Sample records for lactose intolerance

  1. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are lower in lactose. Yogurts that contain active cultures are easier to digest and much less likely to cause lactose problems. Learn to read food labels. Lactose is added to some boxed, canned, ...

  2. Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    Lactase deficiency; Milk intolerance; Disaccharidase deficiency; Dairy product intolerance ... make the lactase enzyme so they can digest milk, including breast milk. Babies born too early (premature) ...

  3. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

  4. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... When you do eat dairy products, stick with foods that have smaller amounts of lactose in them, such as aged cheeses, including cheddar. Yogurt that contains live cultures is more easily digested because it contains healthy ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people of West African, Arab, Jewish, Greek, and Italian descent. The prevalence of lactose intolerance is lowest ... Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language. What does it mean if a disorder seems ...

  6. Milk for Kids with Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... miss nutrients needed to grow and stay healthy. Milk for Kids With Lactose Intolerance Milk is good for kids. You know that. But ... of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Milk for Kids With Lactose Intolerance ? Serve milk with ...

  7. Lactose intolerance and other disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Balvir S

    2014-09-01

    Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ? 50 kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24596060

  8. Lactose and Fructose Intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitan Amir; Peter J. Whorwell

    Intolerance of dietary carbohydrate and sugars can result from a variety of genetically determined enzyme and transporter\\u000a deficiencies and is a common finding in both normal patients and those with bowel symptoms. In symptomatic patients, these\\u000a conditions can give rise to bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. These non-specific symptoms overlap with other\\u000a pathological processes and consequently, the diagnosis and

  9. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection. PMID:19960866

  10. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection. PMID:16805112

  11. Allaying fears and fallacies about lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    McBean, L D; Miller, G D

    1998-06-01

    Public awareness and misunderstandings of lactose intolerance are at an all-time high. Many people erroneously believe they are lactose intolerant or develop gastrointestinal symptoms after intake of lactose. Consequently, lactose-containing foods such as milk and other dairy foods may be eliminated unnecessarily from the diet. Because these foods are a major source of calcium, low intake of them can compromise calcium nutriture. This, in turn, can increase the risk of major chronic diseases such as osteoporosis (porous bones) and hypertension. This review is intended to help dietetics professionals alleviate clients' fears about lactose intolerance and recommend dietary strategies to improve tolerance to lactose. Scientific findings indicate that the prevalence of lactose intolerance is grossly overestimated. Other physiologic and psychologic factors can contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms that mimic lactose intolerance. Scientific findings also indicate that people with laboratory-confirmed low levels of the enzyme lactase can consume 1 serving of milk with a meal or 2 servings of milk per day in divided doses at breakfast and dinner without experiencing symptoms. Several dietary strategies are available to help lactose maldigesters include milk and other dairy foods in their diet without experiencing symptoms. PMID:9627625

  12. Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are lactose intolerant. You may also have a hydrogen breath test to confirm this diagnosis. A hydrogen breath test is done by breathing into a machine that measures the amount of hydrogen in your breath within 90 minutes of consuming ...

  13. What People with Lactose Intolerance Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... People With Lactose Intolerance Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available in: PDF (215 KB) Lactose Intolerance ( ... Alcoholism Anorexia Nervosa Arthritis Artritis (Arthritis) Arthritis and Osteoporosis: Common But Different Asthma Bed Rest and Immobilization ...

  14. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    PubMed

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p?intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients?=?83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders. PMID:23224632

  15. Fermentation, fermented foods and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    2002-12-01

    Lactose (milk sugar) is a fermentable substrate. It can be fermented outside of the body to produce cheeses, yoghurts and acidified milks. It can be fermented within the large intestine in those people who have insufficient expression of lactase enzyme on the intestinal mucosa to ferment this disaccharide to its absorbable, simple hexose sugars: glucose and galactose. In this way, the issues of lactose intolerance and of fermented foods are joined. It is only at the extremes of life, in infancy and old age, in which severe and life-threatening consequences from lactose maldigestion may occur. Fermentation as part of food processing can be used for preservation, for liberation of pre-digested nutrients, or to create ethanolic beverages. Almost all cultures and ethnic groups have developed some typical forms of fermented foods. Lessons from fermentation of non-dairy items may be applicable to fermentation of milk, and vice versa. PMID:12556948

  16. Potential Correlation between Lactose Intolerance and Cancer Occurrence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chai-Won Chung

    Lactase, the B-galactosidase enzyme, is responsible for splitting lactose molecule into glucose and galactose. Levels of lactase activity are a crucial determinant of lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance causes diarrhea and subsequent chronically induced diarrhea results in colitis with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation often is linked to etiology of colon cancers. Two other hereditary disorders, uridyl transferase and galactokinase deficiency, such

  17. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

  18. Systemic lactose intolerance: a new perspective on an old problem

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, S; Waud, J; Roberts, A; Campbell, A

    2005-01-01

    Intolerance to certain foods can cause a range of gut and systemic symptoms. The possibility that these can be caused by lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose added to many foods and drinks inadequately labelled, confusing diagnosis based on dietary removal of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. This, with a 48 hour record of gut and systemic symptoms and a six hour breath hydrogen test, provides a new approach to the clinical management of lactose intolerance. The key is the prolonged effect of dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labelled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the wide range of systemic symptoms caused by lactose intolerance. This has important implications for the management of irritable bowel syndrome, and for doctors of many specialties. PMID:15749792

  19. Lactose intolerance: a self-fulfilling prophecy leading to osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2003-06-01

    Symptoms of lactose intolerance are unlikely to occur under usual dietary conditions. Yet, self-described "lactose-intolerant" individuals often restrict dairy and calcium intake. A new study suggests that such individuals have reduced peak bone mass and increased incidence of osteopenia, and are at greater risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. PMID:12903833

  20. High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Lactose Intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Ojetti; Gabriella Nucera; Alessio Migneco; Maurizio Gabrielli; Cristiano Lauritano; Silvio Danese; Maria Assunta Zocco; Enrico Celestino Nista; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonino De Lorenzo; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Antonio Gasbarrini

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Acquired lactase deficiency is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms but its etiology remains unclear. Celiac disease could lead to lactase deficiency and is much more common than previously suspected. Several studies have highlighted the prevalence of lactose intolerance in celiac disease, but studies assessing the prevalence of celiac disease in lactose intolerance are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence

  1. Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa…

  2. Improved clinical tolerance to chronic lactose ingestion in subjects with lactose intolerance: a placebo effect?

    PubMed Central

    Briet, F; Pochart, P; Marteau, P; Flourie, B; Arrigoni, E; Rambaud, J

    1997-01-01

    Background—Uncontrolled studies of lactose intolerant subjects have shown that symptom severity decreases after chronic lactose consumption. Adaptation of the colonic flora might explain this improvement. ?Aims—To compare the effects of regular administration of either lactose or sucrose on clinical tolerance and bacterial adaptation to lactose. ?Methods—Forty six lactose intolerant subjects underwent two 50 g lactose challenges on days 1 and 15. Between these days they were given 34 g of lactose or sucrose per day, in a double blind protocol. Stool samples were obtained on days 0 and 14, to measure faecal ?-galactosidase and pH. Symptoms, breath H2 excretion, faecal weight and electrolytes, and orofaecal transit time were assessed. ?Results—Except for faecal weight, symptoms were significantly milder during the second challenge in both groups, and covariance analysis showed no statistical difference between them. In the lactose group, but not in the sucrose group, faecal ?-galactosidase activity increased, pH dropped, and breath H2 excretion decreased. ?Conclusion—Bacterial adaptation occurred when lactose intolerant subjects ingested lactose for 13 days, and all symptoms except diarrhoea regressed. Clinical improvement was also observed in the control group which displayed no signs of metabolic adaptation. This suggests that improved clinical tolerance may be just a placebo effect. ?? Keywords: lactose; lactose intolerance; colonic adaptation; lactase deficiency PMID:9414969

  3. [Lactose intolerance and consumption of milk and milk products].

    PubMed

    Sieber, R; Stransky, M; de Vrese, M

    1997-12-01

    The disaccharide lactose is present as a natural component of foods only in milk and dairy products. In the gastrointestinal tract, lactose is hydrolysed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase (lactase) into glucose and galactose. These components are absorbed. With the exception of the caucasian race, the lactase activity decreases in most people at an age of 4 to 6 years. Lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, and diarrhea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended to those persons that they refrain from the consumption of milk and dairy products. However, most lactose intolerant people are able to digest small amounts of milk. They can also consume cheese that contains no (hard and semi-hard) or only small amounts of lactose (present in only 10% of soft cheeses). These products are very important sources of calcium. Compared to milk, the lactose content of yogurt is usually lower by about one third. Studies during the last 10 years have shown that in spite of its lactose content yogurt is very well tolerated by lactose intolerant persons. This advantage is ascribed to the presence of living lactic acid bacteria in fermented dairy products which survive passage through the stomach and also to the lactase present in these products. PMID:9467238

  4. Comparison of Lactose Intolerance in Healthy Kuwaiti and Asian Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hala Al Sanae; Winston Saldanha; T. N. Sugathan; Abdul Majid Molla

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study and compare the incidence of lactose intolerance among Kuwaiti and Asian healthy volunteers as measured by breath hydrogen level following challenge with lactose drink. Subjects and Methods: The study involved 70 Kuwaiti and 79 Asian healthy volunteers. The volunteers were physicians, medical students and other hospital workers. The study was carried out prospectively at Amiri Hospital, Kuwait.

  5. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance12

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

  6. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment. PMID:24078411

  7. What is lactose tolerance / intolerance?, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

  8. Calcium Absorption from Milk and Lactose-Free Milk in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Lactose Intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kocián; I. Skála; K. Bakos

    1973-01-01

    By means of isotope 47Ca, changes in the rate and intensity of calcium absorption from lactose-free milk and normal milk were investigated as well as 47Ca losses in faeces and urine and Ca retention in the organism during a 7-day period in healthy volunteers and in patients with lactose intolerance. The shape of 47Ca absorption curves after lactose-free milk in

  9. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Priebe, Marion G; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Stellaard, Frans; Sun, Xiaohong; Welling, Gjalt W; Vonk, Roel J

    2006-01-01

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28 Chinese subjects had undergone 1 glucose (placebo) and 2 lactose challenges, consistent lactose tolerant (n = 7) and intolerant (n = 5) subjects with no complaints after glucose administration were classified on the basis of the 6-h symptom scores. Before the challenges, fecal samples were collected for in vitro incubation with lactose. The incubation was carried out in a static system under anaerobic conditions for 5 h during which samples were taken for measurement of short-chain fatty acids, lactate, lactose, glucose, and galactose. Fecal bacterial composition was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The tolerant and intolerant groups did not differ in the rate or degree of hydrolysis of lactose or production of glucose and galactose. The intolerant group produced d- and l-lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate significantly faster than the tolerant group. In the intolerant group, the amounts of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and l-lactate produced were higher than those in the tolerant group. Fecal bacterial composition did not differ between the 2 groups. The results indicate that the degree and rate of lactose hydrolysis in the colon do not play a role in lactose intolerance. However, after lactose is hydrolyzed, a faster and higher production of microbial intermediate and end metabolites may be related to the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:16365059

  10. Lactose intolerance: a non-allergic disorder often managed by allergologists.

    PubMed

    Perino, A; Cabras, S; Obinu, D; Cavalli Sforza, L

    2009-02-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary bypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen may cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This condition is known as lactose intolerance. Lactase non-persistence is the ancestral state, whilst two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactase gene have been associated with lactase persistence. These are C/T 13910 and G/A 22018 substitutions. Lactase persistence, this Mendelian dominant trait, only became advantageous after the invention of agriculture, when milk from domesticated animals became available for adults to drink. Lactase persistence is then strongly correlated with the diary history of the population. Diagnosis is assessed clinically by elimination of dietary lactose or, better, by non-invasive tests including hydrogen breath test and genetic test. In patients with lactase non-persistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous beta-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation. PMID:19496347

  11. Tolerance to the daily ingestion of two cups of milk by individuals claiming lactose intolerance13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizis L Suarez; Dennis Savaiano; Paul Arbisi; Michael D Levitt

    We reported previously that consumption of one cup of milk (240 mL) per day produced negligible symptoms in lactase-nonpersistent (LNP) individuals self-described as being severely lactose intolerant. We hypothesized that such LNP mdi- viduals could also tolerate two cups of milk per day if taken in two widely divided doses with food, and that psychologic factors play a role in

  12. Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

  13. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measures breath hydrogen level. In most cases, a health care provider performs this test at a hospital, on an outpatient basis. Smoking ... acidity test can detect in a stool sample. Health care providers sometimes use this test to check acidity in the stools of infants ...

  14. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breath hydrogen level. In most cases, a health care provider performs this test at a hospital, on an outpatient basis. Smoking ... test can detect in a stool sample. Health care providers sometimes use this test to check acidity in the stools of infants ...

  15. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advocacy Activities, Legislative & Regulatory Research Leadership Code of Ethics Funding IFFGD Standards For Collaboration Industry Council GI ... aboutIncontinence.org | aboutKidsGI.org | giResearch.org | ... Copyright 1998-2015 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, ...

  16. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  17. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    PubMed Central

    Argnani, Fiorenza; Camillo, Mauro Di; Marinaro, Vanessa; Foglietta, Tiziana; Avallone, Veronica; Cannella, Carlo; Vernia, Piero

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm) ± 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm ± 40.01 SD; P < 0.001). Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84) for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31). CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a “standard” HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance. PMID:18985811

  18. Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ?85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

  19. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...amounts of lactose, a sugar found in milk and other...Lactase breaks milk sugar down into two simpler forms of sugar called glucose and galactose...lactose-restricted diets in the belief that the...postmenopausal women. Very low intake of vitamin...

  20. Does lactose intolerance predispose to low bone density? A population-based study of perimenopausal Finnish women.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, R; Pulkkinen, P; Järvinen, R; Kröger, H; Lindstedt, K; Tuppurainen, M; Uusitupa, M

    1996-07-01

    The relationship of lactase malabsorption to osteoporosis is unclear. We examined the relationship of self-reported lactose intolerance (LI) to bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal Finnish women. A random population sample of 2025 women aged 48-59, who underwent spinal and femoral BMD measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry in Kuopio, Finland during 1989-1991 formed the study population. Out of these women, 162 women reported LI. The mean dairy calcium intake was 558 mg/day in women with LI and 828 mg/day in other women (p < 0.0001). The mean spinal BMDs were 1.097 and 1.129 g/cm2 (-2.8%) (p = 0.016) and the mean femoral BMDs were 0.906 and 0.932 g/cm2 (-2.8%) (p = 0.012) for the LI and other women, respectively. After adjusting for weight, age, years since menopause, and the history of hormone replacement therapy, these differences changed to -2.7% (p = 0.016) for the spinal and -2.4% (p = 0.012) for the femoral BMD, respectively. Dairy calcium intake was an independent determinant of femoral BMD. The addition of calcium intake variables into the multivariate model did not affect the spinal BMD difference, but weakened the femoral BMD difference to -1.9% (p = 0.075). Our results suggest that LI slightly reduces perimenopausal BMD, possibly through reduced calcium intake. PMID:8830983

  1. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for press Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute Overview Mission, founding & history, accomplishments of NICHD Organization Organization chart, ...

  2. Effects of Exogenous Lactase Administration on Hydrogen Breath Excretion and Intestinal Symptoms in Patients Presenting Lactose Malabsorption and Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ibba, Ivan; Gilli, Agnese; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A), while mean peak H2 levels (74.95?ppm versus 7.85), P < 0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B) were still positive, with the H2 level 20?ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7?ppm versus 66.64), P < 0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C) they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60?ppm). All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability. PMID:24967391

  3. [Lactose in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    de Vrese, M; Sieber, R; Stransky, M

    1998-09-19

    The disaccharide lactose is naturally present as a component of foods in milk and dairy products. In the gastrointestinal tract, lactose is hydrolysed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase (lactase) into glucose and galactose. These components are absorbed. In most people lactase activity decreases at the age of approximately 2 years of age. After this lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhoea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended that these people abandon the consumption of milk and dairy products. However, most lactose-intolerant people are able to digest small amounts of milk (approximately 200 ml). They can also consume cheese without (hard and semi-hard cheese) or only low lactose content (only present in 10% of soft cheese). These products are a very important source of calcium. PMID:9783354

  4. [Nutrition and bone health. Lactose and bone].

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Yamaura, Tomoko

    2010-03-01

    Lactose, a disaccharide in milk or dairy products, is known to promote calcium absorption. The enzyme lactase is needed to digest lactose. Although lactase is secreted normally in childhood, the secretion is decreased with growth, and the activity becomes lower in adulthood. When the activity of lactase is low, lactose passes intact the small intestine and reaches the large intestine, could cause unpleasantness such as diarrhea and stomach ache. This is called lactose intolerance. In this paper, we discuss promotion of calcium absorption by lactose, lactose intolerance, and bone health. PMID:20190373

  5. Kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Hertzler; Shannon M. Clancy

    2003-01-01

    Objective Kefir is a fermented milk beverage that contains different cultures than yogurt. The objective of this study was to determine whether kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion. Design Randomized block design. Subjects Fifteen healthy, free-living adults with lactose maldigestion. Main outcome measures Breath hydrogen excretion and lactose intolerance symptoms were monitored hourly for 8

  6. How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for press Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute Overview Mission, founding & history, accomplishments of NICHD Organization Organization chart, ...

  7. Food Intolerances and Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oner Ozdemir; Emin Mete; Ferhat Catal; Duygu Ozol

    2009-01-01

    Food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a particular food or ingredient that may or may not be related to the immune system.\\u000a A deficiency in digestive enzymes can also cause some types of food intolerances like lactose and gluten intolerance. Food\\u000a intolerances may cause unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which usually begin\\u000a about half an

  8. Lactose Intolerance: Information for Health Care Providers

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Providers Most tweens* and teens are not getting the recommended 1,300 mg of calcium a day they need to build strong bones--in fact, fewer than one in 10 girls and just more than one in four boys ages 9 to 13 in osteoporosis prevention. The tween and teen years are critical for bone development because most bone mass

  9. Relative efficiency of yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, hydrolyzed-lactose milk, and a commercial lactase tablet in alleviating lactose maldigestio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles I Onwulata; D Ramkishan Rao; Prasad Vankineni

    The relative effectiveness of commercially available plain yogurt (Y), sweet acidophilus milk(SAM), hydrolyzed-lactose milk(HLM), alactase tablet(LT), and whole milk (WM) was evaluated in 10 lactose-intolerant black subjects. In a 5 X 5 Latin square design, hourly breath hydrogen excretion (BHE) was measured for 5 h after the subjects consumed the above products (18 g lactose in each except HLM, which

  10. Lactose Tolerance Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Hydrogen Breath Test; Lactose Breath Test; Disaccharide Absorption Test; Oral Lactose Tolerance Formal name: Hydrogen Breath Test; Lactose Tolerance Test Related tests: Stool ...

  11. Impact of Lactose Containing Foods and the Genetics of Lactase on Diseases: An Analytical Review of Population Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Shrier; Andrew Szilagyi; José A. Correa

    2008-01-01

    Dairy foods (DFs) contain complex ingredients that could affect different diseases. The control of lactose digestion phenotypically divides populations into those who can [lactase persistent (LP)] and those who cannot [lactase nonpersistent (LNP)] assimilate lactose. LNP subjects, however, can adapt to lactose intolerance through intestinal bacteria. The DF\\/LNP status interactions may function as disease risk modifiers. We evaluated the relationship

  12. [Disaccharide intolerance].

    PubMed

    Radlovi?, Nedeljko

    2010-01-01

    Disaccharide intolerance presents a pathogenic heterogeneous and most complex clinical entity. It usually occurs due to primary or secondary deficit of disaccharide activity, and rarely because of disorders of absorption or monomer metabolism. Symptomatology of disaccharide maldigestion and/or malabsorption depends on the severity of the basic disorder, the level of its overload and the patient's age. In the youngest children, due to a rapid gastrointestinal transit and a low compensatory capacity of the colon, osmotic-fermentative diarrhoea forms the basis of clinical features. Diarrhoeal disorder can be occasionally so intensive that it disturbs not only water and electrolytic balance, but also the nutritive status of the child. In older children and adults, as well as in milder forms of the disorder, the symptomatology, most often without diarrhoea, is dominated by abdominal colic, loud peristaltic sounds, meteorism and increased flatulence. Metabolic disorders followed by conversion disorders of galactose and fructose into glucose are characterized by a hypoglycaemic crisis, as well as by various multisystemic damages due to the deposit of toxic metabolic products. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal forms of disaccharide intolerance is based on the pathologic clinical and laboratory response during the overload test, while that of the metabolic form is based on the confirmed presence of specific enzyme and/or genetic defect. Treatment of disaccharide intolerance is based on the elimination diet. Besides, in the secondary forms of the disorder, it is also necessary to apply the treatment of the basic disease. PMID:21365893

  13. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  14. What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include fish with soft bones, such as canned salmon or sardines broccoli and other leafy green vegetables ... liver, and certain kinds of fish, such as salmon. Also, being outside in the sunlight helps your ...

  15. Metallo-Dielectric Multilayer Structure for Lactose Malabsorption Diagnosis through H2 Breath Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Cioffi; D. de Ceglia; M. De Sario; A. D'Orazio; V. Petruzzelli; F. Prudenzano; M. Scalora; S. Trevisi; M. A. Vincenti

    2007-01-01

    A metallo-dielectric multilayer structure is proposed as a novel approach to the analysis of lactose malabsorption. When lactose intolerance occurs, the bacterial overgrowth in the intestine causes an increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. By monitoring the changes in the optical properties of a multilayer palladium-polymeric structure, one is able to detect the patient's disease and the

  16. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa?? 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  17. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  18. Streamlined analysis of lactose-free dairy products.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Morlock, Lauritz P; Lemo, Carot

    2014-01-10

    Functional food for lactose-intolerant consumers and its global prevalence has created a large market for commercially available lactose-free food products. The simplest approach for detection and quantitation of lactose in lactose-free dairy products was developed. A one-step sample preparation was employed and the resulting 10% sample solution was directly subjected to the chromatographic system. LODs down to 0.04 mg/L were obtained for dairy products by application volumes up to 250 ?L on a rectangular start zone, which is the lowest LOD reported in matrix so far. The highly matrix-robust, streamlined approach was demonstrated for a broad range of dairy products, even with high fat and protein contents. The mean recovery rate for 11 types of dairy products spiked at the strictest lactose content discussed (0.01%) was 90.5±10.5% (n=11). The mean repeatability for 11 dairy products spiked at the 0.01% level was 1.3±1.0% (n=11). It is the simplest approach with regard to sample preparation at low running costs (0.3 Euro or 0.4 USD/analysis) and fast analysis time (3 min/analysis). It enabled an efficient product screening, and at the same time, the quantitation of lactose in relevant samples. This streamlined analysis is highly attractive to the field of food safety and quality control of lactose-free dairy products, for which a limit value for lactose is expected soon in the EU. This methodological concept can be transferred to other challenging fields. PMID:24360255

  19. [Lactose tolerance and milk consumption: myths and realities].

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E

    1988-09-01

    The disaccharide lactose, the principal carbohydrate of animal milks, requires the enzyme lactase to split it to glucose and galactose. Undigested lactose passes to the colon where fermentation produces hydrogen and short-chain fatty acids that can cause abdominal distention, pain and sometimes diarrhea. Persistence of intestinal lactase after early childhood, is inherited as a highly-penetrant autosomal dominant genetic characteristic. On the basis of a review of over 560 references, all available data on the primary loss of intestinal lactase in Latin American populations are presented in tabular form. Prevalence of lactose non-digesters in Latin American populations ranges from 45% to 100%. However, this is not a reliable predictor of the acceptability of milk and milk products containing lactose. Milk is being used successfully for the supplementary feeding of children worldwide, and most lactose non-digesters can tolerate at least 240 ml of milk or the lactose equivalent in other products. Lactose maldigestion does not interfere with the absorption of the protein and essential micronutrients in milk. Information is provided on the lactose content of milk and milk products, on the usual milk consumption of Latin American populations, and on worldwide experimental and field observations of milk acceptability. Both adaptation to continued use of milk and milk products and relationships of milk use to various disease states in which intestinal lactase activity may be reduced are discussed. Some types of yoghurts are better tolerated because of the lactase activity of the bacteria used in their fermentation. For unusually intolerant individuals commercial enzyme preparations are available for addition to milk products but for most persons the additional cost is unnecessary. PMID:3155250

  20. Temperature of a test solution influences abdominal symptoms in lactose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Peuhkuri, K; Vapaatalo, H; Nevala, R; Korpela, R

    2000-02-01

    In lactose maldigesters, retarding gastric emptying (food/pharmaceuticals) improves tolerance to lactose. The role of temperature of test solution on the indicators of lactose intolerance was studied. After an overnight fast, 10 lactose maldigesters ingested, in three sessions, 50 g lactose in a randomized cross-over trial. The solutions were at temperatures of 20-21 degrees C (room temperature), 2-3 degrees C (cold) and 55-58 degrees C (hot). Gastrointestinal symptoms and indicators measuring lactose absorption were recorded. Abdominal pain was noticeably increased by the modification of temperature. The cold solution reduced flatulence and abdominal bloating, whereas the hot solution increased bloating and borborygmi. Breath hydrogen excretion tended to be augmented and retarded after cold solution. The temperature of the solution used in a lactose tolerance test affects the gastrointestinal symptoms, but has only minor effects on the other indicators of lactose maldigestion. The constant tendencies observed suggest that a room temperature solution is to be recommended for testing lactose digestion. PMID:10757456

  1. Cow's milk protein intolerance in infants under 1 year of age: A prospective epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. P. Schrander; J. P. H. van den Bogart; P. P. Forget; C. T. R. M. Schrander-Stumpel; R. H. Kuijten; A. D. M. Kester

    1993-01-01

    Incidence and clinical manifestation of cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI) were studied in 1158 unselected newborn infants followed prospectively from birth to 1 year of age. No food changes were required in 914 infants who were used as healthy controls. When CMPI was suspected (211 infants), diagnostic dietary interventions according to a standard protocol were performed. After exclusion of lactose

  2. Preparation of lactose-free pasteurized milk with a recombinant thermostable ?-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Results A thermostable ?-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase activity was 100°C and pH 6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. Conclusions The thermostablity of this recombinant ?-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization. PMID:24053641

  3. Management of statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Raju, Soma B; Varghese, Kiron; Madhu, K

    2013-11-01

    Statins are the revolutionary drugs in the cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. But they also possess several adverse effects like myopathy with elevation of hepatic transaminases (>3 times the upper limit of normal) or creatine kinase (>10 times the upper limit of normal) and some rare side-effects, including peripheral neuropathy, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and erectile dysfunction. Due to these adverse effects, patients abruptly withdrew statins without consulting physicians. This abrupt discontinuation of statins is termed as statin intolerance. Statin-induced myopathy constitutes two third of all side-effects from statins and is the primary reason for statin intolerance. Though statin intolerance has considerably impacted cardiovascular outcomes in the high-risk patients, it has been well effectively managed by prescribing statins either as alternate-day or once weekly dosage regimen, as combination therapy with a non-statin therapy or and by dietary intervention. The present article reviews the causes, clinical implications of statin withdrawal and management of statin intolerance. PMID:24381870

  4. Management of statin intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Soma B.; Varghese, Kiron; Madhu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Statins are the revolutionary drugs in the cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. But they also possess several adverse effects like myopathy with elevation of hepatic transaminases (>3 times the upper limit of normal) or creatine kinase (>10 times the upper limit of normal) and some rare side-effects, including peripheral neuropathy, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and erectile dysfunction. Due to these adverse effects, patients abruptly withdrew statins without consulting physicians. This abrupt discontinuation of statins is termed as statin intolerance. Statin-induced myopathy constitutes two third of all side-effects from statins and is the primary reason for statin intolerance. Though statin intolerance has considerably impacted cardiovascular outcomes in the high-risk patients, it has been well effectively managed by prescribing statins either as alternate-day or once weekly dosage regimen, as combination therapy with a non-statin therapy or and by dietary intervention. The present article reviews the causes, clinical implications of statin withdrawal and management of statin intolerance. PMID:24381870

  5. Lactose maldigestion, calcium intake and osteoporosis in African-, Asian-, and Hispanic-Americans.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K A; Savaiano, D A

    2001-04-01

    Dietary calcium is critical for the development of the human skeleton and likely plays an important role in the prevention of osteoporosis. Dairy products provide approximately three-fourths of calcium consumed in the diet and are the most concentrated sources of this essential nutrient. One obstacle that likely interferes with calcium consumption among many ethnic groups is lactose maldigestion. The real or perceived occurrence of intolerance symptoms after dairy food consumption may cause maldigesters to avoid dairy products. Several investigators have observed a relationship between lactose maldigestion, dietary calcium and osteoporosis in Caucasian populations. Research on ethnically diverse populations is necessary to better understand how lactose maldigestion influences the risk for osteoporosis. Low calcium intakes, a greater than previously thought potential for low bone density and extensive lactose maldigestion among Hispanic-American and Asian-American populations may create an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Dietary management strategies for lactose maldigesters to increase calcium consumption include consuming (1) dairy foods with meals, (2) yogurts, (3) calcium-fortified foods, (4) using lactose digestive aids and (5) including dairy foods daily in the diet to enhance colonic metabolism of lactose. PMID:11349943

  6. High lactose tolerance in North Europeans: a result of migration, not in situ milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Vuorisalo, Timo; Arjamaa, Olli; Vasemägi, Anti; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Tourunen, Auli; Saloniemi, Irma

    2012-01-01

    The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, which must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose before the sugars can be digested. While 65% or more of the total human population are lactose intolerant, in some human populations lactase activity commonly persists into adulthood. Lactose tolerance is exceptionally widespread in Northern European countries such as Sweden and Finland, with tolerance levels of 74% and 82%, respectively. Theoretically, this may result either from a strong local selection pressure for lactose tolerance, or from immigration of lactose tolerant people to Northern Europe. We provide several lines of archaeological and historical evidence suggesting that the high lactose tolerance in North Europeans cannot be explained by selection from in situ milk consumption. First, fresh cow milk has not belonged to the traditional diet of Swedes or Finns until recent times. Second, not enough milk has been available for adult consumption. Cattle herding has been neither widespread nor productive enough in Northern Europe to have provided constant access to fresh milk. We suggest that the high prevalence of lactose tolerance in Finland in particular may be explained by immigration of people representing so-called Corded Ware Culture, an early culture representing agricultural development in Europe. PMID:22643754

  7. Lactose causes heart arrhythmia in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Wann, Kenneth T; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2004-10-01

    The cladoceran Daphnia pulex is well established as a model for ecotoxicology. Here, we show that D. pulex is also useful for investigating the effects of toxins on the heart in situ and the toxic effects in lactose intolerance. The mean heart rate at 10 degrees C was 195.9+/-27.0 beats/min (n=276, range 89.2-249.2, >80% 170-230 beats/min). D. pulex heart responded to caffeine, isoproteronol, adrenaline, propranolol and carbachol in the bathing medium. Lactose (50-200 mM) inhibited the heart rate by 30-100% (K(1/2)=60 mM) and generated severe arrhythmia within 60 min. These effects were fully reversible by 3-4 h. Sucrose (100-200 mM) also inhibited the heart rate, but glucose (100-200 mM) and galactose (100-200 mM) had no effect, suggesting that the inhibition by lactose or sucrose was not simply an osmotic effect. The potent antibiotic ampicillin did not prevent the lactose inhibition, and two diols known to be generated by bacteria under anaerobic conditions were also without effect. The lack of effect of l-ribose (2 mM), a potent inhibitor of beta-galactosidase, supported the hypothesis that lactose and other disaccharides may affect directly ion channels in the heart. The results show that D. pulex is a novel model system for studying effects of agonists and toxins on cell signalling and ion channels in situ. PMID:15465669

  8. Prediction of lactose malabsorption in referral patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack A. DiPalma; Roberto M. Narvaez

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred forty-two patients referred for various gastrointestinal complaints were evaluated for clinical parameters that would predict findings of lactose malabsorption. Breath hydrogen and blood glucose lactose tests were performed after ingestion of 50 g lactose. Presenting complaints, duration of symptoms, and patient demographics such as age, sex, and ethnic heritage were not different between lactose malabsorbers and absorbers as

  9. Modification of Colonic Fermentation by Bifidobacteria and pH In Vitro (Impact on Lactose Metabolism, Short-Chain Fatty Acid, and Lactate Production)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianan Jiang; Dennis A. Savaiano

    1997-01-01

    Colonic fermentation plays an important role inthe prevention of lactose intolerance and intestinaldisorders. The objectives of this study were to evaluatewhether supplementation with bifidobacteria modify colonic fermentation of lactose andshort-chain fatty acid production and to assessinfluence of the pH in an in vitro continuous culturesystem. There was a significantly greater reduction inlactose concentrations at pH 6.7 than that at either

  10. Lactose digestion by human jejunal biopsies: the relationship between hydrolysis and absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, D J; Lobley, R W; Burrows, P C; Miller, V; Holmes, R

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between lactose hydrolysis and absorption of released glucose was investigated by determining the kinetics of lactose digestion by jejunal biopsies incubated in vitro. Lactase activity in intact biopsies correlated with conventional assay of tissue homogenates (r = 0.85, p less than 0.001), and glucose uptake from 28 mM lactose was directly proportional to lactase activity (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001) in 21 subjects with normal lactase levels, six with hypolactasia (primary or secondary to coeliac disease) and two with lactose intolerance but normal lactase activity. Kinetic analysis at 0.56-56 mM lactose in five normal subjects showed saturable kinetics for hydrolysis (app Km = 33.9 +/- 2.2 mM; app Vmax = 26.5 +/- 1.1 nmol/min/mg dry weight) but glucose uptake could be fitted to a model either of saturable uptake (app Kt = 47.2 +/- 0.3 mM; app Jmax = 14.1 +/- 0.2 nmol/min/mg) or saturable uptake plus a linear component (app Kt = 21.3 +/- 1.15; app Jmax = 4.59 +/- 0.12; app Kd = 0.093 +/- 0.010 nmol/min/mg/mM). The proportion of glucose taken into the tissue did not significantly exceed 50% of the total released at any lactose concentration suggesting the lack of an efficient capture mechanism for the released glucose. The results suggest that lactose hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the overall absorption of glucose from lactose in vitro, and that the relationship between hydrolysis and absorption is the same in normal subjects and in hypolactasic subjects. PMID:3084346

  11. Hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images PMID:9610797

  12. [Analgesic intolerance in asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Hussein, A

    1988-03-01

    The different clinical presentations of analgesics-intolerance are presented in four asthmatic children. Analgesics-intolerance is rare in children and both sexes are equally affected. The affected children have either a severe mixed asthma and often a chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps, or a chronic urticaria. Often, the first manifestation occurs several years after onset of asthma and is triggered by respiratory infections. Ingestion of most analgesics may cause severe bronchial obstruction, urticaria, angioedema, collaps and rhinitis. The diagnosis can be established by an unequivocal history, or, in uncertain cases, by an inhalation challenge with lysin-acetylsalicylate. The best prophylaxis and therapy is to avoid all responsible drugs. The inhibitory effect of most analgesics on the cyclooxygenase initiates impairments in the metabolism of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are suspected to cause the bronchial obstruction in intolerant patients. PMID:2967430

  13. Hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption: The importance of timing and the number of breath samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Camillo, Mauro; Marinaro, Vanessa; Argnani, Fiorenza; Foglietta, Tiziana; Vernia, Piero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hydrogen breath test (H2BT) is the most widely used procedure in the diagnostic workup of lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance. AIM: To establish whether a simplified two-or three-sample test may reduce time, costs and staff resources without reducing the sensitivity of the procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 1112 patients (292 men, 820 women) with a positive 4 h, nine-sample H2BT were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified according to the degree of lactose malabsorption, the occurrence and type of symptoms. Loss of sensitivity in the procedure was evaluated taking into account two-sample tests (0 min and 120 min or 0 min and 210 min) or three-sample tests (0 min, 120 min and 180 min or 0 min, 120 min and 210 min). RESULTS: Using a two-sample test (0 min and 120 min or 0 min and 210 min) the false-negative rate was 33.4% and 22.7%, respectively. With a three-sample test (0 min, 120 min and 180 min or 0 min, 120 min or 210 min), lactose malabsorption was diagnosed in 91.2% (1014 of 1112) patients and in 96.1% (1068 of 1112) patients, respectively. Of 594 patients with abdominal symptoms, 158 (26.6%) and 73 (12.2%) would have false-negative results with 0 min and 120 min or 0 min and 210 min two-sample tests, respectively. The three-sample tests, 0 min, 120 min and 180 min or 0 min, 120 min and 210 min, have a false-negative rate of 5.9% and 2.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A three-sample H2BT is time-and cost-sparing without significant loss of sensitivity for the diagnosis both of lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance. PMID:16609755

  14. Hydrogen-producing Escherichia coli strains overexpressing lactose permease: FT-IR analysis of the lactose-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Dimanta, Ilze; Gavare, Marita; Strazdina, Inese; Liepins, Janis; Juhna, Talis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease gene (lacY) was overexpressed in the septuple knockout mutant of Escherichia coli, previously engineered for hydrogen production from glucose. It was expected that raising the lactose transporter activity would elevate the intracellular lactose concentration, inactivate the lactose repressor, induce the lactose operon, and as a result stimulate overall lactose consumption and conversion. However, overexpression of the lactose transporter caused a considerable growth delay in the recombinant strain on lactose, resembling to some extent the "lactose killing" phenomenon. Therefore, the recombinant strain was subjected to selection on lactose-containing media. Selection on plates with 3% lactose yielded a strain with a decreased content of the recombinant plasmid but with an improved ability to grow and produce hydrogen on lactose. Macromolecular analysis of its biomass by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that increase of the cellular polysaccharide content might contribute to the adaptation of E. coli to lactose stress. PMID:23725289

  15. Treating statin-intolerant patients

    PubMed Central

    Arca, Marcello; Pigna, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular events and are safe for almost all patients. Nevertheless, intolerance to statins is frequently faced in clinical practice. This is mostly due to muscular symptoms (myalgia with or without increase of plasma creatinine kinase) and/or elevation of hepatic aminotransferases, which overall constitutes approximately two-thirds of reported adverse events during statin therapy. These side effects raise concerns in patients as well as in doctors and are likely to reduce patients’ adherence and, as a consequence, the cardiovascular benefit. Therefore, it is mandatory that clinicians improve their knowledge on the clinical aspects of muscular and hepatic side effects of statin therapy as well as their ability to manage patients with statin intolerance. Besides briefly examining the clinical aspects and the mechanisms that are proposed to be responsible for the most common statin-associated side effects, the main purpose of this article is to review the available approaches to manage statin-intolerant patients. The first step is to determine whether the adverse events are indeed related to statin therapy. If so, lowering the dosage or changing statin, alternate dosing options, or the use of nonstatin compounds may be practical strategies. The cholesterol-lowering potency as well as the usefulness of these different approaches in treating statin-intolerant patients will be examined based on currently available data. However, the cardiovascular benefit of these strategies has not been well established, so their use has to be guided by a careful clinical assessment of each patient. PMID:21779147

  16. Strategies to overcome statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Agouridis, Aris P; Nair, Devaki R; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-06-01

    This editorial discusses several options to overcome statin intolerance in clinical practice. For example, switching to a different statin, changing statin dosing, using lipid-lowering drugs other than statins (e.g., ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants and fibrates, alone or in combination), or combining statins with other lipid-lowering drugs. The authors focus on the potential mechanisms involved in statin-related myopathy. New lipid-lowering drugs currently in development (e.g., cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors [anacetrapib] and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 inhibitors) inhibitors may help in the management of statin intolerance while achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets as set out by the guidelines. PMID:25786568

  17. A comparison of diagnostic tests for lactose malabsorption - which one is the best?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Perceived milk intolerance is a common complaint, and tests for lactose malabsorption (LM) are unreliable. This study assesses the agreement between diagnostic tests for LM and describes the diagnostic properties of the tests. Methods Patients above 18 years of age with suspected LM were included. After oral intake of 25 g lactose, a combined test with measurement of serum glucose (s-glucose) and hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) in expired air was performed and symptoms were recorded. In patients with discrepancies between the results, the combined test was repeated and a gene test for lactose non-persistence was added. The diagnosis of LM was based on an evaluation of all tests. The following tests were compared: Increase in H2, CH4, H2+CH4 and H2+CH4x2 in expired air, increase in s-glucose, and symptoms. The agreement was calculated and the diagnostic properties described. Results Sixty patients were included, seven (12%) had LM. The agreement (kappa-values) between the methods varied from 0.25 to 0.91. The best test was the lactose breath test with measurement of the increase in H2 + CH4x2 in expired air. With a cut-off level < 18 ppm, the area under the ROC-curve was 0.967 and sensitivity was 100%. This shows that measurement of CH4 in addition to H2 improves the diagnostic properties of the breath test. Conclusion The agreement between commonly used methods for the diagnosis of LM was unsatisfactory. A lactose breath test with measurement of H2 + CH4x2 in expired air had the best diagnostic properties. PMID:19878587

  18. Milk and lactose-hydrolyzed milk1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Payne-Bose; Jack D. Welsh; Harry L. Gearhart; R. D. Morrison

    Seven females 18 to 26 years old (mean 23 years) who were lactose malabsor- bers as determined by a lactose tolerance test were given two different test meals: 5 mI\\/kg body weight reconstituted nonfat dry milk and 5 ml\\/kg body weight reconstituted nonfat dry milk in which 92 % of the lactose had been hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. Lactose

  19. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: Stabilization by exogenous lactose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Rapoport; G. M. Khroustalyova; L. M. Crowe; J. H. Crowe

    2009-01-01

    We have found that incubation in lactose solutions (0.75 M) of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae sensitive to dehydration damage increased the stability of the cells during dehydration. Simultaneously with this increase\\u000a in viability, a decrease in plasma membrane permeability during rehydration was seen. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy\\u000a to measure lipid phase transitions, we observed that the lactose treatment depressed

  20. Lactose Utilization and Hydrolysis in Saccharomyces fragilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. DAVIES

    1964-01-01

    SUMMARY Sodium azide, 2,4-dinitrophenol and iodoacetate did not inhibit hydrolysis of lactose by cell-free preparations of Sacchuromyces fragilis ,8-galactosidase, but with intact organisms fermentation and hydrolysis were inhibited to a similar extent. This suggests that these inhibitors may interfere with the transport of lactose into the cell. Galactose fermentation was inhibited by sodium azide and dinitrophenol to a much greater

  1. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  2. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  3. Construction of lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose fermentation into ethanol fuel.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Guo, Xuewu; Shen, Tong; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2013-04-01

    Two lactose-consuming diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, AY-51024A and AY-51024M, were constructed by expressing the LAC4 and LAC12 genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the host strain AY-5. In AY-51024A, both genes were targeted to the ATH1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to abolish the activity of acid/neutral trehalase. In AY-51024M, both genes were respectively integrated into the MIG1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to relieve glucose repression. Physiologic studies of the two transformants under anaerobic cultivations in glucose and galactose media indicated that the expression of both LAC genes did not physiologically burden the cells, except for AY-51024A in glucose medium. Galactose consumption was initiated at higher glucose concentrations in the MIG1 deletion strain AY-51024M than in the corresponding wild-type strain and AY-51024A, wherein galactose was consumed until glucose was completely depleted in the mixture. In lactose medium, the Sp. growth rates of AY-51024A and AY-51024M under anaerobic shake-flasks were 0.025 and 0.067 h(-1), respectively. The specific lactose uptake rate and ethanol production of AY-51024M were 2.50 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 23.4 g l(-1), respectively, whereas those of AY-51024A were 0.98 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 24.3 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1), respectively. In concentrated cheese whey powder solutions, AY-51024M produced 63.3 g l(-1) ethanol from approximately 150 g l(-1) initial lactose in 120 h, conversely, AY-51024A consumed 63.7 % of the initial lactose and produced 35.9 g l(-1) ethanol. Therefore, relieving glucose repression is an effective strategy for constructing lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae. PMID:23344501

  4. [Prevalence of selective lactose malabsorption in Khants].

    PubMed

    Lember, M; Tamm, A; Pi?rsoo, A; Suurmaa, K; Kermes, K; Kermes, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of selective lactose malabsorption (SLM) in Khants, a small finno-ugric nation living in West Siberia. A total of 80 Khants from the Surgut region (Tyumen territory) were studied. The diagnosis of SLM was based on the evidence obtained at a 50 g lactose and, if possible, a 25 g + 25 g galactose-glucose loads. In 6 cases electron-microscopic examination of the duodenal mucosa was performed. The prevalence of SLM in the Khants reached 93-94% being the highest in CIS. PMID:8649000

  5. Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies and physiological -- Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and an important osmotic regulator of lacta- tion suffers from lactase deficiency. A reduction in milk lactose content could be beneficial for nutritional

  6. Lactose Permease H+-Lactose Symporter: Mechanical Switch or Brownian Ratchet?

    PubMed Central

    Naftalin, Richard J.; Green, Nicholas; Cunningham, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Lactose permease structure is deemed consistent with a mechanical switch device for H+-coupled symport. Because the crystallography-assigned docking position of thiodigalactoside (TDG) does not make close contact with several amino acids essential for symport; the switch model requires allosteric interactions between the proton and sugar binding sites. The docking program, Autodock 3 reveals other lactose-docking sites. An alternative cotransport mechanism is proposed where His-322 imidazolium, positioned in the central pore equidistant (5–7 Å) between six charged amino acids, Arg-302 and Lys-319 opposing Glu-269, Glu-325, Asp-237, and Asp-240, transfers a proton transiently to an H-bonded lactose hydroxyl group. Protonated lactose and its dissociation product H3O+ are repelled by reprotonated His-322 and drift in the electrostatic field toward the cytosol. This Brownian ratchet model, unlike the conventional carrier model, accounts for diminished symport by H322N mutant; how H322 mutants become uniporters; why exchanging Lys-319 with Asp-240 paradoxically inactivates symport; how some multiple mutants become revertant transporters; the raised export rate and affinity toward lactose of uncoupled mutants; the altered specificity toward lactose, melibiose, and galactose of some mutants, and the proton dissociation rate of H322 being 100-fold faster than the symport turnover rate. PMID:17325012

  7. Dairy intolerance syndrome in Iranian young adult

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Peyman; Mirshahzadeh, Peyman; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products intolerance is defined by existing of gastrointestinal symptoms following dairy product consumption. Its prevalence varies among different countries. This study is conducted to determine the frequencies and severities of intolerance symptoms in the consumption of different dairy products in Iranian students of Medical Sciences. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1041 students from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences who apparently were healthy and had not used any drug before, participated. The questionnaire included information about dairy product consumption and avoidance, severity of dairy intolerance symptoms included gas passing, flatulence, diarrhea and abdominal pain and coexistence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) RESULTS: The frequencies of dairy intolerance syndromes in milk, yoghurt, cheese and ice cream consumption were 51.1% (532), 16.6% (173), 11.7% (122) and 13.4% (140), respectively. Most severe symptoms for milk, yoghurt, cheese and ice cream intolerance were diarrhea (2.11 ± 0.08), gas passing (1.56 ± 0.09) and flatulence (1.49 ± 0.09), respectively. Fifty (9.4%) of symptomatic respondents never drank milk. Correlation coefficient between symptoms severity and the avoidance of consumption in milk intolerance was 0.38. CONCLUSIONS: Students tolerate other dairy products better in comparison with milk. In the present study, the phenomenon as irritable bowel syndrome was not strongly associated with the severity of all symptoms in dairy intolerant persons. Also, there were weak association between the severity of symptoms with dairy consumption and avoidance, but more studies are needed to evaluate calcium absorption and osteoporosis in symptomatic cases. PMID:21772909

  8. Impact of lactose containing foods and the genetics of lactase on diseases: an analytical review of population data.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Ian; Szilagyi, Andrew; Correa, José A

    2008-01-01

    Dairy foods (DFs) contain complex ingredients that could affect different diseases. The control of lactose digestion phenotypically divides populations into those who can [lactase persistent (LP)] and those who cannot [lactase nonpersistent (LNP)] assimilate lactose. LNP subjects, however, can adapt to lactose intolerance through intestinal bacteria. The DF/LNP status interactions may function as disease risk modifiers. We evaluated the relationship between DF and LNP with colorectal, breast, prostate, ovarian, lung, and stomach cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Yearly per capita DF consumption, LNP national prevalence, cancer mortality, and incidence of IBD were obtained from several sources. A negative binomial regression model was used to derive incremental risks. There were statistically significant (P

  9. Lactose maldigestion in different age groups of north Indians.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V; Bhasin, D K; Naik, N; Subhiah, M; Ravinder, Pal

    2004-01-01

    Lactase activity with age has been reported in a wide variety of population globally. However, most of these studies in human have ignored to assess age stratified lactose maldigestion. Therefore, the present study was planned to determine lactose maldigestion in different age groups of north Indians adults. Two hundred apparently healthy north Indians (age rage 10-80 years) were subjected to a 50g lactose hydrogen breath test by standard method using a Model 12 Microlyzer from Quintron, USA. The percentage of lactose maldigestion was calculated for different age groups with an interval of 10 years. The results of this study revealed that the frequency of lactose maldigestion did not differ significantly among the age groups. Thus, this study suggests that lactose maldigestion is not associated with age stratification among north Indians. PMID:15303465

  10. Lactose metabolism involving phospho-beta-galactosidase in Klebsiella.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, B G

    1979-01-01

    Klebsiella strain RE1755A is a Lac- Gal- mutant which has lost both of its lac operons, but possesses a gene specifying beta-galactosidase III, an enzyme which hydrolyzes o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside but does not hydrolyze lactose. Selective pressure was applied to isolate mutants able to utilize lactose. The lactose-utilizing mutants obtained were shown to possess an unaltered beta-galactosidase III. Lactose utilization was shown to result from a pleiotropic mutation which also (i) permits galactose utilization and (ii) prevents induction of beta-galactosidase III synthesis by lactose. Evidence is presented suggesting that a phospho-beta-galactosidase enzyme is involved in lactose metabolism. PMID:110764

  11. Adverse Reactions to Food: Allergies and Intolerances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Montalto; Luca Santoro; Ferruccio D’Onofrio; Valentina Curigliano; Antonella Gallo; Dina Visca; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonio Gasbarrini; Giovanni Gasbarrini

    2008-01-01

    All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as ‘adverse reactions to food’. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into ‘food allergies’ when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and ‘food intolerances’ when there are no

  12. Structural prediction and comparative docking studies of psychrophilic ?- Galactosidase with lactose, ONPG and PNPG against its counter parts of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ponnada Suresh; Pulicherla, KK; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kumar, Anmol; Rao, KRS Sambasiva

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes from psychrophiles catalyze the reactions at low temperatures with higher specific activity. Among all the psychrophilic enzymes produced, cold active ?-galactosidase from marine psychrophiles revalorizes a new arena in numerous areas at industrial level. The hydrolysis of lactose in to glucose and galactose by cold active ?-galactosidase offers a new promising approach in removal of lactose from milk to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance. Herein we propose, a 3D structure of cold active ?-galactosidase enzyme sourced from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis by using Modeler 9v8 and best model was developed having 88% of favourable region in ramachandran plot. Modelling was followed by docking studies with the help of Auto dock 4.0 against the three substrates lactose, ONPG and PNPG. In addition, comparative docking studies were also performed for the 3D model of psychrophilic ?-galactosidase with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. Docking studies revealed that binding affinity of enzyme towards the three different substrates is more for psychrophilic enzyme when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. It indicates that the enzyme has high specific activity at low temperature when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. PMID:21769193

  13. Production of a lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixture by using selective enzymatic oxidation of lactose into lactobionic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Splechtna; Inge Petzelbauer; Ursula Baminger; Dietmar Haltrich; Klaus D Kulbe; Bernd Nidetzky

    2001-01-01

    We report a novel and efficient way of producing lactose-derived galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that do not contain remaining lactose and monosaccharides. The initial sugar mixture was obtained by enzymatic transformation at 70°C of a lactose solution of 270 g\\/liter using recombinant ?-glycosidase from the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. At the optimum reaction time for kinetically controlled transgalactosylation, it contained 46% monosaccharides, 13%

  14. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using {sup 14}C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Section of Physical Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A. [Food Biotechnology group, Section of Analytical, Environmental and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2008-08-14

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation {sup 14}C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities.

