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Sample records for lactose intolerance

  1. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eNewsletter Archive Buy IFFGD Merchandise Contact Us Donate Lactose Intolerance Lactose is a sugar found in milk ... Did you know... Non-Dairy Sources can Contain Lactose Some non-dairy foods may include ingredients that ...

  2. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Vitamin D. 2010. Report. [ Top ] What products contain lactose? Lactose is present in many food products ... aware of the many food products that may contain even small amounts of lactose, such as bread ...

  3. Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    Lactase deficiency; Milk intolerance; Disaccharidase deficiency; Dairy product intolerance ... make the lactase enzyme so they can digest milk, including breast milk. Babies born too early (premature) ...

  4. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

  5. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do not make enough lactase. Lactase is an enzyme made in the small intestine. Lactase breaks down lactose into simpler forms of sugar, which are easily absorbed into the blood. Undigested lactose can lead to unpleasant digestive symptoms People vary in their degree of lactose ...

  6. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of ...

  7. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weekend, everyone pigged out on cheese pizza and ice cream. Then they flopped on their sleeping bags for ... feel bad after drinking milk or eating cheese, ice cream, or anything else containing lactose. As with everything ...

  8. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dairy in their diet. Foods like cheese or yogurt may be easier to digest than milk, so try a cup of yogurt for dessert or add a piece of cheese ... such as cheddar, which are lower in lactose. Yogurts that contain active cultures are easier to digest ...

  9. Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Doctors usually diagnose lactose intolerance through a simple hydrogen breath test. A person blows into a tube ... there is a higher than average level of hydrogen and methane in the breath. That's because undigested ...

  10. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following tests also can help diagnose lactose intolerance: Hydrogen breath test. For this test, a person drinks ... beverage that has lactose in it. Then, the hydrogen level in the breath is measured at set ...

  11. Lactose intolerance and other disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Balvir S

    2014-09-01

    Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ? 50 kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24596060

  12. From 'lactose intolerance' to 'lactose nutrition'.

    PubMed

    Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G; Surono, Ingrid S; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-12-01

    The concept of lactose intolerance has become embedded in Western medicine and developing economy medicine. It is based on evidence that intestinal lactase activity persists into later childhood and throughout life in only a minority of the world's population, notably northern European-derived populations. These people have the T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the rs49882359 allele (C/T), also known as C/T-13910, the MCM6 gene which positively influences the lactase LCT gene. Other lactase persistent (LP) populations are found in Africa and the Middle East with different genetic variants. These SNPs represent co-evolution with dairying since the agricultural revolution and nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation. That said, gastrointestinal symptoms considered due to small intestinal lactose malabsorption are poorly correlated with lactase non-persistence (LNP), the situation for most people. With LNP, colonic microbiome lactase enables lactose fermentation to occur so that none is found in faeces. Whether the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases (hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane) produced cause symptoms is dose-dependent. Up to 25 g of lactose at any one time can usually be consumed by a LNP person, but its food and meal pattern context, the microbiomic characteristics, age and other factors may alter tolerance. Thus, the notion that lactose intolerance is a disorder or disease of LNP people is misplaced and has been one of cultural perspective. What actually matters is whether a particular dairy product as normally consumed give rise to symptoms. It is, therefore, proposed that lactose tolerance tests be replaced with dairy food tolerance tests. PMID:26715078

  13. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani

    2015-12-01

    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its preva-lence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM preva-lence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, re-spectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration >20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours. PMID:26715082

  14. What People with Lactose Intolerance Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What People With Lactose Intolerance Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Lactose Intolerance (NIDDK) Lactose Intolerance: Information for Researchers and ...

  15. Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are lactose intolerant. You may also have a hydrogen breath test to confirm this diagnosis. A hydrogen breath test is done by breathing into a machine that measures the amount of hydrogen in your breath within 90 minutes of consuming ...

  16. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part 1].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-09-20

    Lactose intolerance is the most prevalent intestinal malabsorption disorder. After presentation of its history, the author describes the emergence of lactose intolerance during the evolution of species, and the biochemistry of lactose as well as features of human and bacterial lactase enzymes are then described. The unequal distribution of lactose intolerance in different continents and population is discussed, followed by presentation of past and present prevalence data in Hungary. Adult-type hypolactasia is caused by a polymorphism of the MCM6 gene located upstream from the lactase gene on the long arm of the chromosome 2. It can be determined with the polymerase chain reaction. The intestinal symptoms of lactose intolerance are well known, but its extra-intestinal manifestations are less recognised. Invasive diagnostic methods (determination of lactase activity from small intestinal biopsies, lactose tolerance test), are accurate, but have been replaced by the non-invasive methods; their gold standard is the H2 breath test. Genetic testing is being used more and more frequently in Hungary too, and, presumably, the methane breath test will be also available in the near future. Lactose intolerance can be accompanied by inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease and irritable bowel syndrome; it could be established whether this association is causal or not in order to start a correct diet and therapy. PMID:26550699

  17. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates ?-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  18. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates ?-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  19. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance. PMID:26393648

  20. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance. PMID:26393648

  1. [Pharmaceutical drugs containing lactose can as a rule be used by persons with lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Vinther, Siri; Rumessen, Jöri Johannes; Christensen, Mikkel

    2015-03-01

    Lactose is often used as an excipient in pharmaceutical drugs. Current evidence indicates that the amount of lactose in most drugs is not sufficient to cause symptoms in persons with lactose intolerance, although interindividual differences in sensitivity probably exist. Patient preferences and/or suboptimal treatment adherence could be reasons for considering lactose-free drug alternatives. PMID:25786702

  2. Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa…

  3. How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many people are affected or at risk for lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content How many people are lactose intolerant? The true number of people with lactose ...

  4. Milk for Kids with Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sandwich, macaroni and cheese, cheese and crackers. ? Try yogurt. “Friendly” bacteria that give yogurt its unique flavor also help the body absorb lactose. Yogurt has all of milk’s nutrients, too. Tip: Offer ...

  5. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment. PMID:24078411

  6. Overcoming the barrier of lactose intolerance to reduce health disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Judith K.; Miller, Gregory D.

    2002-01-01

    Federal health goals for the public have focused on reducing health disparities that exist between whites and various racial and ethnic groups. Many of the chronic diseases for which African Americans are at greater risk- hypertension, stroke, colon cancer, and obesity-may be exacerbated by a low intake of calcium and/or other dairy-related nutrients. For example, a low intake of dairy food nutrients, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, may contribute to the high risk of hypertension seen in African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that a low-fat diet rich in fruits and vegetables (8 to 10 servings) and low-fat dairy foods (3 servings) significantly reduced blood pressure-and was twice as effective in African-American participants. Calcium and dairy food consumption is particularly low among African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Average intakes are near the threshold of 600 to 700 mg/day, below which bone loss and hypertension can result. Although lactose intolerance may be partly to blame for the low calcium intakes due to reduced dairy food consumption by minority populations, culturally determined food preferences and dietary practices learned early in life also play a role. The high incidence figures for primary lactose maldigestion among minority groups grossly overestimates the number who will experience intolerance symptoms after drinking a glass of milk with a meal. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that by using a few simple dietary strategies, those who maldigest lactose (have low levels of the lactase enzyme) can easily tolerate a dairy-rich diet that meets calcium intake recommendations. Physicians and other health professionals can help their minority patients and the general public understand how to improve calcium nutrition by overcoming the surmountable barrier of lactose intolerance. At the same time they will be helping to reduce the incidence of calcium-related chronic diseases for which minority populations are at high risk. PMID:11853047

  7. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  8. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-09-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  9. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-01-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  10. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only ?-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. PMID:26343715

  11. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only ?-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. PMID:26343715

  12. What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eat. Enzymes are proteins that help to cause chemical changes in the body. *See the Pronunciation Guide for ... with a medical, family, and diet history; a physical exam; and medical ... intolerance, you can make changes to what you eat and drink. Some people ...

  13. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measures breath hydrogen level. In most cases, a health care provider performs this test at a hospital, on an outpatient basis. Smoking ... acidity test can detect in a stool sample. Health care providers sometimes use this test to check acidity in the stools of infants ...

  14. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  15. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. PMID:26287234

  16. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. PMID:26287234

  17. Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ?85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

  18. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity. PMID:26371036

  19. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a 13C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity. PMID:26371036

  20. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... lactose provided by human milk or by infant formulas. However, by the time many of the world's children... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy...

  1. Lactose intolerance genetic testing: is it useful as routine screening? Results on 1426 south-central Italy patients.

    PubMed

    Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Guarino, Donatella; Annicchiarico, Eleonora Brigida; Lisci, Rosalia; Penitente, Romina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2015-01-15

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a widespread condition throughout the world, causing lactose malabsorption. Several studies suggested that the identification of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations, located upstream the gene encoding the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of hypolactasia. We evaluated the frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 variants in a central-south Italian population and the usefulness of lactase deficiency genetic testing in the clinic practice. The genomic DNA of 1426 patients and 1000 healthy controls from central-south Italy was isolated from peripheral whole blood and genotyped for the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and sequencing. The frequencies of genotypes in the 1426 patients analysed were as follows: 1077 CC/GG (75.5%), 287 CT/GA (20.1%), 24 TT/AA (1.7%), 38 CC/GA (2.7%). Only 64 out of 1426 (4.5%) performed also L-BHT test, 29 of which were negative for L-BHT also in presence of different genotypes. Among the 35 individuals with L-BHT positive, 34 were CC/GG and only one CT/GA. Although lactose genetic test is a good predictor of persistence/non-persistence lactase in specific population, its use in the central-south Italy population should be limited given the high prevalence of the CCGG diplotype in normal individuals. PMID:25281930

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is controlled by a DNA sequence called a regulatory element, which is located within a nearby gene ... into adulthood depends on which variations in the regulatory element within the MCM6 gene individuals have inherited ...

  3. How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of announcements, FOAs Grants Process Info about applying, review & approval of a research grant Grant Policies & Funding ... Mechanisms Active Funding Opportunity Announcements, notices & mechanisms Peer Review Review of the scientific & technical merit of grant ...

  4. Adult lactose digestion status and effects on disease

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult assimilation of lactose divides humans into dominant lactase-persistent and recessive nonpersistent phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: To review three medical parameters of lactose digestion, namely: the changing concept of lactose intolerance; the possible impact on diseases of microbial adaptation in lactase-nonpersistent populations; and the possibility that the evolution of lactase has influenced some disease pattern distributions. METHODS: A PubMed, Google Scholar and manual review of articles were used to provide a narrative review of the topic. RESULTS: The concept of lactose intolerance is changing and merging with food intolerances. Microbial adaptation to regular lactose consumption in lactase-nonpersistent individuals is supported by limited evidence. There is evidence suggestive of a relationship among geographical distributions of latitude, sunhine exposure and lactase proportional distributions worldwide. DISCUSSION: The definition of lactose intolerance has shifted away from association with lactose maldigestion. Lactose sensitivity is described equally in lactose digesters and maldigesters. The important medical consequence of withholding dairy foods could have a detrimental impact on several diseases; in addition, microbial adaptation in lactase-nonpersistent populations may alter risk for some diseases. There is suggestive evidence that the emergence of lactase persistence, together with human migrations before and after the emergence of lactase persistence, have impacted modern-day diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigestion and lactose intolerance are not synonymous. Withholding dairy foods is a poor method to treat lactose intolerance. Further epidemiological work could shed light on the possible effects of microbial adaptation in lactose maldigesters. The evolutionary impact of lactase may be still ongoing. PMID:25855879

  5. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated. PMID:24695892

  6. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures. ... can be a symptom of a problem with metabolism. Some people (often very thin women) do not tolerate cold environments because they have very little body fat and ...

  7. Milk Intolerance and the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Historian, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The intolerance of milk by American Indians and other groups (Thais, Chinese, Filipinos, Melonesians of New Guinea, Australian Aborigines, Black groups of Africa, American Blacks, and Eskimos) due to the lack of the lactose enzyme is discussed in this article. (FF)

  8. Statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zahid

    2014-05-15

    The term statin intolerance refers to an inability to use statins because of muscle symptoms or elevated creatine kinase, and the major diagnostic challenge is to unambiguously link these to statin use. Roughly 5% to 10% of statin users develop statin intolerance, and because statin use is expected to increase--especially after recent updated guidelines have expanded the statin benefit groups--adverse effects from statins will become a growing issue. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology--and even the terminology--of statin-related muscle injury lacks clarity. Several risk factors have been identified, including advanced age, family history of myopathy and statin dose; many cases manifest only after patients are administered an interacting medication (e.g., azole antifungals, cimetidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin and cyclosporine). The diagnosis of myopathy remains challenging, especially because some patients can have normal serum creatine kinase levels despite demonstrable weakness and muscle biopsy-proven statin-induced myopathy. A statin withdrawal and rechallenge helps patients distinguish whether their myalgia symptoms are because of statins, but, in at least 1 clinical trial, even 5% of placebo-treated patients developed myalgias during a controlled withdrawal and rechallenge. No consensus exists for management of patients with statin intolerance. Many patients can eventually tolerate a statin but often at suboptimal doses. A subset of patients do well with nondaily regimens such as every other day or once weekly dosing. Some patients cannot tolerate statins at all, requiring nonstatin lipid-lowering medications--the benefit of which remains unclear with regard to preventing atherosclerotic events. Ultimately, statin intolerance undermines the drug adherence that is critical for achieving the benefits of lifelong lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, statin myopathy is a common challenge in lipid management, and further work is needed to establish a standard diagnostic criterion as well as treatment algorithms. PMID:24792743

  9. Metallo-Dielectric Multilayer Structure for Lactose Malabsorption Diagnosis through H2 Breath Test

    E-print Network

    Cioffi, N; De Sario, M; D'Orazio, A; Petruzzelli, V; Prudenzano, F; Scalora, M; Trevisi, S; Vincenti, M A

    2007-01-01

    A metallo-dielectric multilayer structure is proposed as a novel approach to the analysis of lactose malabsorption. When lactose intolerance occurs, the bacterial overgrowth in the intestine causes an increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. By monitoring the changes in the optical properties of a multilayer palladium-polymeric structure, one is able to detect the patient's disease and the level of lactose malabsorption with high sensitivity and rapid response.

  10. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  11. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  12. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa?? 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  13. Preparation of lactose-free pasteurized milk with a recombinant thermostable ?-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Results A thermostable ?-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase activity was 100°C and pH 6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. Conclusions The thermostablity of this recombinant ?-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization. PMID:24053641

  14. Intolerance of Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Meghan L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive neurologic condition that, by its nature, carries uncertainty as a hallmark characteristic. Although all patients face uncertainty, there is variability in how individuals cope with its presence. In other populations, the concept of “intolerance of uncertainty” has been conceptualized to explain this variability such that individuals who have difficulty tolerating the possibility of future occurrences may engage in thoughts or behaviors by which they attempt to exert control over that possibility or lessen the uncertainty but may, as a result, experience worse outcomes, particularly in terms of psychological well-being. This topical review introduces MS-focused researchers, clinicians, and patients to intolerance of uncertainty, integrates the concept with what is already understood about coping with MS, and suggests future steps for conceptual, assessment, and treatment-focused research that may benefit from integrating intolerance of uncertainty as a central feature. PMID:26300700

  15. Lactose Tolerance Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Lactose Tolerance Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  16. Allergies and Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is affected by genetics (there are two established genetic factors for celiac disease: DQ2 and DQ8) and factors in the environment. ... CeliacDisease.net. Type of Condition Food Allergy Intolerance Celiac Disease Immune System Genetic Risk Involvement? Yes Yes No Yes* Yes Yes ...

  17. Sorbitol intolerance in adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, N K; Rosenberg, D B; Ulahannan, M J; Glasser, M J; Pitchumoni, C S

    1985-09-01

    Sorbitol is a commonly used sugar substitute in "sugar-free" food products. Although sorbitol intolerance manifested by abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea has been observed in children, it has not been well documented in adults. Forty-two healthy adults (23 whites, 19 nonwhites) participated in this study. After ingestion of 10 g of sorbitol solution, end expiratory breath samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h and analyzed for H2 concentration. Clinical sorbitol intolerance was detected in 43% of the whites and 55% of the nonwhites, the difference not being statistically significant. However, severe clinical sorbitol intolerance was significantly more prevalent in nonwhites (32%) as compared to whites (4%). There was a good correlation between the severity of symptoms and the amount of hydrogen exhaled. Dietetic foods, many of them containing sorbitol, are very popular with diabetics and "weight watchers." Based on our observations, we believe that a large number of adults could be suffering from sorbitol-induced nonspecific abdominal symptoms and diarrhea. These symptoms could lead to an extensive diagnostic work-up and lifelong diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:4036946

  18. Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10-13 year-old female adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...

  19. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... powder In addition, lactose is used as the base for more than 20 percent of prescription drugs and about 6 percent of over-the-counter medicines. Many types of birth control pills contain lactose, as do some tablets for stomach acid and gas. A pharmacist can answer questions about ...

  20. Lessons from Lactose Permease

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2009-01-01

    An X-ray structure of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) in an inward-facing conformation has been solved. LacY contains N- and C-terminal domains, each with six transmembrane helices, positioned pseudosymmetrically. Ligand is bound at the apex of a hydrophilic cavity in the approximate middle of the molecule. Residues involved in substrate binding and H+ translocation are aligned parallel to the membrane at the same level and may be exposed to a water-filled cavity in both the inward- and outward-facing conformations, thereby allowing both sugar and H+ release directly into either cavity. These structural features may explain why LacY catalyzes galactoside/H+ symport in both directions utilizing the same residues. A working model for the mechanism is presented that involves alternating access of both the sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane. PMID:16689628

  1. Lactose nutrition in lactase nonpersisters.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-12-01

    Lactose handling by the human gut by most people, beyond being breast-fed, has been considered a disorder rather than physiological. A non-human mammalian milk source is novel for the majority. During the first 6 months of life, when neonates and infants are best breast-fed, lactose along with other macronutrients, provides energy, but may have other functions as well. At birth, babies are endowed with their mother's vaginal microbiome, but not if they are born by Caesarean section. How much maternal milk lactose survives the infant's small intestine and is processed by this unique gut microbiome and to what end is still uncertain, but no lactose or galactose appears in the faeces. Once intestinal lactase activity declines in most infants, lactose may enhance innate immunity through the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), which is best achieved by lactose synergy with other colonic fermentation metabolites such as butyrate. It is of interest whether this lactose function or a variant of it persists. It might not be evident when lactase is persistent, as it is in most people of northern European ancestry. Population genomics indicate that lactase persistence became prevalent only about 3000-1000 BC, the Bronze Age of Eurasia. Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) in lactase nonpersisters who consume dairy foods are partly dose dependent and not usually evident with single lactose intakes <=25 g per day. Spreading intake across the day reduces the risk as can various dietary patterns. Nevertheless, individual differences in GIS lactose sensitivity may merit public health and clinical consideration. PMID:26715080

  2. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  3. [Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].

    PubMed

    Leiß, O

    2014-11-01

    The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

  4. Gluten intolerance and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe; Pelletier, Fabien; Dreno, Brigitte; Puzenat, Eve; Aubin, François

    2006-01-01

    Gluten sensitivity with or without coeliac disease (CD) symptoms and intestinal pathology has been suggested as a potentially treatable cause of various diseases. CD is a chronic disease which improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. There have been numerous reports linking CD with several skin conditions. A body of evidence shows that dermatitis herpetiformis is actually a cutaneous manifestation of CD. Autoimmune diseases, allergic diseases, psoriasis and miscellaneous diseases have also been described with gluten intolerance. Dermatologists should be familiar with the appraisal of gluten sensitive enteropathy and should be able to search for an underlying gluten intolerance (GI). Serological screening by means of antigliadin, antiendomysial and transglutaminase antibodies should be performed. HLA typing is often useful in association with serologic tests. Intestinal biopsy is usually needed to establish the diagnosis of CD or GI. Thus, gluten intolerance gives rise to a variety of dermatological manifestations which may benefit from a gluten-free diet. PMID:16436335

  5. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology. Conclusions Consistent with recent research, these findings provide further evidence for a sensory intolerance syndrome. The findings provide a rationale for conducting future research for determining whether a sensory intolerance syndrome should be included in the diagnostic nomenclature. PMID:24703593

  6. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists”, 14th Ed... food is “Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The methods of analysis in paragraphs (d)(1), (d..., “Purity of Lactose, Liquid Chromatographic Method,” “Changes in Official Methods of Analysis,” 14th...

  7. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contained in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists”, 14th Ed... food is “Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The methods of analysis in paragraphs (d)(1), (d..., “Purity of Lactose, Liquid Chromatographic Method,” “Changes in Official Methods of Analysis,” 14th...

  8. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...readily accessible source of calcium and are fortified with...Insufficient intakes of calcium carry a risk of decreased bone mineral density. This may have effects on bone health and increase the...intake of vitamin D can lead to the development...

  9. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... readily accessible source of calcium and are fortified with vitamin D and other nutrients. Therefore... low intake of vitamin D can lead to the development of rickets, especially in those of African descent... with vitamin D and other nutrients, they are often more expensive and less widely available...

  10. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26242570

  11. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  12. Control of solvated crystallization of -lactose monohydrate F. Espitalier

    E-print Network

    Noll, Dominikus

    Control of solvated crystallization of -lactose monohydrate A. Rachah D. Noll F. Espitalier F. Baillon Abstract We present a mathematical model of solvated crystallization of -lactose monohydrate interest in the crystallization of lactose in recent years [17,18,20]. For a number of reasons, -lactose

  13. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    PubMed

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using ?-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 ?m and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity. PMID:25022681

  14. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  15. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet... food is “Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The methods of analysis in paragraphs (d)(1),...

  16. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet... food is “Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The methods of analysis in paragraphs (d)(1),...

  17. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet... food is “Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The methods of analysis in paragraphs (d)(1),...

  18. Orthostatic intolerance and the headache patient.

    PubMed

    Mack, Kenneth J; Johnson, Jonathan N; Rowe, Peter C

    2010-06-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) refers to a group of clinical conditions, including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated hypotension (NMH), in which symptoms worsen with upright posture and are ameliorated by recumbence. The main symptoms of chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes include light-headedness, syncope or near syncope, blurring of vision, headaches, problems with short-term memory and concentration, fatigue, intolerance of low impact exercise, palpitations, chest pain, diaphoresis, tremulousness, dyspnea or air hunger, nausea, and vomiting. This review discusses what is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder, potential treatments, and understanding its role in the patient with chronic headache pain. PMID:20541103

  19. Exploring the acidotolerance of beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: an attractive enzyme for lactose bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Rhimi, Moez; Aghajari, Nushin; Jaouadi, Bassem; Juy, Michel; Boudebbouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Haser, Richard; Bejar, Samir

    2009-12-01

    The LacZ gene encoding beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (L. bulgaricus) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli, followed by purification and characterization of the protein. The recombinant enzyme was shown to be a homotetramer and could be distinguished from homologues by its relatively low and broad optimal temperature range, from 35 to 50 degrees C, coupled with an optimal pH of 5.0-5.5. Remarkably, the E491A mutant showed the same optimal temperature, but displayed an optimal pH at 6.5-7.0. Whilst these beta-galactosidases are inhibited by Cu(2+) they require only 1mM Mn(2+) and 1mM Co(2+) for optimal activity and thermostability. The wild-type enzyme was remarkably stable at acid pH values when compared to mutant E491A. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the E491A mutation affected catalysis rather than enzyme affinity. Furthermore, the wild-type protein efficiently cleaved lactose extracted from whey; however, in milk the E491A mutant showed the highest lactose bioconversion rate. Thus, these enzymes are interesting at the industrial level for hydrolysis of lactose extracted from whey or milk, and thus could contribute to overcoming the lactose intolerance problem generated by milk products. PMID:19786095

  20. Optimizing lactose hydrolysis by computer-guided modification of the catalytic site of a wild-type enzyme.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi-Ning; Wang, Ling; Gu, Qiong; Chen, Haiqin; Liu, Xiaoming; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei; Hagler, Arnold T; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Lactose intolerance is a serious global health problem. A lactose hydrolysis enzyme, thermostable ?-galactosidase, BgaB (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus) has attracted the attention of industrial biologists because of its potential application in processing lactose-containing products. However, this enzyme experiences galactose product inhibition. Through homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we have identified the galactose binding sites in the thermostable ?-galactosidase BgaB (BgaB). The binding sites are formed from Glu303, Asn310, Trp311, His354, Arg109, Phe341, Try272, Asn147, Glu148, and H354; these residues are all important for enzyme catalysis. A ligand-receptor binding model has been proposed to guide site-directed BgaB mutagenesis experiments. Based upon the model and the MD simulations, we recommend mutating Arg109, Phe341, Trp311, Asn147, Asn310, Try272, and His354 to reduce galactose product inhibition. In vitro site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed our predictions. The success rate for mutagenesis was 66.7 %. The best BgaB mutant, F341T, can hydrolyze lactose completely, and is the most promising enzyme for use by the dairy industry. Thus, our study is a successful example of optimizing enzyme catalytic chemical reaction by computer-guided modifying the catalytic site of a wild-type enzyme. PMID:23585056

  1. Mechanisms of post-flight orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Buckey, J. C.; Gaffney, F. A.; Lane, L. D.; Levine, B. D.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Post-flight orthostatic intolerance is a dramatic physiological consequence of human adaptation to microgravity made inappropriate by a sudden return to 1-G. The immediate mechanism is almost always a failure to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, specifically perfusion of the central nervous system, but vestibular dysfunction may occasionally be the primary cause. Orthostatic intolerance is present in a wide range of clinical disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The intolerance that is produced by spaceflight and 1-G analogs (bed rest, head-down tilt at a moderate angle, water immersion) is different from its clinical counterparts by being only transiently present in subjects who otherwise have normal cardiovascular and regulatory systems. However, the same set of basic pathophysiological elements should be considered in the analysis of any form of orthostatic intolerance.

  2. Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted “initial OH” and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

  3. Bistability of the lac operon during growth of Escherichia coli on lactose and lactose+glucose.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Pilyugin, Sergei S

    2008-05-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli can exhibit bistability. Early studies showed that bistability occurs during growth on TMG/succinate and lactose+glucose, but not during growth on lactose. More recently, studies with lacGFP-transfected cells show bistability during growth on TMG/succinate, but not during growth on lactose and lactose+glucose. In the literature, these results are invariably attributed to variations in the destabilizing effect of the positive feedback generated by induction. Specifically, during growth on TMG/succinate, lac induction generates strong positive feedback because the permease stimulates the accumulation of intracellular TMG, which in turn, promotes the synthesis of even more permease. This positive feedback is attenuated during growth on lactose because hydrolysis of intracellular lactose by beta-galactosidase suppresses the stimulatory effect of the permease. It is attenuated even more during growth on lactose + glucose because glucose inhibits the uptake of lactose. But it is clear that the stabilizing effect of dilution also changes dramatically as a function of the medium composition. For instance, during growth on TMG/succinate, the dilution rate of lac permease is proportional to its activity, e, because the specific growth rate is independent of e (it is completely determined by the concentration of succinate). However, during growth on lactose, the dilution rate of the permease is proportional to e2 because the specific growth rate is proportional to the specific lactose uptake rate, which in turn, proportional to e. We show that: (a) This dependence on e2 creates such a strong stabilizing effect that bistability is virtually impossible during growth on lactose, even in the face of the intense positive feedback generated by induction. (b) This stabilizing effect is weakened during growth on lactose+glucose because the specific growth rate on glucose is independent of e, so that the dilution rate once again contains a term that is proportional to e. These results imply that the lac operon is much more prone to bistability if the medium contains carbon sources that cannot be metabolized by the lac enzymes, e.g., succinate during growth on TMG/succinate and glucose during growth on lactose+glucose. We discuss the experimental data in the light of these results. PMID:18246403

  4. Loss of Lactose Metabolism in Lactic Streptococci1

    PubMed Central

    McKay, L. L.; Baldwin, K. A.; Zottola, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Lactose-negative mutants occurred spontaneously in broth cultures of Streptococcus lactis C2F. Instability of lactose metabolism was noted in other strains of S. lactis, in strains of S. cremoris, and in S. diacetilactis. Colonies of S. lactis C2F grown with lactose as the carbohydrate source also possessed lac- cells. Treatment of lactic streptococci with the mutagen acriflavine (AF) increased the number of non-lactose-fermenting variants. The effect of AF on growth and on loss of lactose-fermenting ability in S. lactis C2F was consequently further examined. The presence of AF appears to favor competitively the growth of spontaneously occurring lactose-negative cells and appears to act in the conversion of lactose-positive to non-lactose-fermenting cells. The lactose-negative mutants partially revert to lactose-positive variants which remain defective in lactose metabolism and remain unable to coagulate milk. The lactose-negative cells become dominant in continuous culture growth and provide evidence that alterations in the characteristics of starter strains can be produced by continuous culture, in this case, the complete loss in ability to ferment lactose. PMID:4625340

  5. Deconditioning in patients with orthostatic intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay; Allison, Thomas G.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the frequency and degree of deconditioning, clinical features, and relationship between deconditioning and autonomic parameters in patients with orthostatic intolerance. Methods: We retrospectively studied all patients seen for orthostatic intolerance at Mayo Clinic between January 2006 and June 2011, who underwent both standardized autonomic and exercise testing. Results: A total of 184 patients (84 with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome [POTS] and 100 without orthostatic tachycardia) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 89% were women, and median age was 27.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 22–37 years). Symptom duration was 4 years (IQR 2–7.8). Of the patients, 90% had deconditioning (reduced maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max%] <85%) during exercise. This finding was unrelated to age, gender, or duration of illness. The prevalence of deconditioning was similar between those with POTS (95%) and those with orthostatic intolerance (91%). VO2max% had a weak correlation with a few autonomic and laboratory parameters but adequate predictors of VO2max% could not be identified. Conclusion: Reduced VO2max% consistent with deconditioning is present in almost all patients with orthostatic intolerance and may play a central role in pathophysiology. This finding provides a strong rationale for retraining in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. None of the autonomic indices are reliable predictors of deconditioning. PMID:22993288

  6. Analyzing phylogenetic trees with timed and probabilistic model checking: the lactose persistence case study.

    PubMed

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Model checking is a generic verification technique that allows the phylogeneticist to focus on models and specifications instead of on implementation issues. Phylogenetic trees are considered as transition systems over which we interrogate phylogenetic questions written as formulas of temporal logic. Nonetheless, standard logics become insufficient for certain practices of phylogenetic analysis since they do not allow the inclusion of explicit time and probabilities. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of model checking techniques beyond qualitative phylogenetic properties and adapt the existing logical extensions and tools to the field of phylogeny. The introduction of time and probabilities in phylogenetic specifications is motivated by the study of a real example: the analysis of the ratio of lactose intolerance in some populations and the date of appearance of this phenotype. PMID:25339082

  7. Optimal control of crystallization of alpha-lactose monohydrate

    E-print Network

    Noll, Dominikus

    Optimal control of crystallization of alpha-lactose monohydrate Amira RACHAH and Dominikus NOLL model for solvated crystallization of -lactose monohydrate in semi-batch mode. The process dynamics a growing interest in the crystallization of lactose in recent years [4], [5], [7]. In this paper we study

  8. Controlling biological systems: the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Pappas, George J.

    Controlling biological systems: the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli A. Agung Julius, namely, the lactose regulation system of the Escherichia coli bacteria. The conceptual idea behind hybrid model of the lactose regulation system of E. coli bacteria that capture important phenomena which

  9. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution...Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The...Ed. (1984), p. 575. (4) pH, section 14.022, “pH of Flour, Potentiometric...

  10. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution...Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The...Ed. (1984), p. 575. (4) pH, section 14.022, “pH of Flour, Potentiometric...

  11. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution...Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The...Ed. (1984), p. 575. (4) pH, section 14.022, “pH of Flour, Potentiometric...

  12. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution...Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The...Ed. (1984), p. 575. (4) pH, section 14.022, “pH of Flour, Potentiometric...

  13. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution...Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The...Ed. (1984), p. 575. (4) pH, section 14.022, “pH of Flour, Potentiometric...

  14. [Celiac disease--the chameleon among the food intolerances].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder resulting from gluten intolerance and is based on a genetically predisposition. Symptoms occur upon exposure to prolamin from wheat, rye, barley and related grain. The pathogenesis of celiac disease has not yet been sufficiently elucidated but is being considered as an autoimmune process. At its core are the deamidation of prolamin fragments, the building of specific antibodies and the activation of cytotoxic T-cells. The immunological inflammatory process is accompanied by structural damages of the enterocytes (villous atrophy, colonization and crypt hyperplasia). The symptoms and their extent depend on the type of the celiac disease; classic and non-classic forms are being distinguished (atypical, oligosymptomatic, latent and silent celiac disease). Characteristics of the classic presentation are malabsorption syndrome and intestinal symptoms such as mushy diarrhea and abdominal distension. The diagnosis of celiac disease is based on four pillars: Anamnesis and clinical presentation, serological evidence of coeliac specific antibodies (IgA-t-TG; IgA-EmA), small intestine biopsy and improvement of symptoms after institution of a gluten-free diet. The basis of the therapy is a lifelong gluten-free diet, i. e. wheat, rye, barley, spelt, green-core, faro-wheat, kamuth and conventional oats as well as food items obtained therefrom. Small amounts of up to 50 mg gluten per day are usually tolerated by most patients; amounts of > or = 100 mg/day lead mostly to symptoms. Gluten-free foods contain < or = 20 ppm or 20 mg/kg (Sign: symbol of the 'crossed ear' or label 'gluten-free'). At the beginning of the therapy the fat and lactose intake may need to be reduced; also the supplementation of single micronutrients (fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, B12, iron, and calcium) may be required. Alternative therapies are being developed but have not yet been clinically tested. PMID:24266248

  15. Lactose permease H+-lactose symporter: mechanical switch or Brownian ratchet?

    PubMed

    Naftalin, Richard J; Green, Nicholas; Cunningham, Philip

    2007-05-15

    Lactose permease structure is deemed consistent with a mechanical switch device for H(+)-coupled symport. Because the crystallography-assigned docking position of thiodigalactoside (TDG) does not make close contact with several amino acids essential for symport; the switch model requires allosteric interactions between the proton and sugar binding sites. The docking program, Autodock 3 reveals other lactose-docking sites. An alternative cotransport mechanism is proposed where His-322 imidazolium, positioned in the central pore equidistant (5-7 A) between six charged amino acids, Arg-302 and Lys-319 opposing Glu-269, Glu-325, Asp-237, and Asp-240, transfers a proton transiently to an H-bonded lactose hydroxyl group. Protonated lactose and its dissociation product H(3)O+ are repelled by reprotonated His-322 and drift in the electrostatic field toward the cytosol. This Brownian ratchet model, unlike the conventional carrier model, accounts for diminished symport by H322N mutant; how H322 mutants become uniporters; why exchanging Lys-319 with Asp-240 paradoxically inactivates symport; how some multiple mutants become revertant transporters; the raised export rate and affinity toward lactose of uncoupled mutants; the altered specificity toward lactose, melibiose, and galactose of some mutants, and the proton dissociation rate of H322 being 100-fold faster than the symport turnover rate. PMID:17325012

  16. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Pedro MR; Oliveira, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity. PMID:21326922

  17. Water-lactose behavior as a function of concentration and presence of lactic acid in lactose model systems.

    PubMed

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2015-12-01

    The presence of high amounts of lactic acid in acid whey restricts its ability to be further processed because lactose appears to remain in its amorphous form. A systematic study is lacking in this regard especially during the concentration step. Hence, the main aim of the study was to establish the structure and behavior of water molecules surrounding lactose in the presence of 1% (wt/wt) lactic acid at a concentration up to 50% (wt/wt). Furthermore, the crystallization nature of freeze-dried lactose with or without lactic acid was established using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two mechanisms were proposed to describe the behavior of water molecules around lactose molecules during the concentration of pure lactose and lactose solutions with lactic acid. Pure lactose solution exhibited a water evaporation enthalpy of ~679 J·g(-1), whereas lactose+ lactic acid solution resulted in ~965 J·g(-1) at a 50% (wt/wt) concentration. This indicates a greater energy requirement for water removal around lactose in the presence of lactic acid. Higher crystallization temperatures were observed with the presence of lactic acid, indicating a delay in crystallization. Furthermore, less crystalline lactose (~12%) was obtained in the presence of lactic acid, indicating high amorphous nature compared with pure lactose where ~50% crystallinity was obtained. The Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the strong hydration layer consisting lactic acid and H3O(+) ions surrounded lactose molecules via strong H bonds, which restricted water mobility, induced a change in structure of lactose, or both, creating unfavorable conditions for lactose crystallization. Thus, partial or complete removal of lactic acid from acid whey may be the first step toward improving the ability of acid whey to be processed. PMID:26476948

  18. Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey

    SciTech Connect

    Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

  19. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    SciTech Connect

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. )

    1991-04-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

  20. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  1. Food intolerance and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, R; James, R; Smith, H; Dudley, C R; Jewell, D P

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred patients (156 women) with the irritable bowel syndrome were treated with dietary exclusion for three weeks. Of the 189 who completed this study, 91 (48.2%) showed symptomatic improvement. Subsequent challenge with individual foods showed that 73 of these 91 responders were able to identify one or more food intolerances and 72 remained well on a modified diet during the follow up period (mean (SD), 14.7 (7.98) months). Of the 98 patients who showed no symptomatic improvement after three weeks of strict exclusion only three were symptomatically well at follow up (mean (SD), 12.48 (8.09 months). There was no close correlation between response and symptom complex. There was a wide range of food intolerance. The majority (50%) identified two to five foods which upset them (range 1-14). The foods most commonly incriminated were dairy products (40.7%) and grains (39.4%). PMID:2767507

  2. Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

  3. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using {sup 14}C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-14

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation {sup 14}C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities.

  4. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ?Bé densities as compared with higher initial ?Bé densities.

  5. Systems analysis of lactose metabolism in Trichoderma reesei identifies a lactose permease that is essential for cellulase induction.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

  6. CALCIUM AND ZINC ABSORPTION FROM LACTOSE-CONTAINING AND LACTOSE-FREE INFANT FORMULAS 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Calcium absorption is enhanced by the presence of lactose, but the quantitative significance of this effect in infant formulas is uncertain. It is also not known whether lactose affects zinc absorption. Objective: We measured the absorption of calcium and zinc from infant formulas by ...

  7. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Roy, Amy K.; Furr, Jami M.; Gotimer, Kristin; Beidas, Rinad S.; Dugas, Michel J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has contributed to our understanding of excessive worry and adult anxiety disorders, but there is a paucity of research on IU in child samples. This gap is due to the absence of a psychometrically sound measure of IU in youth. The present study adapted parallel child- and parent-report forms of the Intolerance of…

  8. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  9. Finite state abstraction of a stochastic model of the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Pappas, George J.

    Finite state abstraction of a stochastic model of the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli on the lactose regulation system in Escherichia coli bacteria, one of the most extensively studied examples hybrid model for the lactose regulation system in the Escherichia coli bacteria. The lactose operon [10

  10. [Isolation and characterization of lactose-fermenting yeasts Candida kefyr].

    PubMed

    Ianieva, O D; Voronina, H O; Pidhors'ky?, V S

    2013-01-01

    The search for lactose-fermenting yeast strains has been conducted among 162 strains isolated from various plants and 28 yeast strains isolated from cheese. Four yeast strains have been shown to ferment lactose. They have been identified as Candida kefyr. Specific beta-galactosidase activity of the studied strains grown on lactose-containing medium was 1501-2113 U/g cell. The ethanol production by strains C. kefyr C24 and C30 was significantly inhibited by the increase in substrate concentration (100 g/l). PMID:24437197

  11. Mechanisms of sympathetic regulation in orthostatic intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic circulatory control is key to the rapid cardiovascular adjustments that occur within seconds of standing upright (orthostasis) and which are required for bipedal stance. Indeed, patients with ineffective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction rapidly develop orthostatic hypotension, prohibiting effective upright activities. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. However, many people experience episodic acute OI as postural faint or chronic OI in the form of orthostatic tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension that significantly reduce the quality of life. Potential mechanisms for OI are discussed including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction, and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution attributable to regional adrenergic hypofunction. PMID:22678960

  12. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the addition of safe and suitable pH-adjusting ingredients. (b...sample), entitled “Fat in Dried Milk (45)—Official Final Action...Action” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the addition of safe and suitable pH-adjusting ingredients. (b...sample), entitled “Fat in Dried Milk (45)—Official Final Action...Action” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the addition of safe and suitable pH-adjusting ingredients. (b...sample), entitled “Fat in Dried Milk (45)—Official Final Action...Action” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the addition of safe and suitable pH-adjusting ingredients. (b...sample), entitled “Fat in Dried Milk (45)—Official Final Action...Action” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the addition of safe and suitable pH-adjusting ingredients. (b...sample), entitled “Fat in Dried Milk (45)—Official Final Action...Action” under the heading “Dried Milk, Nonfat Dry Milk, and Malted Milk.” (iv) Lactose...

  17. Biomass and lipids from lactose or whey by Trichosporon beigelii

    SciTech Connect

    Tahoun, M.K.; El-Merheb, Z.; Salem, A.; Youssef, A.

    1987-02-20

    The yeast Trichosporon beigelii produced the highest amount of biomass when grown in chemical-defined medium with a ratio of carbon source to nitrogen source of 30:1. On the other hand, carbon-limited medium (C-N ratio 2:1) enhanced unsaturated fatty acids synthesis. The yeast efficiently converted unsalted whey lactose to biomass, while sodium chloride in whey raised lactose assimilation to single-cell oil (SCO). 20 references.

