the livers of both Lactobacillus-free and 100-23-colonized animals. Therefore, our experiments reveal a new and unexpected impact of Lactobacillus colonization on urea hydrolysis in the murine gut. PMID:25063664

Wilson, Charlotte M.; Loach, Diane; Lawley, Blair; Bell, Tracey; Sims, Ian M.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Zomer, Aldert

2014-01-01

171

Detection and activity of lactacin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed Central

A total of 52 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were examined for production of bacteriocins. A majority (63%) demonstrated inhibitory activity against all members of a four-species grouping of Lactobacillus leichmannii, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus lactis. Four L. acidophilus strains with this activity also inhibited Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus fermentum, suggesting a second system of antagonism. Under conditions eliminating the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, no inhibition of other gram-positive or -negative genera was demonstrated by L. acidophilus. The agent produced by L. acidophilus N2 and responsible for inhibition of L. leichmannii, L. bulgaricus, L. helveticus, and L. lactis was investigated. Ultrafiltration studies indicated a molecular weight of approximately 100,000 for the crude inhibitor. The agent was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and retained full activity after 60 min at 100 degrees C (pH 5). Activity against sensitive cells was bactericidal but not bacteriolytic. These characteristics identified the inhibitory agent as a bacteriocin, designated lactacin B. Examination of strains of L. acidophilus within the six homology groupings of Johnson et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:53-68, 1980) demonstrated that production of the bacteriocin lactacin B could not be used in classification of neotype L. acidophilus strains. However, the usefulness of employing sensitivity to lactacin B in classification of dairy lactobacilli is suggested. Images PMID:6410990

Barefoot, S F; Klaenhammer, T R

1983-01-01

172

Lactobacillus sicerae sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from Spanish natural cider.  

PubMed

Strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 were isolated from ropy natural ciders of the Basque Country, Spain, in 2007. Cells are Gram-stain positive, non-spore-forming, motile rods, facultative anaerobes and catalase-negative. The strains are obligately homofermentative (final product dl-lactate) and produce exopolysaccharides from sucrose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the highest similarity to both isolates corresponded to the type strain of Lactobacillus vini (99.1?%), followed by Lactobacillus satsumensis (96.4?%), and Lactobacillus oeni (96.2?%), and for all other established species, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were below 96?%. The species delineation of strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 was evaluated through RAPD fingerprinting. In addition, a random partial genome pyrosequencing approach was performed on strain CUPV261(T) in order to compare it with the genome sequence of Lactobacillus vini DSM 20605(T) and calculate indexes of average nucleotide identity (ANI) between them. Results permit the conclusion that strains CUPV261(T) and CUPV262 represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus sicerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CUPV261(T) (?=?CECT 8227(T)?=?KCTC 21012(T)). PMID:24899655

Puertas, Ana Isabel; Arahal, David R; Ibarburu, Idoia; Elizaquível, Patricia; Aznar, Rosa; Dueñas, M Teresa

2014-09-01

173

Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. PMID:24961744

Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

2015-02-01

174

Characterization of Two Virulent Phages of Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

We characterized two Lactobacillus plantarum virulent siphophages, ATCC 8014-B1 (B1) and ATCC 8014-B2 (B2), previously isolated from corn silage and anaerobic sewage sludge, respectively. Phage B2 infected two of the eight L. plantarum strains tested, while phage B1 infected three. Phage adsorption was highly variable depending on the strain used. Phage defense systems were found in at least two L. plantarum strains, LMG9211 and WCSF1. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of the pac-type phage B1 had 38,002 bp, a G+C content of 47.6%, and 60 open reading frames (ORFs). Surprisingly, the phage B1 genome has 97% identity with that of Pediococcus damnosus phage clP1 and 77% identity with that of L. plantarum phage JL-1; these phages were isolated from sewage and cucumber fermentation, respectively. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of the cos-type phage B2 had 80,618 bp, a G+C content of 36.9%, and 127 ORFs with similarities to those of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains as well as phages. Some phage B2 genes were similar to ORFs from L. plantarum phage LP65 of the Myoviridae family. Additionally, 6 tRNAs were found in the phage B2 genome. Protein analysis revealed 13 (phage B1) and 9 (phage B2) structural proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing such high identity between phage genomes infecting different genera of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23042172

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; Garneau, Josiane E.; Tremblay, Denise; Quiberoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

175

Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.  

PubMed

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

2012-12-01

176

Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases  

PubMed Central

Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The ?-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

2012-01-01

177

Genetic Determinants of Reutericyclin Biosynthesis in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Reutericyclin is a unique antimicrobial tetramic acid produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. This study aimed to identify the genetic determinants of reutericyclin biosynthesis. Comparisons of the genomes of reutericyclin-producing L. reuteri strains with those of non-reutericyclin-producing strains identified a genomic island of 14 open reading frames (ORFs) including genes coding for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), a polyketide synthase (PKS), homologues of PhlA, PhlB, and PhlC, and putative transport and regulatory proteins. The protein encoded by rtcN is composed of a condensation domain, an adenylation domain likely specific for d-leucine, and a thiolation domain. rtcK codes for a PKS that is composed of a ketosynthase domain, an acyl-carrier protein domain, and a thioesterase domain. The products of rtcA, rtcB, and rtcC are homologous to the diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthetic proteins PhlABC and may acetylate the tetramic acid moiety produced by RtcN and RtcK, forming reutericyclin. Deletion of rtcN or rtcABC in L. reuteri TMW1.656 abrogated reutericyclin production but did not affect resistance to reutericyclin. Genes coding for transport and regulatory proteins could be deleted only in the reutericyclin-negative L. reuteri strain TMW1.656?rtcN, and these deletions eliminated reutericyclin resistance. The genomic analyses suggest that the reutericyclin genomic island was horizontally acquired from an unknown source during a unique event. The combination of PhlABC homologues with both an NRPS and a PKS has also been identified in the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum, suggesting that the genes in these organisms and those in L. reuteri share an evolutionary origin. PMID:25576609

Lin, Xiaoxi B; Lohans, Christopher T; Duar, Rebbeca; Zheng, Jinshui; Vederas, John C; Walter, Jens; Gänzle, Michael

2015-03-15

178

?-Galactosidase with transgalactosylation activity from Lactobacillus fermentum K4.  

PubMed

The LacLM ?-galactosidase of Lactobacillus fermentum K4 is encoded by 2 consecutive genes, lacL (large subunit) and lacM (small subunit), that share 17 overlapping nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this enzyme was closely related to other Lactobacillus ?-galactosidases and provided significant insight into its common and distinct characteristics. We cloned both the lacL and lacM genes of L. fermentum K4 and heterologously expressed each in Escherichia coli, although the recombinant enzyme was only functional when both were expressed on the same plasmid. We evaluated the enzymatic properties of this species-specific LacLM ?-galactosidase and discovered that it acts as both a hydrolase, bioconverting lactose into glucose and galactose, and a transgalactosylase, generating prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The recombinant ?-galactosidase showed a broad pH optimum and stability around neutral pH. The optimal temperature and Michaelis constant (K(m)) for the substrates o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside and lactose were, respectively, 40°C and 45 to 50°C and 1.31 mM and 27 mM. The enzyme activity was stimulated by some cations such as Na?, K?, and Mg²?. In addition, activity was also enhanced by ethanol (15%, wt/vol). The transgalactosylation activity of L. fermentum K4 ?-galactosidase effectively and rapidly generated GOS, up to 37% of the total sugars from the reaction. Collectively, our results suggested that the ?-galactosidase from L. fermentum K4 could be exploited for the formation of GOS. PMID:22118071

Liu, G X; Kong, J; Lu, W W; Kong, W T; Tian, H; Tian, X Y; Huo, G C

2011-12-01

179

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Fecal Lactobacillus Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula  

PubMed Central

The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, diarrhea and atopy. However, the Lactobacillus species distribution in breast-fed or formula-fed infants has not yet been determined in great detail. For accurate enumeration of different lactobacilli, duplex 5? nuclease assays, targeted on rRNA intergenic spacer regions, were developed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The designed and validated assays were used to determine the amounts of different Lactobacillus species in fecal samples of infants receiving a standard formula (SF) or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in a 9:1 ratio (OSF). A breast-fed group (BF) was studied in parallel as a reference. During the 6-week intervention period a significant increase was shown in total percentage of fecal lactobacilli in the BF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.1% ± 1.5%) and the OSF group (0.8% ± 0.3% versus 4.4% ± 1.4%). The Lactobacillus species distribution in the OSF group was comparable to breast-fed infants, with relatively high levels of L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, and L. casei. The SF-fed infants, on the other hand, contained more L. delbrueckii and less L. paracasei compared to breast-fed infants and OSF-fed infants. An infant milk formula containing a specific mixture of prebiotics is able to induce a microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of BF infants. PMID:16597930

Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

2006-01-01

180

Oxygen-Dependent Regulation of the Expression of the Catalase Gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalase gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli UM2, Lactobacillus casei LK1, and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1432. The last host is a catalase-deficient plasmid-cured derivative of a starter organism used in meat fermentation. The regulation of katA expression was found to be the same in L. sakei LTH677 and the recombinant strains. The addition

CHRISTIAN HERTEL; GUDRUN SCHMIDT; MARC FISCHER; KATJA OELLERS; WALTER P. HAMMES

1998-01-01

181

In Vitro Activities of Ketolide HMR3647, Macrolides, and Other Antibiotics against Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of susceptibility to 13 antibiotics was performed with 90 isolates of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus. MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited by HMR3647, erythromycin, and cipro- floxacin were 0.015, 0.125 and 32 mg\\/ml, respectively. The penicillin MIC was >16 mg\\/ml against 26.2% of the studied Lactobacillus sp. isolates and 50% of Lactobacillus plantarum. HMR3647 showed

M. ZARAZAGA; Y. SAENZ; A. PORTILLO; C. TENORIO; F. RUIZ-LARREA; R. DEL CAMPO; F. BAQUERO; C. TORRES

1999-01-01

182

Detection, partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 isolated from freshwater fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 was isolated from freshwater fish, capable of producing bacteriocin that had broad spectrum of inhibition (3200 AU\\/ml)\\u000a against Escherichia coli MTCC 1563, Enterococcus faecalis MTCC 2729, Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423, Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The antimicrobial activity of crude supernatant fluid was stable after heating at 121 °C for 60 min and declined\\u000a thereafter. Stability

Shiba Prosad Banerjee; Krushna Chandra Dora; Supratim Chowdhury

183

Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in yoghurt-type fermented milks based on a 15°C incubation temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure was developed to enumerate selectively Lactobacillus casei populations in yoghurt-type fermented milks that can also contain strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis. Commercial LBS agar was acidified to pH 5.4, and the plates were incubated at 15°C for 14 days under anaerobic conditions. Acidification prevented the development of streptococci, and incubation

Claude P. Champagne; Denis Roy; Alain Lafond

1997-01-01

184

Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

2013-01-01

185

Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Setting Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous portions of their lungs or lobes removed as treatment for lung cancer (normal lung function controls (n=28), persons with mild (GOLD 1) (n=21) and moderate (GOLD 2) COPD (n=25)). Outcome measures Primary outcome measure was GD1 positivity within each group and whether or not this impacted quantitative histological measures of lung inflammation. Secondary outcome measures included Lactobacillus presence and quantification, and quantitative histological measurements of inflammation and remodelling in early COPD. Results Total bacterial count (p>0.05) and prevalence of Lactobacillus (p>0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the GD1 gene was detected more frequently in the controls (14%) than in either mild (5%) or moderate (0%) COPD (p<0.05) samples. Macrophage and neutrophil volume fractions (0.012±0.005 (mean±SD) vs 0.026±0.017 and 0.005±0.002 vs 0.015±0.014, respectively) in peripheral lung tissue were reduced in samples positive for the GD1 gene (p<0.0035). Conclusions A reduction in GD1 positivity is associated with an increased tissue immune inflammatory response in early stage COPD. There is potential for Lactobacillus to be used as a possible therapeutic, however, validation of these results need to be completed before an anti-inflammatory role of Lactobacillus in COPD can be confirmed. PMID:25652802

Sze, Marc A; Utokaparch, Soraya; Elliott, W Mark; Hogg, James C; Hegele, Richard G

2015-01-01

186

Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. RESULTS: In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment. PMID:25400470

Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

2014-01-01

187

Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.  

PubMed

Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ?10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. PMID:21807435

Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

2011-10-01

188

Production of free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei during fermentation and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of free fatty acids (FFAs) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei during fermentation and 10d of storage at 4°C was evaluated and compared with control dahi. The total FFAs in terms of acid degree values significantly increased during fermentation and storage of both types of dahi samples. In addition, gas

Hariom Yadav; Shalini Jain; P. R. Sinha

2007-01-01

189

Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 – an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic  

PubMed Central

The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

2009-01-01

190

Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)  

PubMed Central

Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

2013-01-01

191

Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study  

PubMed Central

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is frequently associated with diarrhoea. We compared two 5-FU-based regimens and the effect of Lactobacillus and fibre supplementation on treatment tolerability. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (n=150) were randomly allocated to receive monthly 5-FU and leucovorin bolus injections (the Mayo regimen) or a bimonthly 5-FU bolus plus continuous infusion (the simplified de Gramont regimen) for 24 weeks as postoperative adjuvant therapy. On the basis of random allocation, the study participants did or did not receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation (1–2 × 1010 per day) and fibre (11?g guar gum per day) during chemotherapy. Patients who received Lactobacillus had less grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (22 vs 37%, P=0.027), reported less abdominal discomfort, needed less hospital care and had fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to bowel toxicity. No Lactobacillus-related toxicity was detected. Guar gum supplementation had no influence on chemotherapy tolerability. The simplified de Gramont regimen was associated with fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse effects than the Mayo regimen (45 vs 89%), and with less diarrhoea. We conclude that Lactobacillus GG supplementation is well tolerated and may reduce the frequency of severe diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort related to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:17895895

Österlund, P; Ruotsalainen, T; Korpela, R; Saxelin, M; Ollus, A; Valta, P; Kouri, M; Elomaa, I; Joensuu, H

2007-01-01

192

Bile tolerance and its effect on antibiotic susceptibility of probiotic Lactobacillus candidates.  

PubMed

Before use in practice, it is necessary to precisely identify and characterize a new probiotic candidate. Eight animal lactobacilli and collection strain Lactobacillus reuteri CCM 3625 were studied from the point of saccharide fermentation profiles, bile salt resistance, antibiogram profiles, and influence of bile on sensitivity to antibiotics. Studied lactobacilli differed in their sugar fermentation ability determined by API 50CHL and their identification based on these profiles did not correspond with molecular-biological one in most cases. Survival of strains Lactobacillus murinus C and L. reuteri KO4b was not affected by presence of bile. The resistance of genus Lactobacillus to vancomycin and quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) was confirmed in all strains tested. This study provides the new information about oxgall (0.5 and 1 %) effect on the lactobacilli antibiotic susceptibility. Antibiotic profiles were not noticeably affected, and both bile concentrations tested had comparable impact on the lactobacilli antibiotic sensitivity. Interesting change was noticed in L. murinus C, where the resistance to cephalosporins was reverted to susceptibility. Similarly, susceptibility of L. reuteri E to ceftazidime arose after incubation in both concentration of bile. After influence of 1 % bile, Lactobacillus mucosae D lost its resistance to gentamicin. On the base of gained outcomes, the best probiotic properties manifested L. reuteri KO4b, Lactobacillus plantarum KG4, and L. reuteri E due to their survival in the presence of bile. PMID:25413644

Hyacinta, Májeková; Hana, Ki?ová Sepová; Andrea, Bilková; Barbora, ?isárová

2015-05-01

193

Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry  

PubMed Central

In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract. PMID:25477944

Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Filho, Raphael Lucio Andreatti

2014-01-01

194

Pathogenic relevance of Lactobacillus: a retrospective review of over 200 cases.  

PubMed

Given that Lactobacillus has been reported to be the causative pathogen in many types of infection despite debate regarding the organism's clinical significance, a literature review was conducted to investigate the treatments and outcomes of Lactobacillus infections reported to date. In this article, the characteristics of over 200 reported cases of Lactobacillus-associated infections are summarized. Lactobacillus was found to be frequently associated with endocarditis and bacteremia. Lactobacillus was also associated with a variety of other infections including, but not limited to, peritonitis, abscesses, and meningitis. The species casei and rhamnosus were the most common. The isolates tended to be most sensitive to erythromycin and clindamycin and most resistant to vancomycin. The species that was most sensitive to vancomycin was acidophilus. The overall mortality rate was nearly 30%. There was a significant association between mortality and polymicrobial infection (P=0.004). In the subset of patients with bacteremia, increased mortality was associated with inadequate treatment (P=0.001) and polymicrobial bacteremia (P=0.044). PMID:15599646

Cannon, J P; Lee, T A; Bolanos, J T; Danziger, L H

2005-01-01

195

Identification and functional characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from milk and Gioddu, a traditional Sardinian fermented milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw milk from Sardinian cows and sheep, and sheep's milk yoghurt (Gioddu), are food products that are poorly characterized in terms of the presence of mesophilic Lactobacillus strains, and may be good sources from which to isolate novel bacterial strains. Sixteen Lactobacillus strains were identified by genotypic and phenotypic methods from samples of sheep's milk (n=7), fermented sheep's milk (n=7)

S. Ortu; G. E. Felis; M. Marzotto; A. Deriu; P. Molicotti; L. A. Sechi; F. Dellaglio; S. Zanetti

2007-01-01

196

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain wikim 22, Isolated from Kimchi in Chungcheong Province, South Korea  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei strain wikim 22, a Lactobacillus species isolated from kimchi in North Chungcheong Province, South Korea, having 155 contigs with 2,447 genes and an average G+C content of 40.61%. PMID:25502679

Lim, Hyeong In; Lee, Jina; Jang, Ja Young; Park, Hae Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Mi Ran

2014-01-01

197

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain wikim 22, Isolated from Kimchi in Chungcheong Province, South Korea.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei strain wikim 22, a Lactobacillus species isolated from kimchi in North Chungcheong Province, South Korea, having 155 contigs with 2,447 genes and an average G+C content of 40.61%. PMID:25502679

Lim, Hyeong In; Lee, Jina; Jang, Ja Young; Park, Hae Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Mi Ran; Lee, Jong-Hee

2014-01-01

198

Combination of Multiplex PCR and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis for Monitoring Common Sourdough-Associated Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

A combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and a previously described multiplex PCR approach was employed to detect sourdough lactobacilli. Primers specific for certain groups of Lactobacillus spp. were used to amplify fragments, which were analyzed by DGGE. DGGE profiles obtained from Lactobacillus type strains acted as standards to analyze lactobacilli from four regional Abruzzo (central Italy) sourdoughs. PMID:16672538

Settanni, Luca; Valmorri, Sara; van Sinderen, Douwe; Suzzi, Giovanna; Paparella, Antonello; Corsetti, Aldo

2006-01-01

199

Mixed-culture transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular basis of mixed-culture growth in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many food fermentations are performed using mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Interactions between strains are of key importance for the performance of these fermentations. Yogurt fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (basonym, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) is one of the best-described mixed-culture fermentations. These species are believed to stimulate each other's growth by the exchange of metabolites such

S. Sieuwerts; D. Molenaar; Hijum van S. A. F. T; M. Beerthuyzen; M. J. A. Stevens; P. W. Janssen; C. J. Ingham; Bok de F. A. M; Vos de W. M; Hylckama Vlieg van J. E. T

2010-01-01

200

Adhesion of Lactobacillus amylovorus to Insoluble and Derivatized Cornstarch Granules  

PubMed Central

Approximately 70% of the cells in a suspension of the amylolytic bacterium Lactobacillus amylovorus bind to cornstarch granules within 30 min at 25°C. More than 60% of the bound bacteria were removed by formaldehyde (2%) or glycine (1 M) at pH 2.0. More than 90% of the bound bacteria were removed by MgCl2 (2 M; pH 7.0). Binding of L. amylovorus to cornstarch was inhibited in heat-killed cells and in cells that had been pretreated with glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, sodium azide, trypsin, or 1% soluble potato starch. Bacterial binding to cornstarch appeared to correlate with both the concentration of cornstarch in the suspension and the amylose content in the granules. The ability of L. amylovorus to adhere to cornstarch granules was reduced for granules that had been extracted with HCl-ethanol, HCl-methanol, HCl-propanol, or HCl-butanol. Chemical derivatization of cornstarch resulted in a wide variety of adhesion responses by these bacteria. For example, 2-O-butyl starch (degree of substitution, 0.09) enhanced adhesion, whereas two palmitate starches (degree of substitution, 0.48 and 0.09) exhibited reduced adhesion activities. 2-O-(2-hydroxybutyl) starch and starch-poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) ester showed adhesion activities similar to those of the nonderivatized starch controls. Images PMID:16348460

Imam, Syed H.; Harry-O'Kuru, R. E.

1991-01-01

201

CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2014-01-01

202

Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

2013-01-01

203

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

204

Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related probiotic genera.  