  15. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ?Bé densities as compared with higher initial ?Bé densities.

  16. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing. PMID:22320279

  17. Intravenous immune globulin in lysinuric protein intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dionisi-Vici; L. De Felice; M. El Hachem; S. Bottero; C. Rizzo; A. Paoloni; B. Goffredo; G. Sabetta; M. Caniglia

    1998-01-01

    In addition to systemic manifestations with skeletal, pulmonary, renal, and haematological signs, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a membrane transport defect of cationic amino acids, is often complicated by severe life-threatening immunological manifestations. A 10-year-old boy with LPI who exhibited a severe systemic immunohaematological disease is described here. This patient showed cutaneous lesions similar to the subacute form of systemic lupus

  18. Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

  19. Detection and characterization of virulence factors in lactose positive and lactose negative Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Kumar; P. K. Surendran; Nirmala Thampuran

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to understand the prevalence of lactose positive (lac+) and lactose negative (lac?) Salmonella serovars in seafood and to determine the presence of virulence traits by PCR assay. Salmonella serovars were isolated from fish, shrimp, crab, clam, mussel, oyster, squid and cuttlefish of fish market and fish landing centers of Cochin, India. Lac?Salmonella were identified in 18.9%

  20. CALCIUM AND ZINC ABSORPTION FROM LACTOSE-CONTAINING AND LACTOSE-FREE INFANT FORMULAS 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Calcium absorption is enhanced by the presence of lactose, but the quantitative significance of this effect in infant formulas is uncertain. It is also not known whether lactose affects zinc absorption. Objective: We measured the absorption of calcium and zinc from infant formulas by ...

  1. Intolerance of ambiguity in students entering medical school.

    PubMed

    DeForge, B R; Sobal, J

    1989-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity is the perception of ambiguous situations as a threat. Medical students with differing levels of intolerance of ambiguity may select medical specialties based upon the amount of ambiguity existing in the practice of each specialty. A cross-sectional survey at one state university administered Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale to all entering first-year medical students for four consecutive years (N = 609) to investigate patterns of intolerance of ambiguity in relationship with demographic variables and initial medical specialty preference. The medical students in this study were more intolerant of ambiguity than those first studied by Budner in 1962. Students entering in 1985 were slightly more intolerant of ambiguity than students in 1988. Students age 23 and older were less intolerant of ambiguity than students 18-22 years old. Men and students with natural/physical science undergraduate majors were more intolerant of ambiguity than their counterparts. However, medical specialty preference was not related to intolerance of ambiguity. Intolerance of ambiguity may be a personality trait or a learned characteristic, and needs further investigation. PMID:2705020

  2. Adaptive Evolution of a Lactose-Consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae Recombinant?

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc; Teixeira, José A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation. A flocculent lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (?-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was constructed previously but showed poor efficiency in lactose fermentation. This strain was therefore subjected to an evolutionary engineering process (serial transfer and dilution in lactose medium), which yielded an evolved recombinant strain that consumed lactose twofold faster, producing 30% more ethanol than the original recombinant. We identified two molecular events that targeted the LAC construct in the evolved strain: a 1,593-bp deletion in the intergenic region (promoter) between LAC4 and LAC12 and a decrease of the plasmid copy number by about 10-fold compared to that in the original recombinant. The results suggest that the intact promoter was unable to mediate the induction of the transcription of LAC4 and LAC12 by lactose in the original recombinant and that the deletion established the transcriptional induction of both genes in the evolved strain. We propose that the tuning of the expression of the heterologous LAC genes in the evolved recombinant was accomplished by the interplay between the decreased copy number of both genes and the different levels of transcriptional induction for LAC4 and LAC12 resulting from the changed promoter structure. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude other possible mutations that may have contributed to the improved lactose fermentation phenotype. This study illustrates the usefulness of simple evolutionary engineering approaches in strain improvement. The evolved strain efficiently fermented threefold-concentrated cheese whey, providing an attractive alternative for the fermentation of lactose-based media. PMID:18245248

  3. [Selection of thermophilic lactose-fermenting yeast strains].

    PubMed

    Ianeva, O D; Sichkar', S V; Voronina, A A; Podgorski?, V S

    2012-01-01

    The screening and selection of lactose-fermenting yeasts among 97 collection yeast strains belonging to different taxonomic groups has been conducted to obtain ethanol from whey. The strains (n=18) (1 strain of K. lactis. 16 strains of K. marxianus and 1 strain of C. kefyr) fermented lactose at 48 degrees C and 15 selected strains rapidly consumed lactose within 24-48 h of cultivation. The presence of 6% of ethanol in the medium resulted in a considerable growth inhibition (more than 80%) of the selected strains. PMID:23293829

  4. Lactose Engineering for Better Performance in Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is generally formulated as a powder mixture of coarse carrier particles and micronized drug with aerodynamic diameters of 1-5 ?m. Carrier particles are used to improve drug particle flowability, thus improving dosing accuracy, minimizing the dose variability compared with drug alone and making them easier to handle during manufacturing operations. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in DPIs formulations and nowadays various inhalation grades of lactose with different physico-chemical properties are available on the market. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to review evolution of lactose as a carrier in inhalable formulations, their production and the impact of its physico-chemical properties on drug dispersion. This review offers a perspective on the current reported studies to modify lactose for better performance in DPIs. PMID:24312791

  5. Lactose engineering for better performance in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is generally formulated as a powder mixture of coarse carrier particles and micronized drug with aerodynamic diameters of 1-5 ?m. Carrier particles are used to improve drug particle flowability, thus improving dosing accuracy, minimizing the dose variability compared with drug alone and making them easier to handle during manufacturing operations. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in DPIs formulations and nowadays various inhalation grades of lactose with different physico-chemical properties are available on the market. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to review evolution of lactose as a carrier in inhalable formulations, their production and the impact of its physico-chemical properties on drug dispersion. This review offers a perspective on the current reported studies to modify lactose for better performance in DPIs. PMID:24312791

  6. Nutrition, population growth and disease: a short history of lactose.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-08-01

    Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. PMID:23574334

  7. [Lactose malabsorption diagnosis with H2 breath test].

    PubMed

    Sevá-Pereira, A; da Silva, R de C; Pereira-Filho, R A

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and five healthy subjects under investigation for lactose malabsorption were enrolled in this prospective study. After an overnight fast, breath was collected immediately before and every 15 minutes for three hours after an oral administration of 50 g lactose dissolved in 200 mL of water (lactose overload). Blood samples were also collected before and 20, 40 and 60 minutes after the lactose overload for blood glucose determination. Expired H2 was measured by gas chromatography using a Quintron Microlyser and the maximum increase in H2 (delta-H2) was calculated. The area under the curve (ASC-H2) was also calculated using the trapezoid model. Lactose malabsorption was defined as a maximum increase in blood glucose (delta-G) under 18 mg%. The sensibility (S), specificity (E) and accuracy (A) of the H2 determination was analyzed using (a) linear regression [log (ASC-H2) = 4.034-0.029. delta-G], (b) receiver operating curve (ROC) and by (c) Q-Q plot of the cubit root transformation of the ASC-H2 values. Our results demonstrate that ASC-H2, but not delta-H2, correlates with delta-G, suggesting that the measurement of maximum increase in H2 expired following a lactose overload is not reliable for the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption. The cutoff value for the ASC-H2 using linear regression was 3260 (S = 89.3%, E = 80% and A = 86.7%), while using ROC it was 3353 (S = 88.0%, E = 80.0% and A = 85.7%) and while using Q-Q plot method it was 2936 (S = 92.0%, E = 80.0% and A = 88.6%). When the cutoff value was set to 3000, the sensibility, specificity and accuracy were 90.7%, 80.0% and 88.6%, respectively. We conclude that the calculation of the ASC-H2, but not delta-H2, following a lactose overload is reliable in detecting lactose malabsorption and can be used in the clinical practice. PMID:10511875

  8. Lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide adulteration in milk.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-06-21

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect semicarbazide and lactose semicarbazone in milk was developed as part of a programme to set up methods for detecting the economically motivated adulteration of raw milk with nitrogen-containing compounds. The detection of semicarbazide was hampered by that fact that this compound tended to give broad, poor intensity peaks in the hydrophobic interaction chromatographic method employed. When spiked into milk at levels of 20-200 ppm, semicarbazide either partially or completely reacted with the matrix, which both increased the limit of detection of the method and made the setting of a threshold by using low level spikes almost impossible. Thus using lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide addition to milk was investigated. Lactose semicarbazone was detected in semicarbazide-spiked milk, and its identity was confirmed by fragmentation analysis and comparison with the synthesised compound. The level of lactose semicarbazone correlated with the amount of semicarbazide added to the milk, and the acidic conditions employed in the extraction method appeared to enhance the sensitivity of detection by driving the semicarbazone-forming reaction towards completion. Thus lactose semicarbazone can be used as a marker for the addition of semicarbazide to milk; however, both compounds should be monitored during surveys looking for the semicarbazide adulteration of milk. PMID:23683401

  9. Research perspectives and role of lactose uptake rate revealed by its study using 14C-labelled lactose in whey fermentation.

    PubMed

    Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Soupioni, Magdalini

    2011-03-01

    The present investigation examines the effect of pH, temperature and cell concentration on lactose uptake rate, in relation with kinetics of whey fermentation using kefir and determines the optimum conditions of these parameters. Lactose uptake rate was measured by adding (14)C-labelled lactose in whey. The results reveal the role of lactose uptake rate, being the main factor that affects the rate of fermentation, in contrast to the activity of the enzymes involved in lactose bioconversion process. Lactose uptake rate results discussion showed that mainly Ca(2+) is responsible for the reduced whey fermentation rate in comparison with fermentations using synthetic media containing lactose. Likewise, the results draw up perspectives on whey fermentation research to improve whey fermentation rate. Those perspectives are research to remove Ca(2+) from whey, the use of nano and microtubular biopolymers and promoters such as ?-alumina pellets and volcan foaming rock kissiris in order to accelerate whey fermentation. PMID:21232943

  10. Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

    2006-10-01

    An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the ?/( ?+ ?) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is ?-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the ?/ ? mixed phase with smaller amounts of ?-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the ?/ ? mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as ?-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

  11. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Information Processing: Evidence of Biased Recall and Interpretations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel J. Dugas; Mary Hedayati; Angie Karavidas; Kristin Buhr; Kylie Francis; Natalie A. Phillips

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty is a cognitive process involved in excessive worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although previous studies indicate that intolerance of uncertainty and excessive worry are highly and specifically related, the question of how intolerance of uncertainty might lead to worry has yet to be empirically examined. This paper presents two studies investigating intolerance of

  12. Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

  13. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:24601766

  14. WHEAT ALLERGY & INTOLERENCE; RECENT UPDATES AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-09-01

    Abstract The current review article highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially ?-amylase inhibitors, ?-5 gliadins, prolamins, non-prolamin, glucoprotein and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions i.e. celiac disease (CD), baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis (AD) and urticaria. This instant article highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this article showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The article would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance. PMID:24915366

  15. Feeding intolerance in the preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Fanaro, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    Feeding intolerance (FI), defined as the inability to digest enteral feedings associated to increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and/or emesis, is frequently encountered in the very preterm infant and often leads to a disruption of the feeding plan. In most cases FI represents a benign condition related to the immaturity of gastrointestinal function, however its presentation may largely overlap with that of an impending necrotizing enterocolitis. As a consequence, individual interpretation of signs of FI represents one of the most uncontrollable variables in the early nutritional management of these infants, and may lead to suboptimal nutrition, delayed attainment of full enteral feeding and prolonged intravenous nutrition supply. Strategies aimed at preventing and/or treating FI are diverse, although very few have been validated in large RCT and systematic reviews. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the existing information on this topic, spanning from patho-physiological and clinical aspects to the prevention and treatment strategies tested in clinical studies, with specific attention to practical issues. PMID:23962482

  16. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support. PMID:26198889

  17. Cesarean delivery and cow milk allergy/intolerance.

    PubMed

    Eggesbø, M; Botten, G; Stigum, H; Samuelsen, S O; Brunekreef, B; Magnus, P

    2005-09-01

    The present study provides support for a positive association between cesarean delivery and persistent cow milk allergy/cow's milk intolerance. Correspondingly, a negative association was seen between cesarean delivery and early outgrown cow milk allergy/intolerance. A possible explanation is that cesarean delivery, rather than increasing the overall risk of food allergy, increases the risk of persistency of disease among food allergic children. PMID:16076303

  18. Resp irato ry hyd rog en excretion as a parameter for lactose malabsorption in children1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fernandes; C. E. Vos; A. C. Douwes; E. Slotema

    Respiratory hydrogen excretion was measured during tolerance tests with lactose, glucose plus galactose, and skim milk in 52 children, 4 to 15 years ofage.Ten children appeared to be lactose-malabsorbers, as reflected by increased respiratory hydrogen excretion after administration of 2 g lactose per kilogram, maximum 50 g. Skim milk, equivalent to 0.5 g lactose per kilogram was administered to all

  19. Separation of Mineral Salts and Lactose Solutions through Nanofiltration Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cuartas; M. I. Alcaina; E. Soriano

    2004-01-01

    Whey is a highly polluting by-product obtained from the elaboration of cheese. Its high content in organic matter, mainly proteins and lactose, makes it a valuable candidate for multiple applications in the food industry. However, mineral salts have to be previously eliminated. The main objective of this work was to eliminate mineral salts from model solutions with different nanofiltration membranes:

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Fast crystallization of lactose and milk powder

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    °C and 80% relative humidity, but they also found that the proteins and salts in whey and wheyORIGINAL PAPER Fast crystallization of lactose and milk powder in fluidized bed dryer Abstract The rationale of this study has been to produce stabilized dairy powders for longer-term ambient

  1. Beta?galactosidase technology: A solution to the lactose problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Triveni Piasad Shukla; Leopold E. Wierzbicki

    1975-01-01

    Lactose, a disaccharide more commonly known as milk sugar, is and has been a major problem for the dairy and food industry. First, the majority of human adults are incapable of digesting it owing to the deficiency of the hydrolytic enzyme beta?galactosidase and thus it is a health and nutritional problem; second, it is the main reason for the sandy

  2. Lactose-inducible system for metabolic engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Areen; Leang, Ching; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2014-04-01

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

  3. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

  4. Production of lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures: comparison of two cellobiose dehydrogenases for the selective oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Maischberger; Thu-Ha Nguyen; Prakit Sukyai; Roman Kittl; Sergio Riva; Roland Ludwig; Dietmar Haltrich

    2008-01-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides, complex mixtures of various sugars, are produced by transgalactosylation from lactose using ?-galactosidase and are of great interest for food and feed applications because of their prebiotic properties. Most galacto-oligosaccharide preparations currently available in the market contain a significant amount of monosaccharides and lactose. The mixture of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) in this study produced from lactose using recombinant ?-galactosidase from

  5. Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Eva; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Neely, Gregory; Stenberg, Berndt; Nordin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Environmental intolerance (EI) is characterized by attribution of several, multisystem symptoms to specific environmental exposures, such as exposure to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and everyday sounds. The symptoms are medically unexplained, non-specific and the symptoms overlap between different types of EI. To approach the issue of underlying mechanisms the matter of overlap in prevalence between intolerances can provide valuable information. The aim of the study was to examine if the overlap between intolerance to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, EMFs and sounds is larger than the expected overlap if no association would exist between them. The study was using cross-sectional data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden; a large questionnaire-based survey. 8520 adults (18-79 years) were randomly selected after stratification for age and sex, of whom 3406 (40%) participated. Individuals with the four types of intolerance were identified either through self-report, or by having been physician-diagnosed with a specific EI. The overlaps between the four EIs were greater than predictions based on coincidence for both self-reported and diagnosed cases (except for the overlap between diagnosed intolerance to sounds and EMFs). The results raise the question whether different types of EI share similar underlying mechanisms, or at least that the sufferers of EI share some predisposition to acquire the conditions. PMID:24029726

  6. Management of malnourished children with acute diarrhoea and sugar intolerance.

    PubMed

    Beau, J P; Fontaine, O; Garenne, M

    1989-12-01

    A protocol of nutritional rehabilitation using fermented milk, vegetable oil, and castor sugar has been tested on 54 Senegalese children age 6-36 months admitted with acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. At time of admission, 39 per cent of children were dehydrated and 26 per cent had sugar intolerance. In the course of treatment three absconded and one died from acute pneumonia with respiratory and heart failure. Among those with marasmus there were no differences in mean weight gains between children with sugar intolerance and others, despite a longer duration of diarrhoea in the first group. Furthermore, the treatment protocol has never been compromised because of worsening diarrhoea or weight loss. These results indicate that a formula based on fermented milk together with oral rehydration can be used to treat malnourished children with acute diarrhoea and sugar intolerance. PMID:2514280

  7. Accuracy assessments for laser diffraction measurements of pharmaceutical lactose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Nia; Shrimpton, John; Palmer, Mark; Prime, Dave; Johal, Bal

    2007-12-01

    The accuracy of laser diffraction size measurements of dry powder inhaler particles, which play an important role in guiding effective inhaler system design, is assessed. Additionally, data for lactose particle shape characteristics are presented. Comparisons made between microscopy and cohesion-minimized laser diffraction size measurements for pharmaceutical lactose particles indicate that non-sphericity causes a broadening of the size distribution while the median diameter is unchanged. This is corroborated by data in the literature. Poured particles and those dispensed from an inhaler shared a common characteristic agglomerate modal diameter that was absent in the cohesion-minimized wet suspension. It is concluded that the interpretation of integral measurements of the particle size distribution using laser diffraction, for cohesive particle systems, is reasonable. The method of dispensing particles from an inhaler and delivery through an artificial throat is critical and both decreased the proportion of agglomerates present.

  8. Analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity of oligosaccharides derived from lactose.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín

    2014-06-01

    The increasing interest for prebiotic carbohydrates as functional food ingredients has promoted the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides and new lactose derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the chromatographic analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity studies of lactose-derived oligosaccharides. The most common chromatographic techniques used for the separation and structural characterization of this type of oligosaccharides, including GC and HPLC in different operational modes, coupled to various detectors are discussed. Insights on oligosaccharide MS fragmentation patterns, using different ionization sources and mass analyzers, as well as data on structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy are also described. Finally, this article deals with the bioactive effects of galacto oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which support their consumption to provide significant health benefits. PMID:24446419

  9. Creating lactose phosphorylase enzymes by directed evolution of cellobiose phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    De Groeve, Manu R M; De Baere, Miet; Hoflack, Lieve; Desmet, Tom; Vandamme, Erick J; Soetaert, Wim

    2009-07-01

    Disaccharide phosphorylases are interesting enzymes for the production of sugar phosphates from cheap starting materials and for the synthesis of novel glycosides. Cellobiose phosphorylase (CP) from Cellulomonas uda was subjected to directed evolution in order to create enzyme variants with significantly increased lactose phosphorylase (LP) activity, useful for the production of alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate. In a first round, random mutagenesis was performed on part of the CP gene and the resultant library was selected on minimal lactose medium. One clone containing six amino acid mutations was found with increased LP activity compared with the wild-type CP enzyme. The negative and neutral mutations were eliminated by site-directed mutagenesis and the resultant enzyme variant containing two amino acid substitutions (T508A/N667T) showed more LP activity than the parent mutant. Saturation mutagenesis of the beneficial sites and screening for improved mutants allowed us to identify the T508I/N667A mutant which has 7.5 times higher specific activity on lactose than the wild-type. The kinetic parameters of the mutants were determined and showed that the increased LP activity was caused by a higher k(cat) value. This is the first report of an engineered CP with modified substrate specificity. PMID:19487233

  10. Improved aerosolization performance of salbutamol sulfate formulated with lactose crystallized from binary mixtures of ethanol-acetone.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-07-01

    It has been shown that dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations typically achieve low fine particle fractions (poor performance). A commonly held theory is that this is due, at least in part, to low levels of detachment of drug from lactose during aerosolization as a result of strong adhesion of drug particles to the carrier surfaces. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to overcome poor aerosolization performance of DPI formulation by modification of lactose particles. Lactose particles were crystallized by adding solution in water to different ratios of binary mixtures of ethanol-acetone. The results showed that modified lactose particles had exceptional aerosolization performance that makes them superior to commercial lactose particles. Morphology assessment showed that crystallized lactose particles were less elongated, more irregular in shape, and composed of smaller primary lactose particles compared with commercial lactose. Solid-state characterization showed that commercial lactose particles were ?-lactose monohydrate, whereas crystallized lactose particles were a mixture of ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose according to the ratio of ethanol-acetone used during crystallization process. The enhanced performance could be mainly due to rougher surface and/or higher amounts of fines compared with the lactose crystallized from pure ethanol or commercial lactose. PMID:21268026

  11. Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

  12. Orthostatic Intolerance and Motion Sickness After Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.

  13. Rainbow Visibility: How One Catholic University Responded to Intolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn A.

    2002-01-01

    When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)

  14. Intolerance of uncertainty in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Edna B. Foa

    2003-01-01

    Pathological doubt, a prominent feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), may be related to difficulty tolerating ambiguous or uncertain situations. This is thought to be particularly true of those patients with checking compulsions. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been studied extensively within the domains of worry and generalized anxiety; however, it has received relatively little empirical attention in OCD patients. We

  15. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC C. BEYER; SAMUEL H. BARONDES

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas,

  16. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by lactose ingestion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    DiBattista, D

    1990-02-01

    Because adult rats have very low levels of the intestinal enzyme lactase, the ingestion of appreciable quantities of the disaccharide lactose may cause gastrointestinal distress. The present experiment was designed to demonstrate that adult rats will learn to avoid previously neutral stimuli which have been paired with lactose ingestion. Adult rats ingested both a novel solution [either tap water (WA) or 0.1% saccharin (SA)] and a novel food substance (49% powdered lab chow + 50% added disaccharide + 1% saccharin) during a single conditioning session. The added disaccharide was either sucrose (group SU-SA), lactose (groups HL-SA and HL-WA), or equal amounts of these two disaccharides (group LL-SA); a fifth group (LC-SA) consumed a sucrose-containing diet to which lithium chloride was added (5 mg per 1 g of diet). Separate feeding tests and drinking tests, carried out over several weeks, were used to assess the extent of conditioned taste avoidance. In the four feeding tests, rats were allowed to ingest powdered lab chow with added saccharin (but without added disaccharide), while in the four drinking tests, rats chose between tap water and a 0.1% saccharin solution. Group HL-SA demonstrated a substantial conditioned avoidance in both feeding and drinking tests, but group HL-WA showed avoidance only in feeding tests. Conditioned avoidance was weak in group LL-SA; the strongest avoidance was observed in lithium chloride-treated rats (group LC-SA). Results are related to previous research and to the hypothesis that a learned avoidance of milk may facilitate the weaning process in mammals. PMID:2333339

  17. Third-generation biosensor for lactose based on newly discovered cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Leonard; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar; Gorton, Lo

    2006-01-15

    The present paper describes the principle and characteristics of a biosensor for lactose based on a third-generation design involving cellobiose dehydrogenase. As resulted from a previous comparative study (submitted manuscript), the novelty of this lactose biosensor is based on highly efficient direct electron transfer between two newly discovered cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH), from the white rot fungi Trametes villosa and Phanerochaete sordida, and a solid spectrographic graphite electrode. CDH was immobilized on the electrode surface (0.073 cm2) by simple physical adsorption, and the CDH-modified electrode was next inserted into a wall-jet amperometric cell connected on-line to a flow injection setup (0.5 mL x min(-1)). The P. sordida CDH-based lactose biosensor, proved to be the better one, has a detection limit for lactose of 1 microM, a sensitivity of 1100 microA x mM(-1) x cm(-2), a response time of 4 s (the time required to obtain the maximum peak current), and a linear range from 1 to 100 microM lactose (correlation coefficient 0.998). The simplicity of construction and analytical characteristics make this CDH-based lactose biosensor an excellent alternative to previous lactose biosensors reported in the literature or commercially available. The CDH-lactose sensor was used to quantify the content of lactose in pasteurized milk, buttermilk, and low-lactose milk, using the standard addition method. No effects of the samples matrixes were observed. The operational stability of the sensor was tested for 11 h by continuous injection of 100 microM lactose (290 injections). The final signal of the sensor was maintained at 98% of its initial signal, with a low standard deviation of 1.72 (RSD 2.41%). PMID:16408919

  18. Modulation of bacterial translocation in mice mediated through lactose and human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mielcarek, C; Romond, P C; Romond, M B; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Massive resection of the small intestine in infants is imposed to the regulation of several intestinal pathological situations, as intestinal adaptation cannot be relied upon. Many nutritional disturbances are occurring following surgery procedure. In this vein, long-term parenteral feeding is adopt to improve prognosis not always successfully. Clostridia and more specifically Clostridium perfringens, are suspected to participate in the physiopathology of the rising situation. In order to investigate the effect of lactose and human milk neutral oligosaccharides (HMNOs) on Clostridia, germfree mice were inoculated either with enterotoxigenic C.perfringens strain isolated from a patient with NEC, or with a human microbiota harboring C.clostridioforme group(HF). In this vein, different doses of lactose were administrated during 2 weeks in adult mice on an attempt to evaluate the lactase activity. Intake of lactose (70 g/L) and HMNOs (7 g/L) in C.perfringens monoassociated mice induced mortality within a week. In HF mice, no mortality was observed. An increase in Clostridia occurrence was observed in the median ileum after intake of 7 g lactose (p = 0.017). Higher clostridial numbers occurred in caecum following intake of 70 g lactose (p < 0.05) and HMNOs (p < 0.025). Bifidobacteria were found increased from distal ileum to colon following 70 g of lactose intake, whereas they decreased in the caecum of mice drinking lower lactose concentrations. Finally, bacteremia was more frequent in 70 g lactose/L mice (p < 0.02), whereas at lower doses of lactose bifidobacterial translocation was observed. As a result, human milk oligosaccharides could favor clostridial population when reaching the lower intestine. The shortness of the small intestine in infants underwent massive intestinal resection seems to be associated to an incomplete breakdown of lactose. Enteral feeds formulas deprived in lactose would be more suitable in enteral feeding of infants. PMID:21939778

  19. Multiple chemical sensitivity and idiopathic environmental intolerance (part one)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuyasu Watanabe; Hideki Tonori; Yoshiharu Aizawa

    2003-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity\\/idiopathic environmental intolerance (MCS\\/IEI) is a commonly used diagnostic term for a group\\u000a of symptoms. These symptoms have been described and commented on for more than 15 years in the USA. Recently, it has also\\u000a been observed in Japan. The main features of this syndrome are multiple symptoms involving in multiple organ systems that\\u000a are precipitated by a

  20. Multiple chemical sensitivity and idiopathic environmental intolerance (part two)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuyasu Watanabe; Hideki Tonori; Yoshiharu Aizawa

    2003-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity\\/idiopathic environmental intolerance (MCS\\/IEI) is a commonly used diagnostic term for a group\\u000a of symptoms without apparent organic basis. The symptoms are characteristic of dysfunction in multiple organ systems. They\\u000a wax and wane fluctuate according to exposure to low levels of chemical agents in the patient's environment, and sometimes\\u000a begin after a distinct environmental change or injury such

  1. Crystallization Rates for Amorphous Sucrose and Lactose Powders from Spray Drying: A Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. G. Langrish; S. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Sorption tests have been used to assess the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and molecular structure on the crystallization process within spray-dried lactose and sucrose at both room temperature and 40°C. Increasing the temperature by 10°C more than doubled the crystallization rate, up to three times for the case of lactose. Below a threshold value of the relative humidity, little

  2. Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

  3. Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gosalbes; CARLOS DAVID ESTEBAN; JOSELUIS GALAN; GASPAR PEREZ-MARTINEZ

    2000-01-01

    The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromo- somal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300

  4. Lactose absorption and mucosal disaccharidases in convalescent pellagra and kwashiorkor children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Prinsloo; W. Wittmann; H. Kruger; E. Freier

    1971-01-01

    Oral lactose and glucose\\/galactose loading tests were done in Bantu children convalescing from kwashiorkor and pellagra. Small bowel biopsies and disaccharidase estimations were performed in all except 2 patients. Lactose absorption was more impaired and intestinal lactase levels were lower in the pellagra than in the kwashiorkor group. The fact that diarrhoea after admission to hospital was less common in

  5. Concordance of Indirect Methods for the Detection of Lactose Malabsorption in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus M. Lerch; Heinz-Christian Rieband; Winfried Feldberg; Siegfried Matern

    1991-01-01

    In order to collect data on (1) the prevalence of lactose malabsorption and (2) the value of indirect diagnostic methods for hypolactasia in diabetics, we compared lactose tolerance tests using serum glucose, serum galactose (after oral ethanol intake) and breath hydrogen excretion as diagnostic cutoff in 144 nondiabetic and 46 diabetic subjects. A good rate of concordance was found for

  6. Distribution of physiological adult lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and malabsorber, in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Flatz; J. N. Howell; J. Doench; S. D. Flatz

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1805 apparently healthy, adult and adolescent Germans (1572 males and 233 females with a mean age of 20.3 years) were examined for lactose absorption capacity employing a field version of the breath hydrogen (H2) test. The diagnostic parameter, maximal change of breath hydrogen concentration 120 or 150 min after a load of 50 g lactose, showed a

  7. Orthostatic intolerance and motion sickness after parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Brown, T. E.; Wood, S. J.; Benavides, E. W.; Bondar, R. L.; Stein, F.; Moradshahi, P.; Harm, D. L.; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Low, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Because it is not clear that the induction of orthostatic intolerance in returning astronauts always requires prolonged exposure to microgravity, we investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy subjects before and after the brief micro- and hypergravity of parabolic flight. Concomitantly, we investigated the effect of parabolic flight-induced vomiting on orthostatic tolerance, R-wave-R-wave interval and arterial pressure power spectra, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex and Valsalva responses. After parabolic flight 1) 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate 30 min of upright tilt (compared to 2 of 16 before flight); 2) 6 of 16 subjects vomited; 3) new intolerance to upright tilt was associated with exaggerated falls in total peripheral resistance, whereas vomiting was associated with increased R-wave-R-wave interval variability and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness; and 4) the proximate mode of new orthostatic failure differed in subjects who did and did not vomit, with vomiters experiencing comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction and nonvomiters experiencing signs and symptoms reminiscent of the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome. Results suggest, first, that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those developing after space flight can develop after a brief (i.e., 2-h) parabolic flight and, second, that recent vomiting can influence the results of tests of autonomic cardiovascular function commonly utilized in returning astronauts.

  8. Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

  9. Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, C D; Mullen, T J; Sundby, G H; Rostoft, S; Sheynberg, N; Aljuri, N; Maa, M; Mukkamala, R; Sherman, D; Toska, K; Yelle, J; Bloomfield, D; Williams, G H; Cohen, R J

    2001-06-01

    Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. PMID:11356789

  10. HIV-related Social Intolerance and Risky Sexual Behavior in a High HIV Prevalence Environment

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2,000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudional Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. PMID:24768779

  11. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  12. Recessive allele l codes for lactose intolerance. People who are recessive homozygots (ll) can not digest milk; dominant homozygots (LL) and

    E-print Network

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina

    develop as females until puberty low activity of this enzyme in homozygotes #12;2 Guevedoces = "penis of population size allele freq. time 1 0 25 individuals 100 individuals Probability of Allele Fixation and Population Size #12;3 Probability of allele fixation fr(A) = 0.5, fr (a) = 0.5 N=8 What is the probability (P

  13. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-10-06

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of /sup 14/C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of approx. 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA.

  14. Evaluation of tablet formation of different lactoses by 3D modeling and fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Jelcic, Z; Hauschild, K; Ogiermann, M; Picker-Freyer, K M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use 3D modeling to differentiate not only among the four different types of lactose alpha-lactose monohydrate, spray-dried lactose, agglomerated lactose and lactose anhydrous but also between products from different manufacturers. Further "box-counting" fractal analysis of SEM images was done to gain additional information on tableting characteristics and tablet properties which can be found in the fractal structure. Twelve different materials from different manufacturers were analyzed for their powder-technological and physicochemical properties. They were tableted on an eccentric tableting machine at graded maximum relative densities and the recorded data, namely force, time, and displacement were analyzed by the 3D modeling technique. Tablet properties such as, elastic recovery, crushing force and morphology were analyzed. The results show that 3D modeling can precisely distinguish deformation behavior for different types of lactose and also for the same type of material produced with a slightly different technique. Furthermore, the results showed that the amorphous content of the lactose determined the compactibility of the material, which is due to a reversible exceeding of the glass transition temperature of the material. The three fractal dimensions DBW (box surface dimension), DWBW (pore/void box mass dimension), and DBBW (box solid mass dimension) are capable of describing morphological differences in lactose materials. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the fractal surface structure of the lactose-based materials is strongly correlated to tableting characteristics and tablet properties. Especially with regards to 3D modeling, it was found that the fractal indices can describe the parameters time plasticity d, pressure plasticity e, and fast elastic decompression, which is the inverse of omega. In addition, the 3D parameters are able to describe the powder and tablet fractal indices. In conclusion, the 3D modeling is not only able to characterize the compression process but it can also provide information on the final tablet morphology. PMID:17523001

  15. Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Calewaert, Peggy; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of our current screening strategy postpartum and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. Retrospective analysis of files of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria from 01-01-2010 till 31-12-2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results. Of all 231 women with a recent history of GDM, 21.4% (46) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. Of the women tested, 39.1% (66) had glucose intolerance and 5.3% (9) had diabetes. These women were more often overweight (39.7% versus 25.3%, P = 0.009), were more often treated with basal-bolus insulin injections (52.0% versus 17.4%, P = 0.032), and had a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity, remaining significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and ethnicity (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2) in pregnancy 1.5 ± 0.5 versus 1.7 ± 0.4, P = 0.029; ISSI-2 postpartum 1.5 (1.2–1.9) versus 2.2 (1.8–2.6), P = 0.020; Matsuda index postpartum 3.8 (2.6–6.2) versus 6.0 (4.3–8.8), P = 0.021). Conclusion. Glucose intolerance is frequent in early postpartum and these women have a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity. One fifth of women did not attend the scheduled OGTT postpartum. PMID:25180037

  16. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  17. Borate enhances the production of lactulose from lactose by cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Jung-Eun; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used in the presence of borate to increase the production of lactulose from lactose. Maximum production of lactulose occurred using a 1:1M ratio of borate-lactose. Under this condition, the enzyme produced 614 g l(-1) lactulose from 700 g l(-1) lactose after incubation at pH 7.5 and 80 °C for 3h, with a conversion yield of 88% and a productivity of 205 g l(-1) h(-1). The yield and productivity of lactulose production obtained in the present study are among the highest achieved through chemical or biological synthesis. PMID:23177735

  18. Crystal structures of guinea-pig, goat and bovine ?-lactalbumin highlight the enhanced conformational flexibility of regions that are significant for its action in lactose synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley CW Pike; Keith Brew; K Ravi Acharya

    1996-01-01

    Background: The regulation of milk lactose biosynthesis is highly dependent on the action of a specifier protein, ?-lactalbumin (LA). Together with a glycosyltransferase, LA forms the enzyme complex lactose synthase. LA promotes the binding of glucose to the complex and facilitates the biosynthesis of lactose. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of LA function in lactose synthase we

  19. Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed. PMID:23849047

  20. Intolerance of sexy peers: intrasexual competition among women.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sharma, Aanchal

    2011-01-01

    Intrasexual competition among males of different species, including humans, is well documented. Among females, far less is known. Recent nonexperimental studies suggest that women are intolerant of attractive females and use indirect aggression to derogate potential rivals. In Study 1, an experimental design was used to test the evolutionary-based hypothesis that women would be intolerant of sexy women and would censure those who seem to make sex too readily available. Results provide strong empirical support for intrasexual competition among women. Using independent raters, blind to condition, we found that almost all women were rated as reacting negatively ("bitchy") to an attractive female confederate when she was dressed in a sexually provocative manner. In contrast, when she was dressed conservatively, the same confederate was barely noticed by the participants. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to assess whether the sexy female confederate from Study 1 was viewed as a sexual rival by women. Results indicated that as hypothesized, women did not want to introduce her to their boyfriend, allow him to spend time alone with her, or be friends with her. Findings from both studies are discussed in terms of evolutionary theory. PMID:21932332

  1. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children: A Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Roy, Amy K.; Furr, Jami M.; Gotimer, Kristin; Beidas, Rinad S.; Dugas, Michel J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has contributed to our understanding of excessive worry and adult anxiety disorders, but there is a paucity of research on IU in child samples. This gap is due to the absence of a psychometrically sound measure of IU in youth. The present study adapted parallel child- and parent-report forms of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and examined the internal consistency, convergent validity, and classification properties of these forms in youth aged 7–17 (M = 11.6 years, SD = 2.6). Participating youth (N = 197; 100 females) either met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder (N = 73) or were non-referred community participants (N = 124). The child-report form (i.e., IUS for Children, or IUSC), and to a lesser extent the parent-report form, demonstrated strong internal consistency and convergent validity, evidenced by significant associations with anxiety and worry (and reassurance-seeking in the case of the child-report form). Children diagnosed with anxiety disorders scored higher than non-referred community youth on both forms. ROC analysis demonstrated acceptable overall utility in distinguishing the two groups of youth. Findings provide preliminary support for use of the IUSC for continuous measurement of children’s ability to tolerate uncertainty. PMID:19719351

  2. Healthy diet and lifestyle clustering and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Perry, I J

    2002-11-01

    Glucose intolerance represents a spectrum of abnormalities, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is a major public health challenge worldwide, with rapidly increasing prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This global epidemic of diabetes is largely driven by the globalisation of Western culture and lifestyles. Specifically, there is now evidence from large-scale observational studies, and from intervention studies, of powerful synergistic interactions between diet, obesity, exercise, smoking and alcohol in the development of glucose intolerance. It is estimated that >90% of cases of type 2 diabetes in the population could be prevented with the adoption of a prudent diet (high in cereal fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in trans-fatty acids and glycaemic load), avoidance of overweight and obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2), engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 0.5 h/d, non-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption. These findings are biologically plausible and have major public health implications. They form the basis for a clear, simple and coherent message for health promotion and public policy. However, to make progress on these issues health will need to be placed at the centre of public policy and relevant vested interests tackled, notably in the food, entertainment, tobacco and automobile industries. PMID:12691184

  3. Development of stickiness of whey protein isolate and lactose droplets during convective drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Adhikari; T. Howes; A. K. Shrestha; B. R. Bhandari

    2007-01-01

    The stickiness development of droplets of whey protein isolate (WPI), lactose and their mixture solutions was determined using an in situ stickiness testing device at 24, 65 and 80°C. Stainless steel, Teflon, glass and polyurethane probes were used. At room temperature, the presence of 0.5–1% (w\\/w) WPI greatly lowered the observed tensile strength of water and lactose solutions due to

  4. The frequency distribution of lactose malabsorption among adult populations from the Eastern and Western Egyptian Deserts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laila Hussein; Ali Ezzilarab I

    1994-01-01

    The study consisted of 172 subjects belonging to ethnic groups from Sinai in the Eastern Desert and the New Valley in the\\u000a Western Desert, with respective mean ages of 36.7±2.0 and 26.6±1.0 years. Lactose absorption was assessed by measurement of\\u000a urinary galactose in pooled 2-hr urine samples following ingestion of an oral lactose dose of 40 g. Mean 2-hr excretion

  5. Galacto-oligosaccharide production from lactose by an enzymic batch reaction using ?-galactosidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Iwasaki; Mitsutoshi Nakajima; Shin-ichi Nakao

    1996-01-01

    Enzymic reaction of lactose was carried out to produce galacto-oligosaccharide with a high degree of conversion. The reaction process was analysed with a simple model. The reaction involved a batch process operated with initial lactose concentrations ranging from 0·139 to 1·67 mol litre?1 at 40°C and pH 4·5 with ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. A maximum oligosaccharide conversion of over 30%

  6. Continuous production of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using immobilized ?-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahid Mozaffar; Kazuhiro Nakanishi; Ryuichi Matsuno

    1986-01-01

    ß-Galactosidase-2 (ß-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23) from Bacillus circulans was purified using hydroxyapatite gel chromatography and immobilized onto Duolite ES-762 (phenolformaldehyde resin) and Merckogel (controlled pore silica gel) for continuous production of galacto-oligosaccharides using lactose as the substrate. The maximum amount of ologosaccharides produced by the immobilized enzyme was 35–40% of the total sugar during hydrolysis of 4.56% lactose. Partially purified

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose with immobilized ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Maugard; Damian Gaunt; Marie Dominique Legoy; Thierry Besson

    2003-01-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) were synthesized from lactose by immobilized and free ß-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (Lactozym 3000 L HP-G) using either focused microwave irradiation or conventional heating. Immobilization of the ß-galactosidase on to Duolite A-568 increased the synthesis of GOS. GOS selectivity (GOS synthesis\\/lactose hydrolysis ratio) increased when the water activity of the media was reduced, notably with a high initial

  8. Continuous production of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose by Bullera singularis ?-galactosidase immobilized in chitosan beads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huyn-Jae Shin; Jong-Moon Park; Ji-Won Yang

    1998-01-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) were continuously produced using lactose and immobilized ?-galactosidase from Bullera singularis ATCC 24193 in a packed bed reactor. Partially purified ?-galactosidase was immobilized in Chitopearl BCW 3510 bead (970 GU\\/g resin) by simple adsorption. 55% (w\\/w) oligosaccharides was obtained continuously with a productivity of 4·4 g\\/(litre-h) from 100 g\\/litre lactose solution during a 15-day operation. Batch productivity was

  9. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  10. Gentamicin release from modified acrylic bone cements with lactose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Virto, M R; Frutos, P; Torrado, Susana; Frutos, G

    2003-01-01

    Modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cements formulations were prepared by including different proportions of gentamicin and release modulators such as lactose or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Surface aspect, gentamicin release and porosity of these modified formulations were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a specially designed system for the dissolution studies of the bone cements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Lactose modified cements presented an irregular surface with numerous hollows and voids due to the lactose dissolution. HPMC cements presented a characteristic laminated and flaky surface. The drug release of lactose formulations was up to four-fold greater (13%) than the commercial bone cement CMW1 Gentamicin one (3%). The amount of gentamicin eluted at the first withdrawn sample ranged from 30% to 60% of total gentamicin released over the assay. Gentamicin release from lactose formulations increased as lactose percentage was increased which agree with the porosity results. Nevertheless, the use of release modulator HPMC increased porosity, but did not produce an increase in the gentamicin release. HPMC dissolution creates a surrounding sticky and viscous medium similar to a gel that makes the gentamicin release from the cement matrix difficult. PMID:12417181

  11. Hypersensitivity Reaction After Inhalation of a Lactose-Containing Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Motheral, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Milk protein allergy–induced reactions from lactose-containing dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have not been widely described in the literature. Lactose is a common inactive ingredient in many pharmaceutical products that is used to enhance the stability of active substances in medicinal products, including asthma medications. Contamination of lactose with milk proteins has been identified in reports of inhaled corticosteroid product lot testing. Serious respiratory sequelae may follow after the inhalation of a DPI corticosteroid in a patient with milk protein allergy because DPIs that contain lactose may be contaminated with milk proteins. Lactose-containing DPIs are contraindicated in patients with milk protein allergy. Although manufacturers identify this contraindication in product package inserts, some drug references may not include this information and health care professionals may lack awareness. Clinicians should consider reviewing multiple medication resources for warnings and contraindications of medications to prevent complications. We describe a refractory asthma exacerbation secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction following administration of a lactose-containing DPI corticosteroid and long-acting ?2 agonist combination in a child with a milk protein allergy. PMID:25309152

  12. Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2007-01-01

    Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the…

  13. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  14. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general…

  15. A comparison of intolerance of uncertainty in analogue obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Holaway; Richard G. Heimberg; Meredith E. Coles

    2006-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty has been defined as the unwillingness to tolerate the possibility that negative events may occur in the future, no matter how low the probability [Personality Individual Differences 17 (1994), 791–802]. Previous research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be more specific to worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than to other anxiety disorders [e.g., Dugas, M. J.,

  16. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  17. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension With an English Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nicholas Carleton; Patrick Gosselin; Gordon J. G. Asmundson

    2010-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general unacceptability of uncertainty (15 items, Part A) and manifestations of uncertainty approximating more common

  18. Studies on Intolerance in American Life. Program in American History and Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs.

    The narrative selected for this unit on intolerance illustrates the perennial and universal methods for scapegoating. The general teaching objectives are to lead the students: 1) to feelings of tolerance toward individuals and groups who are different; 2) to investigate intolerance in terms of some of its causes: fear, deprivation, threatened…

  19. Dry powders for oral inhalation free of lactose carrier particles.

    PubMed

    Healy, Anne Marie; Amaro, Maria Inês; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia

    2014-08-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) products have traditionally comprised a simple formulation of micronised drug mixed with a carrier excipient, typically lactose monohydrate. The presence of the carrier is aimed at overcoming issues of poor flowability and dispersibility, associated with the cohesive nature of small, micronised active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles. Both the powder blend and the DPI device must be carefully designed so as to ensure detachment of the micronised drug from the carrier excipient on inhalation. Over the last two decades there has been a significant body of research undertaken on the design of carrier-free formulations for DPI products. Many of these formulations are based on sophisticated particle engineering techniques; a common aim in formulation design of carrier-free products being to reduce the intrinsic cohesion of the particles, while maximising dispersion and delivery from the inhaler. In tandem with the development of alternative formulations has been the development of devices designed to ensure the efficient delivery and dispersion of carrier-free powder on inhalation. In this review we examine approaches to both the powder formulation and inhaler design for carrier-free DPI products. PMID:24735676

  20. Oral intake of glucose plus galactose and erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate A nutritional evaluation of hydrolyzed lactose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Barth; Nina Kopra

    1986-01-01

    Summary This study deals with the metabolic effects of hydrolyzed lactose: After an overnight fast 5 healthy adult volunteers consumed a glucose-galactose mixture equivalent to 61.4g of lactose (or 125g of a dried skim milk powder with hydrolyzed lactose). The postprandial rise of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-P) never exceeded 22.3 ?mol per liter packed red blood cells. This amounts to no

  1. Evaluation of granulated lactose as a carrier for DPI formulations 1: effect of granule size.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Du, Ju; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of large granulated lactose carrier particle systems on aerosol performance of dry powder inhaler formulations. Granulated lactose carriers with average sizes ranging from 200 to 1,000 ?m were prepared and subsequently fractionated into separate narrow size powders. The fractionated granulated lactose (GL) samples were characterized in terms of size, specific surface area, surface roughness, morphology, density, flowability, and solid-state. The in vitro aerosolization performance was performed on the different size fractions of GL samples from a commercial inhaler device (Aerolizer®) with a model formulation (2% w/w salbutamol sulfate). The cascade impaction parameters employed were 60 or 90 L/min with standard (aperture size, 0.6 mm) or modified piercing holes (aperture size, 1.2 mm) of the inhaler loaded capsules. It was shown that the largest size fraction formulation (850-1000 ?m) had a slight improvement in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to immediately preceding size fractions, explained by a smaller adhesive force between drug and carrier. Compared to commercial piercing holes, enlarged piercing holes generated a slight decreasing trend of FPF as the lactose powder sizes increased from 200-250 ?m to 600-850 ?m, perhaps due to the reduced detachment force by flow forces. The size, surface roughness, density, and flowability of lactose carrier as well as device design all contributed to the aerosol dispersion performance of granulated lactose-based adhesive mixtures. It was concluded that poorer or enhanced redispersion performance is not an inherent property to the significantly large size of granulated lactose carriers as previously contended. PMID:24962007

  2. The Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Dynamic Vapor Sorption to Quantify Low Amorphous Contents of Crystalline Lactose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Hogan; Graham Buckton

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the use of a combined near infrared spectroscopy and gravimetric sorption apparatus in providing an accurate quantification of amorphous contents of predominantly crystalline lactose.