  18. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial ?-Galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial ?-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55°C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37°C) ?-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9?U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10°C, the K. lactis ?-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis ?-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55°C), at the end of a 12?h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9?U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of ?-galactosidases in the food industry. PMID:26587283

  19. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H?]; wavelength of maximum absorption, ?(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ?, 8.1037 × 10?), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria in human subjects are able to digest and utilize urea nitrogen in formation of essential amino acids that are available to the host human. These findings suggest that LU in milk might have a functional role in human health. PMID:22118076

  20. Linking flowability and granulometry of lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Boschini, F; Delaval, V; Traina, K; Vandewalle, N; Lumay, G

    2015-10-15

    The flowing properties of 10 lactose powders commonly used in pharmaceutical industries have been analyzed with three recently improved measurement methods. The first method is based on the heap shape measurement. This straightforward measurement method provides two physical parameters (angle of repose ?r and static cohesive index ?r) allowing to make a first screening of the powder properties. The second method allows to estimate the rheological properties of a powder by analyzing the powder flow in a rotating drum. This more advanced method gives a large set of physical parameters (flowing angle ?f, dynamic cohesive index ?f, angle of first avalanche ?a and powder aeration %ae) leading to deeper interpretations. The third method is an improvement of the classical bulk and tapped density measurements. In addition to the improvement of the measurement precision, the densification dynamics of the powder bulk submitted to taps is analyzed. The link between the macroscopic physical parameters obtained with these methods and the powder granulometry is analyzed. Moreover, the correlations between the different flowability indexes are discussed. Finally, the link between grain shape and flowability is discussed qualitatively. PMID:26283279

  1. Exercise Intolerance in Individuals With Postconcussion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Karl F.; Graham, James; Leddy, John J.; Devinney-Boymel, Lee; Willer, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Little is known about exercise intolerance or the utility of an exercise evaluation in patients with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Objective: To assess exercise intolerance in male and female patients with PCS. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included a convenience sample of 34 patients with PCS (17 males, 17 females; age = 25.9 ± 10.9 years) and 22 uninjured individuals on whom we gathered historical deidentified laboratory data (control group; 11 males, 11 females; age = 23.3 ± 6.2 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Self-reported symptoms, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs), and the Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured before, during each minute of, and immediately after a graded treadmill exercise test (Balke protocol). Exercise was stopped when participants could no longer maintain the effort or reported the onset of or increase in PCS symptoms. Results: Exercise test duration (8.5 ± 4.4 minutes versus 17.9 ± 3.6 minutes; t51 = 1.8, P < .001), heart rate (142.8 ± 24.1 versus 175.2 ± 17.4; t54 = ?5.5, P < .001), and systolic BP (142.1 ± 18.3 mm Hg versus 155.5 ± 24.5 mm Hg; t53 = 2.3, P = .02) were lower, and diastolic BP (78.4 ± 10.2 mm Hg versus 73.5 ± 11.7 mm Hg; t53 = 2.2, P = .03) was higher at test cessation in the PCS than control group. Cox regression showed the odds of a shorter exercise duration were nearly 8 times greater in the PCS than control group (hazard ratio = 7.93; 95% confidence interval = 3.39, 18.56). In the general linear models that adjusted for differences in test duration, rating of perceived exertion was the only physiologic measure to show an overall difference between groups, with the control group reporting higher ratings than the PCS group (t53 = ?6.0, P < .001). Within the PCS group, systolic BP was the only measure to show a sex effect, with males showing higher pressure readings than females throughout the exercise tests (t31 = 2.8, P = .009). Conclusions: Patients with PCS had a symptom-limited response to exercise, and the treadmill test was a potentially useful tool to monitor the recovery from PCS. PMID:23952041

  2. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not different between control subjects and patients with OI. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  3. Antroduodenal motility in neurologically handicapped children with feeding intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Werlin, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and feeding intolerance are common in neurologically handicapped children. The aim is to determine the etiologies of feeding intolerance in neurologically handicapped children who are intolerant of tube feedings. Methods Eighteen neurologically handicapped children, followed in the Tube Feeding Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin who were intolerant of gastrostomy feedings. The charts of these 18 patients were reviewed. Past medical history, diagnoses, history of fundoplication and results of various tests of gastrointestinal function including barium contrast radiography, endoscopy and antroduodenal manometry were documented. Results Five of 11 children had abnormal barium upper gastrointestinal series. Seven of 14 had abnormal liquid phase gastric emptying tests. Two of 16 had esophagitis on endoscopy. All 18 children had abnormal antroduodenal motility. Conclusions In neurologically handicapped children foregut dysmotility may be more common than is generally recognized and can explain many of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologically handicapped children. PMID:15341670

  4. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:24601766

  5. Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

  6. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support. PMID:26198889

  7. Lactose particle engineering: Influence of ultrasound and anti-solvent on crystal habit and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougoulos, E.; Marziano, I.; Miller, P. R.

    2010-11-01

    This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry - namely the role of ?-lactose - and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of ?-lactose in ?-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of lactose crystallization in gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Coupland, John N

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements (2.25 MHz center frequency) were used to follow bulk crystallization of lactose (43% and 46%) from gelatin (1.5% and 3%) gels at 25 °C, and compared to turbidity (500 nm) and isothermal calorimetric measurements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased slightly (approximately 0.5%) during crystallization while ultrasonic attenuation was low in the absence of lactose crystals and increased progressively during crystallization. The lag time before the onset of crystallization decreased and the maximum rate of increase in attenuation during crystallization increased with increasing lactose supersaturation but was not affected by gelatin concentration (P < 0.05). Similar results were seen in turbidity and isothermal calorimetric measurements. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have the potential to measure crystallization kinetics in complex food matrices and to be applied on-line. Practical Application: Many foods contain crystals that affect their taste and texture (for example, lactose crystals can give a grainy defect in ice cream). The formation of crystals is often hard to predict so methods to measure the development of crystals inside real foods are useful. In this study, we show that as lactose crystallizes in a gelatin gel the ultrasonic attenuation--capacity to absorb sound--increases and can be related to the amount of crystals present. Ultrasound is easier to apply in real food processing than the existing methodologies. PMID:21535675

  9. Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

    2006-10-01

    An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the ?/( ?+ ?) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is ?-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the ?/ ? mixed phase with smaller amounts of ?-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the ?/ ? mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as ?-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

  10. Use of lactose against the deadly biological toxin ricin.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    Developing a technology for detecting and decontaminating biological toxins is needed. Ricin from Ricinus communis is a highly poisonous toxin; it was formerly used for an assassination in London and in postal attacks in the United States. Ricin is readily available from castor beans and could be used as a biological agent. We propose using glycotechnology against the illegal use of ricin. Lactose (a natural ligand of this toxin) was incorporated into polyacrylamide-based glycopolymers at variable sugar densities (18-100%) and evaluated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and the real agent, ricin. Glycopolymers (18-65% lactose densities) effectively interfered with the toxin-lactoside adhesion event (>99% efficiency within 20 min). This supported the notion of using the mammary sugar lactose against a deadly biological toxin. PMID:20369893

  11. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder.

  12. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  13. The Building Blocks of Cellulose: The Intrinsic Conformational Structures of Cellobiose, Its Epimer, Lactose,

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    , Lactose, and Their Singly Hydrated Complexes Emilio J. Cocinero, David P. Gamblin, Benjamin G. Davis conformation, both in the solid state3 and in aqueous solution;4 so too, does its C-4 epimer, lactose Galp- 1 dipolar coupling in lactose in liquid crystal environments,5 or of inter-residue nuclear Overhauser

  14. Carole-Anne Godbout, stagiaire en nutrition, janvier 2014 L'intolrance au lactose

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    Carole-Anne Godbout, stagiaire en nutrition, janvier 2014 L'intolérance au lactose Vrai ou faux : On peut consommer des produits laitiers même si on est intolérant au lactose. Vrai : Il est possible de consommer des produits laitiers même si vous êtes intolérants au lactose. Cependant, cela dépend en grande

  15. Adverse reactions to food constituents: allergy, intolerance, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kitts, D; Yuan, Y; Joneja, J; Scott, F; Szilagyi, A; Amiot, J; Zarkadas, M

    1997-04-01

    Food allergies and intolerance represent important health concerns to consumers who are predisposed to these illnesses. Unlike many current food safety issues, food sensitivities are complicated by both complex and multiple individual adverse reactions, which can vary from emotional to pathophysiological ailments. In some instances, the underlying mechanisms that result in the development of food allergies or intolerance have marked differences but produce common symptoms. The present-day diagnosis of these disorders can be impeded by intrinsic limitations in generating accurate information from patient history and biochemical, physicochemical, and immunochemical tests. Oral challenge tests represent effective methods for confirming and testing food allergens and food intolerance; however, these procedures are often restricted to clinical trials. It is important to be able to distinguish among food allergy, intolerance, and autoimmune disease in the management of these disorders. The role of food in the development of autoimmune disease may be exemplified by celiac disease, a food-induced enteropathy, requiring exposure to prolamins in wheat, rye, and barley. Various wheat and soy protein sources, including the soy protein isolates used to make infant formulas, have been related to juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), a common chronic disease of childhood. Employing food process technologies to eliminate food constituents with potential for intolerance in some individuals is a potentially viable approach for reducing risk to food-related disorders. Finally, the development of food labelling regulations that require the identification of potential food allergens or agents for intolerance in the ingredient declaration on prepackaged food is a positive step toward the prevention of severe adverse reactions in hypersensitive individuals. PMID:9196849

  16. Biohydrogen production from lactose: influence of substrate and nitrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R; Fierro, J; Fernández, C; Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen produced from renewable sources may be considered the energy vector of the future. However, reducing process costs is imperative in order to achieve this goal. In the present research, the effect of nitrogen (N), initial pH and substrate content for starting up the dark fermentative process was studied using the response surface methodology. Anaerobic digested dried sludge (biosolid pellets) was used as the inoculum. Synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate in batch reactors. A decrease in H2 production was observed with the increase in N and lactose concentrations. This drop was considerably greater when the concentration of lactose was at its lower level. Although the increase in lactose concentration results in a lower H2 production, the effect of N on the response is attenuated at higher levels of lactose. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH on the fermentation system was not significant. The evaluation on the process under semi-continuous conditions was performed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). The process was evaluated at different C/N ratios using synthetic wastewater. Results showed higher hydrogen yields with the gradual decrease in nitrogen content. The addition of cheese whey to the ASBR resulted in a H2 production rate of 0.18?L?H2?L(-1)?d(-1). PMID:25799253

  17. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A; Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-03-25

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis.

  18. Compaction of lactose drug mixtures: quantification of the extent of incompatibility by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Anett; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that lactoses interact with drugs containing amino groups and undergo the Maillard reaction. Lactose monohydrate may also interact with moisture sensitive drugs and affect the stability of the drug. These interactions were analyzed using three model drugs - Thiaminchloride hydrochloride, Nicotinamide and Acetylsalicylic acid - which interact with spray-dried lactose or anhydrous lactose. FT-Raman spectroscopy was used for the first time to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze these excipient drug interactions in powders and tablets. Both lactoses undergo the Maillard reaction with Thiaminchloride hydrochloride. Nicotinamide did not react with the lactoses because the amide group is protected against the reaction with the lactoses. Only a transition from beta- to alpha-lactose was noticed. The moisture sensitive drug Acetylsalicylic acid remained stable even when the tablets were stored under accelerated conditions (40 degrees C and 75% RH). The crystal water of lactose monohydrate (spray-dried lactose) had no influence on the drug stability but a transition from beta- to alpha-lactose was noticed. In conclusion, FT-Raman spectroscopy is a fast and valuable tool for a quantitative determination of the extents of incompatibility in solid dosage forms. PMID:17826048

  19. Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-02-20

    The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48 h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ? 71 ?m) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of ? and ?-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of ?-lactose was more as compared to ?-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose® ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations. PMID:25460546

  20. Dry powder inhalers: mechanistic evaluation of lactose formulations containing salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Ticehurst, Martyn; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between physicochemical properties and aerosolisation performance of different grades of lactose. In order to get a wide range of physicochemical properties, various grades of lactose namely Flowlac 100 (FLO), Lactopress anhydrous 250 (LAC), Cellactose 80 (CEL), Tablettose 80 (TAB), and Granulac 200 (GRA) were used. The different lactose grades were carefully sieved to separate 63-90 ?m particle size fractions and then characterised in terms of size, shape, density, flowability, and solid state. Formulations were prepared by blending each lactose with salbutamol sulphate (SS) at ratio of 67.5:1 (w/w), and then evaluated in terms of SS content uniformity, lactose-SS adhesion properties, and in vitro aerosolisation performance delivered from the Aerolizer. Sieved lactose grades showed similar particle size distributions (PSDs) and good flow properties but different particle shape, particle surface texture, and particle solid state. Content uniformity assessments indicated that lactose particles with rougher surface produced improved SS homogeneity within DPI formulation powders. Lactose-SS adhesion assessments indicated that lactose particles with more elongated shape and the rougher surface showed smaller adhesion force between lactose and salbutamol sulphate. Lactose powders with higher bulk density and higher tap density produced smaller emission (EM) and higher drug loss (DL) of SS. In vitro aerosolisation for various lactose grades followed the following rank order in terms of deposition performance: GRA>TAB>LAC ? CEL>FLO. Linear relationships were established showing that in order to maximize SS delivery to lower airway regions, lactose particles with more elongated shape, more irregular shape, and rougher surface are preferred. Therefore, considerable improvement in DPI performance can be achieved by careful selection of grade of lactose included within DPI formulations. PMID:22197772

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

  2. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, “ambiguity aversion” and “ambiguity intolerance,” are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, “ambiguity aversion” represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, “ambiguity intolerance” describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  3. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  4. Orthostatic Intolerance and Motion Sickness After Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. Copies may be... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. Copies may be... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section...

  7. Configuration of a bioreactor for milk lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Genari, A N; Passos, F V; Passos, F M L

    2003-09-01

    Permeabilized microbial cells can be used as a crude enzyme preparation for industrial applications. Immobilization and process recycling can compensate for the low specific activity of this preparation. For biomass immobilization, the common support is alginate beads; however, its low surface area and the low biomass concentration limit the activity. We here describe a biocatalyst consisting of a paste of permeabilized Kluyveromyces lactis cells gelled with manganese alginate over a semicircular stainless steel screen. A ratio of wet permeabilized biomass to alginate of 50:4 (wt/wt) resulted in a paste with maximum immobilized beta-galactosidase activity and maximum gel biomass retention. The biocatalysts retained activity better when stored in milk at 4 degrees C than in 50% glycerol. The unused biocatalysts stored in milk did not lose activity after 50 d. However, repeated use of the same biocatalyst 40 times resulted in almost 50% loss of activity. A bioreactor design with two different conditions of operation were tested for milk lactose hydrolysis using this biocatalyst. The bioreactor was operated at 40 degrees C as packed bed or with recirculation, similar to a continuous stirred tank reactor. The continuous system with recirculation resulted in 82.9% lactose hydrolysis at a residence time of 285.5 min (flow of 2.0 ml/min), indicating the potential of this system for processing low lactose milk, or even in processing other substrates, using an appropriate biocatalyst. PMID:14507014

  8. Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

    SciTech Connect

    Domingues, L.; Dantas, M.M.; Lima, N.; Teixeira, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cetevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding the {beta}-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lactose concentrations, total lactose consumption was observed with a conversion yield of ethanol close to the expected theoretical value. For the continuously operating bioreactor, an ethanol productivity of 11 g L{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} (corresponding to a feed lactose concentration of 50 g L{sup {minus}1} and a dilution rate of 0.55 h{sup {minus}1}) was obtained, which is 7 times larger than the continuous conventional systems. The system stability was confirmed by keeping it in operation for 6 months.

  9. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic states that lead to orthostatic intolerance.

  10. Proteomic analysis in allergy and intolerance to wheat products.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its extensive use in the human diet, wheat is among the most common causes of food-related allergies and intolerances. Allergies to wheat are provoked by ingestion, inhalation or contact with either the soluble or the insoluble gluten proteins in wheat. Gluten proteins, and particularly the gliadin fraction, are also the main factor triggering celiac disease, a common enteropathy induced by ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related prolamins from oat, rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The role of gliadin and of its derived peptides in eliciting the adverse reactions in celiac disease are still far from being completely explained. Owing to its unique pathogenesis, celiac disease is widely investigated as a model immunogenetic disorder. The structural characterization of the injuring agents, the gluten proteins, assumes a particular significance in order to deepen the understanding of the events that trigger this and similar diseases at the molecular level. Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of several basic aspects of wheat protein-related diseases. These include: the identification of gluten fractions and derived peptides involved in wheat allergy and intolerance, including celiac disease, and the elucidation of their mechanism of toxicity; the development and validation of sensitive and specific methods for detecting trace amounts of gluten proteins in gluten-free foods for intolerant patients; and the formulation of completely new substitute foods and ingredients to replace the gluten-based ones. In this article, the main aspects of current and prospective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterization of gluten proteins and derived peptides are critically presented, with a focus on issues related to their detection, identification and quantification, which are relevant to the biochemical, immunological and toxicological aspects of wheat intolerance. PMID:21329430

  11. Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

  12. Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, C D; Mullen, T J; Sundby, G H; Rostoft, S; Sheynberg, N; Aljuri, N; Maa, M; Mukkamala, R; Sherman, D; Toska, K; Yelle, J; Bloomfield, D; Williams, G H; Cohen, R J

    2001-06-01

    Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. PMID:11356789

  13. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    PubMed

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110?M, 125?M, 150?M, 200?M, 350?M (?-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ?80% ?-AL), DCL11 (spray dried ?-lactose monohydrate containing ?15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated ?-lactose monohydrate containing ?12% ?-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110?M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work). PMID:25212639

  14. HIV-related Social Intolerance and Risky Sexual Behavior in a High HIV Prevalence Environment

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2,000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudional Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. PMID:24768779

  15. Roller compaction: Effect of morphology and amorphous content of lactose powder on product quality.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Osborne, James D; Althaus, Tim O; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    The effect of morphology and amorphous content, of three types of lactose, on the properties of ribbon produced using roller compaction was investigated. The three types of lactose powders were; anhydrous SuperTab21AN, ?-lactose monohydrate 200M, and spray dried lactose SuperTab11SD. The morphology of the primary particles was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the powder amorphous content was quantified using NIR technique. SEM images showed that 21AN and SD are agglomerated type of lactose whereas the 200M is a non-agglomerated type. During ribbon production, an online thermal imaging technique was used to monitor the surface temperature of the ribbon. It was found that the morphology and the amorphous content of lactose powders have significant effects on the roller compaction behaviour and on ribbon properties. The agglomerated types of lactose produced ribbon with higher surface temperature and tensile strength, larger fragment size, lower porosity and lesser fines percentages than the non-agglomerated type of lactose. The lactose powder with the highest amorphous content showed to result in a better binding ability between the primary particles. This type of lactose produced ribbons with the highest temperature and tensile strength, and the lowest porosity and amount of fines in the product. It also produced ribbon with more smooth surfaces in comparison to the other two types of lactose. It was noticed that there is a relationship between the surface temperature of the ribbon during production and the tensile strength of the ribbon; the higher the temperature of the ribbon during production the higher the tensile strength of the ribbon. PMID:26117279

  16. Lactose as a “Trojan Horse” for Quantum Dot Cell Transport**

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Alifonso, David; Tremel, Shirley; Hou, Bo; Lockyear, Harriet; Mantell, Judith; Fermin, David J; Verkade, Paul; Berry, Monica; Galan, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A series of glycan-coated quantum dots were prepared to probe the effect of glycan presentation in intracellular localization in HeLa and SV40 epithelial cells. We show that glycan density mostly impacts on cell toxicity, whereas glycan type affects the cell uptake and intracellular localization. Moreover, we show that lactose can act as a “Trojan horse” on bi-functionalized QDs to help intracellular delivery of other non-internalizable glycan moieties and largely avoid the endosomal/lysosomal degradative pathway. PMID:24311369

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Chemical Intolerance: A Japanese Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Iwao; Katoh, Takahiko; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Arashidani, Keiichi; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    Population-based cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of chemical intolerance and to examine the characteristics of the sample. A Web-based survey was conducted that included 7,245 adults in Japan. The criteria for chemical intolerance proposed by Skovbjerg yielded a prevalence of 7.5% that was approximately consistent with that reported from a Danish population-based survey. Female gender, older age, and renovation in the house during the past 7 years were positively associated with chemical intolerance. Improvements in the condition were observed with daily ventilation habits. Medical history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, multiple chemical sensitivity, and depression were associated with chemical intolerance. Fatigue, depressed mood, and somatic symptoms were also positively correlated with chemical intolerance. Better elucidation of the causes, comorbidities, concomitants, and consequences of chemical intolerance has the potential to provide effective solutions for its prevention and treatment. PMID:25137616

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of crystallized-particle size in lactose-powder by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Sakura; Imai, Yoh; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to evaluate crystallized lactose particle of size below 30 ?m, which is far too small compared to the wavelength of incident terahertz (THz)-wave. The THz-absorption spectrum of lactose is successfully deconvoluted by Lorentzian to two spectra with peaks at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz) derived from ?-lactose monohydrate, and a spectrum at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) from anhydrous ?-lactose after removal of the broad-band spectrum by polynomial cubic function. Lactose is mainly crystallized into ?-lactose monohydrate from the supersaturated solution at room temperature with a small amount of anhydrous ?-lactose below 4%. The absorption feature is dependent on the crystallized particle size and the integrated intensity ratio of the two absorptions due to ?-lactose monohydrate is correlated in linear for the size.

  19. Inhibition of Recrystallization of Amorphous Lactose in Nanocomposites Formed by Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Alderborn, Göran; Mahlin, Denny

    2015-11-01

    This study aims at investigating the recrystallization of amorphous lactose in nanocomposites. In particular, the focus is on the influence of the nano- to micrometer length scale nanofiller arrangement on the amorphous to crystalline transition. Further, the relative significance of formulation composition and manufacturing process parameters for the properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Nanocomposites of amorphous lactose and fumed silica were produced by co-spray-drying. Solid-state transformation of the lactose was studied at 43%, 84%, and 94% relative humidity using X-ray powder diffraction and microcalorimetry. Design of experiments was used to analyze spray-drying process parameters and nanocomposite composition as factors influencing the time to 50% recrystallization. The spray-drying process parameters showed no significant influence. However, the recrystallization of the lactose in the nanocomposites was affected by the composition (fraction silica). The recrystallization rate constant decreased as a function of silica content. The lowered recrystallization rate of the lactose in the nanocomposites could be explained by three mechanisms: (1) separation of the amorphous lactose into discrete compartments on a micrometer length scale (compartmentalization), (2) lowered molecular mobility caused by molecular interactions between the lactose molecules and the surface of the silica (rigidification), and/or (3) intraparticle confinement of the amorphous lactose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3760-3769, 2015. PMID:26182904

  20. CONTRIBUTION OF PLASMA GALACTOSE AND GLUCOSE TO MILK LACTOSE SYNTHESIS DURING GALACTOSE INGESTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that plasma glucose contributed 80% in the fed and 60% in the fasted state to lactose synthesis in humans, while de novo synthesis in the breast contributing to both the glucose and galactose moieties accounted for the remaining 20 and 40%, respectively, of lactose. T...

  1. J. Mol. Biol. (1981) 145, 697-712 Genetic Fusions That Place the Lactose Genes

    E-print Network

    Roth, John R.

    1981-01-01

    . CHUMLEY AND .J. It. ROTH The crucial first step in obtaining fusions of the hk and lac operonsJ. Mol. Biol. (1981) 145, 697-712 Genetic Fusions That Place the Lactose Genes Under Histidine/v) lactose, final concentration. (c) !tbnsdzcctions and conjugations Generalized transductions using P22 HT

  2. Lactose hydrolysis by ?-galactosidase enzyme: optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Das, Bipasha; Roy, Ananda Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to optimize the process of lactose hydrolysis using free and immobilized ?-galactosidase to produce glucose and galactose. Response surface methodology (RSM) by central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the degree of hydrolysis by varying three parameters, temperature (15-45°C), solution pH (5-9) and ?-galactosidase enzyme concentration (2-8mg/mL) for free mode of analysis and sodium alginate concentration (2-4%), calcium chloride concentration (3-6%) and enzyme concentration (2-8mg/mL) for immobilized process. Based on plots and variance analysis, the optimum operational conditions for maximizing lactose hydrolysis were found to be temperature (35.5°C), pH (6.7) and enzyme concentration (6.7mg/mL) in free mode and sodium alginate concentration (3%), calcium chloride concentration (5.9%) and enzyme concentration (5.2mg/mL) in immobilized mode. PMID:25842188

  3. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    ?-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  4. Synthesis of carbon-13 enriched disaccharides: lactose and sucrose

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.E.; Unkefer, P.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Ehler, D.S.

    1986-05-01

    Disaccharides can be prepared enzymatically and by chemical synthesis. Lactose enriched with carbon-13 at C-1 can be synthesized by reacting K/sup 13/CN with a sugar having a one fewer carbon than the desired product. Thus, a mixture of 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)glucose ((1-/sup 13/C)lactose) and 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)mannose can be synthesized from 3-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose and K/sup 13/CN. (/sup 13/C)Sucrose is conveniently prepared in gram quantities from D-(/sup 13/C)fructose and UDP-glucose in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose synthetase. This reaction proceeds smoothly at 25/sup 0/ over a period of hours to give an equilibrium mixture which can be separated chromatographically. The glucose portion of sucrose can be labeled using enzymatically-prepared UDP-(/sup 13/C)glucose. Labeled sucrose is important for the preparation of labeled starches to be used for structural and metabolic studies.

  5. Orthostatic intolerance without postural tachycardia: how much dysautonomia?

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Singer, Wolfgang; Allison, Thomas G.; Sletten, David M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance occur in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI) without tachycardia. We recently reported that deconditioning is almost universal in both patient groups. In this study, we focussed on the question of how much dysautonomia, besides orthostatic tachycardia, is there in POTS vs. OI, and how the two groups compare in regards to clinical, autonomic, laboratory, and exercise variables. Methods We retrospectively studied all patients referred for orthostatic intolerance at Mayo Clinic between January 2006 and June 2011, who underwent standardized autonomic and exercise testing. Results Eighty-four POTS and 100 OI fulfilled inclusion criteria, 89 % were females. The mean age was 25 and 32 years, respectively. Clinical presentation, autonomic parameters, laboratory findings, and degree of deconditioning were overall similar between the two groups, except for the excessive orthostatic heart rate (HR) rise and mild vasomotor findings observed in POTS but not in OI (slightly larger Valsalva ratio and incomplete blood pressure recovery during Valsalva). Both groups responded poorly to various medications. Severely deconditioned patients were similar to non-deconditioned patients, except for 24 h urine volume (1,555 vs. 2,417 ml), sweat loss on thermoregulatory sweat test (1.5 vs. 0.5 %), and few respiratory parameters during exercise, which are likely clinically insignificant. Conclusion Though similar in clinical presentation, POTS and OI are different entities with greater, albeit still mild, dysautonomia in POTS. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of minimal dysautonomia in the absence of orthostatic tachycardia as seen in OI remain uncertain. PMID:23729158

  6. Effect of lactose concentration on batch production of ethanol from cheese whey using Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of lactose concentration on growth of Candida pseudotropicalis and ethanol production from cheese whey under batch conditions was investigated. Four initial lactose concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 g/L (5 to 20% wt/vol) were used. High concentration of lactose had an inhibitory effect on the specific growth rate, lactose utilization rate, and ethanol production rate. The maximum cell concentration was influenced by the initial substrate concentration as well as ethanol concentration. Inhibition of ethanol production was more pronounced at higher initial lactose concentrations. The maximum ethanol yield (96.6% of the theoretical yield) was achieved with the 100 g/L initial substrate concentration. The results indicated that pH control during alcohol fermentation of cheese whey is not necessary. 41 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. [Lactose-free formula products available in Mexico. Their significance and applications].

    PubMed

    Rosado, J L; Mimiaga, C

    1996-11-01

    Lactose in milk and dairy products can be significantly reduced by the utilization of microbial beta-galactosidases. These enzymes can be used to treat milk during its processing or they can be administered with milk at meal time as an enzyme replacement therapy in which case hydrolysis occurs in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose in milk can alternatively be eliminated by ultrafiltration, a process that divides milk components based on their size. A third way of reducing or eliminating lactose content is formulating a product or even "milk" from ingredients which avoid the use of lactose. Technologies like these are used to develop infant formula, enteral formula products and low-lactose milks. In this paper products of this kind available in Mexico are described. PMID:9122550

  8. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  9. Influence of the lactose grade within dry powder formulations of fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Le, V N P; Bierend, H; Robins, E; Steckel, H; Flament, M P

    2012-01-17

    Dry powder formulations are often composed of fine drug particles and coarser carrier particles, typically alpha-lactose monohydrate. However, the performance of a powder formulation may be highly dependent on the lactose quality and source. This study investigated the characteristics of lactose that influence the drug-to-carrier interaction and the performance of lactose-based dry powder inhaler formulations. The selected lactoses differed in the preparation processes and the content of fine lactose particles. Efficiency testing was done using fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as model drugs. Inverse gas chromatography was used to determine the surface heterogeneity distribution of different energy sites of the lactose and to understand the mechanism by which the fine carrier particles can improve the performance of dry powder inhalers. To assess the adhesion of respirable-sized drug to carrier particles, a simple method was developed based on aspiration and considering the whole blend as it is used in dry powder inhalers. When the percentage of fine lactose is high, a lower quantity of drug adheres to the lactose and/or the adhesion force is also lower. This was confirmed by the aerosolization assays done in the TSI (twin stage impinger). A correlation was observed between adhesion characteristics and inertial impaction. For both drugs, the fine particle fractions were highest in blends that present a greater proportion of lactose fine particles. A fairly good correlation between the fine particle fractions of both drugs and the peak max value and the AUC (area under curve) were found by inverse gas chromatography. With higher fine particle fraction values, which correspond to higher content of fines, the peak maxima determined by inverse gas chromatography were shifted to higher adsorption potentials, which supports the agglomeration hypothesis. PMID:22036653

  10. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

  11. Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D; Ritchey, P Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents and assessing only a single domain of prejudice. We addressed the intergenerational transmission of prejudice and stereotyping using three competing models: same-sex, parent equivalent, and differential effects. Using multiple regressions in which parents' scores were entered separately, along with control variables, different maternal and paternal influences were detected. Mothers were the primary influence for prejudice regarding HIV/AIDS, fatness, and race, and fathers were the primary influence for male and female stereotyping and prejudice against homosexuals, supporting the differential effects model. We also established that prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains reflected a more general proclivity to be intolerant. In contrast to prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains, fathers and mothers about equally shaped the adolescents' intolerance, supporting the parent equivalent model. PMID:15673220

  12. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

  13. Intolerance of sexy peers: intrasexual competition among women.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sharma, Aanchal

    2011-01-01

    Intrasexual competition among males of different species, including humans, is well documented. Among females, far less is known. Recent nonexperimental studies suggest that women are intolerant of attractive females and use indirect aggression to derogate potential rivals. In Study 1, an experimental design was used to test the evolutionary-based hypothesis that women would be intolerant of sexy women and would censure those who seem to make sex too readily available. Results provide strong empirical support for intrasexual competition among women. Using independent raters, blind to condition, we found that almost all women were rated as reacting negatively ("bitchy") to an attractive female confederate when she was dressed in a sexually provocative manner. In contrast, when she was dressed conservatively, the same confederate was barely noticed by the participants. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to assess whether the sexy female confederate from Study 1 was viewed as a sexual rival by women. Results indicated that as hypothesized, women did not want to introduce her to their boyfriend, allow him to spend time alone with her, or be friends with her. Findings from both studies are discussed in terms of evolutionary theory. PMID:21932332

  14. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  15. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general…

  16. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  17. Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2007-01-01

    Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the…

  18. Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

  19. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  20. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. PMID:25466047

  1. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-10-06

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of /sup 14/C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of approx. 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA.

  2. Identification of major facilitator transporters involved in cellulase production during lactose culture of Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7.

    PubMed

    Porciuncula, Juliano de Oliveira; Furukawa, Takanori; Shida, Yosuke; Mori, Kazuki; Kuhara, Satoshi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    Although lactose is a preferred cellulase inducer in the industrial production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei, the mechanism of induction is not fully understood. Because sugar transporters might be involved at an early step of induction by oligosaccharides, we sought permeases associated with cellulase induction by lactose. Two such MFS sugar transporters in the T. reesei hyper-cellulolytic PC-3-7 strain, an industrial cellulase producer developed in Japan, were identified in a screening for lactose permeases. Disruption of the genes encoding these two transporters resulted in decreased lactose uptake and delayed growth in lactose culture. Further, the deletion strains produced less cellulase when cultivated on lactose. No substantial differences were observed in cellulase production when PC-3-7 was cultivated in cellulose-based medium. The present work provides evidence that these transporters are critical for cellulase production in lactose culture. PMID:23649266

  3. Effect of pH and lactose concentration on solvent production from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.

    1987-02-20

    A study was performed to optimize the production of solvents from whey permeate in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Fermentations performed at relatively low pH values resulted in high solvent yields and productivities, but lactose utilization was incomplete. At higher pH values, lactose-utilization was improved but acid production dominated over solvent production. When operating at the higher pH values, an increase in the initial lactose concentration of the whey permeate resulted in lower rates of lactose utilization, and this was accompanied by increased solvent production and decreased acid production. Analysis of data from several experiments revealed a strong inverse relationship between solvent yield and lactose utilization rate. Thus, conditions which minimize the lactose utilization rate such as low culture pH values or high initial lactose concentrations, favor solventogenesis at the expense of acid production. 12 references.

  4. Human gut microbiota changes reveal the progression of glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuying; Shen, Dongqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Jie, Zhuye; Qiu, Xinmin; Zhang, Chunfang; Chen, Yingli; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n?=?44), prediabetes (Pre-DM; n?=?64), or newly diagnosed T2DM (n?=?13). Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP) and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6) had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24013136

  5. Hepatic lipase deficiency produces glucose intolerance, inflammation and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Blasco, Irene; Herrero-Cervera, Andrea; Vinué, Ángela; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Piqueras, Laura; Sanz, María Jesús; Burks, Deborah Jane; González-Navarro, Herminia

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus constitute a major problem to global health, and their incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which affects up to 90% of obese people and nearly 70% of the overweight, is commonly associated with MetS characteristics such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. In the present study, we demonstrate that hepatic lipase (HL)-inactivation in mice fed with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet produced dyslipidemia including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. These changes were accompanied by glucose intolerance, pancreatic and hepatic inflammation and steatosis. In addition, compared with WT mice, HL(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced circulating MCP1 levels, monocytosis and higher percentage of CD4+Th17+ cells. Consistent with increased inflammation, livers from HL(-/-) mice had augmented activation of the stress SAPK/JNK- and p38-pathways compared with the activation levels of the kinases in livers from WT mice. Analysis of HL(-/-) and WT mice fed regular chow diet showed dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance in HL(-/-) mice without any other changes in inflammation or hepatic steatosis. Altogether, these results indicate that dyslipidemia induced by HL-deficiency in combination with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet promotes hepatic steatosis and inflammation in mice which are, at least in part, mediated by the activation of the stress SAPK/JNK- and p38-pathways. Future studies are warranted to asses the viability of therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of these kinases to reduce hepatic steatosis associated to lipase dysfunction. PMID:26423094

  6. Defined bacterial culture development for methane generation from lactose. [Streptococcus lactis; Clostridium formicoaceticum; Methanococcus mazei

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Tang, I.C.; Okos, M.R.

    1988-06-20

    The defined microbial cultures for methane generation from lactose were investigated. A mixed culture consisting of homolactic (Streptococcus lactis), homoacetic (Clostridium formicoaceticum), and acetate-utilizing methanogenic (Methanococcus mazei) bacteria was used to convert lactose and whey permeate to methane at mesophilic temperatures (35-37/sup 0/C) and a pH around 7.0. Lactose was first converted to lactic acid by S. lactis, then to acetic acid by C. formicoaceticum, and finally to methane and CO/sub 2/ by M. mazei. About 5.3 mol methane were obtained from each mole of lactose consumed, and the conversion of acetate to methane was the rate-limiting step for this mixed-culture fermentation.

  7. Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

  8. Adaptive evolution of the lactose utilization network in experimentally evolved populations of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Quan, Selwyn; Kwota, Zakari; Duong, Trang; Balazsi, Gabor; Cooper, Tim F.; Monds, Russell D.; Ray, J. Christian J.

    2012-01-12

    . To this end, we have focused on understanding both how and why the lactose utilization network has evolved in replicate populations of Escherichia coli. We found that lac operon regulation became strikingly variable, including changes in the mode...

  9. The lactose repressor system: paradigms for regulation, allosteric behavior and protein folding.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J; Zhan, H; Swint-Kruse, L; Matthews, K S

    2007-01-01

    In 1961, Jacob and Monod proposed the operon model for gene regulation based on metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli. This proposal was followed by an explication of allosteric behavior by Monod and colleagues. The operon model rationally depicted how genetic mechanisms can control metabolic events in response to environmental stimuli via coordinated transcription of a set of genes with related function (e.g. metabolism of lactose). The allosteric response found in the lactose repressor and many other proteins has been extended to a variety of cellular signaling pathways in all organisms. These two models have shaped our view of modern molecular biology and captivated the attention of a surprisingly broad range of scientists. More recently, the lactose repressor monomer was used as a model system for experimental and theoretical explorations of protein folding mechanisms. Thus, the lac system continues to advance our molecular understanding of genetic control and the relationship between sequence, structure and function. PMID:17103112

  10. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  11. At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.

    PubMed

    Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

    2013-04-01

    Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817

  12. Effect of age and lactose on sup 67 Cu utilization in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.; Dowdy, R.; Michelmann, E.; Hill, G.; Zinn, K.; Trrokey, D.; Ellersieck, M. )

    1991-03-15

    Young and old male Fischer 344 rats were fed a control diet or a lactose diet. After four weeks rats were gavaged with approximately 6.24 uCl {sup 67}Cu, placed in metabolism cages, and fed their respective diets for an additional two weeks. Daily whole body, urine and fecal radioactivity measurements were made. Rats were killed on day 42 and livers removed for radioactivity determination. Diet had no effect on whole body retention of {sup 67}Cu in the old rats; approximately 20% of the initial dose was retained by the end of the study. In the young rats, however, lactose appeared to enhance initial {sup 67}Cu retention; by day three young control rats retained only 30% of the initial dose, while the young lactose rats retained about 50%. Retention of {sup 67}Cu at the end of the study was approximately 15% and 20% for young control and young lactose rats, respectively. During the first four days post dosing, cumulative fecal {sup 67}Cu excretion was approximately 83% for young control rats and 69% for young lactose rats indicating enhancement of {sup 67}Cu absorption by lactose in the young rats. For old rats cumulative {sup 67}Cu excretion in feces was about 50% regardless of diet. Cumulative urinary {sup 67}Cu excretion was approximately 6% and 8% for young control and lactose rats, respectively vs about 11% for old rats. {sup 67}Cu retention in liver was greater in old rats regardless of diet. The early increase in {sup 67}Cu absorption after a bolus dose may have therapeutic implications. In light of current concern regarding Cu-carbohydrate interactions, the apparent enhancement Cu retention by lactose in young rats deserves further attention.

  13. Bistability of the naturally induced lactose utilization system of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajic, Jelena; Wall, Michael

    2006-03-01

    In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.

  14. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. PMID:25529422

  15. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed. PMID:26184291

  16. The influence of physical properties and morphology of crystallised lactose on delivery of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Larhrib, Hassan; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Kolosionek, Ewa; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanistic evaluation of physicochemical properties of new engineered lactose on aerosolisation performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) delivered from dry powder inhaler (DPI). Different crystallised lactose particles were obtained from binary mixtures of butanol:acetone. The sieved fractions (63-90 ?m) of crystallised lactose were characterised in terms of size, shape, flowability, true density and aerosolisation performance (using multiple twin stage impinger (MSLI), Aerolizer(®) inhaler device, and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug). Compared to commercial lactose, crystallised lactose particles were less elongated, covered with fine lactose particles, and had a rougher surface morphology. The crystallised lactose powders had a considerably lower bulk and tap density and poorer flow when compared to commercial lactose. Engineered carrier with better flow showed improved drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug "deposited" on the inhaler device and throat, and a smaller drug aerodynamic diameter upon inhalation. Aerodynamic diameter of salbutamol sulphate increased as lactose aerodynamic diameter decreased (linear, R(2)=0.9191) and/or as fine particle lactose content increased (linear, R(2)=0.8653). Improved drug aerosolisation performance in the case of crystallised lactose particles was attributed to lower drug-carrier adhesion forces due to a rougher surface and higher fine particle content. In conclusion, this work proved that using binary combinations of solvents in crystallisation medium is vital in modification of the physicochemical and micromeritic properties of carriers to achieve a desirable aerosolisation performance from DPI formulations. Among all lactose samples, lactose particles crystallised from pure butanol generated the highest overall DPI formulations desirability. PMID:21962946

  17. Influence of fines on the surface energy heterogeneity of lactose for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ho, Raimundo; Muresan, Adrian S; Hebbink, Gerald A; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2010-03-30

    The effects of the blending of lactose fines to the overall adhesion property of coarse alpha-lactose monohydrate carrier particles were investigated. Five samples, three of them commercial samples from DOMO (Lactohale) LH100, LH210, and LH250) whilst the other two are blends of LH210 and LH250, were studied. Characterisation included particle sizing, SEM, PXRD and IGC. Dispersive surface energy gamma(SV)(d) was determined using a finite concentration IGC method to obtain a distribution profile. The gamma(SV)(d) distribution of lactose crystals was found to vary from 40 to 48mJ/m(2). The unmilled coarse crystalline lactose sample (LH100) gamma(SV)(d) was lowest and showed less heterogeneity than the milled sample (LH250). Fines (LH210) were found to have the highest gamma(SV)(d) value. The samples with loaded LH210 were found to have a higher energy than LH100. The amount of LH210 in Blend 1 was not able to decrease surface energy heterogeneity, whereas sample Blend 2 showed adequate loading of fines to obtain a relatively homogeneous surface. Addition of fines resulted in an increase in gamma(SV)(d), suggesting that coarse lactose surfaces were replaced by surfaces of the fines. Increasing the loading of fines may result in a more homogeneous surface energy of lactose particles. PMID:20038447

  18. Analysis of the mechanism and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Tangney, Martin; Aass, Hans C; Mitchell, Wilfrid J

    2007-03-01

    Although the acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum is currently uneconomic, the ability of the bacterium to metabolize a wide range of carbohydrates offers the potential for revival based on the use of cheap, low-grade substrates. We have investigated the uptake and metabolism of lactose, the major sugar in industrial whey waste, by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Lactose is taken up via a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) comprising both soluble and membrane-associated components, and the resulting phosphorylated derivative is hydrolyzed by a phospho-beta-galactosidase. These activities are induced during growth on lactose but are absent in glucose-grown cells. Analysis of the C. acetobutylicum genome sequence identified a gene system, lacRFEG, encoding a transcriptional regulator of the DeoR family, IIA and IICB components of a lactose PTS, and phospho-beta-galactosidase. During growth in medium containing both glucose and lactose, C. acetobutylicum exhibited a classical diauxic growth, and the lac operon was not expressed until glucose was exhausted from the medium. The presence upstream of lacR of a potential catabolite responsive element (cre) encompassing the transcriptional start site is indicative of the mechanism of carbon catabolite repression characteristic of low-GC gram-positive bacteria. A pathway for the uptake and metabolism of lactose by this industrially important organism is proposed. PMID:17209069

  19. Dry powders for oral inhalation free of lactose carrier particles.

    PubMed

    Healy, Anne Marie; Amaro, Maria Inês; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia

    2014-08-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) products have traditionally comprised a simple formulation of micronised drug mixed with a carrier excipient, typically lactose monohydrate. The presence of the carrier is aimed at overcoming issues of poor flowability and dispersibility, associated with the cohesive nature of small, micronised active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles. Both the powder blend and the DPI device must be carefully designed so as to ensure detachment of the micronised drug from the carrier excipient on inhalation. Over the last two decades there has been a significant body of research undertaken on the design of carrier-free formulations for DPI products. Many of these formulations are based on sophisticated particle engineering techniques; a common aim in formulation design of carrier-free products being to reduce the intrinsic cohesion of the particles, while maximising dispersion and delivery from the inhaler. In tandem with the development of alternative formulations has been the development of devices designed to ensure the efficient delivery and dispersion of carrier-free powder on inhalation. In this review we examine approaches to both the powder formulation and inhaler design for carrier-free DPI products. PMID:24735676

  20. Kinetic approaches to lactose operon induction and bimodality

    E-print Network

    Michel, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The quasi-equilibrium approximation is acceptable when molecular interactions are fast enough compared to circuit dynamics, but is no longer allowed when cellular activities are governed by rare events. A typical example is the lactose operon (lac), one of the most famous paradigms of transcription regulation, for which several theories still coexist to describe its behaviors. The lac system is generally analyzed by using equilibrium constants, contradicting single-event hypotheses long suggested by Novick and Weiner (1957). Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566) and recently refined in the study of (Choi et al., 2008. A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell. Science 322, 442-446). In the present report, a lac repressor (LacI)-mediated DNA immunoprecipitation experiment reveals that the natural LacI-lac DNA complex built in vivo is extremely tight and long-lived compared to the time scale of lac expression dynamics, wh...

