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1

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... absorbed into the bloodstream and turned into energy — fuel for our bodies. People with lactose intolerance do ... who are lactose intolerant come up with eating alternatives and develop a well-balanced diet that provides ...

2

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Other people can easily eat yogurt and hard cheeses such as cheddar and Swiss, while they are ... such as having milk with cereal or having cheese with crackers. People with lactose intolerance are generally ...

3

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... sleepover party last weekend, everyone pigged out on cheese pizza and ice cream. Then they flopped on ... probably feel bad after drinking milk or eating cheese, ice cream, or anything else containing lactose. As ...

4

What Causes Lactose Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... fully digest lactose found in human milk and infant formulas. But at some point after being weaned, most children in the world begin to make less lactase. Most people with primary lactose ... lactose intolerance . Infants born with this rare type make no lactase ...

5

Lactose Intolerance in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCGILLIVRAY1 has suggested that lactose intolerance in Asians is limited to ``selected groups of adult students in unfamiliar surroundings'' (studying abroad) and that it is ``a rare condition which must be seen against the background of malnutrition''.

G. Flatz; C. H. SAENGUDOM; T. SANGUANBHOKHAI

1969-01-01

6

Lactose intolerance in Arabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high incidence (minimum 20\\/26, maximum 24\\/26) of lactose intolerance was found in a group of adult Arab subjects. A selective reduction of intestinallactase activity was present in 4 subjects in whom a suction biopsy was performed.

H. W. Rotthauwe; M. O. El-Schallah; G. Flatz

1971-01-01

7

How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... following tests also can help diagnose lactose intolerance: Hydrogen breath test. For this test, a person drinks ... beverage that has lactose in it. Then, the hydrogen level in the breath is measured at set ...

8

Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Lactose is normally broken down by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced by cells in ... Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding lactose intolerance? autosomal ; ... incidence ; inherited ; intestine ; malabsorption ; population ; ...

9

Lactose Intolerance: Information for Health Care Providers  

E-print Network

't traditionally include dairy products in their diets.3 There are three main types of lactose intolerance patients with lactose intolerance may believe they are allergic to milk or milk products. A milk allergy Lactose Intolerance: Information for Health Care

Rau, Don C.

10

Dairy intake, dietary adequacy, and lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

Heaney, Robert P

2013-03-01

11

Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

Pohl, Daniel; Fruhauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

2013-01-01

12

Systemic lactose intolerance: a new perspective on an old problem  

PubMed Central

Intolerance to certain foods can cause a range of gut and systemic symptoms. The possibility that these can be caused by lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose added to many foods and drinks inadequately labelled, confusing diagnosis based on dietary removal of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. This, with a 48 hour record of gut and systemic symptoms and a six hour breath hydrogen test, provides a new approach to the clinical management of lactose intolerance. The key is the prolonged effect of dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labelled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the wide range of systemic symptoms caused by lactose intolerance. This has important implications for the management of irritable bowel syndrome, and for doctors of many specialties. PMID:15749792

Matthews, S; Waud, J; Roberts, A; Campbell, A

2005-01-01

13

High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Lactose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Acquired lactase deficiency is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms but its etiology remains unclear. Celiac disease could lead to lactase deficiency and is much more common than previously suspected. Several studies have highlighted the prevalence of lactose intolerance in celiac disease, but studies assessing the prevalence of celiac disease in lactose intolerance are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence

Veronica Ojetti; Gabriella Nucera; Alessio Migneco; Maurizio Gabrielli; Cristiano Lauritano; Silvio Danese; Maria Assunta Zocco; Enrico Celestino Nista; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonino De Lorenzo; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Antonio Gasbarrini

2005-01-01

14

Milk for Kids with Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... it in supermarkets with other milk products. ? Offer cheese. Cheese has milk’s nutrients, but very little lactose. Tip: Try simple “cheesy” foods: toasted cheese sandwich, macaroni and cheese, cheese and crackers. ? Try ...

15

What is lactose tolerance / intolerance?, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

2008-10-06

16

Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.  