  3. Drying and denaturation characteristics of whey protein isolate in the presence of lactose and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Amdadul; Chen, Jie; Aldred, Peter; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-06-15

    The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65°C and 80°C) for 500s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65°C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80°C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose. PMID:25660851

  4. Permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus with mild detergent for whey lactose hydrolysis and augmentation of mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Bezawada, Jyothi; Yan, Song; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-03-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese-manufacturing industries, and the utilization of whey is a challenging problem either to use it or dispose it, because only few microorganisms can metabolize the whey lactose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by ?-galactosidase is the approach for biotechnological application. Kluyveromyces marxianus cells were permeabilized with non-toxic, biodegradable, anionic detergent N-lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) for the enzyme activity. The permeabilization process parameters (N-LS concentration, solvent volume, temperature and incubation time) were optimized. The maximum ?-galactosidase activity of 1,220 IU/g dry weight was obtained using permeabilized cells under optimized conditions. Moreover, viability of the permeabilized cells was also evaluated, which showed that cells were alive; however, viability was reduced by two log cycles. The permeabilized cells were evaluated for whey lactose hydrolysis. The maximum lactose hydrolysis of 91% was observed with 600 mg (dry cell weight/100 mL) in whey powder (5% w/v) solution at 180-min incubation, pH 6.5 and 30 °C. Further, the hydrolyzed whey was evaluated for amelioration of growth of non-lactose-consuming yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae was able to grow in hydrolyzed whey simultaneously with K. marxianus. The study confirmed that N-LS could be used to permeabilize K. marxianus cells to make available the enzyme activity. PMID:24500798

  5. Quantitation of ?-Lactalbumin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Adjuvant Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rui; Qu, Longmei; Luo, Nan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Chen, Lijiang

    2014-01-01

    Lactose is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient, sometimes irreplaceable. Traces of residual proteins left during production of lactose are potential allergen to body. The present paper describes a sensitive and specific LC-MS method for the determination of ?-lactalbumin (?-La) in lactose samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH300 C18 column (2.1 × 150?mm, 1.7??m) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile containing 0.1% TFA (80?:?20, v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of m/z 2364 for ?-La. The calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 10?µg/mL. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 7.6% and the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 104.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.15?µg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05?µg/mL. This method was then successfully applied to investigate 6 different lactose samples. The application can provide technical preparation for the development of specification of lactose. PMID:25548567

  6. Glucose intolerance in early postpartum in women with gestational diabetes: Who is at increased risk?

    PubMed

    Leuridan, Liesbeth; Wens, Johan; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Benhalima, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the years after the index pregnancy. Some women with GDM already develop glucose intolerance in early postpartum. The best screening strategy for glucose intolerance in early postpartum among women with a history of GDM is still debated. We review the most important risk factors of women with GDM to develop glucose intolerance within one year postpartum. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening in early postpartum and the many challenges to organize postpartum follow up in primary care. PMID:25899304

  7. Production of lactosucrose from sucrose and lactose by a levansucrase from Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Han, Woo-Cheul; Byun, Sun-Ho; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Sohn, Eun Hwa; Lim, Jung Dae; Um, Byung Hun; Kim, Chul Ho; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2009-10-01

    Lactosucrose (4(G)-beta-D-galactosylsucrose) is an oligosaccharide consisting of galactose, glucose, and fructose. In this study, we prepared lactosucrose from lactose and sucrose using a levansucrase derived from Zymomonas mobilis. Optimum conditions for lactosucrose formation were 23 degrees C, pH 7.0, 18.0% (w/v) lactose monohydrate, and 18% (w/v) sucrose as substrates, and 1 unit of enzyme/ml of reaction mixture. Under these conditions, the lactosucrose conversion efficiency was 28.5%. The product was purified and confirmed to be O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->2)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, or lactosucrose. A mixed-enzyme system containing a levansucrase and a glucose oxidase was applied in order to increase the efficiency of lactose and sucrose conversion to lactosucrose, which rose to 43.2% as s result. PMID:19884774

  8. Amino acid substitution in the lactose carrier protein with the use of amber suppressors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, A M; Lee, J I; King, S C; Wilson, T H

    1992-01-01

    Five lacY mutants with amber stop codons at known positions were each placed into 12 different suppressor strains. The 60 amino acid substitutions obtained in this manner were tested for growth on lactose-minimal medium plates and for transport of lactose, melibiose, and thiomethylgalactoside. Most of the amino acid substitutions in the regions of the putative loops (between transmembrane alpha helices) resulted in a reasonable growth rate on lactose with moderate-to-good transport activity. In one strain (glycine substituted for Trp-10), abnormal sugar recognition was found. The substitution of proline for Trp-33 (in the region of the first alpha helix) showed no activity, while four additional substitutions (lysine, leucine, cysteine, and glutamic acid) showed low activity. Altered sugar specificity was observed when Trp-33 was replaced by serine, glutamine, tyrosine, alanine, histidine, or phenylalanine. It is concluded that Trp-33 may be involved directly or indirectly in sugar recognition. PMID:1644770

  9. Enzyme replacement for lactose malabsorption using a beta-D-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J A; Collins, M S

    1989-06-01

    We evaluated 10 healthy symptomatic lactose malabsorbers for effect of an oral beta-D-galactosidase derived from Aspergillus oryzae (Lactrase, Kremers Urban Company, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A.) on symptom and breath hydrogen response to challenge with 50 g lactose. Basally and at 30-min intervals for 8 h after lactose challenge, end-alveolar breath samples were collected and analyzed for hydrogen using gas chromatography. Symptoms were scored at 30 min and hourly for 8 h, rating bloating, cramps, nausea, pain, diarrhea, and flatulence. Four challenges were performed on 4 separate days with at least 3 days between challenges. The first two challenges served as baselines. Just before ingestion of 50 g powdered lactose dissolved in 200 ml water, beta-D-galactosidase capsules were given orally as a 250-mg dose for the third challenge and a 500-mg dose for challenge 4. Hydrogen excretion, quantified by using a trapezoidal method for computing area under the discontinuous curve of breath hydrogen concentration, was decreased in subjects receiving beta-D-galactosidase (base-line I, 346.0 ppm/h; baseline II, 367.2 ppm/h; 250-mg galactosidase 208.2 ppm/h; 500-mg galactosidase, 178.0 ppm/h; p less than or equal to 0.05). Other analyzed parameters of H2 excretion were also decreased. Analysis of symptom response scores showed a dose-related decrease for bloating and flatus (p less than or equal to 0.05) and no statistical difference in the other assessed symptoms. We conclude that beta-D-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, when given just before ingestion of lactose by lactose malabsorbers, can produce a dose-dependent reduction (statistically significant for the 500-mg dose) in breath hydrogen excretion, bloating, and flatus. PMID:2502573

  10. Optimization of alkyl beta-D-galactopyranoside synthesis from lactose using commercially available beta-galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D E; Stanley, R A; Furneaux, R H

    1993-08-20

    Commercially available lactase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23) enzymes produced from Kluyveromyces fragilis and Kluyveromyces lactis were accessed as catalysts for use in the production of beta-galactopyranosides of various alcohols using lactose as galactosyl donor. The yield of galactoside was enhanced by using the highest practical concentrations of both lactose and alcohol acceptor. The concentrations and thus yield, were limited by the solubility of the substrates. The increase in galactoside yield with increasing lactose concentration appeared to be specific to the lactose substrate and not due to water activity alterations, because addition of maltose to a fixed concentration of lactose had no effect. During the course of the reaction, the yield of galactoside peaked after around 70% to 80% of the lactose was consumed, due to hydrolysis of the product by the enzyme. A wide variety of compounds with primary or secondary hydroxyl groups could act as acceptors, the essential requirement being at least some water solubility. Addition of organic cosolvents had little effect on galactoside yield except when it increased the water solubility of sparingly soluble alcohols. Some galactosides were synthesized on a gram scale to determine practical product recoveries and improve purification methods for large-scale synthesis. Initial purification by hydrophobic chromatography (for galactosides of hydrophobic alcohols) or strong anion-exchange chromatography (for galactosides of hydrophilic alcohols) separated galactosides, galactobiosides, and higher oligomers from reducing sugars. A facile separation of the galactoside and galactobioside could then be effected by flash chromatography on silica gel. PMID:18613088

  11. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  12. Testosterone deficiency and exercise intolerance in heart failure: treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Iellamo, Ferdinando; Rosano, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by a metabolic shift favoring catabolism with impairment in skeletal muscle bulk and function. There is evidence that low plasma levels of testosterone play a role in this shift, and that hypotestosteronemia could be involved in the impairment of skeletal muscle function and exercise tolerance, which characterize CHF syndrome. Testosterone supplementation at replacement doses has been hypothesized as a potential therapy to counteract anabolic deficiency in CHF also acting on pathophysiological mechanisms, which sustain the progression of CHF. Recent studies have indeed indicated that testosterone supplementation increases functional capacity and muscle performance in patients with CHF. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of testosterone deficiency in exercise intolerance in CHF and the potential implications of testosterone therapy. The links between testosterone and exercise tolerance in CHF, as well as the potential mechanisms of testosterone benefits in CHF syndrome, are also emphasized. Finally, unsolved issues regarding testosterone therapy in CHF and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20424990

  13. Hazards associated with pregnancies and deliveries in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Laura; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Niinikoski, Harri; Erkkola, Risto; Huoponen, Kirsi; Simell, Olli

    2006-02-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive transport disorder of the dibasic amino acids. The defect leads to deficiency of lysine, arginine, and ornithine and, secondarily, to a functional disorder of the urea cycle. Transient postprandial hyperammonemia and subsequent persistent protein aversion, linked with several other biochemical and clinical characteristics of the disease, suggest an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy and delivery. Our unique material on the outcomes of 18 pregnancies of 9 Finnish mothers with LPI and the follow-up of their 19 children shows that maternal LPI is truly associated with increased risk of anemia, toxemia, and intrauterine growth retardation during pregnancy and bleeding complications during delivery. Successful pregnancies and deliveries can still be achieved with careful follow-up of blood pressure and laboratory values. The children of the mothers with LPI generally develop normally. Special care of maternal protein nutrition and control of ammonemia, anemia, and toxemia during pregnancy are essential. We propose centralization of deliveries to obstetric units with capability to deal with bleeding complications and rare inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:16423630

  14. Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ills

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q

    2014-01-01

    Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and thus requires promptly and effective treatment. Prokinetic agents are currently considered as the first-line therapy given issues relating to parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric placement. Currently, the agents of choice are erythromycin and metoclopramide, either alone or in combination, which are highly effective with relatively low incidence of cardiac, hemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. Diarrhea, however, can occur in up to 49% of patients who are treated with the dual prokinetic therapy, which is not associated with Clostridium difficile infection and settled soon after the cessation of the drugs. Hence, the use of prokinetic therapy over a long period or for prophylactic purpose must be avoided, and the indication for ongoing use of the drug(s) must be reviewed frequently. Second line therapy, such as total parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric feeding, must be considered once adverse effects relating the prokinetic therapy develop. PMID:25133043

  15. Stress and worry: examining intolerance of uncertainty's moderating effect.

    PubMed

    Zlomke, Kimberly R; Jeter, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the way an individual perceives, interprets, and reacts to uncertainty in life, has been frequently investigated in relation to anxiety and worry. While a substantial body of research suggests that individual differences in IU foster stress and anxiety, IU's involvement as a potential moderator in the relation between stressful events and worry has only recently been investigated. Therefore, the present study examined the moderating effect of IU on the relation between daily hassles and worry as well as major life events and worry in a sample of 1092 young adults. Results revealed that IU showed a significant moderation effect in the relation between daily stress and worry. More specifically, when the two factors were examined individually only inhibitory IU served as a moderator between daily stress and worry. While major life events significantly predicted worry, no moderation effect was found for this relation. These findings highlight the need to better understand the mechanisms through which IU impacts worry and contributes to anxiety. PMID:24033115

  16. A simple access to lactose-derived building blocks required in glycoconjugate synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Lay; Rainer Windmüller; Stefan Reinhardt; Richard R. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    Lactose was readily transformed into thexyldimethylsilyl (3,4-O-isopropylidene- ?-d-galactopyranosyl)-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranoside (5); this compound served as intermediate for the generation of partially O-protected lactose building blocks required in oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis. Thus, from 5 via per-O-benzoylation, desilylation, trichloroacetimidate formation, glycosylation of the Lemieux spacer, and acid-catalyzed de- O-isopropylidenation methoxycarbonyloctyl (2.6-di-O-benzoyl-?- d-galactopyranosyl)-(1 ? 4)-2.3.6-tri-O-benzoyl-?-d- glucopyranoside (12) was obtained. Regioselective benzoylation of

  17. Formation of lactose-mannitol molecular alloys by solid state vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willart, J. F.; Descamps, N.; Caron, V.; Capet, F.; Danède, F.; Descamps, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we report the possibility to form glassy molecular alloys (?-lactose) 1- x(mannitol) x for x<0.5 by co-milling two crystalline powders of pure ?-lactose and pure mannitol ?. The results have been established by differential scanning calorimetry and by powder X-ray diffraction. The concentration dependence of the glass transition temperature is found to obey the Gordon Taylor rule expected for regular solutions. It is also shown that the milling of pure mannitol ? ( x=1) leads to a polymorphic transformation towards the metastable form ? of mannitol.

  18. Effects of a dietary load of acid or base on changes induced by lactose in rats.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A P; Lina, B A; Hagenaars, A J; Hollanders, V M; Andringa, M; Feron, V J

    1995-01-01

    Feeding lactose or other slowly digestible carbohydrates to adult mammals may induce a variety of effects including hyperplasia and neoplasia. The most fundamental effect probably is the increased production in the large intestine of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) resulting from increased fermentation of carbohydrate residues. To find out whether the increased production of these acidic compounds is involved in the induction of certain alterations caused by low-digestibility carbohydrates, the modifying effects of an acidifying (NH4Cl) or an alkalizing (KHCO3) diet supplement on lactose-induced changes in rats were studied. Three groups of 50 rats per sex were fed a 20% lactose diet unsupplemented or supplemented with 1% NH4Cl or 2% KHCO3, for at most 2.5 yr. One control group was fed the basal diet which contained wheat starch instead of lactose. Feeding lactose resulted in wet faecal pellets, reduced pH of the faeces, higher intake of food and water, lower body weights, increased caecal weights and fewer deaths. These effects were not significantly modified by NH4Cl or KHCO3. Feeding lactose increased urinary calcium levels, the effect being enhanced by NH4Cl and reduced by KHCO3. Lactose also tended to increase blood values of alkaline phosphatase and to decrease those for bicarbonate and base excess. These tendencies were generally more marked with NH4Cl, and less marked or absent with KHCO3. In addition, rats fed lactose showed decreased severity of nephrosis, increased mineralization and hyperplasia of the renal pelvic epithelium, and relatively high incidences of Leydig cell hyperplasia and neoplasia. NH4Cl supplementation was associated with a relatively small number of single and multiple tumours, with decreased incidences of hyperplasia and mineralization of the renal pelvis epithelium and with a markedly reduced incidence of proliferative changes in the adrenal medulla. With the KHCO3 supplement the incidences of Leydig cell proliferation and of bladder tumours were relatively high. These findings, in particular the differences between the diet groups in urinary calcium levels and possibly also the variations in blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, bicarbonate and base excess, suggest that the acidic end products of carbohydrate fermentation (SCFA) act as an acid load on the body. PMID:7821870

  19. Production of Galacto-Oligosaccharide from Lactose by Sterigmatomyces elviaeCBS8119

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NORIMASA ONISHI; AKIHIRO YAMASHIRO; ANDKENZO YOKOZEKI

    1995-01-01

    Our stock cultures were screened for microorganisms that can produce galacto-oligosaccharide (Gal-OS) from lactose. Of the 574 strains of bacteria and yeasts tested, Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119, Rhodotorula minuta IFO879, and Sirobasidium magnum CBS6803 were found to be efficient producers of Gal-OS from lactose and S. elviae CBS8119 was selected as a representative, high-level producing strain. With toluene- treatedrestingS.elviaeCBS8119cells,135mgofGal-OSpermlwasproducedfrom360-mg\\/mllactose.During thisreaction,theby-productglucosewasfoundtoinhibitGal-OSproduction.Therefore,inordertoremovethe glucose

  20. Investigation of Electrostatic Behavior of a Lactose Carrier for Dry Powder Inhalers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keat Theng Chow; Kewu Zhu; Reginald B. H. Tan; Paul W. S. Heng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  This study aims to elucidate the electrostatic behavior of a model lactose carrier used in dry powder inhaler formulations\\u000a by examining the effects of ambient relative humidity (RH), aerosolization air flow rate, repeated inhaler use, gelatin capsule\\u000a and tapping on the specific charge (nC\\/g) of bulk and aerosolized lactose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Static and dynamic electrostatic charge measurements were performed using

  1. Effects of chronic aspirin ingestion in aspirin-intolerant asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Naeije, N; Bracamonte, M; Michel, O; Sergysels, R; Duchateau, J

    1984-09-01

    The effects of regular aspirin ingestion after aspirin-desensitization were evaluated in 10 aspirin-intolerant asthmatic patients. Chronic aspirin ingestion was not observed to be associated with either a significant improvement of mean FEV1 values or with a decrease in daily corticosteroid requirements. This study suggests that regular aspirin ingestion in aspirin-intolerant asthmatic patients does not induce a measurable improvement of the respiratory status. PMID:6476484

  2. Digestibility, Mineral Balance, and Rumen Fermentation by Steers of Rations Containing Large Amounts of Lactose or Dried Whey1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Schingoethe; E. W. Skyberg; R. W. Bailey

    1980-01-01

    Nine Holstein steers in three ration groups were in a series of five digestion trials during 10 wk to measure digestibili- ties of rations containing lactose fed as either lactose or dried whole whey. All steers received a control ration of corn, soybean meal, and corn silage during period 1. Three steers also received the control ration during periods 2

  3. Intolerance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia: Definitions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Cortes, Jorge; Mauro, Michael J

    2011-02-15

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment targeting breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia virus, the cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), has revolutionized therapy for patients with this disease. The majority of patients with CML maintain favorable responses with long-term imatinib therapy; however, the availability of the second-generation TKIs nilotinib and dasatinib limits the need for patients intolerant to imatinib to continue with therapy. Unfortunately, there is currently no standard definition of intolerance to imatinib. Common Toxicity Criteria for grading adverse events, designed to identify acute toxicities, are often used to determine intolerance. However, because CML therapies are long-term, patient quality of life may provide a better measure of true intolerance. Several general methods of quantifying patient quality of life are in use for patients with CML, and a CML-specific variant of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory is in development. An appropriate and consistent definition of intolerance will provide clinicians with an algorithm for managing their patients with severe or chronic adverse events during treatment with imatinib. As more long-term data become available for newer TKIs, the definition of intolerance in the context of CML treatment will continue to evolve to maximize the likelihood of durable responses and superior quality of life for patients. PMID:20922786

  4. Two types of radicals in whole milk powder. Effect of lactose crystallization, lipid oxidation, and browning reactions.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Marianne K; Lauridsen, Lene; Skibsted, Leif H; Risbo, Jens

    2005-03-01

    Whole milk powder was stored in closed vials at 60 degrees C to induce crystallization of lactose within a short time scale. After an induction period of 3-4 days simultaneous crystallization of lactose, increase of water activity, formation of browning products, and increase of radical content took place. Radicals detected before lactose crystallization were characterized by a narrow ESR spectrum (g = 2.006) and could be depleted by removal of oxygen and therefore were assigned to oxidation processes. Late-stage radicals present after crystallization of lactose gave much wider spectra (g = 2.0048) and were independent of oxygen availability and assigned to late-stage Maillard reaction products. The study indicates that the processes of lactose crystallization, browning, and formation of radical species (g = 2.0048) are strongly coupled, while lipid oxidation is less dependent on the other processes. PMID:15740077

  5. Lactulose production from lactose as a single substrate by a thermostable cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Su; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2012-01-01

    The conditions for maximum lactulose production from lactose, as a single substrate, by a thermostable recombinant cellobiose-2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were determined to be pH 7.5, 80 °C, 700 g l(-1) lactose, and 150 U ml(-1) of enzyme. Under the conditions, the enzyme produced the two bifidus factors lactulose at 408 g l(-1) and epilactose at 107 g l(-1) after 2 h. The yields of lactulose and epilactose from lactose and the productivities of lactulose and epilactose were 58%, 15%, 204 g l(-1) h(-1), and 54 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The yield and productivity of both lactulose and epilactose from lactose were 74% and 258 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The yield, concentration, and productivity of lactulose in the present study are the highest among enzymatic syntheses. This is the first trial of enzymatic synthesis of lactulose using the single substrate lactose. PMID:22123300

  6. Dependence on pH of substrate binding to a mutant lactose carrier, lacYun, in Escherichia coli. A model for H+/lactose symport.

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, I; Anraku, Y

    1989-01-01

    The lacYun gene, which encodes a lactose carrier showing the uncoupled phenotype of substrate transport in Escherichia coli [Wilson, Kusch & Kashket (1970) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 40, 1409-1414], was cloned on a plasmid vector, pBR322. The binding of a substrate, p-nitrophenyl alpha-galactoside, to the lacYun carrier in membranes from the strain harbouring the lacYun clone showed a pH-dependence different from its binding to the wild-type lactose carrier. This finding indicated that the lacYun mutation confers higher affinity for H+ on the carrier, exerting its effect on the less efficient dissociation of substrate inside cells. The result coincides with the proposal [Yamato & Rosenbusch (1983) FEBS Lett. 151, 102-104] that the proton affecting the substrate binding is the coupling proton of the proton/lactose symport reaction, which allows only the ordered mechanism of binding of substrate to an H+-carrier binary complex. From the simplest model of the symport reaction, constructed on the basis of these results, the coupling site of energy in the carrier cycle of the transport reaction can be identified at the substrate-dissociation step inside cells. PMID:2539805

  7. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Fitz, Werner; Brandt, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the general population lifetime and point prevalence of visual height intolerance and acrophobia, to define their clinical characteristics, and to determine their anxious and depressive comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted within a German population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. A representative sample of 2,012 individuals aged 14 and above was selected. Defined neurological conditions (migraine, Menière's disease, motion sickness), symptom pattern, age of first manifestation, precipitating height stimuli, course of illness, psychosocial impairment, and comorbidity patterns (anxiety conditions, depressive disorders according to DSM-IV-TR) for vHI and acrophobia were assessed. The lifetime prevalence of vHI was 28.5 % (women 32.4 %, men 24.5 %). Initial attacks occurred predominantly (36 %) in the second decade. A rapid generalization to other height stimuli and a chronic course of illness with at least moderate impairment were observed. A total of 22.5 % of individuals with vHI experienced the intensity of panic attacks. The lifetime prevalence of acrophobia was 6.4 % (women 8.6 %, men 4.1 %), and point prevalence was 2.0 % (women 2.8 %; men 1.1 %). VHI and even more acrophobia were associated with high rates of comorbid anxious and depressive conditions. Migraine was both a significant predictor of later acrophobia and a significant consequence of previous acrophobia. VHI affects nearly a third of the general population; in more than 20 % of these persons, vHI occasionally develops into panic attacks and in 6.4 %, it escalates to acrophobia. Symptoms and degree of social impairment form a continuum of mild to seriously distressing conditions in susceptible subjects. PMID:25262317

  8. A study of the separation of lactose from whey ultrafiltration permeate using nanofiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cuartas-Uribe; M. I. Alcaina-Miranda; E. Soriano-Costa; J. A. Mendoza-Roca; M. I. Iborra-Clar; J. Lora-García

    2009-01-01

    Whey is the main by-product obtained from cheese production. It contains a high concentration of organic matter, mainly proteins and lactose, and mineral salts. Usually, pre-treated whey was discharged into sewer together with the other liquid effluents from the dairy industry. However, the increasingly stringent legal standards for wastewaters in contrast with the high COD and BOD of whey have

  9. Spray-dried whey protein\\/lactose\\/soybean oil emulsions. 1. Surface composition and particle structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Fäldt; Björn Bergenståhl

    1996-01-01

    Emulsions made of whey protein, lactose and soybean oil were spray-dried and the chemical surface composition of the dried powders estimated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. In particular, the ability of whey protein to encapsulate fat was highlighted. Additionally, the structure of the spray-dried powder particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The powders were examined after storage in

  10. Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of whey utilization as well as pollution reduction as lactose recovery itself can reduce the BOD of whey into rivers, lakes or water bodies (Saddoud et al. 2007). Whey is a serious pollutant as it imposes a high into the environment (Chollangi and Hossain 2007). The recovered components can be supplied to the food, pharmaceutical

  11. Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

  12. Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate value of three carbohydrate sources incorporated into a dry pelleted milk replacer for piglets weaned were replaced by an association of soluble fish protein concentrate (SFPC 80) and the carbohydrate

  13. The role of Galectin-1 in the interaction between chondrocytes and a lactose-modified chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Marcon; Eleonora Marsich; Amedeo Vetere; Pamela Mozetic; Cristiana Campa; Ivan Donati; Franco Vittur; Amelia Gamini; Sergio Paoletti

    2005-01-01

    Evidences for the involvement of the Galectin-1 in the interaction of pig chondrocytes with a lactose-modified chitosan, namely Chitlac, are reported. The Chitlac glycopolymer has been shown to promote pig chondrocyte aggregation and to induce extracellular matrix production. Highly pure Galectin-1 was obtained from pig spleen by affinity chromatography and its identity was determined by ion spray mass spectrometry analysis

  14. Galactooligosaccharides formation during enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: towards a prebiotic-enriched milk.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Colinas, Barbara; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Ballesteros, Antonio O; Plou, Francisco J

    2014-02-15

    The formation of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in skim milk during treatment with several commercial ?-galactosidases (Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae) was analysed in detail, at 4 and 40°C. The maximum GOS concentration was obtained at a lactose conversion of approximately 40-50% with B. circulans and A. oryzae ?-galactosidases, and at 95% lactose depletion for K. lactis ?-galactosidase. Using an enzyme dosage of 0.1% (v/v), the maximum GOS concentration with K. lactis ?-galactosidase was achieved in 1 and 5h at 40 and 4 °C, respectively. With this enzyme, it was possible to obtain a treated milk with 7.0 g/L GOS - the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) concentration is between 5 and 15 g/L--and with a low content of residual lactose (2.1g/L, compared with 44-46 g/L in the initial milk sample). The major GOS synthesised by this enzyme were 6-galactobiose [Gal-?(1 ? 6)-Gal], allolactose [Gal-?(1 ? 6)-Glc] and 6'-O-?-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-?(1 ? 6)-Gal-?(1 ? 4)-Glc]. PMID:24128493

  15. Galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis from lactose and whey by ?-galactosidase immobilized in PVA.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Fernandes, Pedro; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Fonseca, Luis

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) by ?-galactosidase immobilized in both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) lenses and sol-gel carriers was studied and compared with the performance of the free enzyme. PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase retained 95 % of the initial activity after seven repeated uses and retained 51 % of the initial activity after 3 months of storage, while sol-gel-immobilized ?-galactosidase only retained 39 % of the initial activity under storage. Lactose conversion takes place at a higher rate in the PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, while the lowest rate of lactose conversion was noticed with immobilized ?-galactosidase in sol-gel. Continuous production of GOS from either lactose or whey, with PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, was performed in a packed-bed reactor. A maximum GOS production of 30 % of total sugars was attained for a 40-% lactose feed solution with a feed rate of 10.8 ml/h, at pH 4.5 and 40 °C, corresponding to a productivity of 117 g/l?h. The maximum GOS productivity of 344 g/l?h was obtained at a flow rate of 28.7 ml/h. 3-OS and 4-OS were the major types of GOS formed. Conversion of whey in continuous mode resulted in GOS production of 15 % of total sugars and formation of 45 % 3-OS, 40 % 4-OS, and 15 % 5-OS. PMID:22941309

  16. Color Development in Lactose Solutions during Heating with Special Reference to the Color of Evaporated Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Webb

    1935-01-01

    In the manufacture of those dairy products which are processed at high temperatures or which contain a large quantity of reducing sugar, an unde- sirable brown color develops. This color is especially noticeable in the manufacture of milk sugar, evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk. It is a matter of general experience in lactose manufacture that during the heating of

  17. Catabolism of glucose and lactose in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, studied by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Irene; Gaspar, Paula; Sánchez, Borja; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-12-01

    Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with (13)C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with (13)C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-(13)Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-(13)Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-(13)C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by (13)C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway involved in energy recruitment from these two sugars. On the basis of our experimental results, a model of sugar metabolism in B. animalis subsp. lactis is proposed. PMID:24077711

  18. Orthostatic intolerance in 6 degrees head-down tilt and lower body negative pressure loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi

    6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.

  19. Anemia amelioration by lactose infusion during trypanosomosis could be associated with erythrocytes membrane de-galactosylation.

    PubMed

    Balogun, E O; Balogun, J B; Yusuf, S; Inuwa, H M; Ndams, I S; Sheridan, P; Inaoka, D K; Shiba, T; Harada, S; Kita, K; Esievo, K A N; Nok, A J

    2014-01-31

    African trypanosomosis is a potentially fatal disease that is caused by extracellular parasitic protists known as African trypanosomes. These parasites inhabit the blood stream of their mammalian hosts and produce a number of pathological features, amongst which is anemia. Etiology of the anemia has been partly attributed to an autoimmunity-like mediated erythrophagocytosis of de-sialylated red blood cells (dsRBCs) by macrophages. Lactose infusion to infected animals has proven effective at delaying progression of the anemia. However, the mechanism of this anemia prevention is yet to be well characterized. Here, the hypothesis of a likely induced further modification of the dsRBCs was investigated. RBC membrane galactose (RBC m-GAL) and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured during the course of experimental trypanosomosis in mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense (stb 212). Intriguingly, while the membrane galactose on the RBCs of infected and lactose-treated mice (group D) decreased as a function of parasitemia, that of the lactose-untreated infected group (group C) remained relatively constant, as was recorded for the uninfected lactose-treated control (group B) animals. At the peak of infection, the respective cumulative percent decrease in PCV and membrane galactose were 30 and 185 for group D, and 84 and 13 for group C. From this observed inverse relationship between RBCs membrane galactose and PCV, it is logical to rationalize that the delay of anemia progression during trypanosomosis produced by lactose might have resulted from an induction of galactose depletion from dsRBCs, thereby preventing their recognition by the macrophages. PMID:24238624

  20. The role of transmembrane domain III in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sahin-Tóth, M.; Frillingos, S.; Bibi, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaback, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    Deletion of putative transmembrane helix III from the lactose permease of Escherichia coli results in complete loss of transport activity. Similarly, replacement of this region en bloc with 23 contiguous Ala, Leu, or Phe residues abolishes active lactose transport. The observations suggest that helix III may contain functionally important residues; therefore, this region was subjected to Cys-scanning mutagenesis. Using a functional mutant devoid of Cys residues (C-less permease) each residue from Tyr 75 to Leu 99 was individually replaced with Cys. Twenty-one of the 25 mutants accumulate lactose to > 70% of the steady-state exhibited by C-less permease, and an additional 3 mutants transport to lower, but significant levels (40-60% of C-less). Cys replacement for Leu 76 results in low transport activity (18% of C-less). However, when placed in the wild-type background, mutant Leu 76-->Cys exhibits highly significant rates of transport (55% of wild type) and steady-state levels of lactose accumulation (65% of wild type). Immunoblots reveal that the mutants are inserted into the membrane at concentrations comparable to wild type. Studies with N-ethylmaleimide show that mutant Gly 96-->Cys is rapidly inactivated, whereas the other single-Cys mutants are not altered significantly by the alkylating agent. Moreover, the rate of inactivation of Gly 96-->Cys permease is enhanced at least 2-fold in the presence of beta-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta, D-galactopyranoside. The observations demonstrate that although no residue per se appears to be essential, structural properties of helix III are important for active lactose transport. PMID:7756986

  1. Simulation of roller compaction with subsequent tableting and characterization of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Langridge, John

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are by far the most common solid oral dosage forms, and many drugs need to be granulated before they can be tableted. Increasingly roller compaction is being used as a dry granulation technique; however it is a very time and material intensive method. Thus some mini roller compactors and simulations of the roller compaction process have been developed as a means of studying the technique at small scale. An important factor in the selection of materials for roller compaction is their ability to be recompressed into tablets after the initial roller compaction and milling steps. In this paper the roller compaction process was simulated on the basis of some models by Gereg and Cappola (2002) and Zinchuk et al. (2004). An eccentric tableting machine was used to make compacts from alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous beta-lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.6-0.9). These compacts were milled immediately to granules with a rotary granulator. The properties of the granules were analyzed and compared to the properties of the original powders. These granules and powders were then tableted at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.75-0.95) and their properties including elastic recovery, crushing force and 3D-model were analyzed. The properties of the tablets made from the granules were compared to the properties of the tablets made from the powders to determine which excipients are most suitable for the roller compaction process. The study showed that anhydrous beta-lactose is the preferred form of lactose for use in roller compaction since compaction did not affect tablet crushing force to a large extent. With the simulation of roller compaction process one is able to find qualified materials for use in roller compaction without the necessity of a great deal of material and time. PMID:18728996

  2. Unexpected Different Binding of Mistletoe Lectins from Plant Extracts to Immobilized Lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine

    PubMed Central

    Hajtò, Tibor; Krisztina, Fodor; Ildikò, Aponyi; Zsolt, Pallai; Pèter, Balogh; Pèter, Németh; Pàl, Perjési

    2007-01-01

    Mistletoe Extracts (ME) are of growing interest to pharmacological research because of their apoptosis-inducing/cytostatic and immunomodulatory effects. The standardization of the three different groups of Mistletoe Isolectins (ML-I, II and III) is often rendered more difficult since the primary structures are nearly identical. Their classification is based on their Galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc)-specificity which was measured by various inhibitory assays. The aim of the present study was to improve the characterization of the direct binding activity of the isolectins from ME to immobilized lactose, GalNAc and to the oligosaccharide asialofetuin. After careful ultrafiltration of fresh ME, affinity chromatography was carried out using lactose- agarose, GalNAc—agarose and asialofetuin—affigel 15 columns. MLs were further purified by Sephadex G-100 or by cation exchange chromatography which was adapted to a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. Proteins from both fresh plants and commercial ME were able to bind immobilized lactose to a considerable extent. The majority of this lectin has a B-chain with a Molecular Weight (MW) of 34kD and an A-chain with a MW of 29 kD (ML-I). Only a minor part of the lactose-binding proteins has a lower MW, namely 32kD and 27kD (MLII). However, neither MLs which were eluted from lactose columns, nor the proteins from fresh plant or ME showed a direct binding to the immobilized GalNAc. In spite of this deficiency, GalNAc was able to induce a considerable (25% and 32%) inhibitory effect on their binding to immobilized asialofetuin indicating a discrepancy between the lectin binding and inhibiting effects of GalNAC. Consequently, for an improved standardization of ME more specific sugar molecules are necessary. PMID:19662176

  3. Genic Intolerance to Functional Variation and the Interpretation of Personal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Petrovski, Slavé; Wang, Quanli; Heinzen, Erin L.; Allen, Andrew S.; Goldstein, David B.

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge in interpreting personal genomes is determining which mutations most likely influence disease. Although progress has been made in scoring the functional impact of individual mutations, the characteristics of the genes in which those mutations are found remain largely unexplored. For example, genes known to carry few common functional variants in healthy individuals may be judged more likely to cause certain kinds of disease than genes known to carry many such variants. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop a quantitative assessment of how well genes tolerate functional genetic variation on a genome-wide scale. Here we describe an effort that uses sequence data from 6503 whole exome sequences made available by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Specifically, we develop an intolerance scoring system that assesses whether genes have relatively more or less functional genetic variation than expected based on the apparently neutral variation found in the gene. To illustrate the utility of this intolerance score, we show that genes responsible for Mendelian diseases are significantly more intolerant to functional genetic variation than genes that do not cause any known disease, but with striking variation in intolerance among genes causing different classes of genetic disease. We conclude by showing that use of an intolerance ranking system can aid in interpreting personal genomes and identifying pathogenic mutations. PMID:23990802

  4. Lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions for high-dose dosimetry with 10-MeV electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Amraei, Reza; Kheirkhah, Monire; Raisali, Gholamreza

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, dosimetric characterisation of aqueous solutions of lactose and sucrose was analysed by UV spectrometry following irradiation using 10-MeV electron beam at doses between 0.5 and 10.5 kGy. As a dosimetric index, absorbance is selected at 256 and 264 nm for lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions, respectively. The intensity of absorbance for irradiated solutions depends on the pre-irradiation concentration of lactose and sucrose. The post-irradiation stability of both solutions was investigated at room temperature for a measurement period of 22 d. PMID:21765157

  5. Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Lactose-Fermenting Vibrios in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James D.; Warner, Robert A.; Cleland, David R.

    1983-01-01

    During the summer of 1981, 3,887 sucrose-negative vibrios were isolated from seawater, sediment, plankton, and animal samples taken from 80 sites from Miami, Fla., to Portland, Maine. Of these, 4.2% were able to ferment lactose. The lactose-positive strains isolated from the various samples correlated positively with pH and turbidity of the water, vibrios in the sediment and oysters, and total bacterial counts in oysters. Negative correlations were obtained for water salinity. Numerical taxonomy was performed on 95 of the lactose-fermenting environmental isolates and 23 reference strains. Five clusters resulted, with the major cluster containing 33 of the environmental isolates and all of the Vibrio vulnificus reference strains. The 33 isolates, which produced an acid reaction in lactose broth within hours of initial inoculation, represented 20% of all lactose-fermenting vibrios studied. These isolates were nearly identical phenotypically to clinical strains of V. vulnificus studied by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and by our laboratory, and their identification was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. V. vulnificus was isolated from all sample types and from Miami to Cape Cod, Mass., and comparison of the environmental parameters of the eight subsites yielding this species with those of all 80 subsites revealed no significant differences. The majority of the isolates were obtained from animals, with clams providing most (84%) of these. On injection into mice, 82% of the V. vulnificus isolates resulted in death. Members of the remaining four clusters contained strains which differed from V. vulnificus in such phenotypic traits as luminescence and in urease or H2S production. None of the other reference cultures, including nine other Vibrio species, were contained in the remaining clusters, and these isolates could not be identified. Most of these were also lethal for mice. Phenotypic differences, potential pathogenicity, and geographic distribution of the five clusters were examined. It is concluded that V. vulnificus is a ubiquitous organism, both geographically and in a variety of environmental sources, although it occurs in relatively low numbers. The public health significance of this organism and of the other unidentified lactose-fermenting Vibrio species is discussed. PMID:6847190

  6. Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies. Neurolab Autonomic Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.

  7. Metabolic effects of physical training in subjects with oral glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Erle, G; Cortesi, S; Zen, F; Mingardi, R; Sicolo, N

    1985-10-01

    A group of normal weight subjects with oral glucose intolerance was studied for 4 months before, during, and after a physical training program (8 km/day/run). There were no significant differences in weight, basal blood glucose, lactate, and total cholesterol during and after training as compared with before training. Serum triglycerides significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased during the training period, and cholesterol-HDL significantly (P less than 0.01) increased during and after the physical program. Our data show that in previously inactive subjects with oral glucose intolerance physical training improves serum lipid patterns and thereby reduces atherosclerotic risk. PMID:4055193

  8. Spectroscopic and structural studies on lactose species in aqueous solution combining the HATR and Raman spectra with SCRF calculations.

    PubMed

    Márquez, María Jimena; Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Davies, Lilian; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2015-04-30

    In this work, the ? and ? isomers, the ?-lactose monohydrate and dihydrate and the dimeric species of lactose were studied from the spectroscopic point of view in gas and aqueous solution phases combining the infrared, Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance (HATR) and Raman spectra with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Aqueous saturated solutions of ?-lactose monohydrate and solutions at different molar concentrations of ?-lactose monohydrate in water were completely characterized by infrared, HATR and Raman spectroscopies. For all the species in solution, the solvent effects were studied using the solvation polarizable continuum (PCM) and solvation (SM) models and, then, their corresponding solvation energies were predicted. The vibrational spectra of those species in aqueous solution were completely assigned by employing the Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology and the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations. The stabilities of all those species were studied by using the natural bond orbital (NBO), and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations. PMID:25704196

  9. Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

    1998-06-01

    At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

  10. Transgalactosylation of lactose for synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides using Kluyveromyces marxianus NCIM 3551.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Mishra, Saroj; Chand, Subhash

    2015-06-25

    Among a number of yeast strains screened for whole cell transgalactosylating activity, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCIM 3551 was found to be most suitable biocatalyst for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Cell permeabilization lead to an efficient bioconversion by ?-galactosidase resulting in synthesis of GOS. A maximum GOS yield of 36% (w/w) of total sugars was achieved and the products consisted of tri- and tetra-galacto-oligosaccharides. A lactose conversion rate of 80% and productivity of 24g/L/h was obtained under the optimum conditions at lactose concentration of 20% (w/v), temperature 40°C, pH 6.5 and enzyme units after 3h of reaction time. Tetrasaccharides were the main component of the reaction mixture. The products were quantitated by HPLC and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. PMID:25976627

  11. Effective in vivo hydrolysis of milk lactose by beta-galactosidases in the presence of solid foods13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel W Solomons; Aura-Marina Guerrero; Benjamin Torun

    The feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy with exogenous, food-grade, microbial enzymes at mealtime to effect intragastrointestinal hydrolysis of the lactose from 360 ml of cow's milk consumed with a solid food meal (breakfast cereals) was investigated in adult Guatemalan lactose-malabsorbers using a hydrogen breath-analysis procedure to quantify the completeness of postprandial carbohydrate absorption. Adding 2 g of a commercial preparation

  12. Lactulose production from lactose as a single substrate by a thermostable cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong-Su Kim; Deok-Kun Oh

    The conditions for maximum lactulose production from lactose, as a single substrate, by a thermostable recombinant cellobiose-2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were determined to be pH 7.5, 80 °C, 700 g l?1 lactose, and 150 U ml?1 of enzyme. Under the conditions, the enzyme produced the two bifidus factors lactulose at 408 g l?1 and epilactose at 107 g l?1 after

  13. Galacto-oligosaccharides production during lactose hydrolysis by free Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase and immobilized on magnetic polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. M. Neri; Victor M. Balcão; Rafael S. Costa; Isabel C. A. P. Rocha; Eugénio M. F. C. Ferreira; Duarte P. M. Torres; Lígia R. M. Rodrigues; Luiz B. Carvalho Jr.; José A. Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) by the action of Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase free and immobilized on magnetic polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol (mPOS-PVA) was studied. A maximum GOS concentration of 26% (w\\/v) of total sugars was achieved at near 55% lactose conversion from 50%, w\\/v lactose solution at pH 4.5 and 40°C. Trisaccharides accounted for more than 81% of the total GOS produced.

  14. Improving safety performance of lactose-fueled binary pyrotechnic systems of smoke dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas EslamiSeyed; Seyed Ghorban Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    The lactose\\/KClO3 is a widely used pyrotechnic mixture to vaporize organic materials, such as smoke dyes. However, because of low ignition\\u000a temperature of this mixture, serious precaution should be taken into account to prevent its accidental self-ignition. In order\\u000a to find a safe and efficient alternative of this conventional mixture, KClO3 has been replaced by common oxidizing agents including KMnO4,

  15. Responses of Newborn Calves to Oral Fructose, Sorbitol or Lactose Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Becker; H. L. Keller; W. P. Weiss; L. B. Willett

    2000-01-01

    Becker, C.J., Keller, H.L., Weiss, W.P. and Willett, L.B. 2000. Responses of newborn calves to oral fructose, sorbitol or lactose supplements. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 17: 185–196.Shortly after birth, calves are energy deficient as plasma fructose declines, glucose is metabolized and glycogen reserves are depleted. Therefore, supplements of fructose or sorbitol may be useful during the early postpartum period. Forty

  16. Kinetics of lactose conversion to galacto-oligosaccharides by ?-galactosidase immobilized on PVDF membrane.

    PubMed

    Palai, Tapas; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2013-06-01

    Experimental studies were made for immobilization of enzymes on microporous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane in order to carry out enzymatic reaction of lactose into galacto-oligosaccharides using ?-galactosidase. The present work, however, is the first part in the direction of enzymatic membrane reactor studies for carrying out reaction followed by membrane based separation to purify galacto-oligosaccharides out of reaction mixture. The middle of the three compartment cell, separated by two immobilized (enzyme) membranes, was utilized to feed lactose solution; whereas, adjacent compartments were filled with distilled water. The reacted mixture solution was analyzed for tri-, tetra- and penta-forms of GOS. The formation of product GOS strongly depended on varying amounts of initial lactose concentration (ILC). Total GOS formation increased from 7% to 28% for ILC from 50 to 200 g/L. However, tri-saccharide was the major (67%) in comparison to tetra (27%) and penta (6%) forms of GOS. Further, based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics, a six-step-eleven-parameter model was developed. The model incorporated enzyme inhibition and formation of glucose and galactose separately. Simulated results from developed model matched exceeding well with experimental results. PMID:23333643

  17. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.C. (University of California San Diego, La Jolla); Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

  18. Computer simulation studies in fluid and calcium regulation and orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The systems analysis approach to physiological research uses mathematical models and computer simulation. Major areas of concern during prolonged space flight discussed include fluid and blood volume regulation; cardiovascular response during shuttle reentry; countermeasures for orthostatic intolerance; and calcium regulation and bone atrophy. Potential contributions of physiologic math models to future flight experiments are examined.

  19. Olanzapine induces glucose intolerance through the activation of AMPK in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Megumi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Ohashi, Takahiro; Kai, Misa; Kamei, Atsuko; Kamei, Junzo

    2013-10-15

    Treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs is known to increase the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes. However, the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Since central adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating nutrient homeostasis, the present study was performed to examine the involvement of central AMPK in the glucose intolerance induced by olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, in mice. Acute intraperitoneal treatment with olanzapine dose-dependently increased blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test. Intracerebroventricular administration of olanzapine also increased blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test. The glucose intolerance induced by both intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular treatment with olanzapine was significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the AMPK activator AICAR increased blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test, and this increase was inhibited by compound C. Moreover, the hypothalamic level of phosphorylated AMPK after glucose injection was significantly increased by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with olanzapine. Olanzapine did not affect plasma glucagon and insulin levels. Our results indicate that acute treatment with olanzapine causes glucose intolerance through the activation of hypothalamic AMPK. The present study suggests that the inhibition of central AMPK activity may have a therapeutic effect on the metabolic disturbance induced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23973646

  20. THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF REVISITED: THE IMPACT OF FALSE ALARM INTOLERANCE ON

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Paul

    THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF REVISITED: THE IMPACT OF FALSE ALARM INTOLERANCE ON COST-LOSS SCENARIOS M's fable about the "The Boy who Cried Wolf", a young shepherd boy guarding the village flock cries. This event is repeated two or three times before a wolf actually does show up on the hillside. The boy cries

  1. Abstract Submission for ESPGHAN Update 2012 Immunology including Food Allergy and Intolerance

    E-print Network

    Dupont, Pierre

    Abstract Submission for ESPGHAN Update 2012 Immunology including Food Allergy and Intolerance this abstract previously been presented or published?: No Objectives and Study: Allergy afflicts one third signs that a child may be at risk of developing allergies. Methods: To this end, we recruited a cohort

  2. [Pedlar inexpensive ergometer-based exercise program improves activity intolerance in a heart failure case].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pi-Kuang; Liu, Chin-Fang; Hsu, Hsin-Tien

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of a pedlar inexpensive ergometer-based structured exercise program in improving activity intolerance in a heart failure case. Data were collected between May 15, 2010 and May 20, 2010 using physical assessments, observations, and interviews. Several home visits were conducted after hospital discharge until August 8. Health problems identified included disease-related weakness, inability to complete daily activities, activity intolerance, malnutrition, and ineffective tissue perfusion. In addition to providing nutrition and dietary guidance, we designed an exercise rehabilitation program to improve activity intolerance both during hospitalization and after hospital discharge. Outcome measurements included the six-minute walk test, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and self-perceived improvement. Improvements achieved by the 12th week of the exercise training program included: (1) Able to complete the six-minute walk test (initially unable). (2) Walking distance increased by 54 meters. (3) Target heart rate achieved 40-60% of the maximum heart rate. (4) Resting systolic blood pressure and heart rates decreased tremendously, and (5) Fatigue and shortness of breath improved greatly. Results indicate the pedlar inexpensive ergometer exercise program may help improve the health of heart failure cases suffering from activity intolerance. PMID:23034555

  3. Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate…

  4. Intolerance of uncertainty and emotional distress following the death of a loved one

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Boelen

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) – the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain – is involved in worry and generalized anxiety disorder, as well as in other anxiety symptoms and disorders. To our knowledge, no studies have yet examined the association between IU and emotional distress connected with the death of a loved one.