  1. Energy-based analysis of milling alpha-lactose monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ding, Y; Papadopoulos, D G; Ghadiri, M

    2004-04-01

    Some observations on the milling of alpha-lactose monohydrate with a Retsch single-ball mill are reported. The effects of mill loading and frequency of the mill motion were investigated. At a given frequency, a lower mill loading showed a higher milling efficiency. For a given mill loading, size reduction rate increased exponentially with frequency. The milling behavior was analyzed with three energy-based models; namely, Rittinger's, Kick's, and Bond's models. The results suggest that Rittinger's model best describes the milling behavior for low mill loadings at high frequencies, whereas the data for high loading milling at low frequencies fit Kick's model better. The results also indicate that attrition and/or chipping is the dominant mechanism for milling at low frequencies with high loadings because of the shear action of the milling ball rolling on the powder bed. Also, as a result of impact of the milling ball on the two ends of the milling jar, fragmentation is responsible for size reduction at high frequencies with low loadings. PMID:14999726

  2. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  3. Utilization of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans: transport, toxicity, and carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Das, Satarupa; Burne, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Abundant in milk and other dairy products, lactose is considered to have an important role in oral microbial ecology and can contribute to caries development in both adults and young children. To better understand the metabolism of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans, the major etiological agent of human tooth decay, a genetic analysis of the tagatose-6-phosphate (lac) and Leloir (gal) pathways was performed in strain UA159. Deletion of each gene in the lac operon caused various alterations in expression of a P(lacA)-cat promoter fusion and defects in growth on either lactose (lacA, lacB, lacF, lacE, and lacG), galactose (lacA, lacB, lacD, and lacG) or both sugars (lacA, lacB, and lacG). Failure to grow in the presence of galactose or lactose by certain lac mutants appeared to arise from the accumulation of intermediates of galactose metabolism, particularly galatose-6-phosphate. The glucose- and lactose-PTS permeases, EII(Man) and EII(Lac), respectively, were shown to be the only effective transporters of galactose in S. mutans. Furthermore, disruption of manL, encoding EIIAB(Man), led to increased resistance to glucose-mediated CCR when lactose was used to induce the lac operon, but resulted in reduced lac gene expression in cells growing on galactose. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably high degree of complexity in the regulation of lactose/galactose catabolism. PMID:20190045

  4. Novel high-performance metagenome ?-galactosidases for lactose hydrolysis in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Erich, Sarah; Kuschel, Beatrice; Schwarz, Thilo; Ewert, Jacob; Böhmer, Nico; Niehaus, Frank; Eck, Jürgen; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-09-20

    The industrially utilised ?-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces spp. and Aspergillus spp. feature undesirable kinetic properties in praxis, such as an unsatisfactory lactose affinity (KM) and product inhibition (KI) by galactose. In this study, a metagenome library of about 1.3 million clones was investigated with a three-step activity-based screening strategy in order to find new ?-galactosidases with more favourable kinetic properties. Six novel metagenome ?-galactosidases (M1-M6) were found with an improved lactose hydrolysis performance in original milk when directly compared to the commercial ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (GODO-YNL2). The best metagenome candidate, called "M1", was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in a bioreactor (volume 35 L), resulting in a total ?-galactosidase M1 activity of about 1100 ?katoNPGal,37 °C L(-1). Since milk is a sensitive and complex medium, it has to be processed at 5-10 °C in the dairy industry. Therefore, the ?-galactosidase M1 was tested at 8 °C in milk and possessed a good stability (t1/2=21.8 d), a desirably low apparent KM,lactose,8 °C value of 3.8±0.7 mM and a high apparent KI,galactose,8 °C value of 196.6±55.5 mM. A lactose hydrolysis process (milk, 40 nkatlactose mLmilk,8 °C(-1)) was conducted at a scale of 0.5L to compare the performance of M1 with the commercial ?-galactosidase from K. lactis (GODO-YNL2). Lactose was completely (>99.99%) hydrolysed by M1 and to 99.6% (w/v) by K. lactis ?-galactosidase after 25 h process time. Thus, M1 was able to achieve the limit of <100 mg lactose per litre milk, which is recommended for dairy products labelled as "lactose-free". PMID:26122513

  5. Evaluation of granulated lactose as a carrier for DPI formulations 1: effect of granule size.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Du, Ju; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of large granulated lactose carrier particle systems on aerosol performance of dry powder inhaler formulations. Granulated lactose carriers with average sizes ranging from 200 to 1,000 ?m were prepared and subsequently fractionated into separate narrow size powders. The fractionated granulated lactose (GL) samples were characterized in terms of size, specific surface area, surface roughness, morphology, density, flowability, and solid-state. The in vitro aerosolization performance was performed on the different size fractions of GL samples from a commercial inhaler device (Aerolizer®) with a model formulation (2% w/w salbutamol sulfate). The cascade impaction parameters employed were 60 or 90 L/min with standard (aperture size, 0.6 mm) or modified piercing holes (aperture size, 1.2 mm) of the inhaler loaded capsules. It was shown that the largest size fraction formulation (850-1000 ?m) had a slight improvement in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to immediately preceding size fractions, explained by a smaller adhesive force between drug and carrier. Compared to commercial piercing holes, enlarged piercing holes generated a slight decreasing trend of FPF as the lactose powder sizes increased from 200-250 ?m to 600-850 ?m, perhaps due to the reduced detachment force by flow forces. The size, surface roughness, density, and flowability of lactose carrier as well as device design all contributed to the aerosol dispersion performance of granulated lactose-based adhesive mixtures. It was concluded that poorer or enhanced redispersion performance is not an inherent property to the significantly large size of granulated lactose carriers as previously contended. PMID:24962007

  6. Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ills

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q

    2014-01-01

    Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and thus requires promptly and effective treatment. Prokinetic agents are currently considered as the first-line therapy given issues relating to parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric placement. Currently, the agents of choice are erythromycin and metoclopramide, either alone or in combination, which are highly effective with relatively low incidence of cardiac, hemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. Diarrhea, however, can occur in up to 49% of patients who are treated with the dual prokinetic therapy, which is not associated with Clostridium difficile infection and settled soon after the cessation of the drugs. Hence, the use of prokinetic therapy over a long period or for prophylactic purpose must be avoided, and the indication for ongoing use of the drug(s) must be reviewed frequently. Second line therapy, such as total parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric feeding, must be considered once adverse effects relating the prokinetic therapy develop. PMID:25133043

  7. Wheat Allergy and Intolerence; Recent Updates and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2016-01-01

    The current review paper highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially ?-amylase inhibitors, ?-5 gliadins, prolamins, nonprolamin, glucoprotein, and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions, i.e., celiac disease, baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. This instant paper highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this paper showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The paper would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance. PMID:24915366

  8. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

  9. An examination of distress intolerance in undergraduate students high in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M

    2015-01-01

    People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance. PMID:25299853

  10. Kinetic approaches to lactose operon induction and bimodality.

    PubMed

    Michel, Denis

    2013-05-21

    The quasi-equilibrium approximation is acceptable when molecular interactions are fast enough compared to circuit dynamics, but is no longer allowed when cellular activities are governed by rare events. A typical example is the lactose operon (lac), one of the most famous paradigms of transcription regulation, for which several theories still coexist to describe its behaviors. The lac system is generally analyzed by using equilibrium constants, contradicting single-event hypotheses long suggested by Novick and Weiner (1957). Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566) and recently refined in the study of (Choi et al., 2008. A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell. Science 322, 442-446). In the present report, a lac repressor (LacI)-mediated DNA immunoprecipitation experiment reveals that the natural LacI-lac DNA complex built in vivo is extremely tight and long-lived compared to the time scale of lac expression dynamics, which could functionally disconnect the abortive expression bursts and forbid using the standard modes of lac bistability. As alternatives, purely kinetic mechanisms are examined for their capacity to restrict induction through: (i) widely scattered derepression related to the arrival time variance of a predominantly backward asymmetric random walk and (ii) an induction threshold arising in a single window of derepression without recourse to nonlinear multimeric binding and Hill functions. Considering the complete disengagement of the lac repressor from the lac promoter as the probabilistic consequence of a transient stepwise mechanism, is sufficient to explain the sigmoidal lac responses as functions of time and of inducer concentration. This sigmoidal shape can be misleadingly interpreted as a phenomenon of equilibrium cooperativity classically used to explain bistability, but which has been reported to be weak in this system. PMID:23454080

  11. Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenjing

    The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn: 1.20--1.35). The Mark-Houwink equation was obtained as [eta] = 2.15 x 10-4Mv0.73. Hydrogels produced in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide swelled as much as 21-fold in deionized water. Copolymerization of styrene with lactose-O-(vinylbenzyl)oxime in dimethylsulfoxide-toluene (1:1, v/v) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator are discussed in Chapter 5. The resulting hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers were characterized by viscometry, TGA, DSC, GPC, and solubility tests in solvents of varied polarities. Chapter 6 documents the preparation of polystyrene beads with different length of oligo(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers. Swelling in different solvents, solvent accessibility, and reagent diffusion of these beads with different crosslinking density were studied and the results indicated that the PEG-crosslinked polymers showed slightly better solvent accessibility in polar solvents than the analogous DVB-crosslinked networks.

  12. Hydrolysis of whey lactose by immobilized ?-galactosidase in a bioreactor with a spirally wound membrane.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Nastya; Ivanov, Yavor; Damyanova, Stanka; Kostova, Iliana; Godjevargova, Tzonka

    2016-01-01

    The ?-galactosidase was covalently immobilized onto a modified polypropylene membrane, using glutaraldehyde. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis of lactose (4.7%) by immobilized ?-galactosidase in a batch process were determined 13.6U enzyme activity, 40°C, pH 6.8 and 10h. The obtained degree of hydrolysis was compared with results received by a free enzyme. It was found, that the lactose hydrolysis by an immobilized enzyme was 1.6 times more effective than the lactose hydrolysis by a free enzyme. It was determined that the stability of the immobilized enzyme was 2 times higher in comparison with the stability of free enzyme. The obtained immobilized system ?-galactosidase/polypropylene membrane was applied to produce glucose-galactose syrup from waste whey. The whey characteristics and the different preliminary treatments of the whey were investigated. Then the whey lactose hydrolysis in a bioreactor by an immobilized enzyme on a spirally wound membrane was performed. The optimal membrane surface and the optimal flow rate of the whey through the membrane module were determined, respectively 100cm(2) and 1.0mLmin(-1). After 10h, the degree of lactose hydrolysis was increased to 91%. The operation stability was studied. After 20th cycle the yield of bioreactor was 69.7%. PMID:26586589

  13. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  14. Quantitation of ?-Lactalbumin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Adjuvant Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rui; Qu, Longmei; Luo, Nan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Chen, Lijiang

    2014-01-01

    Lactose is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient, sometimes irreplaceable. Traces of residual proteins left during production of lactose are potential allergen to body. The present paper describes a sensitive and specific LC-MS method for the determination of ?-lactalbumin (?-La) in lactose samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH300 C18 column (2.1 × 150?mm, 1.7??m) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile containing 0.1% TFA (80?:?20, v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of m/z 2364 for ?-La. The calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 10?µg/mL. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 7.6% and the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 104.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.15?µg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05?µg/mL. This method was then successfully applied to investigate 6 different lactose samples. The application can provide technical preparation for the development of specification of lactose. PMID:25548567

  15. In silico evolved lac operons exhibit bistability for artificial inducers, but not for lactose.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, M J A; Hogeweg, P

    2006-10-15

    Bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli has been widely studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, bistability has been observed when E. coli is induced by an artificial, nonmetabolizable, inducer. However, if the lac operon is induced with lactose, the natural inducer, bistability has not been demonstrated. We derive an analytical expression that can predict the occurrence of bistability both for artificial inducers and lactose. We find very different conditions for bistability in the two cases. Indeed, for artificial inducers bistability is predicted, but for lactose the condition for bistability is much more difficult to satisfy. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution of the lac operon generates an operon that avoids bistability with respect to lactose, but does exhibit bistability with respect to artificial inducers. The activity of this evolved operon strikingly resembles the experimentally observed activity of the operon. Thus our computational experiments suggest that the wild-type lac operon, which regulates lactose metabolism, is not a bistable switch. Nevertheless, for engineering purposes, this operon can be used as a bistable switch with artificial inducers. PMID:16877514

  16. Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, J. M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Brown, T. E.; Kassam, M. S.; Bondar, R. L.; Schlegel, T. T.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2).

  17. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Fitz, Werner; Brandt, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the general population lifetime and point prevalence of visual height intolerance and acrophobia, to define their clinical characteristics, and to determine their anxious and depressive comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted within a German population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. A representative sample of 2,012 individuals aged 14 and above was selected. Defined neurological conditions (migraine, Menière's disease, motion sickness), symptom pattern, age of first manifestation, precipitating height stimuli, course of illness, psychosocial impairment, and comorbidity patterns (anxiety conditions, depressive disorders according to DSM-IV-TR) for vHI and acrophobia were assessed. The lifetime prevalence of vHI was 28.5% (women 32.4%, men 24.5%). Initial attacks occurred predominantly (36%) in the second decade. A rapid generalization to other height stimuli and a chronic course of illness with at least moderate impairment were observed. A total of 22.5% of individuals with vHI experienced the intensity of panic attacks. The lifetime prevalence of acrophobia was 6.4% (women 8.6%, men 4.1%), and point prevalence was 2.0% (women 2.8%; men 1.1%). VHI and even more acrophobia were associated with high rates of comorbid anxious and depressive conditions. Migraine was both a significant predictor of later acrophobia and a significant consequence of previous acrophobia. VHI affects nearly a third of the general population; in more than 20% of these persons, vHI occasionally develops into panic attacks and in 6.4%, it escalates to acrophobia. Symptoms and degree of social impairment form a continuum of mild to seriously distressing conditions in susceptible subjects. PMID:25262317

  18. Utility of Corrected QT Interval in Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Bin; Hong, Soonwoong; Park, Jin-Woo; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.8±33.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.5±30.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.3±6.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.3±0.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.7±28.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.5±9.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.8±0.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=??0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=??0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH. PMID:25180969

  19. Lactose and milk replacer influence on lead absorption and lead toxicity in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.; Womac, C.W.; Rowe, L.D. Jr.; Wagner, B.

    1986-03-01

    The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.

  20. Ni2+-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Jones, Alun; Lim, Maria L R

    2008-01-01

    A two-step chromatographic sequence is described for the purification of native lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli cells. The first step involves Ni(2+)-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of the soluble cytoplasmic extract. This method provides superior speed, resolution and yield than the established phosphocellulose cation-exchange chromatographic procedure. Anion-exchange chromatography is used for further purification to >95% purity. The identity and purity of the lactose repressor protein were demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, crystallization, tryptic finger-printing mass spectrometry, and inducer binding assays. The purified lac repressor exhibited inducer sensitivity for operator DNA binding and undergoes a conformational change upon inducer binding. By all these extensive biochemical criteria, the purified protein behaves exactly as that described for the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor. PMID:18800304

  1. Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-?-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

  2. Lactose Variability of Escherichia coli in Thermally Stressed Reactor Effluent Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kasweck, K. L.; Fliermans, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lactose-utilizing and nalidixic acid-resistant populations of Escherichia coli, having an optimum growth temperature of 37°C, were placed in modified diffusion chambers. The chambers were submerged in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of a 1,100-hectare lake (Par Pond) which receives cooling water from a nuclear production reactor. Control chambers were placed in a deep-water reservoir and a Flowing-Streams Laboratory, both of which had comparable temperatures to Par Pond. The populations of E. coli were sampled regularly for up to 3 weeks. Viability of the bacteria was determined by dilution plating to nutrient agar followed by replicate plating onto selective medium to determine lactose utilization and nalidixic acid sensitivity. Initial populations of E. coli were lactose positive but changed to lactose negative in Par Pond when the reactor was operating (i.e., cooling water from the heat exchangers was being discharged to the lake). This alteration occurred most rapidly in the chambers closest to the cooling-water discharge point. Such changes did not occur in a deep-water reservoir, in Par Pond when the reactor was not operating, or in the Flowing-Streams Laboratory. The nalidixic acid-resistant characteristic remained stable regardless of the chambers' placement or reactor operations. Although the reasons for such alterations are unclear, it appears that lactose-negative populations of E. coli are selected for in these reactor effluent waters. The loss of the lactose characteristic prevents the recognition and identification of E. coli in this cooling lake (when the reactor is operating) and may prevent the assessment of water quality based on coliform recognition. PMID:365111

  3. Crystallization of amorphous lactose at high humidity studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alexander I.; Yang, Bin; Goldup, Stephen M.; Watkinson, Michael; Donnan, Robert S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the first use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the hydration and crystallization of an amorphous molecular solid at high humidity. Lactose in its amorphous and monohydrate forms exhibits different terahertz spectra due to the lack of long range order in the amorphous material. This difference allowed the transformation of amorphous lactose to its monohydrate form at high humidity to be studied in real time. Spectral fitting of frequency-domain data allowed kinetic data to be obtained and the crystallization was found to obey Avrami kinetics. Bulk changes during the crystallization could also be observed in the time-domain.

  4. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively.

  5. Amplification of the lactose carrier protein in Escherichia coli using a plasmid vector.

    PubMed

    Teather, R M; Müller-Hill, B; Abrutsch, U; Aichele, G; Overath, P

    1978-02-27

    The isolation and properties of a hybrid plasmid carrying the Y gene of the lac operon of Escherichia coli are described. The lactose carrier protein, coded for by the Y gene, is readily identified upon lac operon induction in strains carrying the plasmid. The protein comprises about 15% of the cytoplasmic membrane protein synthesized in the first generation after induction, compared with a wild type strain induced under the same conditions where lactose carrier protein comprises 1.4% of the cytoplasmic membrane protein. PMID:345098

  6. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions. PMID:21423364

  7. Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P.; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H.; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Greenfield, Robert S.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D.; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R.; Ray, Kausik K.; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.

    2015-01-01

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term ‘statin intolerance’. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10–15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25861286

  8. Statin intolerance - an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat V; Greenfield, Robert S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R; Ray, Kausik K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-03-16

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10-15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25861286

  9. Proton-Coupled Dynamics in Lactose Permease Magnus Andersson,1 Ana-Nicoleta Bondar,3 J. Alfredo Freites,2 Douglas J. Tobias,2 H. Ronald Kaback,4,*

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    Structure Article Proton-Coupled Dynamics in Lactose Permease Magnus Andersson,1 Ana.str.2012.08.021 SUMMARY Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) cata- lyzes symport of the membrane (Jardetzky, 1966). The coupled translocation of an H+ and a galactopyranoside (lactose/H+ symport

  10. Blood pressure and plasma renin activity as predictors of orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 3 h standing, followed by a period of head-up tilt (HUT) on physiological response (orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate), as well as on plasma vasopressin (PVP) and renin activity (PRA) were studied in 13 dehydrated (to 2.4 pct loss of body weight) subjects. Seven subjects showed signs of orthostatic intolerance (INT), manifested by sweating, pallor, nausea and dizziness. Prior to these symptoms, the INT subjects exhibited lower systolic (SP) and pulse (PP) pressures, and an elevated PRA, compared to the tolerant (TOL) subjects. HUT has aggravated increases of RPA in the INT subjects and caused an increase, higher than in TOL subjects, in PVP, while rehydration has greatly attenuated the PVP response to the HUT and decreased the PRA response. It is concluded that dehydration, together with measurements of SP, PP and PRA, may serve as a means of predicting orthostatic intolerance and may provide a physiological model for studying the causes of intolerance.

  11. Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Steven; Neely, Gregory; Olsson, David; Sandström, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms. PMID:25166918

  12. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

  13. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Molena-Fernandes, C; Bersani-Amado, C A; Ferraro, Z M; Hintze, L J; Nardo, N; Cuman, R K N

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  14. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  15. Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies. Neurolab Autonomic Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.

  16. Efficient ethanol production from glucose, lactose, and xylose by recombinant Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alterthum, F. ); Ingram, L.O. )

    1989-08-01

    Lactose and all of the major sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose) present in cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli containing plasmid-borne genes encoding the enzymes for the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis. Environmental tolerances, plasmid stability, expression of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase, substrate range, and ethanol production (from glucose, lactose, and xylose) were compared among eight American Type Culture Collection strains. E. coli ATCC 9637(pLOI297), ATCC 11303(pLOI297), and ATCC 15224(pLOI297) were selected for further development on the basis of environmental hardiness and ethanol production. Volumetric ethanol productivities per hour in batch culture were 1.4 g/liter for glucose (12%), 1.3 g/liter for lactose (12%), and 0.64 g/liter for xylose (8%). Ethanol productivities per hour ranged from 2.1 g/g of cell dry weight with 12% glucose to 1.3 g/g of cell dry weight with 8% xylose. The ethanol yield per gram of xylose was higher for recombinant E. coli than commonly reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glucose. Glucose (12%), lactose (12%), and xylose (8%) were converted to (by volume) 7.2% ethanol, 6.5% ethanol, and 5.2% ethanol, respectively.

  17. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  18. Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

  19. Enhanced fructose, glucose and lactose transport promoted by a lipophilic 2-(aminomethyl)-phenylboronic acid

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Enhanced fructose, glucose and lactose transport promoted by a lipophilic 2-(aminomethyl fructose/glucose transport selectivities (12.9). The application of a pH gradient across the membrane further enhanced carrier- mediated fructose flux but fructose/glucose selectivity was decreased. The first

  20. Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight Under Commercial Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a commercially available lactic acid bacteria (LAB) probiotic alone and supplemented with lactose as prebiotic, was evaluated for effects on turkey body weight during the brooding and grow out phases under commercial conditions in two experiments. Turkey poults were given the probioti...

  1. Contact lens intolerance: refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy

    PubMed Central

    López-López, María; Pelegrín-Sánchez, José Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.

  2. Unexpected Different Binding of Mistletoe Lectins from Plant Extracts to Immobilized Lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine

    PubMed Central

    Hajtò, Tibor; Krisztina, Fodor; Ildikò, Aponyi; Zsolt, Pallai; Pèter, Balogh; Pèter, Németh; Pàl, Perjési

    2007-01-01

    Mistletoe Extracts (ME) are of growing interest to pharmacological research because of their apoptosis-inducing/cytostatic and immunomodulatory effects. The standardization of the three different groups of Mistletoe Isolectins (ML-I, II and III) is often rendered more difficult since the primary structures are nearly identical. Their classification is based on their Galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc)-specificity which was measured by various inhibitory assays. The aim of the present study was to improve the characterization of the direct binding activity of the isolectins from ME to immobilized lactose, GalNAc and to the oligosaccharide asialofetuin. After careful ultrafiltration of fresh ME, affinity chromatography was carried out using lactose- agarose, GalNAc—agarose and asialofetuin—affigel 15 columns. MLs were further purified by Sephadex G-100 or by cation exchange chromatography which was adapted to a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. Proteins from both fresh plants and commercial ME were able to bind immobilized lactose to a considerable extent. The majority of this lectin has a B-chain with a Molecular Weight (MW) of 34kD and an A-chain with a MW of 29 kD (ML-I). Only a minor part of the lactose-binding proteins has a lower MW, namely 32kD and 27kD (MLII). However, neither MLs which were eluted from lactose columns, nor the proteins from fresh plant or ME showed a direct binding to the immobilized GalNAc. In spite of this deficiency, GalNAc was able to induce a considerable (25% and 32%) inhibitory effect on their binding to immobilized asialofetuin indicating a discrepancy between the lectin binding and inhibiting effects of GalNAC. Consequently, for an improved standardization of ME more specific sugar molecules are necessary. PMID:19662176

  3. Kinetic studies on exploring lactose hydrolysis potential of ? galactosidase extracted from Lactobacillus plantarum HF571129.

    PubMed

    Selvarajan, E; Mohanasrinivasan, V

    2015-10-01

    A novel intracellular ?-galactosidases produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HF571129, isolated from an Indian traditional fermented milk product curd was purified and characterized. The ?-galactosidases is a hetrodimer with a molecular weight of 60 kDa (larger subunit) and 42 kDa (smaller subunit), as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was purified 7.23 fold by ultrasonication, ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography with an overall recovery of 30.41 %. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis of its preferred substrates, o-nitrophenyl- ?-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) and lactose, are 50 °C (both), and optimum pH for these reactions is 6.5 and 7.5, respectively. The ?-galactosidases showed higher affinity for ONPG (Km, 6.644 mM) as compared to lactose (Km, 23.28 mM). Galactose, the end product of lactose hydrolysis was found to be inhibited (47 %). The enzyme activity was drastically altered by the metal ion chelators EDTA, representing that this enzyme is a metalloenzyme. The enzyme was activated to a larger extent by Mg(2+) (73 % at 1 mM), while inhibited at higher concentrations of Na(+) (54 % at 100 mM), K(+) (16 % at 100 mM) and urea (16 % at 100 mM). The thermal stability study indicated an inactivation energy of Ed?=?171.37 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters such as ?H, ?S and ?G, were determined as a function of temperature. About 88 % of lactose was hydrolyzed at room temperature within 1 h. The study suggested that this enzyme showed its obvious superiority in the industrial lactose conversion process. PMID:26396367

  4. Effects of Topical Fucosyl-Lactose, a Milk Oligosaccharide, on Dry Eye Model: An Example of Nutraceutical Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Romano, Giovanni Luca; Leggio, Gian Marco; Gagliano, Caterina; Reibaldi, Michele; Avitabile, Teresio; Uva, Maurizio G.; Musumeci, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colostrum has been proposed to treat severe dryness and problematic eye lesions showing a beneficial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-fucosyl-lactose, a natural sugar present in the human colostrum, in an experimental dry eye. Methods: Dry eye was induced in adult male New Zealand albino rabbits by topical administration of 1% atropine. Tear volume (Schirmer’s test), tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining and tear osmolarity were assessed. Fucosyl-lactose eye drops was instilled at different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and, 1%). Results: After 24 h from first atropine administration, tear volume and TBUT values were significantly improved in groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose in a dose-dependent manner. Tear volume increased from 5.25 to 10.75 mm and TBUT values from 8.75 to 34.5 s with 0.01% or 1% 2-fucosyl-lactose treatment, respectively. No changes were observed in terms of corneal staining among the all groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose. Atropine instillation caused an increase of tear osmolarity (428 mOsm/L), which was reversed by topical treatment with 2-fucosyl-lactose at all doses. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 2-fucosyl-lactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, has protective effect on tear film stability. PMID:26635610

  5. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  6. Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

    1993-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  7. Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate…

  8. Do Metacognitions and Intolerance of Uncertainty Predict Worry in Everyday Life? An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Thielsch, Carolin; Andor, Tanja; Ehring, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that excessive worry is due to positive and negative metacognitive beliefs and/or intolerance of uncertainty. Empirical support mainly derives from cross-sectional studies with limited conclusiveness, using self-report measures and thereby possibly causing recall biases. The aim of the present study therefore was to examine the power of these cognitive variables to predict levels of worry in everyday life using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Metacognitions and intolerance of uncertainty were assessed using well-established self-report questionnaires in 41 nonclinical participants who subsequently completed ratings on worry intensity and burden on a portable device for 1week at seven times a day once every 2hours. Results showed significant associations of negative metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty, but not positive metacognitive beliefs, with worry in everyday life. In multilevel regression analyses, a substantial proportion of variance of everyday worry could be accounted for by negative metacognitions over and above trait worry and daily hassles. Intolerance of uncertainty likewise emerged as a valid predictor when tested in isolation, but did not explain additional variance once negative metacognitions were controlled. The findings support current cognitive models of excessive worry and highlight the role of negative metacognitions. By using EMA to assess levels of worry in everyday life, they extend earlier findings focusing exclusively on retrospective questionnaire measures. PMID:26163716

  9. Computer simulation studies in fluid and calcium regulation and orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The systems analysis approach to physiological research uses mathematical models and computer simulation. Major areas of concern during prolonged space flight discussed include fluid and blood volume regulation; cardiovascular response during shuttle reentry; countermeasures for orthostatic intolerance; and calcium regulation and bone atrophy. Potential contributions of physiologic math models to future flight experiments are examined.

  10. Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.

    2013-01-01

    The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant

  11. Gamma Knife radiosurgery in steroid-intolerant Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Myong; Park, Jung-Soo; Koh, Eun-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare cause of painful ophthalmoplegia due to idiopathic chronic granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus. Usually clinical manifestations are well controlled by corticosteroid therapy, but steroid dependency or resistance is common. We report a case of marked improvement of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome without symptom relapse after Gamma Knife radiosurgery in a patient with steroid intolerance. PMID:26611689

  12. Does Homeschooling or Private Schooling Promote Political Intolerance? Evidence from a Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend civil liberties to people who hold views with which one disagrees. Some have claimed that private schooling and homeschooling are institutions that propagate political intolerance by fostering separatism and an unwillingness to consider alternative viewpoints. I empirically test this claim by…

  13. Novel MTND1 mutations cause isolated exercise intolerance, complex I deficiency and increased assembly factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Grainne S.; Blakely, Emma L.; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Tuppen, Helen A.L.; Greaves, Laura C.; He, Langping; Baker, Angela; Falkous, Gavin; Newman, Jane; Trenell, Michael I.; Lecky, Bryan; Petty, Richard K.; Turnbull, Doug M.; McFarland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular characterization of two adults with progressive exercise intolerance and severe isolated mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency due to novel MTND1 mutations. We demonstrate compensatory CI assembly factor up-regulation probably partially rescuing the clinical phenotype. PMID:25626417

  14. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition Relationships between Feeding Intolerance and Stress Biomarkers in Preterm Infants

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    and Stress Biomarkers in Preterm Infants --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: JPGN-NA-12-284R1 Full Title: Relationships between Feeding Intolerance and Stress Biomarkers in Preterm Infants Article Type: Original variables and biomarker levels at each time and over time for the sample; describe/compare variables

  15. Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15?kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259?T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370

  16. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  17. Spectroscopic and structural studies on lactose species in aqueous solution combining the HATR and Raman spectra with SCRF calculations.

    PubMed

    Márquez, María Jimena; Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Davies, Lilian; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2015-04-30

    In this work, the ? and ? isomers, the ?-lactose monohydrate and dihydrate and the dimeric species of lactose were studied from the spectroscopic point of view in gas and aqueous solution phases combining the infrared, Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance (HATR) and Raman spectra with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Aqueous saturated solutions of ?-lactose monohydrate and solutions at different molar concentrations of ?-lactose monohydrate in water were completely characterized by infrared, HATR and Raman spectroscopies. For all the species in solution, the solvent effects were studied using the solvation polarizable continuum (PCM) and solvation (SM) models and, then, their corresponding solvation energies were predicted. The vibrational spectra of those species in aqueous solution were completely assigned by employing the Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology and the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations. The stabilities of all those species were studied by using the natural bond orbital (NBO), and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations. PMID:25704196

  18. Defining the critical material attributes of lactose monohydrate in carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90 l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines %?

  19. Nucleation of Alpha lactose monohydrate induced using flow through a venturi orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, J. S.; Paterson, A. H. J.; Bronlund, J. E.; Jones, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    Nucleation is a determinant of the final crystal size distribution produced during a crystallization process. Other studies in the literature have shown that mixing influences alpha lactose monohydrate nucleation. To investigate this in more detail, three different sized Venturi orifices were used to provide a point of passive mixing for supersaturated lactose solutions. This system allowed the study of different factors associated with characterising the mixing process, including cavitation, power input, Reynolds number and vortex formation. A strong relationship was found between the number of vortices created in the system and the nucleation rate. It is speculated that the vortices decrease the distance required for diffusion of molecules in the system, increasing the rate at which they can come together to form a stable nuclei.

  20. Crystal growth mechanisms of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 °C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.

  1. Transgalactosylation of lactose for synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides using Kluyveromyces marxianus NCIM 3551.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Mishra, Saroj; Chand, Subhash

    2015-06-25

    Among a number of yeast strains screened for whole cell transgalactosylating activity, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCIM 3551 was found to be most suitable biocatalyst for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Cell permeabilization lead to an efficient bioconversion by ?-galactosidase resulting in synthesis of GOS. A maximum GOS yield of 36% (w/w) of total sugars was achieved and the products consisted of tri- and tetra-galacto-oligosaccharides. A lactose conversion rate of 80% and productivity of 24g/L/h was obtained under the optimum conditions at lactose concentration of 20% (w/v), temperature 40°C, pH 6.5 and enzyme units after 3h of reaction time. Tetrasaccharides were the main component of the reaction mixture. The products were quantitated by HPLC and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. PMID:25976627

  2. Batch and continuous synthesis of lactulose from whey lactose by immobilized ?-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoon Seok; Lee, Hee Uk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2013-01-15

    In this study, lactulose synthesis from whey lactose was investigated in batch and continuous systems using immobilized ?-galactosidase. In the batch system, the optimal concentration of fructose for lactulose synthesis was 20%, and the effect of galactose, glucose and fructose on ?-galactosidase activity was determined for hydrolysis of whey lactose and the transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis. Galactose and fructose were competitive inhibitors, and glucose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of galactose and glucose were stronger in the transgalactosylation reaction than they were in the hydrolysis reaction. In addition, when immobilized ?-galactosidase was reused for lactulose synthesis, its catalytic activity was retained to the extent of 52.9% after 10 reuses. Lactulose was synthesized continuously in a packed-bed reactor. We synthesized 19.1g/l lactulose during the continuous flow reaction at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. PMID:23122115

  3. Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

    1998-06-01

    At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

  4. Quinolone resistance and ornithine decarboxylation activity in lactose-negative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gomig, Franciane; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; de Freitas, Denis Leandro; Labas, Larissa; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Esmerino, Luiz Antonio; de Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Appel, Marcia Helena; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Nader, Helena Bonciani; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials primarily involves mutations in gyrA and parC genes. To date, no studies have examined the potential relationship between biochemical characteristics and quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E. coli strains. The present work analyzed the quinolone sensitivity and biochemical activities of fifty-eight lactose-negative uropathogenic E. coli strains. A high percentage of the isolates (48.3%) was found to be resistant to at least one of the tested quinolones, and DNA sequencing revealed quinolone resistant determining region gyrA and parC mutations in the multi-resistant isolates. Statistical analyses suggested that the lack of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is correlated with quinolone resistance. Despite the low number of isolates examined, this is the first study correlating these characteristics in lactose-negative E. coli isolates. PMID:26413057

  5. Immobilization of fine particles on lactose carrier by precision coating and its effect on the performance of dry powder formulations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Wah; Lim, Liang Theng; Heng, Paul W S

    2003-05-01

    The feasibility of immobilization of fine particles on a lactose carrier by precision coating and producing carrier particles of different surface roughness from the same core was explored. A relationship between the resultant surface roughness of the carrier and the in vitro deposition pattern of salbutamol sulfate was established. Lactose carrier particles in the precision coating chamber were spray coated with liquid suspensions consisting of micronized lactose dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and/or water mixtures. The surface-modified lactose particles were fractionated and then characterized by laser diffraction for size, image analysis for shape, and scanning probe microscopy for surface roughness. The in vitro deposition pattern of salbutamol sulfate from the drug-lactose mixtures was determined with the twin-stage glass impinger and expressed as the fine particle fraction and dispersibility of the drug. Immobilization of fine particles on carrier particles was feasible by the precision coating process as shown by the scanning probe topographs and the roughness values of the carrier particles. Generally, more discrete fine particles were deposited on the carrier surface and a higher surface roughness was seen when the spray suspension consisting of a higher proportion of IPA was used. A significant correlation was found between the fine particle fraction of salbutamol sulfate with the roughness of lactose. This relationship established between the in vitro drug deposition pattern and the microscopic surface roughness of the carrier would be helpful in the optimization of drug delivery to targeted areas in the lungs. PMID:12712417

  6. Deterministic and stochastic simulation and analysis of biochemical reaction networks the lactose operon example.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Necmettin; Kazanci, Caner

    2011-01-01

    A brief introduction to mathematical modeling of biochemical regulatory reaction networks is presented. Both deterministic and stochastic modeling techniques are covered with examples from enzyme kinetics, coupled reaction networks with oscillatory dynamics and bistability. The Yildirim-Mackey model for lactose operon is used as an example to discuss and show how deterministic and stochastic methods can be used to investigate various aspects of this bacterial circuit. PMID:21187231

  7. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of a lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

    PubMed

    Varasteh Moradi, Shayli; Varamini, Pegah; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2015-11-10

    In the current study, the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was examined following oral administration in male rats. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique was developed and applied for measuring the concentration of lactose[Q(1)][w(6)]LHRH (compound 1) in rat plasma in order to allow measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters. LH release was evaluated using a sandwich ELISA. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax=0.11?g/ml) was reached at 2h (Tmax) following oral administration of the compound at 10mg/kg. The half-life was determined to be 2.6h. The absolute bioavailability of the orally administered compound was found to be 14%, which was a remarkable improvement compared to zero-to-low oral bioavailability of the native peptide. Compound 1 was effective in stimulating LH release at 20mg/kg after oral administration. The method was validated at a linear range of 0.01-20.0?g/ml and a correlation coefficient of r(2)?0.999. The accuracy and precision values showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. These findings showed that the lactose derivative of LHRH has a therapeutic potential to be further developed as an orally active therapeutics for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases. PMID:26325323

  8. Kinetics of lactose conversion to galacto-oligosaccharides by ?-galactosidase immobilized on PVDF membrane.

    PubMed

    Palai, Tapas; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2013-06-01

    Experimental studies were made for immobilization of enzymes on microporous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane in order to carry out enzymatic reaction of lactose into galacto-oligosaccharides using ?-galactosidase. The present work, however, is the first part in the direction of enzymatic membrane reactor studies for carrying out reaction followed by membrane based separation to purify galacto-oligosaccharides out of reaction mixture. The middle of the three compartment cell, separated by two immobilized (enzyme) membranes, was utilized to feed lactose solution; whereas, adjacent compartments were filled with distilled water. The reacted mixture solution was analyzed for tri-, tetra- and penta-forms of GOS. The formation of product GOS strongly depended on varying amounts of initial lactose concentration (ILC). Total GOS formation increased from 7% to 28% for ILC from 50 to 200 g/L. However, tri-saccharide was the major (67%) in comparison to tetra (27%) and penta (6%) forms of GOS. Further, based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics, a six-step-eleven-parameter model was developed. The model incorporated enzyme inhibition and formation of glucose and galactose separately. Simulated results from developed model matched exceeding well with experimental results. PMID:23333643

  9. Exploring the effects of high shear blending on lactose and drug using fluidised bed elutriation.

    PubMed

    Willetts, J P; Robbins, P T; Roche, T C; Bowley, M; Bridson, R H

    2012-09-15

    Powder formulations comprising inhalation grade lactose and a mimic drug (cholesterol) were prepared using a high shear blending process for which the total energy input could be quantified. The formulations were fluidised in a classic fluidised bed system, to determine whether blending-induced changes could be determined through either bulk fluidisation behaviour or the characteristics of elutriated fractions from the powder beds. The evolution of the fluidisation regime within the powder beds (? pressure vs. superficial gas velocity) and total mass of elutriated material were not sensitive measures to differentiate between blended and unblended samples. However, blended and unblended material could be distinguished by the size distributions of the elutriated fractions. The study also showed that there were no further changes in the size distribution of the elutriated fractions once a chemically homogenous mixture of lactose and drug had been produced. However, further blending beyond this 'point of homogeneity' continued to change the lactose particle size distribution of the bulk powder; this may have implications for blend end point determination for these types of formulation. PMID:22683647

  10. Adaptive evolution of the lactose utilization network in experimentally evolved populations of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Quan, Selwyn; Ray, J Christian J; Kwota, Zakari; Duong, Trang; Balázsi, Gábor; Cooper, Tim F; Monds, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to novel environments is often associated with changes in gene regulation. Nevertheless, few studies have been able both to identify the genetic basis of changes in regulation and to demonstrate why these changes are beneficial. To this end, we have focused on understanding both how and why the lactose utilization network has evolved in replicate populations of Escherichia coli. We found that lac operon regulation became strikingly variable, including changes in the mode of environmental response (bimodal, graded, and constitutive), sensitivity to inducer concentration, and maximum expression level. In addition, some classes of regulatory change were enriched in specific selective environments. Sequencing of evolved clones, combined with reconstruction of individual mutations in the ancestral background, identified mutations within the lac operon that recapitulate many of the evolved regulatory changes. These mutations conferred fitness benefits in environments containing lactose, indicating that the regulatory changes are adaptive. The same mutations conferred different fitness effects when present in an evolved clone, indicating that interactions between the lac operon and other evolved mutations also contribute to fitness. Similarly, changes in lac regulation not explained by lac operon mutations also point to important interactions with other evolved mutations. Together these results underline how dynamic regulatory interactions can be, in this case evolving through mutations both within and external to the canonical lactose utilization network. PMID:22253602

  11. Pre-dispositions and epigenetic inheritance in the Escherichia coli lactose operon bistable switch.

    PubMed

    Robert, Lydia; Paul, Gregory; Chen, Yong; Taddei, François; Baigl, Damien; Lindner, Ariel B

    2010-04-13

    The lactose operon regulation in Escherichia coli is a primary model of phenotypic switching, reminiscent of cell fate determination in higher organisms. Under conditions of bistability, an isogenic cell population partitions into two subpopulations, with the operon's genes turned on or remaining off. It is generally hypothesized that the final state of a cell depends solely on stochastic fluctuations of the network's protein concentrations, particularly on bursts of lactose permease expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the cell switching decision are not fully understood. We designed a microfluidic system to follow the formation of a transiently bimodal population within growing microcolonies. The analysis of genealogy and cell history revealed the existence of pre-disposing factors for switching that are epigenetically inherited. Both the pre-induction expression stochasticity of the lactose operon repressor LacI and the cellular growth rate are predictive factors of the cell's response upon induction, with low LacI concentration and slow growth correlating with higher switching probability. Thus, stochasticity at the local level of the network and global physiology are synergistically involved in cell response determination. PMID:20393577

  12. Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

  13. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

  14. Milk, yogurt, and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Wenru; Sang, Lei; Dai, Xiaoli; Wei, Danping; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer. PMID:25298278

  15. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    PubMed

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity was approximately 6 times higher because the continuous epilactose formation was carried out for about 6 d without further addition of biocatalyst. Within this time, 24g of epilactose in 2.8 L of permeate were produced. The batch and the EMR process showed that the milk ultrafiltrate, which is a sidestream of the milk protein production, might be upgraded to a dairy product of higher value by the enzymatic in situ production of epilactose. PMID:25864053

  16. EvoTol: a protein-sequence based evolutionary intolerance framework for disease-gene prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Rackham, Owen J. L.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Petretto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Methods to interpret personal genome sequences are increasingly required. Here, we report a novel framework (EvoTol) to identify disease-causing genes using patient sequence data from within protein coding-regions. EvoTol quantifies a gene's intolerance to mutation using evolutionary conservation of protein sequences and can incorporate tissue-specific gene expression data. We apply this framework to the analysis of whole-exome sequence data in epilepsy and congenital heart disease, and demonstrate EvoTol's ability to identify known disease-causing genes is unmatched by competing methods. Application of EvoTol to the human interactome revealed networks enriched for genes intolerant to protein sequence variation, informing novel polygenic contributions to human disease. PMID:25550428

  17. Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Ertl, A. C.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension. There is a predilection for younger rather than older adults and for women more than men. Its cause is unknown; partial sympathetic denervation or hypovolemia has been proposed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma renin activity, perhaps from defects in sympathetic innervation of the kidney, could underlie a hypovolemia, giving rise to these clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had orthostatic intolerance, together with a raised upright plasma norepinephrine (> or = 600 pg/mL). Patients underwent a battery of autonomic tests and biochemical determinations. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the blood volume and plasma renin activity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). The tachycardic response to upright posture correlated with the severity of the hypovolemia. There was also a correlation between the plasma renin activity measured in these patients and their concomitant plasma aldosterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance.