PubMed

Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212

Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

2013-01-01

17

Lactose intolerance among severely malnourished children with diarrhoea admitted to the nutrition unit, Mulago hospital, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Lactose intolerance is a common complication of diarrhoea in infants with malnutrition and a cause of treatment failure. A combination of nutritional injury and infectious insults in severe protein energy malnutrition reduces the capacity of the intestinal mucosa to produce lactase enzyme necessary for the digestion of lactose. The standard management of severe malnutrition involves nutritional rehabilitation with lactose-based high energy formula milk. However, some of these children may be lactose intolerant, possibly contributing to the high rate of unfavorable treatment outcomes. This study was therefore designed to establish the prevalence of lactose intolerance and associated factors in this population. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study involving 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea aged 3-60 months was done in Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit (MNU), Mulago hospital between October 2006 and February 2007. Results During the study period, 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea were recruited, 50 (25.5%) of whom had evidence of lactose intolerance (stool reducing substance ? 1 + [0.5%] and stool pH < 5.5) and it occurred more commonly in children with kwashiorkor 27/75 (36.0%) than marasmic-kwashiorkor 6/25 (24.0%) and marasmus 17/96 (17.7%). Oedematous malnutrition (p = 0.032), perianal skin erosion (p = 0.044), high mean stool frequency (p = < 0.001) and having ?2 diarrhoea episodes in the previous 3 months (p = 0.007) were the independent predictors of lactose intolerance. Other factors that were significantly associated with lactose intolerance on bi-variate analysis included: young age of 3-12 months; lack of up to-date immunization; persistent diarrhoea; vomiting; dehydration, and abdominal distension. Exclusive breastfeeding for less than 4 months and worsening of diarrhoea on initiation of therapeutic milk were the other factors. Conclusions The prevalence of lactose intolerance in this study setting of 25.5% is relatively high. Routine screening by stool pH and reducing substances should be performed especially in the severely malnourished children with diarrhoea presenting with oedematous malnutrition, perianal skin erosion, higher mean stool frequency and having had ?2 diarrhoea episodes in the previous 3 months. Use of lactose-free diets such as yoghurt should be considered for children found to have evidence of lactose intolerance and whose response on standard therapeutic milk formula is poor. PMID:20459633

2010-01-01

18

Are the Lactose Intolerant Safer from Some Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... have difficulty digesting lactose, a sugar found in dairy products, because they have low or no levels ... The researchers found those who had trouble digesting dairy had lower rates of lung, breast and ovarian ...

19

What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... water from stool and changes it from a liquid to a solid form. In your colon, bacteria that normally live in the colon break down the lactose and create fluid and gas, causing you to have symptoms. The causes of ...

20

Effect of Raw Milk on Lactose Intolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This pilot study aimed to determine whether raw milk reduces lactose malabsorption and/or lactose intolerance symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. METHODS We performed a crossover trial involving 16 adults with self-reported lactose intolerance and lactose malabsorption confirmed by hydrogen (H2) breath testing. Participants underwent 3, 8-day milk phases (raw vs 2 controls: pasteurized, soy) in randomized order separated by 1-week washout periods. On days 1 and 8 of each phase, milk consumption was 473 mL (16 oz); on days 2 to 7, milk dosage increased daily by 118 mL (4 oz), beginning with 118 mL (4 oz) on day 2 and reaching 710 mL (24 oz) on day 7. Outcomes were area under the breath H2 curve (AUC ?H2) and self-reported symptom severity (visual analog scales: flatulence/gas, audible bowel sounds, abdominal cramping, diarrhea). RESULTS AUC ?H2 (mean ± standard error of the mean) was higher for raw vs pasteurized on day 1 (113 ± 21 vs 71 ± 12 ppm·min·10?2, respectively, P = .01) but not day 8 (72 ± 14 vs 74 ± 15 ppm·min·10?2, respectively, P = .9). Symptom severities were not different for raw vs pasteurized on day 7 with the highest dosage (P >.7). AUC ?H2 and symptom severities were higher for both dairy milks compared with soy milk. CONCLUSIONS Raw milk failed to reduce lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance symptoms compared with pasteurized milk among adults positive for lactose malabsorption. These results do not support widespread anecdotal claims that raw milk reduces the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24615309

Mummah, Sarah; Oelrich, Beibei; Hope, Jessica; Vu, Quyen; Gardner, Christopher D.