  5. Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew Sermer; C. David Naylor; Douglas J. Gare; Anne B. Kenshole; J. W. K. Ritchie; Dan Farine; Howard R. Cohen; Karen McArthur; Stephen Holzapfel; Anne Biringer; Erluo Chen

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess maternal-fetal outcomes in patients with increasing carbohydrate intolerance not meeting the current criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes.STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective analytic cohort study in which nondiabetic women aged ?24 years, receiving prenatal care in three Toronto teaching hospitals, were eligible for enrollment. A glucose challenge test and an oral glucose

  6. A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow’s milk intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow’s milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:22992216

  7. Sarcopenic obesity and the pathogenesis of exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2015-06-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF) in older adults. The primary chronic symptom in patients with HFpEF, even when well compensated, is severe exercise intolerance. Cardiac and peripheral functions contribute equally to exercise intolerance in HFpEF, though the latter has been the focus of fewer studies. Of note, multiple studies with exercise training have shown that exercise intolerance can improve significantly in the absence of improvements in exercise cardiac output, indicating a role of peripheral, noncardiac adaptations. In addition, clinical drug trials performed to date in HFpEF, all of which have focused on influencing cardiovascular function, have not been positive on primary clinical outcomes and most have not improved exercise capacity. Mounting evidence indicates that sarcopenic obesity, characterized by the coexistence of excess fat mass and decreased muscle mass, could contribute to the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in older HFpEF patients and may provide avenues for novel treatments. PMID:25750186

  8. Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

    1993-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  9. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    PubMed

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity was approximately 6 times higher because the continuous epilactose formation was carried out for about 6 d without further addition of biocatalyst. Within this time, 24g of epilactose in 2.8 L of permeate were produced. The batch and the EMR process showed that the milk ultrafiltrate, which is a sidestream of the milk protein production, might be upgraded to a dairy product of higher value by the enzymatic in situ production of epilactose. PMID:25864053

  10. The Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Kraft, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Post space flight orthostatic intolerance among Space Shuttle crew members following exposure to extended periods of microgravity has been of significant concern to the safety of the shuttle program. Following the Challenger accident, flight crews were required to wear launch and entry suits (LES). It was noted that overall, there appeared to be a higher degree of orthostatic intolerance among the post-Challenger crews (approaching 30%). It was hypothesized that the increased heat load incurred when wearing the LES, contributed to an increased degree of orthostatic intolerance, possibly mediated through increased peripheral vasodilatation triggered by the heat load. The use of liquid cooling garments (LCG) beneath the launch and entry suits was gradually implemented among flight crews in an attempt to decrease heat load, increase crew comfort, and hopefully improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and landing. The hypothesis that the use of the LCG during reentry and landing would decrease the degree of orthostasis has not been previously tested. Operational stand-tests were performed pre and post flight to assess crewmember's cardiovascular system's ability to respond to gravitational stress. Stand test and debrief information were collected and databased for 27 space shuttle missions. 63 crewpersons wearing the LCG, and 70 crewpersons not wearing the LCG were entered into the database for analysis. Of 17 crewmembers who exhibited pre-syncopal symptoms at the R+O analysis, 15 were not wearing the LCG. This corresponds to a 21% rate of postflight orthostatic intolerance among those without the LCG, and a 3% rate for those wearing LCG. There were differences in these individual's average post-flight maximal systolic blood pressure, and lower minimal Systolic Blood pressures in those without LCG. Though other factors, such as type of fluid loading, and exercise have improved concurrently with LCG introduction, from this data analysis, it appears that LCG usage provided a significant degree of protection from post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

  11. Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15?kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259?T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370

  12. Intermittent hypoxia-induced glucose intolerance is abolished by ?-adrenergic blockade or adrenal medullectomy.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jonathan C; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Devera, Ronald; Yao, Qiaoling; Mesarwi, Omar; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep and is associated with dysregulation of glucose metabolism. We developed a novel model of clinically realistic IH in mice to test the hypothesis that IH causes hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance via activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Mice were exposed to acute hypoxia of graded severity (21, 14, 10, and 7% O2) or to IH of graded frequency [oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of 0, 15, 30, or 60, SpO2 nadir 80%] for 30 min to measure levels of glucose fatty acids, glycerol, insulin, and lactate. Glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests were then performed under each hypoxia condition. Next, we examined these outcomes in mice that were administered phentolamine (?-adrenergic blockade) or propranolol (?-adrenergic blockade) or that underwent adrenal medullectomy before IH exposure. In all experiments, mice were maintained in a thermoneutral environment. Sustained and IH induced hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in a dose-dependent fashion. Only severe hypoxia (7% O2) increased lactate, and only frequent IH (ODI 60) increased plasma fatty acids. Phentolamine or adrenal medullectomy both prevented IH-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. IH inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and phentolamine prevented the inhibition. Propranolol had no effect on glucose metabolism but abolished IH-induced lipolysis. IH-induced insulin resistance was not affected by any intervention. Acutely hypoxia causes hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in a dose-dependent manner. During IH, circulating catecholamines act upon ?-adrenoreceptors to cause hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. PMID:25315697

  13. Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

  14. Fermentation of lactose to bio-ethanol by yeasts as part of integrated solutions for the valorisation of cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-01-01

    Cheese whey, the main dairy by-product, is increasingly recognized as a source of many bioactive valuable compounds. Nevertheless, the most abundant component in whey is lactose (ca. 5% w/v), which represents a significant environmental problem. Due to the large lactose surplus generated, its conversion to bio-ethanol has long been considered as a possible solution for whey bioremediation. In this review, fermentation of lactose to ethanol is discussed, focusing on wild lactose-fermenting yeasts, particularly Kluyveromyces marxianus, and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The early efforts in the screening and characterization of the fermentation properties of wild lactose-consuming yeasts are reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is given on the latter advances in engineering S. cerevisiae strains for efficient whey-to-ethanol bioprocesses. Examples of industrial implementation are briefly discussed, illustrating the viability of whey-to-ethanol systems. Current developments on strain engineering together with the growing market for biofuels will likely boost the industrial interest in such processes. PMID:20153415

  15. Intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b are essential for cellulase induction on lactose in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jintao; Zhao, Guolei; Kou, Yanbo; Zhang, Weixin; Zhou, Qingxin; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2014-08-01

    Lactose (1,4-O-?-d-galacto-pyranosyl-d-glucose) induces cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei and is in fact one of the most important soluble carbon sources used to produce cellulases on an industrial level. The mechanism underlying the induction is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cellular functions of the intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b in the induction of cellulase genes by lactose in T. reesei. We demonstrated that while CEL1a and CEL1b were functionally equivalent in mediating the induction, the simultaneous absence of these intracellular ?-glucosidases abolished cbh1 gene expression on lactose. d-Galactose restored the efficient cellulase gene induction in the ?cel1a strain independently of its reductive metabolism, but not in the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain. A further comparison of the transcriptional responses of the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain complemented with wild-type CEL1a or a catalytically inactive CEL1a version and the ?cel1a strain constitutively expressing CEL1a or the Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase LAC4 showed that both the CEL1a protein and its glycoside hydrolytic activity were indispensable for cellulase induction by lactose. We also present evidence that intracellular ?-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. PMID:24879125

  16. Intracellular ?-Glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b Are Essential for Cellulase Induction on Lactose in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jintao; Zhao, Guolei; Kou, Yanbo; Zhang, Weixin; Zhou, Qingxin; Chen, Guanjun

    2014-01-01

    Lactose (1,4-O-?-d-galacto-pyranosyl-d-glucose) induces cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei and is in fact one of the most important soluble carbon sources used to produce cellulases on an industrial level. The mechanism underlying the induction is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cellular functions of the intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b in the induction of cellulase genes by lactose in T. reesei. We demonstrated that while CEL1a and CEL1b were functionally equivalent in mediating the induction, the simultaneous absence of these intracellular ?-glucosidases abolished cbh1 gene expression on lactose. d-Galactose restored the efficient cellulase gene induction in the ?cel1a strain independently of its reductive metabolism, but not in the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain. A further comparison of the transcriptional responses of the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain complemented with wild-type CEL1a or a catalytically inactive CEL1a version and the ?cel1a strain constitutively expressing CEL1a or the Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase LAC4 showed that both the CEL1a protein and its glycoside hydrolytic activity were indispensable for cellulase induction by lactose. We also present evidence that intracellular ?-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. PMID:24879125

  17. In silico analysis of exercise intolerance in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lengert, Nicor; Drossel, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Post-exertional malaise is commonly observed in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanism is not yet well understood. A reduced capacity for mitochondrial ATP synthesis is associated with the pathogenesis of CFS and is suspected to be a major contribution to exercise intolerance in CFS patients. To demonstrate the connection between a reduced mitochondrial capacity and exercise intolerance, we present a model which simulates metabolite dynamics in skeletal muscles during exercise and recovery. CFS simulations exhibit critically low levels of ATP, where an increased rate of cell death would be expected. To stabilize the energy supply at low ATP concentrations the total adenine nucleotide pool is reduced substantially causing a prolonged recovery time even without consideration of other factors, such as immunological dysregulations and oxidative stress. Repeated exercises worsen this situation considerably. Furthermore, CFS simulations exhibited an increased acidosis and lactate accumulation consistent with experimental observations. PMID:25899994

  18. EvoTol: a protein-sequence based evolutionary intolerance framework for disease-gene prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Rackham, Owen J. L.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Petretto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Methods to interpret personal genome sequences are increasingly required. Here, we report a novel framework (EvoTol) to identify disease-causing genes using patient sequence data from within protein coding-regions. EvoTol quantifies a gene's intolerance to mutation using evolutionary conservation of protein sequences and can incorporate tissue-specific gene expression data. We apply this framework to the analysis of whole-exome sequence data in epilepsy and congenital heart disease, and demonstrate EvoTol's ability to identify known disease-causing genes is unmatched by competing methods. Application of EvoTol to the human interactome revealed networks enriched for genes intolerant to protein sequence variation, informing novel polygenic contributions to human disease. PMID:25550428

  19. Cisapride: a review of the evidence supporting its use in premature infants with feeding intolerance.

    PubMed

    Premji, S S; Wilson, J; Paes, B; Gray, S

    1997-10-01

    A systematic computerized search of all databases was performed to review the scientific evidence in support of the efficacy of cisapride in reducing feeding intolerance in premature infants. Reference lists from these articles were used to identify relevant scientific literature to address important aspects of the use of cisapride. Three open prospective, uncontrolled studies were found. All studies reported improved clinical outcomes as evidenced by decreased gastric residuals, decreased incidence of vomiting, increased feeding volume, decrease in all reflux parameters measured, and increased weight gain. These observational studies reflect the current state of knowledge and have important research and clinical implications because of the profound effects of feeding intolerance on infant growth and development and on length of stay within NICUs. PMID:9369691

  20. Lactose malabsorption in Polynesian and white children in the south west Pacific studied by breath hydrogen technique.

    PubMed Central

    Seakins, J M; Elliott, R B; Quested, C M; Matatumua, A

    1987-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption was studied by a breath hydrogen technique in 139 Samoan and 68 white schoolchildren. The Samoans were studied in four locations, two in Western Samoa and two in New Zealand, and the white children in both the Cook Islands and New Zealand. The prevalence of malabsorption varied with location: for Samoans it ranged from 41% to 60% in Western Samoa and 0% to 35% in New Zealand; white children had rates of 27% in the Cook Islands and 5% in New Zealand. Environmental factors rather than genetic factors are likely to play the main part in initiating if not perpetuating lactose malabsorption. In both races lactose malabsorption had no effect on the acceptance of, consumption of, and number of gastrointestinal symptoms caused by milk and milk biscuits. Children who had symptoms after consuming a particular dairy product were more likely to say they disliked it than those who reported no symptoms. PMID:3119083

  1. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK. 

    E-print Network

    Unwin, Nigel; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, Raj; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a ...

  2. Possible Association of SLC22A2 Polymorphisms with Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Joon Park; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Joon-Seol Bae; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Ji-Yong Chun; Jin-Sol Lee; Jason Yongha Kim; Charisse Flerida Pasaje; Sang Heon Cho; Soo-Taek Uh; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S. Choi; In Song Koh; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute bronchoconstriction following the ingestion of aspirin. Solute carrier family 22, member 2 (SLC22A2), also known as organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), is predominantly expressed in the luminal membrane of airway epithelial cells and has been shown to mediate the transport of prostaglandins on the cyclooxygenase pathway which is regulated

  3. Association of CACNG6 polymorphisms with aspirin-intolerance asthmatics in a Korean population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Sol Lee; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Joon Seol Bae; Jason Yongha Kim; Tae Joon Park; Charisse Flerida Pasaje; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Soo-Taek Uh; Jong-Sook Park; An-Soo Jang; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S Choi; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) occurs in the lower and upper airways through excessive production of leukotrienes upon administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). One of the three symptoms of AIA is nasal polyposis, a chronic inflammatory disease that is related to the function of calcium ion in recruitment of immune cells during airway inflammation. It has been implicated that bronchodilation

  4. Long-term oral exposure to bisphenol A induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Moon, Min Kyong; Jeong, In-Kyong; Jung Oh, Tae; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Young Joo; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used endocrine disruptor. Recent epidemiologic results have suggested an association between exposure to BPA and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. We investigated the in vivo effects of long-term oral exposure to BPA on insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In the present study, 4- to 6-week-old male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 50??g/kg body weight per day of BPA orally for 12 weeks. Long-term oral exposure to BPA along with an HFD for 12 weeks induced glucose intolerance in growing male mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that the mice that received an HFD and BPA exhibited a significantly larger area under the curve than did those that received an HFD only (119.9±16.8 vs 97.9±18.2?mM/min, P=0.027). Body weight, percentage of white adipose tissue, and percentage of body fat did not differ between the two groups of mice. However, treatment with BPA reduced Akt phosphorylation at position Thr308 and GSK3? phosphorylation at position Ser9 in skeletal muscle. BPA tended to decrease serum adiponectin levels and to increase serum interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor ?, although these findings were not statistically significant. Treatment with BPA did not induce any detrimental changes in the islet area or morphology or the insulin content of ? cells. In conclusion, long-term oral exposure to BPA induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in growing mice. Decreased Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle by way of altered serum adipocytokine levels might be one mechanism by which BPA induces glucose intolerance. PMID:25972359

  5. Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat pattern in South Asians and Europeans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. McKeigue; T. Pierpoint; J. E. Ferrie; M. G. Marmot

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with centrally-distributed obesity. These disturbances are especially prevalent in people of South Asian (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) descent. We examined the relationship of glucose intolerance to body fat pattern in a population survey of 2936 men and 537 women of South Asian and European origin living in London, UK. In

  6. Relationship of glucose intolerance to coronary risk in Afro-Caribbeans compared with Europeans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Chaturvedi; P. M. McKeigue; M. G. Marmot

    1994-01-01

    Summary  Afro-Caribbeans have low mortality rates from coronary heart disease, despite a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. We examined 1166 Afro-Caribbean and European men and women aged 40–64 years in a community survey in London, UK. Prevalence of glucose intolerance (combining impaired glucose tolerance, new and known diabetes) was 31% in Afro-Caribbeans and 14% in Europeans (pppp

  7. Computer simulation analysis of the effects of countermeasures for reentry orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R S; Simanonok, K E; Charles, J B

    1992-02-01

    Fluid loading is a countermeasure currently in routine use to improve the g-tolerance of crewmembers during reentry and return of Shuttle flights. However, its effectiveness diminishes with mission duration. Countermeasures that will be effective on long-duration flights are needed and are presently under development. This paper discusses the application of computer simulation in the analysis of the effects of countermeasures for reentry orthostatic intolerance. The results suggest improvements upon the fluid loading countermeasure currently in use. PMID:1589489

  8. Cationic amino acid transport through system y + L in erythrocytes of patients with lysinuric protein intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. R. Boyd; R. Deves; R. Laynes; Y Kudo; G. Sebastio

    2000-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport, results from the absence of the recently described y+L amino acid transporter. We compare fluxes of lysine (1 µM) into erythrocytes of normal subjects with those of patients homozygous for the LPI mutation. No significant differences in fluxes through system y+L

  9. Orthostatic intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Rowe; Diana F. Barron; Hugh Calkins; Irene H. Maumenee; Patrick Y. Tong; Michael T. Geraghty

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To report chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with both Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and orthostatic intolerance. Study design: Case series of adolescents referred to a tertiary clinic for the evaluation of CFS. All subjects had 2-dimensional echocardiography, tests of orthostatic tolerance, and examinations by both a geneticist and an ophthalmologist. Results: Twelve patients (11 female), median age 15.5 years, met

  10. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

  11. Muscle Histidine-Containing Dipeptides Are Elevated by Glucose Intolerance in Both Rodents and Men

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, Sanne; Everaert, Inge; Deldicque, Louise; Vallova, Silvia; de Courten, Barbora; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef; Derave, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscle carnosine and its methylated form anserine are histidine-containing dipeptides. Both dipeptides have the ability to quench reactive carbonyl species and previous studies have shown that endogenous tissue levels are decreased in chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Design and Methods Rodent study: Skeletal muscles of rats and mice were collected from 4 different diet-intervention studies, aiming to induce various degrees of glucose intolerance: 45% high-fat feeding (male rats), 60% high-fat feeding (male rats), cafeteria feeding (male rats), 70% high-fat feeding (female mice). Body weight, glucose-tolerance and muscle histidine-containing dipeptides were assessed. Human study: Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis in 35 males (9 lean, 8 obese, 9 prediabetic and 9 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients) and muscle carnosine and gene expression of muscle fiber type markers were measured. Results Diet interventions in rodents (cafeteria and 70% high-fat feeding) induced increases in body weight, glucose intolerance and levels of histidine-containing dipeptides in muscle. In humans, obese, prediabetic and diabetic men had increased muscle carnosine content compared to the lean (+21% (p>0.1), +30% (p<0.05) and +39% (p<0.05), respectively). The gene expression of fast-oxidative type 2A myosin heavy chain was increased in the prediabetic (1.8-fold, p<0.05) and tended to increase in the diabetic men (1.6-fold, p = 0.07), compared to healthy lean subjects. Conclusion Muscle histidine-containing dipeptides increases with progressive glucose intolerance, in male individuals (cross-sectional). In addition, high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance was associated with increased muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in female mice (interventional). Increased muscle carnosine content might reflect fiber type composition and/or act as a compensatory mechanism aimed at preventing cell damage in states of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:25803044

  12. Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.

  13. Herbal constituent sequoyitol improves hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by targeting hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ?-cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong; Shao, Mengle; Cho, Kae Won; Wang, Suqing; Chen, Zheng; Sheng, Liang; Wang, Ting; Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases rapidly; however, treatments are limited. Various herbal extracts have been reported to reduce blood glucose in animals with either genetic or dietary type 2 diabetes; however, plant extracts are extremely complex, and leading compounds remain largely unknown. Here we show that 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol (also called sequoyitol), a herbal constituent, exerts antidiabetic effects in mice. Sequoyitol was chronically administrated into ob/ob mice either orally or subcutaneously. Both oral and subcutaneous administrations of sequoyitol decreased blood glucose, improved glucose intolerance, and enhanced insulin signaling in ob/ob mice. Sequoyitol directly enhanced insulin signaling, including phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt, in both HepG2 cells (derived from human hepatocytes) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In agreement, sequoyitol increased the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production in primary hepatocytes and to stimulate glucose uptake into primary adipocytes. Furthermore, sequoyitol improved insulin signaling in INS-1 cells (a rat ?-cell line) and protected INS-1 cells from streptozotocin- or H2O2-induced injury. In mice with streptozotocin-induced ?-cell deficiency, sequoyitol treatments increased plasma insulin levels and decreased hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. These results indicate that sequoyitol, a natural, water-soluble small molecule, ameliorates hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by increasing both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Sequoyitol appears to directly target hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ?-cells. Therefore, sequoyitol may serve as a new oral diabetes medication. PMID:22297305

  14. Artificial gravity: a possible countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Moore, Steven T; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None of the astronauts who were centrifuged had orthostatic intolerance when tested with head-up passive tilt after flight. Thus, centrifugation may also have helped maintain post-flight hemodynamic responses to orthostasis by preserving the gain of the otolith-sympathetic reflex. A comparison with two fellow Neurolab orbiter crewmembers not exposed to artificial gravity provided some support for this hypothesis. One of the two had hemodynamic changes in response to post-flight tilt similar to orthostatically intolerant subjects from previous missions. More data is necessary to evaluate this hypothesis, but if it were proven correct, in-flight short-radius centrifugation may help counteract orthostatic intolerance after space flight. PMID:15835033

  15. Herbal constituent sequoyitol improves hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by targeting hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Shao, Mengle; Cho, Kae Won; Wang, Suqing; Chen, Zheng; Sheng, Liang; Wang, Ting; Liu, Yong; Rui, Liangyou

    2012-04-15

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases rapidly; however, treatments are limited. Various herbal extracts have been reported to reduce blood glucose in animals with either genetic or dietary type 2 diabetes; however, plant extracts are extremely complex, and leading compounds remain largely unknown. Here we show that 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol (also called sequoyitol), a herbal constituent, exerts antidiabetic effects in mice. Sequoyitol was chronically administrated into ob/ob mice either orally or subcutaneously. Both oral and subcutaneous administrations of sequoyitol decreased blood glucose, improved glucose intolerance, and enhanced insulin signaling in ob/ob mice. Sequoyitol directly enhanced insulin signaling, including phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt, in both HepG2 cells (derived from human hepatocytes) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In agreement, sequoyitol increased the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production in primary hepatocytes and to stimulate glucose uptake into primary adipocytes. Furthermore, sequoyitol improved insulin signaling in INS-1 cells (a rat ?-cell line) and protected INS-1 cells from streptozotocin- or H?O?-induced injury. In mice with streptozotocin-induced ?-cell deficiency, sequoyitol treatments increased plasma insulin levels and decreased hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. These results indicate that sequoyitol, a natural, water-soluble small molecule, ameliorates hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by increasing both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Sequoyitol appears to directly target hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ?-cells. Therefore, sequoyitol may serve as a new oral diabetes medication. PMID:22297305

  16. Effect of lactose, copper and iron on manganese retention and tissue distribution in rats fed dextrose-casein diets.

    PubMed

    King, B D; Lassiter, J W; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P

    1980-03-01

    The effect of iron, lactose and copper on manganese retention was studied in rats fed two diets. Thirty-six male albino rats (75 to 100 g) were allotted to six groups of six rats each. Three groups received a purified manganese-free dextrose-casein diet, and three groups received the same purified diet with 17% lactose added at the expense of dextrose. One group fed each of the above diets received either a manganese-free mineral mixture, the mineral mixture with 5 ppm supplemental Cu or the same mineral mixture with Fe removed. After 7 days on the diets, each rat was given, by gavage, 10 muCi of 54Mn activity as 54MnCl2 in a sodium acetate buffer. On the third day after dosing, the rats were sacrificed and samples of liver, kidneys, semitendinosus muscle, spleen and tibia were taken for stable and radioactive manganese analysis. Lactose added to the purified diet depressed 54Mn retention in all tissues studied. Lactose addition also decreased specific activities of the livers and kidneys but tended to increase stable manganese values. Copper apparently had little direct effect on 54Mn retention but tended to reduce the effect of lactose on 54Mn retention. Omission of Fe greatly increased 54Mn retention values in all tissues studied with or without added lactose. Fe omission also significantly increased the specific activities and stable Mn values of livers and the specific activity of kidneys. The results indicate that low dietary Fe may be a contributing factor to the increased manganese retention observed in this study and a previous study. PMID:7364681

  17. Glass transition and water effects on sucrose inversion by invertase in a lactose-sucrose system.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, K; Roos, Y H

    2000-06-01

    Enzymatic changes are often detrimental to quality of low-moisture foods. In the present study, effects of glass transition and water on sucrose inversion in a lactose-sucrose food model were investigated. Amorphous samples were produced by freeze-drying lactose-sucrose (2:1)-invertase (20 mg invertase/49.4 g of carbohydrate) dissolved in distilled water. Sorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 24 degrees C. Sucrose hydrolysis was determined by monitoring glucose content using a test kit and the amounts of fructose, glucose, and sucrose using HPLC. The glass transition temperatures, T(g), at various water contents were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The BET and the GAB sorption models were fitted to experimental data up to a(w) 0.444 and 0.538, respectively. Water sorption and DSC results suggested time-dependent crystallization of sugars at a(w) 0.444 and above. Significant sucrose hydrolysis occurred only above T(g), concomitantly with crystallization. Sucrose hydrolysis and crystallization were not likely in glassy materials. PMID:10888568

  18. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

  19. Temperature effect on lactose crystallization, maillard reactions, and lipid oxidation in whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Marianne K; Lauridsen, Lene; Skibsted, Leif H; Risbo, Jens

    2005-09-01

    Whole milk powder with an initial water content of 4.4% (w/w) and a water activity of 0.23 stored in hermetically sealed vials for up to 147 days below (37 and 45 degrees C) and above (55 degrees C) the glass transition temperature (T(g) determined to have the value 48 degrees C) showed a strong temperature dependence for quality deterioration corresponding to energies of activation close to 200 kJ/mol for most deteriorative processes. The glass transition was found not to cause any deviation from Arrhenius temperature dependence. Lactose crystallization, which occurred as a gradual process as monitored by isothermal calorimetry, is concluded to liberate bound water (a(w) increase to 0.46) with a modest time delay (approximately 2 days at 55 degrees C) and with concomitant surface browning as evidenced by an increasing Hunter b-value. Browning and formation of bound hydroxymethyl-furfural determined by HPLC seem to be coupled, while formation of another Maillard reaction product, furosine, occurred gradually and was initiated prior to crystallization. Initiation of lipid oxidation, as detected by lipid-derived radicals (high g-value ESR spectra), and progression of lipid oxidation, as detected by headspace GC, seem not to be affected by lactose crystallization and browning, and no indication of browning products acting as antioxidants could be determined. PMID:16131114

  20. Heterofermentative Carbohydrate Metabolism of Lactose-Impaired Mutants of Streptococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Demko, G. M.; Blanton, S. J. B.; Benoit, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Two mutants of Streptococcus lactis ATCC 11454 have been isolated which possess an impaired lactose-fermenting capacity; galactose utilization is also affected, but to a lesser extent. Although the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway is the major, if not the sole, pathway of carbohydrate metabolism in the three strains, the fermentation end products of the mutants are dramatically different from the typical homolactic pattern of the wild type. Under conditions of low oxygen tension and growth-limiting lactose concentrations, mutant strain T-1 produces largely formic acid, acetic acid (2:1), and ethanol rather than lactic acid. Aerated cultures produce acetic acid, CO2 (1:1), acetyl-methylcarbinol, and diacetyl. When the mutants use galactose as an energy source, lactic acid is the major end product, but significant heterofermentative activity is observed. The aberrations responsible for the mutant phenotypes reside in the proteins which catalyze the transport and hydrolysis of galactosides. It is hypothesized that the impaired transport system of the mutants reduces the intracellular pool of glycolytic intermediates below that of the wild type. Since fructose-1, 6-diphosphate is an activator of lactic dehydrogenase in S. lactis, lactic acid production is reduced, and pathways leading to the formation of other products are expressed. PMID:4629656

  1. Droplet and particle size relationship and shell thickness of inhalable lactose particles during spray drying.

    PubMed

    Elversson, Jessica; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Alderborn, Göran; Elofsson, Ulla

    2003-04-01

    To find means of controlling the size and density of particles intended for inhalation the relationship between droplet and particle size during spray drying was investigated. Lactose solutions were atomized with a two-fluid nozzle and dried in a laboratory spray drier. The effects of nozzle orifice diameter, atomization airflow and feed concentration on droplet and particle size were examined. Mass median diameter of both droplets and particles were analyzed with laser diffraction. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for studies of particle shape and morphology. It was demonstrated that nozzle orifice diameter and airflow, but not feed concentration controlled the droplet size during atomization. Increasing droplet size increased particle size but the effect was also influenced by feed concentration. Particles from solutions of a low concentration (1% w/w) were smaller than those from higher concentrations (5-20% w/w). This may be partly explained by lower yields at higher feed concentrations, but may also be related to differences in drying rate. Spray-dried lactose solutions formed hollow particles, and it was suggested that the shell thickness of the particles increased with increasing feed concentration. PMID:12661075

  2. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

  3. Development of an ultra-high-temperature process for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: II. Oligosaccharide formation by two thermostable beta-glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Petzelbauer, I; Zeleny, R; Reiter, A; Kulbe, K D; Nidetzky, B

    2000-07-20

    During lactose conversion at 70 degrees C, when catalyzed by beta-glycosidases from the archea Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsbetaGly) and Pyrococcus furiosus (CelB), galactosyl transfer to acceptors other than water competes efficiently with complete hydrolysis of substrate. This process leads to transient formation of a range of new products, mainly disaccharides and trisaccharides, and shows a marked dependence on initial substrate concentration and lactose conversion. Oligosaccharides have been analyzed quantitatively by using capillary electrophoresis and high performance anion-exchange chromatography. At 270 g/L initial lactose, they accumulate at a maximum concentration of 86 g/L at 80% lactose conversion. With both enzymes, the molar ratio of trisaccharides to disaccharides is maximal at an early stage of reaction and decreases directly proportional to increasing substrate conversion. Overall, CelB produces about 6% more hydrolysis byproducts than SsbetaGly. However, the product spectrum of SsbetaGly is richer in trisaccharides, and this agrees with results obtained from the steady-state kinetics analyses of galactosyl transfer catalyzed by SsbetaGly and CelB. The major transgalactosylation products of SsbetaGly and CelB have been identified. They are beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-Glc and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-Glc, and beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-lactose and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-lactose, and their formation and degradation have been shown to be dependent upon lactose conversion. Both enzymes accumulate beta(1-->6)-linked glycosides, particularly allolactose, at a late stage of reaction. Because a high oligosaccharide concentration prevails until about 80% lactose conversion, thermostable beta-glycosidases are efficient for oligosaccharide production from lactose. Therefore, they prove to be stable and versatile catalysts for lactose utilization. PMID:10861393

  4. An investigation into the effect of fine lactose particles on the fluidization behaviour and aerosolization performance of carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulations.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The effect of milled and micronized lactose fines on the fluidization and in vitro aerosolization properties of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations was investigated, and the suitability of static and dynamic methods for characterizing general powder flow properties of these blends was assessed. Lactose carrier pre-blends were prepared by adding different lactose fines (Lactohale® (LH) 300, 230 and 210) with coarse carrier lactose (Lactohale100) at 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt% concentrations. Powder flow properties of lactose pre-blends were characterized using the Freeman Technology FT4 and Schulze RST-XS ring shear tester. A strong correlation was found between the basic flow energy (BFENorm) measured using the Freeman FT4 Rheometer and the flowability number (ffc) measured on Schulze RST-XS. These data indicate that both static and dynamic methods are suitable for characterizing general powder flow properties of lactose carriers. Increasing concentration of fines corresponded with an increase in the normalized fluidization energy (FENorm). The inclusion of fine particles of lactose resulted in a significant (p?lactose containing up to 10 wt% LH300. A similar trend was found for the milled lactose grades LH230 and LH210. However, the increase in FENorm upon addition of milled fines only corresponded to a very slight improvement in the performance. These data suggest that whilst the fluidization energy correlated with fine particle delivery, this relationship is specific to lactose grades of similar particle size. PMID:24756910

  5. Influence de l'ingestion de lactose sur le mtabolisme protique de l'agneau nouveau-n

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). Introduction. L'ingestion de colostrum s'accompagne d'une stimulation du métabolisme protéique de l., 1985a). La digestion du lactose du colostrum assure au nouveau-né, dès les premiers repas, un apport de musculaire consécutive à l'ingestion de colostrum par l'agneau nouveau-né pourrait en partie résulter des

  6. Lactose Synthesis in a Monotreme, the Echidna ( Tachyglossus aculeatus): Isolation and Amino Acid Sequence of Echidna ?-Lactalbumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Messer; Mervyn Griffiths; Peggy D Rismiller; Denis C Shaw

    1997-01-01

    ?-Lactalbumin and lysozyme were each isolated from echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) milk by gel permeation and ion exchange chromatography. The ?-lactalbumin modified the action of echidna milk galactosyltransferase to promote the synthesis of lactose but had very little effect on bovine galactosyltransferase. Echidna ?-lactalbumin is a glycosylated protein with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000 (SDS-PAGE) whose concentration in the milk

  7. Use of continuous lactose fermentation for ethanol production by Kluveromyces marxianus for verification and extension of a biochemically structured model.

    PubMed

    Sansonetti, S; Hobley, T J; Curcio, S; Villadsen, J; Sin, G

    2013-02-01

    A biochemically structured model has been developed to describe the continuous fermentation of lactose to ethanol by Kluveromyces marxianus and allowed metabolic coefficients to be determined. Anaerobic lactose-limited chemostat fermentations at different dilution rates (0.02-0.35h(-1)) were performed. Species specific rates of consumption/formation, as well as yield coefficients were determined. Ethanol yield (0.655 C-mol ethanol(?)C-mol lactose(-1)) was as high as 98% of theoretical. The modeling procedure allowed calculation of maintenance coefficients for lactose consumption and ethanol production of m(s)=0.6029 and m(e)=0.4218 (C-mol) and (C-molh)(-1), respectively. True yield coefficients for biomass, ethanol and glycerol production were calculated to be Y(true)(sx)=0.114, Y(true)(ex)=0.192 and Y(sg)=2.250 (C-mol) and (C-mol)(-1), respectively. Model calculated maintenance and true yield coefficients agreed very closely with those determined by regressions of the experimental data. The model developed provides a solid basis for the rational design of optimised fermentation of cheese whey. PMID:23334030

  8. The aggregation of pig articular chondrocyte and synthesis of extracellular matrix by a lactose-modified chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Donati; S. Stredanska; G. Silvestrini; A. Vetere; P. Marcon; E. Marsich; P. Mozetic; A. Gamini; S. Paoletti; F. Vittur

    2005-01-01

    A reductive amination reaction (N-alkylation) obtained exploiting the aldheyde group of lactose and the amino group of the glucosamine residues of chitosan (d.a. 89%) afforded a highly soluble engineered polysaccharide (chitlac) for a potential application in the repair of the articular cartilage. Chitosan derivatives with 9% and 64% of side chain groups introduced have been prepared and characterized by means

  9. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously. PMID:25039174

  10. Detection and characterization of Tn2501, a transposon included within the lactose transposon Tn951.

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, T; Cornelis, G

    1984-01-01

    The DNA sequence spanning coordinates 9.9 to 16.4 kilobases of the lactose transposon Tn951 ( Cornelis et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 160:215-224, 1978) constitutes a transposable element by itself. Unlike Tn951 ( Cornelis et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 184:241-248, 1981), this element, called Tn2501 , transposes in the absence of any other transposon. Transposition of Tn2501 proceeds through transient cointegration and duplicates 5 base pairs of host DNA. Tn2501 is flanked by nearly perfect inverted repeats (44 of 48), related to the inverted repeats of Tn21 ( Zheng et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 9:6265-6278, 1982). Unlike Tn21 , Tn2501 does not confer mercury resistance. Images PMID:6327643

  11. Reduction of galactose inhibition via the mutation of ?-galactosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus for lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Su; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2011-02-01

    For the removal of galactose inhibition, the predicted galactose binding residues, which were determined by sequence alignment, were replaced separately with Ala. The activities of the Ala-substituted mutant enzymes were assessed with the addition of galactose. As a consequence, amino acid at position 349 was correlated with the reduction in galactose inhibition. The F349S mutant exhibited the highest activity in the presence of galactose relative to the activity measured in the absence of galactose among the tested mutant enzymes at position 349. The K (i) of the F349S mutant (160 mM), which was 13-fold that of the wild-type enzyme, was the highest among the reported values of ?-galactosidase. The wild-type enzyme hydrolyzed 62% of 100 g lactose/l with the addition of 30 g galactose/l, whereas the F349S mutant hydrolyzed more than 99%. PMID:20972818

  12. Alginate/lactose-modified chitosan hydrogels: a bioactive biomaterial for chondrocyte encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Marsich, Eleonora; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Donati, Ivan; Mozetic, Pamela; Strand, Berit L; Salvador, Santiago Gomez; Vittur, Franco; Paoletti, Sergio

    2008-02-01

    A new bioactive scaffold was prepared from a binary polysaccharide mixture composed of a polyanion (alginate) and a polycation (a lactose-modified chitosan, chitlac). Its potential use for articular chondrocytes encapsulation and cartilage reconstructive surgery applications has been studied. The hydrogel combines the ability of alginate to act as a 3D supporting structure with the capability of the second component (chitlac) to provide interactions with porcine articular chondrocytes. Physico-chemical characterization of the scaffold was accomplished by gel kinetics and compression measurements and demonstrated that alginate-chitlac mixture (AC-mixture) hydrogels exhibit better mechanical properties when compared with sole alginate hydrogels. Furthermore, biochemical and biological studies showed that these 3D scaffolds are able to maintain chondrocyte phenotype and particularly to significantly stimulate and promote chondrocyte growth and proliferation. In conclusion, the present study can be considered as a first step towards an engineered, biologically active scaffold for chondrocyte in vitro cultivation, expansion, and cell delivery. PMID:17618521

  13. Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

    2012-05-01

    Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. PMID:22541456

  14. Marked exacerbation of orthostatic intolerance after long- vs. short-duration spaceflight in veteran astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meck, J. V.; Reyes, C. J.; Perez, S. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ziegler, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.

  15. Sunitinib for Taiwanese patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor after imatinib treatment failure or intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Yang; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Chen, Tsung-Wen; Rau, Kun-Ming; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Miin-Fu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To report preliminary results of the efficacy and safety of sunitinib in the management of Taiwanese gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) patients facing imatinib mesylate (IM) intolerance or failure. METHODS: Between 2001 and May 2010, 199 Taiwanese patients with metastatic GIST were treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Among them, 23 (11.6%) patients receiving sunitinib were investigated. RESULTS: Sixteen male and 7 female patients with a median age of 59 years (range: 24-83 years) received sunitinib. Twenty-two GIST patients changed to sunitinib because of IM failure and 1 because of intolerance. The median duration of sunitinib administration was 6.0 mo (range: 2-29 mo). The clinical benefit was 65.2% [2 complete response (CR), 4 partial response (PR), and 9 stationary disease (SD); 15/23]. In 12 patients harboring mutations of the kit gene at exon 11, the clinical benefit rate (CR, PR, and SD) was 75.0% and 6 patients with tumors containing kit exon 9 mutations had a clinical benefit of 50.0% (not significant, P = 0.344). The progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) did not differ between patients whose GISTs had wild type, KIT exon 9, or KIT exon 11 mutations. Hand-foot syndrome was the most common cause of grade III adverse effect (26.1%), followed by anemia (17.4%), and neutropenia (13.0%). During the median 7.5-mo follow-up after sunitinib use, the median PFS and OS of these 23 GIST patients after sunitinib treatment were 8.4 and 14.1 mo, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sunitinib appears to be an effective treatment for Taiwanese with IM-resistant/intolerant GISTs and induced a sustained clinical benefit in more than 50% of Taiwanese advanced GIST patients. PMID:21547131

  16. Intolerance of uncertainty: Exploring its dimensionality and associations with need for cognitive closure, psychopathology, and personality.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Howard; Bredemeier, Keith; Thompson, Renee J

    2008-01-01

    The dimensionality and correlates of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) were examined in a sample of 239 university students. In addition to completing the IUS, participants completed measures of worrying, anxious arousal, anhedonic depression, the big five personality dimensions, and the Need for Closure Scale. A factor analysis of the IUS suggested that it includes the following dimensions: (a) desire for predictability; (b) tendency to become paralyzed in the face of uncertainty; (c) tendency to experience distress in the face of uncertainty; and (d) inflexible uncertainty beliefs. Subscale scores computed on the basis of the factor analysis were differentially associated with the other variables. PMID:17349774

  17. Aspirin-tolerant asthmatics generate more lipoxins than aspirin-intolerant asthmatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sanak; B. D. Levy; C. b. Clish; N. Chiang; K. Gronert; L. Mastalerz; C. n. Serhan; A. Szczeklik

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation,resulting from overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as leukotrienes (LT). The authors questioned,the biosynthetic capacity of asthmatic,patients for lipoxins (LX) and 15-epimer lipoxins (15-epi-LX), endogenous regulators of inflammatory respon- ses that inhibit pro-inflammatory,events. Levels of LXA4, 15-epi-LXA4 and LTC4 were determined in 14 clinically cha- racterized aspirin-intolerant asthmatics (AIA), 11 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics (ATA)

  18. Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

  19. Cold Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Polio Survivors For Families & Friends For Health Professionals Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) About Acute Polio Major Topics of Interest Post-Polio Wellness Retreats For Health Professionals Excerpt from the ...

  20. Analysis of risk factors for lipid intolerance of intravenous fat emulsion in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoo-Jung; Bae, Hye-Jung; Lee, Ju-Young; Cho, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hyang-Suk; Kim, Han-Suk

    2015-05-01

    In order to prevent fatty acid deficiency and to supply enough energy, intravenous fat emulsion is necessary for parenteral nutrition in preterm neonates. However, parenteral administration of intravenous fat emulsion can induce lipid intolerance. The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for lipid intolerance in very low birth weight infants. This retrospective study included 80 preterm neonates whose birth weight was less than 1,500 g. Subjects were divided into 2 categories: those with a serum triglyceride level of ? 200 mg/dl (n = 33, 41 %) and those with a serum triglyceride level of < 200 mg/dl (n = 47, 59 %). We conducted logistic regression analysis using variables which were significant in univariate analysis. All statistical analyses were processed in SPSS version 19.0. Four risk factors for lipid intolerance were obtained through analysis of the electronic medical record. Lipid intolerance occurred more frequently in neonates with sepsis; those with a birth weight less than 1,000 g; those who was administered intravenous fat emulsion more than 2.6 g/kg/day; and those whose gestational age was less than 28 weeks. It is suggested that serum triglyceride levels should be closely monitored to prevent lipid intolerance in preterm neonates with the aforementioned characteristics. PMID:24849035

  1. Association of Organic Cation Transporter 1 with Intolerance to Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes: A GoDARTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Tavendale, Roger; Palmer, Colin NA; Pearson, Ewan R

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However ~25% of patients treated with metformin develop gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects leading to discontinuation of therapy in approximately 5% cases. We hypothesised that reduced transport of metformin via Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) could increase metformin concentration in the intestine, leading to increased risk of severe GI side-effects and drug discontinuation. We compared the phenotype, carriage of reduced-function OCT1 variants, and concomitant prescribing of drugs known to inhibit OCT1 transport in 251 intolerant and 1915 fully metformin tolerant T2D patients. We showed that women and older people were more likely to be intolerant to metformin. Concomitant use of medications, known to inhibit OCT1 activity, was associated with intolerance (odds ratio OR=1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.17, p=0.001) as was carriage of two reduced-function OCT1 alleles compared to carriage of one or no deficient allele (OR=2.41, 95% CI 1.48-3.93, p < 0.001). Individuals with two reduced function OCT1 alleles who were treated with OCT1 inhibitors were over four times more likely to develop intolerance (OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.09-8.16, p < 0.001). Our results suggest that reduced OCT1 transport is an important determinant of metformin intolerance. PMID:25510240

  2. Obsessions and compulsions and intolerance for uncertainty in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesco; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Del Genio, Marisa; Didonna, Fabrizio; Prunetti, Elena

    2002-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that decision-making difficulties in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder may arise from intolerance for uncertainty. We investigated the relationship between obsessivity and intolerance for uncertainty (defined in terms of need for cognitive closure), controlling for state and trait anxiety and depression. We tested nonclinical subjects through the Need for Closure Scale (NFCS), the Padua Inventory Revised (PI-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form-Y; STAI-Y). A principal component analysis showed a lack of correlation between the PI-R and the NFCS subscales. A set of multiple regression analyses performed on PI-R subscales showed that the need for cognitive closure cannot be considered as a strong predictor of obsessions and compulsions. These results speak against the hypothesis that people with high obsessivity have difficulties in taking decisions because of a cognitive need for certainty. We instead argue that difficulties in taking decisions may be related to other specific cognitive beliefs or meta-beliefs. PMID:12213035

  3. Deciphering the dynamics of changing proteins of tolerant and intolerant wheat seedlings subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Mishra, Vagish; Singh, N K; Tiwari, Ratan; Sharma, Pradeep; Gupta, R K; Sharma, Indu

    2015-01-01

    Indulgence of heat defense mechanism is crucial to allay undesirable effects by developing significant heat tolerant plants. Translation of heat stress related genes into proteins is a key tolerance strategy tailored by plants. In order to understand the possible mechanisms of heat tolerance in wheat at proteomic level, two wheat genotypes (WH 730-heat tolerant; Raj 4014-heat intolerant) along with their 10 extreme recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were exposed to heat stress (35 °C for 6 h) to identify important stress related proteins. 2-DE coupled with MALDI TOF/TOF of wheat seedlings revealed 14 differentially regulated protein spots. Compared to Raj 4014, 3 proteins viz. Rubisco activase A, Con A and PEP carboxylase 1 were differentially regulated only in WH 730 implying their practical role in heat tolerance. Above and beyond, increased expression of cytochrome b6f complex and catalase in tolerant RIL population signifies their role in accelerated electron flow during heat stress to cope up with the stress. Our results suggests that, compared to intolerant parent and RILs, tolerant parent and RILs might be actively modulating protein involved in photosynthesis, signal transduction and defense which signifies the activation of adaptation mechanism under heat stress. PMID:25218843

  4. Diagnosis and management of food allergy and intolerance in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Wills, J; Harvey, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper reviews food allergy and intolerance in dogs and cats. Adverse reactions to ingested food components can affect many systems and can produce signs involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and central nervous system, and these clinical signs are reviewed. Most basic food ingredients have the potential to induce an allergic response, although most reactions are caused by proteins. In particular, dogs and cats can become sensitive to cow's milk, beef, fish or cereal. Food allergy and intolerance is rare in dogs and cats, although the incidence in practice is difficult to establish. Clinical signs are quite variable, depending on the individual response, although the major clinical sign is pruritus. Diagnosis can be difficult, as there is no single test available to help the clinician to confirm or refute the presence of food sensitivity. Diagnosis is based on dietary investigation in the form of elimination diets and test meals. Elimination diets for dogs include lamb, chicken, rabbit, horse meat and fish as sources of protein, with rice or potatoes. Successful elimination diets for cats include lamb, chicken, rabbit or venison, with rice. Improvement in clinical signs while on the elimination diet is suggestive of food allergy. The diagnosis should be confirmed by feeding the original diet, with the development of clinical signs within 7 to 14 days of feeding. PMID:7848179

  5. Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight in Veteran Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Reyes, Carlos; Perez, Sondra A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance following short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence following long-duration spaceflight is unknown. We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after their long-duration (129 - 190 days) spaceflights and compared these data to those obtained during stand tests before and after their previous short-duration missions and also to tilt test data from 20 different short-duration (8 - 16 days) flight astronauts. Five of these six became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights: only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. Five of the twenty astronauts who flew on other short-duration flights, became presyncopal during upright tilt on landing day. Long-duration presyncopal subjects had lower stroke volumes, lower cardiac outputs and higher peripheral vascular resistance than short-duration presyncopal subjects, but their heart rate responses were not different. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after a long but not short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably related to altered autonomic function.

  6. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU. PMID:26028921

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance. PMID:25206547

  8. Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: results from a reputation-based model.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A; Cuesta, José A

    2014-08-01

    When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance. PMID:25215779

  9. Effects of Metoclopramide on Feeding Intolerance among Preterm Neonates; A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mussavi, Mirhadi; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Abangah, Ghobad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of metoclopramide in the treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm neonates less than 36 weeks of gestational age. Methods: A randomized, controlled, masked cross-over study. A block of 4 randomizations was used. The “drug group” received intravenous metoclopramide before feeding and placebo group received placebo at the same time. The time to full enteral feeding and suspected adverse effects of metoclopramide, length of hospital stay or incidence of NEC or septicemia were the main outcome measures. Findings: Mean (standard deviation) of weight and Apgar score among metoclopramide and placebo groups were 1638.3±321 gr, 8.9±1.4 and 1593.3±318.8 gr, 8.8±1.3 respectively. Times to full feeding were significantly shorter in the metoclopramide group than in the control group (12.9±5.6 vs 17.0±6.3; P<0.0001) and also the numbers of withheld feedings were significantly lower (P<0.0001). According to the regression analysis, lower weight and placebo group were significantly related to increasing of lavage frequency, number of vomits, start time of feeding, number of feeding cessations and decreased feeding completion time (P<0.0001).No adverse effects of this treatment modality were observed in the two groups. Conclusion: Intravenous metoclopramide may be considered as an attempt in facilitating and treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm neonates. PMID:25793073

  10. Clinical improvement in patients with orthostatic intolerance after treatment with bisoprolol and fludrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J; Santos, R; Azevedo, E; Costa, O; Carvalho, M; de Freitas, A F

    2000-10-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is the development of disabling symptoms upon assuming an upright posture that are relieved partially by resuming the supine position. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an orthostatic intolerance syndrome characterized by palpitations because of excessive orthostatic sinus tachycardia, lightheadedness, tremor, and near-syncope. Patients usually undergo extensive medical, cardiac, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric evaluation, which usually fails to identify a specific abnormality. The authors investigated the autonomic and hemodynamic profile of patients with POTS and the effectiveness of bisoprolol and fludrocortisone. The authors evaluated 11 female patients with POTS before and after medical treatment with a cardioselective bisoprolol beta-blocker or fludrocortisone, or both, and 11 age-matched control patients. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure was assessed by fast Fourier transform, and spontaneous baroreceptor gain was assessed by use of the temporal sequences slope and alpha index. Modelflow was used to quantify hemodynamics. Symptoms in all patients improved greatly after medication. The autonomic and hemodynamic impairment observed in patients with POTS, particularly after orthostatic stress, is treated effectively with bisoprolol or fludrocortisone or both. These results need further confirmation in a controlled double-blind study. Proper medical treatment improves dramatically the clinical and autonomic-hemodynamic disturbances observed in patients with POTS. The data support the hypothesis that POTS is the result of a hyperadrenergic activation or hypovolemia during orthostasis. PMID:11198485

  11. Interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Jacob, G.; Pohar, B.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not understood. If genetic predisposition were important in the pathogenesis of IOI, monozygotic twins of patients with IOI should have similar hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities. METHODS: We studied two patients with IOI and their identical twins. Both siblings in the first twin pair had orthostatic symptoms, significant orthostatic tachycardia, increased plasma norepinephrine levels with standing, and a greater than normal decrease in systolic blood pressure with trimethaphan infusion. RESULTS: Both siblings had a normal response of plasma renin activity to upright posture. In the second twin pair, only one sibling had symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, an orthostatic tachycardia, and raised plasma catecholamines with standing. The affected sibling had inappropriately low plasma renin activity with standing and was 8-fold more sensitive to the pressor effect of phenylephrine than the unaffected sibling. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in some patients, IOI seems to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. In others, however, IOI may be mainly caused by nongenetic factors. These findings suggest that IOI is heterogenous, and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute individually or collectively to create the IOI phenotype.