  18. Psychological characteristics of people with perceived food intolerance in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Knibb, R C; Armstrong, A; Booth, D A; Platts, R G; Booth, I W; MacDonald, A

    1999-12-01

    In most adults who believe themselves to be food intolerant there is no objective supporting evidence. It has therefore been proposed that the misperception of intolerance to food is linked to psychiatric illness or personality disorder. This hypothesis was tested in a community-derived sample of individuals who attributed an adverse symptom to a type of food. A random mailing recruited 955 participants aged > or =18 years, of whom 232 perceived themselves to be food intolerant (PFI). All recruits were sent two questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the shortened version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). A total of 535 GHQ-28 and 518 EPQ-R forms were returned that were correctly completed, an overall response rate of 55%. For the subscales of the EPQ-R, neuroticism was greater in those with a PFI than those without. Women with a PFI were more extroverted than control women. For the GHQ-28 subscales, women with a PFI had significantly higher scores than control women on somatic symptoms, anxiety, insomnia, and severe depression. There was a greater percentage of psychiatric caseness among women with a PFI than among men with a PFI or control women. Nevertheless, this percentage was no greater than that reported among a reference sample derived from NHS and university staff. It is concluded that perceived food intolerance is associated with psychological distress in women with a PFI, and neurotic symptoms in both men and women with a PFI, but there is no greater prevalence of psychiatric disorder among women or men with a PFI than there is in some professional groups. PMID:10661602

  19. Muscle Histidine-Containing Dipeptides Are Elevated by Glucose Intolerance in Both Rodents and Men

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, Sanne; Everaert, Inge; Deldicque, Louise; Vallova, Silvia; de Courten, Barbora; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef; Derave, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscle carnosine and its methylated form anserine are histidine-containing dipeptides. Both dipeptides have the ability to quench reactive carbonyl species and previous studies have shown that endogenous tissue levels are decreased in chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Design and Methods Rodent study: Skeletal muscles of rats and mice were collected from 4 different diet-intervention studies, aiming to induce various degrees of glucose intolerance: 45% high-fat feeding (male rats), 60% high-fat feeding (male rats), cafeteria feeding (male rats), 70% high-fat feeding (female mice). Body weight, glucose-tolerance and muscle histidine-containing dipeptides were assessed. Human study: Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis in 35 males (9 lean, 8 obese, 9 prediabetic and 9 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients) and muscle carnosine and gene expression of muscle fiber type markers were measured. Results Diet interventions in rodents (cafeteria and 70% high-fat feeding) induced increases in body weight, glucose intolerance and levels of histidine-containing dipeptides in muscle. In humans, obese, prediabetic and diabetic men had increased muscle carnosine content compared to the lean (+21% (p>0.1), +30% (p<0.05) and +39% (p<0.05), respectively). The gene expression of fast-oxidative type 2A myosin heavy chain was increased in the prediabetic (1.8-fold, p<0.05) and tended to increase in the diabetic men (1.6-fold, p = 0.07), compared to healthy lean subjects. Conclusion Muscle histidine-containing dipeptides increases with progressive glucose intolerance, in male individuals (cross-sectional). In addition, high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance was associated with increased muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in female mice (interventional). Increased muscle carnosine content might reflect fiber type composition and/or act as a compensatory mechanism aimed at preventing cell damage in states of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:25803044

  20. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

  1. A case of chlorpheniramine maleate-induced hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, So-Hee; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic disease, such as allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema. Although several previous reports describe hypersensitivity to antihistamines such as cetirizine and hydroxyzine, documented cases of chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old Korean woman who presented with urticaria after ingesting a cold medication. Over the previous 5 years, she had also experienced a food allergy to crab and shrimp, allergic rhinitis, and repeated urticaria after ingesting cold medication. Provocation with aspirin elicited generalized urticaria. Intravenous chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone was injected for symptom control, but in fact appeared to aggravate urticaria. A second round of skin and provocation tests for chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone showed positive results only for chlorpheniramine. She was diagnosed with aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity, and was instructed to avoid these drugs. To date, this is the second of only two cases of chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance. Although the relationship between aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity is unclear, physicians should be aware of the possibility of urticaria or other allergic reactions in response to antihistamines. PMID:21217928

  2. Contributions of MSNA and stroke volume to orthostatic intolerance following bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether the altered orthostatic tolerance following 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) was related to inadequate sympathetic outflow or to excessive reductions in cardiac output during a 10- to 15-min head-up tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography), and stroke volume blood velocity (SVV, Doppler ultrasound) were assessed during supine 30 degrees (5 min) and 60 degrees (5-10 min) HUT positions in 15 individuals who successfully completed the pre-HDBR test without evidence of orthostatic intolerance. Subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT, n = 9) or intolerant (OI, n = 6) following the post-HDBR test. MSNA, BP, and SVV during supine and HUT postures were not altered in the OT group. Hypotension during 60 degrees HUT in the post-bed rest test for the OI group (P < 0.05) was associated with a blunted increase in MSNA (P < 0.05). SVV was reduced following HDBR in the OI group (main effect of HDBR, P < 0.02). The data support the hypothesis that bed rest-induced orthostatic intolerance is related to an inadequate increase in sympathetic discharge that cannot compensate for a greater postural reduction in stroke volume.

  3. Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.

  4. Nitric oxide in microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance: relevance to spinal cord injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, N. D.; Purdy, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in cardiovascular deconditioning which is marked by orthostatic intolerance in the returning astronauts and recovering bed-ridden patients. Recent studies conducted in our laboratories at University of California, Irvine have revealed marked elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the kidney, heart, brain, and systemic arteries coupled with significant reduction of NO production in the cerebral arteries of microgravity-adapted animals. We have further demonstrated that the observed alteration of NO metabolism is primarily responsible for the associated cardiovascular deconditioning. Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently complicated by orthostatic intolerance that is due to the combined effects of the disruption of efferent sympathetic pathway and cardiovascular deconditioning occasioned by prolonged confinement to bed. In this presentation, I will review the nature of altered NO metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. The possible relevance of the new findings to orthostatic intolerance in patients with acute SCI and its potential therapeutic implications will be discussed.

  5. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

  6. The surface roughness of lactose particles can be modulated by wet-smoothing using a high-shear mixer.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Franca; Cocconi, Daniela; Bettini, Ruggero; Giordano, Ferdinando; Santi, Patrizia; Tobyn, Michael; Price, Robert; Young, Paul; Caramella, Carla; Colombo, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The surface morphology of a-lactose monohydrate particles was modified by a new wet-smoothing process performed in a high-shear mixer using solvents. Successive steps of wetting and drying of lactose powders during rolling in the mixer's cylindrical bowl were performed. Smoothed particles were tested for size distribution, flow, and packing. The wet-smoothing process flattened the surface and rounded the edges of lactose particles. In comparison with original lactose, an improvement of powder packing and flow properties was evidenced. When the process was performed in the presence of a ternary agent such as magnesium stearate, the smoothing was improved. The evolution of rugosity during the smoothing process was assessed through a fractal descriptor of SEM picture. Atomic force microscopy and surface area measurements quantified the surface rugosity. A very significant reduction of the rugosity, more remarkable in the presence of magnesium stearate, was measured. This new process of powder wet-smoothing allows the preparation of lactose particles with different degrees of smoothed surface for the control of flow and packing properties and particle-particle interactions. PMID:15760057

  7. Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-09-01

    In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using ?-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

  8. Alanine screening mutagenesis establishes the critical inactivating damage of irradiated E. coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Goffinont, Stephane; Villette, Sandrine; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    The function of the E. coli lactose operon requires the binding of lactose repressor to operator DNA. We have previously shown that ? rradiation destabilizes the repressor-operator complex because the repressor loses its DNA-binding ability. It was suggested that the observed oxidation of the four tyrosines (Y7, Y12, Y17, Y47) and the concomitant structural changes of the irradiated DNA-binding domains (headpieces) could be responsible for the inactivation. To pinpoint the tyrosine whose oxidation has the strongest effect, four headpieces containing the product of tyrosine oxidation, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), were simulated by molecular dynamics. We have observed that replacing Y47 by DOPA triggers the largest change of structure and stability of the headpiece and have concluded that Y47 oxidation is the greatest contributor to the decrease of repressor binding to DNA. To experimentally verify this conclusion, we applied the alanine screening mutagenesis approach. Tetrameric mutated repressors bearing an alanine instead of each one of the tyrosines were prepared and their binding to operator DNA was checked. Their binding ability is quite similar to that of the wild-type repressor, except for the Y47A mutant whose binding is strongly reduced. Circular dichroism determinations revealed small reductions of the proportion of ? helices and of the melting temperature for Y7A, Y12A and Y17A headpieces, but much larger ones were revealed for Y47A headpiece. These results established the critical role of Y47 oxidation in modifying the structure and stability of the headpiece, and in reduction of the binding ability of the whole lactose repressor. PMID:22551504

  9. Radiation-induced tetramer-to-dimer transition of Escherichia coli lactose repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Goffinont, S.; Davidkova, M.

    2009-08-21

    The wild type lactose repressor of Escherichia coli is a tetrameric protein formed by two identical dimers. They are associated via a C-terminal 4-helix bundle (called tetramerization domain) whose stability is ensured by the interaction of leucine zipper motifs. Upon in vitro {gamma}-irradiation the repressor losses its ability to bind the operator DNA sequence due to damage of its DNA-binding domains. Using an engineered dimeric repressor for comparison, we show here that irradiation induces also the change of repressor oligomerisation state from tetramer to dimer. The splitting of the tetramer into dimers can result from the oxidation of the leucine residues of the tetramerization domain.

  10. Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. )

    1993-07-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

  11. Preparation of lactose-silk fibroin conjugates and their application as a scaffold for hepatocyte attachment.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Yohko; Niimi, Shingo; Hayakawa, Takao; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2004-03-01

    We prepared glycoconjugates (Lac-CY-SF) by the homogeneous chemical modification of solubilized silk fibroin (SF) with lactose bearing the galactose residue using cyanuric chloride (CY) as a coupling spacer and examined the usefulness of their application as a scaffold for hepatocyte attachment. The covalent immobilization of lactose into SF was assessed by several criteria including 1H-NMR measurements and reactions with lectins such as Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA(120)) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled RCA(120) (FITC-RCA(120)). The 1H-NMR spectrum of Lac-CY-SF showed new broad peaks attributed to methine and methylene protons of lactose, and by the integrated intensities of the peaks the weight ratio of lactose to SF in Lac-CY-SF was determined to be 0.20. Addition of RCA(120) to Lac-CY-SF solution caused an increase in the turbidity of the Lac-CY-SF solution. Incubation of Lac-CY-SF films with FITC-RCA(120) showed that the fluorescence emitted from the whole surface of Lac-CY-SF films. Furthermore, we examined the effect of the Lac-CY-SF conjugate-coating onto polystyrene culture dishes on the attachment of rat hepatocytes and their morphology. Attachment of hepatocytes onto the 0.1% (w/v) conjugate-coated dishes showed about an 8-fold increase as compared with that on uncoated dishes, being comparable to that on collagen-coated dishes, whereas the attachment on the SF-coated dishes was lower than that on uncoated dishes. Hepatocytes cultured onto the conjugate-coated dishes for 2.5 h showed smaller round-shaped morphology compared to those on collagen-coated dishes. After 2 days of culture in medium containing 100 nM insulin and 100 nM dexamethasone, hepatocytes on the conjugate-coated dishes formed monolayer islands with a slightly dispersed morphology, while hepatocytes cultured on collagen-coated dishes were uniformly spread flat. These results indicate that the Lac-CY-SF conjugates are useful as a scaffold for hepatocyte attachment, but the morphology of hepatocytes cultured on the conjugate-coated dishes is different from that on collagen-coated dishes. PMID:14615179

  12. Effects of pelleting, lactose level, polyethylene glycol 4000, and guar gum compared to pectin on growth performances, energy values, and losses of lactose, lactic acid, and water in chickens.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Florès, M P; Gomez, J

    1995-11-01

    Five mash and two pelleted diets were tested in broiler chickens (7 to 19 d). Mash diets consisted of a basal fraction diluted with either .5% pectin or .5% guar gum. Mash pectin and guar gum diets contained either 3% lactose (PL3m and GL3m diets, respectively) or 6% lactose (PL6m and GL6m diets, respectively). Compositions of pelleted diets (PL3p and GL3p) were those of PL3m and GL3m diets, respectively. All diets contained .5% polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) except the PL3m0 diet. The latter diet differed from PL3m diet by the PEG content, only. The real applied viscosities of pectin and guar gum diets were 1.48 and 4.94 mL/g, respectively, No effect of PEG was detected on growth performances, and excreta losses of lactose, lactic acid, and water. No negative effect of guar gum compared to pectin was observed on body weight (19 d), except with pelleted diets (P < .05). Feed:gain ratios for guar gum diets were 7% higher (P < or = .001) that those of pectin diets. The AMEn values of guar gum diets were 4% lower (P < or = .001) than those of pectin diets. For mash diets, lactose digestibilities were lower (P < .05) with guar gum than with pectin. Increasing lactose level from 3 to 6% did not affect (P > .05) AMEn values, feed: gain ratios, and body weights (19 d) but reduced (P > .001) lactose digestibilities from 78 to 64%. The positive effects of pelleting on body weights (19 d) were much less pronounced with guar gum than with pectin (P < .05). The AMEn values of pelleted diets (PL3p) and GL3p) were, on average, 2.5% lower (P = .005) than their mash counterparts (PL3m and GL3m). Water losses related to feed intake were greater with guar gum than with pectin (P < .001) and with 6% lactose than with 3% (P = .001) but were not affected (P > .05) by pelleting. Lactic acid losses related to feed intake were increased by guar gum compared with pectin (P < .001), with more pronounced effects induced by high lactose level (P < .05) and pelleting (P < .05). In many respects, the effects of guar gum seemed similar to those observed in an acid liquid diarrhea. PMID:8614690

  13. Studies of gene control regions. III. Binding of synthetic and modified synthetic lac operator DNAs to lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Yansura, D G; Goeddel, D V; Cribbs, D L; Caruthers, M H

    1977-03-01

    Chemically synthesized lactose operator DNA was tested for binding with lactose repressor protein. These operator DNAs were found to (1) bind specifically to lactose SQ repressor as measured by release of binding with the inducing ligand isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside, (2) have dissociation half-lives of 37 seconds (21 base-paired duplex) and 46 seconds (26 base-paired duplex) and (3) have dissociation half-lives with x86 repressor of 9 minutes (21 base-paired duplex) and 18 minutes (26 base paired duplex). Modified operators containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine and deoxyuridine at specific sites were also prepared. These analogs bound both repressors about as tightly as the wild type sequence. PMID:866187

  14. [The incidence of intolerance for stainless-steal dentures based on data from a questionnaire and from clinical laboratory research methods].

    PubMed

    Pyrkov, S T; Pogodin, V S; Podkin, Iu S

    1990-01-01

    Questionnaires were distributed among 1042 patients with stainless steel dentures. 178 of these complained of symptoms characteristic of denture intolerance. Clinical examinations, pH-metry of mixed saliva and stationary potential of the dentures, epicutaneous allergologic tests, and removal of dentures in intricate cases to specify the diagnosis have revealed intolerance of electrogalvanic nature in 62 patients. Such intolerance was more frequent (2.9 times) in women than in men. No allergic reactions to denture components were detected. PMID:2087728

  15. Lactose inhibits regulatory T-cell-mediated suppression of effector T-cell interferon-? and IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno

    2014-12-14

    Our interest in lactose as an immunomodulatory molecule results from studies showing that lactose binds to galectin-9, which has been shown to have various regulatory functions in the immune system including regulation of T-cell responses. Impaired regulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 type immune responses and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in many human immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lactose on immune regulation using co-cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived Treg and effector T cells (Teff) obtained from twenty healthy adults. Treg, i.e. CD4+CD25+CD127-, were isolated from PBMC by immunomagnetic separation. The fraction of CD4+CD127- cells that was depleted of CD25+ cells was used as Teff. Treg and Teff at a ratio 1:5 were activated and the effects of lactose on the secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-17 were analysed using ELISA for protein and quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA. Treg down-regulated the secretion of both IFN-? (8.8-3.9 ng/ml, n 20, P= 0.003) and IL-17 (0.83-0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.04) in co-cultures, while in the presence of lactose the levels of secreted IFN-? and IL-17 remained high and no down-regulation was observed (16.4 v. 3.99 ng/ml, n 20, P< 0.0001, and 0.74 v. 0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.005, respectively). We showed that lactose inhibits human Treg-mediated suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in vitro. PMID:25331548

  16. REFLUX TREATMENT A C I D R E F L U X A N D O E S O P H A G I T I S : A N I N F O R M A T I V E G U I D E T O S Y M P T O M S ,

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Central.com - Chronic constipation Lactose intolerance (milk intolerance) Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Irritable bowel syndrome (sensitive stomach with intermittent episodes of diarrhea and reflux treatment

  17. Preparation and evaluation of lactose-modified monoliths for the adsorption and decontamination of plant toxins and lectins.

    PubMed

    Kato, Haruhito; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Kondo, Satoshi; Sato, Keita; Ohsawa, Isaac; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Ota, Shigenori; Furuno, Masahiro; Dohi, Hirofumi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2011-09-27

    A series of sugar-modified porous silica monoliths with different sugar ligands (?-lactoside, ?-N-acetyllactosaminide, ?-d-galactoside, ?-d-N-acetylgalactosaminide and ?-d-glucoside) and linkers were prepared and evaluated using plant toxins and lectins including ricin and a Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA(120)). Among these sugar monoliths, a lactose monolith carrying a triethylene glycol spacer adsorbed ricin and RCA(120) with the highest efficiency. The monolith showed no binding with albumin, globulin, and lectins from Jack beans, Osage orange, Amur maackia and wheat germ. All these data support the utility of the lactose-modified monolith as a tool for adsorption and decontamination of plant toxins. PMID:21784417

  18. Microbial cell-based biosensor for sensing glucose, sucrose or lactose.

    PubMed

    Svitel, J; Curilla, O; Tkác, J

    1998-04-01

    Biosensors for the determination of glucose, sucrose and lactose were based on a Clark-type oxygen electrode covered with a membrane containing microbial cells. The glucose-sensing membrane was prepared with intact cells of Gluconobacter oxydans immobilized in gelatin cross-linked with glutardialdehyde. The disaccharide-sensing membranes were prepared by co-immobilization of G. oxydans with cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing invertase for sucrose determination and with permeabilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus containing beta-galactosidase for lactose determination. The strain of G. oxydans that we used was able to oxidize both anomers of glucose at the same rate; there was therefore no need for mutarotase co-immobilization in disaccharide-sensing membranes. The sensitivity of glucose sensor was 50 nA/mM, the range of the calibration curve was 0-0.8 mM, the response time was 2 min, and the response after 1 week of storage was 62% of the initial response. The parameters of the disaccharide sensors were similar: linear range of calibration curve up to 4 mM, response time 5 min. The activities of the sensors after 1 week of storage at ambient temperature were in the range 50-65% of the initial activity. PMID:9569611

  19. Applications of ?-gal-III isozyme from Bacillus coagulans RCS3, in lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Joshi, Amit; Bhatia, Sonu

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. ?-gal I-V of ?-galactosidase. ?-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. ?-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-?-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of ?-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry. PMID:21855568

  20. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

  1. Crystallization kinetics of amorphous lactose, whey-permeate and whey powders.

    PubMed

    Ibach, Alexander; Kind, Matthias

    2007-07-23

    Amorphous lactose, whey-permeate and whey powders have been converted to their crystalline forms by exposure to air at various temperatures and relative humidities. The total time required for sorption, induction and crystallization of these powders was observed by following the time-dependent mass change of the powders during treatment. These experiments have shown that higher temperatures and relative humidities lead to shorter crystallization times. Lactose crystallizes within 1 min at an air temperature of 100 degrees C and relative air humidity of 80%, whereas whey-permeate and whey powders requires up to 5 min at the same set of conditions. Thus, as previously described, the presence of proteins and salts in the whey-permeate and whey powders reduces the crystallization rate. The rate constants and activation energies have been determined over a range of temperatures and humidities to enable the calculation of crystallization times for the design of an industrial process that crystallizes whey and whey-permeate powders. Finally, the crystallization rates found in this work are sufficiently fast to be applicable in an industrial process that crystallizes whey and whey-permeate powders. PMID:17445785

  2. Marked exacerbation of orthostatic intolerance after long- vs. short-duration spaceflight in veteran astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meck, J. V.; Reyes, C. J.; Perez, S. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ziegler, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.

  3. Population Health: Modest Glycaemic Improvements in a Pregnant Cohort with Mild Glucose Intolerance Decreased Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Erica K.; Boggess, Kim A.; Funk, Michele Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse perinatal outcomes are common with pregnancy-related mild glucose intolerance. The perinatal impact of improving this population’s health, instead of individual health, has not been quantified. Methods We estimated this impact among women with mild glucose intolerance, delivered at The University of North Carolina Women’s Hospital from April 1996 to May 2010. We compared observed with predicted risks of perinatal outcomes after simulating a cohort with a one standard deviation decrease in each glucose value. We estimated absolute and adjusted risks, relative risks, and risk differences with Poisson regression and bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [CI]. Results Among 3217 women, mean (SD) 1-h screening result was 157 (16) mg/dL; 3-h diagnostic results were 81 (10), 154 (28), 130 (25), and 104 (26) mg/dL for fasting, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h, respectively. Compared with observed, predicted risks decreased for preeclampsia (9.1% vs. 6.6%, risk ratio [RR] 0.73 [95% CI 0.60, 0.88]), caesarean delivery (30.1% vs. 26.4%, RR 0.88 [95% CI 0.81, 0.96]), preterm birth (13.0% vs. 9.8%, RR 0.75 [95% CI 0.64, 0.87]), birthweight >4000 g (13.4% vs. 10.5%, RR 0.78 [95% CI 0.67, 0.90]), and shoulder dystocia (3.5% vs. 2.2%, RR 0.61 [95% CI 0.46, 0.83]). Conclusions Modestly improved population distribution of glucose tolerance in pregnancies affected by mild glucose intolerance translated to meaningful improvements in perinatal outcomes. PMID:24731066

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Glucose Intolerance/Insulin Resistance in Estrogen-Deficient Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Fa; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Wang, Ching-Chia; Huang, Kuo-How; Wu, Chin-Ching; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes in women > 40 years of age, especially those in the postmenopausal phase, was higher than in men in areas with high levels of arsenic in drinking water. The detailed effect of arsenic on glucose metabolism/homeostasis in the postmenopausal condition is still unclear. Objectives We investigated the effects of arsenic at doses relevant to human exposure from drinking water on blood glucose regulation in estrogen-deficient female mice. Methods Adult female mice who underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery were exposed to drinking water contaminated with arsenic trioxide (0.05 or 0.5 ppm) in the presence or absence of 17?-estradiol supplementation for 2–6 weeks. Assays related to glucose metabolism were performed. Results Exposure of sham mice to arsenic significantly increased blood glucose, decreased plasma insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance, but did not induce insulin resistance. Blood glucose and insulin were higher, and glucose intolerance, insulin intolerance, and insulin resistance were increased in arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice compared with arsenic-treated sham mice. Furthermore, liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was increased and liver glycogen content was decreased in arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice compared with arsenic-treated sham mice. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets isolated from arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice was also significantly decreased. Arsenic treatment significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels in sham and ovariectomized mice. Altered glucose metabolism/homeostasis in arsenic-treated ovariectomized mice was reversed by 17?-estradiol supplementation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that estrogen deficiency plays an important role in arsenic-altered glucose metabolism/homeostasis in females. Citation Huang CF, Yang CY, Chan DC, Wang CC, Huang KH, Wu CC, Tsai KS, Yang RS, Liu SH. 2015. Arsenic exposure and glucose intolerance/insulin resistance in estrogen-deficient female mice. Environ Health Perspect 123:1138–1144;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408663 PMID:25859628

  5. Glucose Homeostatic Law: Insulin Clearance Predicts the Progression of Glucose Intolerance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Shinsuke; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Iwaki, Toshinao; Fukuzawa, Hiroki; Komori, Yasunori; Fujii, Masashi; Toyoshima, Yu; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Wataru; Kuroda, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic control of blood glucose is regulated by a complex feedback loop between glucose and insulin, of which failure leads to diabetes mellitus. However, physiological and pathological nature of the feedback loop is not fully understood. We made a mathematical model of the feedback loop between glucose and insulin using time course of blood glucose and insulin during consecutive hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in 113 subjects with variety of glucose tolerance including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We analyzed the correlation of the parameters in the model with the progression of glucose intolerance and the conserved relationship between parameters. The model parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion significantly declined from NGT to IGT, and from IGT to T2DM, respectively, consistent with previous clinical observations. Importantly, insulin clearance, an insulin degradation rate, significantly declined from NGT, IGT to T2DM along the progression of glucose intolerance in the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was positively correlated with a product of insulin sensitivity and secretion assessed by the clamp analysis or determined with the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was correlated negatively with postprandial glucose at 2h after oral glucose tolerance test. We also inferred a square-law between the rate constant of insulin clearance and a product of rate constants of insulin sensitivity and secretion in the model, which is also conserved among NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. Insulin clearance shows a conserved relationship with the capacity of glucose disposal among the NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. The decrease of insulin clearance predicts the progression of glucose intolerance. PMID:26623647

  6. Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

  7. Interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Jacob, G.; Pohar, B.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not understood. If genetic predisposition were important in the pathogenesis of IOI, monozygotic twins of patients with IOI should have similar hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities. METHODS: We studied two patients with IOI and their identical twins. Both siblings in the first twin pair had orthostatic symptoms, significant orthostatic tachycardia, increased plasma norepinephrine levels with standing, and a greater than normal decrease in systolic blood pressure with trimethaphan infusion. RESULTS: Both siblings had a normal response of plasma renin activity to upright posture. In the second twin pair, only one sibling had symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, an orthostatic tachycardia, and raised plasma catecholamines with standing. The affected sibling had inappropriately low plasma renin activity with standing and was 8-fold more sensitive to the pressor effect of phenylephrine than the unaffected sibling. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in some patients, IOI seems to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. In others, however, IOI may be mainly caused by nongenetic factors. These findings suggest that IOI is heterogenous, and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute individually or collectively to create the IOI phenotype.

  8. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  9. Dynamic tracheal collapse as a cause of exercise intolerance in a thoroughbred.

    PubMed

    Tetens, J; Hubert, J D; Eddy, A L; Moore, R M

    2000-03-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred filly was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of exercise intolerance. Resting videoendoscopic evaluation (i.e., while the horse was standing) of the nasopharynx and trachea revealed right arytenoid paresis and a tracheal defect that was 100 cm distal to the external nares. Surgery, consisting of a right prosthetic laryngoplasty, was performed. However, postoperative videoendoscopic evaluation revealed minimal abduction of the affected arytenoid cartilage. Dynamic videoendoscopic evaluation (i.e., while the horse was exercising) revealed the right arytenoid to be fixed in a submaximal position with no evidence of collapse into the airway. When the endoscope was positioned in the midcervical tracheal region, marked tracheal collapse was identified during exercise. Tracheal collapse can critically limit athletic function. Treatment of tracheal collapse depends on causative factors, the length of the trachea involved, and accessibility of the affected tracheal segment. The use of dynamic tracheal videoendoscopy should be considered in athletic horses with exercise intolerance in which the cause cannot be determined from resting or dynamic videoendoscopic evaluations of the nasopharynx. PMID:10707689

  10. Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight in Veteran Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Reyes, Carlos; Perez, Sondra A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance following short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence following long-duration spaceflight is unknown. We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after their long-duration (129 - 190 days) spaceflights and compared these data to those obtained during stand tests before and after their previous short-duration missions and also to tilt test data from 20 different short-duration (8 - 16 days) flight astronauts. Five of these six became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights: only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. Five of the twenty astronauts who flew on other short-duration flights, became presyncopal during upright tilt on landing day. Long-duration presyncopal subjects had lower stroke volumes, lower cardiac outputs and higher peripheral vascular resistance than short-duration presyncopal subjects, but their heart rate responses were not different. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after a long but not short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably related to altered autonomic function.

  11. EEG beta 1 oscillation and sucrose sensitization in fibromyalgia with chemical intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Baldwin, C M; Stoltz, E; Walsh, B T; Schwartz, G E

    2001-08-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) have diffuse musculoskeletal pain; half report concomitant intolerance for low levels of environmental chemicals (CI). Previous investigators have hypothesized that the chronic pain and chemical intolerance reflect sensitization of different central nervous system limbic and/or mesolimbic reward pathways. We evaluated electroencephalographic (EEG) beta activity and blood glucose responses of FM patients with and without CI and normals during three repeated sucrose ingestion sessions and during a final, water-only session (testing for conditioning). The FM with CI exhibited oscillation (reversal in direction of change from session to session) at rest and then sensitization (progressive amplification) of EEG beta 1 over time across the 3 sucrose sessions versus controls. FM with CI showed sensitization of blood glucose over the 3 sucrose sessions, which, like the EEG findings, reverted toward baseline in the final water-only session. The data suggest that the subset of FM patients with CI have increased susceptibility to oscillation and physiological sensitization without conditioning, perhaps contributing to fluctuations in their chronic course. PMID:11328700

  12. Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Brian D.; McNicholas, Walter T.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder, which conveys an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR) are common in subjects with OSA, but a shared intimate relationship with obesity makes discerning an independent link challenging. Nonetheless, mechanistic studies suggest that OSA could contribute to impaired glucose metabolism via the effects of sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation and intermittent hypoxia (IH) on pancreatic B-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. In particular, emerging data suggest that IH may have an important detrimental effect on adipose tissue function and inflammation. Similarly, data from population—and clinic-level studies suggest that OSA is independently related with the prevalence and incidence of T2DM and IR, and may also lead to worse glycaemic control in diabetics. However, the ability of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy to make a meaningful impact on T2DM or IR remains uncertain. In this review we explore the available evidence linking OSA with IR, glucose intolerance and T2DM, and discuss potential pathobiological mechanisms by which sleep disordered breathing can affect metabolic health. PMID:26380761

  13. Baroreflex dysfunction induced by microgravity: potential relevance to postflight orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity imposes adaptive changes in the human body. This review focuses on the changes in baroreflex function produced by actual spaceflight, or by experimental models that simulate microgravity, e.g., bed rest. We will analyze separately studies involving baroreflexes arising from carotid sinus and aortic arch afferents ("high-pressure baroreceptors"), and cardiopulmonary afferents ("low-pressure receptors"). Studies from unrelated laboratories using different techniques have concluded that actual or simulated exposure to microgravity reduces baroreflex function arising from carotid sinus afferents ("carotic-cardiac baroreflex"). The techniques used to study the carotid-cardiac baroreflex, using neck suction and compression to simulate changes in blood pressure, have been extensively validated. In contrast, it is more difficult to selectively study aortic arch or cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. Nonetheless, studies that have examined these baroreceptors suggest that microgravity produces the opposite effect, ie, an increase in the gain of aortic arch and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. Furthermore, most studies have focus on instantaneous changes in heart rate, which almost exclusively examines the vagal limb of the baroreflex. In comparison, there is limited information about the effect of microgravity on sympathetic function. A substantial proportion of subjects exposed to microgravity develop transient orthostatic intolerance. It has been proposed that alterations in baroreflex function play a role in the orthostatic intolerance induced by microgravity. The evidence in favor and against this hypothesis is reviewed.

  14. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Renin Exhibit Glucose Intolerance and Diet-Genotype Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sarah J.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Kim, Jung Han; Saxton, Arnold M.; Wasserman, David H.; De Taeye, Bart; Voy, Brynn H.; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass. PMID:23308073

  15. High prevalence of glucose intolerance even among young adults in south India.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Palany; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Fall, Caroline H D; Geethanjali, Finney S; Leary, Samantha D; Saperia, Julia; Priya, G; Rajaratnam, Abel; Richard, Joseph

    2007-08-01

    India is experiencing an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2218 young adults (aged 26-32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in south India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969-1973 in Vellore and nearby villages. Family history, socio-economic status, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed for diagnosis (WHO recommendations). Insulin resistance and secretion were derived from plasma insulin concentrations. Median BMI was 20.0kg/m(2). The prevalence of Type 2 DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was higher in urban than in rural subjects (3.7% versus 2.1%, p=0.02; 18.9% versus 14.3%, p=0.002, respectively), while prevalence of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) was similar in urban and rural populations (3.8% versus 3.4%, p=0.04). Type 2 DM, IGT, IFG or higher insulin resistance and increment were associated with higher socio-economic status (more household possessions) and higher percentage body fat, body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Insulin increment was lower in men with higher alcohol consumption. Our data suggest high levels of glucose intolerance in young rural and urban adults highlighting an urgent need for preventive action to avert a public health catastrophe in India. PMID:17229484

  16. Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: results from a reputation-based model.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A; Cuesta, José A

    2014-08-01

    When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance. PMID:25215779

  17. Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: Results from a reputation-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.

    2014-08-01

    When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.

  18. Identification of a new genetic determinant for cell aggregation associated with lactose plasmid transfer in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    van der Lelie, D; Chavarri, F; Venema, G; Gasson, M J

    1991-01-01

    Derivatives of the lactose miniplasmid pMG820 were constructed in which a staphylococcal erm gene was inserted and in which this was accompanied by subsequent deletion of the lactose genes. The resulting plasmids were thus marked with both erythromycin resistance and lactose utilization genes in pF1132 or solely erythromycin resistance in pF1133. These plasmids retained the normal conjugation properties characteristic of lactose plasmid pLP712, including the generation by intermolecular rearrangement of high-frequency-transfer Clu+ derivatives which exhibited cell aggregation. The use of such Clu+ plasmids in a variety of mating experiments between different lactococcal strains and the observation of cell aggregation when particular mating mixtures were made led to the discovery of a new component of this conjugation system named Agg. A chromosomal gene agg was postulated to be present in some but not all strains of lactococci. High-frequency conjugation and cell aggregation thus depend on the presence of both Agg and Clu, although in a mating pair these components can be in the same or in separate strains. The Agg and Clu components may be analogous to the binding substance and aggregation substance that are involved in the hemolysin plasmid transfer system of Enterococcus faecalis, although control of their expression is different. PMID:1903626

  19. The effect of LacI autoregulation on the performance of the lactose utilization system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Semsey, Szabolcs; Jauffred, Liselotte; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Erdossy, János; Stéger, Viktor; Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep

    2013-07-01

    The lactose operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm system for quantitative understanding of gene regulation in prokaryotes. Yet, none of the many mathematical models built so far to study the dynamics of this system considered the fact that the Lac repressor regulates its own transcription by forming a transcriptional roadblock at the O3 operator site. Here we study the effect of autoregulation on intracellular LacI levels and also show that cAMP-CRP binding does not affect the efficiency of autoregulation. We built a mathematical model to study the role of LacI autoregulation in the lactose utilization system. Previously, it has been argued that negative autoregulation can significantly reduce noise as well as increase the speed of response. We show that the particular molecular mechanism, a transcriptional roadblock, used to achieve self-repression in the lac system does neither. Instead, LacI autoregulation balances two opposing states, one that allows quicker response to smaller pulses of external lactose, and the other that minimizes production costs in the absence of lactose. PMID:23658223

  20. Cloning and Characterization of Sialidases with 2-6? and 2-3? Sialyl Lactose Specificity from Pasteurella multocida†

    PubMed Central

    Mizan, Shaikh; Henk, Adam; Stallings, Amy; Maier, Marie; Lee, Margie D.

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a mucosal pathogen that colonizes the respiratory system of susceptible hosts. Most isolates of P. multocida produce sialidase activity, which may contribute to colonization of the respiratory tract or the production of lesions in an active infection. We have cloned and sequenced a sialidase gene, nanH, from a fowl cholera isolate of P. multocida. Sequence analysis of NanH revealed that it exhibited significant amino acid sequence homology with many microbial sialidases. Insertional inactivation of nanH resulted in a mutant strain that was not deficient in sialidase production. However, this mutant exhibited reduced enzyme activity and growth rate on 2-3? sialyl lactose compared to the wild type. Subsequently, we demonstrated the presence of two sialidases by cloning another sialidase gene that differed from nanH in DNA sequence and substrate specificity. NanB demonstrated activity on both 2-3? and 2-6? sialyl lactose, while NanH demonstrated activity only on 2-3? sialyl lactose. Neither enzyme liberated sialic acid from colominic acid (2-8? sialyl lactose). Recombinant E. coli containing the sialidase genes were able to utilize several sialoconjugants when they were provided as sole carbon sources in minimal medium. These data suggest that sialidases have a nutritional function and may contribute to the ability of P. multocida to colonize and persist on vertebrate mucosal surfaces. PMID:11092845

  1. Lactose-Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Poly-L-Lysine as Hepatoma Cell-Targeted Gene Carrier

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    outlined prospects for human gene therapy (1). Since then, gene therapy has represented a new paradigm to deliver the gene to the appropriate specific cells in sufficient quantities, gene therapy wouldLactose-Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Poly-L-Lysine as Hepatoma Cell-Targeted Gene Carrier Young

  2. Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

    2012-05-01

    Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. PMID:22541456

  3. Fermentation of lactose in direct-acid-set cottage cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Demott, B.J.; Draughon, F.A.; Herald, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis was more suitable than Candida pseudotropicalis or K. lactis for production of EtOH from whey. Direct-acid-set cottage cheese whey and the supernatant fluid resulting from heat treatment of the whey at 95 degrees for 20 min showed similar rates of fermentation when inoculated with K. fragilis. Inoculation rates of 10, 12 and 14 mL of active K. fragilis culture/100 mL of media were not different in rate of EtOH production. Samples incubated with K. fragilis at 35, 37, 40 and 42 degrees showed more rapid reduction in specific gravity than samples incubated at room temperature or 30 degrees. Lactose conversion in whey was 83% complete and in whey supernatant fluid, 77%.

  4. Critical Role of the Solvent Environment in Galectin-1 Binding to the Disaccharide Lactose#

    PubMed Central

    Di Lella, Santiago; Ma, Lu; Díaz Ricci, Juan C.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Asher, Sanford A.; Álvarez, R. María S.