2014-01-01

21

Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

2013-01-01

22

No difference in symptoms and receptor expression in lactose-intolerant and in milk-hypersensitive subjects following intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, unhomogenized milk compared to homogenized milk may be better tolerated by milk-hypersensitive subjects due to different distribution of protein particles in fat droplets. We studied whether symptoms and complement receptor expression are different following unhomogenized milk, homogenized milk or milk-free drink in milk-hypersensitive, lactose-intolerant and healthy subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, lactose-intolerant subjects (n=6), milk-hypersensitive subjects with

Leea Pelto; Hanna-Kaisa Rantakokko; Esa-Matti Lilius; Jari Nuutila; Seppo Salminen

2000-01-01

23

The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption.  

PubMed

The preferred treatment for hypothyroidism is oral levothyroxine (LT4) ingestion, in doses that ensure a sustained state of hormonal balance. Many different factors may significantly influence the absorption of LT4, including: interval between the ingestion of the drug and the last meal, eating habits, and different functional and organic pathologies of the gastro-intestinal tract. The main purpose of this paper is to review and systematise the available literature on the subject of the influence of different malabsorption syndromes on the effectiveness of LT4 preparations. The need to use high LT4 doses in the substitutional treatment of hypothyroidism is often the very first sign of one of the pathologies that are connected with malabsorption syndrome, which might have been asymptomatic and undiagnosed previously. Patients who require more than 2 ?g/kg body weight of LT4 per day, with constantly increased thyrotropin level, should be diagnosed with the suspicion of pseudomalabsorption or real absorption disorder. An LT4 absorption test, using high doses of LT4, may be useful in the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. After excluding non-compliance, the differential diagnosis should include such disorders as lactose intolerance, coeliac disease, atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, bowel resection, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasite infection. Where there is a diagnosis of lactose intolerance, both a low lactose diet and a lactose-free LT4 preparation should be administered to restore euthyroidism or make it possible to decrease the dose of the LT4 preparation. In coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet usually allows a normalisation of the need for LT4, as do eradication of the H. pylori infection or parasite colonisation. In cases of atrophic gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease, treating the underlying diseases and regaining the state of remission may improve the absorption of LT4. In patients after gastro-intestinal tract surgery, a dose of LT4 higher than that typically used is needed to restore euthyroidism. PMID:22933169

Rucha?a, Marek; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna

2012-01-01

24

Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ?85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

2013-01-01

25

A novel acid-stable, acid-active beta-galactosidase potentially suited to the alleviation of lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

Extracellular beta-galactosidase produced by a strain of Aspergillus niger van Tiegh was purified to homogeneity using a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange, chromatofocusing, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The enzyme displayed a temperature optimum of 65 degrees C and a low pH optimum of between 2.0 and 4.0. The monomeric glycosylated enzyme displayed a molecular mass of 129 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.7. Protein database similarity searching using mass spectrometry-derived sequence data indicate that the enzyme shares homology with a previously sequenced A. niger beta-galactosidase. Unlike currently commercialised products, the enzyme displayed a high level of stability when exposed to simulated gastric conditions in vitro, retaining 68+/-2% of original activity levels. This acid-stable, acid-active beta-galactosidase was formulated, along with a neutral beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM5418, in a novel two-segment capsule system designed to ensure delivery of enzymes of appropriate physicochemical properties to both stomach and small intestine. When subjected to simulated full digestive tract conditions, the twin lactase-containing capsule hydrolyzed, per unit activity, some 3.5-fold more lactose than did the commercial supplemental enzyme. The acid-stable, acid-active enzyme, along with the novel two-segment delivery system, may prove beneficial in the more effective treatment of lactose intolerance. PMID:19806354

O'Connell, Shane; Walsh, Gary

2010-03-01

26

Influence of Lactose Intolerance on the Bones of Patients after Partial Gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed the clavicular corticodiaphyseal indexes in 167 patients after partial gastrectomy and follow-up on a long-term basis. The results are compared with findings in healthy controls. When the gastrectomy group was divided into two subgroups with regard to milk (lactose) tolerance, a significant difference was found between the two groups.The findings suggest that the width of the cortical

J. Kocián; M. Vulterinová; O. Bejblová; I. Skála

1973-01-01

27

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... intolerance. On this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose ... are listed on ingredient labels. back to top Gluten intolerance Gluten is a part of wheat, barley, ...