  12. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Picado, C; Castillo, J A; Schinca, N; Pujades, M; Ordinas, A; Coronas, A; Agusti-Vidal, A

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a fish oil enriched diet containing about 3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid was studied in 10 patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. Subjects were studied during six weeks on a control diet followed by six weeks on the fish oil diet in a single blind study design. They were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily, bronchodilator and steroid doses, and subjective ratings of pulmonary symptoms on diary cards. There were no significant changes in symptom scores over the six weeks of either the control diet or the fish oil diet. PEF values, however, were significantly lower during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control diet (308 v 262 l/min week 5 and 306 v 256 l/min week 6). Bronchodilator usage was also greater during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control period (12.0 v 7.4 and 13.0 v 7.4 puffs a day in weeks 5 and 6). This pilot study suggests that fish diets may have a deleterious effect on patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. PMID:3353894

  13. Glucose Intolerance, Insulin Resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Thambisetty, M.; Metter, E.J.; Yang, A.; Dolan, H.; Marano, C.; Zonderman, A.B.; Troncoso, J.; Zhou, Y; Wong, D.F.; Ferrucci, L.; Egan, J.M.; Resnick, S.M.; OBrien, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between serial measures of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with in vivo amyloid burden, measured with 11C-PiB, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology at autopsy in a prospective cohort from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Methods Brain CERAD and Braak scores were correlated with measures of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in 197 participants who had come to autopsy and had two or more oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) during life. Glucose intolerance was measured by fasting and 120-minute post-load glucose values. Insulin resistance was measured by fasting and 120-minute post-load serum insulin values and the ratio of serum glucose to insulin at baseline and following a glucose load. In addition, the same measures of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were correlated with brain 11C-PiB retention in 53 living subjects. Results There were no significant correlations between measures of brain AD pathology or 11C-PiB derived amyloid load and either glucose intolerance or insulin resistance in subjects who had a mean of 6.4 ± 3.2 (S.D.) OGTT evaluations over 22.1 ± 8.0 (S.D.) years of follow-up. Thirty subjects with frank diabetes on medication also had AD pathology scores that were similar to the cohort as a whole. Conclusions In this prospective cohort with multiple assessments of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, measures of glucose and insulin homeostasis were not associated with AD pathology. PMID:23897112

  14. Analysis of crystallized lactose in milk powder by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy to conduct rapid non-destructive quantitative research in milk powder without additional separation steps. The experiments conducted in both FT-IR and 2D FT-IR spectra suggest that characteristic spectroscopic features of milk powder containing different carbohydrate can be detected, and then determine the type of carbohydrate. To predict the approximate content of lactose while the carbohydrate is lactose, different amount of crystallized lactose has been added to the reference milk powder. The correlation coefficient could be used to determine the content of crystallized lactose in milk powder. The method provides a rapid and convenient means for assessing the quality of milk powder.

  15. Genetic and biochemical analysis of anaerobically-induced enzymes during seed germination of Echinochloa crus-galli varieties tolerant and intolerant of anoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Fukao; Robert A. Kennedy; Yuji Yamasue; Mary E. Rumpho

    2003-01-01

    To compare the regulation of anaerobic metabolism during germination in anoxia-tolerant and intolerant plants, enzymes associated with anaerobic metabol- ism such as sucrose synthase, aldolase, enolase, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), alcohol dehydrogen- ase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were assayed in two varieties of Echinochloa crus- galli, formosensis (tolerant) and praticola (intolerant). The initial and intervening enzymes of the pathway (sucrose

  16. Restriction mapping and localization of the lactose-metabolizing genes of Streptococcus cremoris pDI-21

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pak-Lam Yu; Ruth D. Appleby; Graham G. Pritchard; Gaetan K. Y. Limsowtin

    1989-01-01

    The conjugative plasmid pDI-21 (63 kb) from Streptococcus cremoris encodes genes which are responsible for lactose utilization and protein degradation. Restriction mapping and hybridization using heterologous probes have localized these genes to regions of 12.5 kb and 4.4 kb. The tagatose-6-phosphate pathway genes were closely linked and were assigned in the order; galactose-6-phosphate isomerase, d-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase and tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. The

  17. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 1. Albuterol sulfate and disodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The major objective of this study was: discriminatory assessment of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs. Drug/lactose interactive physical mixtures (2%w/w) were prepared. Their properties were measured: solid-state characterization of phase behavior and molecular interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction; particle morphology and size by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction; aerosol generation by SETs and characterization by twin-stage liquid impinger and Andersen cascade impactor operated at 60 L/min. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress (tau(s)), using a novel powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). Drug particles were <5 microm in volume diameter with narrow unimodal distribution (Span <1). The lowest shear SET (tau(s) = 0.624 N/m(2)) gave a higher emitted dose (ED approximately 84-93%) and lower FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 7-25%). In contrast, the highest shear SET (tau(s) = 13.143 N/m(2)) gave a lower ED (ED approximately 75-89%) and higher FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 15-46%). The performance of disodium cromoglycate was superior to albuterol sulfate at given tau(s), as was milled with respect to sieved lactose monohydrate. Excellent correlation was observed (R(2) approximately 0.9804-0.9998) when pulmonary drug particle release from the surface of lactose carriers was interpreted by PADE linear regression for dry powder formulation evaluation and performance prediction. PMID:20198688

  18. Kinetic study on unsaponifiable fraction changes and lactose hydrolysis during storage of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO cheese.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol, vitamin E and vitamin A isomers, components of the unsaponifiable fraction, and lactose contents in Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO cheese have been studied during storage in different conditions: at 6-8 degrees C, and at room temperature (traditional habits). During cold storage there were no significant differences in the unsaponifiable compounds, while during storage at room temperature an increase of the 13-cis isomer and a decrease of all-trans-retinol were observed. Trans/cis-retinol isomerization, expressed as the Degree of Retinol Isomerization (13-cis/all-trans%) showed an increase in all samples during storage at room temperature following a linear correlation. The decrease of lactose content during storage was studied by a first-order differential relaxation equation. Apart from the traditional habits, consumers should be aware that, during storage at room temperature, the most important changes in the considered nutrients occur. These changes can be negative (vitamin A reduction) but also positive (lactose reduction). PMID:19031288

  19. Formylation of initiator tRNA methionine in procaryotic protein synthesis: in vivo polarity in lactose operon expression.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, H U; Joseph, E; Ullmann, A; Danchin, A

    1978-01-01

    Eucaryotic and procaryotic organisms differ in two aspects of their translation machinery: polycistronic messengers are expressed as a sequence of individual proteins only in procaryotes, and the initiation of protein synthesis proceeds with an initiator tRNA which is found to be modified (formylated) in procaryotes and not in eucaryotes. In the present study, we show that formylation is required in vivo for the coordinate expression of the Escherichia coli lactose operon. Our experiments are consistent with a translation mechanism using dissociated ribosomes at the 5' end of the mRNA in a reaction that is only weakly dependent on formylation at this initiation step; the ribosomes then travel along the messenger and can reinitiate after the intracistronic barrier without dissociation. This latter initiation step is strongly dependent on the level of formylation: a low level of the formyl group, obtained by the antifolic agent trimethoprim, induces a strong polarity in the expression of the lactose operon. There exist mutant strains in which this polarity is much less apparent than in the wild type. We show here that such is the case of rpsL mutants. Ribosomes mutated in the S12 protein (rpsL) are found to be much more easily dissociated than the wild type. This might explain why the expression of the lactose operon on rpsL strains remains coordinated when the intracellular level of formylation is decreased. PMID:98518

  20. Kinetics and design relation for enzymatic conversion of lactose into galacto-oligosaccharides using commercial grade ?-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Palai, Tapas; Mitra, Shubhrajyoti; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2012-10-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose was studied using commercial grade ?-galactosidase (Biolacta FN5) from Bacillus circulans. The reaction was carried out under free enzyme condition varying initial lactose concentration (ILC: 55-525 g/L), enzyme concentration (0.05-1.575 g/L), temperature (30-50°C) and pH (5.0-6.0). Reaction mixture compositions were analyzed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A maximum GOS formation of 39% (dry basis) was achieved at an ILC of 525 g/L converting 60% of the lactose fed. Tri-saccharides were the major types of GOS formed, accounting approximately 24%; whereas, tetra-saccharides and penta-saccharides account approximately 12% and 3%, respectively. Design correlation was developed in order to observe the quantitative effect of operating parameters on GOS yield. Further, based on Michaelis-Menten model, four-step reaction pathways were considered for simplistic understanding of the kinetics. Apart from predicting the reaction mixture composition, the approach also provided kinetic parameters though simulation using COPASI 4.7®. Excellent agreements were observed between simulated and experimental results. PMID:22695078

  1. Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KNOUC808 as a source of cold-adapted lactose hydrolyzing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Nam, EunSook; Ahn, JongKun

    2011-01-01

    Psychrophilic bacteria, which grow on lactose as a carbon source, were isolated from Antarctic polar sea water. Among the psychrophilic bacteria isolated, strain KNOUC808 was able to grow on lactose at below 5°C, and showed 0.867 unit of o-nitrophenyl ?-D-galactopyranoside(ONPG) hydrolyzing activity at 4°C. The isolate was gram-negative, rod, aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase positive. Optimum growth was done at 20°C, pH 6.8–7.2. The composition of major fatty acids in cell of KNOUC801 was C12:0 (5.48%), C12:0 3OH (9.21%), C16:0 (41.83%), C17:0 ?8 (7.24%) and C18:1 ?7 (7.04%). All these results together suggest that it is affiliated with Pseudoalteromonas genus. The 16S rDNA sequence corroborate the phenotypic tests and the novel strain was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. KNOUC808. The optimum temperature and pH for lactose hydrolyzing enzyme was 20°C and 7.8, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 4°C for 7 days, but its activity decreased to about 50% of initial activity at 37°C in 7 days. PMID:24031708

  2. Dynamic modeling of gene expression in prokaryotes: application to glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Jaroslav Albert; Marianne Rooman

    2011-06-01

    Coexpression of genes or, more generally, similarity in the expression profiles poses an unsurmountable obstacle to inferring the gene regulatory network (GRN) based solely on data from DNA microarray time series. Clustering of genes with similar expression profiles allows for a course-grained view of the GRN and a probabilistic determination of the connectivity among the clusters. We present a model for the temporal evolution of a gene cluster network which takes into account interactions of gene products with genes and, through a non-constant degradation rate, with other gene products. The number of model parameters is reduced by using polynomial functions to interpolate temporal data points. In this manner, the task of parameter estimation is reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations, thus making the computation time shorter by orders of magnitude. To eliminate irrelevant networks, we test each GRN for stability with respect to parameter variations, and impose restrictions on its behavior near the steady state. We apply our model and methods to DNA microarray time series' data collected on Escherichia coli during glucose-lactose diauxie and infer the most probable cluster network for different phases of the experiment.

  3. Milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose activates intestinal CD11c+ cells through TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Hennet, Thierry; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Borsig, Lubor

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk oligosaccharides shape the intestinal environment by affecting mucosal immunity and bacterial colonization. To clarify the role of milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose (3SL) in intestinal physiology and disease, we investigated colitis development in Il10?/? mice exposed to normal or 3SL-deficient milk during lactation. Onset and progression of intestinal inflammation were delayed in Il10?/? mice deficient for the ?2,3 sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) responsible for 3SL biosynthesis. The proinflammatory role of 3SL was confirmed by showing that oral supplementation of newborn Il10?/?;St3gal4?/? mice with 3SL increased colitis severity. Conversely, fostering of newborn Il10?/? mice to lactating St3gal4?/? mothers reduced colitis severity. 3SL directly stimulated mesenteric lymph node CD11c+ dendritic cells and induced production of cytokines required for expansion of TH1 and TH17 T cells. The stimulatory effect of 3SL was attenuated in Tlr4-deficient CD11c+ cells, demonstrating that 3SL induces inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus, 3SL directly modulates mucosal immunity, which increases susceptibility to colitis. PMID:24101501

  4. Frequency of tetracycline resistance determinant classes among lactose-fermenting coliforms.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, B; Tachibana, C; Levy, S B

    1983-01-01

    Using colony hybridization techniques and DNA probes derived from four distinct tetracycline resistance determinants, we have examined the frequency of these determinants among 225 lactose-fermenting coliforms isolated from fecal samples of both humans and animals. The class B, or Tn10-type determinant, occurred most frequently at 73.3%, followed by class A (on RP1) at 21.7%, and class C (on pSC101) at 8%; 3.5% of isolates harbored two of these determinants. Hybridization to class D, carried by plasmid RA1, was not found among any of the isolates. One isolate failed to hybridize to any of the probes and represents a fifth class of determinant. No dramatic differences were observed in the frequencies of these determinants among four populations examined: hospital, urban, rural, and laboratory. At low stringency conditions of hybridization we were able to demonstrate cross-hybridization of determinant A with class C DNA and limited reaction with class B DNA, but no reaction with class D DNA. Images PMID:6660856

  5. The role of Galectin-1 in the interaction between chondrocytes and a lactose-modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Patrizia; Marsich, Eleonora; Vetere, Amedeo; Mozetic, Pamela; Campa, Cristiana; Donati, Ivan; Vittur, Franco; Gamini, Amelia; Paoletti, Sergio

    2005-08-01

    Evidences for the involvement of the Galectin-1 in the interaction of pig chondrocytes with a lactose-modified chitosan, namely Chitlac, are reported. The Chitlac glycopolymer has been shown to promote pig chondrocyte aggregation and to induce extracellular matrix production. Highly pure Galectin-1 was obtained from pig spleen by affinity chromatography and its identity was determined by ion spray mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptide fragments obtained after in-gel digestion. The complete sequence of pig Galectin-1 CDS was obtained by screening a pig EST database using human Galectin-1 sequence as template. The Galectin-1 cDNA was cloned into a pGEX-4T-1 expression vector and the recombinant protein was purified, characterized and used to produce a rabbit anti-serum. Recombinant Galectin-1 interacts in a dose-dependent manner with Chitlac as determined with ELISA assay. Expression level of galectin-1 gene, quantified by real-time PCR, was significantly higher in chondrocytes cultivated on Chitlac. In the same way, the presence of Chitlac stimulates secretion of Galectin-1 in culture medium that, by immunohistochemical analysis, revealed to be clustered on the surface of Chitlac-induced aggregates. These data indicate the role of Galectin-1 as a bridging agent between Chitlac and chondrocyte aggregates. PMID:15769533

  6. Expert Opinion Panic Attacks Induced by Olfactory Stimuli: An Emerging Paradigm for Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Binkley

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), or multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), is a clinical description for a cluster of symptoms that some have attributed to ex- posure to otherwise nonnoxious environmental stimuli. However, reliable scientific data to support these claims are lacking. Instead, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the concept that, in many cases, IEI is the re- sult

  7. Increasing Ethical Sensitivity to Racial and Gender Intolerance in Schools: Development of the REST (Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Mary M.; McCubbin, Laurie; Rogers, Lauren A.; Ting, Kathleen; Warner, Chris; Sirin, Selcuk; Weaver, Monica

    An effort to develop a measure of ethical sensitivity to acts of racial and gender intolerance that occur in school settings is described. The rationale and theory on which the instrument is based is derived from the work of J. Rest (1983) that outlines four psychological components of morality: (1) ethical sensitivity; (2) moral judgment; (3)…

  8. The Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America. Student Text ("Us and Them") and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim; Roberson, Houston

    "The Shadow of Hate" resource kit provides a videotape program (40 minutes), 20 copies of a 128-page student text ("Us and Them"), and a 32-page teacher's guide. This document consists of single copies of the two printed components of this kit. The resource traces the history of racial, religious, and social intolerance in the United States.…

  9. A Potential Treatment for Post-Flight Orthostatic Intolerance in Aero-Space Crews: Autogenic-Feedback Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.

    1994-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic Orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using in operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 450 head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight Orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  10. Shaking Up the Status Quo: Challenging Intolerance of the Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Community at a Private Roman Catholic University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination against lesbian, gay and bisexual students, faculty, and staff on college campuses is an important issue that demands attention. Intolerance for the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community is often intensified by a lack of knowledge and understanding between heterosexuals and the LGB community, a problem that could…

  11. Challenge confirmation of late-onset reactions to extensively hydrolyzed formulas in infants with multiple food protein intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hill; Donald J. S. Cameron; Dorothy E. M. Francis; Agnes M. Gonzalez-Andaya; Clifford S. Hosking

    1995-01-01

    Background: Many infants with cow's milk protein intolerance have adverse reactions to soy, casein and whey hydrolysate formula and to other foods. The recent development of Neocate, a hypoallergenic, nutritionally complete infant formula composed of individual amino acids and other nutrients, has enabled these infants to be stabilized. Objective: We observed the effect of food challenges in infants with reported

  12. Fatty liver disease and hypertransaminasemia hiding the association of clinically silent Duchenne muscular dystrophy and hereditary fructose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a case with the association of well self-compensated hereditary fructose intolerance and still poorly symptomatic Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. This case illustrates the problems of a correct diagnosis in sub-clinical patients presenting with “cryptogenic” hypertransaminasemia. PMID:23114028

  13. POSITION STATEMENT: Glucose Intolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome—A Position Statement of the Androgen Excess Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelsey E. S. Salley; Edmond P. Wickham; Kai I. Cheang; Paulina A. Essah; Nicole W. Karjane; John E. Nestler

    Objectives: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk for developing glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Recommendations for the timing and method of screening have varied. The purpose of this statement is to determine the optimal screening method, timing of screening, and treatment modalities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among women with PCOS. Participants: The

  14. Intolerance of Uncertainty as a Framework for Understanding Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulter, Christina; Freeston, Mark; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is a problem for many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). There is a paucity of models of the cognitive processes underlying this. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has utility in explaining anxiety in neurotypical populations but has only recently received attention in ASD. We modelled the relationship between anxiety…

  15. Review of evidence for a toxicological mechanism of idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Lh; Battershill, Jm

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a medically unexplained disorder characterised by a wide variety of unspecific symptoms in different organ systems and attributed to nontoxic concentrations of chemicals and other environmental factors that are tolerated by the majority of individuals. Both exposure to chemicals and behavioural conditioning are considered as possible contributors to the development of IEI. However, owing to the heterogeneity of the condition, it is difficult to separate the toxicological, physiological and psychological aspects of IEI. Here, we review the evidence for postulated toxicologically mediated mechanisms for IEI. Available data do not support either a classical receptor-mediated or an idiosyncratic toxicological mechanism. Furthermore, if there were convincing evidence for a psychological cause for many patients with IEI, then this would suggest that the priority for the future is the development of psychological treatments for IEI. Finally, we advocate genome wide screening of IEI patients to elucidate genotypic features of the condition. PMID:23060407

  16. Anterior stromal puncture for treatment of contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Yeon; Park, Young Kee; Song, Jong-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report the results and effectiveness of anterior stromal puncture for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients with subepithelial fibrotic nodules. Methods Nine eyes of nine keratoconus patients who were rigid gas-permeable contact lenses (RGP)-intolerant due to subepithelial nodular scars were included in this study. The nine patients were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and December 2008. After confirming nodular elevation from slit-lamp biomicroscopy, the area where the epithelium of nodular scars had sloughed was punctured by anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle attached to a 1-ml syringe under slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The RGPs of all patients were refitted around 4 weeks after the puncture. Results Five of the nine patients were male, and the average patient age was 29.6 years (SD?±?5.22 years). Mean follow-up time was 13.7 months (SD?±?4.8 months), and the epithelial defect healed in 1.4 days on average. After the puncture, four of nine patients presented with a recurrent erosion of the nodule during follow-up and needed a second puncture. All the patients showed good contact lens tolerance and satisfactory contact lens fit. No complications such as corneal perforation or keratitis developed. Conclusions Anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle can be a successful and effective method to induce corneal epithelium and Bowman’s layer reattachment. It can be used as an outpatient procedure to improve RGP tolerance in patients with keratoconus with elevated subepithelial nodules. PMID:20625761

  17. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for patients with contact lens intolerance caused by dry eye.

    PubMed Central

    Toda, I.; Yagi, Y.; Hata, S.; Itoh, S.; Tsubota, K.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: To evaluate epithelial wound healing and visual outcome of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) performed on high myopic eyes with contact lens intolerance due to dry eye. METHODS: PRK was performed on two groups of patients with non-Sjogren's dry eye: group A (-6 D to -9.5 D, 11 patients, 17 eyes) and group B (-11.5 D to -19.5 D, 11 patients, 16 eyes) in an attempt to eliminate the use of contact lenses (CL). The intended correction was full in group A and 10 D in group B. RESULTS: Uncorrected visual acuity in group A was better than 20/40 in 12 (80.0%) of 15 eyes at 6 months and in 10 (90.9%) of 11 eyes at 1 year. Fourteen (92.8%) of 17 eyes in group A and four (25.0%) of 16 eyes in group B achieved refraction within plus or minus 1 D of the intended correction at 6 months. Re-epithelialisation was complete in 4 days, and epithelial cell area and permeability returned to the preoperative level within 1 month in all cases. All patients in group A were able to eliminate CL, whereas in group B, one patient needed spectacles for residual myopia and two patients resumed CL use because of regression. One eye with severe subepithelial scar formation and one eye with macular haemorrhage were observed in group B. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PRK is effective for patients with high myopia (-6 D to approximately -10 D) and CL intolerance due to dry eye. Further studies are required to improve predictability and to prevent complications in PRK for very high myopia (> -10 D). Images PMID:8795371

  18. Overproduction of Angiotensinogen from adipose Tissue Induces adipose Infammation, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Massiera, Florence; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Ailhaud, Gérard; Voy, Brynn H.; Wasserman, David H.; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with overactivation of the white adipose tissue (WAT) renin–angiotensin system (RAS), a causal link between the latter and systemic insulin resistance is not established. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of angiotensinogen (Agt) from WAT causes systemic insulin resistance via modulation of adipose inflammation. Glucose tolerance, systemic insulin sensitivity, and WAT inflammatory markers were analyzed in mice overexpressing Agt in the WAT (aP2-Agt mice). Proteomic studies and in vitro studies using 3T3-L1 adipocytes were performed to build a mechanistic framework. Male aP2-Agt mice exhibited glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle. The difference in glucose tolerance between genotypes was normalized by high-fat (HF) feeding, and was significantly improved by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. aP2-Agt mice also had higher monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and lower interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the WAT, indicating adipose inflammation. Proteomic studies in WAT showed that they also had higher monoglyceride lipase (MGL) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase levels. Treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II) increased MCP-1 and resistin secretion from adipocytes, which was prevented by cotreating with inhibitors of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. In conclusion, we show for the first time that adipose RAS overactivation causes glucose intolerance and systemic insulin resistance. The mechanisms appear to be via reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, at least in part due to Ang II-induced, NADPH oxidase and NF ?B-dependent increases in WAT inflammation. PMID:21979391

  19. Intracerebroventricular administration of bromocriptine ameliorates the insulin-resistant/glucose-intolerant state in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Luo, S; Liang, Y; Cincotta, A H

    1999-03-01

    Bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D2 receptor agonist, suppresses lipogenesis and improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Recent evidence suggests that bromocriptine may produce these effects by altering central nervous system (CNS) regulation of metabolism. To determine whether or not the CNS plays a critical role in these bromocriptine-mediated effects on peripheral metabolism, we compared the metabolic responses to bromocriptine when administered peripherally versus centrally in naturally obese and glucose intolerant Syrian hamsters. Male hamsters (BW 194 +/- 5 g) were treated with bromocriptine or vehicle either intraperitoneally (i.p., 800 microgram/animal) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 1 microgram/animal) daily at 1 h after light onset for 14 days while held on 14-hour daily photoperiods. Glucose tolerance tests (GTTs, 3 g glucose/kg BW) were conducted after treatment. Compared to control animals, bromocriptine i.p. significantly reduced weight gain (11.7 vs. -2.4 g) and the areas under the glucose and insulin GTT curves by 29 and 48%, respectively. Similarly, compared with vehicle-treated controls, bromocriptine i.c.v. at 1 microgram/animal substantially reduced weight gain (8.7 vs. -6.3 g), the areas under the glucose and insulin GTT curves by 31 and 44% respectively, and the basal plasma insulin concentration by 41% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, both treatments significantly improved insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Thus, daily administration of bromocriptine at a very low dose i.c.v. replicates the metabolic effects of bromocriptine administered i.p. at a much higher dose. This finding demonstrates for the first time that the CNS is a critical target of bromocriptine's metabolic effects. PMID:10087448

  20. Genetic Associations with Performance on a Behavioral Measure of Distress Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Daughters, Stacey B.; MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Wang, Frances; Potenza, Marc N.; Gelernter, Joel; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Both theory and empirical evidence support possible associations between two candidate genetic polymorphisms (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR l/s and COMT Val158Met – rs4680 variants) and emotion-regulation difficulties. One particular form of emotion-regulation difficulty, distress intolerance, has been measured using a behavioral assessment in youth; data indicate a relationship with poor psychological functioning. No prior study has investigated genetic influences on emotion-regulation difficulties in youth. As part of a larger longitudinal study on adolescent risk behaviors, 218 10-14 year-old youths from the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area completed a measure of distress intolerance, the Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress (BIRD), and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction and genotyping. Results indicate that those with one or two copies of the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely to perform poorly on the task (i.e., choose to quit) than were those homozygous for the l allele. Participants who were Val allele carriers of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism were also more likely to quit the task compared to Met homozygotes. A summative risk allele score was created to combine the two polymorphisms, and each risk allele was associated with a 1.75 fold increased likelihood of quitting the task. Exploratory analyses revealed that emotional abuse moderated the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR and BIRD performance, as well as the genetic risk allele and the BIRD. This is the first investigation of genetic predictors of a behavioral measure of tolerance to distress. Results suggest that distress tolerance is at least partially regulated by specific genetic variants. Implications are discussed. PMID:22024485

  1. Enhanced ?-galactosidase production from whey powder by a mutant of the psychrotolerant yeast Guehomyces pullulans 17-1 for hydrolysis of lactose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Li; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Ling-Fei; Sun, Huai-Yong; Song, Chun-Li; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2012-02-01

    In order to isolate ?-galactosidase overproducers of the psychrotolerant yeast Guehomyces pullulans 17-1, its cells were mutated by using nitrosoguanidine (NTG). One mutant (NTG-133) with enhanced ?-galactosidase production was obtained. The mutant grown in the production medium with 30.0 g/l lactose and 2.0 g/l glucose could produce more ?-galactosidase than the same mutant grown in the production medium with only 30.0 g/l lactose while ?-galactosidase production by its wild type was sensitive to the presence of glucose in the medium. It was found that 40.0 g/l of the whey powder was the most suitable for ?-galactosidase production by the mutant. After optimization of the medium and cultivation conditions, the mutant could produce 29.2 U/ml of total ?-galactosidase activity within 132 h at the flask level while the mutant could produce 48.1 U/ml of total ?-galactosidase activity within 144 h in 2-l fermentor. Over 77.1% of lactose in the whey powder (5.0% w/v) was hydrolyzed in the presence of the ?-galactosidase activity of 280 U/g of lactose within 9 h while over 77.0% of lactose in the whey was hydrolyzed in the presence of ?-galactosidase activity of 280 U/g of lactose within 6 h. This was the first time to show that the ?-galactosidase produced by the psychrotolerant yeast could be used for hydrolysis of lactose in the whey powder and whey. PMID:22086565

  2. Nature of Lactose-fermenting Salmonella Strains Obtained from Clinical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Easterling, S. B.; Johnson, E. M.; Wohlhieter, J. A.; Baron, L. S.

    1969-01-01

    Six of seven lactose-fermenting (lac+) Salmonella strains obtained from clinical sources were found to be capable of transferring the lac+ property by conjugation to Salmonella typhosa WR4204. All of the six S. typhosa strains which received the lac+ property transferred it in turn to S. typhimurium WR5000 at the high frequencies typical of extrachromosomal F-merogenotes. These six lac elements were also transmissible from S. typhosa WR4204 to Proteus mirabilis and to some strains of Escherichia coli K-12; moreover, they were capable of promoting low frequency transfer of chromosomal genes from S. typhimurium WR5000 to S. typhosa WR4204. One of these lac elements was shown also to be capable of promoting low frequency chromosome transfer in E. coli K-12. E. coli K-12 strains harboring these lac elements exhibited sensitivity to the male specific phage R-17. Sensitivity to R-17 was not detected in Salmonella strains containing the elements. Examination of the lac elements in P. mirabilis by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation showed that each element had a guanine plus cytosine content of 50%. The sizes of the elements varied from 0.8 to 3% of the total Proteus deoxyribonucleic acid. The amount of ?-galactosidase produced by induced and uninduced cultures of S. typhimurium WR5000 and S. typhosa WR4204 containing the lac elements was lower than that produced by these strains with the F-lac episome. The heat sensitivity of ?-galactosidase produced by the lac elements in their original Salmonella hosts indicated that the enzyme made by these strains differs from E. coli ?-galactosidase. PMID:4898999

  3. Synergistic effects in semidilute mixed solutions of alginate and lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).

    PubMed

    Donati, Ivan; Haug, Ingvild J; Scarpa, Tommaso; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Draget, Kurt I; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Paoletti, Sergio

    2007-03-01

    The present study specifically aimed at preparing and characterizing semidilute binary polymer mixtures of alginate and chitlac which might find an application in the field of cell encapsulation. A polyanion, alginate, and a polycation, a lactose-modified chitosan, were mixed under physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and NaCl 0.15) and at a semidilute concentration avoiding associative phase separation. The mutual solubility was found to be dependent on the charge screening effect of the added NaCl salt, being prevented below 0.05 M NaCl. A comparison with the behavior of the polyanion (alginate) under the same experimental conditions revealed that both the viscosity and the relaxation times of the binary polymer solutions are strongly affected by the presence of the polycation. In particular, the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between the two oppositely charged polysaccharides led to a synergistic effect on the zero-shear viscosity of the solution, which showed a 4.2-fold increase with respect to that of the main component of the solution, i.e., alginate. Moreover, the relaxation time, calculated as the reciprocal of the critical share rate, markedly increased upon reducing the alginate fraction in the binary polysaccharide solution. However, the formation of the soluble complexes and the synergistic effect are reduced upon increasing the concentration of the 1:1 electrolyte. By containing a gel-forming polyanion (alginate, e.g., with Ca(2+) ions) and a bioactive polycation (chitlac, bearing a beta-linked D-galactose), the present system can be regarded as a first step toward the development of biologically active scaffold from polysaccharide mixtures. PMID:17300173

  4. Engineered mannitol ternary additives improve dispersion of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhalations.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of novel engineered fine mannitol particles (4.7%, w/w) on the performance of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations to obtain promising aerosolisation properties. The results showed that the more elongated the fine mannitol particles, the weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the better the drug content homogeneity, the higher the amount of drug expected to be delivered to the lower airways and the higher the total DPI formulation desirability. Linear relationships were established showing that mannitol particles with a more elongated shape generated powders with broader size distributions and that were less uniform in shape. The weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the higher the fine particle fraction of the drug is upon aerosolisation. It is believed that more elongated fine mannitol particles reduce the number of drug-carrier and drug-drug physical contact points and increase the ability of the drug particles to travel into the lower airways. Additionally, a lower drug-carrier contact area, lower drug-carrier press-on forces and easier drug-carrier detachment are suggested in the case of formulations containing more elongated fine mannitol particles. Ternary 'drug-coarse carrier-elongated fine ternary component' DPI formulations were more favourable than both 'drug-coarse carrier' and 'drug-elongated coarse carrier' binary formulations. This study provides a comprehensive approach for formulators to overcome the undesirable properties of dry powder inhalers, as both improved aerosolisation performance and reasonable flow characteristics were obtained using only a small amount of elongated engineered fine mannitol particles. PMID:23591748

  5. [Possibility of diagnostics of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs intolerance with a change in the chemiluminescent glow of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes of the peripheral blood].

    PubMed

    Chausova, S V; Gurevich, K G; Bondareva, G P; Filatov, O Ju; Malyshev, I Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the intensity of barium sulfate stimulated luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (SLCL) of pre-incubated blood with various concentrations of sodium salicylate, sodium metamizol or sodium diclofenac. Blood was received from healthy donors and patients with intolerance to aspirin and/or sodium metamizol and/or sodium diclofenac. Revealed valid differences in SLCL of blood received from healthy donors and patients with intolerance to these drugs allows us to use chemiluminescence method for the diagnosis of intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25980237

  6. Cardiac atrophy after bed-rest deconditioning: a nonneural mechanism for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular adaptation to bed rest leads to orthostatic intolerance, characterized by an excessive fall in stroke volume (SV) in the upright position. We hypothesized that this large fall in SV is due to a change in cardiac mechanics. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), SV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and left ventricular mass (by echocardiography) at rest, during lower-body negative pressure, and after saline infusion before and after 2 weeks of bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt (n=12 subjects aged 24+/-5 years). Pressure (P)-volume (V) curves were modeled exponentially by P=ae(kV)+b and logarithmically by P=-Sln[(Vm-V)/(Vm-V0)], where V0 indicates volume at P=0, and the constants k and S were used as indices of normalized chamber stiffness. Dynamic stiffness (dP/dV) was calculated at baseline LVEDV. The slope of the line relating SV to PCWP during lower-body negative pressure characterized the steepness of the Starling curve. We also measured plasma volume (with Evans blue dye) and maximal orthostatic tolerance. Bed rest led to a reduction in plasma volume (17%), baseline PCWP (18%), SV (12%), LVEDV (16%), V0 (33%), and orthostatic tolerance (24%) (all P<.05). The slope of the SV/PCWP curve increased from 4.6+/-0.4 to 8.8+/-0.9 mL/mm Hg (P<.01) owing to a parallel leftward shift in the P-V curve. Normalized chamber stiffness was unchanged, but dP/dV was reduced by 50% at baseline LVEDV, and cardiac mass tended to be reduced by 5% (P<.10). CONCLUSIONS: Two weeks of head-down-tilt bed rest leads to a smaller, less distensible left ventricle but a shift to a more compliant portion of the P-V curve. This results in a steeper Starling relationship, which contributes to orthostatic intolerance by causing an excessive reduction in SV during orthostasis.

  7. Custom Gradient Compression Stockings May Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during re-entry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. We recently determined that thigh-high, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective after space flight, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. We also recently showed that addition of splanchnic compression to this thigh-high compression stocking paradigm improved orthostatic tolerance to a level similar to the AGS, in a ground based model. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, three-piece breast-high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Eight U.S. astronauts have volunteered for this experiment and were individually fitted for a three-piece, breast-high compression garment to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle which decreased to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and provides 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days pre-flight (w/o garment) and 2 hours after flight (w/ garment) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stands up. To date, two astronauts have completed pre- and post-space flight testing. Data are mean SD. Results: BP [pre (prone to stand): 137+/-1.6 to 129+/-2.5; post: 130+/-2.4 to 122+/-1.6 mmHg] and SV [pre (prone to stand): 61+/-1.6 to 38+/-0.2; post: 58+/-6.4 to 37+/-6.0 ml] decreased with standing, but no differences were seen post-flight w/ compression garments compared to pre-flight w/o garments. HR [pre (prone to stand): 66+/-1.6 to 74+/-3.0, post: 67+/-5.6 to 78+/-6.8 bpm] increased with standing, but no differences were seen pre- to post-flight. Conclusion: After space flight, blood pressure and stroke volume are normally decreased and heart rate is usually elevated to compensate. In this small group of subjects, breast-high gradient compression stockings seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight.

  8. Compression Stockings May Ameliorate Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Short-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Stenger, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight has been observed since the early days of manned spaceflight, and no countermeasure has been 100% effective. During re-entry NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) which compresses the legs and abdomen, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Space Shuttle. We previously reported that foot-to-thigh, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective during standing after Shuttle missions. More recently we showed in a ground-based model of spaceflight that the addition of splanchnic compression to the foot-to-thigh compression stockings, creating foot-to-breast high compression, improved orthostatic tolerance in hypovolemic subjects to a level similar to the AGS. Purpose: To evaluate a new three-piece, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Fourteen astronauts completed this experiment (7 control, 7 treatment) following Space Shuttle missions lasting 12-16 days. Treatment subjects were custom-fitted for a three-piece, foot-to-breast high compression garment consisting of shorts and foot-to-thigh stockings. The garments were constructed to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle and decreased gradually to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days before flight (without garments) and 2 hours after flight (with garments for treatment group only) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stood. Data are reported as mean +/- SE. Results: The compression garment successfully prevented the tachycardia and hypotension typically seen post-spaceflight. On landing day, treatment subjects had a smaller change in HR (11+/-1 vs. 21+/-4 beats/min, p< or =0.05) and no decrease in systolic BP (2+/-4 vs. -9+/-2 mmHg, p< or =0.05). Garments also received good comfort ratings and were relatively easy to don. Conclusion: In this small group of astronauts, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garments seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular responses to standing.

  9. Long-term complications in Estonian galactosemia patients with a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Krabbi, K; Uudelepp, M-L; Joost, K; Zordania, R; Õunap, K

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate long-term complications and measure urinary galactose and galactitol excretion in classical galactosemia patients in Estonia who have been treated with a less restricted lactose-free diet and metabolic control. Our study group consisted of five classical galactosemia patients aged 7-14 years and diagnosed since 1996 in Estonia. Their diet eliminates lactose present in dairy foods, but we did not restrict the consumption of mature cheeses, fruits and vegetables. All patients had normal growth, except for one patient who was overweight at the last evaluation. In three patients mental and speech development was normal. One patient, number 1, who was diagnosed latest (at 6 weeks of age), had moderate mental retardation, verbal dyspraxia, extrapyramidal signs and bilateral cataracts. In both patients with developmental problems, a brain MRI showed bilateral subcortical changes in the cerebral white matter. Of four females, only patient 4 (p.Q188R homozygote) has premature ovarian insufficiency. Urinary galactose and galactitol content were retrospectively measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and refractive-index detection from urinary samples that were preserved during the years 1996-2009. Galactose ranged from 60 to 600 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=4-6), and galactitol ranged from 70 to 1200 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=2-4), which was 10-100 and 17-300 times higher than the respective reference ranges for galactose and galactitol. We conclude that a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control performed in Estonian classical galactosemia patients does not change long-term outcome compared to previously published studies. PMID:21501963

  10. Structural studies on 4-O-acetyl-?-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2?3)-lactose, the main oligosaccharide in echidna milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. G. Vliegenthart; J. P. Kamerling; L. Dorland; H. van Halbeek; M. Messer; R. Schauer

    1982-01-01

    The main oligosaccharide (50%) in the milk of the Australian echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) has been identified unequivocally as 4-O-acetyl-?-N-acetylneur-aminyl-(2?3)-lactose. The 4-O-acetyl substituent of the sialic acid residue was characterised by g.l.c.-m.s. of the isolated (after mild, acid hydrolysis) and trimethyl-silylated\\/esterified sialic acid, and by m.s. (after derivatisation) and 500-MHz, 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the intact oligosaccharide. Information about the glycosidic bonds

  11. Changes in hippocampal synaptic functions and protein expression in monosodium glutamate-treated obese mice during development of glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Hojo, Yuki; Koyama, Hajime; Otsuka, Hayuma; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2015-05-01

    Glucose is the sole neural fuel for the brain and is essential for cognitive function. Abnormalities in glucose tolerance may be associated with impairments in cognitive function. Experimental obese model mice can be generated by an intraperitoneal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 2 mg/g) once a day for 5 days from 1 day after birth. MSG-treated mice have been shown to develop glucose intolerance and exhibit chronic neuroendocrine dysfunction associated with marked cognitive malfunctions at 28-29  weeks old. Although hippocampal synaptic plasticity is impaired in MSG-treated mice, changes in synaptic transmission remain unknown. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance influenced cognitive function, synaptic properties and protein expression in the hippocampus. We demonstrated that MSG-treated mice developed glucose intolerance due to an impairment in the effectiveness of insulin actions, and showed cognitive impairments in the Y-maze test. Moreover, long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal synapses in hippocampal slices was impaired, and the relationship between the slope of extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potential and stimulus intensity of synaptic transmission was weaker in MSG-treated mice. The protein levels of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and GluA1 glutamate receptor subunits decreased in the CA1 region of MSG-treated mice. These results suggest that deficits in glutamatergic presynapses as well as postsynapses lead to impaired synaptic plasticity in MSG-treated mice during the development of glucose intolerance, though it remains unknown whether impaired LTP is due to altered inhibitory transmission. It may be important to examine changes in glucose tolerance in order to prevent cognitive malfunctions associated with diabetes. PMID:25851080

  12. Treating feeding intolerance with an enteral solution patterned after human amniotic fluid: a randomized, controlled, masked trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C K Barney; D K Lambert; S C Alder; S H Scoffield; N Schmutz; R D Christensen

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Feeding intolerance is a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and some cases might be causally related to atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa. We speculated that for such patients, feeding tolerance might improve after oral administration of enterocyte growth factors in a sterile, isotonic solution patterned after amniotic fluid.Study Design:Twenty neonates meeting criteria for feeding

  13. Stress-Induced Increase in Kynurenic Acid as a Potential Biomarker for Patients With Schizophrenia and Distress Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Pocivavsek, Ana; Nugent, Katie L.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Several lines of evidence have linked the endogenous neuromodulator kynurenic acid (KYNA) to schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The KYNA level was measured in saliva samples taken at baseline and at 2 times following a laboratory-based psychological stress challenge in 128 participants (64 patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics and 64 healthy controls from the community). EXPOSURE Laboratory-based psychological stress challenge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quitting the stressful task early was used as a behavioral marker of distress intolerance. RESULTS Patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher rate of distress intolerance compared with healthy controls (P = .003). Salivary KYNA levels increased significantly between baseline and 20 minutes following the stress task in both patients and controls (mean [SEM], 6.72 nM [0.65 nM] vs 8.43 nM [1.05 nM], respectively; P = .007). Patients who were unable to tolerate the stressful tasks and quit early showed significantly higher levels of KYNA than patients who tolerated the psychological stressor (P = .02) or healthy controls (P = .02). In patients with distress intolerance, KYNA elevation significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms (? = 0.64; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Distress intolerance is more common in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with this behavioral phenotype have elevated salivary KYNA levels. This stress response behavior–linked biomarker may aid heterogeneity reduction in schizophrenia and other stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24806441

  14. Plasma adiponectin levels and incident glucose intolerance in Japanese–Brazilians: A seven-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcio F. Vendramini; Sandra R. G. Ferreira; Suely G. A. Gimeno; Teresa S. Kasamatsu; Walkiria L. Miranda; Regina S. Moisés

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether decreased baseline adiponectin levels are an independent risk factor for development of glucose intolerance in a population-based study of Japanese–Brazilians, a group with one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes worldwide. We examined 210 Japanese–Brazilians (97 male and 113 female, aged 56.7±10.1 years) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Plasma adiponectin,

  15. Calorimetric Properties of Dehydrating Pollen (Analysis of a Desiccation-Tolerant and an Intolerant Species).

    PubMed

    Buitink, J.; Walters-Vertucci, C.; Hoekstra, F. A.; Leprince, O.

    1996-05-01

    The physical state of water in the desiccation-tolerant pollen of Typha latifolia L. and the desiccation-sensitive pollen of Zea mays L. was studied using differential scanning calorimetry in an attempt to further unravel the complex mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. Melting transitions of water were not observed at water content (wc) values less than 0.21 (T. latifolia) and 0.26 (Z. mays) g H2O/g dry weight. At moisture levels at which melting transitions were not observable, water properties could be characterized by changes in heat capacity. Three hydration regions could be distinguished with the defining wc values changing as a function of temperature. Shifts in baseline power resembling second-order transitions were observed in both species and were interpreted as glass-to-liquid transitions, the glass-transition temperatures being dependent on wc. Irrespective of the extent of desiccation tolerance, both pollens exhibited similar state diagrams. The viability of maize pollen at room temperature decreased gradually with the removal of the unfrozen water fraction. In maize, viability was completely lost before grains were sufficiently dried to enter into a glassy state. Apparently, the glassy state per se cannot provide desiccation tolerance. From the existing data, we conclude that, although no major differences in the physical behavior of water could be distinguished between desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant pollens, the physiological response to the loss of water varies between the two pollen types. PMID:12226289

  16. Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, B. J.; Kerman, I. A.

    1998-01-01

    Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors in the periphery. Recent studies have demonstrated that signals from vestibular otolith organs play an important role in regulating blood pressure during changes in posture in a 1-g environment. Because spaceflight results in plastic changes in the vestibular otolith organs and in the processing of inputs from otolith receptors, it is possible that another contributing factor to postflight orthostatic hypotension is alterations in the gain of vestibular influences on cardiovascular control. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, although controlled studies will be required to determine the relationship between changes in the vestibular system and orthostatic hypotension following exposure to microgravity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Exercise intolerance and developmental delay associated with a novel mitochondrial ND5 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hezhi; Shi, Hao; Li, Xiyuan; Sun, Dayan; Li, Fengjie; Li, Bin; Ding, Yuan; Ma, Yanyan; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Shen, Lijun; Bai, Yidong; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency. The complete mitochondrial genomes of 41 families with OXPHOS deficiency were screened for mutations. Mitochondrial functional analysis was then performed in primary and cybrid cells containing candidate mutations identified during the screening. A novel mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5) m.12955A?>?G mutation was identified in a patient with exercise intolerance and developmental delay. A biochemical analysis revealed deficiencies in the activity of complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) of this patient. Defects in complexes I and IV were confirmed in transmitochondrial cybrid cells containing the m.12955A?>?G mutation, suggesting that this mutation impairs complex I assembly, resulting in reduced stability of complex IV. Further functional investigations revealed that mitochondria with the m.12955A?>?G mutation exhibited lower OXPHOS coupling respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. In addition, the cytotoxic effects, determined as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate levels in the present study, increased in the cells carrying a higher m.12955A?>?G mutant load. In conclusion, we identified m.12955A?>?G as a mitochondrial disease-related mutation. Therefore, screening of m.12955A?>?G is advised for the diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial disease. PMID:26014388

  18. An experimental renal acidification defect in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R. Curtis

    1968-01-01

    In three unrelated patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), but in none of five normal subjects, the experimental administration of fructose invariably induced a reversible dysfunction of the renal tubule with biochemical and physiological characteristics of renal tubular acidosis. During a state of ammonium chloride-induced acidosis, (a) urinary pH was greater than six and the rate of excretion of net acid (titratable acid plus ammonium minus bicarbonate) was inappropriately low, (b) the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged or decreased modestly, and (c) urinary excretion of titratable acid increased briskly with diuresis of infused phosphate, although urinary pH changed little. The tubular dysfunction, which also includes impaired tubular reabsorption of alpha amino nitrogen and phosphate, persisted throughout administration of fructose and disappeared afterward. The tubular dysfunction was not causally dependent on hypoglucosemia, ammonium chloride-induced acidosis or osmotic diuresis. Rather, it appeared causally related to the fructose-induced metabolic abnormality of patients with HFI. The causal enzymatic defect, the virtual absence of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, occurs in the kidney as well as in the liver of patients with HFI. Images PMID:5653216

  19. Food Intolerance: Immune Activation Through Diet-associated Stimuli in Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    The immune response is a very complex interplay of specific and nonspecific branches that have evolved to distinguish between nondangerous and dangerous or nontolerated factors. In the past, research has focused on the specific immune system much more than the host's innate defense. Studies have shown that a key component of the immune response involves activation of the inflammasome. A direct relationship between the presence of the inflammasome and the onset of disease has already been characterized for a variety of chronic and food-related diseases, including arthrosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and chronic bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The leukocyte activation (ALCAT test), an immunological blood test for food intolerance reactions, is ideal to identify and eliminate individual food stimuli that may act as triggers for the cellular nonspecific immune response. Although the test is not diagnostic, studies have established that it can be a useful screening tool for the identification of foreign substances that may trigger immune cell activation, particularly of neutrophils, leading to inflammatory disorders. The ALCAT test, coupled with a targeted diet that is individually tailored according to the test's results, may support immune homeostasis and provide a valuable complementary approach for therapy and overall health. PMID:26030116

  20. Orthostatic intolerance during a 13-day bed rest does not result from increased leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melchior, Francois M.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased leg compliance (LC) has been proposed as a mechanism for orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight or bed rest. Using venous occlusion plethysmography with mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge, we evaluated LC before, during, and after a 13-day head-down bed rest in 10 men. LC was measured by the relationship between the increased calf areas at thigh cuff occlusions of 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg. Orthostatic tolerance was evaluated by a presyncopal-limited lower body negative pressure test before and after bed rest. The 10 subjects were divided into TOL (n= 5) and INT (n=5) groups for which the orthostatic tolerance was similar and lower after bed rest, respectively. For TOL (INT) before bed rest, calf area increases were 2.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) (1.3 +/- 0.4), 3.5 +/- 0.7 (2.3 +/- 0.5), 5.0 +/- 0.9 (3.5 +/- 0.6), 5.6 +/- 0.9 (4.4 +/- 0.6), and 6.4 +/- 1.1 (4.7 +/- 0.6) sq cm for thigh occlusion pressures of 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg, respectively. Neither for INT nor for TOL were these results significantly changed by bed rest. These results suggest that other mechanisms than increased LC have to be taken into account to explain the decreased orthostatic tolerance induced by this 13-day bed rest.