    2009-01-01

    Galectin-1, a member of a family of evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding proteins, binds specifically to poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates. Through interactions with these glycoconjugates, this protein modulates inflammatory responses and contributes to tumor progression and immune cell homeostasis. The carbohydrate recognition domain includes the single protein tryptophan (Trp68). UV Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulation were used to examine the change in the environment of the Trp on ligand binding. The UV Raman spectra and the calculated water radial distribution functions show that, while no large structural changes in the protein follows lactose binding, substantial solvent reorganization occurs. These new insights into the microscopic role of water molecules on Gal-1 binding to its specific carbohydrate ligands provides a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of Gal-1-saccharide interactions, which will be useful for the design of synthetic inhibitors for therapeutic purposes. PMID:19128029

  5. The etiology and prevention of feeding intolerance paralytic ileus – revisiting an old concept

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal (G-I) motility is impaired ("paralytic ileus") after abdominal surgery. Premature feeding attempts delay recovery by inducing "feeding intolerance," especially abdominal distention that compromises respiration. Controlled studies (e.g., from Sloan-Kettering Memorial Hospital) have lead to recommendations that patients not be fed soon after major abdominal surgery to avoid this complication. We postulate that when total fluid inflow of feedings, digestive secretions, and swallowed air outstrip peristaltic outflow from the feeding site, fluid accumulates. This localized stagnation triggers G-I vagal reflexes that further slow the already sluggish gut, leading to generalized abdominal distention. Similarly, vagal cardiovascular reflexes in susceptible subjects could account for the 1:1,000 incidence of unexplained bowel necrosis reported with enteral feeding. We re-evaluated our data, which supports this postulated mechanism for the induction of "feeding intolerance." We had focused our efforts on postoperative enteral nutrition, with the largest reported series of immediate feeding of at least 100 kcal/hour after major surgery. We found that this complication can be avoided consistently by monitoring inflow versus peristaltic outflow, immediately removing any potential excess from the feeding site. We fed intraduodenally immediately following "open" surgery for 31 colectomy and 160 consecutive cholecystectomy patients. The duodenum was aspirated simultaneously just proximal to the feeding site, efficiently removing all swallowed air and excess feedings. To salvage digestive secretions, the degassed aspirate was re-introduced manually (and later automatically) via a separate feeding channel. Hourly assays were performed for nitrogen balance, serum amino acids, and for the presence of removed feedings in the aspirate. The colectomy patients had X-ray motility studies initiated 5 – 17 hours after surgery. Clinically normal motility and absorption resumed within two hours. Fed BaSO4 traversed secure anastomoses, to exit in bowel movements within 24–48 hours of colectomy. All patients were in positive protein balance within 2 – 24 hours, with elevated serum amino acids levels and without adverse G-I effects. Limiting inflow to match peristaltic outflow from the feeding site consistently prevented "feeding intolerance." These patients received immediate full enteral nutrition, with the most rapid resolution of postoperative paralytic ileus, to date. PMID:19374754

  6. Abnormal cortisol metabolism and tissue sensitivity to cortisol in patients with glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robert C; Herlihy, Olive; Livingstone, Dawn E W; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that increased cortisol secretion, altered cortisol metabolism, and/or increased tissue sensitivity to cortisol may link insulin resistance, hypertension, and obesity. Whether these changes are important in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. We performed an integrated assessment of glucocorticoid secretion, metabolism, and action in 25 unmedicated lean male patients with hyperglycemia (20 with type 2 diabetes and 5 with impaired glucose intolerance by World Health Organization criteria) and 25 healthy men, carefully matched for body mass index, age, and blood pressure. Data are mean +/- SE. Patients with hyperglycemia (DM) had higher HbA(1c) (6.9 +/- 0.2% vs. 6.0 +/- 0.1%, P < 0.0001) and triglycerides. Cortisol secretion was not different, as judged by 0900 h plasma cortisol and 24 h total urinary cortisol metabolites. However, the proportion of cortisol excreted as 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced metabolites was increased in DM patients. Following an oral dose of cortisone 25 mg, generation of plasma cortisol by hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD 1) was impaired in DM patients (area under the curve, 3617 +/- 281 nM.2 h vs. 4475 +/- 228; P < 0.005). In contrast, in sc gluteal fat biopsies from 17 subjects (5 DM and 12 controls) in vitro 11beta-HSD 1 activity was not different (area under the curve, 128 +/- 56% conversion.30 h DM vs. 119 +/- 21, P = 0.86). Sensitivity to glucocorticoids was increased in DM patients both centrally (0900 h plasma cortisol after overnight 250 micro g oral dexamethasone 172 +/- 16 nM vs. 238 +/- 20 nM, P < 0.01) and peripherally (more intense forearm dermal blanching following overnight topical beclomethasone; 0.56 +/- 0.92 ratio to vehicle vs. 0.82 +/- 0.69, P < 0.05). In summary, in patients with glucose intolerance, cortisol secretion, although normal, is inappropriately high given enhanced central and peripheral sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Normal 11beta-HSD 1 activity in adipose tissue with impaired hepatic conversion of cortisone to cortisol suggests that tissue-specific changes in 11beta-HSD 1 activity in hyperglycemia differ from those in primary obesity but may still be susceptible to pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme to reduce intracellular cortisol concentrations. Thus, altered cortisol action occurs not only in obesity and hypertension but also in glucose intolerance, and could therefore contribute to the link between these multiple cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:12466357

  7. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms. Talk to your doctor about nutritional supplements. Web Sites Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age What if milk is a problem for my kids? Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance and Osteoporosis NIH Consensus Development Conference Panel Statement

  8. Intolerance of Uncertainty as a Framework for Understanding Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulter, Christina; Freeston, Mark; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is a problem for many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). There is a paucity of models of the cognitive processes underlying this. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has utility in explaining anxiety in neurotypical populations but has only recently received attention in ASD. We modelled the relationship between anxiety…

  9. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  10. When threats foreign turn domestic: Two ways for distant realistic intergroup threats to carry over into local intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    In times of economic downturn, perceived realistic intergroup threats (e.g., labour competition) often dominate political and media discourse. Although local outgroups (e.g., local immigrants) can be experienced as sources of realistic threats, we propose that such threats can also be perceived to be caused by distant outgroups (e.g., European Union members perceiving Greece to threaten their economies) and that such distant threats can carry over into local intolerance (e.g., increasing intolerance towards local immigrant groups). We predicted and found in two studies that perceived distant realistic threats carried over into local intolerance via two different pathways. First, direct reactions towards the distant outgroup can generalize to culturally similar local outgroups (the group-based association pathway). Secondly, Study 2 indicated that when the distant threat was attributed to stereotypical outgroup traits (e.g., being lazy), distant realistic threats activated local realistic threats, which subsequently influenced local intolerance (the threat-based association pathway). Taken together, our studies indicate that perceived realistic threats foreign can turn domestic, but in two different ways. PMID:25491910

  11. The Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America. Student Text ("Us and Them") and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim; Roberson, Houston

    "The Shadow of Hate" resource kit provides a videotape program (40 minutes), 20 copies of a 128-page student text ("Us and Them"), and a 32-page teacher's guide. This document consists of single copies of the two printed components of this kit. The resource traces the history of racial, religious, and social intolerance in the United States.…

  12. Shaking Up the Status Quo: Challenging Intolerance of the Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Community at a Private Roman Catholic University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination against lesbian, gay and bisexual students, faculty, and staff on college campuses is an important issue that demands attention. Intolerance for the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community is often intensified by a lack of knowledge and understanding between heterosexuals and the LGB community, a problem that could…

  13. The uncertainty of errors: Intolerance of uncertainty is associated with error-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Felicia; Nelson, Brady D; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Errors are unpredictable events that have the potential to cause harm. The error-related negativity (ERN) is the electrophysiological index of errors and has been posited to reflect sensitivity to threat. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to perceive uncertain events as threatening. In the present study, 61 participants completed a self-report measure of IU and a flanker task designed to elicit the ERN. Results indicated that IU subscales were associated with the ERN in opposite directions. Cognitive distress in the face of uncertainty (Prospective IU) was associated with a larger ERN and slower reaction time. Inhibition in response to uncertainty (Inhibitory IU) was associated with a smaller ERN and faster reaction time. This study suggests that sensitivity to the uncertainty of errors contributes to the magnitude of the ERN. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of considering the heterogeneity of anxiety phenotypes in relation to measures of threat sensitivity. PMID:26607441

  14. Does distress intolerance moderate the link between ADHD symptoms and number of sexual partners?

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Willis, Danielle

    2015-03-01

    Previous research demonstrates that ADHD symptoms are related to increased risky sexual behavior. Distress intolerance (DIT) has also been linked to risk behavior and may also be related to increased risky sexual behavior. Thus, we evaluated the degree to which DIT moderated the link between ADHD symptoms and number of casual and monogamous sexual partners. Participants were undergraduate psychology students (N = 660; 30 % male; M = 20.23, SD = 1.40; 47 % European American) who completed an online assessment. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that several DIT constructs, specifically tolerance, appraisal, and regulation, moderated the link between ADHD symptoms and casual sex partners. Only regulation moderated the association between ADHD symptoms and monogamous sex partners. Results suggest that difficulty managing distress moderates the link between ADHD symptoms and number of sexual partners. These results have important implications for prevention and intervention program development. PMID:24858733

  15. Deletion of Cavin/PTRF causes global loss of caveolae, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Libin; Brown, Dennis; McKee, Mary; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Yang, Dan; Albrecht, Kenneth H.; Ravid, Katya; Pilch, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Caveolae are specialized invaginations of the plasma membrane found in numerous cell types. They have been implicated as playing a role in a variety of physiological processes and are typically characterized by their association with the caveolin family of proteins. We show here by means of targeted gene disruption in mice, that a distinct caveolae-associated protein, Cavin/PTRF, is an essential component of caveolae. Animals lacking Cavin have no morphologically detectable caveolae in any cell type examined and have markedly diminished protein expression of all three caveolin isoforms whilst retaining normal or above normal caveolin mRNA expression. Cavin knockout mice are viable and of normal weight but have higher circulating triglyceride levels, significantly reduced adipose tissue mass, glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which characteristics constitute a lipodystrophic phenotype. Our results underscore the multi-organ role of caveolae in metabolic regulation and the obligate presence of Cavin for caveolae formation. PMID:18840361

  16. Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 14.

    PubMed Central

    Lauteala, T; Sistonen, P; Savontaus, M L; Mykkänen, J; Simell, J; Lukkarinen, M; Simell, O; Aula, P

    1997-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defective transport of cationic amino acids and by hyperammonemia. Linkage analysis in 20 Finnish LPI families assigned the LPI gene locus to the proximal long arm of chromosome 14. Recombinations placed the locus between framework markers D14S72 and MYH7, a 10-cM interval in which the markers D14S742, D14S50, D14S283, and TCRA showed no recombinations with the phenotype. The phenotype was in highly significant linkage disequilibrium with markers D14S50, D14S283, and TCRA. The strongest allelic association obtained with marker TCRA, resulting in a P(excess) value of .98, suggests that the LPI gene locus lies in close proximity to this marker, probably within a distance of < 100 kb. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9199570

  17. Review of evidence for a toxicological mechanism of idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Lh; Battershill, Jm

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a medically unexplained disorder characterised by a wide variety of unspecific symptoms in different organ systems and attributed to nontoxic concentrations of chemicals and other environmental factors that are tolerated by the majority of individuals. Both exposure to chemicals and behavioural conditioning are considered as possible contributors to the development of IEI. However, owing to the heterogeneity of the condition, it is difficult to separate the toxicological, physiological and psychological aspects of IEI. Here, we review the evidence for postulated toxicologically mediated mechanisms for IEI. Available data do not support either a classical receptor-mediated or an idiosyncratic toxicological mechanism. Furthermore, if there were convincing evidence for a psychological cause for many patients with IEI, then this would suggest that the priority for the future is the development of psychological treatments for IEI. Finally, we advocate genome wide screening of IEI patients to elucidate genotypic features of the condition. PMID:23060407

  18. Alpha-sarcoglycanopathy presenting as exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis in two adults.

    PubMed

    Tarnopolsky, M; Hoffman, E; Giri, M; Shoffner, J; Brady, L

    2015-12-01

    Two patients with exercise-induced myalgias and rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria were evaluated with muscle biopsy and comprehensive myopathy next generation sequencing (NGS) gene panels. Genetic analysis revealed homozygosity for two known pathogenic SGCA mutations (R284C in Patient 1 and V247M in Patient 2). Muscle biopsy showed minimal changes with normal immunohistochemistry for ?-sarcoglycan. Western blotting showed 27% and 35% of normal ?-sarcoglycan immunoreactivity when compared to age matched controls, confirming the diagnosis of ?-sarcoglycanopathy in both patients. The sarcoglycan genes should be added to the differential diagnosis for cases that present with rhabdomyolysis, exercise intolerance, and hyperCKemia, even in the absence of muscle weakness or normal ?-sarcoglycan immunohistochemistry. Work-up of patients with these types of non-specific presentation may be best facilitated through the use of non-specific NGS myopathy panels. PMID:26453141

  19. The fascial system and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure: hypothesis of osteopathic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, F

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is a progressive, debilitating disease, resulting in a decline in the quality of life of the patient and incurring very high social economic costs. Chronic heart failure is defined as the inability of the heart to meet the demands of oxygen from the peripheral area. It is a multi-aspect complex disease which impacts negatively on all of the body systems. Presently, there are no texts in the modern literature that associate the symptoms of exercise intolerance of the patient with a dysfunction of the fascial system. In the first part of this article, we will discuss the significance of the disease, its causes, and epidemiology. The second part will explain the pathological adaptations of the myofascial system. The last section will outline a possible osteopathic treatment for patients with heart failure in order to encourage research and improve the general curative approach for the patient. PMID:26586951

  20. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance in children based on MAST CLA and ALCAT tests.

    PubMed

    Buczy?ko, K; Obarzanowski, T; Rosiak, K; Sta?kiewicz, G; Fiszer, A; Chmielewski, S; Kowalczyk, J

    1995-01-01

    Investigations were performed on 56 children (23 girls, 33 boys), aged 0.5-16.0 (mean 7.2 years). After comparison of the ALCAT cytotoxic test results and the provocation diet results using a single blind trial, over two thirds consistency was obtained, which justified the use of the test for further analysis. The high consistency of MAST CLA and SPT suggests that in the investigated group of children IgE specific for nuts, grain, carrot, and soyabean prevailed. Comparison of these data to the ALCAT cytotoxic test gives a different view of products customarily given to allergic children. Tea, apple, coca-cola, and barley proved to be the most frequent cause of food intolerance in children investigated with the ALCAT test. PMID:8775289

  1. Semi-automated, reverse-hybridization detection of multiple mutations causing hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kriegshäuser, Gernot; Halsall, David; Rauscher, Bettina; Oberkanins, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal nutritional disease that is caused by mutations in the liver isoenzyme of fructoaldolase (aldolase B). Our aim was to evaluate a diagnostic assay capable of simultaneously analyzing three-point mutations and a small deletion in the aldolase B (ALDOB) gene. The test under investigation is based on multiplex DNA amplification and hybridization to membrane strips presenting a parallel array of allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. We used the novel reverse-hybridization (RH) protocol to analyze 54 individuals previously genotyped by direct sequencing. RH genotyping for ALDOB mutations Delta4E4, A149P, A174D, and N334K was in complete concordance with results obtained by DNA sequencing. The procedure is rapid (<6h) and may be automated to a large extent. The RH assay tested in this study represents an accurate and robust screening tool to identify common ALDOB mutations. PMID:17292585

  2. Update on the theory and management of orthostatic intolerance and related syndromes in adolescents and children

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Julian M

    2014-01-01

    Orthostasis means standing upright. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. ‘Initial orthostatic hypotension’ on rapid standing is a normal form of OI. However, other people experience OI that seriously interferes with quality of life. These include episodic acute OI, in the form of postural vasovagal syncope, and chronic OI, in the form of postural tachycardia syndrome. Less common is neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, which is an aspect of autonomic failure. Normal orthostatic physiology and potential mechanisms for OI are discussed, including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution. General and specific treatment options are proposed. PMID:23244360

  3. Anterior stromal puncture for treatment of contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Yeon; Park, Young Kee; Song, Jong-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report the results and effectiveness of anterior stromal puncture for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients with subepithelial fibrotic nodules. Methods Nine eyes of nine keratoconus patients who were rigid gas-permeable contact lenses (RGP)-intolerant due to subepithelial nodular scars were included in this study. The nine patients were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and December 2008. After confirming nodular elevation from slit-lamp biomicroscopy, the area where the epithelium of nodular scars had sloughed was punctured by anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle attached to a 1-ml syringe under slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The RGPs of all patients were refitted around 4 weeks after the puncture. Results Five of the nine patients were male, and the average patient age was 29.6 years (SD?±?5.22 years). Mean follow-up time was 13.7 months (SD?±?4.8 months), and the epithelial defect healed in 1.4 days on average. After the puncture, four of nine patients presented with a recurrent erosion of the nodule during follow-up and needed a second puncture. All the patients showed good contact lens tolerance and satisfactory contact lens fit. No complications such as corneal perforation or keratitis developed. Conclusions Anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle can be a successful and effective method to induce corneal epithelium and Bowman’s layer reattachment. It can be used as an outpatient procedure to improve RGP tolerance in patients with keratoconus with elevated subepithelial nodules. PMID:20625761

  4. Hepatic Glucose Intolerance Precedes Hepatic Steatosis in the Male Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Van Sinderen, Michelle L.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; To, Sarah Q.; Knower, Kevin C.; Clyne, Colin D.; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D.; Herridge, Kerrie A.; Jones, Margaret E. E.; Simpson, Evan R.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are known to play a role in modulating metabolic processes within the body. The Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice have been shown to harbor factors of Metabolic syndrome with central adiposity, hyperinsulinemia and male-specific hepatic steatosis. To determine the effects of estrogen ablation and subsequent replacement in males on whole body glucose metabolism, three- and six-month-old male ArKO mice were subjected to whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests and analyzed for ensuing metabolic changes in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Estrogen-deficient male ArKO mice showed increased gonadal adiposity which was significantly reduced upon 17?-estradiol (E2) treatment. Concurrently, elevated ArKO serum leptin levels were significantly reduced upon E2 treatment and lowered serum adiponectin levels were restored to wild type levels. Three-month-old male ArKO mice were hyperglycemic, and both glucose and pyruvate intolerant. These phenotypes continued through to 6 months of age, highlighting a loss of glycemic control. ArKO livers displayed changes in gluconeogenic enzyme expression, and in insulin signaling pathways upon E2 treatment. Liver triglycerides were increased in the ArKO males only after 6 months of age, which could be reversed by E2 treatment. No differences were observed in insulin-stimulated ex vivo muscle glucose uptake nor changes in ArKO adipose tissue and muscle insulin signaling pathways. Therefore, we conclude that male ArKO mice develop hepatic glucose intolerance by the age of 3 months which precedes the sex-specific development of hepatic steatosis. This can be reversed upon the administration of exogenous E2. PMID:24520329

  5. Muscle oxygen transport and utilization in heart failure: implications for exercise (in)tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2012-01-01

    The defining characteristic of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an exercise intolerance that is inextricably linked to structural and functional aberrations in the O2 transport pathway. CHF reduces muscle O2 supply while simultaneously increasing O2 demands. CHF severity varies from moderate to severe and is assessed commonly in terms of the maximum O2 uptake, which relates closely to patient morbidity and mortality in CHF and forms the basis for Weber and colleagues' (167) classifications of heart failure, speed of the O2 uptake kinetics following exercise onset and during recovery, and the capacity to perform submaximal exercise. As the heart fails, cardiovascular regulation shifts from controlling cardiac output as a means for supplying the oxidative energetic needs of exercising skeletal muscle and other organs to preventing catastrophic swings in blood pressure. This shift is mediated by a complex array of events that include altered reflex and humoral control of the circulation, required to prevent the skeletal muscle “sleeping giant” from outstripping the pathologically limited cardiac output and secondarily impacts lung (and respiratory muscle), vascular, and locomotory muscle function. Recently, interest has also focused on the dysregulation of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? as well as reactive oxygen species as mediators of systemic and muscle dysfunction. This brief review focuses on skeletal muscle to address the mechanistic bases for the reduced maximum O2 uptake, slowed O2 uptake kinetics, and exercise intolerance in CHF. Experimental evidence in humans and animal models of CHF unveils the microvascular cause(s) and consequences of the O2 supply (decreased)/O2 demand (increased) imbalance emblematic of CHF. Therapeutic strategies to improve muscle microvascular and oxidative function (e.g., exercise training and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant strategies, in particular) and hence patient exercise tolerance and quality of life are presented within their appropriate context of the O2 transport pathway. PMID:22101528

  6. Self-reported dietary fructose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome: Proposed diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Leif Kyrre; Fagerli, Erik; Myhre, Arnt-Otto; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the criteria for self-reported dietary fructose intolerance (DFI) and to evaluate subjective global assessment (SGA) as outcome measure. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients were randomized in an open study design with a 2 wk run-in on a habitual IBS diet, followed by 12 wk with/without additional fructose-reduced diet (FRD). Daily registrations of stool frequency and consistency, and symptoms on a visual analog scale (VAS) were performed during the first 4 wk. SGA was used for weekly registrations during the whole study period. Provocation with high-fructose diet was done at the end of the registration period. Fructose breath tests (FBTs) were performed. A total of 182 subjects performed the study according to the protocol (88 FRD, 94 controls). RESULTS: We propose a new clinically feasible diagnostic standard for self-reported fructose intolerance. The instrument is based on VAS registrations of symptom relief on FRD combined with symptom aggravation upon provocation with fructose-rich diet. Using these criteria 43 of 77 patients (56%) in the present cohort of IBS patients had self-reported DFI. To improve the concept for clinical evaluation, we translated the SGA scale instrument to Norwegian and validated it in the context of the IBS diet regimen. The validation procedures showed a sensitivity, specificity and ? value for SGA detecting the self-reported DFI group by FRD response within the IBS patients of 0.79, 0.75 and 0.53, respectively. Addition of the provocation test yielded values of 0.84, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. The corresponding validation results for FBT were 0.57, 0.34 and -0.13, respectively. CONCLUSION: FRD improves symptoms in a subgroup of IBS patients. A diet trial followed by a provocation test evaluated by SGA can identify most responders to FRD. PMID:25987795

  7. Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as a human model of orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Christoph; Tank, Jens; Boschmann, Michael; Diedrich, Andre; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effect of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on cardiovascular responses to cold pressor testing, handgrip testing, and a graded head-up tilt test (HUT) in 18 healthy subjects. In a subset, we determined isoproterenol and phenylephrine sensitivities. Subjects ingested 8 mg reboxetine or placebo 12 hours and 1 hour before testing. In the supine position, heart rate was 65+/-2 bpm with placebo and 71+/-3 bpm with reboxetine. At 75 degrees HUT, heart rate was 84+/-3 and 119+/-4 bpm with placebo and with reboxetine (P<0.0001). Mean arterial pressure was 85+/-2 with placebo and 91+/-2 mm Hg with reboxetine while supine (P<0.01) and 88+/-2 mm Hg and 90+/-3 mm Hg at 75 degrees HUT. Blood pressure responses to cold pressor and handgrip testing were attenuated with reboxetine. Reboxetine increased the sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of isoproterenol and the pressor effect of phenylephrine. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 9 subjects on placebo and in 1 subject on reboxetine. CONCLUSIONS: Selective NET blockade creates a phenotype that resembles idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. This observation supports the hypothesis that disordered norepinephrine uptake mechanisms can contribute to human cardiovascular disease. Our study also suggests that NET inhibition might be useful in preventing vasovagal reactions.

  8. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77±0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the 3 feeds below the LF. As the fluxes approached the LF, SP removal factors decreased due to fouling. Feeding a MF system with MPC instead of skim milk will reduce the required membrane surface area, but the permeate protein composition will be slightly higher in casein content. PMID:26298759

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery for Middle-Aged Men with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Intolerant of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kelvin B.; Toh, Song Tar; Guilleminault, Christian; Holty, Jon-Erik C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Conventional OSA therapy necessitates indefinite continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Although CPAP is an effective treatment modality, up to 50% of OSA patients are intolerant of CPAP. We explore whether surgical modalities developed for those intolerant of CPAP are cost-effective. Methods: We construct a lifetime semi-Markov model of OSA that accounts for observed increased risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and motor vehicle collisions for a 50-year-old male with untreated severe OSA. Using this model, we compare the cost-effectiveness of (1) no treatment, (2) CPAP only, and (3) CPAP followed by surgery (either palatopharyngeal reconstructive surgery [PPRS] or multilevel surgery [MLS]) for those intolerant to CPAP. Results: Compared with the CPAP only strategy, CPAP followed by PPRS (CPAP-PPRS) adds 0.265 quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for an increase of $2,767 (discounted 2010 dollars) and is highly cost effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $10,421/QALY for a 50-year-old male with severe OSA. Compared to a CPAP-PPRS strategy, the CPAP-MLS strategy adds 0.07 QALYs at an increase of $6,213 for an ICER of $84,199/QALY. The CPAP-PPRS strategy appears cost-effective over a wide range of parameter estimates. Conclusions: Palatopharyngeal reconstructive surgery appears cost-effective in middle-aged men with severe OSA intolerant of CPAP. Further research is warranted to better define surgical candidacy as well as short-term and long-term surgical outcomes. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 509. Citation: Tan KB, Toh ST, Guilleminault C, Holty JE. A cost-effectiveness analysis of surgery for middle-aged men with severe obstructive sleep apnea intolerant of CPAP. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):525–535. PMID:25700871

  10. Lactose genes fused to exogenous promoters in one step using a Mu-lac bacteriophage: in vivo probe for transcriptional control sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J; Cohen, S N

    1979-01-01

    The lactose structural genes, without the lactose promoter, have been incorporated into the bacteriophage Mu genome to form a Mu-lac specialized transducing phage. This phage also carries a gene encoding resistance to ampicillin (Ap)[Mu(Ap, lac)]. After infection and upon establishment of lysogeny, the Mu(Ap, lac) genome can integrate into apparently random sites in the Escherichia coli chromosome. When integration occurs within a gene in the orientation of its transcription, the lactose structural genes are so situated that they become expressed solely from the promoter of that gene. Thus, expression of the lactose genes of Mu(Ap, lac) can be used as an assay for transcription of that gene and for functional and mutational studies of gene regulation. PMID:159458

  11. Analysis of crystallized lactose in milk powder by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy to conduct rapid non-destructive quantitative research in milk powder without additional separation steps. The experiments conducted in both FT-IR and 2D FT-IR spectra suggest that characteristic spectroscopic features of milk powder containing different carbohydrate can be detected, and then determine the type of carbohydrate. To predict the approximate content of lactose while the carbohydrate is lactose, different amount of crystallized lactose has been added to the reference milk powder. The correlation coefficient could be used to determine the content of crystallized lactose in milk powder. The method provides a rapid and convenient means for assessing the quality of milk powder.

  12. Modelisation des reseaux biologiques complexes par equations differentielles Partie I: Etude d'un mod`ele de l'operon lactose

    E-print Network

    Chaves, Madalena

    `es un certain intervalle de temps, l'operon reste fortement exprim´e pendant un certain intervalle de'un mod`ele de l'operon lactose Un mod`ele possible pour d´ecrire l'operon lactose est le suivant: dM dt k3 + Lext dLext dt = 3 - 3P Lext k3 + Lext o`u: M = concentration de l'ARNm lacZ, P = concentration

  13. Efficient Biosynthesis of Lactosucrose from Sucrose and Lactose by the Purified Recombinant Levansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512 FMC.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Yu, Shuhuai; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-11-11

    Lactosucrose, a rare trisaccharide formed from sucrose and lactose by enzymatic transglycosylation, is a type of indigestible carbohydrate with a good prebiotic effect. In this study, lactosucrose biosynthesis was efficiently carried out by a purified levansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512. The target gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity and gel filtration chromatography. The effects of pH, temperature, substrate concentration, substrate ratio, and enzyme amount on lactosucrose biosynthesis were studied in detail, and the optimized conditions were determined to be pH 6.5, 50 °C, 27% (W/V) sucrose, 27% (W/V) lactose, and 5 U mL(-1) of the purified recombinant enzyme. Under the optimized reaction conditions, the maximal lactosucrose yield reached 224 g L(-1) after reaction for 1 h. Therefore, L. mesenteroides levansucrase could be considered a potential candidate for future industrial production of lactosucrose. PMID:26487543

  14. Mistletoe lectin I in complex with galactose and lactose reveals distinct sugar-binding properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mikeska, Ruth; Arni, Raghuvir; Mikhailov, Albert; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat; Voelter, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The structures of mistletoe lectin I in complex with lactose and galactose reveal differences in binding by the two known sites in subdomains ?1 and ?2 and suggest the presence of a third low-affinity site in subdomain ?1. The structures of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album complexed with lactose and galactose have been determined at 2.3 Å resolution and refined to R factors of 20.9% (R{sub free} = 23.6%) and 20.9 (R{sub free} = 24.6%), respectively. ML-I is a heterodimer and belongs to the class of ribosome-inactivating proteins of type II, which consist of two chains. The A-chain has rRNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes. The B-chain is a lectin and preferentially binds to galactose-terminated glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes. Saccharide binding is performed by two binding sites in subdomains ?1 and ?2 of the ML-I B-chain separated by ?62 Å from each other. The favoured binding of galactose in subdomain ?1 is achieved via hydrogen bonds connecting the 4-hydroxyl and 3-hydroxyl groups of the sugar moiety with the side chains of Asp23B, Gln36B and Lys41B and the main chain of 26B. The aromatic ring of Trp38B on top of the preferred binding pocket supports van der Waals packing of the apolar face of galactose and stabilizes the sugar–lectin complex. In the galactose-binding site II of subdomain ?2, Tyr249B provides the hydrophobic stacking and the side chains of Asp235B, Gln238B and Asn256B are hydrogen-bonding partners for galactose. In the case of the galactose-binding site I, the 2-hydroxyl group also stabilizes the sugar–protein complex, an interaction thus far rarely detected in galactose-specific lectins. Finally, a potential third low-affinity galactose-binding site in subunit ?1 was identified in the present ML-I structures, in which a glycerol molecule from the cryoprotectant buffer has bound, mimicking the sugar compound.

  15. Self-Pillared, Single-Unit-Cell Sn-MFI Zeolite Nanosheets and Their Use for Glucose and Lactose Isomerization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Limin; Guo, Qiang; Kumar, Prashant; Orazov, Marat; Xu, Dandan; Alhassan, Saeed M; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Davis, Mark E; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Single-unit-cell Sn-MFI, with the detectable Sn uniformly distributed and exclusively located at framework sites, is reported for the first time. The direct, single-step, synthesis is based on repetitive branching caused by rotational intergrowths of single-unit-cell lamellae. The self-pillared, meso- and microporous zeolite is an active and selective catalyst for sugar isomerization. High yields for the conversion of glucose into fructose and lactose to lactulose are demonstrated. PMID:26218555

  16. Lactose in Human Breast Milk an Inducer of Innate Immunity with Implications for a Role in Intestinal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Gordana; Yoshio, Hiroyuki; Alvelius, Gunvor; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Strömberg, Roger; Jörnvall, Hans; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum, infants have not yet established a fully functional adaptive immune system and are at risk of acquiring infections. Hence, newborns are dependent on the innate immune system with its antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins expressed at epithelial surfaces. Several factors in breast milk are known to confer immune protection, but which the decisive factors are and through which manner they work is unknown. Here, we isolated an AMP-inducing factor from human milk and identified it by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR to be lactose. It induces the gene (CAMP) that encodes the only human cathelicidin LL-37 in colonic epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction was suppressed by two different p38 antagonists, indicating an effect via the p38-dependent pathway. Lactose also induced CAMP in the colonic epithelial cell line T84 and in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. It further exhibited a synergistic effect with butyrate and phenylbutyrate on CAMP induction. Together, these results suggest an additional function of lactose in innate immunity by upregulating gastrointestinal AMPs that may lead to protection of the neonatal gut against pathogens and regulation of the microbiota of the infant. PMID:23326523

  17. In situ investigation of growth rates and growth rate dispersion of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-02-01

    The growth rates and growth rate dispersion (GRD) of four different faces of ?-lactose monohydrate crystal were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The overall growth rate of the crystal is around 50-60% of the (0 1 0) face of the crystal. The power law was applied to the growth rates of the four faces and the activation energies were calculated to be between 9.5 and 13.7 kcal/mol. This indicates a diffusion-controlled growth, but the exponents calculated are between 2.5 and 3.1 which are higher than unity. Introduction of critical supersaturation decreased the exponents to between 1.8 and 2.4. The variance of GRD for the (0 1 0) face is twice the variance of the GRD of the (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) faces and 10 times higher than the (1 1¯ 1¯) face at the same supersaturations and temperatures. The GRD of the four faces were similar when expressed as a function of growth rate. However, the (0 1 1) face displayed lower GRD than the other faces at the same temperatures and supersaturations.

  18. Lactose permease of Escherichia coli: properties of mutants defective in substrate translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Overath, P; Weigel, U; Neuhaus, J M; Soppa, J; Seckler, R; Riede, I; Bocklage, H; Müller-Hill, B; Aichele, G; Wright, J K

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of lactose permease of Escherichia coli with amino acid changes (Gly-24----Glu; Gly-24----Arg; Pro-28---Ser; Gly-24, Pro-28----Glu-Ser and Gly-24, Pro-28----Arg-Ser) within a putative membrane-spanning alpha-helix (Phe-Gly-Leu-Phe-Phe-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Phe-Phe-Ile-Met-Gly- Ala-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Phe-Phe-Pro-Ile) are incorporated into the cytoplasmic membrane. The mutant proteins retain the ability to bind galactosides, and the affinity for several substrates is actually increased. However, the rate of active transport is decreased to 0.01% of the wild-type rate in the mutants carrying Arg-24 or Arg-24, Ser-28. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that the two mutants require 10 min to cause occupied binding sites for galactoside and H+ to change their exposure from the periplasm to the cytoplasm as compared to 50 ms in the wild type. The effect is less pronounced when these sites are unoccupied. PMID:3303027

  19. Maternal perinatal undernutrition modifies lactose and serotranferrin in milk: relevance to the programming of metabolic diseases?

    PubMed

    Wattez, J S; Delmont, A; Bouvet, M; Beseme, O; Goers, S; Delahaye, F; Laborie, C; Lesage, J; Foligné, B; Breton, C; Metges, C C; Vieau, D; Pinet, F

    2015-03-01

    A close link between intrauterine growth restriction and development of chronic adult diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension has been established both in humans and animals. Modification of growth velocity during the early postnatal period (i.e., lactation) may also sensitize to the development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. This suggests that milk composition may have long-lasting programming/deprogramming metabolic effects in the offspring. We therefore assess the effects of maternal perinatal denutrition on breast milk composition in a food-restricted 50% (FR50) rat model. Monosaccharides and fatty acids were characterized by gas chromatography, and proteins were profiled by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight analysis in milk samples from FR50 and control rat dams. Milk analysis of FR50 rats demonstrated that maternal undernutrition decreases lactose concentration and modulates lipid profile at postnatal day 10 by increasing the unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and diminishes serotransferrin levels at postnatal day 21. Our data indicate that maternal perinatal undernutrition modifies milk composition both quantitatively and qualitatively. These modifications by maternal nutrition open new perspectives to identify molecules that could be used in artificial milk to protect from the subsequent development of metabolic diseases. PMID:25550282

  20. Extractive fermentation for enhanced propionic acid production from lactose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-05-01

    An extractive fermentation process using an amine extractant and a hollow-fiber membrane extractor to selectively remove propionic acid from the fermentation broth was developed to produce propionate from lactose. Compared to the conventional batch fermentation, the extractive fermentation had a much higher productivity ({approximately}1 g/(L{center_dot}h) or 5-fold increase), higher propionate yield (up to 0.66 g/g or more than 20% increase), higher final product concentration (75 g/L or higher), and higher product purity ({approximately}90%). Meanwhile, acetate and succinate productions in the extractive fermentation were significantly reduced. The improved fermentation performance can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition and a possible metabolic pathway shift to favor more propionic but less acetic and succinic acid production. The process was stable and gave consistent long-term performance over the 1.5-month period studied. The effects of propionate concentration, pH, and amine content in the solvent on the extractive fermentation were also studied and are discussed in this paper.

  1. Diethyl pyrocarbonate reaction with the lactose repressor protein affects both inducer and DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, C.F.; Matthews, K.S.

    1988-04-05

    Modification of the lactose repressor protein of Escherichia coli with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DPC) results in decreased inducer binding as well as operator and nonspecific DNA binding. Spectrophotometric measurements indicated a maximum of three histidines per subunit was modified, and quantitation of lysine residues with trinitrobenzenesulfonate revealed the modification of one lysine residue. The loss of DNA binding, both operator and nonspecific, was correlated with histidine modification; removal of the carbethoxy groups from the histidines by hydroxylamine was accompanied by significant recovery of DNA binding function. The presence of inducing sugars during the DPC reaction had no effect on histidine modification or the loss of DNA binding activity. In contrast, inducer binding was not recovered upon reversal of the histidine modification. However, the presence of inducer during reaction protected lysine from reaction and also prevented the decrease in inducer binding; these results indicate that reaction of the lysine residue(s) may correlate to the loss of sugar binding activity. Since no difference in incorporation of radiolabeled carbethoxy was observed following reaction with diethyl pyrocarbonate in the presence or absence of inducer, the reagent appears to function as a catalyst in the modification of the lysine. The formation of an amide bond between the affected lysine and a nearby carboxylic acid moiety provides a possible mechanism for the activity loss. Reaction of the isolated NH2-terminal domain resulted in loss of DNA binding with modification of the single histidine at position 29. Results from the modification of core domain paralleled observations with intact repressor.

  2. Design and analysis of an immobilized cell reactor with simultaneous product separation: ethanol from whey lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The simultaneous separation of volatile fermentation products from product inhibited fermentations can increase the productivity of a bioreactor by reducing the product concentration in the bioreactor. In this work, a simultaneous tubular reactor separator is developed in which the volatile product is removed from the reacting broth by an inert gas phase. The immobilized cell reactor separator (ICRS) consists of two column reactors: a cocurrent enriching column followed by an countercurrent stripping column. The application of the ICRS concept to the ethanol from whey lactose fermentation was investigated using the yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis 2415. An equilibrium stage model of the ICRS was developed including a surface renewal term for an adsorbed monolayer of reacting cells. This model demonstrated the effect of important operational parameters including temperature, pressure, and gas flow rates. Experimental results using yeast adsorbed to 1/4'' ceramic saddles were somewhat unsatisfactory but very high productivities, cell densities, and separation efficiency were obtained using an absorbant column packing in a gas continuous operating mode.

  3. Dynamic modeling of gene expression in prokaryotes: application to glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Jaroslav Albert; Marianne Rooman

    2011-06-01

    Coexpression of genes or, more generally, similarity in the expression profiles poses an unsurmountable obstacle to inferring the gene regulatory network (GRN) based solely on data from DNA microarray time series. Clustering of genes with similar expression profiles allows for a course-grained view of the GRN and a probabilistic determination of the connectivity among the clusters. We present a model for the temporal evolution of a gene cluster network which takes into account interactions of gene products with genes and, through a non-constant degradation rate, with other gene products. The number of model parameters is reduced by using polynomial functions to interpolate temporal data points. In this manner, the task of parameter estimation is reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations, thus making the computation time shorter by orders of magnitude. To eliminate irrelevant networks, we test each GRN for stability with respect to parameter variations, and impose restrictions on its behavior near the steady state. We apply our model and methods to DNA microarray time series' data collected on Escherichia coli during glucose-lactose diauxie and infer the most probable cluster network for different phases of the experiment.

  4. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-? (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  5. Comparing native and irradiated E. coli lactose repressor-operator complex by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Aci-Sèche, Samia; Garnier, Norbert; Goffinont, Stéphane; Genest, Daniel; Spotheim-Maurizot, Mélanie; Genest, Monique

    2010-09-01

    The function of the E. coli lactose operon requires the binding of the tetrameric repressor protein to the operator DNA. We have previously shown that gamma-irradiation destabilises the repressor-operator complex because the repressor gradually loses its DNA-binding ability (Radiat Res 170:604-612, 2008). It was suggested that the observed oxidation of tyrosine residues and the concomitant structural changes of irradiated headpieces (DNA-binding domains of repressor monomers) could be responsible for the inactivation. To unravel the mechanisms that lead to repressor-operator complex destabilisation when tyrosine oxidation occurs, we have compared by molecular dynamic simulations two complexes: (1) the native complex formed by two headpieces and the operator DNA, and (2) the damaged complex, in which all tyrosines are replaced by their oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). On a 20 ns time scale, MD results show effects consistent with complex destabilisation: increased flexibility, increased DNA bending, modification of the hydrogen bond network, and decrease of the positive electrostatic potential at the protein surface and of the global energy of DNA-protein interactions. PMID:20349312

  6. Thermodynamic mechanism for inhibition of lactose permease by the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Parameswaran; Balasubramaniam, Dhandayuthapani; Peterkofsky, Alan; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of bacteria, the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc plays a key regulatory role in catabolite repression in addition to its role in the vectorial phosphorylation of glucose catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli catalyzes stoichiometric symport of a galactoside with an H+, using a mechanism in which sugar- and H+-binding sites become alternatively accessible to either side of the membrane. Both the expression (via regulation of cAMP levels) and the activity of LacY are subject to regulation by IIAGlc (inducer exclusion). Here we report the thermodynamic features of the IIAGlc–LacY interaction as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies show that IIAGlc binds to LacY with a Kd of about 5 ?M and a stoichiometry of unity and that binding is driven by solvation entropy and opposed by enthalpy. Upon IIAGlc binding, the conformational entropy of LacY is restrained, which leads to a significant decrease in sugar affinity. By suppressing conformational dynamics, IIAGlc blocks inducer entry into cells and favors constitutive glucose uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the studies support the notion that sugar binding involves an induced-fit mechanism that is inhibited by IIAGlc binding. The precise mechanism of the inhibition of LacY by IIAGlc elucidated by ITC differs from the inhibition of melibiose permease (MelB), supporting the idea that permeases can differ in their thermodynamic response to binding IIAGlc. PMID:25675534

  7. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-I; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-? (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10-17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  8. Custom Gradient Compression Stockings May Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during re-entry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. We recently determined that thigh-high, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective after space flight, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. We also recently showed that addition of splanchnic compression to this thigh-high compression stocking paradigm improved orthostatic tolerance to a level similar to the AGS, in a ground based model. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, three-piece breast-high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Eight U.S. astronauts have volunteered for this experiment and were individually fitted for a three-piece, breast-high compression garment to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle which decreased to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and provides 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days pre-flight (w/o garment) and 2 hours after flight (w/ garment) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stands up. To date, two astronauts have completed pre- and post-space flight testing. Data are mean SD. Results: BP [pre (prone to stand): 137+/-1.6 to 129+/-2.5; post: 130+/-2.4 to 122+/-1.6 mmHg] and SV [pre (prone to stand): 61+/-1.6 to 38+/-0.2; post: 58+/-6.4 to 37+/-6.0 ml] decreased with standing, but no differences were seen post-flight w/ compression garments compared to pre-flight w/o garments. HR [pre (prone to stand): 66+/-1.6 to 74+/-3.0, post: 67+/-5.6 to 78+/-6.8 bpm] increased with standing, but no differences were seen pre- to post-flight. Conclusion: After space flight, blood pressure and stroke volume are normally decreased and heart rate is usually elevated to compensate. In this small group of subjects, breast-high gradient compression stockings seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight.

  9. Compression Stockings May Ameliorate Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Short-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Stenger, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight has been observed since the early days of manned spaceflight, and no countermeasure has been 100% effective. During re-entry NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) which compresses the legs and abdomen, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Space Shuttle. We previously reported that foot-to-thigh, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective during standing after Shuttle missions. More recently we showed in a ground-based model of spaceflight that the addition of splanchnic compression to the foot-to-thigh compression stockings, creating foot-to-breast high compression, improved orthostatic tolerance in hypovolemic subjects to a level similar to the AGS. Purpose: To evaluate a new three-piece, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Fourteen astronauts completed this experiment (7 control, 7 treatment) following Space Shuttle missions lasting 12-16 days. Treatment subjects were custom-fitted for a three-piece, foot-to-breast high compression garment consisting of shorts and foot-to-thigh stockings. The garments were constructed to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle and decreased gradually to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days before flight (without garments) and 2 hours after flight (with garments for treatment group only) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stood. Data are reported as mean +/- SE. Results: The compression garment successfully prevented the tachycardia and hypotension typically seen post-spaceflight. On landing day, treatment subjects had a smaller change in HR (11+/-1 vs. 21+/-4 beats/min, p< or =0.05) and no decrease in systolic BP (2+/-4 vs. -9+/-2 mmHg, p< or =0.05). Garments also received good comfort ratings and were relatively easy to don. Conclusion: In this small group of astronauts, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garments seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular responses to standing.

  10. Splanchnic Compression Improves the Efficacy of Compression Stockings to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Brown, A. K.; Lee, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance (OI) is observed in 20-30% of astronauts. Previous data from our laboratory suggests that this is largely a result of decreased venous return. Currently, NASA astronauts wear an anti-gravity suit (AGS) which consists of inflatable air bladders over the calves, thighs and abdomen, typically pressurized from 26 to 78 mmHg. We recently determined that, thigh-high graded compression stockings (JOBST , 55 mmHg at ankle, 6 mmHg at top of thigh) were effective, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of splanchnic compression to prevent orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (6M, 4F) participated in three 80 head-up tilts on separate days while (1) normovolemic (2) hypovolemic w/ breast-high compression stockings (BS)(JOBST(R), 55 mmHg at the ankle, 6 mmHg at top of thigh, 12 mmHg over abdomen) (3) hypovolemic w/o stockings. Hypovolemia was induced by IV infusion of furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) and 48 hrs of a low salt diet to simulate plasma volume loss following space flight. Hypovolemic testing occurred 24 and 48 hrs after furosemide. One-way repeated measures ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections, was used to test for differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses to head-up tilt, stand times were compared using a Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis. Results: BS were effective in preventing OI and presyncope in hypovolemic test subjects ( p = 0.015). BS prevented the decrease in systolic blood pressure seen during tilt in normovolemia (p < 0.001) and hypovolemia w/o countermeasure (p = 0.005). BS also prevented the decrease in diastolic blood pressure seen during tilt in normovolemia (p = 0.006) and hypovolemia w/o countermeasure (p = 0.041). Hypovolemia w/o countermeasure showed a higher tilt-induced heart rate increase (p = 0.022) than seen in normovolemia; heart rate while wearing BS was not different than normovolemia (p = 0.353). Conclusion: BS may be an effective countermeasure to post-space flight OI. The addition of splanchnic compression is more effective than the previous thigh-high garments. These stockings are readily available, inexpensive, and can be worn for days following landing as astronauts re-adapt to Earth gravity.