28

Lactose Tolerance in Asians: a Family Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE question of the genetic as opposed to adaptive origin of lactose intolerance in Asians has been discussed in several recent communications. Bolin and Davis1,2 favour an adaptive origin based on the finding that oriental subjects with lactose intolerance in Australia consume, on average, less than half the amount of lactose containing food eaten by Australians. In Thailand, however, no

G. Flatz; Ch. Saengudom

1969-01-01

29

Kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Kefir is a fermented milk beverage that contains different cultures than yogurt. The objective of this study was to determine whether kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion. Design Randomized block design. Subjects Fifteen healthy, free-living adults with lactose maldigestion. Main outcome measures Breath hydrogen excretion and lactose intolerance symptoms were monitored hourly for 8

Steven R. Hertzler; Shannon M. Clancy

2003-01-01

30

Intolerance to milk in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine per cent of a series of patients with ulcerative colitis were found to have lactose intolerance by a lactose-tolerance test. It appears likely that the inflamed, irritated bowel of patients with ulcerative colitis cannot handle the osmotic-acid load and that lactose intolerance imposes an extra burden upon the inflamed bowel. Therefore, a lactose-free diet is advisable in patients with

Henry J. Binder; Joyce D. Gryboski; Walter R. Thayer; Howard M. Spiro

1966-01-01

31

Evidence against nutritional adaption of tolerance to lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists over the etiology of primary lactose intolerance with intestinal lactase deficiency. The low activity of lactase may be either due to a genetically controled reduction of enzyme activity or to an adaptive response to a lack of dietary lactose. Lactose tolerance tests in 24 subjects (9 persons who are offspring of marriages between Asians and Europeans, 6 lactose

G. Flatz; H. W. Rotthauwe

1971-01-01

32

Food Intolerances and Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a particular food or ingredient that may or may not be related to the immune system.\\u000a A deficiency in digestive enzymes can also cause some types of food intolerances like lactose and gluten intolerance. Food\\u000a intolerances may cause unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which usually begin\\u000a about half an

Oner Ozdemir; Emin Mete; Ferhat Catal; Duygu Ozol

2009-01-01

33

Original article Lactose hydrolysing ability of sonicated cultures  

E-print Network

for hydrolysis in skim milk were slightly higher. Enzyme activity was not hindered in 30% lactose or 30% whey per products is the prevalence of "lactose intolerance", common among the adults of many of the world's ethnic groups could be improved with lac- tose-hydrolysed dairy products. Sources of the lactose-hydrolysing en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Lactose malabsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Lactose malabsorption is a syndrome producing constellation of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, diarrhea,\\u000a and sometimes nausea and\\/or vomiting. Primary causes of lactose malabsorption due to loss of intestinal lactase activity include\\u000a genetic\\/racial lactase nonpersistence, congenital lactase deficiency, and developmental lactase deficiency. Secondary lactose\\u000a malabsorption can be caused by any disorder that injures the small intestinal mucosa, such

Richard J. Grand; Robert K. Montgomery

2008-01-01

35

Milk Intolerance and Microbe-Containing Dairy Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between primary lactase deficiency, the amount of lactose in the diet, and symptoms of intolerance continues to be debated. Primary adult lactase deficiency is common with a worldwide occurrence of near 70%. Lactase-deficient individuals malabsorb lactose but may or may not show in- tolerance symptoms. The development of symptoms appears to depend on the dose of lactose ingested,

Dennis A. Savaiano; Michael D. Levitt

1987-01-01

36

Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... Asian Americans, African Americans, individuals of Jewish descent, Mexican-Americans, and Native Americans, but affects people of all ... Allergy Tweets by @CYWH The Center for Young Women’s Health (CYWH) is a collaboration between the Division ...

37

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in Poland.  