  1. Differential Development of Glucose Intolerance and Pancreatic Islet Adaptation in Multiple Diet Induced Obesity Models

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Bilal; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The C57BL/6 mouse fed a high fat diet is a common and valuable model in experimental studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model most accurately resembling human T2D, they need to be compared head-to-head. Methods: Four different diets, the 60% high fat diet (HFD) and the 58% high fat-high sucrose Surwit diet (HFHS) and their respective controls, were compared in C57BL/6J mice using glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and the euglycemic clamp. Results: Mice fed a HFD gained more weight than HFHS fed mice despite having similar energy intake. Both high fat diet models were glucose intolerant after eight weeks. Mice fed the HFD had elevated basal insulin, which was not seen in the HFHS group. The acute insulin response (AIR) was unchanged in the HFD group, but slightly increased in the HFHS diet group. The HFHS diet group had a threefold greater total insulin secretion during the IVGTT compared to its control, while no differences were seen in the HFD group. Insulin sensitivity was decreased fourfold in the HFD group, but not in the HFHS diet group. Conclusion: The HFD and HFHS diet models show differential effects on the development of insulin resistance and beta cell adaptation. These discrepancies are important to acknowledge in order to select the appropriate diet for specific studies. PMID:23201760

  2. Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in ulcerative colitis: Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Maconi, Giovanni; Furfaro, Federica; Sciurti, Roberta; Bezzio, Cristina; Ardizzone, Sandro; de Franchis, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent co-morbidities of ulcerative colitis patients. The epidemiological association of these diseases suggested a genetic sharing and has challenged gene identification. Diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis has also relevant clinical and therapeutic implications, with potential clinical impact on the follow up and outcome of patients. These diseases share specific complications, such as neuropathy, hepatic steatosis, osteoporosis and venous thrombosis. It is still unknown whether the coexistence of these diseases may increase their occurrence. Diabetes and hyperglycaemia represent relevant risk factors for postoperative complications and pouch failure in ulcerative colitis. Medical treatment of ulcerative colitis in patients with diabetes mellitus may be particularly challenging. Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice of active ulcerative colitis. Their use may be associated with the onset of glucose intolerance and diabetes, with difficult control of glucose levels and with complications in diabetic patients. Epidemiologic and genetic evidences about diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis patients and shared complications and treatment of patients with these diseases have been discussed in the present review. PMID:24707133

  3. Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

  4. Exercise intolerance and developmental delay associated with a novel mitochondrial ND5 mutation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hezhi; Shi, Hao; Li, Xiyuan; Sun, Dayan; Li, Fengjie; Li, Bin; Ding, Yuan; Ma, Yanyan; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Shen, Lijun; Bai, Yidong; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency. The complete mitochondrial genomes of 41 families with OXPHOS deficiency were screened for mutations. Mitochondrial functional analysis was then performed in primary and cybrid cells containing candidate mutations identified during the screening. A novel mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5) m.12955A?>?G mutation was identified in a patient with exercise intolerance and developmental delay. A biochemical analysis revealed deficiencies in the activity of complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) of this patient. Defects in complexes I and IV were confirmed in transmitochondrial cybrid cells containing the m.12955A?>?G mutation, suggesting that this mutation impairs complex I assembly, resulting in reduced stability of complex IV. Further functional investigations revealed that mitochondria with the m.12955A?>?G mutation exhibited lower OXPHOS coupling respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. In addition, the cytotoxic effects, determined as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate levels in the present study, increased in the cells carrying a higher m.12955A?>?G mutant load. In conclusion, we identified m.12955A?>?G as a mitochondrial disease-related mutation. Therefore, screening of m.12955A?>?G is advised for the diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial disease. PMID:26014388

  5. A high oxidised frying oil content diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance in rodents.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chun-Huei; Huang, Shiau-Ting; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2007-07-01

    Oxidised frying oil (OFO) and fish oil have been shown to be peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activators and their ingestion results in pleotropic peroxisome proliferator responses in rats. To examine the effect of dietary OFO on adiposity, four groups of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isoenergetically with, respectively, a low fat basal diet containing 5 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (LSB) or a high fat diet containing 20 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (HSB), OFO (HO) or fish oil (HF). The tissue mass, cell size and lipid/DNA ratio in the retroperitoneal fat pad and serum leptin levels were lowest in the HO group (P < 0.05), indicating that dietary OFO has a greater anti-adipogenic action than dietary fish oil. However, a tendency to hyperglycaemia was observed in the HO group (P = 0.0528). To examine the effect of dietary OFO on glucose tolerance, three groups of rats and three groups of mice were fed, respectively, the LSB, HSB or HO diet, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After oral glucose load, the area under the curve for blood glucose (AUCglu) over 2 h was significantly higher, and that for serum insulin (AUCins) over 90 min was significantly lower, in the HO group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that, in rats and mice, a high OFO diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance. PMID:17433128

  6. Agreement between milk fat, protein, and lactose observations collected from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) and a real-time milk analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kaniyamattam, K; De Vries, A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the agreement between AfiLab real-time milk analyzer (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) measures for fat, protein, and lactose based on near-infrared spectrum light scattering, and those collected on Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test days and measured with the Bentley 2000 analyzer (Bentley Instruments Inc., Chaska, MN), which uses mid-infrared spectrum light. The AfiLab data were collected twice daily for each milking cow in the herd at 12-h intervals from the double-12 parlor at the University of Florida Dairy Unit (Hague, FL) from January 2010 to December 2011. Bentley data for the 23 DHIA test days in 2010 and 2011 were also obtained. Approximately 450 cows were tested each month. Tested milk was collected during 1 milking each month, alternating monthly between morning and evening milkings. AfiLab data were matched with Bentley fat and protein (n=10,273; 23 test days) and lactose (n=6,741; 16 test days). Overall means ± standard deviations (SD) of monthly mean Bentley fat, protein, and lactose were 3.74 ± 0.80%, 3.06 ± 0.37%, and 4.76 ± 0.30%, respectively. Overall means ± SD of monthly mean AfiLab minus Bentley observations were -0.08 ± 0.12 percentage points (PP) for fat (n=23), 0.02 ± 0.11 PP for protein (n=23), and -0.02 ± 0.08 PP for lactose (n=16). Overall means ± SD of monthly within-test-day SD of AfiLab minus Bentley observations were 0.66 ± 0.11 PP for fat, 0.27 ± 0.03 PP for protein, and 0.26 ± 0.03 PP for lactose. Overall means ± SD of the corresponding monthly correlations were 0.59 ± 0.09 for fat, 0.67 ± 0.04 for protein, and 0.46 ± 0.08 for lactose. Averaging the AfiLab observations from up to 6 milkings before and after the test-day milking improved the agreement for protein and lactose but not for fat. Averaging the 13 protein observations improved the mean difference to 0.01 ± 0.10 PP and the SD of the difference to 0.23 ± 0.03 PP. The correlation increased to 0.78 ± 0.04. Averaging the 13 lactose observations improved the SD of the difference to 0.23 ± 0.02 PP, but the mean of the difference decreased to -0.03 ± 0.09 PP. The correlation for lactose increased to 0.55 ± 0.05. Generally, AfiLab slightly overestimated low Bentley components and underestimated high Bentley components. We found some evidence for a systematic cow effect on lack of agreement for lactose, but not for fat and protein. The agreement between AfiLab and Bentley observations was better for protein and lactose than that for fat. Combinations of AfiLab observations from various milkings improved the agreement for protein and lactose. AfiLab real-time milk analyzers may be helpful to estimate DHIA observations. PMID:24630652

  7. Genome-Wide and Follow-Up Studies Identify CEP68 Gene Variants Associated with Risk of Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Hyun Kim; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Joon Seol Bae; Jong Sook Park; An Soo Jang; Soo-Taek Uh; Jae-Sung Choi; Yong-Hoon Kim; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S. Choi; Sang Heon Cho; Byoung Whui Choi; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin; Matthias Wjst

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) is a rare condition that is characterized by the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients after ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. However, the underlying mechanisms of AIA occurrence are still not fully understood. To identify the genetic variations associated with aspirin intolerance in asthmatics, the first stage of genome-wide association study with 109,365 single nucleotide

  8. Effects of the use of MIG3 bioceramics fabrics use - long infrared emitter - in pain, intolerance to cold and periodic limb movements in post-polio syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Mesquita e Silva; Gustavo Antonio Moreira; Abrahão Augusto Juviniano Quadros; Márcia Pradella-Hallinan; Sergio Tufik; Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The main post-polio syndrome (PPS) symptoms are new-onset weakness, new-onset atrophy, fatigue, cold intolerance, and pain associated with sleep disturbances. The polysomnographic study is the gold pattern to analyze sleep disorders. Objective: To assess pain, intolerance to cold and periodic limb movements (PLM) index before and after the use of MIG3 bioceramic fabrics over 4 weeks. Method: 12 patients with

  9. Assessment of the Magnitude of Contextual and Individual Demographic Effects on Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Intolerance in Rural Southwest China: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-wei; Shu, Zhan-kun; Cai, Le; Wu, Jun-Qing; Wei, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the contribution of individual and contextual socioeconomic status (SES) to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in the adult population in rural southwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study of diabetes was performed in 4801(2152 men) Chinese adults (?25 years old). Multilevel logistic regression model was used to examine the association between individuals’ and townships’ variables and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Results The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance were 7.1% (3.6% for undiagnosed) and 8.8% in adults aged ?25 years, respectively, and increasing with age. Females were more likely to develop diabetes than males. The probability of developing diabetes increased with BMI. Both contextual and individual educational level and yearly household income were found to be negatively associated with the prevalence of diabetes. Residence in communities with a higher percentage of ethnic minorities was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. Smoking had a protective effect for diabetes, drinking had a positive association with diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are common in rural adults of southwest China by international standards. These results indicate that diabetes mellitus has become a major public health problem in rural areas in southwest China, and strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are needed. PMID:23874667

  10. Synthesis, anti-oxidant activity, and biodegradability of a novel recombinant polysaccharide derived from chitosan and lactose.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Ma, Yanfei; Wang, Chunge; Liu, Hongzhi; Li, Qian; Fei, Meng

    2015-03-15

    A novel recombinant polysaccharide (RP) based on polysaccharide-disaccharide was synthesized from oligo-chitosan (oligo-CS) and reducing lactose using Maillard reaction with the yield of 85.1%. Chemical structure and thermal stability of RP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS (13)C-NMR), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The anti-oxidant activity of RP was preliminarily investigated by its scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Biodegradability of RP was also examined by the observation of growth status of Aspergillus niger colony. It was demonstrated that RP achieved excellent radical-scavenging efficiency (>80%) at high concentrations of DPPH and its scavenging ability was superior to that of CS, suggesting that anti-oxidant property of CS was remarkably promoted by chemical modification with reducing lactose via Maillard reaction. And biodegradation test revealed that RP had better biodegradability than CS. PMID:25542127

  11. Faox enzymes inhibited Maillard reaction development during storage both in protein glucose model system and low lactose UHT milk.

    PubMed

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Dathan, Nina A; Fiore, Alberto; Roviello, Giovanni; Di Fiore, Anna; Caira, Simonetta; Cuollo, Marina; De Simone, Giuseppina; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M

    2014-02-01

    Fructosamines, also known as Amadori products, are formed by the condensation of glucose with the amino group of amino acids or proteins. These compounds are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can be formed either endogenously during aging and diabetes, and exogenously in heat-processed food. The negative effects of dietary AGEs on human health as well as their negative impact on the quality of dairy products have been widely described, therefore specific tools able to prevent the formation of glycation products are needed. Two fructosamine oxidase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus sp. namely, Faox I and Faox II catalyze the oxidative deglycation of Amadori products representing a potential tool for inhibiting the Maillard reaction in dairy products. In this paper, the ability of recombinant Faox I and II in limiting the formation of carboxy-methyl lysine (CML) and protein-bound hydroxymethyl furfurol (b-HMF) in a commercial UHT low lactose milk and a beta-lactoglobulin (?-LG) glucose model system was investigated. Results show a consistent reduction of CML and b-HMF under all conditions. Faox effects were particularly evident on b-HMF formation in low lactose commercial milk. Peptide analysis of the ?-LG glucose system identified some peptides, derived from cyanogen bromide hydrolysis, as suitable candidates to monitor Faox action in milk-based products. All in all data suggested that non-enzymatic reactions in dairy products might be strongly reduced by implementing Faox enzymes. PMID:23604465

  12. The aggregation of pig articular chondrocyte and synthesis of extracellular matrix by a lactose-modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Donati, I; Stredanska, S; Silvestrini, G; Vetere, A; Marcon, P; Marsich, E; Mozetic, P; Gamini, A; Paoletti, S; Vittur, F

    2005-03-01

    A reductive amination reaction (N-alkylation) obtained exploiting the aldheyde group of lactose and the amino group of the glucosamine residues of chitosan (d.a. 89%) afforded a highly soluble engineered polysaccharide (chitlac) for a potential application in the repair of the articular cartilage. Chitosan derivatives with 9% and 64% of side chain groups introduced have been prepared and characterized by means of potentiometric titration, (1)H-NMR and intrinsic viscosity. Both polymers, with respect to the unmodified chitosan, induce cell aggregation when in contact with a primary culture of pig chondrocytes, leading to the formation of nodules of considerable dimensions (up to 0.5-1 mm in diameter). The nodules obtained from chondrocytes treated with chitlac with the higher degree of substitution have been studied by means of optical and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen has been measured by means of colorimetric assays. The chondro-specificity of GAG and collagen was determined by RT-PCR. The results show that the lactose-modified chitosan is non-toxic and stimulates the production of aggrecan and type II collagen. PMID:15369687

  13. Kinetic studies and model development for the formation of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using synthesized thermo-responsive bioconjugate.

    PubMed

    Palai, Tapas; Kumar, Ashok; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2015-03-01

    In an earlier study by us [47], thermo-responsive bioconjugate (poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-?-galactosidase) was synthesized and characterized. This study utilizes the prowess of such smart bioconjugate for the enzymatic synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose at various initial lactose concentrations (ILC), enzyme concentrations, and temperatures, while maintaining a constant pH of 6. A maximum GOS yield of 35% (on dry basis) was observed at 100g/L ILC and 0.275mg/mL (0.055U/mL) conjugated protein. The GOS yield remained approximately the same for 50 and 100g/L ILC, beyond which, it decreased. As the enzyme concentration increased, the equilibrium formation of GOS increased and eventually attained a plateau when the concentration of conjugated protein exceeded 0.275mg/mL (0.055U/mL). GOS yield increased on raising the temperature from 30 to 40°C, and declined thereafter. The apparent kinetic parameters were estimated from a five-step, nine-parameter kinetic model, which was then simulated using the COPASI package. The simulated results demonstrated an excellent match with the experimental data. PMID:25659631

  14. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports in shorter BR studies that the performance of an exercise countermeasure protocol by itself during BR does not prevent orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. This suggests that protection against orthostatic intolerance in astronauts following long-duration spaceflight will require an additional intervention, such as periodic orthostatic stress, fluid repletion, and/or lower-body compression garments.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Lactose Acts as an Inducer and Provides Proper Carbon Sources for Enhancing Exopolysaccharide Yield in the Deep-Sea Bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qi-Long; Li, Yi; Sun, Mei-Ling; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Su, Hai-Nan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Many marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that have important ecological and physiological functions. Numerous nutritional and environmental factors influence bacterial EPS production. However, the regulatory mechanisms of EPS production are poorly understood. The deep-sea Bacteroidetes bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 can produce high quantities of EPS, and its EPS production is enhanced significantly by lactose. Here, we studied the reasons behind the significant advantage that lactose has over other carbon sources in EPS production in SM-A87. RNA-seq technologies were used to study lactose-regulated genes in SM-A87. The expression level of genes within the EPS gene cluster was up-regulated when lactose was added. Supplement of lactose also influenced the expression of genes located outside the EPS gene cluster that are also involved in EPS biosynthesis. The major glycosyl components of SM-A87 EPS are mannose, glucose and galactose. Genomic metabolic pathway analyses showed that the EPS precursor GDP-mannose can be synthesized from glucose, while the precursor UDP-glucose must be synthesized from galactose. Lactose can provide glucose and galactose simultaneously and prevent glucose inhibition. Lactose can also greatly stimulate the growth of SM-A87. Taken together, lactose acts not only as an inducer but also as a carbohydrate source for EPS production. This research broadens our knowledge of the regulation of EPS production in marine bacteria. PMID:25679965

  16. Protective Effects of Myricetin on Acute Hypoxia-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Mitochondrial Impairments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Dan; Liu, Peng; Chen, Ka; Xie, Qi; Liang, Xinyu; Bai, Qian; Zhou, Qicheng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myricetin, a dietary flavonoid compound widely found in fruits and vegetables, on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance in vivo and in vitro. Methods Male rats were administered myricetin or vehicle for 7 days and subsequently spent 24 hours at a barometric pressure equivalent to 5000 m. Exercise capacity was then assessed through the run-to-fatigue procedure, and mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enzymatic activities of electron transfer complexes were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). mtDNA was quantified by real-time-PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining. Protein expression was detected through western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Results Myricetin supplementation significantly prevented the decline of run-to-fatigue time of rats in hypoxia, and attenuated acute hypoxia-induced mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle cells in vivo and in vitro by maintaining mitochondrial structure, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities of the respiratory chain complexes. Further studies showed that myricetin maintained mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells under hypoxic conditions by up-regulating the expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related regluators, in addition, AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK) plays a crucial role in this process. Conclusions Myricetin may have important applications for improving physical performance under hypoxic environment, which may be attributed to the protective effect against mitochondrial impairment by maintaining mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25919288

  17. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®, is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods. PMID:24678255

  18. Intolerance of Uncertainty Mediates Reduced Reward Anticipation in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Proudfit, Greg H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced reward sensitivity has long been considered a fundamental deficit of major depressive disorder (MDD). One way this deficit has been measured is by an asymmetry in electroencephalogram (EEG) activity between left and right frontal brain regions. MDD has been associated with a reduced frontal EEG asymmetry (i.e., decreased left relative to right) while anticipating reward. However, the mechanism (or mediator) of this association is unclear. The present study examined whether intolerance of uncertainty (IU) mediated the association between depression and reduced reward anticipation. Methods Data were obtained from a prior study reporting reduced frontal EEG asymmetry while anticipating reward in early-onset MDD. Participants included 156 individuals with early-onset MDD-only, panic disorder-only, both (comorbids), or controls. Frontal EEG asymmetry was recorded during an uncertain reward anticipation task. Participants completed a self-report measure of IU. Results All three psychopathology groups reported greater IU relative to controls. Across all participants, greater IU was associated with a reduced frontal EEG asymmetry. Furthermore, IU mediated the relationship between MDD and frontal EEG asymmetry and results remained significant after controlling for neuroticism, suggesting effects were not due to broad negative affectivity. Limitations MDD participants were limited to those with early-onset depression. Measures were collected cross-sectionally, precluding causal relationships. Conclusions IU mediated the relationship between MDD and reduced reward anticipation, independent of neuroticism. Explanations are provided regarding how IU may contribute to reduced reward anticipation in depression. Overall, IU appears to be an important mechanism for the association between depression and reduced reward anticipation. PMID:24655774

  19. Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields: A Content Analysis of British Newspaper Reports

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge-Thomas, Buffy; Rubin, G James

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged with the media to counteract this effect. PMID:23799038

  20. The role of helix VIII in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: I. Cys-scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Frillingos, S.; Ujwal, M. L.; Sun, J.; Kaback, H. R.

    1997-01-01

    Using a functional lactose permease mutant devoid of Cys residues (C-less permease), each amino acid residue in transmembrane domain VIII and flanking hydrophilic loops (from Gln 256 to Lys 289) was replaced individually with Cys. Of the 34 single-Cys mutants, 26 accumulate lactose to > 70% of the steady state observed with C-less permease, and an additional 7 mutants (Gly 262-->Cys, Gly 268-->Cys, Asn 272-->Cys, Pro 280-->Cys, Asn 284-->Cys, Gly 287-->Cys, and Gly 288-->Cys) exhibit lower but significant levels of accumulation (30-50% of C-less). As expected (Ujwal ML, Sahin-Tóth M, Persson B, Kaback HR, 1994, Mol Membr Biol 1:9-16), Cys replacement for Glu 269 abolishes lactose transport. Immunoblot analysis reveals that the mutants are inserted into the membrane at concentrations comparable to C-less permease, with the exceptions of mutants Pro 280-->Cys, Gly 287-->Cys, and Lys 289-->Cys, which are expressed at reduced levels. The transport activity of the mutants is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) in a highly specific manner. Most of the mutants are insensitive, but Cys replacements render the permease sensitive to inactivation by NEM at positions that cluster in manner indicating that they are on one face of an alpha-helix (Gly 262-->Cys, Val 264-->Cys, Thr 265-->Cys, Gly 268-->Cys. Asn 272-->Cys, Ala 273-->Cys, Met 276-->Cys, Phe 277-->Cys, and Ala 279-->Cys). The results indicate that transmembrane domain VIII is in alpha-helical conformation and demonstrate that, although only a single residue in this region of the permease is essential for activity (Glu 269), one face of the helix plays an important role in the transport mechanism. More direct evidence for the latter conclusion is provided in the companion paper (Frillingos S. Kaback HR, 1997, Protein Sci 6:438-443) by using site-directed sulfhydryl modification of the Cys-replacement mutants in situ. PMID:9041646

  1. Structures and Properties of Gellan Polymers Produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 from Lactose Compared with Those Produced from Glucose and from Cheese Whey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARSENIO M. FIALHO; LIGIA O. MARTINS; MARIE-LUCIE DONVAL; JORGE H. LEITAO; MICHAEL J. RIDOUT; ANDREW J. JAY; VICTOR J. MORRIS; ISABEL SA ´-CORREIA

    1999-01-01

    The dairy industry produces large quantities of whey as a by-product of cheese production and is increas- ingly looking for new ways to utilize this waste product. Gellan gum is reliably produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis in growth media containing lactose, a significant component of cheese whey, as a carbon source. We studied and compared polysaccharide biosynthesis by S. paucimobilis ATCC

  2. The vapour pressure of saturated aqueous solutions of D(+)-glucose, D(+)-galactose, and ?-lactose at temperatures from T=278 K to T=318 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

    1998-01-01

    Vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions ofd(+)-glucose,d(+)-galactose, and ?-lactose were determined in the temperature range (278 to 323) K using an electronic hygrometer with an electrolyte sensor, and were compared with literature data. The water activities and osmotic coefficients at the saturation point were evaluated from the determined vapour pressures atT=298.15 K.

  3. Galactosyl-Lactose Sialylation Using Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase as the Biocatalyst and Bovine ?-Casein-Derived Glycomacropeptide as the Donor Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrink, Maarten H.; ten Kate, Geert A.; van Leeuwen, Sander S.; Sanders, Peter; Sallomons, Erik; Hage, Johannes A.; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2014-01-01

    trans-Sialidase (TS) enzymes catalyze the transfer of sialyl (Sia) residues from Sia(?2-3)Gal(?1-x)-glycans (sialo-glycans) to Gal(?1-x)-glycans (asialo-glycans). Aiming to apply this concept for the sialylation of linear and branched (Gal)nGlc oligosaccharide mixtures (GOS) using bovine ?-casein-derived glycomacropeptide (GMP) as the sialic acid donor, a kinetic study has been carried out with three components of GOS, i.e., 3?-galactosyl-lactose (?3?-GL), 4?-galactosyl-lactose (?4?-GL), and 6?-galactosyl-lactose (?6?-GL). This prebiotic GOS is prepared from lactose by incubation with suitable ?-galactosidases, whereas GMP is a side-stream product of the dairy industry. The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Its temperature and pH optima were determined to be 25°C and pH 5.0, respectively. GMP [sialic acid content, 3.6% (wt/wt); N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), >99%; (?2-3)-linked Neu5Ac, 59%] was found to be an efficient sialyl donor, and up to 95% of the (?2-3)-linked Neu5Ac could be transferred to lactose when a 10-fold excess of this acceptor substrate was used. The products of the TcTS-catalyzed sialylation of ?3?-GL, ?4?-GL, and ?6?-GL, using GMP as the sialic acid donor, were purified, and their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Monosialylated ?3?-GL and ?4?-GL contained Neu5Ac connected to the terminal Gal residue; however, in the case of ?6?-GL, TcTS was shown to sialylate the 3 position of both the internal and terminal Gal moieties, yielding two different monosialylated products and a disialylated structure. Kinetic analyses showed that TcTS had higher affinity for the GL substrates than lactose, while the Vmax and kcat values were higher in the case of lactose. PMID:25063655

  4. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities, Cachexia and Exercise Intolerance in Mice with Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Call, Jarrod A.; Lira, Vitor A.; Zhang, Mei; Donet, Jean A.; French, Brent A.; Martin, Kyle S.; Peirce-Cottler, Shayn M.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Annex, Brian H.; Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cachexia (muscle wasting) and the hallmark symptom, exercise intolerance. We have previously shown that a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent antioxidant defense renders oxidative skeletal muscle resistant to catabolic wasting. Here, we aimed to identify and determine the functional role of the NO-inducible antioxidant enzyme(s) in protection against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. Methods and Results We demonstrated that systemic administration of endogenous nitric oxide donor S-Nitrosoglutathione in mice blocked the reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) protein expression, the induction of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression and muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid. We further showed that endogenous EcSOD, expressed primarily by type IId/x and IIa myofibers and enriched at endothelial cells, is induced by exercise training. Muscle-specific overexpression of EcSOD by somatic gene transfer or transgenesis [muscle creatine kinase (MCK)-EcSOD] in mice significantly attenuated muscle atrophy. Importantly, when crossbred into a mouse genetic model of CHF [?-myosin heavy chain (MHC)-calsequestrin] MCK-EcSOD transgenic mice had significant attenuation of cachexia with preserved whole body muscle strength and endurance capacity in the absence of reduced heart failure. Enhanced EcSOD expression significantly ameliorated CHF-induced oxidative stress, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression, loss of mitochondria and vascular rarefaction in skeletal muscle. Conclusions EcSOD plays an important antioxidant defense function in skeletal muscle against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. PMID:24523418

  5. Glucose intolerance induced by glucocorticoid excess is further impaired by co-administration with ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Everson A; Gonçalves-Neto, Luiz M; Ferreira, Francielle B D; Dos Santos, Cristiane; Fernandes, Luiz C; Boschero, Antonio C; Calder, Philip C; Rafacho, Alex

    2013-11-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess alters glucose homeostasis and promotes modifications in murinometric and anthropometric parameters in rodents and humans, respectively. ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, has been proposed as a nutritional strategy for preventing muscle wasting, but few data regarding its effects on glucose homeostasis are available. Here, we analyzed whether the effects of GC excess on glucose homeostasis may be attenuated or exacerbated by the concomitant ingestion of HMB. Adult Wistar rats (90-days-old) were assigned to four groups: (1) vehicle treated (Ctl), (2) dexamethasone (DEX) treated (Dex), (3) HMB treated (Hmb), and (4) DEX plus HMB treated (DexHmb). Dex groups received DEX (1 mg·kg body weight (BW)(-1), intraperitoneal) for 5 consecutive days. HMB groups ingested HMB (320 mg·kg BW(-1), oral gavage) for the same 5 days. HMB ingestion did not attenuate the effects of DEX on food intake and body weight loss, changes in masses of several organs, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance (p > 0.05). In fact, in DexHmb rats, there was increased fasting glycemia and exacerbated glucose intolerance with the main effect attributed to DEX treatment (p < 0.05). HMB exerted no attenuating effect on plasma triacylglycerol levels from DexHmb rats, but it seems to attenuate the lipolysis induced by ?-adrenergic stimulation (20 ?mol·L(-1) isoproterenol) in fragments of retroperitoneal adipose tissue from DexHmb rats. Therefore, HMB does not attenuate the diabetogenic characteristics of GC excess. In fact, the data suggest that HMB may exacerbate GC-induced glucose intolerance. PMID:24053521

  6. Lactose permease of Escherichia coli catalyzes active beta-galactoside transport in a gram-positive bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Brabetz, W; Liebl, W; Schleifer, K H

    1993-01-01

    The following several lines of evidence demonstrate that lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli is assembled into the cytoplasmic membrane of gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum, expressing the lacY gene, as a functional carrier protein. (i) LacY was detected immunologically in the cytoplasmic membrane fraction of the heterologous host. (ii) Recombinant C. glutamicum cells bearing the lacY gene displayed an increased influx of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, which was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. (iii) Washed cells were capable of accumulating methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside about 60-fold. (iv) The uptake of methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside was energy dependent and could be inhibited by the addition of 10 microM carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. LacY of E. coli was active in the recombinant C. glutamicum cells despite the different membrane lipid compositions of these organisms. PMID:8226697

  7. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies. PMID:21593407

  8. Use of Staphylococcus aureus 6-P-beta-galactosidase and GFP as fusion partners for lactose-specific IIC domain from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kowolik, C M; Hengstenberg, W

    2001-07-01

    The hydrophilic part of membrane proteins plays an important role in the formation of 3D crystals. The construction of fusion proteins using well crystallizing proteins as fusion partners is a possibility to increase the hydrophilic part of membrane proteins lacking large hydrophilic domains. These fusion proteins might be easier to crystallize. Two bifunctional fusion proteins containing the membrane-bound, lactose-specific enzyme IIC domain of the lactose transporter (IICB(lac)) from S. aureus as N-terminal fusion partner were constructed by gene fusion. The C-terminal fusion partners were S. aureus 6-P-beta-Galactosidase and GFP, respectively. Both proteins were overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and kinetically characterized: In the presence of the components of the lactose phosphotransferase system of S. aureus, the hybrid proteins phosphorylated their substrates, indicating that the fusion partners are sufficiently flexibly linked to allow the interaction of the IIC(lac) domain with the IIB(lac) domain of the lactose transporter. The activity of the 6-P-beta-Galactosidase as well as the fluorescence of GFP were preserved in the fusion proteins. The Vmax values determined for the IIC domain in the fusion proteins were dramatically reduced compared with the values determined for the separate IIC(lac) domain and the complete lactose transporter (IICB(lac)). The Km values were only slightly increased indicating that the Vmax values are much more influenced by the fusion than the substrate affinities. The substrate affinity and the Vmax value determined for the GFP-fused IIC(lac) domain are higher than for the 6-P-beta-Galactosidase-fused IIC(lac). The results suggest that the fusion with GFP enables a better interaction with the IIB(lac) domain than the fusion with 6-P-beta-Galactosidase. Moreover, the GFP-fused IIC(lac) domain proved to be more stable than the 6-P-beta-Galactosidase fusion protein. PMID:11361070

  9. Determination of ricin by nano liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after extraction using lactose-immobilized monolithic silica spin column.

    PubMed

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Kato, Haruhito; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohta, Shigenori; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Furuno, Masahiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2011-08-01

    Ricin is a glycosylated proteinous toxin that is registered as toxic substance by Chemical Weapons convention. Current detection methods can result in false negatives and/or positives, and their criteria are not based on the identification of the protein amino acid sequences. In this study, lactose-immobilized monolithic silica extraction followed by tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was developed as a method for rapid and accurate determination of ricin. Lactose, which was immobilized on monolithic silica, was used as a capture ligand for ricin extraction from the sample solution, and the silica was supported in a disk-packed spin column. Recovery of ricin was more than 40%. After extraction, the extract was digested with trypsin and analyzed by LC/MS. The accurate masses of molecular ions and MS/MS spectra of the separated peptide peaks were measured by Fourier transform-MS and linear iontrap-MS, respectively. Six peptides, which were derived from the ricin A-(m/z 537.8, 448.8 and 586.8) and B-chains (m/z 701.3, 647.8 and 616.8), were chosen as marker peptides for the identification of ricin. Among these marker peptides, two peptides were ricin-specific. This method was applied to the determination of ricin from crude samples. The monolithic silica extraction removed most contaminant peaks from the total ion chromatogram of the sample, and the six marker peptides were clearly detected by LC/MS. It takes about 5 h for detection and identification of more than 8 ng/ml of ricin through the whole handling, and this procedure will be able to deal with the terrorism using chemical weapon. PMID:21834021

  10. The Effects of Lactose, Microcrystalline Cellulose and Dicalcium Phosphate on Swelling and Erosion of Compressed HPMC Matrix Tablets: Texture Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Namdeo Tukaram, Bendgude; Vidaya Rajagopalan, Iyer; Sushi Ikumar Shartchandra, Poddar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of texture analysis in studying the performance of hydrophilic matrices of highly soluble drugs and different types of excipients (i.e. water-soluble, water-insoluble and swellable, and water insoluble and non-swellable). Tablets were prepared by direct compression, and their swelling and erosion in presence of these different excipients were assessed with the help of volumetric, gravimetric, morphological, and rheological studies. Dissolution test was performed using USP 26 apparatus 2 modified by insertion of a sieve to prevent sticking of the tablets to the bottom of the vessel and allow them to swell 3-dimensionally. Loading 15% of the highly soluble drug in formulations containing 65% lactose showed the most pronounced swelling and erosion and the best sustained drug release, compared to matrices containing microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate. The correlation between front movement, mass erosion and solute transport in relation to excipient type on progression of probe displacement and total work was examined throughout texture analysis studies. The formulation containing the soluble excipient lactose showed better swelling and erosion properties compared to formulations containing the swellable and insoluble excipients. In conclusion, it could be said that based on the distinct conventional dosage forms insertion of particular excipients in hydrophilic controlled release tablets containing water soluble drug, the finger print information of drug release profile could be obtained. To study the release profile from hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K 15M matrices with different types of excpients, diltiazem hydrochloride was used as a model soluble drug. PMID:24381599

  11. High and Low Fat Food Selection with Reported Frequency Intolerance Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack R. Thomas; Emily Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Background  This research compared both food selection and food intolerance frequency of High-fat grouped foods versus Low-fat grouped\\u000a foods in Roux-en-Y bariatric clients during their dietary adaptation phase (DAP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-eight bariatric surgery patients in their dietary transition phase (3 months–2.5 years) filled out a 236-food item\\u000a questionnaire. From the larger set of primary data, 24 high-fat (30% or greater fat) and 22 low\\/lower-fat

  12. Statin Intolerance Because of Myalgia, Myositis, Myopathy, or Myonecrosis Can in Most Cases be Safely Resolved by Vitamin D Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Khayznikov, Maksim; Hemachrandra, Kallish; Pandit, Ramesh; Kumar, Ashwin; Wang, Ping; Glueck, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low serum vitamin D can cause myalgia, myositis, myopathy, and myonecrosis. Statin-induced myalgia is a major and common cause of statin intolerance. Low serum vitamin D and statins, additively or synergistically, cause myalgia, myositis, myopathy, and/or myonecrosis. Statin-induced myalgia in vitamin D deficient patients can often be resolved by vitamin D supplementation, normalizing serum vitamin D levels. Aims: In 74 men and 72 women (age 59 ± 14 years) intolerant to ?2 statins because of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, or myonecrosis and found to have low (<32 ng/mL) serum vitamin D, we prospectively assessed whether vitamin D supplementation (vitamin D2: 50,000-100,000 units/week) to normalize serum vitamin D would allow successful rechallenge therapy with statins. Materials and Methods: Follow-up evaluation on vitamin D supplementation was done on 134 patients at 6 months (median 5.3), 103 patients at 12 months (median 12.2), and 82 patients at 24 months (median 24). Results: Median entry serum vitamin D (22 ng/mL, 23 ng/mL, and 23 ng/mL) rose at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months follow-up to 53 ng/mL, 53 ng/mL, and 55 ng/mL, respectively, (P < .0001 for all) on vitamin D therapy (50,000-100,000 units/week). On vitamin D supplementation, serum vitamin D normalized at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months follow-up in 90%, 86%, and 91% of the patients, respectively. On rechallenge with statins while on vitamin D supplementation, median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) fell from the study entry (167 mg/dL, 164 mg/dL, and 158 mg/dL) to 90 mg/dL, 91 mg/dL, and 84 mg/dL, respectively, (P < .0001 for all). On follow-up at median 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months on statins and vitamin D, 88%, 91%, and 95% of the previously statin-intolerant patients, respectively, were free of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, and/or myonecrosis. Conclusions: Statin intolerance because of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, or myonecrosis associated with low serum vitamin D can be safely resolved by vitamin D supplementation (50,000-100,000 units /week) in most cases (88-95%). PMID:25838999

  13. Hepatic Rather Than Cardiac Steatosis Relates to Glucose Intolerance in Women with Prior Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Winhofer, Yvonne; Krššák, Martin; Wolf, Peter; Tura, Andrea; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Kosi, Lana; Reiter, Gert; Pacini, Giovanni; Trattnig, Siegfried; Luger, Anton; Krebs, Michael; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased myocardial lipid accumulation has been described in patients with pre- and overt type 2 diabetes and could underlie the development of left-ventricular dysfunction in metabolic diseases (diabetic cardiomyopathy). Since women with prior gestational diabetes (pGDM) display a generally young population at high risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, we aimed to assess whether myocardial lipid accumulation can be detected at early stages of glucose intolerance and relates to markers of hepatic steatosis (Fatty Liver Index), cardiac function, insulin sensitivity and secretion. Methods Myocardial lipid content (MYCL), left-ventricular function (1H-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy and -imaging), insulin sensitivity/secretion (oral glucose tolerance test) and the fatty liver index (FLI) were assessed in 35 pGDM (45.6±7.0 years, 28.3±4.8 kg/m2) and 14 healthy control females (CON; 44.7±9.8 years, 26.1±2.5 kg/m2), matching for age and body-mass-index (each p>0.1). Results Of 35 pGDM, 9 displayed normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 6 impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 20 had been already diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). MYCL and cardiac function were comparable between pGDM and CON; in addition, no evidence of left-ventricular dysfunction was observed. MYCL was inversely correlated with the ejection fraction in T2DM (R?=??0.45, p<0.05), while the FLI was tightly correlated with metabolic parameters (such as HbA1C, fasting plasma glucose and HDL-cholesterol) and rose along GT-groups. Conclusions There is no evidence of cardiac steatosis in middle-aged women with prior gestational diabetes, suggesting that cardiac complications might develop later in the time-course of diabetes and may be accelerated by the co-existence of further risk factors, whereas hepatic steatosis remains a valid biomarker for metabolic diseases even in this rather young female cohort. PMID:24621572

  14. An experimental renal acidification defect in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R. Curtis

    1968-01-01

    In adult patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) fructose induces a renal acidification defect characterized by (a) a 20-30% reduction in tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate (T HCO3-) at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 21-31 mEq/liter, (b) a maximal tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate (Tm HCO3-) of approximately 1.9 mEq/100 ml of glomerular filtrate, (c) disappearance of bicarbonaturia at plasma bicarbonate concentrations less than 15 mEq/liter, and (d) during moderately severe degrees of acidosis, a sustained capacity to maintain urinary pH at normal minima and to excrete acid at normal rates. In physiologic distinction from this defect, the renal acidification defect of patients with classic renal tubular acidosis is characterized by (a) just less than complete tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate at plasma bicarbonate concentrations of 26 mEq/liter or less, (b) a normal Tm HCO3- of approximately 2.8 mEq/100 ml of glomerular filtrate, and (c) during acidosis of an even severe degree, a quantitatively trivial bicarbonaturia, as well as (d) a urinary pH of greater than 6. That the fructose-induced renal acidification defect involves a reduced H+ secretory capacity of the proximal nephron is supported by the magnitude of the reduction in T HCO3- (20-30%) and the simultaneous occurrence and the persistence throughout administration of fructose of impaired tubular reabsorption of phosphate, alpha amino nitrogen and uric acid. A reduced H+ secretory capacity of the proximal nephron also appears operative in two unrelated children with hyperchloremic acidosis, Fanconi's syndrome, and cystinosis. In both, T HCO3- was reduced 20-30% at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 20-30 mEq/liter. The bicarbonaturia disappeared at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 15-18 mEq/liter, and during moderate degrees of acidosis, urinary pH decreased to less than 6, and the excretion rate of acid was normal. PMID:5658593

  15. Impaired Cardiac SIRT1 Activity by Carbonyl Stress Contributes to Aging-Related Ischemic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Chen, Mai; Xu, Ming; Yin, Yue; Li, Chen; Yang, Zheng; Yu, Lu; Ma, Heng

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo) and aged (22-24 mo) mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05). Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE) exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator) (all P<0.05). However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05). The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1+/? knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1+/? hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance. PMID:24040162

  16. Development of Gradient Compression Garments for Protection Against Post Flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronaut health. No in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective to date. NASA currently uses an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during reentry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. The Russian Space Agency currently uses a mechanical counter-pressure garment (Kentavr) that is difficult to adjust alone, and prolonged use may result in painful swelling at points where the garment is not continuous (feet, knees, and groin). To improve comfort, reduce upmass and stowage requirements, and control fabrication and maintenance costs, we have been evaluating a variety of gradient compression, mechanical counter-pressure garments, constructed from spandex and nylon, as a possible replacement for the current AGS. We have examined comfort and cardiovascular responses to knee-high garments in normovolemic subjects; thigh-high garments in hypovolemic subjects and in astronauts after space flight; and 1-piece, breast-high garments in hypovolemic subjects. These gradient compression garments provide 55 mmHg of compression over the ankle, decreasing linearly to 35 mmHg at the knee. In thigh-high versions the compression continues to decrease to 20 mmHg at the top of the leg, and for breast-high versions, to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Measures of efficacy include increased tilt survival time, elevated blood pressure and stroke volume, and lower heart-rate response to orthostatic stress. Results from these studies indicate that the greater the magnitude of compression and the greater the area of coverage, the more effective the compression garment becomes. Therefore, we are currently testing a 3-piece breast-high compression garment on astronauts after short-duration flight. We chose a 3-piece garment consisting of thigh-high stockings and shorts, because it is easy to don and comfortable to wear, and should provide the same level of protection as the 1-piece breast-high garments evaluated in hypovolemic test subjects.

  17. Glucose intolerance in a large cohort of mediterranean women with polycystic ovary syndrome: phenotype and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Gambineri, Alessandra; Pelusi, Carla; Manicardi, Elisa; Vicennati, Valentina; Cacciari, Mauro; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic parameters and associated factors characterizing the development of glucose intolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Among the 121 PCOS female subjects from the Mediterranean region, 15.7 and 2.5% displayed impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, respectively. These subjects were included in a single group of overweight or obese subjects presenting with glucose intolerance (GI) states. PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance (81.8%) were subdivided into two groups: those who were overweight or obese and those of normal weight. Metabolic and hormonal characteristics of the GI group included significantly higher fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, more severe insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and significantly higher cortisol and androstenedione responses to 1-24 ACTH stimulation. One important finding was that lower birth weight and earlier age of menarche were associated with GI in PCOS women. Frequency of hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, acne, and acanthosis nigricans did not characterize women with GI. Our findings indicate that PCOS patients with GI represent a subgroup with specific clinical and hormonal characteristics. Our observations may have an important impact in preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:15331545

  18. The incidence of analgesics intolerance in asthmatic children detected by history and inhalation challenge with lysine acetylsalicylate.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A

    1989-01-01

    To determine the incidence of adverse reactions to analgesics in unselected asthmatic children, histories were obtained from 486 children, using questionnaires and interviews. Mean age was 11.4 +/- 2.3 (+/- 1 SD) years (range 6-17 years), and mean duration of disease was 7.6 +/- 3.6 (1-15) years. The majority of 21 children gave an equivocal history, and only 7 (1.4%) of all children had a reliable history of adverse reactions to various analgesics. Inhalation challenge with increasing doses of lysine acetylsalicylate (LASA) was performed in 75 randomly selected asymptomatic children. Two boys of these (2.7%) had a positive test, defined as a 25% or more decrease of FEV1 and/or a 50% or more increase of the oscillatory airway resistance, compared with base line values. Both children had a mild airway obstruction, and had no personal or family history of analgesics intolerance. Further 27 children with suspected positive personal or family histories were also challenged. One girl of these manifested a mild urticaria; her pulmonary function remained unchanged. The incidence of analgesics intolerance in unselected asthmatic children is much lower than that of 12.5% to 28% reported in severe chronic asthma. The inhalation challenge with LASA proved simple, safe, effective and time saving, and thus, it offers an alternative method to the oral challenge in suspected children. PMID:2495382

  19. Absence of Perilipin 2 Prevents Hepatic Steatosis, Glucose Intolerance and Ceramide Accumulation in Alcohol-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rotonya M.; Peralta, Giselle; Yin, Xiaoyan; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perilipin 2 (Plin2) is a lipid droplet protein that has roles in both lipid and glucose homeostasis. An increase in Plin2 in liver is associated with the development of steatosis, glucose intolerance, and ceramide accumulation in alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the role of Plin2 on energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis in wildtype and Plin2 knockout (Plin2KO) mice chronically fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol or control diet for six weeks. Methods We performed in vivo measurements of energy intake and expenditure; body composition; and glucose tolerance. After sacrifice, liver was dissected for histology and lipid analysis. Results We found that neither genotype nor diet had a significant effect on final weight, body composition, or energy intake between WT and Plin2KO mice fed alcohol or control diets. Additionally, alcohol feeding did not affect oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production in Plin2KO mice. We performed glucose tolerance testing and observed that alcohol feeding failed to impair glucose tolerance in Plin2KO mice. Most notably, absence of Plin2 prevented hepatic steatosis and ceramide accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These changes were related to downregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis and triglyceride synthesis. Conclusions Plin2KO mice chronically fed alcohol are protected from hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and hepatic ceramide accumulation, suggesting a critical pathogenic role of Plin2 in experimental alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24831094

  20. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E; Barrows, Katherine M; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T; McClain, Donald A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88(-/-) mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-?B signaling (p-I?B?), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88(-/-) mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity. PMID:25968578

  1. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    PubMed

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results. Thus, the novel 3SD medium described herein is a powerful tool for the rapid and efficient selective isolation of S. sonnei in research and clinical laboratories, and the food industry. PMID:26003439

  2. Towards producing novel fish gelatin films by combination treatments of ultraviolet radiation and sugars (ribose and lactose) as cross-linking agents.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2014-07-01

    Developing novel fish gelatin films with better mechanical properties than mammalian gelatin is a challenging but promising endeavor. Studies were undertaken to produce fish gelatin films by combining treatments with different sugars (ribose and lactose) followed 'by' 'and' ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as possible cross-linking agents. Increase in tensile strength and percent elongation at break was recorded, which was more significant in films without sugars that were exposed to UV radiation. Films with added ribose showed decreased solubility after UV treatment and exhibited higher swelling percentage than films with added lactose, which readily dissolved in water. FTIR spectra of all the films showed identical patterns, which indicated no major changes to have occurred in the functional groups as a result of interaction between gelatin, sugars and UV irradiation. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for food packaging purposes. PMID:24966426

  3. Comparison between discontinuous and continuous lactose conversion processes for the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides using beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Splechtna, Barbara; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) formation from lactose in discontinuous and continuous modes of conversion was investigated using beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) from Lactobacillus reuteri. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with an external crossflow membrane was set up, and continuous GOS production was analyzed and compared to the batchwise formed GOS product. Marked differences were detected for the two reactor setups. Above 65% lactose conversion, the GOS yield was lower for the CSTR due to a lower content of tri- and tetrasaccharides in the reaction mixture. In the CSTR, beta-gal from L. reuteri showed up to 2-fold higher specificity toward the formation of beta-(1-->6)-linked GOS, with beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Glc and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Gal being the main GOS components formed under these conditions. This could be used to synthesize more defined GOS products. PMID:17630761

  4. Detection of beta-glucuronidase in lactose-fermenting members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and its presence in bacterial urine cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, W; Yourassowsky, E

    1984-01-01

    Four hundred strains of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae were tested for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid, the chromogenic enzyme substrate of beta-glucuronidase. Escherichia coli was found to be homogeneous with respect to beta-glucuronidase: more than 94% of the examined E. coli strains were positive, whereas none of the other lactose-fermenting strains possessed beta-glucuronidase activity. The qualitative beta-glucuronidase test, as rapid and simple as the o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranosidase test, proved to be of diagnostic value, especially in the identification of E. coli in primary urine cultures. No significant differences were observed in the results of experiments in which either substrate-impregnated disks prepared in the laboratory or commercially available tablets were used. PMID:6520223

  5. A clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the combination of etravirine plus raltegravir in HIV patients with expanded intolerance or resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bañón, Sara; Moreno, Ana; Quereda, Carmen; Gomez, Cristina; Diaz de Santiago, Alberto; Perez-Elías, María J; Moreno, Santiago; Luis Casado, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The combination of etravirine (ETR) plus raltegravir (RAL) could be an option for HIV patients with resistance, intolerance or important interactions with other drugs. However, there are few data on the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of this dual therapy, taking into account the effect of HCV co-infection or the possible induction of ETR in the drug metabolism of RAL. Material and Methods Cohort study of HIV patients initiating ETR plus RAL as dual therapy. Plasma trough levels of RAL were measured by LC/MS after at least one month on therapy. Results A total of 25 patients have been included in this combination since 2009. Mean age was 46 years, 72% were male, and 20 patients (80%) had HCV co-infection (seven patients with fibrosis 3–4). Median nadir CD4+ count was 109 (60–209), and 21 patients had an HIV RNA level below 50 copies/mL. Median time on previous therapy was 473 months (IQR, 395–570), and reasons for this dual therapy was toxicity/intolerance in 19, and interactions in nine (two chemotherapy, three DAAs, two methadone, two other). After a median follow up of 722 days (473–1088: 53.3 patients-year), there were no cases of blips or virological failure. Six patients (24%) discontinued therapy after more than 1.5 year on therapy, in four cases due to lost follow up and in two due to simplification after finishing the reason for interaction. There were no cases of liver toxicity, and only two patients increased slightly transaminases values (grade 1 and 2). Total cholesterol and triglycerides levels decrease significantly after initiation (TC, from 182 to 165 at one year; p=0.01; TG from 185 to 143 mg/dL; p=0.01). CT/HDL ratio decreases from 4.35 to 4.28 after six months. Geometric mean plasma trough level of RAL was 166 ng/mL (IQR, 40–249) and only one patient (6%) was below the in vitro IC50 of the wild type. Conclusions The combination of ETR plus RAL as dual therapy is effective and safe in patients with expanded intolerance or interactions. There are no significant pharmacokinetic interactions between both drugs. PMID:25397548

  6. Lactose Malabsorption Testing in Daily Clinical Practice: A Critical Retrospective Analysis and Comparison of the Hydrogen/Methane Breath Test and Genetic Test (C/T?13910 Polymorphism) Results

    PubMed Central

    Rezanka, Erwin; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a retrospective evaluation and comparison of the hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) breath test and genetic test (C/T?13910 polymorphism) results in lactose malabsorption testing. In total 263 consecutive patients with suspected lactose malabsorption were included in this study. They underwent the H2/CH4 breath test following the ingestion of 50?g lactose and were tested for the C/T?13910 polymorphism. In total 51 patients (19.4%) had a C/C?13910 genotype, indicating primary lactose malabsorption. Only 19 patients (7.2%) also had a positive H2/CH4 breath test. All in all 136 patients (51.69%) had a C/T?13910 and 76 patients (28.91%) a T/T?13910 genotype, indicating lactase persistence. Four patients (1.5%) with the C/T?13910 genotype and one patient (0.4%) with the T/T?13910 genotype had a positive H2/CH4 breath test result, indicating secondary lactose malabsorption. Cohen's Kappa measuring agreement between the two methods was 0.44. Twenty patients (7.6%) with a positive H2/CH4 peak within 60 minutes after lactose ingestion were classified as patients with lactose-dependent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). In conclusion, only moderate agreement between the breath test and the genetic test was shown. Secondary lactose malabsorption as well as preanalytical limitations of the combined H2/CH4 breath test procedure can cause discrepant results. This trial is registered with K-42-13. PMID:24829570

  7. The effect of inclusion of a high lactose supplement in finishing diets on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, volatile fatty acid concentrations and ammonia emission from boars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Pierce; T. Sweeney; J. J. Callan; C. Byrne; P. McCarthy; J. V. O’Doherty

    2006-01-01

    An experiment (complete randomised design) was conducted to investigate the use of lactose in finishing pig diets on nitrogen excretion patterns and ammonia emissions. Diets were formulated to have similar digestible energy (13.8MJ\\/kg) and total lysine (11.0g\\/kg) contents. Thirty boars (58kg) were assigned to one of the five dietary treatments (six per treatment) as follows: (T1) 0g Lactofeed\\/kg (860g whey

  8. Enzymatic synthesis and identification of oligosaccharides obtained by transgalactosylation of lactose in the presence of fructose using ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiuyun; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao; Ye, Fayin; Wang, He; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Kun

    2012-12-01

    The enzymatic transgalactosylation of lactose in the presence of fructose using ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl?Gal) leading to the formation of oligosaccharides was investigated in detail. The reaction mixture was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with differential refraction detector (HPLC-RI) and two main transgalactosylation products were discovered. To elucidate their overall structures, the products were isolated and purified using preparative liquid chromatography and analyzed by LC/MS, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR studies. Allo-lactulose(?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?1)-d-fructose) with two main isomers in D(2)O was identified to be the major transgalactosylation product while lactulose(?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-fructose) turned out to be the minor one, indicating that Kl?Gal was regioselective with respect to the primary C-1 hydroxyl group of fructose. The maximum yields of allo-lactulose and lactulose were 47.5 and 15.4g/l, respectively, at 66.5% lactose conversion (200g/l initial lactose concentration). PMID:22953892

  9. Enteric-coated capsule containing ?-galactosidase-loaded polylactic acid nanocapsules: enzyme stability and milk lactose hydrolysis under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Hongjun; Zhang, Xueting; Sheng, Yan

    2014-11-01

    In order to protect peroral ?-galactosidase from being degraded and hydrolyse milk lactose efficiently in the environments of gastrointestinal tract, a double-capsule delivery system composed of enteric-coated capsule and polylactic acid (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) was developed for encapsulation of ?-galactosidase. ?-galactosidase-loaded PLA NCs in the size range of 100-200 nm were prepared by a modified w1/o/w2 technique. During the encapsulation process, dichloromethane/ethyl acetate (1 : 1, v/v) as the solvent composition, high-pressure homogenisation (150 bar, 3 min) as the second emulsification method and polyvinyl alcohol or Poloxamer 188 as a stabiliser in the inner phase could efficiently improve the activity retention of ?-galactosidase (>90%). Subsequently, the prepared NCs were freeze-dried and filled in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55)-coated capsule. In vitro results revealed that the HP55-coated capsule remained intact in the simulated gastric fluid and efficiently protected the nested ?-galactosidase from acidic denaturation. Under the simulated intestinal condition, the enteric coating dissolved rapidly and released the ?-galactosidase-loaded PLA NCs, which exhibited greater stability against enzymatic degradation and higher hydrolysis ratio (?100%) towards milk lactose than the free ?-galactosidase. These results suggest that this double-capsule delivery system represents promising candidate for efficient lactose hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25263933

  10. Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Bellone, Iaele; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Putignano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Background Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®), known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients’ lipidic and glycemic profiles. PMID:25678808

  11. Ideological Homogeneity, School Leadership, and Political Intolerance in Secondary Education: A Study of Three High Schools during the 2008 Presidential Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This study reports findings from a qualitative case study of three high schools during the 2008 presidential election. The schools appeared to promote the political ideologies of their corresponding populations, and in the two predominately ideologically homogenous schools, political intolerance often appeared to affect teachers' instruction and…

  12. Comparison of chemosensory function and psychological profile in patients with idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI)\\/multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), odorant sensitive and insensitive controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Papo; B. Eberlein-Koenig; H. Berresheim; J. Huss-Marp; V. Grimm; J. Walkowiak; U. Kraemer; J. Ring; G. Winneke; H. Behrendt

    2004-01-01

    RationaleSince patients with Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances frequently report unspecific polysomatic complaints effected by odorants we addressed the question if they differ from subjectively olfactory sensitive subjects not reporting IEI and subjectively insensitive controls regarding chemosensory, cognitive and clinical psychological parameters.