PubMed

Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4 Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic genomes than their pathogenic members. The pan- and core genome of each genus was defined. Pairwise BLASTP genome comparison was performed within and between genera. It turned out that pathogenic Streptococcus and Enterococcus shared more gene families than did the non-pathogenic genomes. In silico multilocus sequence typing was carried out for all genomes per genus, and the variable gene content of genomes was compared within the genera. Informative BLAST Atlases were constructed to visualize genomic variation within genera. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classes of all genes in the pan- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature. This study illustrates how over 80 genomes can be broadly compared using simple bioinformatic tools, leading to both confirmation of known information as well as novel observations. PMID:22031452

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W; Wassenaar, Trudy M

2012-04-01

205

Acid Tolerance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum†  

PubMed Central

In this study, we determined the internal cellular pH response of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum to the external pH created by the microorganisms themselves or by lactic or acetic acids and their salts added to the growth medium. Growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides stopped when its internal pH reached 5.4 to 5.7, and growth of L. plantarum stopped when its internal pH reached 4.6 to 4.8. Variation in growth medium composition or pH did not alter the growth-limiting internal pH reached by these microorganisms. L. plantarum maintained its pH gradient in the presence of either 160 mM sodium acetate or sodium lactate down to an external pH of 3.0 with either acid. In contrast, the ?pH of Leuconostoc mesenteroides was zero at pH 4.0 with acetate and 5.0 with lactate. No differences were found between d-(?)- and l-(+)-lactic acid for the limiting internal pH for growth of either microorganism. The comparatively low growth-limiting internal pH and ability to maintain a pH gradient at high organic acid concentration may contribute to the ability of L. plantarum to terminate vegetable fermentations. PMID:16348238

McDonald, L. C.; Fleming, H. P.; Hassan, H. M.

1990-01-01

206

Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and ?-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations. PMID:24682879

Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

2014-05-01

207

The Adsorption of Ochratoxin A by Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine ochratoxin A (OTA) binding by three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sanfranciscensis. Experiments were conducted using MRS medium and PBS buffer contaminated with 1000 ng/mL OTA and inoculated with live or thermally inactivated bacterial biomass at a concentration of 1 or 5 mg dry weight/mL. It was found that, depending on the strain and biomass density, live bacterial cells reduced OTA content by 16.9% to 35% in MRS medium and by 14.8% to 26.4% in PBS after 24 h of contact. OTA binding was higher in the case of thermally inactivated bacterial biomass (46.2% to 59.8%). The process is very rapid: OTA was removed from PBS as early as after 30 min of contact. The binding of the toxin by cells was partially reversible under the treatment by water and 1 M HCl. The results show that OTA is adsorbed to the surface structures of the cell wall, which is promoted not only by the hydrophobic properties of the cell wall, but also by electron donor-acceptor and Lewis acid-base interactions. PMID:25247265

Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

2014-01-01

208

Variability of S-layer proteins in Lactobacillus helveticus strains.  

PubMed

The presence of S-layer proteins in the cell envelope of Lactobacillus helveticus may be technologically important. S-layer proteins are the adhesion site for cell envelope proteinase, which forms the proteolytic pathway in bacteria. Eleven strains of L. helveticus were examined for the presence of S-layer proteins and slpH genes. S-layer proteins from six strains were identified and sequenced. Multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated a strong sequence conservation of all Slp studied. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the cells revealed the typical cell wall architecture of the S-layer. This is the first report on characterisation of glycosylated S-layer proteins from different strains of L. helveticus. The amino acid composition, the secondary structure, and the physical properties of these proteins were found to be quite similar to those of S-layer proteins from other lactobacilli. However, PCR analysis revealed that five of the examined strains of L. helveticus did not have slpH genes. This finding suggests that S-layer protein genes cannot be considered as housekeeping genes and cannot be used as molecular markers for L. helveticus. PMID:24269654

Wa?ko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena; Kuzdrali?ski, Adam; Skrzypek, Tomasz

2014-02-01

209

Towards a better understanding of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - host interactions  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most widely used probiotic strains. Various health effects are well documented including the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal infections and diarrhea, and stimulation of immune responses that promote vaccination or even prevent certain allergic symptoms. However, not all intervention studies could show a clinical benefit and even for the same conditions, the results are not univocal. Clearly, the host phenotype governed by age, genetics and environmental factors such as the endogenous microbiota, plays a role in whether individuals are responders or non-responders. However, we believe that a detailed knowledge of the bacterial physiology and the LGG molecules that play a key role in its host-interaction capacity is crucial for a better understanding of its potential health benefits. Molecules that were yet identified as important factors governing host interactions include its adhesive pili or fimbriae, its lipoteichoic acid molecules, its major secreted proteins and its galactose-rich exopolysaccharides, as well as specific DNA motifs. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to correlate specific health effects to these molecular effectors in LGG, and also in other probiotic strains. PMID:25186587

2014-01-01

210

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut  

PubMed Central

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

2014-01-01

211

Thermal, chemical, and photocatalytic inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophages.  

PubMed

The effect of several biocides, thermal treatments, and photocatalysis on the viability of four Lactobacillus plantarum phages was investigated. Times to achieve 99% inactivation (T99) of phages at 63, 72, and 90 degrees C were evaluated in four suspension media: deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth, reconstituted skim milk, a commercial EM-glucose medium, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer. The four phages studied were highly resistant to 63 degrees C (T99 > 45 min); however, counts < 10 PFU/ml were achieved by heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Higher thermal resistance at 72 degrees C was observed when reconstituted skim milk and EM-glucose medium were assayed. Peracetic acid (0.15%, vol/vol) was an effective biocide for the complete inactivation of all phages studied within 5 min of exposure. Sodium hypochlorite (800 ppm) inactivated the phages completely within 30 min. Ethanol (100%) did not destroy phage particles even after 45 min. Isopropanol did not have any effect on phage viability. Phage counts < 50 PFU/ml were obtained within 180 min of photocatalytic treatment. The results obtained in this work are important for establishing adequate methods for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments. PMID:19517728

Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; De Antoni, Graciela L; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

2009-05-01

212

Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

2012-01-01

213

Functional genomics of Lactobacillus casei establishment in the gut.  

PubMed

Although the composition of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic contribution to key host physiological functions are well established, little is known as yet about the bacterial factors that account for this symbiosis. We selected Lactobacillus casei as a model microorganism to proceed to genomewide identification of the functions required for a symbiont to establish colonization in the gut. As a result of our recent development of a transposon-mutagenesis tool that overcomes the barrier that had prevented L. casei random mutagenesis, we developed a signature-tagged mutagenesis approach combining whole-genome reverse genetics using a set of tagged transposons and in vivo screening using the rabbit ligated ileal loop model. After sequencing transposon insertion sites in 9,250 random mutants, we assembled a library of 1,110 independent mutants, all disrupted in a different gene, that provides a representative view of the L. casei genome. By determining the relative quantity of each of the 1,110 mutants before and after the in vivo challenge, we identified a core of 47 L. casei genes necessary for its establishment in the gut. They are involved in housekeeping functions, metabolism (sugar, amino acids), cell wall biogenesis, and adaptation to environment. Hence we provide what is, to our knowledge, the first global functional genomics analysis of L. casei symbiosis. PMID:25024222

Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Scornec, Hélène; Pédron, Thierry; Cavin, Jean-François; Sansonetti, Philippe J

2014-07-29

214

CRISPR–Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR–Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR–Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR–Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR–Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR–Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR–Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR–Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR–Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

2014-01-01

215

Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25? and 37?. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100? and 121?. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10. PMID:24015075

Chang, Injeong

2007-01-01

216

Lactobacillus helveticus glycosyltransferases: from genes to carbohydrate synthesis.  

PubMed

Bioactive carbohydrates are crucial in mediating essential biological processes, and their biosynthesis is an essential aspect to develop for a global view of their biological functions. Lactic acid bacteria display an array of diverse and complex carbohydrates and, therefore, are of particular interest. Here we present the identification of a novel exocellular polysaccharide structure and the corresponding gene cluster from Lactobacillus helveticus NCC2745. The development of a glycosyltransferase-specific enzymatic assay allowed the assignment of sugar specificities, which as a general approach will for the future permit a faster and more direct characterization of glycosyltransferase specificities. A model of the biosynthesis of the repeating unit is proposed. EpsE is a phosphoglucosyltransferase initiating the repeating unit biosynthesis by linking a glucose residue to a membrane-associated lipophilic acceptor. EpsF elongates the carbohydrate chain by forming an alpha(1,3)-Glcp linkage onto the first Glcp, whereas EpsG adds a backbone alpha(1,6)-Galp onto alpha-Glcp and EpsH attaches a alpha(1,6)-Glcp branch onto the first glucose residue. Finally, EpsI would add a beta(1,6)-Galp linkage onto alpha-Glcp terminating the sidechain and EpsJ would terminate the synthesis of the polysaccharides' repeating unit by forming a beta(1,3)-Galp linkage onto alpha-Galp. PMID:12070074

Jolly, Laure; Newell, John; Porcelli, Ida; Vincent, Sébastien J F; Stingele, Francesca

2002-05-01

217

Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.  

PubMed

The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-07-01

218

Human ?-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary ?-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of ?-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of ?-amylase digestion. These studies show that human ?-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. PMID:24737800

Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

2014-10-01

219

Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

2012-01-01

220

Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C–50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

Kasra – Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

2010-01-01

221

Free Glycogen in Vaginal Fluids Is Associated with Lactobacillus Colonization and Low Vaginal pH  

PubMed Central

Objective Lactobacillus dominates the lower genital tract microbiota of many women, producing a low vaginal pH, and is important for healthy pregnancy outcomes and protection against several sexually transmitted pathogens. Yet, factors that promote Lactobacillus remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that the amount of free glycogen in the lumen of the lower genital tract is an important determinant of Lactobacillus colonization and a low vaginal pH. Methods Free glycogen in lavage samples was quantified. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to identify microbiota from 21 African American women collected over 8–11 years. Results Free glycogen levels varied greatly between women and even in the same woman. Samples with the highest free glycogen had a corresponding median genital pH that was significantly lower (pH 4.4) than those with low glycogen (pH 5.8; p<0.001). The fraction of the microbiota consisting of Lactobacillus was highest in samples with high glycogen versus those with low glycogen (median?=?0.97 vs. 0.05, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, having 1 vs. 0 male sexual partner in the past 6 months was negatively associated, while BMI ?30 was positively associated with glycogen. High concentrations of glycogen corresponded to higher levels of L. crispatus and L. jensenii, but not L. iners. Conclusion These findings show that free glycogen in genital fluid is associated with a genital microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus, suggesting glycogen is important for maintaining genital health. Treatments aimed at increasing genital free glycogen might impact Lactobacillus colonization. PMID:25033265

Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L.; Gilbert, Douglas; Burgad, Derick; Landay, Alan; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory T.

2014-01-01

222

Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov., from the digestive tract of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris).  

PubMed

Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus were isolated from the digestive tracts of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris) using MRS agar under anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as undescribed members of the genus Lactobacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.9?%) to the uncharacterized bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. Mboho2r2 isolated from the stomach of a European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Lactobacillus tucceti was found to be the closest related species with a validly published name, with 92.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain. However, phylogenetic analyses based on different markers revealed that this species is phylogenetically very distant from the novel strains. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain BTLCH M1/2(T) is 37.8 mol%. The fatty acids C(19?:?1)?6c and/or C(19?:?0) cyclo ?10c/19?6, C(18?:?1)?9c and C(16?:?0) were predominant in all strains. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, seven glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids were detected in the novel strains. Growth was observed at 47 °C. The peptidoglycan type A4? L-Lys-D-Asp was determined for strain BTLCH M1/2(T). Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on the phylogenetic markers hsp60, pheS, rpoA and tuf as well as phenotypic characteristics and the results of chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the new isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BTLCH M1/2(T) (?=?DSM 26517(T)?=?CCM 8440(T)). PMID:24824637

Killer, J; Votavová, A; Valterová, I; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Hroncová, Z

2014-08-01

223

Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106. PMID:22021580

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2012-09-01

224

Plasmid Transduction Using Bacteriophage ?adh for Expression of CC Chemokines by Lactobacillus gasseri ADH?  

PubMed Central

Vaginal mucosal microfloras are typically dominated by Gram-positive Lactobacillus species, and colonization of vaginal mucosa by exogenous microbicide-secreting Lactobacillus strains has been proposed as a means of enhancing this natural mucosal barrier against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We asked whether an alternative strategy could be utilized whereby anti-HIV molecules are expressed within the cervicovaginal milieu by endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus populations which have been engineered in situ via transduction. In this study, we therefore investigated the feasibility of utilizing transduction for the expression of two HIV coreceptor antagonists, the CC chemokines CCL5 and CCL3, in a predominant vaginal Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus gasseri. Modifying a previously established transduction model, which utilizes L. gasseri ADH and its prophage ?adh, we show that mitomycin C induction of L. gasseri ADH transformants containing pGK12-based plasmids with CCL5 and CCL3 expression and secretion cassettes (under the control of promoters P6 and P59, respectively) and a 232-bp ?adh cos site fragment results in the production of transducing particles which contain 8 to 9 copies of concatemeric plasmid DNA. High-frequency transduction for these particles (almost 6 orders of magnitude greater than that for pGK12 alone) was observed, and transductants were found to contain recircularized expression plasmids upon subsequent culture. Importantly, transductants produced CC chemokines at levels comparable to those produced by electroporation-derived transformants. Our findings therefore lend support to the potential use of transduction in vaginal Lactobacillus species as a novel strategy for the prevention of HIV infection across mucosal membranes. PMID:20418431

Damelin, Leonard H.; Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Tiemessen, Caroline T.

2010-01-01

225

[Inhibitory activity of vaginal Lactobacillus bacteria on yeasts causing vulvovaginal candidiasis].  

PubMed

Growing frequency of therapeutical failures of vulvovaginal candidiasis, resulting from resistance of certain species of Candida to imidazole agents, raises interest in the use of probiotics from Lactobacillus genera as prophylaxis. Unfortunately, little is known about inhibitory mechanisms of Lactobacillus on Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of selected Lactobacillus species, representing the physiological vaginal flora, against Candida as well as investigation whether their inhibitory activity against Candida is related strictly to hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid production. 125 strains from vaginal smears of healthy women were classified by making use of phenotypic and genotypic methods. The majority of strains belonged to L. acidophilus: L. acidophilus sensu stricto, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii as well as L. fermentum and L. plantarum species. Culture supernatants of selected 25 strains representing the isolated species were examined for their inhibitory activity against the growth of Candida albicans and C. glabrata. The results showed that the strongest and the fastest activity against C. albicans was demonstrated by L. delbrueckii strains, producing the largest quantities of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, extended activity, demonstrable after 24 hours, was shown by non-H2O2 producing L. plantarum supernatants. Growth of C. glabrata was not inhibited by any of the examined strains of Lactobacillus. Comparison of activity of live active cultures of Lactobacillus strains and their mixtures with this of pure H2O2 and lactic acid has shown that pure chemical compounds were less active than the cultures. This suggests that mixtures of Lactobacillus strains are in cooperation with each other using many different metabolites. PMID:16130291

Strus, Magdalena; Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Heczko, Piotr B

2005-01-01

226

Characterization of Pro-Inflammatory Flagellin Proteins Produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and Related Motile Lactobacilli  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate) and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate), but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli. PMID:22808200

Neville, B. Anne; Forde, Brian M.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Darby, Trevor; Coghlan, Avril; Nally, Kenneth; Ross, R. Paul; O’Toole, Paul W.

2012-01-01

227

Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

2014-02-01

228

Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods. PMID:25320437

Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Jung, Min-Woong; Kim, Da Hye; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Jane, Mariamichael; Park, Hyung Su; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-12-01

229

EPR polarization studies on Mn catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The binuclear manganese active site of Mn catalase catalyzes redox disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide, forming dioxygen and water. We report here multifrequency EPR and microwave polarization studies of the catalytically active homovalent Mn2+ complex of Lactobacillus plantarum Mn catalase, resolving spectra from each of the thermally accessible multiplet states of the coupled complex by multivariate methods. The experimental spectra have been simulated using computational approaches for the binuclear cluster to predict both intensity and polarization for arbitrary values of the ground state parameters. These two spectroscopic properties define the nature of the ground state wavefunctions and so serve as a sensitive and quantitative measure of the inter-ion interactions in the reduced complex. Interpretation of the spectra in terms of a pair Hamiltonian that includes Heisenberg exchange, dipolar, single site zero field splitting, and Zeeman perturbations leads to the most complete ground state description of the active site metal centers. The results of this spectroscopic analysis support a picture of two high spin ions weakly coupled by exchange interactions (J = 40 cm-1) with relatively small dipole-dipole coupling and single site zero field splittings for the ligand-free reduced enzyme. The coupling between fluoride binding and protonation of the complex has been demonstrated by proton uptake studies. The binding of two fluoride ions in the active site dramatically changes the pair spectra, reflecting a substantially reduced J-coupling (J = 10.5 cm-1) that must be a consequence of perturbation of the bridging ligands. Anion binding to the binuclear Mn complex appears to result in poisoning of the active site by protons, possibly associated with insertion of fluoride into bridging positions of the dimanganese core. PMID:8555195

Meier, A E; Whittaker, M M; Whittaker, J W

1996-01-01

230

Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.  

PubMed

The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. PMID:25790993

Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

2015-06-01

231

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

PubMed Central

The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, the genome encodes all enzymes required for the glycolysis and phosphoketolase pathways, all of which appear to belong to the class of potentially highly expressed genes in this organism, as was evident from the codon-adaptation index of individual genes. Moreover, L. plantarum encodes a large pyruvate-dissipating potential, leading to various end-products of fermentation. L. plantarum is a species that is encountered in many different environmental niches, and this flexible and adaptive behavior is reflected by the relatively large number of regulatory and transport functions, including 25 complete PTS sugar transport systems. Moreover, the chromosome encodes >200 extracellular proteins, many of which are predicted to be bound to the cell envelope. A large proportion of the genes encoding sugar transport and utilization, as well as genes encoding extracellular functions, appear to be clustered in a 600-kb region near the origin of replication. Many of these genes display deviation of nucleotide composition, consistent with a foreign origin. These findings suggest that these genes, which provide an important part of the interaction of L. plantarum with its environment, form a lifestyle adaptation region in the chromosome. PMID:12566566

Kleerebezem, Michiel; Boekhorst, Jos; van Kranenburg, Richard; Molenaar, Douwe; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Leer, Rob; Tarchini, Renato; Peters, Sander A.; Sandbrink, Hans M.; Fiers, Mark W. E. J.; Stiekema, Willem; Lankhorst, René M. Klein; Bron, Peter A.; Hoffer, Sally M.; Groot, Masja N. Nierop; Kerkhoven, Robert; de Vries, Maaike; Ursing, Björn; de Vos, Willem M.; Siezen, Roland J.

2003-01-01

232

Growth and Survival of Genetically Manipulated Lactobacillus plantarum in Silage  

PubMed Central

The growth and persistence of two genetically manipulated forms of Lactobacillus plantarum NCDO (National Collection of Dairy Organisms) 1193 have been monitored in grass silage. Both recombinants contained pSA3, a shuttle vector for gram-positive organisms that encodes erythromycin resistance. In one of the recombinants, pSA3 was integrated onto the chromosome, whereas in the other, a pSA3 derivative designated pM25, which contains a Clostridium thermocellum cellulase gene cloned into pSA3, was maintained as an extrachromosomal element. This extrachromosomal element is a plasmid. Rifampin-resistant mutants were selected for the recombinants and the parent strain. When applied to minisilos at a rate of 106 CFU/g of grass, both the recombinants and the parent strain proliferated to dominate the epiphytic microflora and induced an increase in the decline in pH compared with that of the noninoculated silos. The presence of extra genetic material did not appear to disadvantage the bacterium in comparison with the parent strain. The selective recovery of both strains by using rifampin and erythromycin was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Interestingly, the free plasmid (pM25) appeared more stable in silage than was expected from studies in MRS broth. The plasmid was retained by 85% of the rifampin-resistant L. plantarum colonies isolated from a day 30 silo. These data answer an important question by showing that genetically manipulated recombinants of L. plantarum can proliferate and compete with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria in silage. Images PMID:16348752

Sharp, R.; O'Donnell, A. G.; Gilbert, H. G.; Hazlewood, G. P.

1992-01-01

233

Optimization of the freeze-drying media and survival throughout storage of freeze-dried Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for veterinarian probiotic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as vaginal probiotic cultures depends on the preservation technologies employed by the related industries.A full two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), considering medium and strain, of the decrease in bacterial viability during freeze-drying was applied. Lactobacillus gasseri CRL1421 was significantly more resistant than L. gasseri CRL1412 to the process. L. gasseri CRL1412 suspended in

María Claudia Otero; María Carolina Espeche; María Elena Nader-Macías

2007-01-01

234

Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.  

PubMed

The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field. PMID:24426140

Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

2013-12-01

235

Growth and kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum in the fermentation of edible Irish brown seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to see the applicability of using brown edible seaweeds as a sole source of nutrition for the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Growth kinetics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus plantarum) was studied using three species of edible Irish brown seaweeds Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria saccharina. As part of the screening

Shilpi Gupta; Nissreen Abu-Ghannam; Amalia G. M. Scannell

2011-01-01

236

Growth and kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum in the fermentation of edible Irish brown seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to see the applicability of using brown edible seaweeds as a sole source of nutrition for the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Growth kinetics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus plantarum) was studied using three species of edible Irish brown seaweeds Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria saccharina. As part of the screening

Shilpi Gupta; Nissreen Abu-Ghannam; Amalia G. M. Scannell

2010-01-01

237

Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.  

PubMed Central

In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

1996-01-01

238

Effect of malic acid on the growth kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fermentation kinetics of Lactobacillus plantarum was studied in a specially designed broth formulated from commercially available, dehydrated components (YTA - yeast extract, trypticase, and ammonium sulfate) in batch and continuous culture. During batch growth in the absence of malic acid in t...

239

Conversion of Biomass Hydrolysates and Other Substrates to Ethanol and Other Chemicals by Lactobacillus buchneri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Lactobacillus buchneri strain NRRL B-30929 can convert xylose and glucose into ethanol and chemicals. In this paper, L. buchneri NRRL B-30929 was initially compared with the type strains L. buchneri NRRL 1837 and DSM 5987 for growth and fermentation using single substrate derived from plant mater...