PubMed

Lactose-absorption capacity was examined in 275 apparently healthy Polish adolescents and adults (214 females and 61 males with an average age of 29.1 years) using a field version of the lactose-tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. In the total group, 172 lactose absorbers (62.5%) and 103 lactose malabsorbers (37.5%) were identified. Reported milk intolerance and symptoms of lactose intolerance were significantly more frequent in lactose malabsorbers. Subdivision according to the birthplaces of the probands' grandparents did not reveal significant regional differences. The unexpectedly high frequency of lactose malabsorption is further evidence for concentric genetic clines of lactase gene frequencies extending from southern Scandinavia, the area with the lowest observed frequencies of selective adult hypolactasia, to the south and the east. PMID:6465837

Socha, J; Ksiazyk, J; Flatz, G; Flatz, S D

1984-01-01

38

Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.  

PubMed

Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated. PMID:24695892

Savaiano, Dennis A

2014-05-01

39

Relative efficiency of yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, hydrolyzed-lactose milk, and a commercial lactase tablet in alleviating lactose maldigestio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of commercially available plain yogurt (Y), sweet acidophilus milk(SAM), hydrolyzed-lactose milk(HLM), alactase tablet(LT), and whole milk (WM) was evaluated in 10 lactose-intolerant black subjects. In a 5 X 5 Latin square design, hourly breath hydrogen excretion (BHE) was measured for 5 h after the subjects consumed the above products (18 g lactose in each except HLM, which

Charles I Onwulata; D Ramkishan Rao; Prasad Vankineni

40

Impact of Lactose Containing Foods and the Genetics of Lactase on Diseases: An Analytical Review of Population Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy foods (DFs) contain complex ingredients that could affect different diseases. The control of lactose digestion phenotypically divides populations into those who can [lactase persistent (LP)] and those who cannot [lactase nonpersistent (LNP)] assimilate lactose. LNP subjects, however, can adapt to lactose intolerance through intestinal bacteria. The DF\\/LNP status interactions may function as disease risk modifiers. We evaluated the relationship

Ian Shrier; Andrew Szilagyi; José A. Correa

2008-01-01

41

Intolerant tolerance.  

PubMed

The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights. PMID:8051515

Khushf, G

1994-04-01

42

Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on symptoms and hydrogen excretion in the disaccharide tolerance test with lactose or lactulose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins play a role in the pathogenesis of symptoms of food intolerance. An alleviation of lactose intolerance by premedication with the prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been reported. We studied the effect of 900 mg of ASA and of a glucose placebo on disaccharide intolerance symptoms and on breath hydrogen (H2) excretion in 16 healthy adult males 12 of

Gebhard Flatz; Giai-Hwa Lie

43

Lactose tolerance tests  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

44

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in three populations of northern China.  

PubMed

Lactose absorption capacity was examined in 641 apparently healthy adolescents and adults (447 males and 194 females with an average age of 22.9 years and an age range of 16-46 years) using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. In the total sample, 89 lactose absorbers and 552 lactose malabsorbers were identified. Lactose malabsorption was most frequent in a subgroup of Han (Chinese) from northeastern China (229 of 248 subjects, 92.3%). Among 198 Mongols from Inner Mongolia, there were 174 lactose malabsorbers (87.9%). The frequency of lactose malabsorption was lowest in a group of Kazakhs, traditional herders from the northwestern region of Xinjiang (149 of 195 subjects, 76.4%). Reported symptoms of lactose intolerance were significantly more frequent in lactose malabsorbers. The findings in northern Han are similar to the reported lactose malabsorption frequency in southern (mainly overseas) Chinese, and correspond with the absence of animal milk from traditional Chinese diets. The relatively low prevalence of lactose malabsorption among the Kazakhs suggests that lactose persistence may be frequent in herding pastoralist populations of southwest Asia. PMID:6235167

Wang, Y G; Yan, Y S; Xu, J J; Du, R F; Flatz, S D; Kühnau, W; Flatz, G

1984-01-01

45

Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.  

PubMed

Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

2014-01-01

46

Gluten Intolerance Group  

MedlinePLUS

... Bulletins Local Branches GF Labeling New Finalization of Gluten-Free labeling regulation. Click here to read more. ... programs possible. Helping to Promote Global Awareness The Gluten Intolerance Group continues to reach across borders to ...