  11. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jennifer M.; Matsen, Miles E.; Mundinger, Thomas O.; Morton, Gregory J.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Taborsky, Gerald J.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Central administration of ligands for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) such as fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and FGF21 exert glucose-lowering effects in rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Conversely, intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the non-selective FGFR inhibitor (FGFRi) PD173074 causes glucose intolerance, implying a physiological role for neuronal FGFR signaling in glucose homeostasis. The current studies were undertaken to identify neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the glucose intolerance induced by pharmacological blockade of central FGFRs. Methods Overnight fasted, lean, male, Long-Evans rats received icv injections of either PD173074 or vehicle (Veh) followed 30 min later by performance of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data from the FSIGT was performed to estimate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent components of glucose disposal. Plasma levels of lactate, glucagon, corticosterone, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA) and catecholamines were measured before and after intravenous (iv) glucose injection. Results Within 20 min of icv PD173074 injection (prior to the FSIGT), plasma levels of lactate, norepinephrine and epinephrine increased markedly, and each returned to baseline rapidly (within 8 min) following the iv glucose bolus. In contrast, plasma glucagon levels were not altered by icv FGFRi at either time point. Consistent with a previous report, glucose tolerance was impaired following icv PD173074 compared to Veh injection and, based on minimal model analysis of FSIGT data, this effect was attributable to reductions of both insulin secretion and the basal insulin effect (BIE), consistent with the inhibitory effect of catecholamines on pancreatic ?-cell secretion. By comparison, there were no changes in glucose effectiveness at zero insulin (GEZI) or the insulin sensitivity index (SI). To determine if iv glucose (given during the FSIGT) contributed to the rapid resolution of the sympathoadrenal response induced by icv FGFRi, we performed an additional study comparing groups that received iv saline or iv glucose 30 min after icv FGFRi. Our finding that elevated plasma catecholamine levels returned rapidly to baseline irrespective of whether rats subsequently received an iv bolus of saline or glucose indicates that the rapid reversal of sympathoadrenal activation following icv FGFRi was unrelated to the subsequent glucose bolus. Conclusions The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study. PMID:26266088

  12. The Intolerance of Regulatory Sequence to Genetic Variation Predicts Gene Dosage Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanli; Halvorsen, Matt; Han, Yujun; Weir, William H.; Allen, Andrew S.; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding sequence contains pathogenic mutations. Yet, compared with mutations in protein-coding sequence, pathogenic regulatory mutations are notoriously difficult to recognize. Most fundamentally, we are not yet adept at recognizing the sequence stretches in the human genome that are most important in regulating the expression of genes. For this reason, it is difficult to apply to the regulatory regions the same kinds of analytical paradigms that are being successfully applied to identify mutations among protein-coding regions that influence risk. To determine whether dosage sensitive genes have distinct patterns among their noncoding sequence, we present two primary approaches that focus solely on a gene’s proximal noncoding regulatory sequence. The first approach is a regulatory sequence analogue of the recently introduced residual variation intolerance score (RVIS), termed noncoding RVIS, or ncRVIS. The ncRVIS compares observed and predicted levels of standing variation in the regulatory sequence of human genes. The second approach, termed ncGERP, reflects the phylogenetic conservation of a gene’s regulatory sequence using GERP++. We assess how well these two approaches correlate with four gene lists that use different ways to identify genes known or likely to cause disease through changes in expression: 1) genes that are known to cause disease through haploinsufficiency, 2) genes curated as dosage sensitive in ClinGen’s Genome Dosage Map, 3) genes judged likely to be under purifying selection for mutations that change expression levels because they are statistically depleted of loss-of-function variants in the general population, and 4) genes judged unlikely to cause disease based on the presence of copy number variants in the general population. We find that both noncoding scores are highly predictive of dosage sensitivity using any of these criteria. In a similar way to ncGERP, we assess two ensemble-based predictors of regional noncoding importance, ncCADD and ncGWAVA, and find both scores are significantly predictive of human dosage sensitive genes and appear to carry information beyond conservation, as assessed by ncGERP. These results highlight that the intolerance of noncoding sequence stretches in the human genome can provide a critical complementary tool to other genome annotation approaches to help identify the parts of the human genome increasingly likely to harbor mutations that influence risk of disease. PMID:26332131

  13. Cardiac atrophy after bed-rest deconditioning: a nonneural mechanism for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular adaptation to bed rest leads to orthostatic intolerance, characterized by an excessive fall in stroke volume (SV) in the upright position. We hypothesized that this large fall in SV is due to a change in cardiac mechanics. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), SV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and left ventricular mass (by echocardiography) at rest, during lower-body negative pressure, and after saline infusion before and after 2 weeks of bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt (n=12 subjects aged 24+/-5 years). Pressure (P)-volume (V) curves were modeled exponentially by P=ae(kV)+b and logarithmically by P=-Sln[(Vm-V)/(Vm-V0)], where V0 indicates volume at P=0, and the constants k and S were used as indices of normalized chamber stiffness. Dynamic stiffness (dP/dV) was calculated at baseline LVEDV. The slope of the line relating SV to PCWP during lower-body negative pressure characterized the steepness of the Starling curve. We also measured plasma volume (with Evans blue dye) and maximal orthostatic tolerance. Bed rest led to a reduction in plasma volume (17%), baseline PCWP (18%), SV (12%), LVEDV (16%), V0 (33%), and orthostatic tolerance (24%) (all P<.05). The slope of the SV/PCWP curve increased from 4.6+/-0.4 to 8.8+/-0.9 mL/mm Hg (P<.01) owing to a parallel leftward shift in the P-V curve. Normalized chamber stiffness was unchanged, but dP/dV was reduced by 50% at baseline LVEDV, and cardiac mass tended to be reduced by 5% (P<.10). CONCLUSIONS: Two weeks of head-down-tilt bed rest leads to a smaller, less distensible left ventricle but a shift to a more compliant portion of the P-V curve. This results in a steeper Starling relationship, which contributes to orthostatic intolerance by causing an excessive reduction in SV during orthostasis.

  14. Coeliac disease: a diverse clinical syndrome caused by intolerance of wheat, barley and rye.

    PubMed

    McGough, Norma; Cummings, John H

    2005-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a lifelong intolerance to the gluten found in wheat, barley and rye, and some patients are also sensitive to oats. The disease is genetically determined, with 10% of the first-degree relatives affected and 75% of monozygotic twins being concordant. Of the patients with coeliac disease 95% are human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive. Characteristically, the jejunal mucosa becomes damaged by a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response that is thought to be initiated by a 33-mer peptide fragment in A2 gliadin, and patients with this disorder have raised levels of anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their blood. Coeliac disease is the major diagnosable food intolerance and, with the advent of a simple blood test for case finding, prevalence rates are thought to be approximately 1:100. Classically, the condition presented with malabsorption and failure to thrive in infancy, but this picture has now been overtaken by the much more common presentation in adults, usually with non-specific symptoms such as tiredness and anaemia, disturbance in bowel habit or following low-impact bone fractures. Small intestinal biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and shows a characteristically flat appearance with crypt hypoplasia and infiltration of the epithelium with lymphocytes. Diet is the key to management and a gluten-free diet effectively cures the condition. However, this commitment is lifelong and many aisles in the supermarket are effectively closed to individuals with coeliac disease. Compliance can be monitored by measuring antibodies in blood, which revert to negative after 6-9 months. Patients with minor symptoms, who are found incidentally to have coeliac disease, often ask whether it is necessary to adhere to the diet. Current advice is that dietary adherence is necessary to avoid the long-term complications, which are, principally, osteoporosis and small bowel lymphoma. However, risk of these complications diminishes very considerably in patients who are on a gluten-free diet. PMID:16313685

  15. Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

  16. Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs

    PubMed Central

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

  17. Stress-Induced Increase in Kynurenic Acid as a Potential Biomarker for Patients With Schizophrenia and Distress Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Pocivavsek, Ana; Nugent, Katie L.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Several lines of evidence have linked the endogenous neuromodulator kynurenic acid (KYNA) to schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The KYNA level was measured in saliva samples taken at baseline and at 2 times following a laboratory-based psychological stress challenge in 128 participants (64 patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics and 64 healthy controls from the community). EXPOSURE Laboratory-based psychological stress challenge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quitting the stressful task early was used as a behavioral marker of distress intolerance. RESULTS Patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher rate of distress intolerance compared with healthy controls (P = .003). Salivary KYNA levels increased significantly between baseline and 20 minutes following the stress task in both patients and controls (mean [SEM], 6.72 nM [0.65 nM] vs 8.43 nM [1.05 nM], respectively; P = .007). Patients who were unable to tolerate the stressful tasks and quit early showed significantly higher levels of KYNA than patients who tolerated the psychological stressor (P = .02) or healthy controls (P = .02). In patients with distress intolerance, KYNA elevation significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms (? = 0.64; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Distress intolerance is more common in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with this behavioral phenotype have elevated salivary KYNA levels. This stress response behavior–linked biomarker may aid heterogeneity reduction in schizophrenia and other stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24806441

  18. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK. 

    E-print Network

    Unwin, Nigel; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, Raj; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3...

  19. Development of potential novel cushioning agents for the compaction of coated multi-particulates by co-processing micronized lactose with polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Chyi, Chin Wun; Ruan, Ke-feng; Feng, Yi; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2011-10-01

    This work aimed to explore the potential of lactose as novel cushioning agents with suitable physicomechanical properties by micronization and co-spray drying with polymers for protecting coated multi-particulates from rupture when they are compressed into tablets. Several commercially available lactose grades, micronized lactose (ML) produced by jet milling, spray-dried ML (SML), and polymer-co-processed SMLs, were evaluated for their material characteristics and tableting properties. Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at three different levels were evaluated as co-processed polymers for spray drying. Sugar multi-particulates layered with chlorpheniramine maleate followed by an ethylcellulose coat were tableted using various lactose types as fillers. Drug release from compacted multi-particulate tablets was used to evaluate the cushioning effect of the fillers. The results showed that the cushioning effect of lactose principally depended on its particle size. Micronization can effectively enhance the protective action of lactose. Although spray drying led to a small reduction in the cushioning effect of ML, it significantly improved the physicomechanical properties of ML. Co-spray drying with suitable polymers improved both the cushioning effect and the physicomechanical properties of SML to a certain degree. Among the three polymers studied, HPC was the most effective in terms of enhancing the cushioning effect of SML. This was achieved by reducing yield pressure, and enhancing compressibility and compactibility. The combination of micronization and co-spray drying with polymers is a promising method with which new applications for lactose can be developed. PMID:21458566

  20. [Should metal alloy discs be used for patch testing in suspected metal implant intolerance reaction?].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Geier, J; Dickel, H; Diepgen, T; Hillen, U; Kreft, B; Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Mahler, V

    2015-11-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, patch testing should not be done in a prophylactic-prophetic approach. Pre-implant patch testing should only be performed to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a reported respective history. In the case of implant-in particular arthroplasty-related complications like, for example, pain, effusion, skin changes, reduced range of motion, or loosening, orthopedic-surgical differential diagnostics should be performed first. Allergological workup of suspected metal implant allergy should be done with the DKG baseline series which contains nickel-, cobalt- and chromium-preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing proved that this approach does not give reliable information about metal allergy. Positive patch test reactions to the discs cannot be assigned to a specific metal within the disc alloy components. Furthermore, availability of such metal discs might be an invitation to uncritical testing. Accordingly, due to lack of benefit in comparison to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs. PMID:26438196

  1. Exercise intolerance and developmental delay associated with a novel mitochondrial ND5 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hezhi; Shi, Hao; Li, Xiyuan; Sun, Dayan; Li, Fengjie; Li, Bin; Ding, Yuan; Ma, Yanyan; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Shen, Lijun; Bai, Yidong; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency. The complete mitochondrial genomes of 41 families with OXPHOS deficiency were screened for mutations. Mitochondrial functional analysis was then performed in primary and cybrid cells containing candidate mutations identified during the screening. A novel mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5) m.12955A?>?G mutation was identified in a patient with exercise intolerance and developmental delay. A biochemical analysis revealed deficiencies in the activity of complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) of this patient. Defects in complexes I and IV were confirmed in transmitochondrial cybrid cells containing the m.12955A?>?G mutation, suggesting that this mutation impairs complex I assembly, resulting in reduced stability of complex IV. Further functional investigations revealed that mitochondria with the m.12955A?>?G mutation exhibited lower OXPHOS coupling respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. In addition, the cytotoxic effects, determined as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate levels in the present study, increased in the cells carrying a higher m.12955A?>?G mutant load. In conclusion, we identified m.12955A?>?G as a mitochondrial disease-related mutation. Therefore, screening of m.12955A?>?G is advised for the diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial disease. PMID:26014388

  2. An Event-Related Potential Investigation of Fear Generalization and Intolerance of Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brady D; Weinberg, Anna; Pawluk, Joe; Gawlowska, Magda; Proudfit, Greg H

    2015-09-01

    Fear generalization is a key process in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Psychobiological investigations of fear generalization have predominantly focused on defensive system activation (e.g., startle reflex), and it is unclear whether aberrant attentional processing contributes to fear generalization. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential component that indexes sustained attention and elaborative processing of motivationally salient information, and is larger in response to arousing compared to nonarousing stimuli. In the present study 48 participants completed a fear generalization paradigm using electric shocks. The LPP and retrospective risk ratings of shock likelihood were measured in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS+) and multiple generalization stimuli (GS) that varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. In addition, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) was examined in relation to fear generalization. The LPP was enhanced for the CS+relative to the GS, but the GS did not differ from one another. Thus, overall the LPP did not reflect fear generalization. However, the LPP to the GS differed as a function of IU, such that high Prospective IU was associated with an attenuated LPP to the GS, and this was independent of trait anxiety. Risk ratings tracked fear generalization irrespective of IU. We discuss the potential influence of IU and attentional processing on fear generalization. Overall, the present study supports the LPP as a useful tool for examining individual differences in fear generalization. PMID:26459846

  3. An experimental renal acidification defect in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R. Curtis

    1968-01-01

    In three unrelated patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), but in none of five normal subjects, the experimental administration of fructose invariably induced a reversible dysfunction of the renal tubule with biochemical and physiological characteristics of renal tubular acidosis. During a state of ammonium chloride-induced acidosis, (a) urinary pH was greater than six and the rate of excretion of net acid (titratable acid plus ammonium minus bicarbonate) was inappropriately low, (b) the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged or decreased modestly, and (c) urinary excretion of titratable acid increased briskly with diuresis of infused phosphate, although urinary pH changed little. The tubular dysfunction, which also includes impaired tubular reabsorption of alpha amino nitrogen and phosphate, persisted throughout administration of fructose and disappeared afterward. The tubular dysfunction was not causally dependent on hypoglucosemia, ammonium chloride-induced acidosis or osmotic diuresis. Rather, it appeared causally related to the fructose-induced metabolic abnormality of patients with HFI. The causal enzymatic defect, the virtual absence of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, occurs in the kidney as well as in the liver of patients with HFI. Images PMID:5653216

  4. [Polymorphism of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance susceptibility genes in oncological patients].

    PubMed

    Ulybina, Iu M; Imianitov, E N; Vasil'ev, D A; Bershte?n, L M

    2008-01-01

    Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance belong to the group of leading risk factors for breast (BC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Differences in the intensity of association of these endocrine disturbances with BC and EC may at least partly be explained by non-identity in polygenic nature of the mentioned hormone-metabolic shifts and oncological diseases themselves as well. In this study, which included 105 healthy postmenopausal women and 301 female cancer patients (110 BC and 191 EC) without overt diabetes mellitus, we compared the frequency of the following genetic polymorphisms: insulin receptor substrate-1, IRS Gly972Arg; leptin receptor, LEPR Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg; mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2, UCP2_866G/A; and gene ND3 of mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA 10398A/G. Genotyping was performed with allele-specific real-time PCR. According to data received, certain genetic markers associated with impaired glucose tolerance and/or insulin resistance (namely, leptin receptor genotypes 223 Gln/Arg and Gln/Gln) are revealed in oncological patients more often than in females without cancer. Other markers (like genotype UCP2 866AA and polymorphism mtDNA 10398A) appeared to be relatively more frequent in EC than in BC providing one of the interpretations for the lower insulin sensitivity and higher incidence of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances in the first of these two diseases. PMID:19140314

  5. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions are associated with IEI would add to our understanding of this complex disorder. Purpose To examine if measures of somato-sensory amplification, autonomic perception and absorption are associated with IEI. Methods The study included individuals with self-reported or physician-diagnosed IEI. Participants (n = 732) completed questionnaires that included items on descriptive variables of IEI, the Somato-Sensory Amplification Scale (SSAS), the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and a Negative Affectivity Scale (NAS). Results Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between SSAS, APQ, and IEI, while small and inverse associations were seen between TAS and IEI. Conclusions The association with SSAS and APQ suggests that perceptual personality characteristics are important in understanding this disorder. PMID:19953345

  6. Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in ulcerative colitis: Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Maconi, Giovanni; Furfaro, Federica; Sciurti, Roberta; Bezzio, Cristina; Ardizzone, Sandro; de Franchis, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent co-morbidities of ulcerative colitis patients. The epidemiological association of these diseases suggested a genetic sharing and has challenged gene identification. Diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis has also relevant clinical and therapeutic implications, with potential clinical impact on the follow up and outcome of patients. These diseases share specific complications, such as neuropathy, hepatic steatosis, osteoporosis and venous thrombosis. It is still unknown whether the coexistence of these diseases may increase their occurrence. Diabetes and hyperglycaemia represent relevant risk factors for postoperative complications and pouch failure in ulcerative colitis. Medical treatment of ulcerative colitis in patients with diabetes mellitus may be particularly challenging. Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice of active ulcerative colitis. Their use may be associated with the onset of glucose intolerance and diabetes, with difficult control of glucose levels and with complications in diabetic patients. Epidemiologic and genetic evidences about diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis patients and shared complications and treatment of patients with these diseases have been discussed in the present review. PMID:24707133

  7. Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahid, Md. Abu

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

  8. Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

  9. Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2013-03-01

    Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of ?-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased ?-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. PMID:23262275

  10. Increased sympathetic activation in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance: role of systemic adrenoreceptor sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Black, Bonnie K.; Robertson, David

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by adrenergic symptoms with standing. Changes in central sympathetic tone or in adrenoreceptor sensitivity could contribute to this syndrome. In OI patients and control subjects, we determined heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes after incremental bolus doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine before and during ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan. SBP decreased by 17+/-1.6 mm Hg in patients and 3.9+/-3.8 mm Hg in control subjects (P<0.01) with trimethaphan. Patients with a larger decrease (28+/-3.8 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP with trimethaphan had greater supine SBP and supine and upright plasma norepinephrine levels than did patients with a lesser decrease (3.0+/-3.0 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP. Supine and orthostatic HRs were similar for the groups. The majority of patients had a normal HR response to isoproterenol before and during ganglionic blockade. Phenylephrine increased SBP similarly in patients and control subjects before and during blockade. Sympathetic support is increased in a subgroup of OI patients. Hyperadrenergic and nonhyperadrenergic subgroups have similar degrees of orthostatic tachycardia. Our findings suggest that the hyperadrenergic features of OI cannot be completely explained by systemic hypersensitivity of postsynaptic alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoreceptors but rather originates in enhanced sympathetic activation.

  11. Vascular endothelial dysfunction resulting from l-arginine deficiency in a patient with lysinuric protein intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Nagaretani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Shinji; Ohama, Tohru; Maruyama, Takao; Hiraoka, Hisatoyo; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yamada, Akira; Kiso, Shinichi; Inui, Yoshiaki; Ito, Nobuyuki; Kayanoki, Yoshiro; Kawata, Sumio; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    Although L-arginine is the only substrate for nitric oxide (NO) production, no studies have yet been reported on the effect of an L-arginine deficiency on vascular function in humans. Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive defect of dibasic amino acid transport caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene, resulting in an L-arginine deficiency. Vascular endothelial function was examined in an LPI patient who was shown to be a compound heterozygote for two mutations in the gene (5.3-kbp Alu-mediated deletion, IVS3+1G??). The lumen diameter of the brachial artery was measured in this patient and in healthy controls at rest, during reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent vasodilation [EDV]), and after sublingual nitroglycerin administration (endothelium-independent vasodilation [EIV]) using ultrasonography. Both EDV and NOx concentrations were markedly reduced in the patient compared with those for the controls. They became normal after an L-arginine infusion. EIV was not significantly different between the patient and controls. Positron emission tomography of the heart and a treadmill test revealed ischemic changes in the patient, which were improved by the L-arginine infusion. Thus, in the LPI patient, L-arginine deficiency caused vascular endothelial dysfunction via a decrease in NO production. PMID:11544277

  12. Does Intolerance of Uncertainty Predict Anticipatory Startle Responses to Uncertain Threat?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2011-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been proposed to be an important maintaining factor in several anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia. While IU has been shown to predict subjective ratings and decision-making during uncertain/ambiguous situations, few studies have examined whether IU also predicts emotional responding to uncertain threat. The present study examined whether IU predicted aversive responding (startle and subjective ratings) during the anticipation of temporally uncertain shocks. Sixty-nine participants completed three experimental conditions during which they received: no shocks, temporally certain/predictable shocks, and temporally uncertain shocks. Results indicated that IU was negatively associated with startle during the uncertain threat condition in that those with higher IU had a smaller startle response. IU was also only related to startle during the uncertain (and not the certain/predictable) threat condition, suggesting that it was not predictive of general aversive responding, but specific to responses to uncertain aversiveness. Perceived control over anxiety-related events mediated the relation between IU and startle to uncertain threat, such that high IU led to lowered perceived control, which in turn led to a smaller startle response. We discuss several potential explanations for these findings, including the inhibitory qualities of IU. Overall, our results suggest IU is associated with attenuated aversive responding to uncertain threat. PMID:21619900

  13. A matched case control study of orthostatic intolerance in children/adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Jackson, Pamela M; Sayers, Rachel M; Taylor, Barry J

    2008-02-01

    This study aimed to define cardiovascular and heart rate variability (HRV) changes following head-up tilt (HUT) in children/adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in comparison to age- and gender-matched controls. Twenty-six children/adolescents with CFS (11-19 y) and controls underwent 70-degree HUT for a maximum of 30 min, but returned to horizontal earlier at the participant's request with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) that included lightheadedness. Using electrocardiography and beat-beat finger blood pressure, a positive tilt was defined as OI with 1) neurally mediated hypotension (NMH); bradycardia (HR <75% of baseline), and hypotension [systolic pressure (SysP) drops >25 mm Hg)] or 2) postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS); HR increase >30 bpm, or HR >120 bpm (with/without hypotension). Thirteen CFS and five controls exhibited OI generating a sensitivity and specificity for HUT of 50.0% and 80.8%, respectively. POTS without hypotension occurred in seven CFS subjects but no controls. POTS with hypotension and NMH occurred in both. Predominant sympathetic components to HRV on HUT were measured in CFS tilt-positive subjects. In conclusion, CFS subjects were more susceptible to OI than controls, the cardiovascular response predominantly manifest as POTS without hypotension, a response unique to CFS suggesting further investigation is warranted with respect to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. PMID:18091356

  14. Genetic Ablation of CD38 Protects against Western Diet-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Metabolic Inflexibility

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Shian-Huey; Harrington, W. Wallace; Luo, Guizhen; Milliken, Naphtali O.; Ulrich, John C.; Chen, Jing; Rajpal, Deepak K.; Qian, Ying; Carpenter, Tiffany; Murray, Rusty; Geske, Robert S.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Kramer, Henning F.; Haffner, Curt D.; Becherer, J. David; Preugschat, Frank; Billin, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a key cofactor required for essential metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions. It also regulates various cellular activities, including gene expression, signaling, DNA repair and calcium homeostasis. Intracellular NAD+ levels are tightly regulated and often respond rapidly to nutritional and environmental changes. Numerous studies indicate that elevating NAD+ may be therapeutically beneficial in the context of numerous diseases. However, the role of NAD+ on skeletal muscle exercise performance is poorly understood. CD38, a multi-functional membrane receptor and enzyme, consumes NAD+ to generate products such as cyclic-ADP-ribose. CD38 knockout mice show elevated tissue and blood NAD+ level. Chronic feeding of high-fat, high-sucrose diet to wild type mice leads to exercise intolerance and reduced metabolic flexibility. Loss of CD38 by genetic mutation protects mice from diet-induced metabolic deficit. These animal model results suggest that elevation of tissue NAD+ through genetic ablation of CD38 can profoundly alter energy homeostasis in animals that are maintained on a calorically-excessive Western diet. PMID:26287487

  15. Flexibility in the inducer binding region is crucial for allostery in the Escherichia coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Matthews, Kathleen S

    2009-06-01

    Lactose repressor protein (LacI) utilizes an allosteric mechanism to regulate transcription in Escherichia coli, and the transition between inducer- and operator-bound states has been simulated by targeted molecular dynamics (TMD). The side chains of amino acids 149 and 193 interact and were predicted by TMD simulation to play a critical role in the early stages of the LacI conformational change. D149 contacts IPTG directly, and variations at this site provide the opportunity to dissect its role in inducer binding and signal transduction. Single mutants at D149 or S193 exhibit a minimal change in operator binding, and alterations in inducer binding parallel changes in operator release, indicating normal allosteric response. The observation that the double mutant D149A/S193A exhibits wild-type properties excludes the requirement for inter-residue hydrogen bond formation in the allosteric response. The double mutant D149C/S193C purified from cell extracts shows decreased sensitivity to inducer binding while retaining wild-type binding affinities and kinetic constants for both operator and inducer. By manipulating cysteine oxidation, we show that the more reduced state of D149C/S193C responds to inducer more like the wild-type protein, whereas the more oxidized state displays diminished inducer sensitivity. These features of D149C/S193C indicate that the novel disulfide bond formed in this mutant impedes the allosteric transition, consistent with the role of this region predicted by TMD simulation. Together, these results establish the requirement for flexibility in the spatial relationship between D149 and S193 rather than a specific D149-S193 interaction in the LacI allosteric response to inducer. PMID:19368358

  16. Flexibility in the Inducer Binding Region is Crucial for Allostery in the Escherichia coli Lactose Repressor†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2009-01-01

    Lactose repressor protein (LacI) utilizes an allosteric mechanism to regulate transcription in E. coli, and the transition between inducer- and operator-bound states has been simulated by targeted molecular dynamics (TMD). The side chains of amino acids 149 and 193 interact and were predicted by TMD simulation to play a critical role in the early stages of the LacI conformational change. D149 contacts IPTG directly, and variations at this site provide the opportunity to dissect its role in inducer binding and signal transduction. Single mutants at D149 or S193 exhibit minimal change in operator binding, and alterations in inducer binding parallel changes in operator release, indicating normal allosteric response. The observation that the double mutant D149A/S193A exhibits wild-type properties excludes the requirement for inter-residue hydrogen bond formation in the allosteric response. The double mutant D149C/S193C purified from cell extracts shows decreased sensitivity to inducer binding, while retaining wild-type binding affinities and kinetic constants for both operator and inducer. By manipulating cysteine oxidation, we show that the more reduced state of D149C/S193C responds to inducer more similarly to wild-type protein, whereas the more oxidized state displays diminished inducer sensitivity. These features of D149C/S193C indicate that the novel disulfide bond formed in this mutant impedes the allosteric transition, consistent with the role of this region predicted by TMD simulation. Together, these results establish the requirement for flexibility of spatial relationship between D149 and S193 rather than a specific D149-S193 interaction in the LacI allosteric response to inducer. PMID:19368358

  17. Allosteric transition pathways in the lactose repressor protein core domains: Asymmetric motions in a homodimer

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Terence C.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Kong, Yifei; Booth, Christopher; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Ma, Jianpeng

    2003-01-01

    The crystal structures of lactose repressor protein (LacI) provide static endpoint views of the allosteric transition between DNA- and IPTG-bound states. To obtain an atom-by-atom description of the pathway between these two conformations, motions were simulated with targeted molecular dynamics (TMD). Strikingly, this homodimer exhibited asymmetric dynamics. All asymmetries observed in this simulation are reproducible and can begin on either of the two monomers. Asymmetry in the simulation originates around D149 and was traced back to the pre-TMD equilibrations of both conformations. In particular, hydrogen bonds between D149 and S193 adopt a variety of configurations during repetitions of this process. Changes in this region propagate through the structure via noncovalent interactions of three interconnected pathways. The changes of pathway 1 occur first on one monomer. Alterations move from the inducer-binding pocket, through the N-subdomain ?-sheet, to a hydrophobic cluster at the top of this region and then to the same cluster on the second monomer. These motions result in changes at (1) side chains that form an interface with the DNA-binding domains and (2) K84 and K84’, which participate in the monomer–monomer interface. Pathway 2 reflects consequent reorganization across this subunit interface, most notably formation of a H74-H74rsquo; ?-stacking intermediate. Pathway 3 extends from the rear of the inducer-binding pocket, across a hydrogen-bond network at the bottom of the pocket, and transverses the monomer–monomer interface via changes in H74 and H74rsquo;. In general, intermediates detected in this study are not apparent in the crystal structures. Observations from the simulations are in good agreement with biochemical data and provide a spatial and sequential framework for interpreting existing genetic data. PMID:14573864

  18. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports in shorter BR studies that the performance of an exercise countermeasure protocol by itself during BR does not prevent orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. This suggests that protection against orthostatic intolerance in astronauts following long-duration spaceflight will require an additional intervention, such as periodic orthostatic stress, fluid repletion, and/or lower-body compression garments.

  19. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate. PMID:19784641

  20. Raised cerebrovascular resistance in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance: evidence for sympathetic vasoconstriction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Paranjape, S. Y.; Barwise, J.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) exhibit symptoms suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion and an excessive decrease in cerebral blood flow associated with standing despite sustained systemic blood pressure. In 9 patients (8 women and 1 man aged 22 to 48 years) with IOI, we tested the hypothesis that volume loading (2000 cc normal saline) and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonism improve systemic hemodynamics and cerebral perfusion and that the decrease in cerebral blood flow with head-up tilt (HUT) could be attenuated by alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade with phentolamine. At 5 minutes of HUT, volume loading (-20+/-3.2 bpm) and phenylephrine (-18+/-3.4 bpm) significantly reduced upright heart rate compared with placebo; the effect was diminished at the end of HUT. Phentolamine substantially increased upright heart rate at 5 minutes (20+/-3.7 bpm) and at the end of HUT (14+/-5 bpm). With placebo, mean cerebral blood flow velocity decreased by 33+/-6% at the end of HUT. This decrease in cerebral blood flow with HUT was attenuated by all 3 interventions. We conclude that in patients with IOI, HUT causes a substantial decrease in cerebrovascular blood flow velocity. The decrease in blood flow velocity with HUT can be attenuated with interventions that improve systemic hemodynamics and therefore decrease reflex sympathetic activation. Moreover, alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade also blunts the decrease in cerebral blood flow with HUT but at the price of deteriorated systemic hemodynamics. These observations may suggest that in patients with IOI, excessive sympathetic activity contributes to the paradoxical decrease in cerebral blood flow with upright posture.

  1. Expression of rat liver ketohexokinase in yeast results in fructose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, I A; Doyle, T C; Matas, N

    1993-01-01

    Rat liver ketohexokinase (ATP:D-fructose 1-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.3) was purified to homogeneity and the molecular mass of the protein was found by mass spectrometry to be 32,800 Da. The enzyme was cleaved and the amino acid sequences of seven peptides, comprising 24% of the total sequence, were determined. This sequence information was used to design oligonucleotide primers for a PCR using rat liver single-stranded cDNA as a template. The 224 bp PCR product was used as a probe to screen a rat liver cDNA library. A cDNA sequence of 1342 bp was obtained from three positive clones. This contained the entire coding region for ketohexokinase, and all seven peptides were identified in the predicted amino acid sequence. When ketohexokinase was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast expression vector pMA91, the cells became intolerant of the presence of fructose in their growth media. The growth of an exponential-phase culture was completely arrested within 90 min by the addition of fructose to a final concentration as low as 0.1% (w/v). This response is associated with an accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate. The cDNA for ketohexokinase encodes a protein composed of 299 amino acids with a combined molecular mass of 32,728 Da. This is in close agreement with the value for the isolated protein determined by mass spectrometry. The primary structure does not show any significant homology with those of other eukaryotic hexokinases, but it contains a highly conserved region that is present in three prokaryotic phosphotransferases that have furanose substrates. Images Figure 1 PMID:8471037

  2. Liposomal nystatin in patients with invasive aspergillosis refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Offner, Fritz; Krcmery, Vladimir; Boogaerts, Marc; Doyen, Chantal; Engelhard, Dan; Ribaud, Patricia; Cordonnier, Catherine; de Pauw, Ben; Durrant, Simon; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Moreau, Philippe; Guiot, Harry; Samonis, George; Sylvester, Richard; Herbrecht, Raoul

    2004-12-01

    We assessed the activity and safety of liposomal nystatin, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, for invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B. Thirty-three patients were enrolled, received at least one dose of the study drug, and were evaluable for safety. Twenty-six patients had confirmed probable or definite aspergillosis and were fully eligible. Most patients had a hematological malignancy (53.8%) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (23.0%), were neutropenic (61.5%), and were refractory to previous amphotericin B (92.3%). The median duration of previous amphotericin B treatment was 16.5 days (range, 5 to 64 days). Aspergillosis was definite in 3 cases and probable in 23 cases. Liposomal nystatin was initiated at a dose of 4 mg/kg of body weight/day. Twenty-five patients were evaluable for response: a complete response was achieved for one patient, and a partial response was achieved for six. Thus, the overall response rate is 7 of 25 (28%; 95% confidence interval, 12 to 49%). Seventeen (68.0%) of the 25 evaluable patients died during therapy or within 1 month after the end of therapy. The primary cause of death was invasive aspergillosis for nine patients and underlying malignancy for eight patients. The most frequent side effects included chills, shivering, and fever, leading to discontinuation of therapy for two patients. Grade 1 decline in renal function was seen for 10 (30.3%) patients, and hypokalemia was seen for 13 (39.4%). We conclude that liposomal nystatin can be effective for salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Infusion-related adverse events have been observed frequently. PMID:15561860

  3. Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields: A Content Analysis of British Newspaper Reports

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge-Thomas, Buffy; Rubin, G James

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged with the media to counteract this effect. PMID:23799038

  4. Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights

    PubMed Central

    Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595

  5. Chronic orthostatic intolerance: a disorder with discordant cardiac and vascular sympathetic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Snell, M.; Robertson, D.; Porta, A.; Harris, P.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (COI) is a debilitating autonomic condition in young adults. Its neurohumoral and hemodynamic profiles suggest possible alterations of postural sympathetic function and of baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 COI patients and 16 healthy volunteers, intra-arterial blood pressure (BP), ECG, central venous pressure (CVP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded at rest and during 75 degrees tilt. Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variabilities provided indices of sympathovagal modulation of the sinoatrial node (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency components, LF/HF) and of sympathetic vasomotor control (LFSAP). Baroreflex mechanisms were assessed (1) by the slope of the regression line obtained from changes of RR interval and MSNA evoked by pharmacologically induced alterations in BP and (2) by the index alpha, obtained from cross-spectral analysis of RR and SAP variabilities. At rest, HR, MSNA, LF/HF, and LFSAP were higher in COI patients, whereas BP and CVP were similar in the two groups. During tilt, BP did not change and CVP fell by the same extent in the 2 groups; the increase of HR and LF/HF was more pronounced in COI patients. Conversely, the increase of MSNA was lower in COI than in control subjects. Baroreflex sensitivity was similar in COI and control subjects at rest; tilt reduced alpha similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: COI is characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest and by a blunted postganglionic sympathetic response to standing, with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic overactivity. Baroreflex mechanisms maintain their functional responsiveness. These data suggest that in COI, the functional distribution of central sympathetic tone to the heart and vasculature is abnormal.

  6. Protective Effects of Myricetin on Acute Hypoxia-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Mitochondrial Impairments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Dan; Liu, Peng; Chen, Ka; Xie, Qi; Liang, Xinyu; Bai, Qian; Zhou, Qicheng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myricetin, a dietary flavonoid compound widely found in fruits and vegetables, on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance in vivo and in vitro. Methods Male rats were administered myricetin or vehicle for 7 days and subsequently spent 24 hours at a barometric pressure equivalent to 5000 m. Exercise capacity was then assessed through the run-to-fatigue procedure, and mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enzymatic activities of electron transfer complexes were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). mtDNA was quantified by real-time-PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining. Protein expression was detected through western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Results Myricetin supplementation significantly prevented the decline of run-to-fatigue time of rats in hypoxia, and attenuated acute hypoxia-induced mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle cells in vivo and in vitro by maintaining mitochondrial structure, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities of the respiratory chain complexes. Further studies showed that myricetin maintained mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells under hypoxic conditions by up-regulating the expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related regluators, in addition, AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK) plays a crucial role in this process. Conclusions Myricetin may have important applications for improving physical performance under hypoxic environment, which may be attributed to the protective effect against mitochondrial impairment by maintaining mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25919288

  7. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  8. Glucose intolerance and pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction in the anorectic anx/anx mouse.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Charlotte; Katz, Abram; Selander, Lars; Johansen, Jeanette E; Marconi, Giulia; Schalling, Martin; Hökfelt, Tomas; Berggren, Per-Olof; Zaitsev, Sergei; Nilsson, Ida A K

    2015-08-15

    Inflammation and impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are considered key players in the development of several metabolic disorders, including diabetes. We have previously shown inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hypothalamus of an animal model for anorexia, the anx/anx mouse. Moreover, increased incidence of eating disorders, e.g., anorexia nervosa, has been observed in diabetic individuals. In the present investigation we evaluated whether impaired mitochondrial phosphorylation and inflammation also occur in endocrine pancreas of anorectic mice, and if glucose homeostasis is disturbed. We show that anx/anx mice exhibit marked glucose intolerance associated with reduced insulin release following an intraperitoneal injection of glucose. In contrast, insulin release from isolated anx/anx islets is increased after stimulation with glucose or KCl. In isolated anx/anx islets there is a strong downregulation of the mitochondrial complex I (CI) assembly factor, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1? subcomplex, assembly factor 1 (Ndufaf1), and a reduced CI activity. In addition, we show elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in anx/anx serum and increased macrophage infiltration (indicative of inflammation) in anx/anx islets. However, isolated islets from anx/anx mice cultured in the absence of FFAs do not exhibit increased inflammation. We conclude that the phenotype of the endocrine pancreas of the anx/anx mouse is characterized by increased levels of circulating FFAs, as well as inflammation, which can inhibit insulin secretion in vivo. The anx/anx mouse may represent a useful tool for studying molecular mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:26126683

  9. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®, is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods. PMID:24678255

  10. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance.

    PubMed

    Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of "ripening" sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods. PMID:24678255

  11. Pregnancy complications and glucose intolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Mari; Masuyama, Hisashi; Hayata, Kei; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2015-11-28

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. The interaction of these factors might result in increased risks of miscarriage and pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To examine the pregnancy risks in women with PCOS, we compared obstetrical outcomes between patients with and without PCOS. We also studied the differences in maternal characteristics, glucose intolerance and pregnancy complications between PCOS patients with and without GDM, with and without obesity, and between successful pregnancies and miscarriages. We observed a high incidence of GDM and prevalence of GDM diagnosis in the first trimester in PCOS. Patients with GDM had higher body mass index (BMI) and lower homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (HOMA-?) at preconception than those without GDM. Obese pregnant women with PCOS demonstrated a high incidence of GDM with severe insulin resistance, including high fasting insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA-? at preconception compared with normal-weight patients. BMI was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR or HOMA-?, and both indices were lower in PCOS patients with than without GDM for the same BMI. There were no significant differences in maternal characteristics (excluding maternal age) between PCOS patients with successful pregnancy and PCOS patients with miscarriages. Our data suggest that pregnant women with PCOS have an increased risk of GDM, especially if they have obesity and/or poorer insulin secretion. Measure of ?-cell function, such as HOMA-?, at preconception might be a useful predictor of the risk of GDM in pregnant PCOS patients. PMID:26370557

  12. Glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed Central

    Tull, Eugene S.; LaPorte, Ronald; Kriska, Andrea; Mark, Joseph; Hatcher, Ann T.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence on glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the United States Virgin Islands. A population-based sample of 1026 individuals 20 years of age or older was recruited on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, where 80% of the population classify their race as African American and 20% indicate their ethnicity as Hispanic. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria was used to classify glucose tolerance for the entire sample. Persons 40 years of age or older (405) were also administered a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Among the major race/ethnic groups, the prevalence of diabetes in patients 20 years of age or older (age-adjusted to the 1995 world population) was 14.1% for non-Hispanic blacks (n = 712), 12.1% for Hispanic blacks (n = 145), 13.5% for Hispanic whites (n = 70) and 1.2% for non-Hispanic whites (n = 37). In each group, the prevalence of diabetes increased with age and appeared higher for men. Among individuals 40 years of age or older a slightly higher prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was found when using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria compared to ADA criteria (WHO 10.3%, ADA 7.7% for black non-Hispanic persons and WHO 10.4%, ADA 6.0% for all other groups combined). The prevalence of diabetes for African Americans residing in the U.S. Virgin Islands is similar to rates for the African-American population on the United States mainland and is double that of estimates for blacks on neighboring islands. PMID:11918382

  13. Lactose- and cellobiose-derived branched trisaccharides and a sucrose-containing trisaccharide produced by acceptor reactions of Weissella confusa dextransucrase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiao; Juvonen, Minna; Hou, Yaxi; Kajala, Ilkka; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Dextran-producing Weissella have received significant attention. However, except for maltose, the acceptor reactions of Weissella dextransucrases with different sugars have not been investigated. The action of recombinant Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase was tested with several potential acceptors, particularly, analogs lactose and cellobiose. The major acceptor products of both disaccharides were identified as branched trisaccharides, with a glucosyl residue ?-(1 ? 2)-linked to the acceptor's reducing end. An additional product, isomelezitose (6(Fru)-?-Glcp-sucrose), was also produced when using lactose as an acceptor. This is the first report of the synthesis of isomelezitose by a dextransucrase. The NMR spectra of the three trisaccharides were fully assigned, and their structures were confirmed by selective enzymatic hydrolysis. The trisaccharides prepared from (13)C6(glc) sucrose and lactose were analyzed by ESI-MS(n), and the fragmentation patterns of these compounds were characterized. PMID:26212965

  14. Kinetic studies and model development for the formation of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using synthesized thermo-responsive bioconjugate.

    PubMed

    Palai, Tapas; Kumar, Ashok; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2015-03-01

    In an earlier study by us [47], thermo-responsive bioconjugate (poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-?-galactosidase) was synthesized and characterized. This study utilizes the prowess of such smart bioconjugate for the enzymatic synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose at various initial lactose concentrations (ILC), enzyme concentrations, and temperatures, while maintaining a constant pH of 6. A maximum GOS yield of 35% (on dry basis) was observed at 100g/L ILC and 0.275mg/mL (0.055U/mL) conjugated protein. The GOS yield remained approximately the same for 50 and 100g/L ILC, beyond which, it decreased. As the enzyme concentration increased, the equilibrium formation of GOS increased and eventually attained a plateau when the concentration of conjugated protein exceeded 0.275mg/mL (0.055U/mL). GOS yield increased on raising the temperature from 30 to 40°C, and declined thereafter. The apparent kinetic parameters were estimated from a five-step, nine-parameter kinetic model, which was then simulated using the COPASI package. The simulated results demonstrated an excellent match with the experimental data. PMID:25659631

  15. Use of whey lactose from dairy industry for economical kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in mixed cultures with yeasts.