240

Carbohydrate utilization and detection of a nucleotide hydrolase in Lactobacillus buchneri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus buchneri strains NRRL 1837, DSM 5987, and NRRL B-30929 were examined for capacity to metabolize various carbohydrates via growth and fermentation analyses. Carbon sources used for this study included D-melibiose, inosine, uridine, D-melezitose, maltotriose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, suc...

241

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus FSI4, Isolated from Yogurt  

PubMed Central

A new Lactobacillus acidophilus strain, FSI4, isolated from yogurt, was isolated and sequenced in our laboratory. Our data, although supportive of previous conclusions regarding the remarkable stability of L. acidophilus species, indicate accumulating mutations in commercial L. acidophilus strains that warrant further study of the effect of damaged genes on the competitiveness of these bacteria in gut microbiota.

Iartchouk, Oleg; Kozyavkin, Sergei; Karamychev, Valeri

2015-01-01

242

Primary Structure and Functional Analysis of the Lysis Genes ofLactobacillus gasseriBacteriophage fadh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage fadh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted

BERNHARD HENRICH; BERNHARD BINISHOFER; ANDUDO BLASI

1995-01-01

243

Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2.  

PubMed

Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia; Trombert, Annette N

2014-01-01

244

Genome Sequence of the Heteropolysaccharide-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426  

PubMed Central

Exopolysaccharide-synthesizing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 is a heterofermentative strain, which has demonstrated cholesterol-lowering properties in an animal model of lipid-driven atherosclerosis. The genome revealed a plethora of homologues linked to carbohydrate metabolism and mucin binding. PMID:25593248

Ryan, Paul M.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; London, Lis E. E.; Kelleher, Philip R.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Caplice, Noel M.; Ross, R. Paul

2015-01-01

245

Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, from a cucumber fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virulent Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ?JL-1, was isolated from a commercial cucumber fermentation. The phage was specific for two related strains of L. plantarum, BI7 and its mutant (deficient in malolactate fermenting ability) MU45, which have been evaluated as starter cultures for controlled cucumber fermentation and as biocontrol microorganisms for minimally processed vegetable products. The phage genome of ?JL-1 was

Z. Lu; F. Breidt Jr; H. P. Fleminga; E. Altermann; T. R. Klaenhammer

2003-01-01

246

EFFECT OF SALT NUTRIENTS ON MANNITOL PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of four salt nutrients (ammonium citrate, sodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and manganese sulfate) on the production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 in a simplified medium containing 300 g fructose, 5 g soy peptone, and 50 g corn steep liquor per L in pH-controlle...

247

Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius W24 on the compositional stability of oral microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are microorganisms beneficial to gastrointestinal health. Although some strains are also known to possess positive effects on oral health, the effects of most intestinal probiotics on the oral microflora remain unknown. We assessed the ability of the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius W24 to incorporate into and to affect the compositional stability and cariogenicity of oral microbial communities. Microtiter plates

Lien Chi Pham; Wilfred F. M. Röling; Anja C. Prosperi; Zewdu Terefework; Jacob M. ten Cate; Wim Crielaard; Egija Zaura

2009-01-01

248

ISOLATION OF A LACTOBACILLUS SALIVARIUS: ITS BACTERIOCIN IS INHIBITORY TO CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity among >1,200 isolates of lactic acid bacteria. One, Lactobacillus salivarius (NRRL B-30514), was selected for further study. The cell-free, ammonium sulfate precipitate from the broth culture was termed the crude antimicrobial preparation (CAP). Ten...

249

Colonization and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent

Nana Valeur; Peter Engel; Noris Carbajal; Eamonn Connolly; Karin Ladefoged

2004-01-01

250

Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356  

PubMed Central

We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M.; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

2015-01-01

251

Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains of the Lactobacillus plantarum species were investigated to identify genes of L. plantarum with the

Saskia van Hemert; Marjolein Meijerink; Douwe Molenaar; Peter A Bron; Paul de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Jerry M Wells; Maria L Marco

2010-01-01

252

Biodiversity-based identification and functional characterization of the mannose-specific adhesin of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is a frequently encountered inhabitant of the human intestinal tract, and some strains are marketed as probiotics. Their ability to adhere to mannose residues is a potentially interesting characteristic with regard to proposed probiotic features such as colonization of the intestinal surface and competitive exclusion of pathogens. In this study, the variable capacity of 14 L. plantarum strains

Gabriele Pretzer; Johannes Snel; Douwe Molenaar; Anne Wiersma; Peter A. Bron; Jolanda Lambert; Vos de W. M; Roelof van der Meer; Mari A. Smits; Michiel Kleerebezem

2005-01-01

253

Characterization and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian and Argentinean cheeses were evaluated for probiotic potential. After a preliminary subtractive screening based on the presence of msa and bsh genes, 27 strains were characterized. In general, the selected strains showed high resistance to lysozyme, good adaptation to simulated gastric juice, and a moderate to low bile tolerance. The capacity to agglutinate

Miriam Zago; Maria Emanuela Fornasari; Domenico Carminati; Patricia Burns; Viviana Suàrez; Gabriel Vinderola; Jorge Reinheimer; Giorgio Giraffa

2011-01-01

254

Novel antibacterial polypeptide produced by Lactobacillus paracasei strain NRRL B-50314  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated as laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. The crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including the following: lactic a...

255

Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

256

Proteomic Analyses of Ethanol Tolerance in Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. In this study, the ethanol tolerance trait was elucidated at the molecular level by using proteomics comparison and analyses. Cellular p...

257

Novel antibacterial polypeptide laparaxin produced by Lactobacillus paracasei strain NRRL B-50314 via fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. Crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including: lactic acid bacteria ...

258

Lactobacillus plantarum effects on silage fermentation and in vitro microbial yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four alfalfa trials, one corn, and one bmr corn were treated with no inoculant (Control), Lactobacillus plantarum (MTD/1) and formic acid (FA), ensiled in 1-L mini-silos, and fermented for 60 d at room temperature (22 C). Mini-silos were opened and analyzed for fermentation characteristics and solub...

259

Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

2000-01-01

260

A comprehensive approach to determine the probiotic potential of human-derived Lactobacillus for industrial use.  

PubMed

Specific strains should only be regarded as probiotics if they fulfill certain safety, technological and functional criteria. The aim of this work was to study, from a comprehensive point of view (in vitro and in vivo tests), three Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 and Lactobacillus gasseri 37) isolated from feces of local newborns, determining some parameters of technological, biological and functional relevance. All strains were able to adequately grow in different economic culture media (cheese whey, buttermilk and milk), which were also suitable as cryoprotectants. As selective media, LP-MRS was more effective than B-MRS for the enumeration of all strains. The strains were resistant to different technological (frozen storage, high salt content) and biological (simulated gastrointestinal digestion after refrigerated storage in acidified milk, bile exposure) challenges. L. rhamnosus 64 and L. gasseri 37, in particular, were sensible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin, increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage and induced the proliferation of IgA producing cells in small intestine when administered to mice. Even when clinical trails are still needed, both strains fulfilled the main criteria proposed by FAO/WHO to consider them as potential probiotics for the formulation of new foods. PMID:23498174

Gregoret, V; Perezlindo, M J; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J; Binetti, A

2013-05-01

261

Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

Nakamura, L.K.

1981-01-01

262

Effect of administration of Lactobacillus salivarius and lactic microflora in chick digestive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive exclusion against Salmonella by Lactobacillus salivarius and lac- tic microbial associations, was checked in chicks intestinal tract and compared with faecal microbial content from adult chickens. Moreover the weight increase of differently treated chicks was evaluated. The treatment of chicks with faecal suspension gave an high protec- tion factor towards Salmonella, but inhibited weight increase of animals. The addition

C. ZACCONI; G. SCOLARI; P. G. SARRA

263

In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion by indigenous chicken Lactobacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indigenous chicken Lactobacillus species isolates from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract on Eimeria tenella invasion in vitro and to characterise the nature of inhibition, if any. The effects of competitive exclusion, steric interference and bacterial extracellular factors on E. tenella invasion were examined in an MDBK cell model.

J Tierney; H Gowing; D Van Sinderen; S Flynn; N McHardy; S Hallahan; G Mulcahy

2004-01-01

264

Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

265

LIMITING GALACTOSE REQUIREMENT FOR CITRATE UTILIZATION BY LACTOBACILLUS CASEI IS ANNULLED IN CHEDDAR CHEESE EXTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate is utilized by this microorganism in modified chemically defined media as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of other more readily metabolized carbon sources (i.e. ga...

266

Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

2014-01-01

267

Lactobacillus tucceti sp. nov., a new lactic acid bacterium isolated from sausage.  

PubMed

Following the application of several molecular techniques strain R 19c, isolated from sausage by Reuter in 1970 and deposited at the DSMZ as Lactobacillus sp., has been identified as pertaining to a new species. It showed singular ISR-DdeI and ISR-HaeIII profiles that allowed its differentiation from 68 lactic acid bacteria reference strains analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences places this strain in the genus Lactobacillus within the Lactobacillus alimentarius group. Species L. versmoldensis is the closest phylogenetic neighbor with 96.3% sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed the independent status at species level of this strain. Species-specific primers for PCR detection of this new species have been developed. Phenotypically it can be distinguished from the closest relative L. versmoldensis by several traits such as the peptidoglycan type (L-Lys-Gly-D-Asp), acid production from L-rhamnose, D-mannitol and L-fucose and its inability to ferment d-galactose, d-melibiose and d-sucrose. The name Lactobacillus tucceti sp. nov. is proposed with strain R 19c(T) (=DSM 20183(T)= CECT 5920(T)) as the type strain. PMID:16824960

Chenoll, Empar; Carmen Macián, M; Aznar, Rosa

2006-07-01

268

Quantitative Analysis of Diverse Lactobacillus Species Present in Advanced Dental Caries  

PubMed Central

Our previous analysis of 65 advanced dental caries lesions by traditional culture techniques indicated that lactobacilli were numerous in the advancing front of the progressive lesion. Production of organic acids by lactobacilli is considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. The present study was undertaken to define more precisely the diversity of lactobacilli found in this environment and to quantify the major species and phylotypes relative to total load of lactobacilli by real-time PCR. Pooled DNA was amplified by PCR with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers for subsequent cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons, 18 different phylotypes of lactobacilli were detected, including strong representation of both novel and gastrointestinal phylotypes. Specific PCR primers were designed for nine prominent species, including Lactobacillus gasseri, L. ultunensis, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. crispatus, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and L. gallinarum. More than three different species were identified as being present in most of the dentine samples, confirming the widespread distribution and numerical importance of various Lactobacillus spp. in carious dentine. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed various proportions of the nine species colonizing carious dentine, with higher mean loads of L. gasseri and L. ultunensis than of the other prevalent species. The findings provide a basis for further characterization of the pathogenicity of Lactobacillus spp. in the context of extension of the carious lesion. PMID:15243071

Byun, Roy; Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

2004-01-01

269

Intraspecific Genotypic Characterization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Intended for Probiotic Use and Isolates of Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 118 strains of the species Lactobacillus rhamnosus was collected, including probiotic strains, research strains with potential probiotic properties, food starter cultures, and human isolates. The majority of the strains were collected from companies, hospitals, or culture collections or were obtained after contacting authors who reported clinical case studies in the literature. The present work aimed to reveal

M. Vancanneyt; G. Huys; K. Lefebvre; V. Vankerckhoven; H. Goossens; J. Swings

2006-01-01

270

Lactic acid production from enzyme-thinned corn starch using Lactobacillus amylovorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An alternative process for industrial lactic acid production was deveooped using a starch degrading lactic acid producing organism,Lactobacillus amylovorus B-4542. In this process, saccharification takes place during the fermentation, eliminating the need for complete hydrolysis of the starch to glucose prior to fermentation. The cost savings of this alternative are substantial since it eliminates the energy input, separate reactor

P. Cheng; R. E. Mueller; S. Jaeger; R. Bajpai; E. L. Iannotti

1991-01-01

271

Phenotypic Characteristics and Probiotic Potentials of Lactobacillus spp. Isolated From Poultry  

PubMed Central

Background: Lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus spp., have been considered as excellent probiotic microorganisms, because of their activities in reducing the enteric diseases and maintaining healthy poultry. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics and the probiotic potentials of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from poultry. Materials and Methods: A total of 168 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from healthy six and twenty-one-day old chickens and their feed samples. The isolated bacteria were identified by morphological, biochemical, and molecular tests including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biochemical fingerprinting with Phene Plate system (Ph-P) was done and the acid and bile resistant lactobacilli were subjected to the antibiotic susceptibility test. Results: Amongst all of the examined LAB, 30.3% were resistant to bile and acid. Most of the isolated LAB (57.1%) belonged to the genus Lactobacillus with Lactobacillus brevis (78.1%) as the dominant species followed by L. reuteri (16.6%), L. plantarum (3%), and L. vaginalis (2%). The remaining isolates were identified as Pediococcus spp. (42.9%). The Ph-P cluster analysis of 75 L. brevis and 16 L. reuteri strains showed high phenotypic diversity. Whilst the results of Ph-P typing from L. reuteri strains showed low phenotypic variations especially among the strains sensitive to acid and bile salts. Conclusions: Overall, the results showed that some of the high potential probiotic LAB species existed in Iranian poultry. PMID:25485067

Noohi, Nasrin; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhosein; Rohani, Mahdi; Talebi, Malihe; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

272

Coexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Lactobacillus brevis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 is able to metabolize xylose into lactate and acetate but not ethanol. In an attempt to transform L. brevis into an ethanologen that uses xylose, a Gram-positive gene for pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvat...

273

Inhibition of in vitro growth of enteropathogens by new Lactobacillus isolates of human intestinal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three human Lactobacillus strains, coded B21060, B21070 and B21190, have recently been isolated. The strains show a series of features (acid and bile resistance, adhesion to various types of mucosal cell) which make them particularly promising for the preparation of probiotic products. In the present study, the ability of the strains to inhibit the growth of pathogens in coculture was

Lorenzo Drago; Maria Rita Gismondo; Alessandra Lombardi; Christoph de Haën; Luigia Gozzini

1997-01-01

274

Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus  

E-print Network

with a down-regulation of DC-SIGN, MR and CD14. Measurement of the DC-secreted cytokines showed that Lcr35, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35, on human monocyte-derived immature DCs, using a wide range of bacterial

Boyer, Edmond

275

[Isolation and identification of bacteria of Lactobacillus genus from fermented products in diferent regions of Ukraine].  

PubMed

Seventy one strains of lactobacilli were isolated from fermented animal and vegetable products. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of lactobacilli have been studied. Sixty seven strains were identified by molecular genetic methods and classified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the isolated strains was shown. PMID:25000723

Vasyliuk, O M; Kovalenko, N K; Harmasheva, I L; Oleshchenko, L T

2014-01-01

276

A Probiotic, Lactobacillus fermentum ME3, Has Antioxidative Capacity in Soft Cheese Spreads with Different Fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to develop a prototype of a functional spread cheese containing both a specific probiotic and n-3 fatty acids and to analyze the viability of the probi- otic and stability of n-3 fatty acids during 4 wk of shelf life. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (Lf ME-3) isolated from a healthy Estonian child has been shown to have probiotic and

S. Järvenpää; R. L. Tahvonen; A. C. Ouwehand; M. Sandell; E. Järvenpää; S. Salminen

2007-01-01

277

Survival of Lactobacillus casei in the Human Digestive Tract after Consumption of Fermented Milk  

PubMed Central

A human trial was carried out to assess the ileal and fecal survival of Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 ingested in fermented milk. Survival rates were up to 51.2% in the ileum and 28.4% in the feces. The probiotic bacterium has the capacity to survive during its transit through the human gut. PMID:16885316

Oozeer, Raish; Leplingard, Antony; Mater, Denis D. G.; Mogenet, Agnès; Michelin, Rachel; Seksek, Isabelle; Marteau, Philippe; Doré, Joël; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Corthier, Gérard

2006-01-01

278

Rapid Differentiation and In Situ Detection of 16 Sourdough Lactobacillus Species by Multiplex PCR  

PubMed Central

A two-step multiplex PCR-based method was designed for the rapid detection of 16 species of lactobacilli known to be commonly present in sourdough. The first step of multiplex PCR was developed with a mixture of group-specific primers, while the second step included three multiplex PCR assays with a mixture of species-specific primers. Primers were derived from sequences that specify the 16S rRNA, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and part of the 23S rRNA gene. The primer pairs designed were shown to exclusively amplify the targeted rrn operon fragment of the corresponding species. Due to the reliability of simultaneously identifying Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum, a previously described multiplex PCR method employing recA gene-derived primers was included in the multiplex PCR system. The combination of a newly developed, quick bacterial DNA extraction method from sourdough and this multiplex PCR assay allows the rapid in situ detection of several sourdough-associated lactobacilli, including the recently described species Lactobacillus rossii, and thus represents a very useful alternative to culture-based methodologies. PMID:15933001

Settanni, Luca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Rossi, Jone; Corsetti, Aldo

2005-01-01

279

Lactobacillus fermentum Ess-1 with unique growth inhibition of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize human isolates of Lactobacillus species for their capacity to interfere with the growth of different strains of Candida species in vitro in the search for a potential probiotic. Growth inhibition of Candida species was screened using an agar-overlay method. Inhibiting strains were selected to assay the effect of a cell-free Lactobacillus culture filtrate (LCF) on the growth of isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. A total of 126 human Lactobacillus isolates was investigated. Eighteen isolates significantly inhibited the growth of C. albicans on agar. The LCF of one of these strains showed strong inhibition of both C. albicans and C. glabrata. This strain was genetically identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and designated L. fermentum Ess-1. Further tests to evaluate the probiotic potential of this strain indicated that L. fermentum Ess-1 strain is a promising probiotic for use in clinical trials to treat and prevent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. PMID:17965352

Rönnqvist, Daniel; Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Husmark, Ulrika; Grahn-Håkansson, Eva

2007-11-01

280

Accumulation of Polyphosphate in Lactobacillus spp. and Its Involvement in Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

Polyphosphate (poly-P) is a polymer of phosphate residues synthesized and in some cases accumulated by microorganisms, where it plays crucial physiological roles such as the participation in the response to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses. Poly-P metabolism has received little attention in Lactobacillus, a genus of lactic acid bacteria of relevance for food production and health of humans and animals. We show that among 34 strains of Lactobacillus, 18 of them accumulated intracellular poly-P granules, as revealed by specific staining and electron microscopy. Poly-P accumulation was generally dependent on the presence of elevated phosphate concentrations in the culture medium, and it correlated with the presence of polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes in the genomes. The ppk gene from Lactobacillus displayed a genetic arrangement in which it was flanked by two genes encoding exopolyphosphatases of the Ppx-GppA family. The ppk functionality was corroborated by its disruption (LCABL_27820 gene) in Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain. The constructed ppk mutant showed a lack of intracellular poly-P granules and a drastic reduction in poly-P synthesis. Resistance to several stresses was tested in the ppk-disrupted strain, showing that it presented a diminished growth under high-salt or low-pH conditions and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results show that poly-P accumulation is a characteristic of some strains of lactobacilli and may thus play important roles in the physiology of these microorganisms. PMID:24375133

Alcántara, Cristina; Blasco, Amalia; Zúñiga, Manuel

2014-01-01

281

ISOLATION OF LACTOBACILLUS SALIVARIUS INHIBITORY TO CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI CHARACTERIZATION OF ASSOCIATED BACTERIOCIN, AND POULTRY TREATMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated anti-Campylobacter activity among 11,790 isolates of lactic acid bacteria from poultry production environments. We measured zones of C. jejuni inhibition surrounding the candidate strains and observed 279 isolates exhibiting antagonism. One Lactobacillus salivarius strain, PVD32, was id...

282

Proteomic analyses of ethanol tolerance in Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. This study aimed to identify proteins produced by B-30929 in response to environmental ethanol. Cellular proteins expressed by B-30929 gr...