47

Solid and Liquid States of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lactose in dairy systems can exist in various crystalline and non-crystalline forms. These forms affect lactose behaviour,\\u000a particularly in processing and storage of low-water dairy foods. Crystalline ?-lactose monohydrate and anhydrous ?-lactose\\u000a are well-known solid forms of lactose, which are relatively poorly soluble in water. Its occurrence in two anomeric forms,\\u000a ?- and ?-lactose, makes its solubility a complex function

Y. H. Roos

48

Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances  

MedlinePLUS

... common food intolerances are to: – Wheat and other gluten-containing grains. – Sugar found in fruits and honey. – ... intolerances to foods such as: Wheat and other gluten-containing grains (celiac disease). Sugar found in fruits ...

49

Thermal analysis of amorphous lactose and ?-lactose monohydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is common to find that some of the lactose in dairy powders and pharmaceutical tablets is present in the unstable amorphous\\u000a state. If stored at inappropriate temperatures and humidities amorphous lactose is susceptible to crystallization. The integration\\u000a of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) with single differential thermal analysis (SDTA) provided a descriptive method for a\\u000a sequential and direct determination of

Yuan Listiohadi; James Arthur Hourigan; Robert Walter Sleigh; Robert John Steele

2009-01-01

50

A comparison of diagnostic tests for lactose malabsorption - which one is the best?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Perceived milk intolerance is a common complaint, and tests for lactose malabsorption (LM) are unreliable. This study assesses\\u000a the agreement between diagnostic tests for LM and describes the diagnostic properties of the tests.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients above 18 years of age with suspected LM were included. After oral intake of 25 g lactose, a combined test with measurement\\u000a of serum glucose (s-glucose)

Øistein Hovde; Per G Farup

2009-01-01

51

Lactose malabsorption and colonic fermentations alter host metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption is associated with rapid production of high levels of osmotic compounds, such as organic acids and SCFA in the colon, suspected to contribute to the onset of lactose intolerance. Adult rats are lactase deficient and the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the metabolic consequences of acute lactose ingestion, including host-microbiota interactions. Rats received diets of 25% sucrose (S25 control group) or 25% lactose (L25 experimental group). SCFA and lactic acid were quantified in intestinal contents and portal blood. Expression of SCFA transporter genes was quantified in the colonic mucosa. Carbohydrate oxidation (Cox) and lipid oxidation (Lox) were computed by indirect calorimetry. Measurements were performed over a maximum of 13 h. Time, diet and time × diet variables had significant effects on SCFA concentration in the caecum (P<0·001, P=0·004 and P=0·007, respectively) and the portal blood (P<0·001, P=0·04 and P<0·001, respectively). Concomitantly, expression of sodium monocarboxylate significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the L25 group (P=0·003 at t = 6 h and P<0·05 at t = 8 h). During 5 h after the meal, the L25 group's changes in metabolic parameters (Cox, Lox) were significantly lower than those of the S25 group (P=0·02). However, after 5 h, L25 Cox became greater than S25 (P=0·004). Thus, enhanced production and absorption of SCFA support the metabolic changes observed in calorimetry. These results underline the consequences of acute lactose malabsorption and measured compensations occurring in the host's metabolism, presumably through the microbiota fermentations and microbiota-host interactions. PMID:23321004

Alexandre, Virginie; Even, Patrick C; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Blachier, François; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Davila, Anne-Marie

2013-08-01

52

An argument for intolerance  

PubMed Central

"Multiculturalism", "pluralism" and "tolerance" have become buzz words in applied ethics. While serious and well thought out work is going on in these areas, a misunderstanding of the importance of tolerance, and the difficulties raised by multicultural moral conflict seems common. In this paper I argue that intolerance of some cultural traditions is morally required, and suggest that the forging of a moral mono-culture is preferable to pluralism. Key Words: Pluralism • multicultural • tolerance • relativism PMID:11129841

Catherwood, J.

2000-01-01

53

[Intolerance to cow's milk].  

PubMed

The authors report results of allergological history, of passive haemagglutination reaction, lymphocytes blast transformation and leucocytes migration inhibition tests in 100 patients suffering from affections involving the gastro-intestinal tract. Control investigations were carried out in 20 practically healthy individuals. From these results the authors conclude that the data of the allergological history and clinical symptoms of the cow milk intolerance are determined, above all, by the immuno-allergic mechanisms, this being confirmed by the results of the "in vitro" methods characterizing the humoral and cellular types of the immunological reactivity. PMID:988940

Martynov, S M; Fedorenko, T A

1976-01-01

54

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture...