    PubMed

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Radchabut, Sirilaor

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of producing kefiran industrially, whey lactose, a by-product from dairy industry, was used as a low cost carbon source. Because the accumulation of lactic acid as a by-product of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens inhibited cell growth and kefiran production, the kefir grain derived and non-derived yeasts were screened for their abilities to reduce lactic acid and promote kefiran production in a mixed culture. Six species of yeasts were examined: Torulaspora delbrueckii IFO 1626; Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216; Debaryomyces hansenii TISTR 5155; Saccharomyces exiguus TISTR 5081; Zygosaccharomyces rouxii TISTR 5044; and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis TISTR 5018. The mixed culture of L. kefiranofaciens with S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 enhanced the kefiran production best from 568 mg/L in the pure culture up to 807 and 938 mg/L in the mixed cultures under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, respectively. The optimal conditions for kefiran production by the mixed culture were: whey lactose 4%; yeast extract 4%; initial pH of 5.5; and initial amounts of L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 of 2.1×10(7) and 4.0×10(6)CFU/mL, respectively. Scaling up the mixed culture in a 2L bioreactor with dissolved oxygen control at 5% and pH control at 5.5 gave the maximum kefiran production of 2,580 mg/L in batch culture and 3,250 mg/L in fed-batch culture. PMID:21315193

  16. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p<0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p<0.05). In Group II, the prercentage reduction were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p>0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  17. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  18. Gene expression and biochemical analysis of cheese-ripening yeasts: focus on catabolism of L-methionine, lactate, and lactose.

    PubMed

    Cholet, Orianne; Hénaut, Alain; Casaregola, Serge; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2007-04-01

    DNA microarrays of 86 genes from the yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica were developed to determine which genes were expressed in a medium mimicking a cheese-ripening environment. These genes were selected for potential involvement in lactose/lactate catabolism and the biosynthesis of sulfur-flavored compounds. Hybridization conditions to follow specifically the expression of homologous genes belonging to different species were set up. The microarray was first validated on pure cultures of each yeast; no interspecies cross-hybridization was observed. Expression patterns of targeted genes were studied in pure cultures of each yeast, as well as in coculture, and compared to biochemical data. As expected, a high expression of the LAC genes of K. marxianus was observed. This is a yeast that efficiently degrades lactose. Several lactate dehydrogenase-encoding genes were also expressed essentially in D. hansenii and K. marxianus, which are two efficient deacidifying yeasts in cheese ripening. A set of genes possibly involved in l-methionine catabolism was also used on the array. Y. lipolytica, which efficiently assimilates l-methionine, also exhibited a high expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs BAT2 and ARO8, which are involved in the l-methionine degradation pathway. Our data provide the first evidence that the use of a multispecies microarray could be a powerful tool to investigate targeted metabolism and possible metabolic interactions between species within microbial cocultures. PMID:17308183

  19. High level production of ?-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A ?-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant ?-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the ?-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries. PMID:24435763

  20. Cryopreservation of boar sperm comparing different cryoprotectants associated in media based on powdered coconut water, lactose and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Silva, C G; Cunha, E R; Blume, G R; Malaquias, J V; Báo, S N; Martins, C F

    2015-04-01

    In swine spermatozoa, the damage caused by cryopreservation is more severe than other species, provoking reduced potential for fertilization. Adjustments in the freezing extender composition may be an important alternative to increase its efficiency. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of different cryoprotectant solutions during cryopreservation of swine semen with a controlled cooling curve. Three cryoprotectant solutions (5% dimethylformamide, 3% glycerol and the combination of these two cryoprotectants) were used in association with three base media (powdered coconut water, lactose and trehalose), constituting nine different treatments. The semen was frozen using a controlled-rate freezer (TK-3000). After thawing, semen was evaluated for total sperm motility, vigor, morphology, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity. Cryopreservation with the controlled curve using an automated system showed satisfactory results, guaranteeing practicality and repeatability for the process of freezing swine sperm. With this curve, the solutions of lactose, trehalose and powdered coconut water associated with glycerol, as well as the solution of coconut water containing dimethylformamide, presented higher quality of sperm compared to the other solutions. Powdered coconut water associated with dimethylformamide appears as a new solution for swine sperm cryopreservation. The freezing controlled curve used in this study allowed standardization of the cryopreservation technique. PMID:25595634

  1. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF): A systematic review of identifying criteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) remains a complex and unclear phenomenon, often characterized by the report of various, non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) when an EMF source is present or perceived by the individual. The lack of validated criteria for defining and assessing IEI-EMF affects the quality of the relevant research, hindering not only the comparison or integration of study findings, but also the identification and management of patients by health care providers. The objective of this review was to evaluate and summarize the criteria that previous studies employed to identify IEI-EMF participants. Methods An extensive literature search was performed for studies published up to June 2011. We searched EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus and Web of Science. Additionally, citation analyses were performed for key papers, reference sections of relevant papers were searched, conference proceedings were examined and a literature database held by the Mobile Phones Research Unit of King’s College London was reviewed. Results Sixty-three studies were included. “Hypersensitivity to EMF” was the most frequently used descriptive term. Despite heterogeneity, the criteria predominantly used to identify IEI-EMF individuals were: 1. Self-report of being (hyper)sensitive to EMF. 2. Attribution of NSPS to at least one EMF source. 3. Absence of medical or psychiatric/psychological disorder capable of accounting for these symptoms 4. Symptoms should occur soon (up to 24?hours) after the individual perceives an exposure source or exposed area. (Hyper)sensitivity to EMF was either generalized (attribution to various EMF sources) or source-specific. Experimental studies used a larger number of criteria than those of observational design and performed more frequently a medical examination or interview as prerequisite for inclusion. Conclusions Considerable heterogeneity exists in the criteria used by the researchers to identify IEI-EMF, due to explicit differences in their conceptual frameworks. Further work is required to produce consensus criteria not only for research purposes but also for use in clinical practice. This could be achieved by the development of an international protocol enabling a clearly defined case definition for IEI-EMF and a validated screening tool, with active involvement of medical practitioners. PMID:22883305

  2. Development of Gradient Compression Garments for Protection Against Post Flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronaut health. No in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective to date. NASA currently uses an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during reentry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. The Russian Space Agency currently uses a mechanical counter-pressure garment (Kentavr) that is difficult to adjust alone, and prolonged use may result in painful swelling at points where the garment is not continuous (feet, knees, and groin). To improve comfort, reduce upmass and stowage requirements, and control fabrication and maintenance costs, we have been evaluating a variety of gradient compression, mechanical counter-pressure garments, constructed from spandex and nylon, as a possible replacement for the current AGS. We have examined comfort and cardiovascular responses to knee-high garments in normovolemic subjects; thigh-high garments in hypovolemic subjects and in astronauts after space flight; and 1-piece, breast-high garments in hypovolemic subjects. These gradient compression garments provide 55 mmHg of compression over the ankle, decreasing linearly to 35 mmHg at the knee. In thigh-high versions the compression continues to decrease to 20 mmHg at the top of the leg, and for breast-high versions, to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Measures of efficacy include increased tilt survival time, elevated blood pressure and stroke volume, and lower heart-rate response to orthostatic stress. Results from these studies indicate that the greater the magnitude of compression and the greater the area of coverage, the more effective the compression garment becomes. Therefore, we are currently testing a 3-piece breast-high compression garment on astronauts after short-duration flight. We chose a 3-piece garment consisting of thigh-high stockings and shorts, because it is easy to don and comfortable to wear, and should provide the same level of protection as the 1-piece breast-high garments evaluated in hypovolemic test subjects.

  3. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P = 0.23. Higher colonization levels of specific periodontal microbiota are associated with higher prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. PMID:26082387

  4. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E; Barrows, Katherine M; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T; McClain, Donald A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88(-/-) mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-?B signaling (p-I?B?), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88(-/-) mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity. PMID:25968578

  5. Early life stress, negative paternal relationships, and chemical intolerance in middle-aged women: support for a neural sensitization model.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Baldwin, C M; Russek, L G; Schwartz, G E; Hardin, E E

    1998-11-01

    This study (ntotal = 35) compared early life stress ratings, parental relationships, and health status, notably orthostatic blood pressures, of middle-aged women with low-level chemical intolerance (CI group) and depression, depressives without CI (DEP group), and normals. Environmental chemical intolerance is a symptom of several controversial conditions in which women are overrepresented, that is, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Previous investigators have postulated that people with CI have variants of somatization disorder, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) initiated by childhood abuse or a toxic exposure event. One neurobehavioral model for CI, somatization disorder, recurrent depression, and PTSD is neural sensitization, that is, the progressive amplification of host responses (e.g., behavioral, neurochemical) to repeated intermittent stimuli (e.g., drugs, chemicals, endogenous mediators, stressors). Females are more vulnerable to sensitization than are males. Limbic and mesolimbic pathways mediate central nervous system sensitization. Although both CI and DEP groups had high levels of life stress and past abuse, the CI group had the most distant and weak paternal relationships and highest limbic somatic dysfunction subscale scores. Only the CI group showed sensitization of sitting blood pressures over sessions. Together with prior evidence, these data are consistent with a neural sensitization model for CI in certain women. The findings may have implications for poorer long-term medical as well as neuropsychiatric health outcomes of a subset of women with CI. Subsequent research should test this model in specific clinical diagnostic groups with CI. PMID:9861591

  6. Ferritin as a Risk Factor for Glucose Intolerance amongst Men and Women Originating from the Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Elizabeth A.; Patel, Jeetesh V.; Bredow, Zosia; Gill, Paramjit S.; Chackathayil, Julia; Agaoglu, Elif S.; Flinders, Paul; Mirrielees, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background. Serum ferritin predicts the onset of diabetes; however, this relationship is not clear amongst South Asians, a population susceptible to glucose intolerance and anaemia. Objective. This study tests whether ferritin levels reflect glucose tolerance in South Asians, independent of lifestyle exposures associated with Indian or British residence. Methods. We randomly sampled 227 Gujaratis in Britain (49.8 (14.4) years, 50% men) and 277 contemporaries living in Gujarati villages (47.6 (11.8) years, 41% men). Both groups underwent a 75?g oral-glucose-tolerance test. We evaluated lifestyle parameters with standardised questionnaires and conducted comprehensive clinical and lab measurements. Results. Across sites, the age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 9.8%. Serum ferritin was higher amongst diabetics (P = 0.005), irrespective of site, gender, and central obesity (P ? 0.02), and was associated with fasting and postchallenge glucose, anthropometry, blood pressure, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.001). Diabetes was less in those with low ferritin (<20?mg/mL), P < 0.008, and risk estimate = 0.35 (95% CI 0.15–0.81), as were blood pressure and metabolic risk factors. On multivariate analysis, diabetes was independently associated with ferritin (P = 0.001) and age (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Ferritin levels are positively associated with glucose intolerance in our test groups, independent of gender and Indian or UK lifestyle factors. PMID:26347777

  7. Enhanced production of 2'-fucosyllactose in engineered Escherichia coli BL21star(DE3) by modulation of lactose metabolism and fucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Wook; Kim, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-20

    2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of most abundant functional oligosaccharides in human milk, which is involved in many biological functions for human health. To date, most microbial systems for 2-FL production have been limited to use Escherichia coli JM strains since they cannot metabolize lactose. In this study, E. coli BL21star(DE3) was engineered through deletion of the whole endogenous lactose operon and introduction of the modified lactose operon containing lacZ?M15 from E. coli K-12. Expression of genes for guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose biosynthetic enzymes and heterologous ?-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FucT2) from Helicobacter pylori allowed the engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) to produce 2-FL with 3-times enhanced yield than the non-engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3). In addition, the titer and yield of 2-FL were further improved by adding the three aspartate molecules at the N-terminal of FucT2. Overall, 6.4 g/L 2-FL with the yield of 0.225 g 2-FL/g lactose was obtained in fed-batch fermentation of the engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) expressing GDP-l-fucose biosynthetic enzymes and three aspartate tagged FucT2. PMID:26193630

  8. ESI/TOF Measurements of a Noncovalent Complex between Lactose Repressor Protein (LacI) and Double-Stranded DNA Containing its Specific Operator Sequence

    E-print Network

    Ens, Werner

    ESI/TOF Measurements of a Noncovalent Complex between Lactose Repressor Protein (LacI) and Double and Physics 2 , University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Canada Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 3 , Rice/z values up to ~4000 and protein subunit masses ~12000 Da, yielding masses for the complex up to ~40,000 Da

  9. Use of a fluidized bed hammer mill for size reduction and classification: effects of process variables and starting materials on the particle size distribution of milled lactose batches.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Chan, L W; Heng, Paul W S

    2003-01-01

    The process capability of a fluidized bed hammer mill was investigated with respect to four process variables, namely, rotational speeds of beater system and classifier wheel, airflow rates and length of grinding zones, as well as the particle size and flow property of the starting materials. The size distributions of all the milled lactose batches could be fitted to the Rosin Rammler distribution (RRD) function. The characteristic particle size (De) and uniform coefficient (n), which were derived from the RRD function, complemented the size at the 99th percentile of the cumulative undersize distribution (D99) to characterize the lactose batches. Lower De and D99 values indicate a finer powder while a higher n value indicates a narrower size distribution. The beater speed played a critical role. Increasing the beater speed from 12000 to 21000 rpm generally resulted in an increase in n and a decrease in D99 values due to the greater amount of milling energy supplied. The particle size and flow property of the starting material also played an important role at beater speed of 12000 rpm, where the lowest amount of milling energy was supplied. When a higher amount of milling energy was provided, the effect of particle size of the starting material was less significant. The other process variables exerted varying effects. Increasing the classifier wheel speed from 5000 to 15000 rpm decreased the De and D99 and increased the n values of the milled lactose batches, provided sufficient milling energy was supplied to the lactose particles. Changing airflow rates from 80 to 90 m3/h generally resulted in larger De and D99 values and lower n values as the higher airflow rate provided greater airflow-induced kinetic energy that facilitated the passage of lactose through the classifier wheel. However, changing the long grinding zone to a short one did not significantly affect the De, D99 and n values of the milled lactose batches produced. Small lactose particles of narrow size distribution could be obtained using the fluidized bed hammer mill upon gaining a better understanding of the milling process. PMID:14601967

  10. Clinical course of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance and atopic diseases in childhood.

    PubMed

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne; Jacobsen, Hans P; Christensen, Anne E; Herskind, Anne M; Plesner, Karin

    2002-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns from the municipality of Odense, born during 1995 at the Odense University Hospital, were followed up prospectively for the development of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/I) during the first year of life. Once a diagnosis of CMPA/I was confirmed, a milk-free diet was continued until a new milk challenge had shown development of tolerance. All infants with CMPA/I were rechallenged at 12 months of age and, in the event of continued clinical sensitivity to cow's milk protein, controlled rechallenges were performed every 6 months up to 3 years of age; and thereafter every 12 months until the age of 15 years. From the same birth cohort, 276 infants were randomly selected at birth for prospective non-interventional follow-up in order to investigate the natural course of sensitization and development of atopic disease during childhood. Standardized questionnaires on atopic heredity, environmental factors and presence of atopic symptoms were answered at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months and at 5, 10 and 15 years of age. Interviews on atopic history and environmental factors as well as physical examination were carried out at 18 months, 5, 10 and 15 years of age. Skin prick test and specific sIgE (Pharmacia CAP) testing were performed at 18 months, 5, 10 and 15 years of age against a panel of inhalant allergens (birch, grass, mugwort, dog, cat, horse, Dermatophagoidespteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, alternaria and cladosporium herbarum). Furthermore, lung function measurements were performed in children when 10 and 15 years of age. Based on controlled milk elimination and challenge procedures, the diagnosis of CMPA/I was confirmed in 39 out of 117 infants, with symptoms suggestive of CMPA/I, thus resulting in a 1-year incidence of CMPA/I of 2.2%. The overall prognosis of CMPA/I was good, with a total recovery of 56% at 1 year, 77% at 2 years, 87% at 3 years, 92% at 5 and 10 years and 97% at 15 years of age. In children younger than 10 years of age, 41% developed asthma and 31% rhinoconjunctivitis. Children with non-IgE-mediated CMPI had a good prognosis, whereas children with IgE-mediated CMPA in early childhood had a significantly increased risk for persistent CMPA, development of other food allergies, asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis. During early infancy, recurrent wheezing was the most prevalent disease (20%), followed by atopic dermatitis (14%) and food allergy (7%) at 18 months of age. Physician diagnosed asthma increased from 2% at 1.5 years of age to 9% at 10 years of age. Rhinoconjunctivitis increased from <1% at 1.5 years of age to 9% at 10 years of age. Overall, the current prevalence of any atopic disease was 20% at 1.5 years of age, declining to 14% at 5 years of age and followed by an increase to 25% at 10 years of age. Sensitization to inhalant and/or food allergens (specific IgE of > or = class 2; CAP RAST) showed a low rate of sensitization among asymptomatics (3%, 10% and 12%) compared with higher rates of sensitization of 8%, 39% and 30% among symptomatic atopics at 1.5, 5 and 10 years of age respectively. The highest rate of sensitization (53%) was found among children with current asthma at 10 years of age. PMID:12688620

  11. Stimulation of zero-trans rates of lactose and maltose uptake into yeasts by preincubation with hexose to increase the adenylate energy charge.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro M R; Multanen, Jyri-Pekka; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José A; Londesborough, John

    2008-05-01

    Initial rates of sugar uptake (zero-trans rates) are often measured by incubating yeast cells with radiolabeled sugars for 5 to 30 s and determining the radioactivity entering the cells. The yeast cells used are usually harvested from growth medium, washed, suspended in nutrient-free buffer, and stored on ice before they are assayed. With this method, the specific rates of zero-trans lactose uptake by Kluyveromyces lactis or recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harvested from lactose fermentations were three- to eightfold lower than the specific rates of lactose consumption during fermentation. No significant extracellular beta-galactosidase activity was detected. The ATP content and adenylate energy charge (EC) of the yeasts were relatively low before the [(14)C]lactose uptake reactions were started. A short (1- to 7-min) preincubation of the yeasts with 10 to 30 mM glucose caused 1.5- to 5-fold increases in the specific rates of lactose uptake. These increases correlated with increases in EC (from 0.6 to 0.9) and ATP (from 4 to 8 micromol x g dry yeast(-1)). Stimulation by glucose affected the transport V(max) values, with smaller increases in K(m) values. Similar observations were made for maltose transport, using a brewer's yeast. These findings suggest that the electrochemical proton potential that drives transport through sugar/H(+) symports is significantly lower in the starved yeast suspensions used for zero-trans assays than in actively metabolizing cells. Zero-trans assays with such starved yeast preparations can produce results that seriously underestimate the capacity of sugar/H(+) symports. A short exposure to glucose allows a closer approach to the sugar/H(+) symport capacity of actively metabolizing cells. PMID:18378647

  12. Effect of the variation of the level of lactose conversion in an immobilized lactase reactor upon operating costs for the production of Baker's yeast from hydrolyzed permeate obtained from the ultrafiltration of cottage cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.C.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Amundson, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Operating costs for the production of Baker's yeast from hydrolyzed permeate from the ultrafiltration of cottage cheese whey were calculated as a function of the level of lactose conversion in the immobilized lactase reactor. These costs were calculated for the case of 90% conversion of lactose in the reactor and compared to those which result when running the reactor at lower conversions with recycle of unreacted lactose. Total operating costs were estimated by combining individual operating costs for the immobilized enzyme reactor, costs associated with processing a lactose recycle stream, and energy costs associated with cooling the reactor feed stream and sterilizing the hydrolysate stream. It was determined that operating costs are minimized at about 9.9 cents per pound of lactose when the reactor is run at approximately 72% conversion. This represents a savings of 2.4 cents per pound of lactose over the case of a once-through 90% conversion of lactose in the reactor. 8 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff

    2011-08-29

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

  14. New mechanisms to explain the effects of added lactose fines on the dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Lexmond, Anne J; van den Noort, Maarten; Hagedoorn, Paul; Hickey, Anthony J; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    Fine excipient particles or 'fines' have been shown to improve the dispersion performance of carrier-based formulations for dry powder inhalation. Mechanistic formulation studies have focussed mainly on explaining this positive effect. Previous studies have shown that higher drug contents may cause a decrease in dispersion performance, and there is no reason why this should not be true for fines with a similar shape, size and cohesiveness as drug particles. Therefore, the effects on drug detachment of 'fine lactose fines' (FLF, X50 = 1.95 µm) with a similar size and shape as micronised budesonide were studied and compared to those of 'coarse lactose fines' (CLF, X50 = 3.94 µm). Furthermore, interactions with the inhalation flow rate, the drug content and the mixing order were taken into account. The observed effects of FLF are comparable to drug content effects in that the detached drug fraction was decreased at low drug content and low flow rates but increased at higher flow rates. At high drug content the effects of added FLF were negligible. In contrast, CLF resulted in higher detached drug fractions at all flow rates and drug contents. The results from this study suggest that the effects of fines may be explained by two new mechanisms in addition to those previously proposed. Firstly, fines below a certain size may increase the effectiveness of press-on forces or cause the formation of strongly coherent fine particle networks on the carrier surface containing the drug particles. Secondly, when coarse enough, fines may prevent the formation of, or disrupt such fine particle networks, possibly through a lowering of their tensile strength. It is recommended that future mechanistic studies are based on the recognition that added fines may have any effect on dispersion performance, which is determined by the formulation and dispersion conditions. PMID:24489969

  15. Evidencing the role of lactose permease in IPTG uptake by Escherichia coli in fed-batch high cell density cultures.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Vine, Claire E; Caminal, Glòria; López-Santín, Josep

    2012-02-10

    The lac-operon and its components have been studied for decades and it is widely used as one of the common systems for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. However, the role of the lactose permease, encoded by the lacY gene, when using the gratuitous inducer IPTG for the overexpression of heterologous proteins, is still a matter of discussion. A lactose permease deficient strain was successfully constructed. Growing profiles and acetate production were compared with its parent strain at shake flask scale. Our results show that the lac-permease deficient strain grows slower than the parent in defined medium at shake flask scale, probably due to a downregulation of the phosphotransferase system (PTS). The distributions of IPTG in the medium and inside the cells, as well as recombinant protein production were measured by HPLC-MS and compared in substrate limiting fed-batch fermentations at different inducer concentrations. For the mutant strain, IPTG concentration in the medium depletes slower, reaching at the end of the culture higher concentration values compared with the parent strain. Final intracellular and medium concentrations of IPTG were similar for the mutant strain, while higher intracellular concentrations than in medium were found for the parent strain. Comparison of the distribution profiles of IPTG of both strains in fed-batch fermentations showed that lac-permease is crucially involved in IPTG uptake. In the absence of the transporter, apparently IPTG only diffuses, while in the presence of lac-permease, the inducer accumulates in the cytoplasm at higher rates emphasizing the significant contribution of the permease-mediated transport. PMID:22202176

  16. Determination of ricin by nano liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after extraction using lactose-immobilized monolithic silica spin column.

    PubMed

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Kato, Haruhito; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohta, Shigenori; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Furuno, Masahiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2011-08-01

    Ricin is a glycosylated proteinous toxin that is registered as toxic substance by Chemical Weapons convention. Current detection methods can result in false negatives and/or positives, and their criteria are not based on the identification of the protein amino acid sequences. In this study, lactose-immobilized monolithic silica extraction followed by tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was developed as a method for rapid and accurate determination of ricin. Lactose, which was immobilized on monolithic silica, was used as a capture ligand for ricin extraction from the sample solution, and the silica was supported in a disk-packed spin column. Recovery of ricin was more than 40%. After extraction, the extract was digested with trypsin and analyzed by LC/MS. The accurate masses of molecular ions and MS/MS spectra of the separated peptide peaks were measured by Fourier transform-MS and linear iontrap-MS, respectively. Six peptides, which were derived from the ricin A-(m/z 537.8, 448.8 and 586.8) and B-chains (m/z 701.3, 647.8 and 616.8), were chosen as marker peptides for the identification of ricin. Among these marker peptides, two peptides were ricin-specific. This method was applied to the determination of ricin from crude samples. The monolithic silica extraction removed most contaminant peaks from the total ion chromatogram of the sample, and the six marker peptides were clearly detected by LC/MS. It takes about 5 h for detection and identification of more than 8 ng/ml of ricin through the whole handling, and this procedure will be able to deal with the terrorism using chemical weapon. PMID:21834021

  17. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J. H.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Pronk, Jack T.; Smid, Eddy J.; Bron, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations. PMID:23872557

  18. Frontier Justice versus the Rule of Law: Two Cases of Intolerance in Mid-19th Century America Illustrate the Role of the Bill of Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopecky, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Presents an essay dealing with two nineteenth-century incidents of religious intolerance. Recounts the story of Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon Church, who was murdered by opponents of the new religion. Explains how the writings of Presbyterian minister and newspaper publisher, Elijah Lovejoy, set off a response that led to his death. (SG)

  19. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Leerasiri, Pichai; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak; Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Dangrat, Chongdee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53? ± ?7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis. PMID:22737168

  20. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Leerasiri, Pichai; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak; Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Dangrat, Chongdee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53? ± ?7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis. PMID:22737168

  1. Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Bellone, Iaele; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Putignano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Background Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®), known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients’ lipidic and glycemic profiles. PMID:25678808

  2. Bosutinib efficacy and safety in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia after imatinib resistance or intolerance: Minimum 24-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Kim, Dong-Wook; Turkina, Anna G; Masszi, Tamas; Assouline, Sarit; Durrant, Simon; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Khoury, H Jean; Zaritskey, Andrey; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Jin, Jie; Vellenga, Edo; Pasquini, Ricardo; Mathews, Vikram; Cervantes, Francisco; Besson, Nadine; Turnbull, Kathleen; Leip, Eric; Kelly, Virginia; Cortes, Jorge E

    2014-07-01

    Bosutinib is an orally active, dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) following resistance/intolerance to prior therapy. Here, we report the data from the 2-year follow-up of a phase 1/2 open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of bosutinib as second-line therapy in 288 patients with chronic phase CML resistant (n?=?200) or intolerant (n?=?88) to imatinib. The cumulative response rates to bosutinib were as follows: 85% achieved/maintained complete hematologic response, 59% achieved/maintained major cytogenetic response (including 48% with complete cytogenetic response), and 35% achieved major molecular response. Responses were durable, with 2-year estimates of retaining response >70%. Two-year probabilities of progression-free survival and overall survival were 81% and 91%, respectively. The most common toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea [84%], nausea [45%], vomiting [37%]), which were primarily mild to moderate, typically transient, and first occurred early during treatment. Thrombocytopenia was the most common grade 3/4 hematologic laboratory abnormality (24%). Outcomes were generally similar among imatinib-resistant and imatinib-intolerant patients and did not differ with age. The longer-term results of the present analysis confirm that bosutinib is an effective and tolerable second-line therapy for patients with imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic phase CML. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00261846. PMID:24711212

  3. Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Bungo, Michael W.; Platts, Steven H.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Johnston, Smith L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias (Integrated Cardiovascular) will quantify the extent of long-duration space flightassociated cardiac atrophy (deterioration) on the International Space Station crewmembers.

  4. Extension of the Transdiagnostic Model to Focus on Intolerance of Uncertainty: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Danielle A

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews research on the construct of intolerance of uncertainty (IU). A recent factor analysis (Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 2012, p. 533) has been used to extend the transdiagnostic model articulated by Mansell (2005, p. 141) to focus on the role of IU as a facet of the model that is important to address in treatment. Research suggests that individual differences in IU may compromise resilience and that individuals high in IU are susceptible to increased negative affect. The model extension provides a guide for the treatment of clients presenting with uncertainty in the context of either a single disorder or several comorbid disorders. By applying the extension, the clinician is assisted to explore two facets of IU, “Need for Predictability” and “Uncertainty Arousal.” PMID:25400336

  5. Radiotherapy With or Without Surgery for Patients With Idiopathic Sclerosing Orbital Inflammation Refractory or Intolerant to Steroid Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Yeon-Sil; Yang, Suk Woo; Cho, Won-Kyung; Lee, Sang Nam; Lee, Kyung Ji; Ryu, Mi-Ryeong; Jang, Hong Seok

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI) treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with histopathologically confirmed ISOI who had been refractory or intolerant to steroid therapy and treated with radiation with or without surgery. The radiation dose ranged from 20 to 40 Gy (median, 20 Gy) at 2 Gy per fraction. Presenting signs and treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: Proptosis was the most common sign at presentation, seen in 19 (86.3%) patients, followed by restriction of extraocular movements in 10 (45.4%) patients. Response to radiotherapy was complete in 15 (68.1%) patients, partial in 3 (13.6%) patients, and none in 4 (18.2%) patients. At the median follow-up of 34 months, 14 (63.6%) patients had progression-free state of symptoms and signs, with the progression-free duration ranging from 3 to 75 months (median, 41.5 months), whereas 8 (36.4%) patients had recurrent or persistent disease although they had received radiotherapy. Of the 14 progression-free patients, 6 underwent a bimodality treatment of debulking surgery of ocular disease and radiotherapy. They had had no recurrent disease. Cataract was the most common late complications, and 2 patients experienced a Grade 3 cataract. Conclusion: Our study suggests that for patients with ISOI who are refractory or intolerant to steroid therapy, 20 Gy of radiotherapy appears to be effective for the control of disease with acceptable complications, especially when it is combined with surgery.

  6. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha de; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder. PMID:26593531

  7. Towards producing novel fish gelatin films by combination treatments of ultraviolet radiation and sugars (ribose and lactose) as cross-linking agents.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2014-07-01

    Developing novel fish gelatin films with better mechanical properties than mammalian gelatin is a challenging but promising endeavor. Studies were undertaken to produce fish gelatin films by combining treatments with different sugars (ribose and lactose) followed 'by' 'and' ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as possible cross-linking agents. Increase in tensile strength and percent elongation at break was recorded, which was more significant in films without sugars that were exposed to UV radiation. Films with added ribose showed decreased solubility after UV treatment and exhibited higher swelling percentage than films with added lactose, which readily dissolved in water. FTIR spectra of all the films showed identical patterns, which indicated no major changes to have occurred in the functional groups as a result of interaction between gelatin, sugars and UV irradiation. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for food packaging purposes. PMID:24966426

  8. Determination of useful lifetime of immobilized beta-galactosidase for hydrolysis of lactose in permeate obtained from ultrafiltration of cottage cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.C.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Amundson, C.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-galactosidase immobolized on a porous silica carrier was used to effect the hydrolysis of lactose in permeate that results from the ultrafiltration of cottage cheese whey. Results obtained from analyzing kinetics of the immobilized enzyme have led to the formulation of a model that can be used to assess catalyst performance when utilizing a specified reactor operating strategy. The model predicts a lifetime of 90 days for the catalyst bed when starting production at 30 degrees and maintaining a constant production rate by raising the operating temperature as a function of time-on-stream. The useful lifetime of the catalyst was not significantly affected by the extent of lactose conversion carried out in the reactor. This model has the potential for use in optimization of reactor operating conditions for industrial applications of the immobilized enzyme.

  9. Short communication: Effects of lactose and milk on the expression of biofilm-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Chen, Xiaolin; Shang, Fei

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The ability of S. aureus to form biofilms plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mastitis. Biofilm formation in S. aureus is associated with the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protein and several other proteins. Several environmental factors, including glucose, osmolarity, oleic acid, temperature, and anaerobiosis, have been reported to affect bio?lm formation in S. aureus. This study investigated the influence of lactose and milk on the biofilm formation capacity of 2 clinical bovine isolates of S. aureus. We found that lactose increased biofilm formation predominantly by inducing PIA production, whereas milk increased biofilm formation through PIA as well as by increasing the production of other biofilm-associated proteins, which might be mediated by the transcriptional regulators intercellular adhesion regulator (icaR) and repressor of biofilm (rbf). PMID:25151886

  10. Partial solubility parameters of lactose, mannitol and saccharose using the modified extended Hansen method and evaporation light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Peña, M A; Daali, Y; Barra, J; Bustamante, P

    2000-02-01

    The modified extended Hansen method was tested for the first time to determine partial solubility parameters of non-polymeric pharmaceutical excipients. The method was formerly tested with drug molecules, and is based upon a regression analysis of the logarithm of the mole fraction solubility of the solute against the partial solubility parameters of a series of solvents of different chemical classes. Two monosaccharides and one disaccharide (lactose monohydrate, saccharose and mannitol) were chosen. The solubility of these compounds was determined in a series of solvents ranging from nonpolar to polar and covering a wide range of the solubility parameter scale. Sugars do not absorb at the UV-vis region, and the saturated solutions were assayed with a recent chromatographic technique coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector. This technique was suitable to determine the concentration dissolved in most solvents. The modified extended Hansen method provided better results than the original approach. The best model was the four parameter equation, which includes the dispersion delta d, dipolar delta p, acidic delta a and basic delta b partial solubility parameters. The partial solubility parameters obtained, expressed as MPa1/2, were delta d = 17.6, delta p = 28.7, delta h = 19, delta a = 14.5, delta b = 12.4, delta T = 32.8 for lactose, delta d = 16.2, delta p = 24.5, delta h = 14.6, delta a = 8.7, delta b = 12.2, delta T = 32.8 for mannitol and delta d = 17.1, delta p = 18.5, delta h = 13, delta a = 11.3, delta b = 7.6, delta T = 28.4 for saccharose. The high total solubility parameters delta T obtained agree with the polar nature of the sugars. The dispersion parameters delta d are quite similar for the three sugars indicating that the polar delta p and hydrogen bonding parameters (delta h, delta a, delta b) are responsible for the variation in the total solubility parameters delta T obtained, as also found for drugs. The results suggest that the method could be extended to determine the partial solubility parameters of other non-polymeric pharmaceutical excipients. PMID:10705501

  11. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    PubMed

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-D-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50 mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0 g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results. Thus, the novel 3SD medium described herein is a powerful tool for the rapid and efficient selective isolation of S. sonnei in research and clinical laboratories, and the food industry. PMID:26003439

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Krej?i?íková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; ?ezá?ová, Pavlína; Brynda, Ji?í

    2008-07-01

    Mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate binding domain was overexpressed in E. coli and crystallized in the presence of lactose. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42{sub 1}2 and diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42{sub 1}2 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10 Å and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1 Å. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4.

  13. In vitro release of arachidonic acid metabolites, glutathione peroxidase, and oxygen-free radicals from platelets of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, V.; Prat, J.; Rosellò, J.; Ballester, E.; Ramis, I.; Mullol, J.; Gelpí, E.; Vives-Corrons, J. L.; Picado, C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--An abnormal platelet release of oxygen-free radicals has been described in acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced asthma, a finding which might suggest the existence of an intrinsic, specific platelet abnormality of arachidonic acid metabolism in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate platelet arachidonic acid metabolism in asthmatic patients with or without intolerance to aspirin. METHODS--Thirty subjects distributed into three groups were studied: group 1, 10 healthy subjects; group 2, 10 asthmatic patients with aspirin tolerance; and group 3, 10 aspirin-intolerant asthmatics. Platelets were isolated from blood, preincubated with 3H-arachidonic acid for 30 minutes and then incubated for 10 minutes with platelet activating factor (PAF) and aspirin. Cyclo-oxygenase (thromboxane, PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and HHT) and lipoxygenase (12-HETE) arachidonic acid metabolites were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Release of oxygen free radicals after incubation with PAF and aspirin was measured by chemiluminescence. Platelet levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also measured using spectrophotometry. RESULTS--Platelets from aspirin-intolerant asthmatic patients produced higher quantities of arachidonic acid metabolites than the control group at baseline conditions. This increase was significant only for lipoxygenase products. No differences were found amongst the three groups in the response of arachidonic acid metabolism to PAF and aspirin. Incubation with aspirin but not with PAF caused an increase in oxygen-free radical production in aspirin-intolerant patients whereas in aspirin-tolerant patients PAF, rather than aspirin, was the more potent stimulus for oxygen-free radical production. No differences in GSH-Px levels were found amongst the three groups. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that the platelet lipoxygenase pathway is activated in aspirin-intolerant patients and that the production of oxygen-free radicals may differentiate aspirin-tolerant from aspirin-intolerant asthmatic subjects. Our study, however, does not support the hypothesis that an increase in lipoxygenase products may be responsible for oxygen-free radical production. Moreover, a lowered platelet GSH-Px activity does not seem to be involved in this phenomenon. PMID:7597660

  14. Prevalence of eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting Escherichia albertii from retail raw meat in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Li, Q; Bai, X; Xu, Y; Zhao, A; Sun, H; Deng, J; Xiao, B; Liu, X; Sun, S; Zhou, Y; Wang, B; Fan, Z; Chen, X; Zhang, Z; Xu, J; Xiong, Y

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia albertii is a newly emerging enteric pathogen that has been associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, E. albertii has also been detected in healthy and sick birds, animals, chicken meat and water. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of the eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting E. albertii strains in retail raw meat in China were evaluated. Thirty isolates of such strains of E. albertii were identified from 446 (6·73%) samples, including duck intestines (21·43%, 6/28), duck meat (9·52%, 2/21), chicken intestines (8·99%, 17/189), chicken meat (5·66%, 3/53), mutton meat (4·55%, 1/22) and pork meat (2·44%, 1/41). None was isolated from 92 samples of raw beef meat. Strains were identified as E. albertii by phenotypic properties, diagnostic PCR, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and housekeeping genes. Five intimin subtypes were harboured by these strains. All strains possessed the II/III/V subtype group of the cdtB gene, with two strains carrying another copy of the I/IV subtype group. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed high genetic diversity of E. albertii in raw meats. Our findings indicate that E. albertii can contaminate various raw meats, posing a potential threat to public health. PMID:26004066

  15. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55?m (soy) to 2.08?m (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52?m. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-?-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. PMID:25172757

  16. Specific interactions between lactose repressor protein and DNA affected by ligand binding: ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Masato; Nishikawa, Shin; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2011-06-01

    Transcription mechanisms of gene information from DNA to mRNA are essentially controlled by regulatory proteins such as a lactose repressor (LacR) protein and ligand molecules. Biochemical experiments elucidated that a ligand binding to LacR drastically changes the mechanism controlled by LacR, although the effect of ligand binding has not been clarified at atomic and electronic levels. We here investigated the effect of ligand binding on the specific interactions between LacR and operator DNA by the molecular simulations combined with classical molecular mechanics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results indicate that the binding of anti-inducer ligand strengthens the interaction between LacR and DNA, which is consistent with the fact that the binding of anti-inducer enhances the repression of gene transcription by LacR. It was also elucidated that hydrating water molecules existing between LacR and DNA contribute to the specific interactions between LacR and DNA. PMID:21328406

  17. Effect of a lactose-free milk formula supplemented with bifidobacteria and streptococci on the recovery from acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meng; Yu, Tao; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Zhiling; Liu, Hanmin; Gotteland, Martin; Brunser, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics have been proposed for the management and prevention of acute diarrhoea in infants. A double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was carried out in 224 Chinese infants 6 to 36 months of age with severe acute diarrhoea and free from moderate or severe malnutrition. After oral or parenteral rehydration, they were allocated to one of three groups: a lactose-free formula (Control); the same formula but with viable 10(8)CFU B. lactis Bb12 and 5x10(7)CFU St. thermophilus TH4 per gram of powder and, the same formula with the same microorganisms, but with 10(9)CFU/g and 5x10(8)CFU, respectively. Anthropometric parameters, duration of the diarrhoea and rotavirus shedding were evaluated. Eighty seven percent of the episodes were associated with rotavirus infection. The duration of the diarrhoea was not influenced by the intake of probiotics. However, a decrease of rotavirus shedding was observed in infants fed the formula with 10(9) Bb12/g, a finding of probable epidemiological importance in the transmission of this agent. PMID:18364323

  18. Lactose carrier protein of Escherichia coli. Structure and expression of plasmids carrying the Y gene of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Teather, R M; Bramhall, J; Riede, I; Wright, J K; Fürst, M; Aichele, G; Wilhelm, U; Overath, P

    1980-01-01

    The previously described hybrid plasmid pC7 which carries lacI+O+delta(Z)Y+A+ on a 12.3 X 10(6)-Mr DNA fragment [Teather et al. (1978) Mol. Gen. Genet. 159, 239-248] was partially digested with the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under conditions reducing the recognition sequence to d(A-A-T-T) and ligated to the vector pB322. lac Y-carrying inserts of various sized (Mr 1.5-4.7 X 10(6)) were obtained. Hybrid plasmid pTE18 (2300-base-pair insert) carries part of the I (repressor) gene, the promotor-operator region, part of the Z (beta-galactosidase) gene, the Y (lactose carrier) gene and part of the A (transacetylase) gene. Upon induction of pTE18-harbouring strains the Y-gene product is expressed at a nearly constant rate for several generations and accumulates to a level of 12-16% of the total cytoplasmic membrane protein. Integration into the membrane leads to active carrier as judged by binding and transport measurements. PMID:6250828

  19. Efficacy of a supplemental candy coproduct as an alternative carbohydrate source to lactose on growth performance of newly weaned pigs in a commercial farm condition.