283

l-Alanine Auxotrophy of Lactobacillus johnsonii as Demonstrated by Physiological, Genomic, and Gene Complementation Approaches  

PubMed Central

Using a chemically defined medium without l-alanine, Lactobacillus johnsonii was demonstrated to be strictly auxotrophic for that amino acid. A comparative genetic analysis showed that all known genes involved in l-alanine biosynthesis are absent from the genome of L. johnsonii. This auxotrophy was complemented by heterologous expression of the Bacillus subtilis l-alanine dehydrogenase. PMID:15006820

van der Kaaij, Hengameh; Desiere, Frank; Mollet, Beat; Germond, Jacques-Edouard

2004-01-01

284

The effect of fermented milk containing lactobacillus casei on the immune response to exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that exhaustive exercise produces depression of the immune system, especially on the number and activity of Natural killer (NK) cells. On the other hand, fermented milk has been shown to moderate the immune response by inducing NK activity. The present work was carried out to determine if a Lactobacillus casei (LC) fermented milk supplemented diet would provide

P. Pujol; J. Huguet; F. Drobnic; M. Banquells; O. Ruiz; P. Galilea; N. Segarra; S. Aguilera; A. Burnat; J. A. Mateos; E. Postaire

2000-01-01

285

The treatment of mice with Lactobacillus casei induces protection against Babesia microti infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report that administration of Lactobacillus casei confers protection to mice against the intracellular protozoan Babesia microti. Mice treated with L. casei orally or intraperitoneally were inoculated 7 days later with an infectious dose of B. microti. Mice treated with lactobacilli showed significant reduction in the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) compared to untreated mice. When mice were

C. R. Bautista-Garfias; M. B. Gómez; B. R. Aguilar; O. Ixta; F. Martínez; J. Mosqueda

2005-01-01

286

The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels

John Thompson; Nicholas Jakubovics; Bindu Abraham; Sonja Hess; Andreas Pikis

2008-01-01

287

Effect of B vitamin supplementation on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract (YE) in terms of their usefulness for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. None of these nitrogen sources gave lactic acid concentrations as high as that for YE during 48 h of fermentation. On the basis of the amount of B vitamins in YE, various amounts of five essential

Ik-Keun Yoo; Ho Nam Chang; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Seung-Hyeon Moon

1997-01-01

288

Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at

Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi; Ernani S. Sant; Luiz H. Beirão

289

Lactic acid production by immobilized Lactobacillus casei in recycle batch reactor: a step towards optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different nutritional and process parameters influencing lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei, adsorbed to Poraver beads in a recycle batch reactor system, were studied in an attempt to set up a system having a long operational lifetime and permitting use of high substrate concentrations for maximal conversion to the product. The presence of lactose, even as a minor fraction of

Appadurai Senthuran; Vasanthe Senthuran; Rajni Hatti-Kaul; Bo Mattiasson

1999-01-01

290

Purification and amino acid sequence of lactocin 705, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus casei CRL 705  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus casei CRL 705, isolated from a dry fermented sausage, produces an antibacterial peptide which is active against Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies have shown that this compound is potentially useful to control food-borne pathogens in ground meat. In view of the potential application of this antimicrobial substance in food fermentation, a detailed biochemical analysis of this peptide is required. In

J. Palacios; G. Vignolo; M. E. FarÍas; A. P. de Ruiz Holgado; G. Oliver; F. Sesma

1999-01-01

291

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (from the fermented milk product Yakult (Yakult Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)) on Helicobacter pylori by using (i) in vitro inhibition assays with H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain 1) and nine H. pylori clinical isolates and (ii) the in vivo H. pylori SS1 mouse model of infection over a period of

D. Sgouras; P. Maragkoudakis; K. Petraki; B. Martinez-Gonzalez; E. Eriotou; S. Michopoulos; G. Kalantzopoulos; E. Tsakalidou; A. Mentis

2004-01-01

292

Probiotic Cheese Production Using Lactobacillus casei Cells Immobilized on Fruit Pieces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus casei cells were immobilized on fruit (apple and pear) pieces and the immobilized biocata- lysts were used separately as adjuncts in probiotic cheese making. In parallel, cheese with free L. casei cellsandcheeseonlyfromrennetedmilkwereprepared. The produced cheeses were ripened at 4 to 6°C and the effect of salting and ripening time on lactose, lactic acid, ethanol concentration, pH, and lactic acid

Y. Kourkoutas; L. Bosnea; S. Taboukos; C. Baras; D. Lambrou; M. Kanellaki

2006-01-01

293

Effects of a Lactobacillus casei Synbiotic on Serum Lipoprotein, Intestinal Microflora, and Organic Acids in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effec- tiveness of 3 synbiotic diets: 1) containing Lactobacillus casei ASCC 292 and fructooligosaccharides (LF diet); 2) containing L. casei ASCC 292 and maltodextrin (LM diet); and 3) containing L. casei ASCC 292, fructooligo- saccharide, and maltodextrin (LFM diet) to reduce se- rum cholesterol in male Wistar rats. The effect

M. T. Liong; N. P. Shah

2006-01-01

294

Continuous production ofl-lactic acid from whey permeate by immobilized Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of l-lactic acid from whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, by fermentation with the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei was investigated. A fermentation medium consisting of permeate and supplements, which enables exponential growth of the organisms, was developed. A fast method for determination of free and immobilized biomass in solid-rich media, based on

Wolfgang Krischke; Martin Schröder; Walter Trösch

1991-01-01

295

Critical water activity for the preservation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus by vacuum drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was dried under vacuum at different temperatures and its preservation evaluated analyzing the evolution of three parameters throughout the process: lag time, percentage of membrane damage and ? potential.Microorganisms were dehydrated at 30, 45 and 70 °C in a vacuum centrifuge for different times. The aw achieved for each time of drying was correlated with the cell

E. Elizabeth Tymczyszyn; Rosario Díaz; Andrea Pataro; Natalia Sandonato; Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia; E. Anibal Disalvo

2008-01-01

296

The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

297

Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper provides an overview on the use of probiotic organisms as live supplements, with particular emphasis on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. The therapeutic potential of these bacteria in fermented dairy products is dependent on their survival during manufacture and storage. Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used in food and pharmaceutical applications to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related

Kaila Kailasapathy; James Chin

2000-01-01

298

A LOW-COST MEDIUM FOR MANNITOL PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NNRL B-3693, using molasses as an inexpensive carbon source, was evaluated. The bacterium produced mannitol (104.4 ± 0.6 g/L) from molasses and fructose syrups (1:1; total sugars, 150 g/L; fructose:glucose, 4:1) in 16 h. Several kinds of inex...

299

Characterization of a Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T Lipoteichoic Acid with a Novel Glycolipid Anchor Structure  

PubMed Central

We determined the chemical structure of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T. The repeating unit was comprised of glycerolphosphate and 2-alanylglycerolphosphate. The glycolipid anchor was tetrahexosylglycerol with two or three acyl groups. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a tetrahexose structure in an LTA glycolipid anchor. PMID:23503311

Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Morita, Naoki; Fukiya, Satoru; Tomita, Satoru; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

2013-01-01

300

Experimental Conditions for Nitrate Reduction by Certain Strains of the Genus Lactobacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Costilow & Humphreys's (1955) observation that certain strains of Lactobacillus plantarum reduced nitrates under certain conditions was confirmed. Two strains of L. fermenti also reduced nitrates. In static culture, agar and anaerobiosis were not essential for nitrate reduction, contrary to speculations in the literature. Nitrate reduction was possible only in media with restricted carbohydrate and with the pH value

M. Rogosa

1961-01-01

301

Optimization of media and fermentation conditions for the growth of Lactobacillus sakei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factorial experiments, empirical model building and response surface analysis were used to optimize media composition and fermentation conditions for the propagation of Lactobacillus sakei, a species used as a starter in the manufacture of fermented sausages. Yeast extract, Lab-Lemco and, to a minor extent, Bacteriological peptone were found to be good sources of peptides and growth factors for L. sakei,

T. LECHIANCOLE; A. RICCIARDI; E. PARENTE

302

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Strain MTCC 8711, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Yogurt  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum strain MTCC 8711 is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yogurt. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this strain. The 2,566,297-bp-long genome consisted of a single chromosome and seven plasmids. The genome contains 2,609 protein-coding and 74 RNA genes. PMID:24072868

Jayashree, Sathyanarayanan; Pooja, Sharma; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Vishnu, Udayakumar; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2013-01-01

303

Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

304

Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri  

PubMed Central

The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade lactic acid under anoxic conditions, without requiring an external electron acceptor. Each mole of lactic acid was converted into approximately 0.5 mol of acetic acid, 0.5 mol of 1,2-propanediol, and traces of ethanol. Based on stoichiometry studies and the high levels of NAD-linked 1,2-propanediol-dependent oxidoreductase (530 to 790 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1), a novel pathway for anaerobic lactic acid degradation is proposed. The anaerobic degradation of lactic acid by L. buchneri does not support cell growth and is pH dependent. Acidic conditions are needed to induce the lactic-acid-degrading capacity of the cells and to maintain the lactic-acid-degrading activity. At a pH above 5.8 hardly any lactic acid degradation was observed. The exact function of anaerobic lactic acid degradation by L. buchneri is not certain, but some results indicate that it plays a role in maintaining cell viability. PMID:11133436

Oude Elferink, Stefanie J. W. H.; Krooneman, Janneke; Gottschal, Jan C.; Spoelstra, Sierk F.; Faber, Folkert; Driehuis, Frank

2001-01-01

305

Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.  

PubMed

Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P < 0·05) by the supplementation with protein sources. The germination and malting processes significantly improved oats nutrient characteristics demonstrating to be adequate substrates for the fermentation with probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. PMID:24979232

Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

2014-10-01

306

Consistent Condom Use Increases the Colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the Vagina  

PubMed Central

Background Non-hormonal contraception methods have been widely used, but their effects on colonization by vaginal lactobacilli remain unclear. Objective To determine the association between non-hormonal contraception methods and vaginal lactobacilli on women’s reproductive health. Methods The cross-sectional study included 164 healthy women between 18–45 years of age. The subjects were divided into different groups on the basis of the different non-hormonal contraception methods used by them. At the postmenstrual visit (day 21 or 22 of the menstrual cycle), vaginal swabs were collected for determination of Nugent score, quantitative culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vaginal lactobacilli. The prevalence, colony counts and 16S rRNA gene expression of the Lactobacillus strains were compared between the different groups by Chi-square and ANOVA statistical analysis methods. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 was more common in the condom group (93.1%) than in the group that used an interuterine device(IUD) (75.4%), (p?=?0.005). The prevalence of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the condom group (82.3%) than in the IUD group (68.2%), (p?=?0.016). There was a significant difference in colony count (mean ± standard error (SE), log10colony forming unit (CFU)/ml) of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus between condom users (7.81±0.14) and IUD users (6.54±0.14), (p?=?0.000). The 16S rRNA gene expression (mean ± SE, log10copies/ml) of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly higher in the condom group (8.09±0.16) than in the IUD group (6.03±0.18), (p?=?0.000). Conclusion Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina and may protect against both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:23894682

Ma, Liyan; Lv, Zhi; Su, Jianrong; Wang, Jianjie; Yan, Donghui; Wei, Jingjuan; Pei, Shuang

2013-01-01

307

Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37? for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

2014-01-01

308

Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in L. sakei is highly regulated at the transcription level. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a fine tuning of the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources. PMID:21702908

2011-01-01

309

Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage  

PubMed Central

Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

2014-01-01

310

Naturally occurring lactic Acid bacteria isolated from tomato pomace silage.  

PubMed

Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

Wu, Jing-Jing; Du, Rui-Ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-Qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

2014-05-01

311

Production of a Heterologous Nonheme Catalase by Lactobacillus casei: an Efficient Tool for Removal of H2O2 and Protection of Lactobacillus bulgaricus from Oxidative Stress in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound that they can paradoxically produce themselves, as is the case for Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14431 is one of the very few LAB strains able to degrade H2O2 through the action of a nonheme, manganese-dependent catalase (hereafter called MnKat). The MnKat gene was expressed in three catalase-deficient LAB

Tatiana Rochat; Jean-Jacques Gratadoux; Alexandra Gruss; Gerard Corthier; Emmanuelle Maguin; Philippe Langella; Maarten van de Guchte

2006-01-01

312

Evaluation of the role of environmental factors in the human gastrointestinal tract on the behaviour of probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus casei LC01 by the use of a semi-dynamic in vitro model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the influence of gastrointestinal environmental factors (pH, digestive enzymes, food components, medicaments)\\u000a on the survival ofLactobacillus casei Shirota andLactobacillus casei LC01, using a semi-dynamicin vitro model that simulates the transit of microorganisms through the human GIT. The strains were first exposed to different simulated\\u000a gastric juices for different periods of time (0, 30, 60 and 120 min),

Katia Gianni De Carvlho; Monika Francisca Kruger; Danielle Nader Furtado; Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov; Bernadette Dora Gombossy De Melo Franco

2009-01-01

313

PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693 IN FED-BATCH AND CONTINUOUS CELL-RECYCLE FERMENTATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved fermentation processes were developed for the production of mannitol by a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693). A fed-batch fermentation protocol overcame limitations caused by high substrate concentrations. The process was developed using prima...

314

Enzymatic fractionation of the antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cumulative effect of peptidase and protease activities associated with cells of Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB) was evaluated on the milk-protein based antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin. Reaction mixtures of casocidin or isracidin...

315

Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by F2CTP: adenosylcobalamin destruction and formation of a nucleotide based radical  

E-print Network

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, 76 kDa) from Lactobacillus leichmannii is a class II RNR that requires adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor. It catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides ...

Lohman, Gregory J. S.

316

GASTROENTEROLOGY 2004;127:826–837 Lactobacillus paracasei Normalizes Muscle Hypercontractility in a Murine Model of Postinfective Gut Dysfunction  

E-print Network

dysfunction in postinfective irritable bowel syndrome are unknown. We tested whether probiotics influence persistent muscle hypercontractility in mice after recovery from infection with Trichinella spiralis and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Mice were gavaged with Lactobacillus

Elena F. Verdú; Premysl Bercík; Gabriela E. Bergonzelli; Patricia Blennerhasset; Florence Rochat; Muriel Fiaux; Robert Mansourian; Stephen M. Collins

317

Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

Trivedi, Disha

2014-01-01

318

Detection and Identification of Gastrointestinal Lactobacillus Species by Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Species-Specific PCR Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to detect the presence of Lactobacillus species in the stomach contents of mice. Lactobacillus isolates cultured from human and porcine gastrointestinal samples were identified to the species level by using a combination of DGGE and species-specific PCR

J. Walter; G. W. Tannock; A. Tilsala-Timisjarvi; S. Rodtong; D. M. Loach; K. Munro; T. Alatossava

2000-01-01

319

Microstructure and Physical Properties of a Reduced Fat Mozzarella Cheese Made Using Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei Adjunct Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced fat Mozzarella cheese was produced usingStreptococcus thermophilusandLactobacillus helveticus, and either total or partial replacement ofL. helveticuswithLactobacillus caseissp.casei. Stretch, melt and cook colour were determined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. All cheeses decreased in stretch during the first 7 d of storage, but there were no significant differences between culture types. Reduced fat cheese made withL. helveticusandS. thermophilusshowed

Richard K. Merrill; Craig J. Oberg; William R. McManus; Miloslav Kalab; Donald J. McMahon

1996-01-01

320

Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a potential probiotic strain isolated from homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, has been sequenced and deposited\\u000a in GenBank. Real-time quantitative PCR is one of the most widely used methods to study related gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data using one or more

Wenjing ZhaoYan; Yan Li; Pengfei Gao; Zhihong Sun; Tiansong Sun; Heping Zhang

321

Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa isolated from papaya ( Carica papaya) — From isolation to application: Characterization of a bacteriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain ST16PA, isolated from papaya was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on biochemical tests, PCR with species-specific primers and 16S rDNA sequencing. L. plantarum ST16PA produces a 6.5kDa bacteriocin, active against different species from genera Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and different serotypes of Listeria spp. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not when treated with

Svetoslav D. Todorov; Hervé Prévost; Martine Lebois; Xavier Dousset; Jean Guy LeBlanc; Bernadette D. G. M. Franco

2011-01-01

322

In Vitro Prevention of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Damages in Epithelial Barrier Function by Various Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

Background. Lactobacillus shows beneficial anti-inflammatory effects on Salmonella infection. The maintenance of the tight junction (TJ) integrity plays an importance role in avoiding bacterial invasion. Whether Lactobacillus could be used to regulate the TJ protein expression and distribution in inflamed intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Methods. Using the transwell coculture model, Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was apically added to polarized Caco-2 cells cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the basolateral compartment. LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells were incubated with various Lactobacillus strains. TJ integrity was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance across Caco-2 monolayer. Expression and localization of TJ proteins (zonula-occludens- (ZO-) 1) were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. Various strains of Lactobacillus were responsible for the different modulations of cell layer integrity. LPS was specifically able to disrupt epithelial barrier and change the location of ZO-1. Our data demonstrate that Lactobacillus could attenuate the barrier disruption of intestinal epithelial cells caused by Salmonella LPS administration. We showed that Lactobacillus strains are associated with the maintenance of the tight junction integrity and appearance. Conclusion. In this study we provide insight that live probiotics could improve epithelial barrier properties and this may explain the potential mechanism behind their beneficial effect in vivo. PMID:23840201

Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

2013-01-01

323

Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27) induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells. Methods Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites 1 and 2 (LM1 and LM2) were obtained by culturing Lactobacillus sp. A-2 in reconstituted whey medium and whey-inulin medium; the cultured CAL-27 cells were treated with different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 mg/mL) and assayed by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) method; morphological changes of apoptotic cell were observed under fluorescence microscopy by acridine orange (Ao) fluorescent staining; flow cytometry method (FCM) and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to detect the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells treated LM1 and LM2. Results The different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 could restrain the growth of CAL-27 cells, and in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells was obviously induced and was time-dependent. Conclusions Viability of CAL-27 cells was inhibited by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites; Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites could induce CAL-27 cells apoptosis; study on the bioactive compounds in the Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites and their molecular mechanism is in progress. PMID:25141199

ZHANG, Guoliang; ZHANG, Jie; WANG, Xinyu; YANG, Wenqin; SUN, Zhihui; KUMAR, Chaurasia Nitesh; GUAN, Hong; GUAN, Jian

2014-01-01

324

Strain identification of probiotic Lactobacillus casei-related isolates with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typing of reference strains and isolates identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei or Lactobacillus rhamnosus was carried out using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses. Strains of L. paracasei were mainly grouped in the same cluster as those of L. casei. The RAPD fingerprints of strains ATCC 393 and ATCC 15820 differ from those of the L. rhamnosus

Denis Roy; Pierre Ward; Daniel Vincent

1999-01-01

325

Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 and Lactobacillus casei L39 suppress Clostridium difficile-induced IL-8 production by colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and colitis known as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).With increased severity and failure of treatment in CDAD, new approaches for prevention and treatment, such as the use of probiotics, are needed. Since the pathogenesis of CDAD involves an inflammatory response with a massive influx of neutrophils recruited by interleukin (IL)-8, this study aimed to investigate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus spp. on the suppression of IL-8 production in response to C. difficile infection. Results We screened Lactobacillus conditioned media from 34 infant fecal isolates for the ability to suppress C. difficile-induced IL-8 production from HT-29 cells. Factors produced by two vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli, L. rhamnosus L34 (LR-L34) and L.casei L39 (LC-L39), suppressed the secretion and transcription of IL-8 without inhibiting C. difficile viability or toxin production. Conditioned media from LR-L34 suppressed the activation of phospho-NF-?B with no effect on phospho-c-Jun. However, LC-L39 conditioned media suppressed the activation of both phospho-NF-?B and phospho-c-Jun. Conditioned media from LR-L34 and LC-L39 also decreased the production of C. difficile-induced GM-CSF in HT-29 cells. Immunomodulatory factors present in the conditioned media of both LR-L34 and LC-L39 are heat-stable up to 100°C and?>?100 kDa in size. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus L34 and L. casei L39 each produce factors capable of modulating inflammation stimulated by C. difficile. These vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus strains are potential probiotics for treating or preventing CDAD. PMID:24989059

2014-01-01

326

In vitro immunomodulatory activity of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 and Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713: two probiotic strains isolated from human breast milk.  

PubMed

Commensal bacteria, including some species of lactobacilli commonly present in human breast milk, appear to colonize the neonatal gut and contribute to protection against infant infections, suggesting that lactobacilli could potentially modulate immunity. In this study, we evaluated the potential of two Lactobacillus strains isolated from human milk to modulate the activation and cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets in vitro. Moreover, these effects were compared to the same probiotic species of non-milk origin. Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 and Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 at 10?, 10? and 10? bacteria/mL were co-cultured with PBMC (10?/mL) from 8 healthy donors for 24 h. Activation status (CD69 and CD25 expressions) of natural killer (NK) cells (CD56+), total T cells (CD3+), cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) and CD4+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry. Regulatory T cells (Treg) were also quantified by intracellular Foxp3 evaluation. Regarding innate immunity, NK cells were activated by addition of both Lactobacillus strains, and in particular, the CD8+ NK subset was preferentially induced to highly express CD69 (~90%, p<0.05). With respect to acquired immunity, approximately 9% of CD8+ T cells became activated after co-cultivation with L. fermentum or L salivarius. Although CD4+ T cells demonstrated a weaker response, there was a preferential activation of Treg cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) after exposure to both milk probiotic bacteria (p<0.05). Both strains significantly induced the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines, including TNF?, IL-1?, IL-8, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and GM-CSF, but some strain-specific effects were apparent. This work demonstrates that L salivarius CECT5713 and L. fermentum CECT5716 enhanced both natural and acquired immune responses, as evidenced by the activation of NK and T cell subsets and the expansion of Treg cells, as well as the induction of a broad array of cytokines. PMID:20219262

Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Dong, Honglin; Yaqoob, Parveen

2010-12-01

327

Administration of probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri K7 during pregnancy and lactation changes mouse mesenteric lymph nodes and mammary gland microbiota.  

PubMed

The milk and mammary gland (MG) microbiome can be influenced by several factors, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, maternal lifestyle, health status, and diet. An increasing number of studies show a variety of positive effects of consumption of probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the mother and the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of probiotics Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (LK7) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during pregnancy and lactation on microbiota of the mouse mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), MG, and milk. Pregnant FVB/N mice were fed skim milk or probiotics LGG or LK7 resuspended in skim milk during gestation and lactation. On d 3 and 8 postpartum, blood, feces, MLN, MG, and milk were analyzed for the presence of LGG or LK7. The effects of probiotics on MLN, MG, and milk microbiota was evaluated by real-time PCR and by 16S ribosomal DNA 454-pyrosequencing. In 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LGG group and in 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LK7 group, more than 1×10(3) of live LGG or LK7 bacterial cells were detected, respectively, whereas no viable LGG or LK7 cells were detected in the control group. Live lactic acid bacteria but no LGG or LK7 were detected in blood, MLN, and MG. Both probiotics significantly increased the total bacterial load as assessed by copies of 16S ribosomal DNA in MLN, and a similar trend was observed in MG. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that both probiotics increased the abundance of Firmicutes in MG, especially the abundance of lactic acid bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus appeared exclusively in MG from probiotic groups. Both probiotics influenced MLN microbiota by decreasing diversity (Chao1) and increasing the distribution of species (Shannon index). The LGG probiotic also affected the MG microbiota as it increased diversity and distribution of species and proportions of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. These results provide evidence that probiotics can modulate the bacterial composition of MLN and MG microbiota in ways that could improve the health of the MG and, ultimately, the health of the newborn. PMID:25622869

Treven, P; Mrak, V; Bogovi? Matijaši?, B; Horvat, S; Rogelj, I

2015-04-01

328

Vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus casei synthesize cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors that terminate in lactate.  