2013-04-01

55

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture...

2012-04-01

56

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture...

2010-04-01

57

What's new with lactose permease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactose permease ofEscherichia coli is a paradigm for polytopic membrane transport proteins that transduce free energy stored in an electrochemical ion gradient into work in the form of a concentration gradient. Although the permease consists of 12 hydrophobic transmembrane domains in probable a-helical conformation that traverse the membrane in zigzag fashion connected by hydrophilic “loops”, little information is available

H. Ronald Kaback; Kirsten Jung; Heinrich Jung; Jianhua Wu; Gilbert G. Privé; Kevin Zen

1993-01-01

58

Water Sorption in Lactose Hydrolyzed Dry Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sorption isotherms for dried lactose hydrolyzed milk have been deter- mined at 25 C. Compared with normal dried milk, lactose hydrolyzed milk ad- sorbed less water at water activities below .2 and up to twice as much water at water activities above .6. The low water uptake at low water activities implies lack of additivity in the water sorption

Carmen San Jose; Nils-Georg Asp; Anders Burvall; Arne Dahlqvist

1977-01-01

59

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption capacity was estimated in 820 apparently healthy, well nourished, Hungarian adults and adolescents (560 females, 260 males, aged 16–54 years) using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. The test identified 497 lactose absorbers with low, and 323 lactose malabsorbers with high hydrogen excretion 120–150 min after an oral load of 50 g

A. Czeizel; G. Flatz; Sibylle D. Flatz

1983-01-01

60

A study of lactose absorption capacity in twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption capacity was determined by lactose tolerance tests with breath hydrogen determination in 102 healthy, adult, Hungarian pairs of twins in order to test monogenic Mendelian inheritance of the absorptive lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and lactose malabsorber. Of the total, 52 pairs were monozygous (MZ) and 50 dizygous (DZ) twins of indentical sex. All MZ twins were concordant with

Julia Métneki; A. Czeizel; Sibylle D. Flatz; G. Flatz

1984-01-01

61

[Fiber, Food Intolerances, FODMAPs, Gluten and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders - Update 2014].  

PubMed

The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

Leiß, O

2014-11-01

62

Characterisation and functionality of inhalation anhydrous lactose.  

PubMed

The relationships between the physicochemical properties and functionality in dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance was investigated for inhalation grade anhydrous lactose and compared to monohydrate grades. The excipients were characterised using a range of techniques including particle size analysis, moisture sorption and powder rheometry. The inhalation anhydrous lactose grades were readily characterisable. The aerosolisation performance of capsule based DPI formulations containing budesonide (200microg) and different grades of lactose evaluated using inertial impaction measurements produced fine particle doses of budesonide ranging from 24 to 49microg. There were no apparent relationships between aerosolisation performance and excipient characteristics, such as particle size and powder density. However, formulations containing lactose grades which exhibit higher powder fluidisation energy values resulted in higher fine particle doses of budesonide. PMID:20100552

Pitchayajittipong, Chonladda; Price, Robert; Shur, Jagdeep; Kaerger, J Sebastian; Edge, Stephen

2010-05-10

63

Lactose crystallization delay in model infant foods made with lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and starch.  

PubMed

Handling and storage alter infant food powders due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model infant foods were prepared by colyophilization of lactose, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of infant food powders. The kinetics of crystallization was studied by a gravimetric method (dynamic vapor sorption) at 70% relative humidity (RH). After freeze-drying, lactose was amorphous and crystallized at 70% RH. The delay before crystallization depends on the contents of beta-LG and starch in the formulations. A mathematical model was proposed to predict crystallization time (delay) at 70% RH. For the formulation containing 50% lactose, 25% beta-LG, and 25% starch, lactose was still amorphous after 42 h at 70% RH, whereas pure amorphous lactose crystallized after approximately 70 min. Calculated and experimental results of adsorbed moisture from the formulations were compared. Adsorbed water of formulation containing lactose could not be calculated from moisture sorption properties of each component at a given RH because beta-LG and gelatinized starch prevented lactose crystal growth. PMID:17638972