  13. Action to Combat Intolerance and Xenophobia in the Activities of the Council of Europe's Council for Cultural Co-operation, 1969-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perotti, Antonio

    This report surveys the steps taken by the Council of Europe's Council for Cultural Cooperation (CDCC) to combat the increasing problem of intolerance and xenophobia in Western Europe. The outbreak of xenophobic sentiment is attributed to two facts: large immigrant communities from outside Europe have settled permanently in Europe, and there has…

  14. Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Bungo, Michael W.; Platts, Steven H.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Johnston, Smith L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias (Integrated Cardiovascular) will quantify the extent of long-duration space flightassociated cardiac atrophy (deterioration) on the International Space Station crewmembers.

  15. Cationic amino acid transport through system y+L in erythrocytes of patients with lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, C A; Deves, R; Laynes, R; Kudo, Y; Sebastio, G

    2000-03-01

    We test the hypothesis that lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport, results from the absence of the recently described y+L amino acid transporter. We compare fluxes of lysine (1 microM) into erythrocytes of normal subjects with those of patients homozygous for the LPI mutation. No significant differences in fluxes through system y+L in normal or LPI cells were found, excluding the possibility that system y+L cannot be expressed in patients with LPI. Reasons for supposing that there may be tissue-specific processing of two recently described genes encoding the y+L transporter are discussed. Polymerase chain reaction measurement of expression of these two genes in an erythroleukemic cell line suggests that alternatively there may be an as-yet-unidentified additional member of this gene family. PMID:10764208

  16. A novel gly290asp mitochondrial cytochrome b mutation linked to a complex III deficiency in progressive exercise intolerance.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, R; Sagnol, I; Ferlin, T; Bozon, D; Stepien, G; Mousson, B

    1996-10-01

    We have identified a new mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b mutation in a 29-year-old man with progressive exercise muscle intolerance associated with a marked deficiency of complex III activity and a decreased amount of mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome b. This G to A transition at mtDNA position 15615 leads to the substitution (G290D) of a very highly conserved amino acid of cytochrome b during evolution. The mutant mtDNA was heteroplasmic (80% mutant) in patient muscle but was undetectable in blood from the patient and his healthy mother and sisters. A maternally inherited cytochrome b polymorphism was also identified in this patient. Molecular screening of 150 individuals showed that the G290D mutation associated with the described phenotype. We suggest that this molecular defect is the primary cause of the muscle disease in this patient. PMID:8910895

  17. Quantification of residual crystallinity in ball milled commercially sourced lactose monohydrate by thermo-analytical techniques and terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoff; Hussain, Amjad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Ermolina, Irina

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of crystallinity is necessary in order to be able to control the milling process. The use of thermal analysis for this assessment presents certain challenges, particularly in the case of crystal hydrates. In this study, the residual crystallinity on ball milling of lactose monohydrate (LMH), for periods up to 90min, was evaluated by thermo-analytical techniques (TGA, DSC) and terahertz spectroscopy (THz). In general, the results from one of the DSC analysis and the THz measurements agree showing a monotonous decrease in relative residual crystallinity with milling time (?80% reduction after 60min milling) and a slight increase at the 90min time point. However, the estimates from TGA and two other methods of analyzing DSC curve do not agree with the former techniques and show variability with significantly higher estimates for crystallinity. It was concluded that, the thermal techniques require more complex treatment of the data in the evaluation of changes in crystallinity of a milled material (in particular to account for the de-vitrification and mutarotation of the material that inevitably occurs during the measurement cycle) while the analysis of THz data is more straightforward, with the measurement having no impact on the native state of the material. PMID:25784570

  18. Multivariate analysis of relationships between material properties, process parameters and tablet tensile strength for alpha-lactose monohydrates.

    PubMed

    Haware, Rahul V; Tho, Ingunn; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2009-11-01

    The present work describes an approach to quantify relationships between the material properties of various alpha-lactose monohydrate grades (alphaLM), process parameters (punch velocity, lubricant fraction) and the tablet tensile strength (TS). Milled, sieved, agglomerated and spray-dried alphaLMs were studied. Each material was tableted (11 mm flat punches, constant true volume of 0.2833 cm(3)) on a compaction simulator at a pressure of 104.4+/-0.1 MPa. The force-displacement data was analyzed by applying a combination of compression descriptors (derived from Kawakita and Heckel equations, work-related parameters). The relationships were evaluated and quantified by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLS-1). PCA verified fundamental relationships between different powder and compression properties of studied materials. It was found that the compression descriptors Kawakita '1/b' and WoC were sufficient to distinguish the tested alphaLM-grades, even in combination with different lubricant fraction or by utilizing different punch velocities; the identified descriptors correlated with TS. These relationships were quantified by PLS-1. Finally, TS were successfully predicted for all alphaLM with the help of separate optimized PLS-1 models. The present study shows an approach how to extract relevant information about tableting behavior from a limited amount of material. PMID:19698784

  19. Neuronal overexpression of insulin receptor substrate 2 leads to increased fat mass, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance during aging.

    PubMed

    Zemva, J; Udelhoven, M; Moll, L; Freude, S; Stöhr, O; Brönneke, H S; Drake, R B; Krone, W; Schubert, M

    2013-10-01

    The insulin receptor substrates (IRS) are adapter proteins mediating insulin's and IGF1's intracellular effects. Recent data suggest that IRS2 in the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in regulating fuel metabolism as well as memory formation. The present study aims to specifically define the role of chronically increased IRS2-mediated signal transduction in the CNS. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing IRS2 specifically in neurons (nIRS2 (tg)) and analyzed these in respect to energy metabolism, learning, and memory. Western blot (WB) analysis of nIRS2 (tg) brain lysates revealed increased IRS2 downstream signaling. Histopathological investigation of nIRS2 (tg) mice proved unaltered brain development and structure. Interestingly, nIRS2 (tg) mice showed decreased voluntary locomotoric activity during dark phase accompanied with decreased energy expenditure (EE) leading to increased fat mass. Accordingly, nIRS2 (tg) mice develop insulin resistance and glucose intolerance during aging. Exploratory behavior, motor function as well as food and water intake were unchanged in nIRS2 (tg) mice. Surprisingly, increased IRS2-mediated signals did not change spatial working memory in the T-maze task. Since FoxO1 is a key mediator of IRS2-transmitted signals, we additionally generated mice expressing a dominant negative mutant of FoxO1 (FoxO1DN) specifically in neurons. This mutant mimics the effect of increased IRS2 signaling on FoxO-mediated transcription. Interestingly, the phenotype observed in nIRS2 (tg) mice was not present in FoxO1DN mice. Therefore, increased neuronal IRS2 signaling causes decreased locomotoric activity in the presence of unaltered exploratory behavior and motor coordination that might lead to increased fat mass, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance during aging independent of FoxO1-mediated transcription. PMID:23160735

  20. Elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acid status prevents age-related glucose intolerance in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Romanatto, Talita; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Wang, Bin; Curi, Rui; Kang, Jing X

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of elevated tissue omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) status on age-related glucose intolerance utilizing the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously synthesize n-3 PUFA from omega-6 (n-6) PUFA. Fat-1 and wild-type mice, maintained on the same dietary regime of a 10% corn oil diet, were tested at two different ages (2 months old and 8 months old) for various glucose homeostasis parameters and related gene expression. The older wild-type mice exhibited significantly increased levels of blood insulin, fasting blood glucose, liver triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, compared to the younger mice, indicating an age-related impairment of glucose homeostasis. In contrast, these age-related changes in glucose metabolism were largely prevented in the older fat-1 mice. Compared to the older wild-type mice, the older fat-1 mice also displayed a lower capacity for gluconeogenesis, as measured by pyruvate tolerance testing (PTT) and hepatic gene expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, the older fat-1 mice showed a significant decrease in body weight, epididymal fat mass, inflammatory activity (NF?-B and p-I?B expression), and hepatic lipogenesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression), as well as increased peroxisomal activity (70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and acyl-CoA oxidase1 (ACOX1) expression). Altogether, the older fat-1 mice exhibit improved glucose homeostasis in comparison to the older wild-type mice. These findings support the beneficial effects of elevated tissue n-3 fatty acid status in the prevention and treatment of age-related chronic metabolic diseases. PMID:24211484

  1. Curcumin attenuates Nrf2 signaling defect, oxidative stress in muscle and glucose intolerance in high fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Jun; Wang, Guo-Yu; Gao, Yuan; Ling, Wen-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Wen; Jin, Tian-Ru

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the signaling mechanism of anti-oxidative action by curcumin and its impact on glucose disposal. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with either a normal diet (n = 10) or a high fat diet (HFD) (n = 20) to induce obesity and insulin resistance. After 16 wk, 10 HFD-fed mice were further treated with daily curcumin oral gavage at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (HFD + curcumin group). After 15 d of the curcumin supplementation, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Fasting blood samples were also collected for insulin and glucose measurements. Insulin-sensitive tissues, including muscle, adipose tissue and the liver, were isolated for the assessments of malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling. RESULTS: We show here that in a HFD mouse model, short-term curcumin gavage attenuated glucose intolerance without affecting HFD-induced BW gain. Curcumin also attenuated HFD-induced elevations of MDA and ROS in the skeletal muscle, particularly in its mitochondrial fraction, but it had no such an effect in either adipose tissue or the liver of HFD-fed mice. Correspondingly, in skeletal muscle, the levels of total or nuclear content of Nrf2, as well as its downstream target, heme oxygenase-1, were reduced by HFD-feeding. Curcumin intervention dramatically reversed these defects in Nrf2 signaling. Further analysis of the relationship of oxidative stress with glucose level by a regression analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between the area under the curve of a glucose tolerance test with MDA levels either in muscle or muscular mitochondria. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the short-term treatment of curcumin in HFD-fed mice effectively ameliorates muscular oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 function that is a novel mechanism for its effect in improving glucose intolerance. PMID:22645638

  2. Ligand density effect on biorecognition by PEGylated gold nanoparticles: regulated interaction of RCA120 lectin with lactose installed to the distal end of tethered PEG strands on gold surface.

    PubMed

    Takae, Seiji; Akiyama, Yoshitsugu; Otsuka, Hidenori; Nakamura, Teisaku; Nagasaki, Yukio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    PEGylated gold nanoparticles (diameter: 20 nm) possessing various functionalities of lactose ligand on the distal end of tethered PEG ranging from 0 to 65% were prepared to explore the effect of ligand density of the nanoparticles on their lectin binding property. UV-visible spectra of the aqueous solution of the nanoparticles revealed that the strong steric stabilization property of the PEG layer lends the nanoparticles high dispersion stability even under the physiological salt concentration (ionic strength, I = 0.15 M). The number of PEG strands on a single particle was determined to be 520 from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation under controlled acceleration voltage revealed the thickness of the PEG layer on the nanoparticle to be approximately 7 nm. The area occupied by a single lactose molecule on the surface of PEGylated gold nanoparticles was then calculated based on TGA and SEM results and was varied in the range of 10-34 nm2 depending on the lactose functionality (65 approximately 20%). PEGylated gold nanoparticles with 40% and 65% lactose functionality showed a selective and time-dependent aggregation in phosphate buffer with the addition of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120) lectin, a bivalent galactose-specific protein. The aggregates can be completely redispersed by adding an excess amount of galactose. Time-lapse monitoring of UV-visible spectra at 600-750 nm revealed that the aggregation of PEGylated gold nanoparticles was accelerated with an increase in both RCA120 concentration in the solution and the lactose density of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the sensitivity of lectin detection could be controlled by the regulation of lactose density on the particle surface. Interestingly, there was a critical lactose density (>20%) observed to induce detectable particle aggregation, indicating that the interaction between the particles is triggered by the multimolecular bridging via lectin molecules. PMID:15762646

  3. ?-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Horner; M. L. Dunn; D. L. Eggett; L. V. Ogden

    2011-01-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated

  4. Use of slow glucose feeding as supporting carbon source in lactose autoinduction medium improves the robustness of protein expression at different aeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Ukkonen, Kaisa; Mayer, Sonja; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Recombinant protein expression from lac derived promoters by the autoinduction regime is based on diauxic growth of Escherichia coli on glucose and lactose. Glycerol is used as a supporting carbon source during the lactose-induced expression. While this glycerol-based formulation usually provides high cell densities, successful protein expression by autoinduction is often very dependent on correct aeration level. This complicates the reproducibility and scalability of the cultures. In this study we investigate the use of an alternative autoinduction formulation, in which the supporting carbon source is provided by fed-batch-like slow glucose feed from a biocatalytically degraded polysaccharide. The glucose feed as supporting carbon source allowed for high level of autoinduced target protein expression from T7lac promoter in E. coli BL21(DE3) and from T5lac promoter in E. coli K-12 RB791(lacI(q)) with lactose concentrations of 0.5-2gl(-1). Cell densities and protein yields per culture volume were similar to or higher than in the glycerol-based ZYM-5052 medium. In the glycerol-based medium, protein production was adversely influenced by high aeration level, resulting in 75-90% reduction in protein yield per cell compared to more moderately aerated conditions. The glucose fed-batch medium attenuated this oxygen-sensitivity and provided robust high-yield expression also under high aeration rates. It is concluded that the slow glucose feed as supporting carbon source mitigates aeration-related scale differences in autoinduced protein expression, and combined with the benefit of high product yields this makes the fed-batch autoinduction medium ideal for high-throughput screening and scale-up of the production process. PMID:23938950

  5. Chromosome 2: the gene for lactase, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>Tour>genome spots>Lactose tolerance / intolerance Location: chromosome 2 gene name: LCT (lactase) This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

  6. Clinical, haematological and biochemical alterations in heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in Egyptian cattle following natural foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed M; Abdel-Hamid, Omnia M

    2010-08-01

    Clinical signs of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome were observed in Holstein cows in a private farm in Egypt. There were heat intolerance (fever), panting, profuse salivation, hirsutism, lameness and reduced milk production. Blood and serum samples were collected from ten diseased cows and five apparently healthy cows as control. Serological tests confirmed the presence of non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infection. There were significant reductions in the total red blood cell count with increased leucocytic and lymphocytic counts in diseased group compared to control. The serum Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe were significantly reduced but P was increased in diseased animals compared to control. The total protein, albumin, cholesterol and cortisol were significantly reduced but the glucose and malonaldehyde were significantly increased in diseased cows. This was the first report in Egypt to describe the clinical and haemato-biochemical changes in panting syndrome following FMD. PMID:20229223

  7. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    PubMed

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T?) and thyroxine (T?) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function. PMID:21388520

  8. What Is a Pediatric Gastroenterologist?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Types of Treatments Do Pediatric Gastroenterologists Provide? Pediatric gastroenterologists generally provide treatment for the following: Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract Lactose intolerance Food allergies or intolerances Severe or complicated gastroesophageal reflux disease ( ...

  9. Ethylene enhances gibberellin levels and petiole sensitivity in flooding-tolerant Rumex palustris but not in flooding-intolerant R. acetosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan G. H. M. Rijnders; Young-Yell Yang; Yuji Kamiya; Nobuta Takahashi; Gerard W. M. Barendse; Cornelis W. P. M. Blom; Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek

    1997-01-01

    .   The role of gibberellin (GA) and ethylene in submergence-induced petiole elongation was studied in two species of the genus\\u000a Rumex. Analysis of endogenous GAs in the flooding-tolerant Rumex palustris Sm. and the intolerant Rumex acetosa L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed for both species the presence of GA1, GA4, GA9, GA19, GA20 and GA53. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of

  10. Genetic and biochemical analysis of anaerobically-induced enzymes during seed germination of Echinochloa crus-galli varieties tolerant and intolerant of anoxia.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Takeshi; Kennedy, Robert A; Yamasue, Yuji; Rumpho, Mary E

    2003-05-01

    To compare the regulation of anaerobic metabolism during germination in anoxia-tolerant and intolerant plants, enzymes associated with anaerobic metabolism such as sucrose synthase, aldolase, enolase, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were assayed in two varieties of Echinochloa crus-galli, formosensis (tolerant) and praticola (intolerant). The initial and intervening enzymes of the pathway (sucrose synthase and aldolase) and enzymes in the last part of the pathway (PDC, ADH and ALDH) revealed similar changing patterns in activities during germination. This implies that each group of enzymes may be controlled by an identical regulatory mechanism. During anoxia, activities of all enzymes increased 1.5-30-fold in both varieties compared to their activities under aerobic conditions. Activities of sucrose synthase, enolase and ADH exhibited the same induction patterns under anoxia in formosensis and praticola. However, the activities of aldolase, ALDH and PDC were more strongly induced in formosensis under anoxia (1.2-2-fold) than in praticola. These enzymes were also assayed in F(3) families which varied in their anaerobic germinability. For PDC, activities under anoxia in anoxia-tolerant families were similar to those of an anoxia-intolerant family during the whole period although the family did not exhibit anaerobic germinability. This suggests that there is no correlation between PDC activity and anaerobic germinability. For ALDH, activities were more strongly induced under anoxia in anoxia-tolerant families than in anoxia-intolerant families, a trend also exhibited by the parents. This indicates that ALDH may play a role in detoxifying acetaldehyde formed through alcoholic fermentation during anaerobic germination. PMID:12709489

  11. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  12. The Development of Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in C57Bl/6 Mice on a High-Fat Diet Consists of Distinct Phases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynda M.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Drew, Janice E.; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D.; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R.; Tups, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    High–fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12 - 16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable. PMID:25170916

  13. An Open-Label Study of the Human Anti-TNF Monoclonal Antibody Adalimumab in Subjects with Prior Loss of Response or Intolerance to Infliximab for Crohn's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Sandborn; Stephen Hanauer; Edward V. Loftus; William J. Tremaine; Sunanda Kane; Russell Cohen; Karen Hanson; Therese Johnson; Debra Schmitt; Resa Jeche

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND:We assessed the tolerability and clinical benefit of adalimumab, a human antibody to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in patients with Crohn's disease who had previously received and responded to the chimeric anti-TNF antibody infliximab, but who no longer had a sustained response and\\/or tolerance to infliximab.METHODS:A total of 24 patients with Crohn's disease who had lost responsiveness or developed intolerance

  14. Association of plasma triglyceride and C-peptide with coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with a high prevalence of glucose intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Bergstrom; D. L. Leonetti; L. L. Newell-Morris; W. P. Shuman; P. W. Wahl; W. Y. Fujimoto

    1990-01-01

    Summary  In a community-based study of second-generation Japanese-American men known to have a high prevalence of both Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, there was a highly significant association of coronary heart disease with glucose intolerance in a study sample of 219 men. Intra-abdominal cross sectional fat area determined by computed tomography was significantly elevated in men with coronary

  15. Disruption of the Chemokine-Like Receptor-1 (CMKLR1) Gene Is Associated with Reduced Adiposity and Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Matthew C.; Haidl, Ian D.; Zúñiga, Luis A.; Dranse, Helen J.; Rourke, Jillian L.; Zabel, Brian A.; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive signaling molecules, termed adipokines, which regulate numerous biological functions including appetite, energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. Chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipocyte differentiation and metabolism by binding to and activating the G protein-coupled receptor, chemokine like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). In the present study, we investigated the impact of CMKLR1 deficiency on adipose development, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation in vivo. Herein we report that regardless of diet (low or high fat), CMKLR1?/? mice had lower food consumption, total body mass, and percent body fat compared with wild-type controls. CMKLR1?/? mice also exhibited decreased hepatic and white adipose tissue TNF? and IL-6 mRNA levels coincident with decreased hepatic dendritic cell infiltration, decreased adipose CD3+ T cells, and increased adipose natural killer cells. CMKLR1?/? mice were glucose intolerant compared with wild-type mice, and this was associated with decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion as well as decreased skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue glucose uptake. Collectively these data provide compelling evidence that CMKLR1 influences adipose tissue development, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the metabolic derangement characteristic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:22186410

  16. Domain-specific intolerance of uncertainty in socially anxious and contamination-focused obsessive-compulsive individuals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane; Heimberg, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been increasingly recognized as a transdiagnostic factor across anxiety disorders and depression and is associated with substantial cognitive, behavioral, and emotional impairment. IU is typically construed as a dispositional tendency to view ambiguous stimuli and unknown outcomes as unacceptably threatening regardless of context, but recent findings suggest that the domain in which uncertainty is encountered may be relevant. Taking that research to the next step, the aim of the present study was to determine whether IU is more salient in concern-congruent versus incongruent domains and whether domain-specific IU is a better predictor of anxiety symptoms than trait IU. A total of 102 undergraduates were recruited into analog socially anxious (SA), obsessive-compulsive contamination (OCC), and nonanxious control (NAC) groups based on responses to measures of SA and OCC symptoms. Both groups reported more domain-congruent IU than trait IU or domain-incongruent IU. The SA group reported more social interaction IU than the OCC and NAC groups; the OCC group reported more cleanliness IU than the SA and NAC groups. Domain-specific IU predicted social anxiety and OCC fears above and beyond trait IU. Results suggest that IU has a substantial context-specific component and should be examined both transdiagnostically and transsituationally. PMID:25269822

  17. Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Gugliandolo, Agnese; Calabrò, Carlo; Currò, Monica; Ientile, Riccardo; Raskovic, Desanka; Korkina, Ludmila; Caccamo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenetic role in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), namely, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia (FM), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Given the reported association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene polymorphisms with inflammatory disorders, we aimed to investigate the distribution of NOS2A ?2.5?kb (CCTTT)n as well as Ser608Leu and NOS3 ?786T>C variants and their correlation with nitrite/nitrate levels, in a study cohort including 170 MCS, 108 suspected MCS (SMCS), 89 FM/CFS, and 196 healthy subjects. Patients and controls had similar distributions of NOS2A Ser608Leu and NOS3 ?786T>C polymorphisms. Interestingly, the NOS3 ?786TT genotype was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate levels only in IEI patients. We also found that the NOS2A ?2.5?kb (CCTTT)11 allele represents a genetic determinant for FM/CFS, and the (CCTTT)16 allele discriminates MCS from SMCS patients. Instead, the (CCTTT)8 allele reduces by three-, six-, and tenfold, respectively, the risk for MCS, SMCS, and FM/CFS. Moreover, a short number of (CCTTT) repeats is associated with higher concentrations of nitrites/nitrates. Here, we first demonstrate that NOS3 ?786T>C variant affects nitrite/nitrate levels in IEI patients and that screening for NOS2A ?2.5?kb (CCTTT)n polymorphism may be useful for differential diagnosis of various IEI. PMID:25878398

  18. Intolerance of uncertainty as a mediator of reductions in worry in a cognitive behavioral treatment program for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Bomyea, J; Ramsawh, H; Ball, T M; Taylor, C T; Paulus, M P; Lang, A J; Stein, M B

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a cognitive vulnerability that is a central feature across diverse anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce IU, it remains to be established whether or not reductions in IU mediate reductions in worry. This study examined the process of change in IU and worry in a sample of 28 individuals with GAD who completed CBT. Changes in IU and worry, assessed bi-weekly during treatment, were analyzed using multilevel mediation models. Results revealed that change in IU mediated change in worry (ab=-0.20; 95% CI [-.35, -.09]), but change in worry did not mediate change in IU (ab=-0.16; 95% CI [-.06, .12]). Findings indicated that reductions in IU accounted for 59% of the reductions in worry observed over the course of treatment, suggesting that changes in IU are not simply concomitants of changes in worry. Findings support the idea that IU is a critical construct underlying GAD. PMID:26037493

  19. Fermented tea improves glucose intolerance in mice by enhancing translocation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Wang, Lihua; Tinshun, Zhang; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-11-14

    The antihyperglycemic effects of tea are well documented. However, the effects of fermented tea on the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), the major glucose transporter for glucose uptake in the postprandial period, in skeletal muscle and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the translocation of GLUT4 and its related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of male ICR mice given fermented tea. Intake of oolong, black, or pu-erh tea for 7 days enhanced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle. Each type of fermented tea stimulated the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt/protein kinase B, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Fermented tea also increased the protein expression of insulin receptor. These results strongly suggest that fermented tea activates both PI3K/Akt- and AMPK-dependent signaling pathways to induce GLUT4 translocation and increases the expression of insulin receptor to improve glucose intolerance. PMID:23106150

  20. Stability and Synthesis of Phospholipids during Desiccation and Rehydration of a Desiccation-Tolerant and a Desiccation-Intolerant Moss.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R R; Bewley, J D

    1982-03-01

    The fatty acid composition of the phospholipids from the desiccation-tolerant moss Tortula ruralis (Hedw.) Gaertn, Meyer and Scherb and the desiccation-intolerant moss Cratoneuron filicinum has been determined. No changes in composition occur in either moss as a consequence of rapid drying, but, after slow drying, there is a decline in some unsaturated fatty acids. Upon rehydration of T. ruralis after slow drying, these acids decline further; however, within 105 minutes, they regain the same levels as those in undesiccated controls. A smaller and more transient decline occurs after rapid desiccation. Most phospholipid unsaturated fatty acids decrease during rehydration of C. filicinum, and their levels are not recovered. After both rapid and slow drying of T. ruralis, acetate and glycerol are incorporated into the phospholipid fraction, although de novo synthesis, alone, might not account for the increase in unsaturated fatty acids upon rehydration. Very little acetate or glycerol is incorporated during rehydration of C. filicinum. Loss of unsaturated fatty acids from the phospholipids of T. ruralis does not appear to be associated with increased lipoxygenase activity. Furthermore, there is little correlation between the extent of peroxidation of fatty acids due to desiccation and changes in the phospholipid fraction. PMID:16662283

  1. Bosutinib safety and management of toxicity in leukemia patients with resistance or intolerance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jorge E.; Kim, Dong-Wook; Khoury, H. Jean; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Porkka, Kimmo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Durrant, Simon; Leip, Eric; Kelly, Virginia; Turnbull, Kathleen; Besson, Nadine; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Bosutinib is an oral, dual SRC/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with clinical activity in Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) leukemia. We assessed the safety and tolerability of bosutinib 500 mg per day in a phase 1/2 study in chronic-phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or advanced Ph+ leukemia following resistance/intolerance to imatinib and possibly other TKIs. Patient cohorts included second-line CP CML (n = 286), third-/fourth-line CP CML (n = 118), and advanced leukemia (n = 166). Median bosutinib duration was 11.1 (range, 0.03-83.4) months. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in each cohort were primarily gastrointestinal (diarrhea [86%/83%/74%], nausea [46%/48%/48%], and vomiting [37%/38%/43%]). Diarrhea presented early, with few (8%) patients experiencing grade 3/4 events; dose reduction due to diarrhea occurred in 6% of affected patients. Grade 3/4 myelosuppression TEAEs were reported in 41% of patients; among affected patients, 46% were managed with bosutinib interruption and 32% with dose reduction. Alanine aminotransferase elevation TEAEs occurred in 17% of patients (grade 3/4, 7%); among patients managed with dose interruption, bosutinib rechallenge was successful in 74%. Bosutinib demonstrated acceptable safety with manageable toxicities in Ph+ leukemia. This trial (NCT00261846) was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (this manuscript is based on a different data snapshot from that in ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID:24345751

  2. Structure of the SLC7A7 Gene and Mutational Analysis of Patients Affected by Lysinuric Protein Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sperandeo, Maria Pia; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Riboni, Mirko; Parenti, Giancarlo; Buoninconti, Anna; Manzoni, Marta; Incerti, Barbara; Larocca, Maria Rosaria; Di Rocco, Maja; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Dianzani, Irma; Parini, Rossella; Candito, Miranda; Endo, Fumio; Ballabio, Andrea; Andria, Generoso; Sebastio, Gianfranco; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    Summary Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene. We report the genomic structure of the gene and the results of the mutational analysis in Italian, Tunisian, and Japanese patients. The SLC7A7 gene consists of 10 exons; sequences of all of the exon-intron boundaries are reported here. All of the mutant alleles were characterized and eight novel mutations were detected, including two missense mutations, 242A?C (M1L) and 1399C?A (S386R); a nonsense mutation 967G?A (W242X); two splice mutations IVS3 +1G?A and IVS6 +1G?T; a single-base insertion, 786insT; and two 4-bp deletions, 455delCTCT and 1425delTTCT. In addition, a previously reported mutation, 1625insATCA, was found in one patient. It is noteworthy that 242A?C causes the change of Met1 to Leu, a rare mutational event previously found in a few inherited conditions. We failed to establish a genotype/phenotype correlation. In fact, both intrafamilial and interfamilial phenotypic variability were observed in homozygotes for the same mutation. The DNA-based tests are now easily accessible for molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis of LPI. PMID:10631139

  3. Tissue Inhibitor Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Is Required for High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance and Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Brünner, Nils; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) are elevated in obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as steatosis, but the metabolic role of TIMP-1 is unclear. Here we investigated how the presence or absence of TIMP-1 affected the development of diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis using the Timp1 null mice. Methods Timp1 knockout (TKO) and wild type (TWT) mice were fed chow, high-fat diet (HFD) or intermediate fat and sucrose diet (IFSD). We determined body weight, body composition, lipid content of the liver, energy intake, energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance, as well as insulin tolerance. In addition, the histology of liver and adipose tissues was examined and expression of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation in liver and adipose tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. Results TKO mice gained less weight and had lower energy efficiency than TWT mice when fed HFD, but not when fed chow or IFSD. Importantly, TKO mice were protected from development of HFD- as well as IFSD-induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and altered expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation. Conclusion Collectively, our results indicate that TIMP-1 contributes to the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26168159

  4. Induction of Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity of Eel Skin Mucus, Containing Lactose-Binding Molecules, on Human Leukemic K562 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Kyun; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Suh, Seok-Jong; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2015-01-01

    For innate immune defense, lower animals such as fish and amphibian are covered with skin mucus, which acts as both a mechanical and biochemical barrier. Although several mucus sources have been isolated and studied for their biochemical and immunological functions, the precise mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. In the present study, we additionally found the eel skin mucus (ESM) to be a promising candidate for use in anti-tumor therapy. Our results showed that the viability of K562 cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with the isolated ESM. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase were increased by ESM. The levels of Bax expression and released cytochrome C were also increased after treatment with ESM. Furthermore, during the ESM mediated-apoptosis, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were increased and cell viabilities of the co-treated cells with ESM and inhibitors of ERK 1/2 or p38 were also increased. In addition, treatment with lactose rescued the ESM-mediated decrease in cell viability, indicating lactose-containing glycans in the leukemia cells acted as a counterpart of the ESM for interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that ESM could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through membrane interaction of the K562 human leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation that ESM has anti-tumor activity in human cells. PMID:26090845

  5. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 ?M, 29.40 ?M, and 26 ?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

  6. Induction of Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity of Eel Skin Mucus, Containing Lactose-Binding Molecules, on Human Leukemic K562 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Kyun; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Suh, Seok-Jong; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2015-01-01

    For innate immune defense, lower animals such as fish and amphibian are covered with skin mucus, which acts as both a mechanical and biochemical barrier. Although several mucus sources have been isolated and studied for their biochemical and immunological functions, the precise mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. In the present study, we additionally found the eel skin mucus (ESM) to be a promising candidate for use in anti-tumor therapy. Our results showed that the viability of K562 cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with the isolated ESM. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase were increased by ESM. The levels of Bax expression and released cytochrome C were also increased after treatment with ESM. Furthermore, during the ESM mediated-apoptosis, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were increased and cell viabilities of the co-treated cells with ESM and inhibitors of ERK 1/2 or p38 were also increased. In addition, treatment with lactose rescued the ESM-mediated decrease in cell viability, indicating lactose-containing glycans in the leukemia cells acted as a counterpart of the ESM for interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that ESM could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through membrane interaction of the K562 human leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation that ESM has anti-tumor activity in human cells. PMID:26090845

  7. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

  8. High tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels are associated with exercise intolerance and neurohormonal activation in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Cicoira, M; Bolger, A P; Doehner, W; Rauchhaus, M; Davos, C; Sharma, R; Al-Nasser, F O; Coats, A J; Anker, S D

    2001-07-21

    Immune activation plays an important role in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). We sought to investigate whether different degrees of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activation are associated with exercise intolerance, neurohormonal activation and alterations in muscle mass and function in patients with CHF without cardiac cachexia. Patients were divided into quartiles according to their TNF levels (first quartile: 0.98-4.90 pg/ml, second quartile: 5.00-6.60 pg/ml; third quartile 6.80-9.00 pg/ml; fourth quartile 9.80-32.00 pg/ml). Patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, quadriceps muscle strength test, quadriceps fatigue test, and assessment of thigh muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) by computerized tomography scanning. Patients in the highest TNF quartile had the lowest peak oxygen consumption [13.1 (+/-4.1) ml/kg/min vs 18.1 (+/-5.3), 18.8 (+/-4.8) and 18.7 (+/-5.6) ml/kg/min, P<0.01] the greatest relation of ventilation and dioxide production (VE/VCO(2)) slope (P<0.05) and the most elevated catecholamine levels (P<0.05) compared to patients in the first three quartiles. Patients with the lowest TNF levels had preserved thigh muscle size and quadriceps strength. Strength/muscle CSA was similar in the four groups. Muscle strength during fatigue testing was significantly lower in the fourth quartile (P=0.01) compared with the other three groups. In CHF patients only the highest levels of TNF are associated with poor functional status and neurohormonal activation. This group of patients may represent the appropriate target population for TNF antagonism. PMID:11500083

  9. F0 maternal BPA exposure induced glucose intolerance of F2 generation through DNA methylation change in Gck.

    PubMed

    Li, Gengqi; Chang, Huailong; Xia, Wei; Mao, Zhenxing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2014-08-01

    BPA, a common environmental endocrine disruptor, has been reported to induce epigenetic changes and disrupt glucose homeostasis in F1 offspring through maternal exposure. However, no studies have examined whether maternal BPA exposure can exert multigenerational effects of glucose metabolic disorder on F2 generation through the altered epigenetic information. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether BPA exposure can disrupt glucose homeostasis in F2 offspring and the underlying epigenetic mechanism. In the present study, F0 pregnant dams were orally administered at a daily dose of 40?g/kg body weight during gestation and lactation. The F1 and F2 generations were obtained and not exposed to BPA anymore. The glucose and insulin tolerance tests were carried out to evaluate the glucose homeostasis level. The relative hormone level and the relative gene expression were also examined. F2 generation was found to exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in ipGTT and ipITT, as well as the downregulation of glucokinase (Gck) gene in liver. DNA methylation pattern of Gck promoter in the F2 generation of hepatic tissue and F1 generation of sperm was then performed. The Gck promoter in F2 hepatic tissue became completely methylated in the all CpG sites compared with five unmethylated sites in controls. In the F1 sperm, the global DNA methylation was decreased. However, there is only CpG site -314 was differently methylated between BPA and controls in sperm. In conclusion, F0 maternal BPA exposure during gestation and lactation can induce impaired glucose homeostasis in the F2 offspring through the transmission of sperm. The underlying epigenetic modifications in the sperm of F1 generation remain to be further elucidated. PMID:24793715

  10. The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes; Grifo, Marina S. Gisbert; Brion, Maria; Carracedo, Angel; Lavinha, João; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Skorecki, Karl; Behar, Doron M.; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics—North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement—more marked in some regions than in others—plus the effects of genetic drift. PMID:19061982

  11. Prevalence of unsuspected glucose intolerance in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients: Importance of HbA1c

    PubMed Central

    Somani, B.L.; Arora, M.M.; Datta, S.K.; Negi, Rakhi; Gupta, Anurodh

    2013-01-01

    Background The mortality and morbidity rates are two to fourfold higher among Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). American Diabetes Association (ADA) and World Health Organization (WHO) define different criteria for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance. This study compares the available diagnostic criteria for DM in Indian men and their importance in CAD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was done on 794 male volunteers; 483 individuals from general population and 311 patients undergoing angiography for evaluation of CAD. Individuals with previous clinical history of diabetes mellitus were excluded. Results More than 90% of diabetics by ADA criteria could be diagnosed by Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c criteria while FPG and pg2h plasma glucose (WHO criteria) could detect only 74%. Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) or Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) was present in 36.7% of individuals diagnosed to be diabetic based on HbA1c; more in CAD +ve group (53.8%) than in general population (23.6%). ROC analysis suggests >121 mg/dl of FPG or >6.2% of HbA1c as optimum cut-off for the diagnosis of DM. FPG and HbA1c criteria have higher Relative Risk for presence of coronary artery occlusion and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Inclusion of HbA1c in the criteria for diagnosis of DM (ADA criteria) can detect large number of cases with persistent hyperglycemia in the non-diagnostic range of DM (IFG or IGT) among general population and CAD patients. This has special relevance to epidemiological studies as the diagnosis of DM can be made on single fasting blood sample. PMID:24600114

  12. Dietary factors in chronic inflammation: food tolerances and intolerances of a New Zealand Caucasian Crohn's disease population.

    PubMed

    Triggs, Christopher M; Munday, Karen; Hu, Rong; Fraser, Alan G; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2010-08-01

    Diet is known to play a major role in the symptoms of the inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease (CD). Although no single diet is appropriate to all individuals, most CD patients are aware of foods that provide adverse or beneficial effects. This study seeks to categorise foods in relation to their effects on symptoms of CD, in a New Zealand Caucasian population. Four hundred and forty-six subjects from two different centres in New Zealand were recruited into the study. An extensive dietary questionnaire (257 food items in 15 groups) recorded self-reported dietary tolerances and intolerances. Across each of the food groups, there were statistically significant differences among responses to foods. A two-dimensional graphical summary enabled stratification of foods according to the probability that they will be either beneficial or detrimental. A small number of foods are frequently considered to be beneficial, including white fish, salmon and tuna, gluten-free products, oatmeal, bananas, boiled potatoes, sweet potatoes (kumara), pumpkin, soya milk, goat's milk and yoghurt. Foods that are typically considered detrimental include grapefruit, chilli or chilli sauce, corn and corn products, peanuts, cream, salami, curried foods, cola drinks, high energy drinks, beer, and red wine. For a number of the food items, the same item that was beneficial for one group of subjects was detrimental to others; in particular soya milk, goat's milk, yoghurt, oatmeal, kiwifruit, prunes, apple, broccoli, cauliflower, linseed, pumpkin seed, sunflower seed, ginger and ginger products, beef, lamb, liver, and oily fish. It was not possible to identify a specific group of food items that should be avoided by all CD patients. The wide range of detrimental items suggests that dietary maintenance of remission is likely to be difficult, and to exclude a substantial number of foods. Personalised diets may be especially important to these individuals. PMID:20144628

  13. Novel SLC7A7 large rearrangements in lysinuric protein intolerance patients involving the same AluY repeat

    PubMed Central

    Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Espino, Meritxell; Sillué, Ruth; Mañas, Sandra; Gómez, Laia; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Palacín, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal inherited disease caused by defective cationic aminoacid transport 4F2hc/y+LAT-1 at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the intestine and kidney. LPI is a multisystemic disease with a variety of clinical symptoms such as hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, hypotonia, developmental delay, pulmonary insufficiency or end-stage renal disease. The SLC7A7 gene, which encodes the y+LAT-1 protein, is mutated in LPI patients. Mutation analysis of the promoter localized in intron 1 and all exons of the SLC7A7 gene was performed in 11 patients from 9 unrelated LPI families. Point mutation screening was performed by exon direct sequencing and a new multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) assay was set up for large rearrangement analysis. Eleven SLC7A7-specific mutations were identified, seven of them were novel: p.L124P, p.C425R, p.R468X, p.Y274fsX21, c.625+1G>C, DelE4-E11 and DelE6-E11. The novel large deletions originated by the recombination of Alu repeats at introns 3 and 5, respectively, with the same AluY sequence localized at the SLC7A7 3? region. The novel MLPA assay is robust and valuable for LPI molecular diagnosis. Our results suggest that genomic rearrangements of SLC7A7 play a more important role in LPI than has been reported, increasing the detection rate from 5.1 to 21.4%. Moreover, the 3? region AluY repeat could be a recombination hot spot as it is involved in 38% of all SLC7A7 rearranged chromosomes described so far. PMID:18716612

  14. Production of Serum Immunoglobulins and T Cell Antigen Binding Molecules Specific for Cow's Milk Antigens in Adults Intolerant to Cow's Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin H. Little; George M. Georgiou; Michael J. Shelton; Robert E. Cone

    1998-01-01

    The immune response to three cow's milk antigens, ?-lactoglobulin (BLG), ?-lactalbumin (AL), and casein (CA) was studied in 15 milk-intolerant adult patients and 11 adult controls. IgG, IgE, and IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) and T cell-derived antigen-binding molecules (TABM) specific for each antigen were measured in both groups. In the patient group, a significant elevation of total IgG

  15. 2014 Cardiovascular Risks SRP Evidence Review Final Report. [Evidence Review For: The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During Re-Exposure to Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Ziegler, Michael; Carter, Jason; Claydon, Victoria; Krummen, David; Thomas, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17-18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated evidence report for The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During re-Exposure to Gravity (OI Risk). The SRP found the 2014 OI Evidence Report to be a well written, comprehensive overview of the OI risk; that clearly documents the key scientific evidence relevant for both mechanistic understanding and countermeasure development. The 2014 OI Evidence Report could be further strengthened by addressing the points discussed below.

  16. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n?=?12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0?±?276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6?±?15.8 m (P?intolerance, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. PMID:25000822

  17. SP-D counteracts GM-CSF-mediated increase of granuloma formation by alveolar macrophages in lysinuric protein intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome with multiple etiologies and is often deadly in lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI). At present, PAP is treated by whole lung lavage or with granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however, the effectiveness of GM-CSF in treating LPI associated PAP is uncertain. We hypothesized that GM-CSF and surfactant protein D (SP-D) would enhance the clearance of proteins and dying cells that are typically present in the airways of PAP lungs. Methods Cells and cell-free supernatant of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a two-year-old patient with LPI were isolated on multiple occasions. Diagnostic BALF samples from an age-matched patient with bronchitis or adult PAP patients were used as controls. SP-D and total protein content of the supernatants were determined by BCA assays and Western blots, respectively. Cholesterol content was determined by a calorimetic assay or Oil Red O staining of cytospin preparations. The cells and surfactant lipids were also analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Uptake of Alexa-647 conjugated BSA and DiI-labelled apoptotic Jurkat T-cells by BAL cells were studied separately in the presence or absence of SP-D (1 ?g/ml) and/or GM-CSF (10 ng/ml), ex vivo. Specimens were analyzed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Results Here we show that large amounts of cholesterol, and large numbers of cholesterol crystals, dying cells, and lipid-laden foamy alveolar macrophages were present in the airways of the LPI patient. Although SP-D is present, its bioavailability is low in the airways. SP-D was partially degraded and entrapped in the unusual surfactant lipid tubules with circular lattice, in vivo. We also show that supplementing SP-D and GM-CSF increases the uptake of protein and dying cells by healthy LPI alveolar macrophages, ex vivo. Serendipitously, we found that these cells spontaneously generated granulomas, ex vivo, and GM-CSF treatment drastically increased the number of granulomas whereas SP-D treatment counteracted the adverse effect of GM-CSF. Conclusions We propose that increased GM-CSF and decreased bioavailability of SP-D may promote granuloma formation in LPI, and GM-CSF may not be suitable for treating PAP in LPI. To improve the lung condition of LPI patients with PAP, it would be useful to explore alternative therapies for increasing dead cell clearance while decreasing cholesterol content in the airways. PMID:20030831

  18. Effect of maternal weight, adipokines, glucose intolerance and lipids on infant birth weight among women without gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Ye, Chang; Hanley, Anthony J.G.; Connelly, Philip W.; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hamilton, Jill K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The delivery of excess maternal nutrients to the fetus is known to increase the risk of macrosomia, even among infants of women without gestational diabetes mellitus. With the current obesity epidemic, maternal adiposity and its associated effects on circulating adipokines and inflammatory proteins may now have a greater impact on fetal growth. We sought to evaluate the independent effects of maternal glycemia, lipids, obesity, adipokines and inflammation on infant birth weight. Methods: We included 472 women who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy and were found not to have gestational diabetes; 104 (22.0%) had gestational impaired glucose tolerance. We also measured fasting levels of insulin, low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein. Obstetric outcomes were assessed at delivery. Results: The mean birth weight was 3481 g (standard deviation 493 g); 68 of the infants were large for gestational age. On multiple linear regression analysis, positive determinants of birth weight were length of gestation, male infant, weight gain during pregnancy up to the time of the oral glucose tolerance test, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels were each negatively associated with birth weight. On logistic regression analysis, the significant metabolic predictors of having a large-for-gestational-age infant were BMI before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.27, per 1 kg/m2 increase), weight gain during pregnancy up to the time of the oral glucose tolerance test (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19, per 1 kg increase) and leptin level (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.82, per 1 standard deviation change). Interpretation: Among women without gestational diabetes, maternal adiposity and leptin levels were the strongest metabolic determinants of having a large-for-gestational-age infant rather than glucose intolerance and lipid levels. PMID:22619341

  19. Time That Is Intolerant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, William A.

    1962-01-01

    Two problems which the language arts teacher encounters are the effect of science on language teaching and the nation's commitment to "excellence for all" as measured by objective examination. Scientists, who value exactness, objectivity, and control, have imposed their values on language and have attempted to construct machines that will use and…

  20. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... headache, sweating, weakness and occasionally fainting during upright standing" [ 1,2 ]. While in a sedentary position, blood ... is that of a soldier who faints while standing at attention for long period of time. The ...