PubMed Central

The emergence of acquired high-level resistance among Enterococcus species has renewed interest in mechanisms of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in gram-positive bacteria. In Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, resistance is encoded by the van gene cluster and is due to the production of a peptidoglycan precursor terminating in D-alanyl-D-lactate, to which vancomycin does not bind. Most Leuconostoc and many Lactobacillus species are intrinsically resistant to high levels of glycopeptide antibiotics, but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. To determine whether the mechanisms of resistance are similar in intrinsically resistant bacteria, cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors were isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus casei and analyzed by mass spectrometry, revealing structures consistent with UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-Glu-L-Lys-(L-Ala)-D-Ala-D-lactate and UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate, respectively. PMID:8282706

Handwerger, S; Pucci, M J; Volk, K J; Liu, J; Lee, M S

1994-01-01

329

Lactobacillus protects the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier damaged by pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Pathogens invade intestinal mucosal barrier through phagocytosis of antigen presenting cells (dendritic cell, microfold cells), or through the invasion into the intestinal epithelial directly. Some pathogens could damage the cell junction between epithelial cells and use the paracellular pathway as an entrance to invade. Moreover, some Lactobacillus could inhibit the adhesion of the pathogens and protect the integrity of the cell junction and mucosal barrier. This research focused on the potential therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus fructosus (L. fructosus) C2 to attenuate ETEC K88 or S. typhimurium SL1344 induced changes to mucosal barrier. The results demonstrated that treatment of polarized Caco-2 cells with L. fructosus C2 reduced the permeation of dextran, and expression of IL-8, p-ERK, and p-JNK when cells were infected with pathogenic bacteria. The findings indicated that L. fructosus C2 exerted a protective effect against the damage to the integrity of Caco-2 cells by ETEC or S. typhimurium infection.

Yu, Qinghua; Yuan, Lixia; Deng, Jun; Yang, Qian

2015-01-01

330

Purification and characterization of a novel exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus sp. Ca6.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of ten lactic acid bacterial strains to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) on MRS broth containing 4% sucrose. A maximum EPS production yield of 2.4g/l was obtained by strain Lactobacillus sp. Ca6. The results from thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed that the EPS produced was a polymer of glucose. Further FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups corresponding to a typical EPS. In addition to EPS production, Lactobacillus sp. Ca6 displayed good probiotic properties (antimicrobial activities and sensitivity to several antibiotics) and resistance to acidic condition (pH 2) and 5% bile bovine. Overall, the findings indicate that this strain has a number of promising properties that make it a potential promising candidate for future application as a food additive. PMID:25597428

Trabelsi, Imen; Slima, Sirine Ben; Chaabane, Hela; Riadh, Ben Salah

2015-03-01

331

Metabolism of azo dyes by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 and effects of various factors on decolorization.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 was isolated from soil of a dairy wastewater treatment plant and selected as the most active azo dye degrader of 19 isolates. Growing cells and freely suspended cells of this strain completely degraded methyl orange, thereby decolorizing the medium. The strain stoichiometrically converted methyl orange to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, which were identified by HPLC, GC, and GC-MS analyses. The enzyme activity responsible for the cleavage of the azo bond of methyl orange was localized to the cytoplasm of cells grown on modified MRS medium containing methyl orange. The effect of sugars, oligosaccharides, organic acids, metal ions, pHs, oxygen and temperatures on methyl orange decolorization by freely suspended cells was investigated. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of methyl orange by the Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 are incubation at 35 degrees C and pH 6 with sucrose provided as the energy source. PMID:17254626

Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Takenaka, Shinji; Kuntiya, Ampin; Klayraung, Srikarnjana; Murakami, Shuichiro; Aoki, Kenji

2007-03-01

332

A food additive with prebiotic properties of an ?-d-glucan from Lactobacillus plantarum DM5.  

PubMed

An ?-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by ?-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products. PMID:24857877

Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

2014-08-01

333

Microbial ketonization of ginsenosides F1 and C-K by Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Ginsenosides are the major pharmacological components in ginseng. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from Kimchi to identify microbial modifications of ginsenosides. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain DCY65-1 belongs to the genus Lactobacillus and is most closely related to Lactobacillus brevis. On the basis of TLC and HPLC analysis, we found two metabolic pathways: F1 ? 6?,12?-dihydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and C-K ? 12?-hydroxydammar-3-one-20(S)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. These results suggest that strain DCY65-1 is capable of potent ketonic decarboxylation, ketonizing the hydroxyl group at C-3. The F1 metabolite had a more potent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase than did the substrate. Therefore, the F1 and C-K derivatives may be more pharmacologically active compounds, which should be further characterized. PMID:25262121

Jin, Yan; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Dae-Young; Min, Jin-Woo; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok-Chun

2014-12-01

334

Lactobacillus priming of the respiratory tract: heterologous immunity and protection against lethal pneumovirus infection  

PubMed Central

We showed previously that wild-type mice primed via intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated Lactobacillus species were fully (100%) protected against the lethal sequelae of infection with the virulent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a response that is associated with diminished expression of proinflammatory cytokines and diminished virus recovery. We show here that 40% of the mice primed with live Lactobacillus survived when PVM challenge was delayed for 5 months. This robust and sustained resistance to PVM infection resulting from prior interaction with an otherwise unrelated microbe is a profound example of heterologous immunity. We undertook the present study in order to understand the nature and unique features of this response. We found that intranasal inoculation with L. reuteri elicited rapid, transient neutrophil recruitment in association with proinflammatory mediators (CXCL1, CCL3, CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-alpha and IL-17A) but not Th1 cytokines. IFN? does not contribute to survival promoted by Lactobacillus-priming. Live L. reuteri detected in lung tissue underwent rapid clearance, and was undetectable at 24 hrs after inoculation. In contrast, L. reuteri peptidoglycan (PGN) and L. reuteri genomic DNA (gDNA) were detected at 24 and 48 hours after inoculation, respectively. In contrast to live bacteria, intranasal inoculation with isolated L. reuteri gDNA elicited no neutrophil recruitment, had minimal impact on virus recovery and virus-associated production of CCL3, and provided no protection against the negative sequelae of virus infection. Isolated PGN elicited neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory cytokines but did not promote sustained survival in response to subsequent PVM infection. Overall, further evaluation of the responses leading to Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity may provide insight into novel antiviral preventive modalities. PMID:23274789

Garcia-Crespo, Katia E.; Chan, Calvin C.; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Rigaux, Peter; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2013-01-01

335

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yoghurt during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of five brands of commercial yoghurt were obtained directly from the processors and enumeration of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum and determination of pH was carried out at three-day intervals over a five-week period. Three of the five products contained 107–108 g?1 viable cells of L. acidophilus, whereas the other two products contained ? 105 of this organism

Nagendra P. Shah; Warnakulasuriya E. V. Lankaputhra; Margaret L. Britz; William S. A. Kyle

1995-01-01

336

Functional Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Maasai Traditional Fermented Milk Products in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya.\\u000a Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed\\u000a acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells

Julius Maina Mathara; Ulrich Schillinger; Phillip M. Kutima; Samuel K. Mbugua; Claudia Guigas; Charles Franz; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

2008-01-01

337

Expression of Rumen Microbial Fibrolytic Enzyme Genes in Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the cloning and expression of three rumen microbial fibrolytic enzyme genes in a strain of Lactobacillus reuteri and investigating the probiotic characteristics of these genetically modified lactobacilli. The Neocallimastix patriciarum xylanase gene xynCDBFV, the Fibrobacter succinogenes -glucanase (1,3-1,4--D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73)) gene, and the Piromyces rhizinflata cellulase gene eglA were cloned in a strain

Je-Ruei Liu; Bi Yu; Fu-Hwa Liu; Kuo-Joan Cheng; Xin Zhao

2005-01-01

338

Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus sakei with emphasis on strains from meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium important in food microbiology mainly due to its ability to ferment and preserve meat. The genome\\u000a sequence of L. sakei strain 23K has revealed specialized metabolic capacities that reflect the bacterium’s adaption to meat products, and that\\u000a differentiate it from other LAB. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core

O. Ludvig Nyquist; Anette McLeod; Dag A. Brede; Lars Snipen; Ågot Aakra; Ingolf F. Nes

2011-01-01

339

Lactobacillus strains differentially modulate cytokine production by hPBMC from pollen allergic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the potential immunomodulatory effect of six Lactobacillus strains on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) isolated from allergic patients. hPBMC from patients allergic to birch pollen or grass pollen were cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of selective bacterial strains. Cultures were left unstimulated or stimulated with ?CD3\\/?CD28 or Bet

Y. M. Vissers; J. Snel; P. F. Zuurendonk; M. Kleerebezem; H. J. Wichers; H. F. J. Savelkoul

2011-01-01

340

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp90 Isolated from Wine.  

PubMed

Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp90, the first sequenced genome of a L. plantarum strain isolated from wine. This strain has a noticeable ropy phenotype and showed potential probiotic properties. The genome consists of 3,324,076 bp (33 contigs) and contains 3,155 protein coding genes, 34 pseudogenes, and 84 RNA genes. PMID:25767234

Lamontanara, Antonella; Caggianiello, Graziano; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Michelotti, Vania; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Renckens, Bernadet; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spano, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

341

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp90 Isolated from Wine  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp90, the first sequenced genome of a L. plantarum strain isolated from wine. This strain has a noticeable ropy phenotype and showed potential probiotic properties. The genome consists of 3,324,076 bp (33 contigs) and contains 3,155 protein coding genes, 34 pseudogenes, and 84 RNA genes. PMID:25767234

Lamontanara, Antonella; Caggianiello, Graziano; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Michelotti, Vania; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Renckens, Bernadet; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Cattivelli, Luigi

2015-01-01

342

Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication by triple therapy plus Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to triple therapy alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to a triple regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional,\\u000a treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive H. pylori-positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed

J. A. da Silva Medeiros; T. M. F. O. Gonçalves; L. Boyanova; M. I. de Correia Pereira; J. N. da Silva Paiva de Carvalho; A. M. de Sousa Pereira; A. M. Silvério Cabrita

2011-01-01

343

Purification and properties of l -serine dehydratase from Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 14931  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Serine dehydratase fromLactobacillus fermentum was purified 100-fold. It was stabilized by the presence of 1 mM\\u000al-cysteine in 50 mM phosphate buffer. Mr=150,000 was determined by gel filtration. The enzyme consists of four apparently identical subunits (Mr=40,000) that were observed after treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The apparent Km forl-serine was 65 mM. Fe++ was required for the enzymatic activity,

Marta E. Farías; Ana M. Strasser de Saad; Aída A. Pesce de Ruiz Holgado; Guillermo Oliver

1991-01-01

344

Lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus casei in free cell form and immobilised on gluten pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the fermentation of a range of carbohydrate substrates, at various temperatures, was carried out using a commercial Lactobacillus casei strain in a free cell form and immobilised on gluten pellets. This strain required yeast extract, l-cysteine · HCl and Mn2+ at 5, 0.5 and 0.1 g l-1, respectively, for maximum growth and lactic acid production. Sugar

G. Chronopoulos; A. Bekatorou; E. Bezirtzoglou; A. Kaliafas; A. A. Koutinas; R. Marchant; I. M. Banat

2002-01-01

345

Hydrogen photoproduction from CO 2-fixing microalgal biomass: Application of lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus amylovorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact and\\/or freeze-thawed microalgal biomass of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were liquefied using a starch-hydrolyzing lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus amylovorus, in order to obtain an ideal substrate for H2 production by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. Starch accumulated in the algal biomass was converted to H2 with a high conversion yield of 5 mol H2\\/mol of

Akiko Ike; Naohumi Toda; Kazumasa Hirata; Kazuhisa Miyamoto

1997-01-01

346

The choice of strains of Lactobacillus species for the lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for using lactic acid bacteria are to make food durable, to improve its taste and to maintain the nutritive,\\u000a physiological and hygienic value of the fermentation products. Sixteen strains of the genus Lactobacillus were tested on samples of white fresh cabbage and of a sterilized cabbage and carrot juice mixture. After 7 days of lactic\\u000a acid fermentation at

J. Karovi?ová; Milan Drdák; Gabriel Greif; Eva Hybenová

1999-01-01

347

Technological and probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from traditionally produced fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and probiotic characteristics of a number of Lactobacillus plantarum strains (previously isolated and identified from traditionally produced fermented vegetables) were compared, with the aim\\u000a of identifying potential starter cultures to be used for the fermentation of vegetables. The L. plantarum strains were differentiated by their plasmid profiles; 12 separate strains with different plasmid profiles were examined.\\u000a Other than

Nihat Karasu; Ömer ?im?ek; Ahmet Hilmi Çon

2010-01-01

348

Antimutagenic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21 isolated from kimchi Korean fermented vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimutagenic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21, isolated from Korean kimchi, was investigated against MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine), NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide), NPD (4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine) and aflatoxin B1 using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. Although all the cell fractions including the culture supernatant, dry cells and cell-free extract exhibited antimutagenic activity against MNNG and NQO, the culture supernatant possessed the highest activity. The antimutagenic ratio

Heui-Dong Park; Chang-Ho Rhee

2001-01-01

349

Factors affecting the removal of aflatoxin M1 from food model by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ability of six dairy strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to remove aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and reconstituted milk. Bacteria were incubated in both PBS and reconstituted milk containing 5, 10 and 20 ng mL for 0, 4 and 24 h at 37°C. After centrifugation the concentration of AFM1 was determined in the supernatant

Bulent Kabak; Isil Var

2008-01-01

350

Isolation and characterization of two exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus plantarum EP56  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lactobacillus plantarum strain producing exopolysaccharides (EPSs) was isolated from corn silage. When this strain, named L. plantarum EP56, was grown on a chemically defined medium, two EPS fractions were isolated. The cell-bound EPS fraction (EPS-b) was composed of a single high-molecular-mass polymer of 8.5×105 Da containing glucose, galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine in a molar ratio of approximately 3:1:1 and traces of glycerol

Richard Tallon; Philippe Bressollier; Maria C. Urdaci

2003-01-01

351

Identification and Cloning of gusA, Encoding a New  Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gusA gene, encoding a new b-glucuronidase enzyme, has been cloned from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH. This is the first report of a b-glucuronidase gene cloned from a bacterial source other than Escherichia coli .A plasmid library of L. gasseri chromosomal DNA was screened for complementation of an E. coli gus mutant. Two overlapping clones that restored b-glucuronidase activity in the

W. M. Russell; T. R. Klaenhammer

2001-01-01

352

Characterization of the Tn916 Conjugative Transposon in a Food-Borne Strain of Lactobacillus paracasei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-borne antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria have received growing attention in the past few years. We have recently identified tetracycline-resistant Lactobacillus paracasei in samples of milk and natural whey starter cultures employed in the manufacturing process of a typical Italian fermented dairy product, Mozza- rella di Bufala Campana. In the present study, we have characterized at the molecular level the genetic

Chiara Devirgiliis; Doriana Coppola; Simona Barile; Bianca Colonna; Giuditta Perozzi

2009-01-01

353

Intracellular Esterase from Lactobacillus casei LILA: Nucleotide Sequencing, Purification, and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An esterase gene (estC) was isolated from a genomic library of Lactobacillus casei LILA. The estC gene con- sisted of a 777 bp open reading frame encoding a puta- tive peptide of 28.9 kDa. A recombinant EstC fusion protein containing a C-terminal six-histidine tag was constructed and purified to electrophoretic homogene- ity. Characterization of EstC revealed that it was a

K. M. Fenster; K. L. Parkin; J. L. Steele

2003-01-01

354

Coexpression and secretion of endoglucanase and phytase genes in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

355

Coexpression and Secretion of Endoglucanase and Phytase Genes in Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

A multifunctional transgenic Lactobacillus with probiotic characteristics and an ability to degrade ?-glucan and phytic acid (phytate) was engineered to improve nutrient utilization, increase production performance and decrease digestive diseases in broiler chickens. The Bacillus subtilis WL001 endoglucanase gene (celW) and Aspergillus fumigatus WL002 phytase gene (phyW) mature peptide (phyWM) were cloned into an expression vector with the lactate dehydrogenase promoter of Lactobacillus casei and the secretion signal peptide of the Lactococcus lactis usp45 gene. This construct was then transformed into Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 that had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Heterologous enzyme production and feed effectiveness of this genetically modified L. reuteri strain were investigated and evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the molecular mass of phyWM and celW was approximately 48.2 and 55 kDa, respectively, consistent with their predicted molecular weights. Endoglucanase and phytase activities in the extracellular fraction of the transformed L. reuteri culture were 0.68 and 0.42 U/mL, respectively. Transformed L. reuteri improved the feed conversion ratio of broilers from 21 to 42 days of age and over the whole feeding period. However, there was no effect on body weight gain and feed intake of chicks. Transformed L. reuteri supplementation improved levels of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibiae at day 21 and of phosphorus at day 42. In addition, populations of Escherichia coli, Veillonella spp. and Bacteroides vulgatus were decreased, while populations of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus spp. were increased in the cecum at day 21. PMID:25050780

Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuxin; Cai, Bei; Cao, Pinghua; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

2014-01-01

356

Effect of Trehalose and Drying Process on the Survival of Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was prepared by extrusion technology with rice shell powder and alginate followed by drying at 4°C. Drying at 4°C was beneficial to the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 compared with freeze drying. Trehalose had a positive effect on the survival of dried L. casei ATCC 393; the live cell numbers remained over 10 cfu\\/g after

Xiao Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Cheng Sheng Liu; Hong Ni Peng; Dong Su Cha

2008-01-01

357

Probiotic effects of Lactobacillus casei on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on the murine model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate. The effect of LcS was tested either as a prophylactic 10 days before the onset of the disease, simultaneously with ulcerative colitis induction or continued 10 days after the disease was induced. LcS was not able to prevent

M. V. Herías; J. F. J. G. Koninkx; J. G. Vos; J. H. J. Huis in't Veld; J. E. van Dijk

2005-01-01

358

l-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation using different fed-batch feeding strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the l-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation using different fed-batch feeding strategies was studied. The effects of different fed-batch methods such as pulse fed-batch, constant feed rate fed-batch, constant residual glucose concentration fed-batch and exponential fed-batch on the fermentation of l-lactic acid were determined. According to the results of experiments, exponential fed-batch culture is an effective

Shaofeng Ding; Tianwei Tan

2006-01-01

359

Comparative study of Bifidobacterium animalis , Escherichia coli , Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work investigates some probiotic properties of four different microorganisms (Bifidobacterium animalis var. lactis BB-12, Escherichia coli EMO, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces boulardii). In vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to compare cell wall hydrophobicity, production of antagonistic substances,\\u000a survival capacity in the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice without pathological consequence, and immune modulation\\u000a by stimulation of

Flaviano S. Martins; Aparecida A. Silva; Angélica T. Vieira; Flávio H. F. Barbosa; Rosa M. E. Arantes; Mauro M. Teixeira; Jacques Robert Nicoli

2009-01-01

360

Identification of a Gene Cluster Enabling Lactobacillus casei BL23 To Utilize myoInositol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei BL23 revealed that, compared to L. casei ATCC 334, it carries a 12.8-kb DNA insertion containing genes involved in the catabolism of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol (MI). Indeed, L. casei ATCC 334 does not ferment MI, whereas strain BL23 is able to utilize this carbon source. The inserted DNA consists of an iolR gene encoding

M. J. Yebra; M. Zuniga; S. Beaufils; G. Perez-Martinez; J. Deutscher; V. Monedero

2007-01-01

361

Murein Hydrolase Activity in the Surface Layer of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356?  

PubMed Central

We describe a new enzymatic functionality for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, namely, an endopeptidase activity against the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, assayed via zymograms and identified by Western blotting. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons, the hydrolase activity was predicted to be located at the C terminus. Subsequent cloning and expression of the C-terminal domain in Bacillus subtilis resulted in the functional verification of the enzymatic activity. PMID:18931300

Prado Acosta, Mariano; Palomino, María Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Rivas, Carmen Sanchez; Ruzal, Sandra M.