    PubMed

    Guo, J Y; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-11-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of a supplemental candy coproduct (Chocolate Candy Feed [CCF]; International Ingredient Corp., St. Louis, MO), an alternative carbohydrate source to dietary lactose, on growth performance and on health status of nursery pigs. Crossbred pigs ( = 1,408; 21 d of age and 7.1 ± 0.3 kg BW; Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (16 pens/treatment and 22 pigs/pen) in a randomized complete block design: 0, 15, 30, and 45% of lactose replaced by CCF based on equal amounts of total sugars. The experimental period was divided into 3 phases: phase I (1.8 kg diet/pig for 11 ± 1 d), phase II (6.8 kg diet/pig for 17 ± 2 d), and phase III (until 49 d after weaning). Pigs received a common phase III diet. The levels of lactose, supplied by whey permeate (79.3 ± 0.8% lactose), were 20, 8, and 0% in phase I, II, and III, respectively. All experimental diets contained the same levels of essential AA and energy (ME) for each phase. Fecal scores were observed on d 5, 7, and 9 after weaning. Blood samples were taken at the end of phase I and II to measure blood urea N. The duration of phase I tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.063) with increasing CCF. In phase I, the ADFI increased ( < 0.05) with increasing CCF whereas ADG and G:F did not change. In phase II, the duration and ADFI did not change whereas ADG linearly decreased ( < 0.05) with increasing CCF. However, the G:F was not changed as CCF increased. During phase I and II together, the duration was linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as CCF increased, whereas no difference in growth performance was observed. Overall, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were not affected by replacing whey permeate with CCF in diets, indicating no adverse effects of a candy coproduct as a carbohydrate substitute to lactose on growth performance of nursery pigs. Blood urea N did not change in phase I but tended to linearly increase ( = 0.088) in phase II as CCF increased. There were no differences in fecal scores and mortality as CCF increased. However, increasing CCF tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.083) morbidity, which implies no adverse effects of a candy coproduct replacement on health status of nursery pigs. In conclusion, a candy coproduct can be used to replace up to 45% of dietary lactose for nursery pigs without negative effects on growth performance or health status. A candy coproduct could be an economical alternative to partly replace the use of lactose in swine production. PMID:26641050

  20. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  1. Weight loss results in a small decrease in follicle stimulating hormone in overweight glucose-intolerant postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Randolph, John F.; Golden, Sherita H.; Labrie, Fernand; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention upon follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in postmenopause. Design and Methods Participants were postmenopausal, overweight, glucose-intolerant women not using exogenous estrogen (n=382) in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Women were randomized to intensive lifestyle change (ILS) with the goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, metformin 850 mg, or placebo administered twice a day. Results Randomization to ILS led to small increases in FSH between baseline and 1-year follow-up vs. placebo (2.3 IU/l vs. -0.81 IU/l, p<0.01). Increases in FSH were correlated with decreases in weight (r=-0.165, p<0.01) and E2 (r=-0.464, p<0.0001) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and randomization arm. Changes in FSH were still significantly associated with changes in weight even after adjustment for E2 levels. Metformin users had reductions in weight but non-significant changes in FSH and E2 levels vs. placebo. Conclusions Weight loss leads to small increases in FSH among overweight, postmenopausal women, potentially through pathways mediated by endogenous estrogen as well as other pathways. PMID:25294746

  2. Fermented tea improves glucose intolerance in mice by enhancing translocation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Wang, Lihua; Tinshun, Zhang; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-11-14

    The antihyperglycemic effects of tea are well documented. However, the effects of fermented tea on the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), the major glucose transporter for glucose uptake in the postprandial period, in skeletal muscle and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the translocation of GLUT4 and its related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of male ICR mice given fermented tea. Intake of oolong, black, or pu-erh tea for 7 days enhanced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle. Each type of fermented tea stimulated the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt/protein kinase B, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Fermented tea also increased the protein expression of insulin receptor. These results strongly suggest that fermented tea activates both PI3K/Akt- and AMPK-dependent signaling pathways to induce GLUT4 translocation and increases the expression of insulin receptor to improve glucose intolerance. PMID:23106150

  3. DKG statement on the use of metal alloy discs for patch testing in suspected intolerance to metal implants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Geier, Johannes; Dickel, Heinrich; Diepgen, Thomas; Hillen, Uwe; Kreft, Burkhard; Schnuch, Axel; Szliska, Christiane; Mahler, Vera

    2015-10-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, 'prophetic'/prophylactic patch testing should not be performed. Pre-implant patch testing should only be done to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a corresponding history. In case of implant-related complications - in particular following replacement arthroplasty - such as pain, effusion, skin lesions, reduced range of motion or implant loosening, orthopedic causes should be ruled out first. Workup of suspected metal implant allergy should then be done using the DKG standard series, which includes nickel, cobalt, and chromium preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing have shown this particular approach to be ineffective with respect to providing reliable information on metal allergy. Any positive reaction in such tests cannot be assigned to a specific metal contained within the alloy. Furthermore, there is a risk of broad and indiscriminate use of these readily available discs. Accordingly, given the lack of additional benefit compared to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs. PMID:26408461

  4. Alteration of NCoR Corepressor Splicing in Mice Causes Increased Body Weight and Hepatosteatosis without Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Michael L.; Young, Briana M.; Snyder, Chelsea A.; Schroeder, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is an important means of diversifying function in higher eukaryotes. Notably, both NCoR and SMRT corepressors are subject to alternative mRNA splicing, yielding a series of distinct corepressor variants with highly divergent functions. Normal adipogenesis is associated with a switch in corepressor splicing from NCoR? to NCoR?, which appears to help regulate this differentiation process. We report here that mimicking this development switch in mice by a splice-specific whole-animal ablation of NCoR? is very different from a whole-animal or tissue-specific total NCoR knockout and produces significantly enhanced weight gain on a high-fat diet. Surprisingly, NCoR??/? mice are protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance despite enhanced adiposity and the presence of multiple additional, prodiabetic phenotypic changes. Our results indicate that the change in NCoR splicing during normal development both helps drive normal adipocyte differentiation and plays a key role in determining a metabolically appropriate storage of excess calories. We also conclude that whole-gene “knockouts” fail to reveal how important gene products are customized, tailored, and adapted through alternative mRNA splicing and thus do not reveal all the functions of the protein products of that gene. PMID:25182530

  5. Young and old genetically heterogeneous HET3 mice on a rapamycin diet are glucose intolerant but insulin sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Lamming, Dudley W.; Ye, Lan; Astle, Michael; Baur, Joseph A.; Sabatini, David M.; Harrison, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, extends the lifespan of yeast, worms, flies, and mice. Interventions that promote longevity are often correlated with increased insulin sensitivity, and it therefore is surprising that chronic rapamycin treatment of mice, rats and humans is associated with insulin resistance (Johnston et al. 2008; Houde et al. 2010; Lamming et al. 2012). We examined the effect of dietary rapamycin treatment on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in the genetically heterogeneous HET3 mouse strain, a strain in which dietary rapamycin robustly extends mean and maximum lifespan. We find that rapamycin treatment leads to glucose intolerance in both young and old HET3 mice, but in contrast to the previously reported effect of injected rapamycin in C57BL/6 mice, HET3 mice treated with dietary rapamycin responded normally in an insulin tolerance test. To gauge the overall consequences of rapamycin treatment on average blood glucose levels, we measured HBA1c. Dietary rapamycin increased HBA1c over the first three weeks of treatment in young animals, but the effect was lost by three months, and no effect was detected in older animals. Our results demonstrate that the extended lifespan of HET3 mice on a rapamycin diet occurs in the absence of major changes in insulin sensitivity, and highlight the importance of strain background and delivery method in testing effects of longevity interventions. PMID:23648089

  6. Usefulness of Nutraceuticals (Armolipid Plus) Versus Ezetimibe and Combination in Statin-Intolerant Patients With Dyslipidemia With Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Marazzi, Giuseppe; Pelliccia, Francesco; Campolongo, Giuseppe; Quattrino, Silvia; Cacciotti, Luca; Volterrani, Maurizio; Gaudio, Carlo; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Statins are extensively used to treat dyslipidemia, but, because of their low tolerability profile, they are discontinued in a significant proportion of patients. Ezetimibe and nutraceuticals have been introduced as alternative therapies and have proved to be effective and well tolerated. A single-blind, single-center, randomized, prospective, and parallel group trial comparing a combination of nutraceuticals (red yeast rice, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and astaxanthin), called Armolipid Plus, and ezetimibe for 3 months in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Patients who did not achieve their therapeutic target (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dl) could add the alternative treatment on top of randomized treatment for another 12 months: 100 patients who are dyslipidemic with ischemic heart disease treated with percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled (ezetimibe n = 50, nutraceutical n = 50). Efficacy (lipid profile) and tolerability (adverse events, transaminases, and creatine kinase) were assessed after 3 and 12 months. After 3 months, 14 patients in the nutraceutical group achieved their therapeutic target, whereas none of the patients in the ezetimibe group did. At 1-year follow-up, 58 patients (72.5%) of the combined therapy group (n = 86) and 14 (100%) of the nutraceutical group reached the therapeutic goal. No patients experienced important undesirable effects. In conclusion, nutraceuticals alone or in combination with ezetimibe are well tolerated and improve the lipid profile in statin-intolerant patients with coronary heart disease. Further studies are needed to assess long-term effects of nutraceuticals on mortality. PMID:26611120

  7. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  8. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Zhanghuang; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Aubert, André E.; Yuan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. PMID:26425559

  9. The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a potentially treatable cause of chronic fatigue, exercise intolerance, and cognitive impairment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karas, B; Grubb, B P; Boehm, K; Kip, K

    2000-03-01

    Head upright tilt table testing has become an accepted method to measure an individual's predisposition to autonomically mediated periods of hypotension and bradycardia severe enough to cause frank syncope. At the same time it has become increasingly apparent that less profound falls in blood pressure, while not sufficient to result in loss of consciousness, may cause symptoms such as near syncope, vertigo, and dizziness. We describe a subgroup of adolescents that have a mild form of autonomic dysfunction that exhibit disabling symptoms such as postural tachycardia and palpitations, extreme fatigue, lightheadedness, exercise intolerance, and cognitive impairment. During baseline tilt table testing at a 70 degrees angle, these patients demonstrated a heart rate increase of > or = 30 beats/min (or a maximum heart rate of > or = 120 beats/min) within the first 10 minutes upright (not associated with profound hypotension), which reproduced their clinical symptom complex. Similar observations have been made in the adult population and has been termed the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). We report that POTS may also occur in adolescents and represents a mild, potentially treatable form of autonomic dysfunction that can be readily identified during head upright tilt table testing. PMID:10750135

  10. Bosutinib safety and management of toxicity in leukemia patients with resistance or intolerance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kantarjian, Hagop M; Cortes, Jorge E; Kim, Dong-Wook; Khoury, H Jean; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Porkka, Kimmo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Durrant, Simon; Leip, Eric; Kelly, Virginia; Turnbull, Kathleen; Besson, Nadine; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2014-02-27

    Bosutinib is an oral, dual SRC/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with clinical activity in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) leukemia. We assessed the safety and tolerability of bosutinib 500 mg per day in a phase 1/2 study in chronic-phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or advanced Ph(+) leukemia following resistance/intolerance to imatinib and possibly other TKIs. Patient cohorts included second-line CP CML (n = 286), third-/fourth-line CP CML (n = 118), and advanced leukemia (n = 166). Median bosutinib duration was 11.1 (range, 0.03-83.4) months. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in each cohort were primarily gastrointestinal (diarrhea [86%/83%/74%], nausea [46%/48%/48%], and vomiting [37%/38%/43%]). Diarrhea presented early, with few (8%) patients experiencing grade 3/4 events; dose reduction due to diarrhea occurred in 6% of affected patients. Grade 3/4 myelosuppression TEAEs were reported in 41% of patients; among affected patients, 46% were managed with bosutinib interruption and 32% with dose reduction. Alanine aminotransferase elevation TEAEs occurred in 17% of patients (grade 3/4, 7%); among patients managed with dose interruption, bosutinib rechallenge was successful in 74%. Bosutinib demonstrated acceptable safety with manageable toxicities in Ph(+) leukemia. This trial (NCT00261846) was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (this manuscript is based on a different data snapshot from that in ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID:24345751

  11. Cloning of putative uncoupling protein 1 cDNA in a cold-intolerant mammal, the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Murata, Yoshiharu; Oda, Sen-ichi

    2006-11-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), or suncus, is a unique experimental animal. We recently showed that this mammal is cold intolerant and hypothesized that its sensitivity to cold is caused by low thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thermogenesis in BAT is performed by a unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Interestingly, only eutherians possess UCP1, and some traits in the suncus resemble those in the Ucp1-ablated mouse, including cold intolerance, histology of BAT, and obesity resistance. In a previous study, we hypothesized that UCP1 may not be present in BAT of the suncus or may be dysfunctional. Therefore, we performed cDNA cloning of suncus Ucp1 and compared it to homologs from other species. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to other mammalian UCP1. Northern blot analysis revealed mRNA in BAT, as in other mammals. However, a difference in an amino acid residue was observed in an important residue for thermogenesis. Genomic sequence analysis showed that this difference existed in our two genetically distant laboratory colonies. These results suggest that cold intolerance in the suncus is derived from low thermogenic activity of UCP1 and may exist in wild house musk shrews. PMID:17189913

  12. Tissue Inhibitor Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Is Required for High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance and Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Brünner, Nils; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) are elevated in obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as steatosis, but the metabolic role of TIMP-1 is unclear. Here we investigated how the presence or absence of TIMP-1 affected the development of diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis using the Timp1 null mice. Methods Timp1 knockout (TKO) and wild type (TWT) mice were fed chow, high-fat diet (HFD) or intermediate fat and sucrose diet (IFSD). We determined body weight, body composition, lipid content of the liver, energy intake, energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance, as well as insulin tolerance. In addition, the histology of liver and adipose tissues was examined and expression of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation in liver and adipose tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. Results TKO mice gained less weight and had lower energy efficiency than TWT mice when fed HFD, but not when fed chow or IFSD. Importantly, TKO mice were protected from development of HFD- as well as IFSD-induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and altered expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation. Conclusion Collectively, our results indicate that TIMP-1 contributes to the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26168159

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose for alcohol production. Final report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, T.J.

    1981-09-15

    This report covers the initial phase of a whey-to-glucose-to-alcohol process via an immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor in series with a fermentor. The first stage takes pure lactose and its hydrolysis with a soluble enzyme system. This stage involves the development of an assay to assess conversion in the hydrolysis reaction and the selections of the best reaction conditions for the enzyme selected. For the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme, the best conditions are 45/sup 0/C and pH 6.5. Thus, this enzyme would be more applicable to sweet whey systems rather than to acid whey. In the range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/l enzyme concentration, increased conversion is seen with increased enzyme concentration; however, the economics need to be studied to determine the optimum enzyme level taking into account cost and yield considerations. Some substrate or product inhibition is seen and is especially apparent above 50 g/l substrate concentration. Inhibition needs to be studied in more detail. Stability seems to be a problem with the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme. This may lead to problems in the future immobilization. Alternate processing conditions may have to be determined giving stability considerations the highest priority. Alternate suppliers of lactase can also be investigated. Acid denaturation seems to be more reliable than heat denaturation. Whether buffer or water is used in enzyme reconstitution makes little short-term difference in conversion. However, there may be an effect on long-term stability. 33 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Altering Residues N125 and D149 Impacts Sugar Effector Binding and Allosteric Parameters in Escherichia coli Lactose Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Liu, Shirley; Chen, Mingzhi; Ma, Jianpeng; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2011-01-01

    Lactose repressor protein (LacI), a negative transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli, relies on an allosteric conformational change for its function. The LacI effector isopropyl-?,D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) promotes this allosteric response and engages the side chains of residues N125 and D149 based on the crystallographic structure of LacI·IPTG. Targeted molecular dynamics (TMD) simulations have indicated involvement of these side chains during the protein structural changes in response to inducer binding. To examine this region further, we applied stochastic boundary molecular dynamics (SBMD) simulation and identified a transient interaction between residues N125 and D149. Based on these data, we introduced substitutions for either/both residues and analyzed their impact on protein function. The substitutions utilized were alanine to preclude hydrogen bonding or cysteine to allow disulfide bond formation, which was not observed for N125C/D149C. Minimal impacts were observed on operator affinity for all substitutions, but D149C, N125A/D149A and N125C/D149C bound to IPTG with 5-8 fold lower affinity than wild-type LacI and exhibited decreased allosteric amplitude (KRI/O/KR/O). Of interest, the double mutants did not exhibit an allosteric response to an alternate inducer, 2-phenylethyl-?,D-galactoside (PhEG), despite demonstration of PhEG binding. Further, the presence of the anti-inducer, o-nitrophenyl-?,D-fucoside (ONPF), enhanced operator affinity for wild-type LacI and all other mutant proteins examined, but behaved as an inducer for N125A/D149A, decreasing operator binding affinity. These results confirm the role of residues 125 and 149 in ligand binding and allosteric response and illustrate how readily the function of a regulatory protein can be altered. PMID:21928765

  15. Altering residues N125 and D149 impacts sugar effector binding and allosteric parameters in Escherichia coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Liu, Shirley; Chen, Mingzhi; Ma, Jianpeng; Matthews, Kathleen S

    2011-10-25

    Lactose repressor protein (LacI), a negative transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli, relies on an allosteric conformational change for its function. The LacI effector isopropyl-?,D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) promotes this allosteric response and engages the side chains of residues N125 and D149 based on the crystallographic structure of LacI·IPTG. Targeted molecular dynamics (TMD) simulations have indicated involvement of these side chains during the protein structural changes in response to inducer binding. To examine this region further, we applied stochastic boundary molecular dynamics (SBMD) simulation and identified a transient interaction between residues N125 and D149. On the basis of these data, we introduced substitutions for either/both residues and analyzed their impact on protein function. The substitutions utilized were alanine to preclude hydrogen bonding or cysteine to allow disulfide bond formation, which was not observed for N125C/D149C. Minimal impacts were observed on operator affinity for all substitutions, but D149C, N125A/D149A, and N125C/D149C bound to IPTG with 5-8-fold lower affinity than wild-type LacI, and exhibited decreased allosteric amplitude (K(RI/O)/K(R/O)). Of interest, the double mutants did not exhibit an allosteric response to an alternate inducer, 2-phenylethyl-?,D-galactoside (PhEG), despite demonstration of PhEG binding. Further, the presence of the anti-inducer, o-nitrophenyl-?,D-fucoside (ONPF), enhanced operator affinity for wild-type LacI and all other mutant proteins examined, but behaved as an inducer for N125A/D149A, decreasing operator binding affinity. These results confirm the role of residues 125 and 149 in ligand binding and allosteric response and illustrate how readily the function of a regulatory protein can be altered. PMID:21928765

  16. Lactose carrier protein of Escherichia coli. Transport and binding of 2'-(N-dansyl)aminoethyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl alpha-d-galactopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Overath, P; Teather, R M; Simoni, R D; Aichele, G; Wilhelm, U

    1979-01-01

    The elevated level of lactose carrier protein present in cytoplasmic membranes derived from Escherichia coli strain T31RT, which carries the Y gene of the lac operon on a plasmid vector (Teather, R. M., et al. (1978) Mol. Gen. Genet. 159, 239--248), has allowed the detection of a complex between the carrier and the fluorescent substrate 2'-(N-dansyl)-aminoethyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (Dns2-S-Gal). Binding is accompanied by a 50-nm blue shift in the emission maximum of the dansyl residue. The complex (dissociation constant, KD = 30 micron) rapidly dissociates upon addition of competing substrates such as beta-D-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside or upon reaction with the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate. Binding of both Dns2-S-Gal and p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside (alpha-NPG) occurs spontaneously in the absence of an electrochemical potential gradient across the membrane. Comparison of equilibrium binding experiments using Dns2-S-Gal or alpha-NPG and differential labeling of the carrier with radioactive amino acids shows that the carrier binds 1 mol of substrate per mol of polypeptide (molecular weight 30 000). In addition to specific binding to the lactose carrier, Dns2-S-gal binds unspecifically to lipid vesicles or membranes, as described by a partition coefficient, K = 60, resulting in a 25-nm blue shift in the emission maximum of the dansyl group. Both Dns2-S-Gal and alpha-NPG are not only bound by the lactose carrier but also transported across the membrane by this transport protein in cells and membrane vesicles. The fluorescence changes observed with dansylated galactosides in membrane vesicles in the presence of an electrochemical gradient (Schuldiner et al. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1361--1370)) are interpreted as an increase in unspecific binding after translocation. PMID:369591

  17. Fatty acid nitroalkenes ameliorate glucose intolerance and pulmonary hypertension in high-fat diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Eric E.; Baust, Jeff; Bonacci, Gustavo; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Devlin, Jason E.; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Watkins, Simon C.; Gor, Sonia; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Weidert, Eric R.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Champion, Hunter C.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Khoo, Nicholas K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, with the incidence of these disorders becoming epidemic. Pathogenic responses to obesity have been ascribed to adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction that promotes bioactive mediator secretion from visceral AT and the initiation of pro-inflammatory events that induce oxidative stress and tissue dysfunction. Current understanding supports that suppressing pro-inflammatory and oxidative events promotes improved metabolic and cardiovascular function. In this regard, electrophilic nitro-fatty acids display pleiotropic anti-inflammatory signalling actions. Methods and results It was hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammatory and metabolic responses, manifested by loss of glucose tolerance and vascular dysfunction, would be attenuated by systemic administration of nitrooctadecenoic acid (OA-NO2). Male C57BL/6j mice subjected to a HFD for 20 weeks displayed increased adiposity, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, which led to glucose intolerance and pulmonary hypertension, characterized by increased right ventricular (RV) end-systolic pressure (RVESP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). This was associated with increased lung xanthine oxidoreductase (XO) activity, macrophage infiltration, and enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure remained unaltered, indicating that the HFD produces pulmonary vascular remodelling, rather than LV dysfunction and pulmonary venous hypertension. Administration of OA-NO2 for the final 6.5 weeks of HFD improved glucose tolerance and significantly attenuated HFD-induced RVESP, PVR, RV hypertrophy, lung XO activity, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory pulmonary cytokine levels. Conclusions These observations support that the pleiotropic signalling actions of electrophilic fatty acids represent a therapeutic strategy for limiting the complex pathogenic responses instigated by obesity. PMID:24385344

  18. Usefulness of C-Reactive Protein Plasma Levels to Predict Exercise Intolerance in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Canada, Justin McNair; Fronk, Daniel Taylor; Cei, Laura Freeman; Carbone, Salvatore; Erdle, Claudia Oddi; Abouzaki, Nayef Antar; Melchior, Ryan David; Thomas, Christopher Scott; Christopher, Sanah; Turlington, Jeremy Shane; Trankle, Cory Ross; Thurber, Clinton Joseph; Evans, Ronald Kenneth; Dixon, Dave L; Van Tassell, Benjamin Wallace; Arena, Ross; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) have evidence of chronic systemic inflammation. Whether inflammation contributes to the exercise intolerance in patients with HF is, however, not well established. We hypothesized that the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an established inflammatory biomarker, predict impaired cardiopulmonary exercise performance, in patients with chronic systolic HF. We measured CRP using high-sensitivity particle-enhanced immunonephelometry in 16 patients with ischemic heart disease (previous myocardial infarction) and chronic systolic HF, defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction ?50% and New York Heart Association class II-III symptoms. All subjects with CRP >2 mg/L, reflecting systemic inflammation, underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a symptom-limited ramp protocol. CRP levels predicted shorter exercise times (R = -0.65, p = 0.006), lower oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold (R = -0.66, p = 0.005), and lower peak VO2 (R = -0.70, p = 0.002), reflecting worse cardiovascular performance. CRP levels also significantly correlated with an elevated ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope (R = +0.64, p = 0.008), a reduced oxygen uptake efficiency slope (R = -0.55, p = 0.026), and reduced end-tidal CO2 level at rest and with exercise (R = -0.759, p = 0.001 and R = -0.739, p = 0.001, respectively), reflecting impaired gas exchange. In conclusion, the intensity of systemic inflammation, measured as CRP plasma levels, is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise performance, in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic systolic HF. These data provide the rationale for targeted anti-inflammatory treatments in HF. PMID:26546248

  19. The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes; Grifo, Marina S. Gisbert; Brion, Maria; Carracedo, Angel; Lavinha, João; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Skorecki, Karl; Behar, Doron M.; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics—North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement—more marked in some regions than in others—plus the effects of genetic drift. PMID:19061982

  20. In-flight Assessment of Lower Body Negative Pressure as a Countermeasure for Post-flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Arzeno, N. M.; Lee, S. M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated the efficacy of combining fluid loading with sustained lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to reverse orthostatic intolerance associated with weightlessness during and immediately after Space Shuttle missions. Methods. Shuttle astronauts (n=13) underwent 4 hours of LBNP at -30 mm(Hg) and ingested water and salt ( soak treatment) during flight in two complementary studies. In the first study (n=8), pre-flight heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to an LBNP ramp (5-min stages of -10 mm(Hg) steps to -50 mm(Hg) were compared to responses in-flight one and two days after LBNP soak treatment. In the second study (n=5), the soak was performed 24 hr before landing, and post-flight stand test results of soak subjects were compared with those of an untreated cohort (n=7). In both studies, the soak was scheduled late in the mission and was preceded by LBNP ramp tests at approximately 3-day intervals to document the in-flight loss of orthostatic tolerance. Results. Increased HR and decreased BP responses to LBNP were evident early in-flight. In-flight, one day after LBNP soak, HR and BP responses to LBNP were not different from pre-flight, but the effect was absent the second day after treatment. Post-flight there were no between-group differences in HR and BP responses to standing, but all 5 treatment subjects completed the 5-minute stand test whereas 2 of 7 untreated cohort subjects did not. Discussion. Exaggerated HR and BP responses to LBNP were evident within the first few days of space flight, extending results from Skylab. The combined LBNP and fluid ingestion countermeasure restored in-flight LBNP HR and BP responses to pre-flight levels and provided protection of post-landing orthostatic function. Unfortunately, any benefits of the combined countermeasure were offset by the complexity of its implementation, making it inappropriate for routine application during Shuttle flights.

  1. The Association of Elective Hormone Therapy with Changes in Lipids Among Glucose Intolerant Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sherita H.; Kim, Catherine; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Nan, Bin; Kong, Shengchun; Goldberg, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is unclear how lipids change in response to lifestyle modification or metformin among postmenopausal glucose intolerant women using and not using hormone therapy (HT). We examined the one-year changes in lipids among postmenopausal, prediabetic women in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), and whether changes were mediated by sex hormones. Materials/Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 342 women who used HT at baseline and year 1 and 382 women who did not use HT at either time point. Interventions included intensive lifestyle (ILS) with goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, or metformin or placebo administered 850 mg up to twice a day. Women were not randomized to HT. Main outcome measures were changes between baseline and study year 1 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Results Compared to placebo, both ILS and metformin significantly reduced LDL-C and raised HDL-C among HT users, changes partially explained by change in estradiol and testosterone but independent of changes in waist circumference and 1/fasting insulin. In contrast, DPP interventions had no effect on LDL-C and HDL-C among non-HT users. ILS significantly lowered triglycerides among non-users but did not significantly change triglycerides among HT users. Metformin did not significantly change triglycerides among non-users but increased triglycerides among HT users. Conclusions The beneficial effects of ILS and metformin on lowering LDL-C and raising HDL-C differ depending upon concurrent HT use. PMID:23660512

  2. Dietary factors in chronic inflammation: food tolerances and intolerances of a New Zealand Caucasian Crohn's disease population.

    PubMed

    Triggs, Christopher M; Munday, Karen; Hu, Rong; Fraser, Alan G; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2010-08-01

    Diet is known to play a major role in the symptoms of the inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease (CD). Although no single diet is appropriate to all individuals, most CD patients are aware of foods that provide adverse or beneficial effects. This study seeks to categorise foods in relation to their effects on symptoms of CD, in a New Zealand Caucasian population. Four hundred and forty-six subjects from two different centres in New Zealand were recruited into the study. An extensive dietary questionnaire (257 food items in 15 groups) recorded self-reported dietary tolerances and intolerances. Across each of the food groups, there were statistically significant differences among responses to foods. A two-dimensional graphical summary enabled stratification of foods according to the probability that they will be either beneficial or detrimental. A small number of foods are frequently considered to be beneficial, including white fish, salmon and tuna, gluten-free products, oatmeal, bananas, boiled potatoes, sweet potatoes (kumara), pumpkin, soya milk, goat's milk and yoghurt. Foods that are typically considered detrimental include grapefruit, chilli or chilli sauce, corn and corn products, peanuts, cream, salami, curried foods, cola drinks, high energy drinks, beer, and red wine. For a number of the food items, the same item that was beneficial for one group of subjects was detrimental to others; in particular soya milk, goat's milk, yoghurt, oatmeal, kiwifruit, prunes, apple, broccoli, cauliflower, linseed, pumpkin seed, sunflower seed, ginger and ginger products, beef, lamb, liver, and oily fish. It was not possible to identify a specific group of food items that should be avoided by all CD patients. The wide range of detrimental items suggests that dietary maintenance of remission is likely to be difficult, and to exclude a substantial number of foods. Personalised diets may be especially important to these individuals. PMID:20144628

  3. Differences in the binding specificities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa M35 and Escherichia coli C600 for lipid-linked oligosaccharides with lactose-related core regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, I J; Yuen, C T; Stoll, M S; Feizi, T

    1992-01-01

    Membrane glycolipids contain the lactose sequence (galactose linked to glucose), and the oligosaccharide is variously extended such that there is a cell-type-specific repertoire. In this study, binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa M35 to lipid-linked lactose (Gal beta 1-4Glc [structure 1]), lacto-N-neotetraose (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc [structure 2]), lacto-N-tetraose (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc [structure 3]), and asialo GM1 (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc beta 1-4Gal beta 1-4Glc [structure 4]) was evaluated and compared with binding of Escherichia coli C600 to these compounds. Oligosaccharides were linked to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine dipalmitoate, and the resulting neoglycolipids were resolved on thin-layer chromatograms or coated onto plastic microtiter wells. Lipid-linked structures 1 to 4 were bound by P. aeruginosa and E. coli in the chromatogram assay, but only structure 4 was bound in the microtiter well assay. As shown previously for E. coli binding to lipid-linked structures 1 to 3, binding to lipid-linked structure 4 was not inhibited with oligosaccharide, indicating a requirement for lipid and oligosaccharide. With few exceptions, sialylation and fucosylation of structures 1 to 4 resulted in impaired or abolished binding. Comparisons of binding intensities in the chromatogram assay indicated that recognition by P. aeruginosa and recognition by E. coli are not identical. Presence of the additional disaccharide unit, as in structure 2, resulted in enhanced binding of P. aeruginosa but diminished binding of E. coli relative to lactose binding; fucosylation at galactose of lactose resulted in markedly diminished binding of P. aeruginosa only. In the microtiter well assay, binding of E. coli to asialo GM1 was much weaker than P. aeruginosa binding. The saccharide-plus-lipid-dependent adhesion may be an important factor in increased susceptibility to infection of epithelia already damaged by microbial and chemical agents; the differing strengths of adhesion to the structural variants may relate to tissue tropism. Images PMID:1452340

  4. Optical diagnostics study of air flow and powder fluidisation in Nexthaler(®)-Part I: Studies with lactose placebo formulation.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, I; Merusi, C; Brambilla, G; Long, E J; Hargrave, G K; Versteeg, H K

    2015-12-30

    Effective drug delivery to the lungs by a DPI device requires the air-stream through the device to have sufficient power to aerosolise the powder. Furthermore, sufficient turbulence must be induced, along with particle-wall and particle-particle collisions, in order to de-aggregate small drug particles from large carrier particles. As a result, the emitted and the fine particle doses produced by many commercially available DPI devices tend to be strongly affected by the natural inter-patient variability of the inhaled air flow. The Nexthaler(®) is a multi-dose breath-actuated dry-powder inhaler with minimum drug delivery-flow rate dependency and incorporating a dose protector. The actuation mechanism of the dose-protector ensures that the dose is only exposed to the inhaled air flow if the flow has sufficient power to cause complete aerosolisation. For this study, a proprietary lactose placebo powder blend was filled into "transparent" Nexthaler(®) to allow application of high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques to successfully interrogate and reveal details of the powder entrainment and emission processes coupled with characterisation of the flow environment in the vicinity of the mouthpiece exit. The study showed that fluidisation of the bulk of the powder occurs very quickly (?20ms) after withdrawal of the dose protector followed by powder emission from the device within ?50ms thereafter. The bulk of the metered placebo dose was emitted within 100-200ms. The visualisation study also revealed that a very small fraction of powder fines is emitted whilst the dose protector still covers the dosing cup as the flow rate through the device accelerates. The PIV results show that the flow exiting the device is highly turbulent with a rotating flow structure, which forces the particles to follow internal paths having a high probability of wall impacts, suggesting that the flow environment inside the Nexthaler(®) DPI will be very beneficial for carrier-drug de-aggregation. PMID:26545309

  5. Liver fat, visceral adiposity, and sleep disturbances contribute to the development of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in nondiabetic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Giorgos K; Karatzaferi, Christina; Zintzaras, Elias; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Damani, Eleni; Liakos, Nikos; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2008-12-01

    Hemodialysis patients exhibit insulin resistance (IR) in target organs such as liver, muscles, and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to identify contributors to IR and to develop a model for predicting glucose intolerance in nondiabetic hemodialysis patients. After a 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 34 hemodialysis patients were divided into groups with normal (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Indices of insulin sensitivity were derived from OGTT data. Measurements included liver and muscle fat infiltration and central adiposity by computed tomography scans, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometer, sleep quality by full polysomnography, and functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) by a battery of exercise tests and questionnaires. Cut-off points, as well as sensitivity and specificity calculations were based on IR (insulin sensitivity index by Matsuda) using a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Fifteen patients were assigned to the IGT, and 19 subjects to the NGT group. Intrahepatic fat content and visceral adiposity were significantly higher in the IGT group. IR indices strongly correlated with sleep disturbances, visceral adiposity, functional capacity, and QoL. Visceral adiposity, O2 desaturation during sleep, intrahepatic fat content, and QoL score fitted into the model for predicting glucose intolerance. A ROC curve analysis identified an intrahepatic fat content of > 3.97% (sensitivity, 100; specificity, 35.7) as the best cutoff point for predicting IR. Visceral and intrahepatic fat content, as well as QoL and sleep seemed to be involved at some point in the development of glucose intolerance in hemodialysis patients. Means of reducing fat depots in the liver and splachnic area might prove promising in combating IR and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:18832089

  6. Dynamics of yeast immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors systems in ethanol fermentation from lactose-hydrolyzed whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Klein, Manuela P; Rech, Rosane; Hertz, Plinho F; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ethanol production on lactose-hydrolyzed whey (LHW) and lactose-hydrolyzed whey permeate (LHWP) in batch fluidized-bed bioreactors using single and co-cultures of immobilized cells of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-industrial strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Although the co-culture of S. cerevisiae CAT-1 and K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced two- to fourfold the ethanol productivity of single cultures of S. cerevisiae, the single cultures of the K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced the best results in both media (Y EtOH/S = 0.47-0.49 g g(-1) and Q P = 1.39-1.68 g L(-1) h(-1), in LHW and LHWP, respectively). Ethanol production on concentrated LHWP (180 g L(-1)) reached 79.1 g L(-1), with yields of 0.46 g g(-1) for K. marxianus CCT 4086 cultures. Repeated batches of fluidized-bed bioreactor on concentrated LHWP led to increased ethanol productivity, reaching 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:26527573

  7. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

  8. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 ?M, 29.40 ?M, and 26 ?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

  9. Comparison of a rice-based, mixed diet versus a lactose-free, soy-protein isolate formula for young children with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Maulén-Radován, I; Brown, K H; Acosta, M A; Fernandez-Varela, H

    1994-11-01

    A randomized clinical trial was completed to compare the efficacy of a mixed diet composed of locally available foods versus a lactose-free, soy-based formula for the management of young Mexican children with acute diarrhea and dehydration. A total of 87 patients between 5 and 36 months of age received either a blended mixed diet containing rice, chicken, carrots, beans, and vegetable oil (group MD) or a soy formula (group SF) immediately after standard oral rehydration therapy. The initial clinical characteristics of the patients in each group were similar, as were their stool outputs during the first 6-hour period of rehydration before the diets were offered. There were six treatment failures, all of which were in group SF (p < 0.01). The stool outputs of children in group MD and in group SF were 82 +/- 55 versus 112 +/- 88 gm/kg per day, respectively, on day 1 (p = 0.037), and 48 +/- 33 versus 66 +/- 55 gm/kg per day on day 2 (p = 0.109). The duration of diarrhea among those in group MD was significantly reduced compared with those in group SF (29 vs 67 hours; p < 0.001). We conclude that the mixed diet resulted in improved clinical outcomes compared with the lactose-free, soy protein isolate formula. PMID:7965421

  10. Induction of Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity of Eel Skin Mucus, Containing Lactose-Binding Molecules, on Human Leukemic K562 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Kyun; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Suh, Seok-Jong; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2015-06-01

    For innate immune defense, lower animals such as fish and amphibian are covered with skin mucus, which acts as both a mechanical and biochemical barrier. Although several mucus sources have been isolated and studied for their biochemical and immunological functions, the precise mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. In the present study, we additionally found the eel skin mucus (ESM) to be a promising candidate for use in anti-tumor therapy. Our results showed that the viability of K562 cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with the isolated ESM. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase were increased by ESM. The levels of Bax expression and released cytochrome C were also increased after treatment with ESM. Furthermore, during the ESM mediated-apoptosis, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were increased and cell viabilities of the co-treated cells with ESM and inhibitors of ERK 1/2 or p38 were also increased. In addition, treatment with lactose rescued the ESM-mediated decrease in cell viability, indicating lactose-containing glycans in the leukemia cells acted as a counterpart of the ESM for interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that ESM could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through membrane interaction of the K562 human leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation that ESM has anti-tumor activity in human cells. PMID:26090845

  11. Efficient bioconversion of lactose in milk and whey: immobilization and biochemical characterization of a beta-galactosidase from the dairy Streptococcus thermophilus LMD9 strain.

    PubMed

    Rhimi, Moez; Boisson, Anais; Dejob, Magali; Boudebouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Haser, Richard; Aghajari, Nushin

    2010-09-01

    The gene encoding beta-galactosidase from dairy Streptococcus thermophilus strain LMD9 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified and showed high specific activity of 464 U/mg. This protein displays a homotetrameric arrangement composed of four 118 kDa monomers. Monitoring of the activity showed that this enzyme was optimally active at a wide range of temperatures (25-40 degrees C) and at pH from 6.5 to 7.5. Immobilization of the recombinant E. coli in alginate beads clearly enhanced the enzyme activity at various temperatures, including 4 and 50 degrees C, and at pH values from 4.0 to 8.5. Stability studies indicated that this biocatalyst has high stability within a broad range of temperatures and pH. This stability was improved not only by addition of 1 mM of Mn(2+) and 1.2 mM Mg(2+), but essentially through immobilization. The remarkable bioconversion rates of lactose in milk and whey at different temperatures revealed the attractive catalytic efficiency of this enzyme, thus promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in milk and other dairy products. PMID:20472057

  12. Induction of Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity of Eel Skin Mucus, Containing Lactose-Binding Molecules, on Human Leukemic K562 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Kyun; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Suh, Seok-Jong; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2015-01-01

    For innate immune defense, lower animals such as fish and amphibian are covered with skin mucus, which acts as both a mechanical and biochemical barrier. Although several mucus sources have been isolated and studied for their biochemical and immunological functions, the precise mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. In the present study, we additionally found the eel skin mucus (ESM) to be a promising candidate for use in anti-tumor therapy. Our results showed that the viability of K562 cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with the isolated ESM. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase were increased by ESM. The levels of Bax expression and released cytochrome C were also increased after treatment with ESM. Furthermore, during the ESM mediated-apoptosis, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were increased and cell viabilities of the co-treated cells with ESM and inhibitors of ERK 1/2 or p38 were also increased. In addition, treatment with lactose rescued the ESM-mediated decrease in cell viability, indicating lactose-containing glycans in the leukemia cells acted as a counterpart of the ESM for interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that ESM could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through membrane interaction of the K562 human leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation that ESM has anti-tumor activity in human cells. PMID:26090845

  13. Cholesterol lowering effects of mono-lactose-appended ?-cyclodextrin in Niemann–Pick type C disease-like HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Hirai, Yumi; Nishiyama, Rena; Maeda, Yuki; Higashi, Taishi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Kondo, Yuki; Irie, Tetsumi; Era, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Niemann–Pick type C disease (NPC) is one of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, emerges the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Currently, 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CyD) has been applied for the treatment of NPC. HP-?-CyD improved hepatosplenomegaly in NPC patients, however, a high dose of HP-?-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by actively targeted-?-CyD to hepatocytes is expected. In the present study, to deliver ?-CyD selectively to hepatocytes, we newly fabricated mono-lactose-appended ?-CyD (Lac-?-CyD) and evaluated its cholesterol lowering effects in NPC-like HepG2 cells, cholesterol accumulated HepG2 cells induced by treatment with U18666A. Lac-?-CyD (degree of substitution of lactose (DSL) 1) significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol content in a concentration-dependent manner. TRITC-Lac-?-CyD was associated with NPC-like HepG2 cells higher than TRITC-?-CyD. In addition, TRITC-Lac-?-CyD was partially localized with endolysosomes after endocytosis. Thus, Lac-?-CyD entered NPC-like HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated endocytosis and decreased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in NPC-like HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Lac-?-CyD may have the potential as a drug for the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease. PMID:26664628

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-I correlates more closely than growth hormone with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Dan; Purice, Mariana; Coculescu, Mihail

    2013-06-01

    In normal subjects growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have opposing effects on glucose metabolism. Active acromegaly is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance although both GH and IGF-I are elevated. Our objective was to compare whether GH or IGF-I correlates more closely with IR and glucose intolerance in acromegaly. Basal serum IGF-I and GH, glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 70 normoglycemic and 44 hyperglycemic acromegalic patients (21 impaired fasting glucose, 11 impaired glucose tolerance and 12 diabetes mellitus) according to American Diabetes Association criteria. 55 patients were assessed before any treatment for acromegaly and 59 after surgery and/or radiotherapy (15 patients had normal IGF-I after treatment). Patients treated with somatostatin analogs, GH-receptor antagonists or antidiabetic drugs were excluded. IR was assessed by various basal and stimulated indices. Homeostatic Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA2-IR) index correlated more closely with IGF-I (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) than nadir (r = 0.23, p = 0.008) or random GH (r = 0.26, p = 0.002). HOMA2-IR correlated better with IGF-I than nadir or random GH also in normoglycemic (n = 70; r = 0.74, p < 0.0001 vs. r = 0.36, p = 0.001 vs. r = 0.39, p < 0.001) and hyperglycemic patients (n = 44; r = 0.54, p = 0.0002 vs. r = 0.09, p = 0.4 vs. r = 0.14, p = 0.26). In multivariate logistic regression analysis IGF-I but not GH was a significant risk factor for glucose intolerance after adjusting for age, sex, weight and acromegaly duration (OR = 1.56, p = 0.01). In acromegaly IGF-I correlates more closely than GH with IR. IGF-I levels but not GH are associated with glucose intolerance. PMID:22562529

  15. 2014 Cardiovascular Risks SRP Evidence Review Final Report. [Evidence Review For: The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During Re-Exposure to Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Ziegler, Michael; Carter, Jason; Claydon, Victoria; Krummen, David; Thomas, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17-18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated evidence report for The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During re-Exposure to Gravity (OI Risk). The SRP found the 2014 OI Evidence Report to be a well written, comprehensive overview of the OI risk; that clearly documents the key scientific evidence relevant for both mechanistic understanding and countermeasure development. The 2014 OI Evidence Report could be further strengthened by addressing the points discussed below.

  16. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Website You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server. The Department of Labor does not endorse, ... the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the ...

  17. Christian Intolerance of Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David F.; Bystryn, Marcia H.

    1982-01-01

    The broad acceptance of homosexuality in the ancient Mediterranean world ended in late antiquity with the spread of an asceticism hostile to all forms of sexual pleasure. Repression began as a consequence of organizational reforms in the church and class conflict associated with the commercialization of medieval society. (Author/AM)

  18. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a doctor who specializes in biochemical genetics or metabolism. ... Steinmann B, Santer R. Disorders of Fructose Metabolism. In: ... Diagnosis and Treatment. 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012: ...

  19. Gluten Intolerance Group

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the comforts of your own kitchen. Find >> Gluten-Free Certification Organization The Gluten-Free Certification Organization ( ... recognized GF logo on your products. VISIT SITE >> Gluten-Free Food Services The Gluten-Free Food Services ( ...

  20. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse. PMID:25883986