  1. Combating Racism and Intolerance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Council of Europe, this site offers a number of resources for individuals and organizations fighting racism and promoting tolerance. For instance, because "international law has become such a powerful means of combatting discrimination," the Legal Framework section provides the text of international legal instruments and a report on [European] national legal measures. The Council of Europe section introduces the organization and its key resolutions, recommendations, and speeches. In the Educational Resources section, users will find a list of relevant publications, a cartoon book (also downloadable in .pdf format), video clips, and other material geared toward younger audiences. Additional resources include an overview of "good practices" in policy initiatives by Council of Europe member states and an online Forum (currently under construction). The site is also available in French.

  2. The effect of high lactose-isomaltulose on cognitive performance of young children. A double blind cross-over design study.

    PubMed

    Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Wesnes, Keith A; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Sariman, Sarina

    2012-02-01

    Changes in blood glucose are hypothesized to influence cognitive performance and these changes can be affected by certain nutrients. This double-blind 4-period cross-over study evaluated the effects of a slow-release modified sucrose (isomaltulose) in combination with a high concentration of lactose on cognitive performance of 5-6 year old children. Thirty children received a standard growing upmilk (Std GUM), reformulated growing up milk (Reform GUM), standard growing up milk with lactose-isomaltulose (Iso GUM), and a standard glucose drink (Glucose). The CDR System, a computerised cognitive assessment system, was used to assess various measures of attention and memory of the children at baseline (T=0), 60 (T=1), 120 (T=2), and 180 (T=3) minutes following the intake of test products. Overall, there was a decline in performance over the morning on almost every cognitive task. Children showed better attention following consumption of Iso GUM compared to Std GUM but attention was not significantly different than Reform GUM and glucose. Also, Iso GUM conferred a beneficial effect over both Reform GUM and glucose on sensitivity index of numeric working memory with no difference observed between Iso GUM and Std GUM. Surprisingly, glucose group showed lowest decline in the sensitivity index of spatial working memory and highest speed in picture recognition, although the latter was significantly better than Reform GUM only. For speed of spatial working memory, Reform GUM had the lowest decline but was significantly different only with Std GUM. There was, however, no significant difference among conditions for continuity of attention, speed of numeric working memory and picture recognition sensitivity. Despite the small sample size, the findings are intriguing as carbohydrate composition seems to influence some aspects of cognitive performance such as attention and memory. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21986189

  3. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Yang, S T

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey. PMID:10099456

  4. Bosutinib shows low cross intolerance, in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated in fourth line. Results of the Spanish compassionate use program.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Valentín; Martinez-Trillos, Alejandra; Lopez Lorenzo, Jose Luis; Bautista, Guiomar; Martin Mateos, Maria Luisa; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Iglesias Pérez, Ana; Romo Collado, Andrés; Fernandez, Angeles; Portero, Angeles; Cuevas, Beatriz; Ruiz, Concepción; Romero, Esperanza; Ortega, Fernando; Mata, Isabel; Tallón, José; García Garay, Maria Del Carmen; Ramirez Sánchez, María José; de Las Heras, Natalia; Giraldo, Pilar; Bobillo, Sabela; Guinea, José María; Deben, Guillermo; Valencia, Sandra; Sebrango, Ana; Boqué, Concepción; Maestro, Begoña; Steegmann, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    The role of bosutinib as rescue treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients after failing three previous tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is currently unknown. We report here the largest series (to our knowledge) of patients treated with bosutinib in fourth-line, after retrospectively reviewing 30 patients in chronic phase, and pretreated with imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. With a median follow up of 11.1 months, the probability to either maintain or improve their CCyR response was 56.6% (17/30) and 11 patients (36.7%) achieved or maintained their baseline MMR. In patients not having baseline CCyR, the probabilities of obtaining CCyR, MMR, and MR4.5 were 13, 11, and 14%, respectively. The probabilities of obtaining MMR and deep molecular response MR4.5 in patients with baseline CCyR were 40.0% (6/15) and 20.0% (3/15). At 20 months, progression-free survival was 73%. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities were more frequent in resistant than intolerant patients (45.4 vs. 0.0%). Nonhematological toxicities were also more frequent in resistant patients, being diarrhea the most conspicuous one. Bosutinib seems to be an appropriate treatment option for patients resistant or intolerant to three prior TKI's. PMID:25683327

  5. Respiration in Relation to Adenosine Triphosphate Content during Desiccation and Rehydration of a Desiccation-tolerant and a Desiccation-intolerant Moss.

    PubMed

    Krochko, J E; Winner, W E; Bewley, J D

    1979-07-01

    O(2) consumption by the desiccation-tolerant moss Tortula ruralis and the desiccation-intolerant Cratoneuron filicinum increased markedly during the latter stages of desiccation. ATP content of the mosses during desiccation was not correlated with O(2) consumption, but was influenced by the rate at which the mosses lost water. The more rapid the water loss, the more ATP that was present in the dry mosses. The pattern of O(2) consumption on rehydration also was influenced by the previous rate of desiccation. After rapid desiccation of T. ruralis O(2) consumption upon rehydration was considerably elevated, and for up to 24 hours. After very slow desiccation the elevation was small and brief. Normal O(2) consumption did not occur in C. filicinum after rapid desiccation, but did so within a few hours of rehydration after slower speeds of drying. ATP levels in T. ruralis returned to normal within 5 to 10 minutes of rehydration. In C. filicinum, increases in ATP were closely correlated with O(2) consumption. These observations are considered to be related to differential damage caused to mitochondria and to cellular integrity by different speeds of water loss. The desiccation-tolerant moss appears to be able to repair the severe damage imposed by rapid desiccation whereas the desiccation-intolerant moss cannot. PMID:16660900

  6. Evaluation of oro-coecal transit time: a comparison of the lactose-[13C, 15N]ureide 13CO2- and the lactulose H2-breath test in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KD Wutzke; WE Heine; C Plath; P Leitzmann; M Radke; C Mohr; I Richter; HU Gülzow; D Hobusch

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The lactulose H2-breath test is the most widely used non-invasive approach for evaluation of oro-coecal transit time (OCTT). In the present study, doubly-labelled lactose-[13C, 15N]ureide (DLLU) was synthesized to investigate the OCTT in comparison to the conventional lactulose H2-breath test. Additionally, the bacterial breakdown rate (BBR) and rate of elimination and the metabolic pathways of the cleavage products of

  7. The interaction between lactose level and enzyme supplementation and form of barley processing on performance, digestibility and faecal volatile fatty acid concentration of weanling pigs fed barley-based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Lynch; J. J. Callan; J. V. O’Doherty

    2008-01-01

    A 2×3 factorial arrangement was used to investigate the interaction between lactose level (170g\\/kg versus 275g\\/kg), enzyme supplementation (with or without endo-1,3 (4)-?-glucanase) and toasting (raw barley versus toasted barley) in barley-based diets (250g\\/kg) on piglet performance and diet digestibility postweaning. One hundred and forty-four weaned piglets (24 days old, 6.5kg live weight) were blocked on the basis of live

  8. Saline ingestion during lower body negative pressure as an end-of-mission countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Jones, Michele M.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1992-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in conjunction with saline ingestion can protect astronauts against post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. LBNP was used for both treatment and testing. The treatment was 4 hours of lower body decompression at 30 mm Hg below ambient pressure. One liter of water and 8 g of salt were ingested during the first hour. The treatment was evaluated by comparing heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to test decompressions on the days before and after treatment. It is concluded that cardiovascular responses to step-wise decompression duplicated Skylab findings. BP was maintained, but HR responses to each step were progressively greater in-flight than preflight. After the 4-hour treatment HR responses were closer to preflight values.

  9. Phenol-based endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis for East Asian alcohol-intolerant upper gastrointestinal cancer patients: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Ono, Michihiro; Masuko, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tsutomu; Miyanishi, Koji; Sato, Yasushi; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Sonoda, Tomoko; Kato, Junji

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of phenol for the relief of cancer pain by endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN). METHODS: Twenty-two patients referred to our hospital with cancer pain from August 2009 to July 2011 for EUS-CPN were enrolled in this study. Phenol was used for 6 patients with alcohol intolerance and ethanol was used for 16 patients without alcohol intolerance. The primary endpoint was the positive response rate (pain score decreased to ? 3) on postoperative day 7. Secondary endpoints included the time to onset of pain relief, duration of pain relief, and complication rates. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the positive response rate on day 7. The rates were 83% and 69% in the phenol and ethanol groups, respectively. Regarding the time to onset of pain relief, in the phenol group, the median pre-treatment pain score was 5, whereas the post-treatment scores decreased to 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at 2, 8, and 24 h, respectively (P < 0.05). In the ethanol group, the median pre-treatment pain score was 5.5, whereas the post-treatment scores significantly decreased to 2.5, 2.5, and 2.5 at 2, 8, and 24 h, respectively (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the duration of pain relief between the phenol and ethanol groups. No significant difference was found in the rate of complications between the 2 groups; however, burning pain and inebriation occurred only in the ethanol group. CONCLUSION: Phenol had similar pain-relieving effects to ethanol in EUS-CPN. Comparing the incidences of inebriation and burning pain, phenol may be superior to ethanol in EUS-CPN procedures. PMID:25132769

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Red Yeast Rice Supplementation for the Management of Hyperlipidemia in Statin-Intolerant Patients with or without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Giovanni, Sartore; Silvia, Burlina; Eugenio, Ragazzi; Stefania, Ferraresso; Romina, Valentini; Annunziata, Lapolla

    2013-01-01

    Lipid profile could be modified by Mediterranean diet (MD) and by red yeast rice (RYR). We assessed the lipid-lowering effects of MD alone or in combination with RYR on dyslipidemic statin-intolerant subjects, with or without type 2 diabetes, for 24 weeks. We evaluated the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, liver enzyme, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. We studied 171 patients: 46 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD alone (Group 1), 44 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD associated with RYR (Group 2), 38 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD alone (Group 3), and 43 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD plus RYR (Group 4). The mean percentage changes in LDL cholesterol from the baseline were ?7.34 ± 3.14% (P < 0.05) for Group 1; ?21.02 ± 1.63% (P < 0.001) for Group 2; ?12.47 ± 1.75% (P < 0.001) for Group 3; and ?22 ± 2.19% (P < 0.001) for Group 4 with significant intergroup difference (Group 1 versus Group 2, P < 0.001; Group 3 versus Group 4, P > 0.05). No significant increase in AST, ALT, and CPK levels was observed in all groups. Our results indicate that MD alone is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol levels in statin-intolerant patients with a presumably low cardiovascular risk, but associating MD with the administration of RYR improves patients' LDL cholesterol levels more, and in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24454511

  11. Maternal alcohol intake around the time of conception causes glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in rat offspring, which is exacerbated by a postnatal high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gårdebjer, Emelie M; Anderson, Stephen T; Pantaleon, Marie; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption throughout pregnancy can cause metabolic dysregulation, including glucose intolerance in progeny. This study determined if periconceptional (PC) alcohol (12% v/v in a liquid diet) (PC:EtOH) consumed exclusively around conception results in similar outcomes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control (C) rats were given a liquid diet containing no alcohol but matched to ensure equal caloric intake. PC maternal alcohol intake (from 4 days before conception until day 4 of gestation), resulted in offspring with elevated fasting plasma glucose (?10-25%, P < 0.05), impaired glucose tolerance (P < 0.05), and decreased insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01) at 6 months of age. This was associated with increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and sex-specific alterations in peripheral protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. These changes were accompanied by increased mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a, and 3b (1.5- to 1.9-fold, P < 0.05) in fetal liver in late gestation, suggesting PC:EtOH may cause epigenetic changes that predispose offspring to metabolic dysfunction. Exposure to a postnatal (PN) high-fat and cholesterol diet (HFD) from 3 months of age caused hyperinsulinemia (?2-fold increase, P < 0.001) and exacerbated the metabolic dysfunction in male offspring exposed to PC:EtOH but had no additive effects in females. Given many women may drink alcohol while planning a pregnancy, it is crucial to increase public awareness regarding the effects of alcohol consumption around conception on offspring health.-Gårdebjer, E. M., Anderson, S. T., Pantaleon, M., Wlodek, M. E., Moritz, K. M. Maternal alcohol intake around the time of conception causes glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in rat offspring, which is exacerbated by a postnatal high-fat diet. PMID:25733565

  12. The occurrence of salmonellas and lactose-negative Arizonas in reptiles in The Netherlands, and a comparison of three enrichment methods used in their isolation

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, J. P.; Janssen, F. G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 1971 in healthy reptiles supplied to the Central Animal Laboratory of Nijmegen for experimental animal research. In order to determine which salmonella serotypes occur, and whether there are several serotypes per animal, several strains of each positive sample were typed. It was found that 160 of 169 samples contained salmonellas or lactose-negative Arizonas or both, and 95 different serotypes were isolated. Of 127 animals examined individually, 67 were carriers of more than one serotype, 42 animals having two types, 21 three types and 4 animals four types. Three enrichment methods were compared. These were tetrathionate broth incubated at 37° C. (T37) and at 43° C. (T43), and selenite broth incubated at 37° C. (SB). All were incubated for 48 hr. before subculture on brilliant-green agar plates. The enrichment methods T37, T43 and SB produced 99, 125 and 123 positive samples respectively, when taken separately. The combinations of T37 and T43, T37 and SB, and T43 and SB produced 145, 142 and 150 positive samples respectively. The yield of serotypes in comparable samples showed no difference between the three enrichment methods. With the use of two methods the yield increased by about 38% compared with one method, and the combination of three methods showed an increase in serotype yield of about 64% compared with one method. A distinct preference by serotypes for definite enrichment methods was not proved. PMID:4578303

  13. Tuning supramolecular structuring at the nanoscale level: nonstoichiometric soluble complexes in dilute mixed solutions of alginate and lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).

    PubMed

    Donati, Ivan; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Turello, Esther; Cesàro, Attilio; Paoletti, Sergio

    2007-05-01

    Two oppositely charged polysaccharides, alginate and a lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac), have been used to prepare dilute binary polymer mixtures at physiological pH (7.4). Because of the negative charge on the former polysaccharide and the positive charge on the latter, polyanion-polycation complex formation occurred. A complete miscibility between the two polysaccharides was attained in the presence of both high (0.15 M) and low (0.015 M) concentrations of simple 1:1 supporting salt (NaCl), as confirmed by turbidity measurements; phase separation occurred for intermediate values of the ionic strength (I). The binary solutions were further characterized by means of light scattering, specific viscosity, and fluorescence quenching measurements. All of these techniques pointed out the fundamental role of the electrostatic interactions between the two oppositely charged polysaccharides in the formation of nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte soluble complexes in dilute solution. Fluorescence depolarization (P) experiments showed that the alginate chain rotational mobility was impaired by the presence of the cationic polysaccharide when 0.015 M NaCl was used. Moreover, upon addition of calcium, the P values of the binary polymer mixture in 0.015 M NaCl increased more rapidly than that of an alginate solution without chitlac, suggesting an efficient crowding of the negatively charged alginate chains caused by the polycation. PMID:17417904

  14. Sequential response of milk leukocytes, albumin, immunoglobulins, monovalent ions, citrate, and lactose in cows given infusions of Escherichia coli endotoxin into the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Guidry, A J; Ost, M; Mather, I H; Shainline, W E; Weinland, B T

    1983-12-01

    Changes in concentrations of both the cellular and the humoral components of milk are known to occur during mastitis. This study was conducted to determine temporal changes in the concentrations of leukocytes, albumin, immunoglobulins (Ig), monovalent ions, lactose, and citrate in milk during the initial phases of simulated mastitis. Ten cows whose udders were pathogen free and had milk leukocyte counts of less than 0.5 X 10(6)/ml were used. Two dosages of Escherichia coli endotoxin were administered to simulate various degrees of mastitis. Two quarters in each cow were infused with the endotoxin and the other 2 served as controls. Quarter milk samples were collected frequently before and after infusion. Within 2 hours after infusion of a 100-micrograms dose of endotoxin, clinical mastitis was observed in most of the infused quarters. Leukocytes, albumin, IgG1, and conductivity showed significant increases. Values before infusion and at postinfusion (PI) hour 2 were as follows: leukocytes, 0.33 and 3.65 X 10(6)/ml, respectively; albumin, 0.38 and 4.49 mg/ml; IgG1, 0.34 and 0.79 mg/ml; and conductivity, 6.0 and 6.9 mmho. Average of the peak values and their average relative time of appearance after infusion were as follows: leukocytes, 28.82 X 10(6)/ml at 16 hours; albumin, 9.37 mg/ml at 4 hours; IgG1, 1.35 mg/ml at 4 hours; and conductivity, 95.5 mmho at 10 hours. The IgG1 values tended to remain high in the presence of rapidly declining albumin concentrations, indicating the possibility of an active, rather than a passive, transfer of IgG1 from the circulation. The response to the 10-micrograms dose of endotoxin ranged from subclinical to clinically mild mastitis with lesser cellular and humoral responses. PMID:6362498

  15. Beneficial Effects of Calcitriol on Hypertension, Glucose Intolerance, Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Vascular Relaxation, and Visceral Adiposity in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J. F.; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose tolerance, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed rats. PMID:25774877

  16. Comparison of a portable breath hydrogen analyser (Micro H2) with a Quintron MicroLyzer in measuring lactose maldigestion, and the evaluation of a Micro H2 for diagnosing hypolactasia.

    PubMed

    Peuhkuri, K; Poussa, T; Korpela, R

    1998-05-01

    The measurement of hydrogen in exhaled air and changes in the concentration of blood glucose and urine galactose excretion are indirect methods of diagnosing hypolactasia. The aim of this study was to compare a portable breath hydrogen analyser (Micro H2) with a widely used model (Quintron MicroLyzer) and to compare them with the blood glucose, urine galactose, and gastrointestinal symptoms in the lactose tolerance test. After an overnight fast, 44 volunteers (18-66 y) ingested 50 g lactose in a single oral dose. Changes in exhaled breath hydrogen concentrations were measured with the two analysers, and changes in blood glucose and urinary galactose were assayed for 4 h and used as a reference. Eighteen subjects were diagnosed as maldigesters according to our gold standard of at least two positive tests out of the three: breath hydrogen by Quintron, blood glucose concentration, and urine galactose excretion. The highest increase in the breath hydrogen concentration over the baseline was highly variable: 44-366 ppm (Micro H2) or 27-187 ppm (Quintron MicroLyzer). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Micro H2 compared to the gold standard were 83%, 96%, 94% and 89%, respectively. Overall agreement was 91% (95% CI 78-97%). Compared to the Quintron, the diagnoses were identical in 100% of the cases (92-100%). Thus, for diagnosing hypolactasia, the Micro H2 appeared as reliable for measuring breath hydrogen concentrations as Quintron MicroLyzer commonly used in oral lactose tolerance tests. PMID:9670345

  17. Reduction of glucose intolerance with high fat feeding is associated with anti-inflammatory effects of thioredoxin 1 overexpression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Adam B.; Flores, Lisa C.; Li, Yan; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Ikeno, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced ability to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. It has been suggested that an age-associated increase in chronic pro-inflammatory state could drive this reduction in glucoregulatory function. Thioredoxins (Trx) are oxido-reductase enzymes that play an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we tested whether overexpression of Trx1 in mice [Tg(TRX1)+/0] could protect from glucose metabolism dysfunction caused by high fat diet feeding. Body weight and fat mass gains with high fat feeding were similar in Tg(TRX1)+/0 and wild-type mice; however, high fat diet induced glucose intolerance was reduced in Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice relative to wild-type mice. In addition, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? was reduced in adipose tissue of Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice compared to wild-type mice. These findings suggest that activation of thioredoxins may be a potential therapeutic target for maintenance of glucose metabolism with obesity or aging. PMID:22953037

  18. Stability and Synthesis of Phospholipids during Desiccation and Rehydration of a Desiccation-Tolerant and a Desiccation-Intolerant Moss 1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert R. C.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1982-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the phospholipids from the desiccation-tolerant moss Tortula ruralis (Hedw.) Gaertn, Meyer and Scherb and the desiccation-intolerant moss Cratoneuron filicinum has been determined. No changes in composition occur in either moss as a consequence of rapid drying, but, after slow drying, there is a decline in some unsaturated fatty acids. Upon rehydration of T. ruralis after slow drying, these acids decline further; however, within 105 minutes, they regain the same levels as those in undesiccated controls. A smaller and more transient decline occurs after rapid desiccation. Most phospholipid unsaturated fatty acids decrease during rehydration of C. filicinum, and their levels are not recovered. After both rapid and slow drying of T. ruralis, acetate and glycerol are incorporated into the phospholipid fraction, although de novo synthesis, alone, might not account for the increase in unsaturated fatty acids upon rehydration. Very little acetate or glycerol is incorporated during rehydration of C. filicinum. Loss of unsaturated fatty acids from the phospholipids of T. ruralis does not appear to be associated with increased lipoxygenase activity. Furthermore, there is little correlation between the extent of peroxidation of fatty acids due to desiccation and changes in the phospholipid fraction. PMID:16662283

  19. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P < 0.01). However, choline deficiency lowered fasting plasma insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P < 0.01) and improved glucose tolerance on a high-fat diet. In mice on 30% fat diet, choline deficiency increased liver mRNA levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver. PMID:16804070

  20. Overexpression of PPAR? specifically in pancreatic ?-cells exacerbates obesity-induced glucose intolerance, reduces ?-cell mass, and alters islet lipid metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Hogh, K-Lynn N; Craig, Michael N; Uy, Christopher E; Nygren, Heli; Asadi, Ali; Speck, Madeline; Fraser, Jordie D; Rudecki, Alexander P; Baker, Robert K; Oreši?, Matej; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-10-01

    The contribution of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonism in pancreatic ?-cells to the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones has not been clearly elucidated. Genetic models of pancreatic ?-cell PPAR? ablation have revealed a potential role for PPAR? in ?-cell expansion in obesity but a limited role in normal ?-cell physiology. Here we overexpressed PPAR?1 or PPAR?2 specifically in pancreatic ?-cells of mice subjected to high-fat feeding using an associated adenovirus (?-PPAR?1-HFD and ?-PPAR?2-HFD mice). We show ?-cell-specific PPAR?1 or PPAR?2 overexpression in diet-induced obese mice exacerbated obesity-induced glucose intolerance with decreased ?-cell mass, increased islet cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma insulin compared with obese control mice (?-eGFP-HFD mice). Analysis of islet lipid composition in ?-PPAR?2-HFD mice revealed no significant changes in islet triglyceride content and an increase in only one of eight ceramide species measured. Interestingly ?-PPAR?2-HFD islets had significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines, lipid species shown to enhance insulin secretion in ?-cells. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 and genes involved in fatty acid transport and ?-oxidation. In summary, transgenic overexpression of PPAR? in ?-cells in diet-induced obesity negatively impacts whole-animal carbohydrate metabolism associated with altered islet lipid content, increased expression of ?-oxidative genes, and reduced ?-cell mass. PMID:25051434

  1. Fluorescence of native single-Trp mutants in the lactose permease from Escherichia coli: structural properties and evidence for a substrate-induced conformational change.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, C.; Consler, T. G.; Kaback, H. R.

    1995-01-01

    Six single-Trp mutants were engineered by individually reintroducing each of the native Trp residues into a functional lactose permease mutant devoid of Trp (Trp-less permease; Menezes ME, Roepe PD, Kaback HR, 1990, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:1638-1642), and fluorescent properties were studied with respect to solvent accessibility, as well as alterations produced by ligand binding. The emission of Trp 33, Trp 78, Trp 171, and Trp 233 is strongly quenched by both acrylamide and iodide, whereas Trp 151 and Trp 10 display a decrease in fluorescence in the presence of acrylamide only and no quenching by iodide. Of the six single-Trp mutants, only Trp 33 exhibits a significant change in fluorescence (ca. 30% enhancement) in the presence of the substrate analog beta,D-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta,D-galactopyranoside (TDG). This effect was further characterized by site-directed fluorescent studies with purified single-Cys W33-->C permease labeled with 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS). Titration of the change in the fluorescence spectrum reveals a 30% enhancement accompanied with a 5-nm blue shift in the emission maximum, and single exponential behavior with an apparent KD of 71 microM. The effect of substrate binding on the rate of MIANS labeling of single-Cys 33 permease was measured in addition to iodide and acrylamide quenching of the MIANS-labeled protein. Complete blockade of labeling is observed in the presence of TDG, as well as a 30% decrease in accessibility to iodide with no change in acrylamide quenching. Overall, the findings are consistent with the proposal (Wu J, Frillingos S, Kaback HR, 1995a, Biochemistry 34:8257-8263) that ligand binding induces a conformational change at the C-terminus of helix I such that Pro 28 and Pro 31, which are on one face, become more accessible to solvent, whereas Trp 33, which is on the opposite face, becomes less accessible to the aqueous phase. The findings regarding accessibility to collisional quenchers are also consistent with the predicted topology of the six native Trp residues in the permease. PMID:8563627

  2. Slc7a7 disruption causes fetal growth retardation by downregulating Igf1 in the mouse model of lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Sperandeo, Maria Pia; Annunziata, Patrizia; Bozzato, Andrea; Piccolo, Pasquale; Maiuri, Luigi; D'Armiento, Maria; Ballabio, Andrea; Corso, Gaetano; Andria, Generoso; Borsani, Giuseppe; Sebastio, Gianfranco

    2007-07-01

    The solute carrier family 7A member 7 gene (SLC7A7) encodes the light chain of the heterodimeric carrier responsible for cationic amino acid (CAA) transport across the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells in intestine and kidney. Mutations affecting SLC7A7 cause lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a multiorgan disorder with clinical symptoms that include visceromegaly, growth retardation, osteoporosis, hyperammonemia, and hyperdibasicaminoaciduria. Here, we describe the consequences of inactivating Slc7a7 in a mouse model of LPI. The Slc7a7 mutation was generated by high-throughput retroviral gene-trapping in embryonic stem cells. The Slc7a7(-/-) mouse displayed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), commonly leading to neonatal lethality. After heavy protein ingestion, the surviving adult animals presented metabolic derangement consistent with that observed in human LPI. IUGR was investigated by examining the expression of main factors controlling fetal growth. Insulin-like growth factor 1, the dominant fetal growth regulator in late gestation, was markedly downregulated as demonstrated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunostaining and Western blot analysis in fetal liver. To further explore the pathophysiology of LPI, gene expression profiling analyses were carried out by DNA microarray technology in intestine and liver of adult Slc7a7(-/-) mice. Significant upregulation or downregulation (twofold or greater) was observed for 488 transcripts in intestine, and for 521 transcripts in the liver. The largest category of differentially expressed genes corresponds to those involved in transport according to Gene Ontology classification. This mouse model offers new insights into the pathophysiology of LPI and into mechanisms linking CAA metabolic pathways and growth control. PMID:17376816

  3. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease using a food and beverage intolerance, food and beverage avoidance diet.

    PubMed

    MacDermott, Richard P

    2007-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the outpatient with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a difficult but important challenge to recognize and treat. It is very helpful to have effective treatment approaches for IBS that are practical and use minimal medications. Because of the underlying chronic inflammation in IBD, IBS symptoms occur with increased frequency and severity, secondary to increased hypersensitivity to foods and beverages that stimulate the gastrointestinal tract. This paper discusses how to treat IBS in the IBD outpatient, with emphasis on using a food and beverage intolerance, avoidance diet. The adverse effects of many foods and beverages are amount dependent and can be delayed, additive, and cumulative. The specific types of foods and beverages that can induce IBS symptoms include milk and milk containing products; caffeine containing products; alcoholic beverages; fruits; fruit juices; spices; seasonings; diet beverages; diet foods; diet candies; diet gum; fast foods; condiments; fried foods; fatty foods; multigrain breads; sourdough breads; bagels; salads; salad dressings; vegetables; beans; red meats; gravies; spaghetti sauce; stews; nuts; popcorn; high fiber; and cookies, crackers, pretzels, cakes, and pies. The types of foods and beverages that are better tolerated include water; rice; plain pasta or noodles; baked or broiled potatoes; white breads; plain fish, chicken, turkey, or ham; eggs; dry cereals; soy or rice based products; peas; applesauce; cantaloupe; watermelon; fruit cocktail; margarine; jams; jellies; and peanut butter. Handouts that were developed based upon what worsens or helps IBS symptoms in patients are included to help patients learn which foods and beverages to avoid and which are better tolerated. PMID:17206644

  4. Imidazoline-like drugs improve insulin sensitivity through peripheral stimulation of adiponectin and AMPK pathways in a rat model of glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maud; Bouchoucha, Soumaya; Aiad, Farouk; Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Bousquet, Pascal; Greney, Hugues; Niederhoffer, Nathalie

    2015-07-15

    Altered adiponectin signaling and chronic sympathetic hyperactivity have both been proposed as key factors in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that activation of I1 imidazoline receptors (I1R) improves several symptoms of the metabolic syndrome through sympathoinhibition and increases adiponectin plasma levels in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (Fellmann L, Regnault V, Greney H, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 346: 370-380, 2013). The present study was designed to explore the peripheral component of the beneficial actions of I1R ligands (i.e., sympathoinhibitory independent effects). Aged rats displaying insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were treated with LNP509, a peripherally acting I1R agonist. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and adiponectin signaling were assessed at the end of the treatment. Direct actions of the ligand on hepatocyte and adipocyte signaling were also studied. LNP509 reduced the area under the curve of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and enhanced insulin hypoglycemic action and intracellular signaling (Akt phosphorylation), indicating improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. LNP509 stimulated adiponectin secretion acting at I1R on adipocytes, resulting in increased plasma levels of adiponectin; it also enhanced AMPK phosphorylation in hepatic tissues. Additionally, I1R activation on hepatocytes directly enhanced AMPK phosphorylation. To conclude, I1R ligands can improve insulin sensitivity acting peripherally, independently of sympathoinhibition; stimulation of adiponectin and AMPK pathways at insulin target tissues may account for this effect. This may open a promising new way for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26015433

  5. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered. PMID:22090467

  6. Intrauterine protein restriction combined with early postnatal overfeeding was not associated with adult-onset obesity but produced glucose intolerance by pancreatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Grazielle Vitória Ponti; Coutinho, Felipe Rodrigues; Faiad, Jaline Zandonato; Taki, Marina Satie; de Lima Reis, Silvia Regina; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Paiva, Adriene Alexandra; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena Gaíva; Martins, Maria Salete Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if whether intrauterine protein restriction in combination with overfeeding during lactation would cause adult-onset obesity and metabolic disorders. After birth, litters from dams fed with control (17% protein) and low protein (6% protein) diets were adjusted to a size of four (CO and LO groups, respectively) or eight (CC and LC groups, respectively) pups. All of the offspring were fed a diet containing 12% protein from the time of weaning until they were 90 d old. Compared to the CC and LC groups, the CO and LO groups had higher relative and absolute food intakes, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production; lower brown adipose tissue weight and lipid content and greater weight gain and absolute and relative white adipose tissue weight and absolute lipid content. Compared with the CO and CC rats, the LC and LO rats exhibited higher relative food intake, brown adipose tissue weight and lipid content, reduced oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and spontaneous activity, increased relative retroperitoneal adipose tissue weight and unaltered absolute white adipose tissue weight and lipid content. The fasting serum glucose was similar among the groups. The area under the glucose curve was higher in the LO and CO rats than in the LC and CC rats. The basal insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were lower in the LO group than in the other groups. The total area under the insulin curve for the LO rats was similar to the CC rats, and both were lower than the CO and LC rats. Kitt was higher in the LO, LC and CO groups than in the CC group. Thus, intrauterine protein restriction followed by overfeeding during lactation did not induce obesity, but produced glucose intolerance by impairing pancreatic function in adulthood. PMID:23305533

  7. Muscle-specific Pikfyve gene disruption causes glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, adiposity, and hyperinsulinemia but not muscle fiber-type switching

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomov, Ognian C.; Sbrissa, Diego; Delvecchio, Khortnal; Feng, Han-Zhong; Cartee, Gregory D.; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved kinase PIKfyve that synthesizes PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 has been implicated in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation/glucose entry in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To decipher PIKfyve's role in muscle and systemic glucose metabolism, here we have developed a novel mouse model with Pikfyve gene disruption in striated muscle (MPIfKO). These mice exhibited systemic glucose intolerance and insulin resistance at an early age but had unaltered muscle mass or proportion of slow/fast-twitch muscle fibers. Insulin stimulation of in vivo or ex vivo glucose uptake and GLUT4 surface translocation was severely blunted in skeletal muscle. These changes were associated with premature attenuation of Akt phosphorylation in response to in vivo insulin, as tested in young mice. Starting at 10–11 wk of age, MPIfKO mice progressively accumulated greater body weight and fat mass. Despite increased adiposity, serum free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were normal until adulthood. Together with the undetectable lipid accumulation in liver, these data suggest that lipotoxicity and muscle fiber switching do not contribute to muscle insulin resistance in MPIfKO mice. Furthermore, the 80% increase in total fat mass resulted from increased fat cell size rather than altered fat cell number. The observed profound hyperinsulinemia combined with the documented increases in constitutive Akt activation, in vivo glucose uptake, and gene expression of key enzymes for fatty acid biosynthesis in MPIfKO fat tissue suggest that the latter is being sensitized for de novo lipid anabolism. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that PIKfyve is essential for systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin-regulated glucose uptake/GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. PMID:23673157

  8. Muscle-specific Pikfyve gene disruption causes glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, adiposity, and hyperinsulinemia but not muscle fiber-type switching.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Delvecchio, Khortnal; Feng, Han-Zhong; Cartee, Gregory D; Jin, Jian-Ping; Shisheva, Assia

    2013-07-01

    The evolutionarily conserved kinase PIKfyve that synthesizes PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P? has been implicated in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation/glucose entry in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To decipher PIKfyve's role in muscle and systemic glucose metabolism, here we have developed a novel mouse model with Pikfyve gene disruption in striated muscle (MPIfKO). These mice exhibited systemic glucose intolerance and insulin resistance at an early age but had unaltered muscle mass or proportion of slow/fast-twitch muscle fibers. Insulin stimulation of in vivo or ex vivo glucose uptake and GLUT4 surface translocation was severely blunted in skeletal muscle. These changes were associated with premature attenuation of Akt phosphorylation in response to in vivo insulin, as tested in young mice. Starting at 10-11 wk of age, MPIfKO mice progressively accumulated greater body weight and fat mass. Despite increased adiposity, serum free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were normal until adulthood. Together with the undetectable lipid accumulation in liver, these data suggest that lipotoxicity and muscle fiber switching do not contribute to muscle insulin resistance in MPIfKO mice. Furthermore, the 80% increase in total fat mass resulted from increased fat cell size rather than altered fat cell number. The observed profound hyperinsulinemia combined with the documented increases in constitutive Akt activation, in vivo glucose uptake, and gene expression of key enzymes for fatty acid biosynthesis in MPIfKO fat tissue suggest that the latter is being sensitized for de novo lipid anabolism. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that PIKfyve is essential for systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin-regulated glucose uptake/GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. PMID:23673157

  9. Intolerable Intolerance: Toxic Xenophobia and Pedagogy of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel Bailey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author examines the mobilization and regulation of toxic xenophobia in the post-September 11th era. The graphic posters from the far-right, anti-immigration Swiss UDC party are examined along with artistic responses to this graphic xenophobia. The paper argues that using the visual forms of xenophobia and the artistic responses…

  10. Multicenter phase II clinical trial of nilotinib for patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia from the East Japan CML study group evaluation of molecular response and the efficacy and safety of nilotinib

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that exhibits significant efficacy as first- or second-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We conducted a multicenter Phase II Clinical Trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nilotinib among Japanese patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML-chronic phase (CP) or accelerated phase (AP). Results We analyzed 49 patients (33 imatinib-resistant and 16 imatinib-intolerant) treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. The major molecular response (MMR) rate was 47.8% at 12 months among 35 patients who did not demonstrate an MMR at study entry. Somatic BCR-ABL1 mutations (Y253H, I418V, and exon 8/9 35-bp insertion [35INS]) were detected in 3 patients at 12 months or upon discontinuation of nilotinib. Although 75.5% of patients were still being treated at 12 months, nilotinib treatment was discontinued because of progressing disease in 1 patient, insufficient effect in 2, and adverse events in 9. There was no statistically significant correlation between MMR and trough concentrations of nilotinib. Similarly, no correlation was observed between trough concentrations and adverse events, except for pruritus and hypokalemia. Hyperbilirubinemia was frequently observed (all grades, 51.0%; grades 2–4, 29%; grades 3–4, 4.1%). Hyperbilirubinemia higher than grade 2 was significantly associated with the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A9 I399C/C genotype (P?=?0.0086; Odds Ratio, 21.2; 95% Confidence Interval 2.2–208.0). Conclusions Nilotinib was efficacious and well tolerated by patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML-CP/AP. Hyperbilirubinemia may be predicted before nilotinib treatment, and may be controlled by reducing the daily dose of nilotinib in patients with UGT1A9 polymorphisms. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: UMIN000002201 PMID:24650752

  11. Heterogeneity of competition at decameter scale: patches of high canopy leaf area in a shade-intolerant larch stand transpire less yet are more sensitive to drought.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Oren, Ram; Wang, Yanhui; Yu, Pengtao; Liu, Hailong; Cao, Gongxiang; Xu, Lihong; Wang, Yunni; Zuo, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    Small differences in the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to light intensity on leaf surfaces may lead to large differences in total canopy transpiration (EC) with increasing canopy leaf area (L). Typically, the increase of L would more than compensate for the decrease of transpiration per unit of leaf area (EL), resulting in concurrent increase of EC. However, highly shade-intolerant species, such as Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., may be so sensitive to increased shading that such compensation is not complete. We hypothesized that in such a stand, windfall-induced spatial variation at a decameter scale would result in greatly reduced EL in patches of high L leading to lower EC than low competition patches of sparse canopy. We further hypothesized that quicker extraction of soil moisture in patches of lower competition will result in earlier onset of drought symptoms in these patches. Thus, patches of low L will transition from light to soil moisture as the factor dominating EL. This process should progressively homogenize EC in the stand even as the variation of soil moisture is increasing. We tested the hypotheses utilizing sap flux of nine trees, and associated environmental and stand variables. The results were consistent with only some of the expectations. Under non-limiting soil moisture, EL was very sensitive to the spatial variation of L, decreasing sharply with increasing L and associated decrease of mean light intensity on leaf surfaces. Thus, under the conditions of ample soil moisture maximum EC decreased with increasing patch-scale L. Annual EC and biomass production also decreased with L, albeit more weakly. Furthermore, variation of EC among patches decreased as average stand soil moisture declined between rain events. However, contrary to expectation, high L plots which transpired less showed a greater EL sensitivity to decreasing stand-scale soil moisture, suggesting a different mechanism than simple control by decreasing soil moisture. We offer potential explanations to the observed phenomenon. Our results demonstrate that spatial variation of L at decameter scale, even within relatively homogeneous, single-species, even-aged stands, can produce large variation of transpiration, soil moisture and biomass production and should be considered in 1-D soil-plant-atmosphere models. PMID:25836360

  12. Glucocorticoid exposure in late gestation permanently programs rat hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucocorticoid receptor expression and causes glucose intolerance in adult offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Nyirenda, M J; Lindsay, R S; Kenyon, C J; Burchell, A; Seckl, J R

    1998-01-01

    Low birth weight in humans is predictive of insulin resistance and diabetes in adult life. The molecular mechanisms underlying this link are unknown but fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids has been implicated. The fetus is normally protected from the higher maternal levels of glucocorticoids by feto-placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11beta-HSD2) which inactivates glucocorticoids. We have shown previously that inhibiting 11beta-HSD2 throughout pregnancy in rats reduces birth weight and causes hyperglycemia in the adult offspring. We now show that dexamethasone (a poor substrate for 11beta-HSD2) administered to pregnant rats selectively in the last week of pregnancy reduces birth weight by 10% (P < 0.05), and produces adult fasting hyperglycemia (treated 5.3+/-0.3; control 4.3+/-0.2 mmol/ liter, P = 0.04), reactive hyperglycemia (treated 8.7+/-0.4; control 7.5+/-0.2 mmol/liter, P = 0.03), and hyperinsulinemia (treated 6.1+/-0.4; control 3.8+/-0.5 ng/ml, P = 0.01) on oral glucose loading. In the adult offspring of rats exposed to dexamethasone in late pregnancy, hepatic expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA (and activity) are increased by 25% (P = 0.01) and 60% (P < 0.01), respectively, while other liver enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1) are unaltered. In contrast dexamethasone, when given in the first or second week of gestation, has no effect on offspring insulin/glucose responses or hepatic PEPCK and GR expression. The increased hepatic GR expression may be crucial, since rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero showed potentiated glucose responses to exogenous corticosterone. These observations suggest that excessive glucocorticoid exposure late in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to glucose intolerance in adulthood. Programmed hepatic PEPCK overexpression, perhaps mediated by increased GR, may promote this process by increasing gluconeogenesis. PMID:9593773

  13. Muslim Textbooks Seen as Intolerant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2004-01-01

    A number of Muslim countries have stepped up plans for revising school textbooks as part of the continuing U.S. driven campaign to combat terrorism. Critics maintain that the efforts are superficial and that the books continue to portray dangerous stereotypes and promote extremist views. Some books for religious and social sciences classes in use…

  14. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MBA, AGAF Minnesota Gastroenterology Chair, AGA Clinical Practice & Quality Management Committee Harry R. Aslanian,MD Yale University School of Medicine Stephen J. Bickston,MD, AGAF University of Virginia Health System Joel V. Brill,MD, AGAF Predictive Health LLC ...

  15. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease which is a sensitivity to cereal grains, food allergies, inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), gall bladder problems, ... constipation, lactose intolerance, infections, IBD, celiac disease, and food allergies. If no specific cause is found and functional ...

  16. Study of chemical stability of lemon oil components in sodium caseinate-lactose glycoconjugate-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sabik, Hassan; Achouri, Allaoua; Alfaro, Maria; Pelletier, Marylène; Belanger, Denis; Britten, Michel; Fustier, Patrick

    2014-07-25

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed to quantify lemon oil components and their degradation products in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate-heated-lactose (NaC-T + Lact) glycoconjugates as wall materials at two pH values (3.0 and 6.8). NaC-T + Lact conjugates had a significantly lower solubility at both pHs. Hydrolysis prior to glycation enhanced the solubility of glycoconjugates. Glycation with lactose did not improve the emulsion activity of NaC, while caseinate glycoconjugates showed much stronger antioxidant activity than the NaC-control sample. This might be due to the presence of melanoidins formed between the sugar and amino acid compounds as supported by the increase in browning intensity. Among the SPME-fibres tested, carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) provided better results in terms of sensitivity and selectivity for oil lemon components and their degradation products. Storage studies of these emulsions demonstrated that glycated NaC-T + Lact showed protection against peroxidation compared to the control. However, acidic pH conditions altered their stability over storage time. The major off-flavor components (?-terpineol and carvone) were inhibited in emulsions stabilized with glycated NaC, particularly at pH 6.8. The use of NaC-T + Lact conjugates showed improved encapsulation efficiency and stability and could be used as potential food ingredient-emulsifiers for stabilising citrus oils against oxidative degradation in food and beverage applications. PMID:24832672

  17. Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Aiyun; Li, Lijun; Kitlinska, Joanna B; Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance associated with a 5-fold up-regulation of NPY mRNA and a 6-fold up-regulation of Y2R mRNA specifically in VAT, in addition to elevated platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) NPY, compared to control females fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Conversely, PLS male offspring showed lower NPY in PRP, a 10-fold decrease of Y2R mRNA in VAT, lower adiposity, and improved glucose tolerance compared to control males. Interestingly, prenatal LPD offspring cross-fostered to control lactating mothers had completely inverse metabolic and NPY phenotypes. Taken together, these findings suggested that maternal LPD activates the VAT NPY-Y2R system and increases abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific fashion, suggesting that the peripheral NPY system is a potential mediator of programming for the offspring's vulnerability to obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22539639

  18. Studies on the milk composition of West African dwarf, Red Sokoto and Saanen goats at different stages of lactation. I. Total solids, butterfat, solids-not-fat, protein, lactose and energy contents of milk.

    PubMed

    Mba, A U; Boyo, B S; Oyenuga, V A

    1975-06-01

    Nine West African dwarf (Fouta djallon), Red Sokoto (Maradi) and Saanen lactating goats, hand-milked, were used for these studies, which lasted 12 weeks. The Saanen goat's milk was obtained weekly from the Western State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources Urban Dairy Farm at Iwo Road, while similar samples were collected from the herd at the University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Farm. The goats were balanced for stage of lactation, namely early, mid- and late-lactation. They were each maintained on giant star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) ad lib. and 1 kg dairy concentrate mixture daily. The mean contents, with standard deviations, of the milks of Saanen, West African dwarf and Red Sokoto goats at mid-lactation respectively were: (in percentages), total solids 12-25 plus or minus 0-078, 18-18 plus or minus 0-392, 15-85 plus or minus 0-077; solids-not-fat (SNF) 8-91 plus or minus 0-42, 10-48 plus or minus 0-471, 10-53 plus or minus 0-140; butterfat 3-34 plus or minus 0-141, 7-78 plus or minus 0-621, 5-32 plus or minus 0-098; protein 3-04 plus or minus 0-139, 5-30 plus or minus 0-292, 4-74 plus or minus 0-021; lactose 4-56 plus or minus 0-167, 5-19 plus or minus 0-176, 4-77 plus or minus 0-053; energy (kj/g dried milk), 21-08 plus or minus 1-11, 25-51 plus or minus 1-74, 22-17 plus or minus 0-51. Breed differences were significant (P less than 0-01). The milk of West African dwarf goats contained more of these milk components than the milk of the Red Sokoto or Saanen goats. The Red Sokoto goats gave milk of higher content than did Saanen goats, even at an early stage of lactation. Butterfat, protein, lactose and energy values were significantly affected by stages of lactation (P less than 0-05) and tended to rise with advancing lactation; this was particularly so with West African dwarf goats. PMID:1141476

  19. Effects of intramammary infusions of casein hydrolysate, ethylene glycol-bis(?-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and lactose at drying-off on mammary gland involution.

    PubMed

    Ponchon, B; Lacasse, P; Silanikove, N; Ollier, S; Zhao, X

    2014-02-01

    The transition from the lactation to the dry period in dairy cows is a period of high risk for acquiring new intramammary infections. This risk is reduced when involution of mammary glands is completed. Consequently, strategies that accelerate the involution process after drying-off could reduce the incidence of mastitis. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of 3 different treatments on mammary gland involution. Each quarter of 8 Holstein cows in late lactation was randomly assigned at drying-off to an intramammary infusion of casein hydrolysate (CNH; 70 mg), ethylene glycol-bis(?-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA; 5.7 g), lactose (5.1g), or saline 0.9% (control) solutions. Milk samples were collected on the last 2 d before and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 d after the last milking for determining concentrations of mammary gland involution markers. Lactoferrin, somatic cell counts (SCC), BSA, and Na(+) concentrations, as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities gradually increased in mammary secretions during the first 2 wk following the last milking, whereas milk citrate and K(+) concentrations decreased. As involution advanced, the Na(+):K(+) ratio increased, whereas the citrate:lactoferrin ratio decreased. Compared with mammary secretions from control quarters, mammary secretions of quarters infused with CNH had higher SCC on d 1, 3, 5, and 7, and greater BSA concentrations on d 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, the CNH treatment induced a faster increase in lactoferrin concentrations, which were greater than in milk from control quarters on d 3, 5, and 7 after drying-off. Milk citrate concentrations were unaffected by CNH but the citrate:lactoferrin ratio was lower in CNH-treated quarters on d 3 and 5 than in control quarters. Moreover, CNH treatment hastened the increase in Na(+) concentration and in the Na(+):K(+) ratio on d 1. Infusion of CNH also led to an increase in proteolytic activities, with greater matrix metalloproteinase 9 activities on d 1 and 3. The EGTA infusion increased SCC above that of control quarters on d 1 and 3 but it had no effect on the other parameters. Lactose infusion had no effect on any of the involution markers. In this study, intramammary infusions of CNH were the most efficient treatment to accelerate mammary gland involution, suggesting a potential role of CNH as a local milk secretion inhibitor during milk stasis. PMID:24342687

  20. The H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance in male C57BL/6 mice, but not diabetes outcome in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice

    PubMed Central

    Anvari, Ebrahim; Wang, Xuan; Sandler, Stellan

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that the histamine 1-receptor (H1-receptor) not only promotes allergic reactions, but also modulates innate immunity and autoimmune reactions. In line with this, we have recently reported that the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine partially counteracts cytokine-induced beta-cell signaling and destruction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether cetirizine affects diabetes in NOD mice, a model for human type 1 diabetes, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice, a model for human glucose intolerance. Methods Female NOD mice were treated with cetirizine in the drinking water (25 mg/kg body weight) from 9 until 30 weeks of age during which precipitation of diabetes was followed. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet from 5 weeks of age. When the mice were 12 weeks of age cetirizine was given for 2 weeks in the drinking water. The effects of cetirizine were analyzed by blood glucose determinations, glucose tolerance tests, and insulin sensitivity tests. Results Cetirizine did not affect diabetes development in NOD mice. On the other hand, cetirizine treatment for 1 week protected against high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. The glucose tolerance after 2 weeks of cetirizine treatment was improved in high-fat diet mice. We observed no effect of cetirizine on the insulin sensitivity of high-fat diet mice. Conclusion Our results suggest a protective effect of cetirizine against high-fat diet-induced beta-cell dysfunction, but not against autoimmune beta-cell destruction. PMID:25291144