2008-01-01

362

Enhancement of resistance in mice treated with Lactobacillus casei: Effect on Trichinella spiralis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of viable Lactobacillus casei, administered by an intraperitoneal route, to induce resistance in mice against Trichinella spiralis infection was tested. The percent reduction of adult worms in the intestine 5 days after T. spiralis infection observed in L. casei-treated animals, compared with those of the control group, fluctuated between 70.9 and 88.5%; reductions of larvae per gram of

C. R Bautista-Garfias; O Ixta; M Orduña; F Mart??nez; B Aguilar; A Cortés

1999-01-01

363

By-product formation in cell-recycled continuous culture of Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the volumetric productivity of lactic acid increased in continuous culture of Lactobacillus casei with cell recycle, enhanced formation of by-products such as acetate, formate, ethanol, and D-lactate was observed in the cell-recycled fermenter compared with a simple chemostat at a similar range of dilution rate. The increased formation of by-product which was significantly dependent on substrate limitation resulted from

Ik-Keun Yoo; Ho Nam Chang; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Seung-Hyeon Moon

1997-01-01

364

Effect of alginate concentrations on survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC298  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the tolerance of Lactobacillus casei NCDC-298 encapsulated in different alginate concentrations (2%, 3% or 4%), to low pH (1.5), high bile salt concentration (1% or 2%) and heat processing (55, 60 or 65°C for 20min). The release of encapsulated cells in simulated aqueous solution of colonic pH was also assessed. The survival of encapsulated L. casei was

S. Mandal; A. K. Puniya; K. Singh

2006-01-01

365

The Phosphotransferase System of Lactobacillus casei: Regulation of Carbon Metabolism and Connection to Cold Shock Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome sequencing of two different Lactobacillus casei strains (ATCC334 and BL23) is presently going on and preliminary data revealed that this lactic acid bacterium possesses numerous carbohydrate transport systems probably reflecting its capacity to proliferate under varying environmental conditions. Many carbohydrate transporters belong to the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), but all different kinds of non-PTS transporters are present as well

Vicente Monedero; Alain Mazé; Grégory Boël; Manuel Zúñiga; Sophie Beaufils; Axel Hartke; Josef Deutscher

2007-01-01

366

Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of Lactobacillus casei phage PL1 lysis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The genes encoding the host cell wall-lytic proteins were searched in the genome DNA of phage PL-1 active against Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 by comparing the amino acid sequences with those of others using a computer software of the DDBJ data base. The\\u000a gene regions found were cloned into E. coli by inserting PCR-amplified DNA fragments into the EcoRI site

N. Kashige; Y. Nakashima; F. Miake; K. Watanabe

2000-01-01

367

Effective cellulose production by a coculture of Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Lactobacillus mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial colony that contained a marked amount of cellulose was isolated from vineyard soil. The colony was formed by the associated growth of two bacterial strains: a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium (st-60-12) and a lactic acid bacterium (st-20). The 16S rDNA-based taxonomy indicated that st-60-12 belonged to Gluconacetobacter xylinus and st-20 was closely related to Lactobacillus mali. Cocultivation of

Akira Seto; Yu Saito; Mayumi Matsushige; Hiroki Kobayashi; Yasuyuki Sasaki; Naoto Tonouchi; Takayasu Tsuchida; Fumihiro Yoshinaga; Kenji Ueda; Teruhiko Beppu

2006-01-01

368

Activity against plant pathogenic fungi of Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 isolated from Xinjiang koumiss in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five of the 77 colonies of lactic acid bacteria isolated from koumiss showed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, when tested by the Poison Food Technique. Of these, the most promising isolate having a broad spectrum of antifungal activity,\\u000a including against Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata, was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014. The effect

HaiKuan Wang; Hu Yan; Jing Shin; Lin Huang; HePing Zhang; Wei Qi

369

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal

Freddy J Troost; Peter van Baarlen; Patrick Lindsey; Andrea Kodde; Willem M de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Robert-Jan M Brummer

2008-01-01

370

Lactobacillus bulgaricus asparagine synthetase and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase: coregulation by transcription antitermination?  

PubMed

Genes encoding the ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetase (asnA) and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (asnS) have been cloned from Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842. The nucleotide sequence suggests that asnA and asnS are organized as one operon and regulated by the tRNA-directed transcription antitermination mechanism (T. M. Henkin, Mol. Microbiol. 13:381-387, 1994). PMID:8636057

Kim, S I; Germond, J E; Pridmore, D; Söll, D

1996-04-01

371

Lactobacillus buchneri Genotyping on the Basis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Locus Diversity  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with associated sequences (cas) constitute the CRISPR-Cas immune system, which uptakes DNA from invasive genetic elements as novel “spacers” that provide a genetic record of immunization events. We investigated the potential of CRISPR-based genotyping of Lactobacillus buchneri, a species relevant for commercial silage, bioethanol, and vegetable fermentations. Upon investigating the occurrence and diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems in Lactobacillus buchneri genomes, we observed a ubiquitous occurrence of CRISPR arrays containing a 36-nucleotide (nt) type II-A CRISPR locus adjacent to four cas genes, including the universal cas1 and cas2 genes and the type II signature gene cas9. Comparative analysis of CRISPR spacer content in 26 L. buchneri pickle fermentation isolates associated with spoilage revealed 10 unique locus genotypes that contained between 9 and 29 variable spacers. We observed a set of conserved spacers at the ancestral end, reflecting a common origin, as well as leader-end polymorphisms, reflecting recent divergence. Some of these spacers showed perfect identity with phage sequences, and many spacers showed homology to Lactobacillus plasmid sequences. Following a comparative analysis of sequences immediately flanking protospacers that matched CRISPR spacers, we identified a novel putative protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM), 5?-AAAA-3?. Overall, these findings suggest that type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems are valuable for genotyping of L. buchneri. PMID:24271175

Briner, Alexandra E.

2014-01-01

372

Probiotic Potential and Safety Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak Bryndza Cheese  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest ?-galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics. PMID:24093103

Belicová, Anna; Mikulášová, Mária; Dušinský, Roman

2013-01-01

373

Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 ?m. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

2010-11-01

374

Evaluation of anti-Listeria meat borne Lactobacillus for biofilm formation on selected abiotic surfaces.  

PubMed

The ability of meat borne anti-Listeria Lactobacillus to form biofilms under different in vitro conditions and on abiotic surfaces was investigated. Biofilm formation by the adhesion to polystyrene microtiter plates was determined, this being higher for Lactobacillus curvatus CRL1532 and CRL705 and Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862. The physicochemical properties of the cell surface were relatively hydrophilic and acidic in character; L. sakei CRL1862 exhibiting the strongest autoaggregation. The adhesion of lactobacilli to stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) supports at 10°C was found to be maximal for L. sakei CRL1862 on SS after 6 days. When biofilm architecture was characterized by epifluorescence and SEM, L. sakei CRL1862 homogeneously covered the SS surface while cell clusters were observed on PTFE; the extracellular polymeric substance matrix adapted to the topography and hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics of each material. The feasibility of L. sakei CRL1862 to form biofilm on materials used in meat processing highlights its potential as a control strategy for Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. PMID:23933630

Pérez Ibarreche, Mariana; Castellano, Patricia; Vignolo, Graciela

2014-01-01

375

Orthogonal array deciphering MRS medium requirements for isolated Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY with cell properties characterization.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a well-known lactic acid bacterium (LAB), but a new ZY strain was isolated for the first time from commercial probiotic powder recently. Although many studies have focused on developing cost-effective media for the production of LAB, the de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium is still the most common medium for bioprocesses. The aim of the current study is to decipher the composition of MRS based on a statistical approach, which will allow a higher biomass of Lactobacillus to be obtained. In Taguchi's approach, an L27 orthogonal array was adopted to evaluate the significance of 10 ingredients in MRS, in which the effects of the components were ranked according to their effect on biomass at OD600 as dextrose > MnSO4·H2O > beef extract > CH3COONa > MgSO4 > yeast extract > proteose peptone > K2HPO4 > ammonium citrate > Tween 80. Although the individual trace elements of ammonium citrate, K2HPO4, CH3COONa and MgSO4 in MRS had an insignificant influence on the biomass after statistical analysis, the total elimination of trace elements would predominantly affect the cell growth of Lactobacillus. Further characterization of the cell properties through attenuated total reflectance of Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and protein identification via SDS-PAGE coupled with tandem mass spectrometry implied that dextrose as major carbon source in MRS played the most crucial role for L. rhamnosus production. PMID:24721122

Zhang, Yu; Ng, I-Son; Yao, Chuanyi; Lu, Yinghua

2014-09-01

376

Development of a Lactobacillus specific T-RFLP method to determine lactobacilli diversity in complex samples.  

PubMed

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis has been widely used for studying microbial communities. However, most T-RFLP assays use 16S rDNA as the target and are unable to accurately characterize a microbial subpopulation. In this study, we developed a novel T-RFLP protocol based on Lactobacillus hsp60 to rapidly characterize and compare lactobacilli composition. The theoretical terminal restriction fragment (TRF) profiles were calculated from 769 Lactobacillus hsp60 sequences from online databases. In silico digestion with restriction endonucleases AluI and TacI on hsp60 amplicons generated 83 distinct TRF patterns, of which, 70 were species specific. To validate the assay, five previously sequenced lactobacilli were cultured independently, mixed at known concentrations and subjected to analysis by T-RFLP. All five strains generated the predicted TRFs and a qualitative consistent relationship was revealed. We performed the T-RFLP protocol on fecal samples from mice fed 6 different diets (n=4). Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed that the lactobacilli community was strongly connected to dietary supplementation. Our study demonstrates the potential for using Lactobacillus specific T-RFLP to characterize lactobacilli communities in complex samples. PMID:22981747

Chen, Long; Teasdale, Matt T; Kaczmarczyk, Melissa M; Freund, Gregory G; Miller, Michael J

2012-11-01

377

Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, ?-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

1988-01-01

378

Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong ?-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica

2014-01-01

379

The biofilm mode of life boosts the anti-inflammatory properties of Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

The predominant form of life for microorganisms in their natural habitats is the biofilm mode of growth. The adherence and colonization of probiotic bacteria are considered as essential factors for their immunoregulatory function in the host. Here, we show that Lactobacillus casei?ATCC334 adheres to and colonizes the gut of zebrafish larvae. The abundance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of macrophages were low when inflammation was induced in probiotic-fed animals, suggesting that these bacteria have anti-inflammatory properties. We treated human macrophage-differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells with supernatants of L.?casei?ATCC334 grown in either biofilm or planktonic cultures. TNF-? production was suppressed and the NF-?B pathway was inhibited only in the presence of supernatants from biofilms. We identified GroEL as the biofilm supernatant compound responsible, at least partially, for this anti-inflammatory effect. Gradual immunodepletion of GroEL demonstrated that the abundance of GroEL and TNF-? were inversely correlated. We confirmed that biofilm development in other Lactobacillus species affects the immune response. The biofilms supernatants of these species also contained large amounts of GroEL. Thus, our results demonstrate that the biofilm enhances the immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus sp. and that secreted GroEL is involved in this beneficial effect. PMID:25052472

Rieu, Aurélie; Aoudia, Nabil; Jego, Gaëtan; Chluba, Johanna; Yousfi, Nadhir; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Gasquet, Benoît; Monedero, Vicente; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

2014-12-01

380

Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) on the growth of Streptococcus sobrinus in vitro.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus GG, a recently characterized L. rhamnosus GG strain (ATCC 53103), has been shown to exert inhibitory activity against a variety of bacterial species, including streptococci. We isolated and studied the effect of the inhibitory substance of Lactobacillus GG on some oral streptococci. The inhibitory activity of the isolated substance was weak, but some growth inhibition was observed in Streptococcus sobrinus pretreated with the substance in comparison with untreated controls. Zones of growth inhibition on agar plates were apparent only at pH values below 5, indicating that the inhibitory activity was restricted to a low pH range. Growth curve experiments showed a statistically significant inhibition between series with and without the isolated substance (P < 0.05). The ultrastructure of S. sobrinus was not affected when treated with the inhibitory substance. The Lactobacillus GG itself did not ferment sucrose. The results offer interesting perspectives for future research focusing on the protective function of normal flora and in the attempt to replace harmful bacterial species in oral microflora with less harmful ones. PMID:7552958

Meurman, J H; Antila, H; Korhonen, A; Salminen, S

1995-08-01

381

Chromosomal-gene-mediated inhibition of intestinal and foodborne pathogens by Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11.  

PubMed

Approximately 63 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from Egyptian home-made cheese and examined for production of antagonism. Only eight strains demonstrated inhibitory activity against spoilage microorganisms (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and pathogens (i.e. E. coli, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp.). Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 produced a more antimicrobial activity with a wide range of inhibition. The agent AA11 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and retained full activity after 30 min at 100 degrees C. Activity against sensitive cells was bactericidal but not bacteriolytic. The compound was produced during growth phase and can be extracted from the culture supernatant fluids with n-Butanol. 12 % SDS-PAGE analysis of 40% ammonium sulphate precipitated agent showed two peptides with molecular weights of approximately 36 kDa and approximately 29 kDa. No plasmid was identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 indicating that the genes encoding the inhibitory agent located on the chromosome. These characteristics identify the inhibitory substance as a bacteriocin, designated acidocin AA11 and confer the agent an application potential as a biopreservative. PMID:17357571

Abo-Amer, Aly E

2006-01-01

382

The effect of a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on the plaque formation of oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of biofilm formation among mutans and non mutans oral streptococci and to determine the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079 as a probiotic strain on the adhesion of selected streptococcal strains on the surfaces. The sample comprised 40 isolates of oral streptococci from dental plaque and caries of volunteer persons. Streptococcus mutans ATCC35668 (no24) was as an standard strain. The probiotic strain was Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079. The ability of biofilm formation was investigated with colorimetric method and the strongest isolates were selected. Then the effect of probiotic strain on the adhesion of streptococci isolates was determined in polystyrene microtiter plate simultaneously and 30 minutes before streptococci entrance to the system. The results showed that 42% of mutans streptococci were strongly adherent (SA) and in non mutans streptococci, only 23.5% of isolates were found strongly adherent. The strong biofilm forming bacterium isolated was Streptococcus mutans strain22. In the next step, in the presence of probiotic strain the streptococcal adhesion were reduced, and this reduction was non significantly stronger if the probiotic strain was inoculated to the system before the oral bacteria. The Lactobacillus acidophilus had more effect on adherence of mutans streptococci than non mutans streptococci with significant difference (p < 0.05). Adhesion reduction is likely due to bacterial interactions and colonization of adhesion sites with probiotic strain before the presence of streptococci. Adhesion reduction can be an effective way on decreasing cariogenic potential of oral streptococci. PMID:21342140

Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Kermanshahi, Rooha Kasra

2011-01-01

383

Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic persistence at this site. Ten healthy women inserted vaginally a capsule containing either a combination of strains GR-1 and RC-14 or the GG strain for 3 consecutive nights. Vaginal swabs taken before and at various time points after probiotic insertion were analyzed, and the Lactobacillus flora was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This method generated discrete DNA fingerprints for GR-1, RC-14, and GG and enabled successful detection of these strains in the vagina. Strain GR-1 and/or strain RC-14 was found to persist in the vaginal tract for up to 19 days after vaginal instillation, while L. rhamnosus GG was detectable for up to 5 days postadministration. In conclusion, the fates of probiotic L. rhamnosus and L. fermentum strains were successfully monitored in the human vagina by RAPD analysis. This technique provides molecular biology-based evidence that RC-14 and GR-1, strains selected as urogenital probiotics, persist in the human vagina and may be more suited to vaginal colonization than L. rhamnosus GG. This highlights the importance of proper selection of strains for urogenital probiotic applications. PMID:11777835

Gardiner, Gillian E.; Heinemann, Christine; Bruce, Andrew W.; Beuerman, Dee; Reid, Gregor

2002-01-01

384

Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.  

PubMed

The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (?94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ?0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures. PMID:25380798

Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

2014-11-01

385

Influence of peptide supply and cosubstrates on phenylalanine metabolism of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) and Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.468.  

PubMed

Bread spoilage is mainly due to the growth of filamentous fungi, and metabolites produced during sourdough fermentation by lactobacilli can inhibit fungal growth. One of these metabolites is phenyllactic acid (PLA), which is a catabolite from phenylalanine. In this work, the influence of peptide supply and cosubstrates was determined on PLA formation from phenylalanine by Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.468 and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T). Transport of single amino acids is not efficient in lactobacilli, and only 1% of the offered phenylalanine was converted to PLA. PLA yields were increased 2-4-fold when peptides instead of single amino acids were used as a substrate. The accumulation of phenylalanine after peptide addition indicated that, after transport, transamination was the second limiting factor. In L. plantarum TMW1.468, PLA yields were increased from 5 to >30% upon the addition of alpha-ketoglutarate. In L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451, a combination of both citric acid and alpha-ketoglutarate increased PLA formation. The combined effect of citric acid and alpha-ketoglutarate can be attributed to changes in the NAD/NADH ratio. PMID:16719504

Vermeulen, Nicoline; Ganzle, Michael G; Vogel, Rudi F

2006-05-31

386

Effect of salt on cell viability and membrane integrity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum as observed by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of varying sodium chloride concentrations (0-5%) on viability and membrane integrity of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, using conventional technique and flow cytometry. Double staining of cells by carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) enabled to evaluate the effect of NaCl on cell esterase activity and membrane integrity. Observations from conventional culture technique were compared with findings from flow cytometric analysis on the metabolic activities of the cells and a correlation was observed between culturability and dye extrusion ability of L. casei and B. longum. However, a certain population of L. acidophilus was viable as per the plate count method but its efflux activity was compromised. Esterase activity of most bacteria reduced significantly (P < 0.05) during one week storage at NaCl concentrations greater than 3.5%. The study revealed that L. casei was least affected by higher NaCl concentrations among the three probiotic bacteria, as opposed to B. longum where the cF extrusion performance was greatly reduced during 1 wk storage. The metabolic activity and salt resistance of L. casei was found to be highest among the bacteria studied. PMID:25846931

Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

2015-08-01

387

Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

This study was conducted with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of diets containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function. A total of 150 piglets (initial body weight (BW) 7.53 ± 0.21 kg) were allotted to one of the following diets, including a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg Flavomycin, or basal diet plus 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 % L. acidophilus. On day 28 of the trial, the pigs were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (200 ?g/kg body weight) followed by blood collection 3 h later. Diets with either antibiotics, 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus increased (P < 0.05) the final BW and decreased (P < 0.05) feed gain ratio (F/G) compared with the control group. Pigs fed diets containing antibiotic or Lactobacillus had greater average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. The rectal content Lactobacillus counts for pigs fed diet containing Lactobacillus were significant higher (P < 0.01) than those fed antibiotic or control diet. Feeding the Lactobacillus diets decreased the Escherichia coli counts of rectal content (P < 0.01). Pigs fed diets containing 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus decreased serum DAO activity (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. Serum IL-10 concentration was enhanced in pigs fed the diet with Lactobacillus compared to pigs fed the control diet and antibiotic diet. Feeding a diet with Lactobacillus reduced (P < 0.05) IFN-? concentration compared to the control diet. Inclusion of Lactobacillus in diets fed to pigs reduced TNF-? concentration compared with pigs fed no Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). These results indicate that feeding with L. acidophilus improved growth performance and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory status. PMID:25577203

Qiao, Jiayun; Li, Haihua; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Wenjie

2015-04-01

388

The effect of lactose derivatives lactulose, lactitol and lactobionic acid on the functional and technological properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactulose, lactitol and lactobionic acid are unabsorbable lactose derivatives with prebiotic potential. They are utilised in varying extent by different Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species\\/strains. To explore the possibility of improving the properties of probiotic strains with a specific prebiotic, the effect of the lactose derivatives on the technological and functional properties of putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains was studied in vitro.

Maria Saarela; Katri Hallamaa; Tiina Mattila-Sandholm; Jaana Mättö

2003-01-01

389

A recombinant lactobacillus strain expressing genes coding for restriction enzymes cleaving the HIV genomes for use as a live microbicide strategy against heterosexual transmission of HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using genetically engineered endogenous lactobacillus strains colonizing the vagina mucosa to express heterogenous proteins has of late joined the novel strategies aimed at developing a microbicides against HIV. Using the lactobacillus metabolic genome pathway, we found that these bacteria do not naturally produce restriction enzymes, but rather, have a number of putative alien genes of the type. In view of

Wayengera Misaki

390

Effects of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the human NK-cell activity.  

PubMed

Nine healthy middle-aged and 10 elderly volunteers drank fermented milk containing 4 x 10(10) live cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota daily for 3 wk, and their natural killer (NK) activity and other immunological functions were examined. In the experiments with middle-aged volunteers, NK activity significantly increased (P<0.01) 3 wk after the start of intake, elevated NK cell activity remained for the next 3 wk, and this effect was particularly prominent in the low-NK-activity individuals. In the experiments with elderly volunteers, NK activity significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the control group 3 wk after the start of intake; however, the intake of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota maintained the NK activity. These results suggest that daily intake of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota provides a positive effect on NK-cell activity. PMID:17311976

Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko

2007-03-01

391

Derivation of DNA probes for enumeration of a specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in piglet digestive tract samples.  

PubMed Central

Four DNA probes were derived that hybridized specifically to DNA from Lactobacillus acidophilus O. The probes were constructed by randomly cloning lactobacillus DNA in plasmid vector pBR322. Two of the probes (pSR1 and pSR2) were composed of vector and plasmid DNA inserts (3.6 and 1.6 kb, respectively); the others (pSR3 and pSR4) were composed of vector and chromosomally derived inserts (6.9 and 1.4 kb, respectively). The probes were used to enumerate, by colony hybridization, strain O in digestive tract samples collected from piglets inoculated 24 hours previously with a culture of the strain. The probes did not hybridize to DNA from lactobacilli inhabiting the digestive tract of uninoculated piglets. Strain O made up about 10% of the total lactobacillus population of the pars esophagea and about 20% of the population in other digestive tract samples. Images PMID:8285690

Rodtong, S; Dobbinson, S; Thode-Andersen, S; McConnell, M A; Tannock, G W

1993-01-01

392

Lactobacillus Endocarditis with Prosthetic Material: A Case Report on Non-Surgical Management with Corresponding Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are rod shaped gram positive bacteria that naturally colonize the human gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and occasionally cause disease in humans. Lactobacillus infections are found in patients who are immunocompromized or have severe comorbidities. We report Lactobacillus endocarditis in a 17-year-old adolescent girl with cardiac prosthetic material following surgical correction for complex cyanotic congenital heart disease. Accurate identification of the organism can be delayed. Despite in vivo susceptibility to vancomycin, our patient clinically failed vancomycin therapy but ultimately responded to a six-week course of penicillin, in addition to a 4-week course of clindamycin and gentamicin. She recovered without the need for surgical intervention and has been symptom free for one year. Upon review of the literature, we found that Lactobacillus endocarditis has not been reported in a pediatric patient with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease. PMID:25276330

Botros, Mena; Mukundan, Deepa

2014-01-01

393

Induction of Immune Responses in Mice after Intragastric Administration of Lactobacillus casei Producing Porcine Parvovirus VP2 Protein?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was selected as an antigen delivery vehicle for mucosal immunization against porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection. A 64-kDa fragment of PPV major protective antigen VP2 protein was used as the parvovirus antigen model. A recombinant Lactobacillus expressing VP2 protein was constructed with plasmid pPG611.1, where expression and localization of the VP2 protein from recombinant Lc393-rPPV-VP2 was detected via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Both local mucosal and systemic immune responses against PPV were induced in BALB/c mice immunized orally with the recombinant Lactobacillus expressing VP2 protein. The induced antibodies demonstrated neutralizing effects on PPV infection. These data indicated that the use of recombinant lactobacilli could be a valuable strategy for future vaccine development of PPV. PMID:17827311

Xu, Yigang; Li, Yijing

2007-01-01

394

Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus crispatus 2,029: Homeostatic Interaction with Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells and Antagonistic Activity to Genitourinary Pathogens.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 has surface layers (S-layers), which completely surround cells as the outermost component of their envelope. S-layers are responsible for the adhesion of lactobacilli on the surface of cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Study of interactions between L. crispatus 2029 and a type IV collagen, a major molecular component of epithelial cell extracellular matrix, showed that 125I-labeled type IV collagen binds to lactobacilli with high affinity (Kd = (8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-10) M). Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 consistently colonized epithelial cells. There were no toxicity, epithelial damage and apoptosis after 24 h of colonization. Electronic microscope images demonstrated intimate association between L. crispatus 2029 and epithelial cells. Upon binding to epithelial cells, lactobacilli were recognized by toll-like 2/6 receptors. Lactobacillus crispatus induced NF-?B activation in epithelial cells and did not induce expression of innate immunity mediators IL-8, IL-1?, IL-1? and TNF-?. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 inhibited IL-8 production in epithelial cells induced by MALP-2 and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, maintaining the homeostasis of female reproductive tract. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 produced H2O2 and provided wide spectrum of antagonistic activity increasing colonization resistance to urinary tract infections by bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis associated agents. PMID:25028263

Abramov, Vyacheslav; Khlebnikov, Valentin; Kosarev, Igor; Bairamova, Guldana; Vasilenko, Raisa; Suzina, Natalia; Machulin, Andrey; Sakulin, Vadim; Kulikova, Natalia; Vasilenko, Nadezhda; Karlyshev, Andrey; Uversky, Vladimir; Chikindas, Michael L; Melnikov, Vyacheslav

2014-12-01

395

Effects of lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 on pig growth and pork quality  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus plantarum is a plant-associated bacterial species but it has also been found in human, mouse and porcine gastrointestinal tracts. It can ferment a broad spectrum of plant carbohydrates; it is tolerant of bile salts and low pH, and it has antagonistic potential against intestinal pathogens. However, experiments reporting the use of L. plantarum as a probiotic are limited. In this study, the effects of L. plantarum ZJ316 isolated from infant fecal samples on pig growth and pork quality were investigated. Results One hundred and fifty newly weaned pigs were selected randomly and divided into five groups. Group 1 was fed a diet supplemented with the antibiotic mequindox; Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed a diet supplemented with L. plantarum and no antibiotic; and Group 5 was fed a mixture of mequindox and L. plantarum. After a 60?days initial treatment, samples were collected for evaluation. The results showed that, the L. plantarum ZJ316 has probiotic effects on pig growth and that these effects are dose dependent. The effects of a dose of 1?×?109?CFU/d were more pronounced than those of a dose of 5?×?109?CFU/d or 1?×?1010?CFU/d. In Group 2 (1?×?109?CFU/d), the diarrhea (p?=?0.000) and mortality rates (p?=?0.448) were lower than in antibiotic-treated pigs (Group 1), and the daily weight gain (p?=?0.001) and food conversion ratios were better (p?=?0.005). Improved pork quality was associated with Lactobacillus treatment. pH (45?min, p?=?0.020), hardness (p?=?0.000), stickiness (p?=?0.044), chewiness (p?=?0.000), gumminess (p?=?0.000) and restoring force (p?=?0.004) were all significantly improved in Lactobacillus-treated pigs (Group 2). Although we found that L. plantarum exerted probiotic effects on pig growth and pork quality, the mechanisms underlying its action require further study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that the gut bacterial communities in Lactobacillus- and antibiotic-treated pigs were very similar and the quantity of L. plantarum ZJ316 was below the detection limits of DGGE-band sequencing. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids in Lactobacillus- and antibiotic-treated fecal samples were not significantly different (p?=?0.086). However, the villus height of ilea (p?=?0.003), jejuna (p?=?0.000) and duodena (p?=?0.036) were found to be significantly improved by Lactobacillus treatment. Conclusion L. plantarum ZJ316 was found to have probiotic effects, improving pig growth and pork quality. The probiotic mechanism might not involve L. plantarum colonization and alteration of the gut bacterial community. Rather, it might be related to the inhibition of the growth of opportunistic pathogens and promotion of increased villus height. PMID:22731747

2012-01-01

396

Distinct Immunomodulation of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cell Responses to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 by Two Different Polysaccharides Isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900  

PubMed Central

The structures of polysaccharides (PS) isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900 and results from stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) and human embryonal kidney (HEK293) cells stably transfected with Toll-like receptors (TLR) upon exposure to these antigens were studied. L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900 produces PS that differ greatly in their structure. The polymer L900/2, with a high average molecular mass of 830 kDa, is a branched heteropolysaccharide with a unique repeating unit consisting of seven sugar residues and pyruvic acid, whereas L900/3 has a low average molecular mass of 18 kDa and contains a pentasaccharide repeating unit and phosphorus. Furthermore, we found that both described PS neither induce cytokine production and maturation of mouse BM-DC nor induce signaling through TLR2/TLR4 receptors. However, they differ profoundly in their abilities to modulate the BM-DC immune response to the well-characterized human isolate Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Exposure to L900/2 enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production induced by L. plantarum WCFS1, while in contrast, L900/3 enhanced the production of IL-12p70. We conclude that PS, probably due to their chemical features, are able to modulate the immune responses to third-party antigens. The ability to induce regulatory IL-10 by L900/2 opens up the possibility to use this PS in therapy of inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, whereas L900/3 might be useful in reverting the antigen-dependent Th2-skewed immune responses in allergies. PMID:25107979

Jachymek, Wojciech; Srutkova, Dagmar; Brzozowska, Ewa; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

2014-01-01

397

Distinct immunomodulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell responses to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 by two different polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900.  

PubMed

The structures of polysaccharides (PS) isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900 and results from stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) and human embryonal kidney (HEK293) cells stably transfected with Toll-like receptors (TLR) upon exposure to these antigens were studied. L. rhamnosus LOCK 0900 produces PS that differ greatly in their structure. The polymer L900/2, with a high average molecular mass of 830 kDa, is a branched heteropolysaccharide with a unique repeating unit consisting of seven sugar residues and pyruvic acid, whereas L900/3 has a low average molecular mass of 18 kDa and contains a pentasaccharide repeating unit and phosphorus. Furthermore, we found that both described PS neither induce cytokine production and maturation of mouse BM-DC nor induce signaling through TLR2/TLR4 receptors. However, they differ profoundly in their abilities to modulate the BM-DC immune response to the well-characterized human isolate Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Exposure to L900/2 enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production induced by L. plantarum WCFS1, while in contrast, L900/3 enhanced the production of IL-12p70. We conclude that PS, probably due to their chemical features, are able to modulate the immune responses to third-party antigens. The ability to induce regulatory IL-10 by L900/2 opens up the possibility to use this PS in therapy of inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, whereas L900/3 might be useful in reverting the antigen-dependent Th2-skewed immune responses in allergies. PMID:25107979

Górska, Sabina; Schwarzer, Martin; Jachymek, Wojciech; Srutkova, Dagmar; Brzozowska, Ewa; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

2014-10-01

398

Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inoculants, or a chemical additive on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of crimped wheat grains.  

PubMed

The preservation of crimped wheat grains by three bacterial inoculants or a chemical additive was compared. Crimped wheat grain [56.8 g dry matter (DM)/kg] was conserved in 1.75-kg plastic bag, mini-silos without treatment, with 4L/tonne of Crimpstore (CS; an additive containing a mixture of ammonium formate, propionate, ethyl benzoate, and benzoate, SAS Kelvin Cave, Ltd., UK) or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of each of three inoculant additives containing Lactobacillus fermentum (A), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (B), and Lactobacillus buchneri (C). Six replicates were conserved per treatment. Ensiling DM losses, chemical composition, fermentation characteristics, and aerobic stability were measured in the silages after 68 d of ensiling. All the silages were well fermented and remained stable for 84 h after aeration. Subsequently, the rate of deterioration was slowest in crimped grains treated with CS treatment, followed by those treated with inoculant C, while those treated with inoculant A deteriorated most rapidly. Residual water-soluble carbohydrate concentration was higher in crimped grains treated with CS than those treated with the inoculants. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations were lowest in CS-treated crimped grains, followed by inoculants C and A. DM losses were greater in CS-treated crimped grains than in crimped grains treated with inoculants A and C. In vivo digestibility was also measured in Texel-cross lambs fed a grass silage basal diet supplemented with the additive-treated crimped grains or a conventional, lamb finisher concentrate. Dry matter intake and digestibility were unaffected by treatment. In conclusion, bacterial inoculants containing L. buchneri are promising preservatives for crimped wheat grains. PMID:12778589

Adesogan, A T; Salawu, M B; Ross, A B; Davies, D R; Brooks, A E

2003-05-01

399

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.  

PubMed

The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity. PMID:14672188

Filya, I

2003-11-01

400

Activity of lysozyme on Lactobacillus hilgardii strains isolated from Port wine.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the effect of lysozyme on lactobacilli isolated from Port wine. Bacterial growth experiments were conducted in MRS/TJ medium and inactivation studies were performed in phosphate buffer (KH2PO4), distilled water and wine supplemented with different concentrations of lysozyme. The response of bacteria to lysozyme was found to be highly strain dependent. Some strains of Lactobacillus hilgardii together with Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus fructivorans were found to be resistant to concentrations of lysozyme as high as 2000 mg/L. It was observed that among the L. hilgardii taxon the resistant strains possess an S-layer coat. Apparently, the strains of L. collinoides and L. fructivorans studied are also S-layer producers as suggested by the total protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE. Thus, the hypothetical protective role of the S-layer against the action of lysozyme was investigated. From the various treatments used to remove the protein from the surface of the cells, the one employing LiCl (5 M) was the most effective. LiCl pre-treated cells exposed to lysozyme (2000 mg/L) in KH2PO4 buffer maintained its resistance. However, when cells were suspended in distilled water an increased sensitivity to lysozyme was observed. Moreover, it was found that the addition of ethanol (20% v/v) to the suspension medium (distilled water) triggered a strong inactivation effect especially on cells previously treated with LiCl (reduction of >6 CFU log cycles). The results suggest that the S-layer exerts a protective effect against lysozyme and that the cell suspension medium influences the bacteriolysis efficiency. It was also noted that ethanol enhances the inactivation effect of lysozyme. PMID:25846910

Dias, Rita; Vilas-Boas, Eduardo; Campos, Francisco M; Hogg, Tim; Couto, José António

2015-08-01

401

Method for reliable isolation of Lactobacillus sakei strains originating from Tunisian seafood and meat products.  

PubMed

In Tunisia, several food products derived from meat or seafood are naturally processed, without any addition of bacterial starters. Such fermented, dried-cured, salted, or marinated products, as well as the raw meat or fish may thus provide a source to isolate the natural microflora colonizing such environments. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from a representative range of flesh-foods sold or manufactured in different parts of Tunisia, and selectively searched for Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium potentially useful as starter or protective culture. Eighty six (86) strains were isolated from various seafood (anchovy, sardine, sole, mullet, and octopus), or meat (pork, veal, beef, sheep, chicken, and turkey) products that were either fresh, or transformed by different traditional processes. Several methods were used in order to develop a rapid and reliable protocol for the direct identification of L. sakei. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) classified the various isolates into 9 distinct groups. Search for the presence of the L. sakei specific katA gene indicated that all positive isolates were grouped in the same ARDRA group. Sequencing of 16S rDNA confirmed those isolates as L. sakei. Those 22 different L. sakei strains represent 25.6% of the total isolates, while other isolates found in the different ARDRA groups were tentatively ascribed to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis/garviae, Enterococcus avium, Streptococcus parauberis, Hafnia alvei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus curvatus through 16S rDNA sequencing. A fast and reliable method to isolate and discriminate L. sakei from complex food environments is proposed. PMID:18155310

Najjari, Afef; Ouzari, Hadda; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique

2008-02-10

402

Lactobacillus reuteri Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Cell Death by Competitive Exclusion  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested that the topical application of probiotic bacteria can improve skin health or combat disease. We have utilized a primary human keratinocyte culture model to investigate whether probiotic bacteria can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection. Evaluation of the candidate probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, Lactobacillus rhamnosus AC413, and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 demonstrated that both L. reuteri and L. rhamnosus, but not L. salivarius, reduced S. aureus-induced keratinocyte cell death in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte survival was significantly higher if the probiotic was applied prior to (P < 0.01) or simultaneously with (P < 0.01) infection with S. aureus but not when added after infection had commenced (P > 0.05). The protective effect of L. reuteri was not dependent on the elaboration of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid. L. reuteri inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion (P = 0.026). L. salivarius UCC118, however, did not inhibit S. aureus from adhering to keratinocytes (P > 0.05) and did not protect keratinocyte viability. S. aureus utilizes the ?5?1 integrin to adhere to keratinocytes, and blocking of this integrin resulted in a protective effect similar to that observed with probiotics (P = 0.03). This suggests that the protective mechanism for L. reuteri-mediated protection of keratinocytes was by competitive exclusion of the pathogen from its binding sites on the cells. Our results suggest that use of a topical probiotic prophylactically could inhibit the colonization of skin by S. aureus and thus aid in the prevention of infection. PMID:22582077

Prince, Tessa; McBain, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

403

Continuous-flow automation of the Lactobacillus casei serum folate assay.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the continuous-flow automation of the serum folate assay using Lactobacillus casei. The total incubation period is approximately four hours. The growth response of the organism to folate is estimated by measuring the rate of reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). A simple continuous culture apparatus is used to grow the inoculum. Supplementation of the assay medium is necessary to obtain parallel results. A statistical assessment shows a favourable comparison with the whole-serum tube assay using a chloramphenicol resistant strain of L. casei. The method is less sensitive to inhibitory substances than the tube assay. PMID:415069

Tennant, G B

1977-01-01

404

Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay. PMID:18077044

Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

2008-01-15

405

Extraction of serum vitamin B12 for radio-isotopic and Lactobacillus leichmannii assay.  

PubMed

The protein precipitates discarded during the extraction process of the Lactobacillus leichmannii vitamin B12 assay have been shown to contain significant amounts of vitamin B12. This loss of vitamin B12 provide a satisfactory explanation for many of the descrepancies between the serum vitamin B12 values obtained by the L. leichmannii method and the radio-isotopic method of Raven et al (1969). It is possible to produce lower results by the method of Raven et al (1969)by incorporating into that method the L. leichmannii extraction process; it is also possible to produce higher results by the L. leichmannii method using a papain extraction process. PMID:1150894

Raven, J L; Robson, M B

1975-07-01

406

Inhibition of Candida albicans by Lactobacillus acidophilus: evidence for the involvement of a peroxidase system.  

PubMed

A range of cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus was isolated from patients using oral, vaginal and endocervical swabs. These were investigated for their ability to (1) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and (2) generate peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide and hypothiocyanite. Inhibition of Candida albicans and hydrogen peroxide production was detected in nine out of twelve strains whereas peroxidase production was only detected in three out of twelve strains, all from oral swabs. Hypothiocyanite production was detected in two strains and it was only detected in these strains after growth in MRS medium in aerobic conditions. PMID:7898374

Fitzsimmons, N; Berry, D R

1994-01-01

407

Microbiological assay with Lactobacillus plantarum for detection of adulteration in orange juice.  

PubMed

A microbiological assay has been developed to help detect adulteration in orange juice. Under standard assay conditions with diluted orange juice, the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum is proportional to the concentration of juice in the assay mixture. Imitation orange beverages did not support growth. Growth was also independent of the normal levels of common beverage ingredients such as sugar, acids, butylated hyroxyanisole, and orange oil. Commercial orange juices reconstituted from concentrates from various sources were assayed by the microbiological procedure, and the variability of results (coefficient of variation 24%) was about the same as or slightly lower than that for many of the other constituents used to estimate adulteration. PMID:993188

Vandercook, C E; Smolensky, D C

1976-11-01

408

Continuous production of l (+)-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei in two-stage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage two-stream chemostat system and a two-stage two-stream immobilized upflow packed-bed reactor system were used\\u000a for the study of lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp casei. A mixing ratio of D\\u000a 12\\/D\\u000a 2?=?0.5 (D?=?dilution rate) resulted in optimum production, making it possible to generate continuously a broth with high lactic acid\\u000a concentration (48?g?l?1) and with a lowered overall

J. M. Bruno-Bárcena; A. L. Ragout; P. R. Córdoba; F. Siñeriz

1999-01-01

409

Cloning and Heterologous Expression of Hematin-Dependent Catalase Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ 1228  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ 1228 exhibited heme-dependent catalase activity under environmental conditions similar to those encountered during sausage fermentation. The 1,455-bp catalase gene (katL) was cloned and encoded a protein of 484 amino acids. Expression of katL in a heterologous host showed that katL encodes a functional catalase. PCR screening of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria for katL indicated the presence of similar genes in other strains of lactobacilli. PMID:14711694

Abriouel, Hikmate; Herrmann, Anette; Stärke, Joachim; Yousif, Nuha M. K.; Wijaya, Agus; Tauscher, Bernhard; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

2004-01-01

410

Synthesis of Fucosyl-N-Acetylglucosamine Disaccharides by Transfucosylation Using ?-l-Fucosidases from Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

AlfB and AlfC ?-l-fucosidases from Lactobacillus casei were used in transglycosylation reactions, and they showed high efficiency in synthesizing fucosyldisaccharides. AlfB and AlfC activities exclusively produced fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and fucosyl-?-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. The reaction kinetics showed that AlfB can convert 23% p-nitrophenyl-?-l-fucopyranoside into fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and AlfC at up to 56% into fucosyl-?-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:23542622

Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Carbajo, Rodrigo J.; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Monedero, Vicente

2013-01-01

411

La inoculación de Lactobacillus casei en ratones NIH induce una respuesta protectora contra la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi (cepa Ninoa) The inoculation of Lactobacillus casei in NIH mice induces a protective response against Trypanosoma cruzi (Ninoa strain) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus casei administered orally or intraperitoneally to NIH mice, on the experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Ninoa strain. Twenty three NIH mice were randomly distributed into three groups, which were treated seven days before the infection with 12 ? 104 Trypanosoma cruzi, Ninoa strain. The animals in the

Carlos Ramón; María del Carmen; Torres Álvarez; Federico Martínez Gómez

412

Development of a differential medium for bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed Central

An agar plate assay was developed to detect bile salt hydrolase activity in lactobacilli. On Lactobacillus-selective MRS or Rogosa SL medium supplemented with taurodeoxycholic, taurocholic, or taurochenodeoxycholic acids, bile salt hydrolysis was manifested at two intensities: (i) the formation of precipitate halos around colonies or (ii) the formation of opaque granular white colonies. Sixty-six lactobacilli were tested for bile salt hydrolase activity by both the plate assay and a sensitive radiochemical assay. No false-positive or false-negative results were detected by the plate assay. Based on results of experiments with Eubacterium lentum and Bacteroides species, the plate assay was dependent on two factors: (i) the presence of bile salt hydrolytic activity and (ii) the ability of the organism to sufficiently acidify the medium to protonate free bile acids. The availability of a differential medium for determination of bile salt hydrolase activity will provide a rapid method for determining shifts in a specific functional activity of intestinal Lactobacillus species and provide a rapid screening capability for identifying bile salt hydrolase-deficient mutants. The latter application should allow bile salt hydrolase activity to be used as a marker enzyme in genetic experiments. Images PMID:2705765

Dashkevicz, M P; Feighner, S D

1989-01-01

413

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100–23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100–33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100–23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100–33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100–23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100–33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100–23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of ‘glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100–33 is present is ‘maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta. PMID:22094343

Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

2012-01-01

414

Impact of Kefir Derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the Mucosal Immune Response and Gut Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of the impact of probiotics on host health could help to understand how they can be used in the prevention of diseases. On the basis of our previous studies and in vitro assays on PBMC and Caco-2 ccl20:luc reporter system presented in this work, the strain Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected and administrated to healthy Swiss mice daily for 21 days. The probiotic treatment increased IgA in feces and reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators in Peyer Patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, where it also increased IL-10. In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-?, GM-CSF, and IL-1? genes were downregulated. Moreover, ileum and colon explants showed the anti-inflammatory effect of L. kefiri since the LPS-induced increment of IL-6 and GM-CSF levels in control mice was significantly attenuated in L. kefiri treated mice. Regarding fecal microbiota, DGGE profiles allowed differentiation of experimental groups in two separated clusters. Quantitative PCR analysis of different bacterial groups revealed only significant changes in Lactobacillus population. In conclusion, L. kefiri is a good candidate to be used in gut inflammatory disorders.

Carasi, P.; Racedo, S. M.; Jacquot, C.; Romanin, D. E.; Serradell, M. A.; Urdaci, M. C.

2015-01-01

415

Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72  

PubMed Central

Background The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Results Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. Conclusions These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process. PMID:24044741

2013-01-01

416

Adhesion of indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum to gut extracellular matrix and its physicochemical characterization.  

PubMed

Adhesion to the human intestinal epithelial cell is considered as one of the important selection criteria of lactobacilli for probiotic attributes. Sixteen Lactobacillus plantarum strains from human origins were subjected for adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and their physiochemical characterization, incubation time course and effect of different pH on bacterial adhesion in vitro were studied. Four strains showed significant binding to both fibronectin and mucin. After pretreatment with pepsin and trypsin, the bacterial adhesion to ECM reduced to the level of 50 % and with lysozyme significantly decreased by 65-70 %. Treatment with LiCl also strongly inhibited (90 %) the bacterial adhesion to ECM. Tested strains showed highest binding efficacy at time course of 120 and 180 min. Additionally, the binding of Lp91 to ECM was highest at pH 6 (155 ± 2.90 CFU/well). This study proved that surface layer components are proteinaceous in nature, which contributed in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. Further, the study can provide a better platform for introduction of new indigenous probiotic strains having strong adhesion potential for future use. PMID:25212764

Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

2015-03-01

417

Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri  

PubMed Central

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution. PMID:22750793

van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S.; Britton, Robert A.

2012-01-01

418

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of specific probiotics on alleviating obesity-related disorders. Here we aimed to identify probiotics with potential antiobesity activity among 88 lactic acid bacterial strains via in vitro screening assays, and a Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 was found to harbor abilities required for hydrolyzing bile salt, reducing cholesterol, and inhibiting the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, effects of K21 on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were examined. Male C57Bl/6J mice received a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with K21 administration (109?CFU in 0.2?mL?PBS/day) for eight weeks. Supplementation of K21, but not placebo, appeared to alleviate body weight gain and epididymal fat mass accumulation, reduce plasma leptin levels, decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and mitigate liver damage in DIO mice. Moreover, the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) related to adipogenesis was significantly downregulated in DIO mice by K21 intervention. We also found that K21 supplementation strengthens intestinal permeability and modulates the amount of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium perfringens in the cecal contents of DIO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that dietary intake of K21 protects against the onset of HFD-induced obesity through multiple mechanisms of action.

Wu, Chien-Chen; Weng, Wei-Lien; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Hsien; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2015-01-01

419

In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant  

PubMed Central

Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar after exposure to the oxidizing agent peracetic acid (PAA). An automated microscope stage allowed us to analyse a much larger number of cells over extended periods of incubation. After PAA treatment, the lag time increased markedly, and extensive variation in morphology, ?max as well as stress resistance was observed between and within the tested Lactobacillus brevis strains. The results suggest that aerobic cultivation increased the oxidative stress tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis. The results also show that dead cells are randomly distributed in a microcolony and the majority of non-growing individual cells do not stain with a membrane impermanent dye (Propidium iodide), which indicates that PAA may not destroy the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the developed microscopic analysis of individual cells on MRS agar can provides faster results and more details of cell physiology compared to the traditional CFU method. PMID:25505451

Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

2014-01-01

420

Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16?S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3?h, 0.3% bile salts for 4?h, and 1.9?mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3?h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

2014-01-01

421

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of specific probiotics on alleviating obesity-related disorders. Here we aimed to identify probiotics with potential antiobesity activity among 88 lactic acid bacterial strains via in vitro screening assays, and a Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 was found to harbor abilities required for hydrolyzing bile salt, reducing cholesterol, and inhibiting the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, effects of K21 on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were examined. Male C57Bl/6J mice received a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with K21 administration (10(9)?CFU in 0.2?mL?PBS/day) for eight weeks. Supplementation of K21, but not placebo, appeared to alleviate body weight gain and epididymal fat mass accumulation, reduce plasma leptin levels, decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and mitigate liver damage in DIO mice. Moreover, the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) related to adipogenesis was significantly downregulated in DIO mice by K21 intervention. We also found that K21 supplementation strengthens intestinal permeability and modulates the amount of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium perfringens in the cecal contents of DIO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that dietary intake of K21 protects against the onset of HFD-induced obesity through multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:25802537

Wu, Chien-Chen; Weng, Wei-Lien; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Hsien; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2015-01-01

422

Application of Lactobacillus johnsonii expressing phage endolysin for control of Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is frequently found in food and the environment and produces potent toxins that have a negative impact on both human and animal health and particularly on the poultry industry. Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785, isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract, has been demonstrated to exclude Cl. perfringens in poultry. We have investigated the interaction of wild-type Lact. johnsonii FI9785 or an engineered strain expressing a cell wall-hydrolysing endolysin with Cl. perfringens in vitro, using a batch culture designed to simulate human gastrointestinal tract conditions. Co-culture experiments indicated that acid production by Lact. johnsonii is important in pathogen control. The co-culture of the endolysin-secreting Lact. johnsonii with Cl. perfringens showed that the engineered strain had the potential to control the pathogen, but the ability to reduce Cl. perfringens numbers was not consistent. Results obtained indicate that survival of high numbers of Lact. johnsonii will be essential for effective pathogen control. Significance and impact of the study: The bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785 reduces numbers of the pathogen Clostridium perfringens in vitro. Biocontrol was improved by engineering the strain to produce and export a cell wall-hydrolysing endolysin, but good survival of the producer strain is essential. The production of bacteriophage endolysins by commensal bacteria has the potential to improve competitive exclusion of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24961379

Gervasi, T; Lo Curto, R; Minniti, E; Narbad, A; Mayer, M J

2014-10-01

423

Development of a carbohydrate-supplemented semidefined medium for the semiselective cultivation of Lactobacillus spp.  

PubMed

The macronutrient and micronutrient compositions of traditional media used to cultivate Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are largely undefined, which precludes their use in many metabolic bioassays. In order to address this deficiency, we developed MS: a carbohydrate-supplemented semidefined medium with low-background coloration. MS was designed to support the semiselective cultivation of a wide range of fastidious species belonging to the Lactobacillus clade of the LAB. When supplemented with 100 mM D-glucose, the MS medium stimulated the proliferation of 21 strains of LAB, including Pediococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. The MS medium supported biomass accumulation comparable with MRS, an undefined medium routinely used for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Interestingly, however, the novel MS medium exhibited greater semiselectivity against non-LAB than MRS. Together, these results suggest that MS is an acceptable alternative to MRS for use in metabolic and phenotypic bioassays that use a colorimetric reporter system or would benefit from a semidefined nutrient composition. PMID:23691927

Menon, R; Shields, M; Duong, T; Sturino, J M

2013-09-01

424

Construction of an integrative food-grade cloning vector for Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

An integrative cloning vector was constructed using a randomly cloned HindIII-digested chromosomal fragment from Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH inserted into an Escherichia coli vector, pBluescript II SK+. Southern hybridization studies demonstrated homology of the inserted fragment with one other L. acidophilus strain and one Bifidobacterium strain. Identification of a SauI site located near the middle of the 1.9-kb ADH chromosomal fragment made it possible to clone the Lactobacillus bulgaricus beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) gene into this vector. The vector was unable to replicate in the homologous host, L. acidophilus ADH, following electroporation. The chromosomal fragment allowed the integration of the beta-galactosidase gene (beta gal) into the host chromosome via homologous recombination. The size of the two flanking L. acidophilus ADH chromosomal fragments, approximately 0.95 kb each, was sufficient to allow the double cross-over to take place. Southern hybridization demonstrated that only L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus DNA had been integrated into the chromosome of the host strain. The beta-galactosidase activity of the transformant was increased approximately 200-fold when compared to the enzyme activity of the wild-type strain. The beta gal gene remained stable in the transformant strain after 30 transfers in growth media without selection pressure. This first-generation integrative cloning vector is constructed solely of DNA from organisms consumed by humans and could be considered a food-grade vector system. PMID:8737572

Lin, M Y; Harlander, S; Savaiano, D

1996-05-01

425

Factors affecting the removal of aflatoxin M1 from food model by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains.  

PubMed

This paper describes the ability of six dairy strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to remove aflatoxin M1 (AFM 1) from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and reconstituted milk. Bacteria were incubated in both PBS and reconstituted milk containing 5, 10 and 20 ng mL(-1) for 0, 4 and 24 h at 37 degrees C. After centrifugation the concentration of AFM 1 was determined in the supernatant fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography. The binding abilities of AFM 1 by viable (10(8) CFU mL(-1)) and heat-killed Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains in PBS ranged from 10.22 to 26.65% and 14.04 to 28.97%, respectively. Similarly, AFM 1-binding capacity in reconstituted milk was found to range from 7.85 to 25.94% and from 12.85 to 27.31% for viable and heat-killed bacteria, respectively within 4 h. While B. bifidum Bb 13 was the best binder, the poorest removal was achieved by L. acidophilus NCC 68. Binding was reversible, and a small proportion of AFM 1 was released back into the solution. The toxin concentration and incubation period had no effect on the removal of AFM 1 by bacteria both in PBS and reconstituted milk. PMID:18803117

Kabak, Bulent; Var, Isil

2008-09-01

426

Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese  

PubMed Central

Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods. PMID:25610568

Mahmoudi, Razzaqh; Tajik, Hossein; Ehsani, Ali; Zare, Payman

2012-01-01

427

Probiotic Lactobacillus strains protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the capacity of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1506, to protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the preventive treatment with immunomodulatory lactobacilli such as L. casei CRL431 or L. rhamnosus CRL1506 was able to increase immature myeloid progenitors in the BM, allowing an early recovery of myeloid cells after Cy administration. Probiotic lactobacilli were also capable to induce an early recovery of neutrophils in blood, improve phagocytic cells recruitment to infectious sites and increase the resistance against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. Although deeper studies regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic actions are needed, these findings support the idea that strains like CRL431 and CRL1506 may accelerate the recovery of Cy-caused immunosuppression by immunopotentiating myeloid cells. Then, probiotic lactobacilli have the potential to be used as alternatives for lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in cancer patients. PMID:24975836

Salva, Susana; Marranzino, Gabriela; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

2014-09-01

428

Compositional Development of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Microbiota Is Linked with Crying and Fussing in Early Infancy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our aim was to establish whether there is an interconnection between the compositional development of the gut microbiota and the amount of fussing and crying in early infancy. Methods Behavioral patterns of 89 infants during the 7th and 12th week of life were recorded in parental diaries. Total distress was defined as the sum of daily amounts of crying and fussing. Infants' gut microbiota profiles were investigated by several molecular assays during the first six months of life. Results The median (range) duration of total distress among the infants was 106 (0–478) minutes a day during the 7th and 58 (0–448) minutes a day during the 12th week. The proportion of Bifidobacterium counts to total bacterial counts was inversely associated with the amount of crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life (p?=?0.03), although the number of Bifidobacterium breve was positively associated with total distress (p?=?0.02). The frequency of Lactobacillus spp. at the age of 3 weeks was inversely associated with total infant distress during the 7th week of life (p?=?0.02). Conclusions Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus appear to protect against crying and fussing. Identification of specific strains with optimal protective properties would benefit at-risk infants. PMID:22403665

Pärtty, Anna; Kalliomäki, Marko; Endo, Akihito; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

2012-01-01

429

Heterologous expression of Oenococcus oeni malolactic enzyme in Lactobacillus plantarum for improved malolactic fermentation  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum is involved in a multitude of food related industrial fermentation processes including the malolactic fermentation (MLF) of wine. This work is the first report on a recombinant L. plantarum strain successfully conducting MLF. The malolactic enzyme (MLE) from Oenococcus oeni was cloned into the lactobacillal expression vector pSIP409 which is based on the sakacin P operon of Lactobacillus sakei and expressed in the host strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Both recombinant and wild-type L. plantarum strains were tested for MLF using a buffered malic acid solution in absence of glucose. Under the conditions with L-malic acid as the only energy source and in presence of Mn2+ and NAD+, the recombinant L. plantarum and the wild-type strain converted 85% (2.5 g/l) and 51% (1.5 g/l), respectively, of L-malic acid in 3.5 days. Furthermore, the recombinant L. plantarum cells converted in a modified wine 15% (0.4 g/l) of initial L-malic acid concentration in 2 days. In conclusion, recombinant L. plantarum cells expressing MLE accelerate the malolactic fermentation. PMID:22452826

2012-01-01

430

454 pyrosequencing reveals changes in the faecal microbiota of adults consuming Lactobacillus casei Zhang.  

PubMed

Probiotics are believed to help to maintain a healthy balance of the human gut microbiota. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) is a novel potential probiotic isolated from the naturally fermented food koumiss. To better understand the impact of this potential probiotic on human intestinal microbiota, 24 subjects were randomly recruited for a longitudinal study: the subjects were required to consume LcZ for 28 days, and faecal samples were collected prior to, during and after the LcZ consumption phase. Alterations in the gut microbiota were monitored using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction(q-PCR) technologies. We found that the consumption of LcZ significantly altered the composition of intestinal microbiota (P < 0.001) and the gut microbiota diversity. Further analysis at the genus level revealed a positive correlation between LcZ and Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Propionibacterium, Bifidobacterium and an unidentified genus from Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae and a negative correlation between LcZ administration and the presence of Clostridium, Phascolarctobacterium, Serratia, Enterococcus, Shigella and Shewanella. Furthermore, these changes were confirmed by q-PCR data. PMID:24702028

Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Zhuang; Sun, Zhihong; Gesudu, Qimu; Kwok, Laiyu; Menghebilige; Zhang, Heping

2014-06-01

431

Effect of the fatty acid composition of acclimated oenological Lactobacillus plantarum on the resistance to ethanol.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes due to acclimation to ethanol on the fatty acid composition of three oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains and their effect on the resistance to ethanol and malic acid consumption (MAC). Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 133, UNQLp 65.3 and UNQLp 155 were acclimated in the presence of 6 or 10% v/v ethanol, for 48 h at 28°C. Lipids were extracted to obtain fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy. The influence of change in fatty acid composition on the viability and MAC in synthetic wine was analysed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient. Acclimated strains showed a significant change in the fatty composition with regard to the nonacclimated strains. Adaptation to ethanol led to a decrease in the unsaturated/saturated ratio, mainly resulting from an increase in the contribution of short-length fatty acid C12:0 and a decrease of C18:1. The content of C12:0 was related to a higher viability after inoculation of synthetic wine. The MAC increased at higher contents in saturated fatty acid, but its efficiency was strain dependent. PMID:25359087

Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L; Tymczyszyn, E E

2015-02-01

432

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. ?-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. PMID:25306364

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2015-03-01

433

Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23  

PubMed Central

The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria PMID:21178363

Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D. Brent; Monedero, Vicente

2011-01-01

434

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01, Isolated from Nukadoko, a Pickling Bed of Fermented Rice Bran.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01 was isolated from nukadoko, which is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used in Japan for pickling vegetables. Here, we report the first draft of an annotated genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of L. namurensis. PMID:24504001

Kato, Keita; Toh, Hidehiro; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Hibi, Naruhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

2014-01-01

435

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01, Isolated from Nukadoko, a Pickling Bed of Fermented Rice Bran  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01 was isolated from nukadoko, which is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used in Japan for pickling vegetables. Here, we report the first draft of an annotated genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of L. namurensis. PMID:24504001

Kato, Keita; Toh, Hidehiro; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Hibi, Naruhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2014-01-01

436

Lactobacillus-mediated inhibition of clinical toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus strains and its relation to acid and peroxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory activities of 39 strains representing 20 different species of Lactobacillus toward a menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) Staphylococcus aureus archetype strain MN8 were investigated. Nearly every strain (38 of 39) produced an inhibitory effect under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions when assayed on agar medium. In addition, the MN8 inhibition was conserved against at least 10 other clinical

Christopher A. Elkins; María Enriqueta Muñoz; Lisa B. Mullis; Robin L. Stingley; Mark E. Hart

2008-01-01

437

Effects of Oral Administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 on the Symptoms and Serum Markers of Atopic Dermatitis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have investigated the complementary effects of long-term oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus on traditional medical therapy in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods: The Atopic Dermatitis Area and Severity Index was used to evaluate AD severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the symptom score. The effect of medical therapy was evaluated by adding the

Shinpei Torii; Akiko Torii; Komei Itoh; Atsuo Urisu; Akihiko Terada; Takao Fujisawa; Kazue Yamada; Hiromi Suzuki; Yu Ishida; Futoshi Nakamura; Hiroki Kanzato; Daisuke Sawada; Atsuko Nonaka; Misaki Hatanaka; Shigeru Fujiwara

2011-01-01

438

Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

439

LACTOBACILLUS CASEI METABOLIC POTENTIAL TO UTILIZE CITRATE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE IN RIPENING CHEESE: A BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research describes a unique PCAC for Lactobacillus casei. Additionally, it describes the citric acid catabolism end-product by this non-starter lactic acid bacteria during growth, and under conditions similar to those present in ripening cheese. It provides insights on pathways preferably util...

440

Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

441

Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

442

Functional analyses of the cell wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314 expressed in Bacillus megaterium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. Crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including the following: lactic acid bact...

443

COMPARATIVE HIGH-DENSITY MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION DURING GROWTH OF LACTOBACILLUS HELVETICUS IN MILK VS. RICH MEDIUM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus Helveticus is one of 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) undergoing structural, functional, and comparative genomic studies by the Lactic Acid Bacteria Genome Consortium and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute. L. helveticus is a homofermentative, probiotic, lactic-acid-p...

444

Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11**TM) on Salmonella recovery was evaluated in liquid (Exp. 1) and lyophilized (Exp. 2) forms in two separate experiments with two trials each. For each trial, eighty broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatments: control and probioti...

445

Effect of Emollients Containing Vegetable-Derived Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms: Split-Body Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients suffer from xerosis. Proper skin care, including the use of emollients, may help improve xerosis and minimize disease exacerbation. Lactobacillus sakei probio 65, isolated from the Korean vegetable-based product kimchi, can decrease interleukin 4 and immunoglobulin E levels and inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, it has reportedly shown positive dermatological effects in both animal and clinical studies. Objective To compare the effects of an emollient that contains Lactobacillus (treated) with a normal emollient (control) on AD. Methods This double-blind, randomized, split-body clinical trial involved 28 patients with AD. The patients applied the Lactobacillus-containing emollient on one side of their body and the control emollient on the other side twice daily for 4 weeks. Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance were evaluated and investigator global assessment and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were administered on weeks 0, 1, 2, and 4. Results The treated sides had significantly lower TEWL and VAS values and significantly higher skin capacitance values over time than the control sides. Conclusion Topical application of Lactobacillus-containing emollients may improve the skin permeability of patients with AD. PMID:24882967

Park, Seung Bae; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Lee, Jeung Hoon; Lim, Jeongheui; Park, Yong-Ha

2014-01-01

446

Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether recurrences of urinary tract infection can be prevented with cranberry›lingonberry juice or with Lactobacillus GG drink. Design Open, randomised controlled 12 month follow up trial. Setting Health centres for university students and staff of university hospital. Participants 150 women with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli randomly allocated into three groups. Interventions 50 ml of

Tero Kontiokari; Kaj Sundqvist; M Nuutinen; T Pokka; M Koskela; M Uhari; Finnish Student

2001-01-01

447

Isolation of Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) and characterization of its bacteriocin and spectra of antimicrobial activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactobacillus salivarius 1077 (NRRL B-50053) was isolated from poultry intestinal materials after demonstrating in-vitro anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity. The isolate was then used for in-vitro fermentation. The protein content of the cell-free supernatant from the spent medium was precipitated ...

448

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain 16, a Broad-Spectrum Antifungal-Producing Lactic Acid Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum strain 16 restricts the growth of various food spoilage fungi and has the potential to be used as a biopreservative to improve the shelf life of foods. The complete genome sequence contains 3,044,678 bp with a G+C content of 44.74% and harbors the largest plasmid complement reported for this species to date. PMID:23908281

Crowley, Sarah; Bottacini, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer

2013-01-01

449

Lactobacillus plantarum Extracellular Chitin-Binding Protein and Its Role in the Interaction between Chitin, Caco-2 Cells, and Mucin? †  

PubMed Central

In the present work, we describe the adhesion capabilities of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain producing an extracellular protein from Lactobacillus plantarum. Our results show that this protein may offer the bacterium a mechanism to bind to N-acetylglucosamine-containing polymers, such as human mucins, present in different environments. PMID:21131525

Sánchez, Borja; González-Tejedo, Carmen; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Urdaci, María C.; Margolles, Abelardo

2011-01-01

450

Control of Lactobacillus contaminants in continuous fuel ethanol fermentations by constant or pulsed addition of penicillin G  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of penicillin G to combat microbial contamination in continuous fuel alcohol fermentations was performed using both continuous and pulsed addition regimes. In continuous fermentations where both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus paracasei were present, the mode of addition of penicillin G determined final numbers of viable L. paracasei. When the same overall average concentration of penicillin G was added

D. P. Bayrock; K. C. Thomas; W. M. Ingledew

2003-01-01

451

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Meningitis following Recurrent Episodes of Bacteremia in a Child Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of meningitis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a child undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Four episodes of bacteremia involving strains with pulsotypes identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid isolate preceded meningitis. After several courses of clindamycin, no relapse occurred during the patient follow-up. PMID:20844225

Robin, Frédéric; Paillard, Catherine; Marchandin, Hélène; Demeocq, François; Bonnet, Richard; Hennequin, Claire

2010-01-01

452

Comparative Functional Genomics of Lactobacillus spp. Reveals Possible Mechanisms for Specialization of Vaginal Lactobacilli to Their Environment  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus spec