Nasirpour, A; Landillon, V; Cuq, B; Scher, J; Banon, S; Desobry, S

2007-08-01

64

Lactose Crystallization Delay in Model Infant Foods Made With Lactose, ?-Lactoglobulin, and Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handling and storage alter infant food powders due to lactose crystallization and interactions among compo- nents. Model infant foods were prepared by colyophiliza- tion of lactose, ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percent- age of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of infant food powders. The kinetics of crystallization was studied

A. Nasirpour; V. Landillon; B. Cuq; J. Scher; S. Banon; S. Desobry

2007-01-01

65

Discussing Diagnosis in Gluten Intolerance Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals within gluten intolerance communities, whether online or in support group settings, regularly discuss their narrative experiences with illness and diagnosis, culminating in the identification of gluten intolerance as being the source of what may have been years of suffering. In this way their experiences with illness and the social interactions that have accompanied their illness are structured into a

Craig Geffre

2011-01-01

66

Loss of Lactose Metabolism in Lactic Streptococci1  

PubMed Central

Lactose-negative mutants occurred spontaneously in broth cultures of Streptococcus lactis C2F. Instability of lactose metabolism was noted in other strains of S. lactis, in strains of S. cremoris, and in S. diacetilactis. Colonies of S. lactis C2F grown with lactose as the carbohydrate source also possessed lac- cells. Treatment of lactic streptococci with the mutagen acriflavine (AF) increased the number of non-lactose-fermenting variants. The effect of AF on growth and on loss of lactose-fermenting ability in S. lactis C2F was consequently further examined. The presence of AF appears to favor competitively the growth of spontaneously occurring lactose-negative cells and appears to act in the conversion of lactose-positive to non-lactose-fermenting cells. The lactose-negative mutants partially revert to lactose-positive variants which remain defective in lactose metabolism and remain unable to coagulate milk. The lactose-negative cells become dominant in continuous culture growth and provide evidence that alterations in the characteristics of starter strains can be produced by continuous culture, in this case, the complete loss in ability to ferment lactose. PMID:4625340

McKay, L. L.; Baldwin, K. A.; Zottola, E. A.

1972-01-01

67

Construction of lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose fermentation into ethanol fuel.  

PubMed

Two lactose-consuming diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, AY-51024A and AY-51024M, were constructed by expressing the LAC4 and LAC12 genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the host strain AY-5. In AY-51024A, both genes were targeted to the ATH1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to abolish the activity of acid/neutral trehalase. In AY-51024M, both genes were respectively integrated into the MIG1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to relieve glucose repression. Physiologic studies of the two transformants under anaerobic cultivations in glucose and galactose media indicated that the expression of both LAC genes did not physiologically burden the cells, except for AY-51024A in glucose medium. Galactose consumption was initiated at higher glucose concentrations in the MIG1 deletion strain AY-51024M than in the corresponding wild-type strain and AY-51024A, wherein galactose was consumed until glucose was completely depleted in the mixture. In lactose medium, the Sp. growth rates of AY-51024A and AY-51024M under anaerobic shake-flasks were 0.025 and 0.067 h(-1), respectively. The specific lactose uptake rate and ethanol production of AY-51024M were 2.50 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 23.4 g l(-1), respectively, whereas those of AY-51024A were 0.98 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 24.3 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1), respectively. In concentrated cheese whey powder solutions, AY-51024M produced 63.3 g l(-1) ethanol from approximately 150 g l(-1) initial lactose in 120 h, conversely, AY-51024A consumed 63.7 % of the initial lactose and produced 35.9 g l(-1) ethanol. Therefore, relieving glucose repression is an effective strategy for constructing lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae. PMID:23344501

Zou, Jing; Guo, Xuewu; Shen, Tong; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

2013-04-01

68

Glass transition and crystallization behaviour of freeze-dried lactose–salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass transition temperatures were determined for dehydrated lactose\\/salt mixtures with various water contents and water activities, and state diagrams were established. Crystallization behaviour was studied for pure amorphous lactose stored at various relative water vapour pressures (RVP). Furthermore, glass transitions temperatures and time-dependent lactose crystallization of freeze-dried lactose and lactose\\/CaCl2, lactose\\/NaCl, lactose\\/MgCl2 and lactose\\/KCl mixtures in molar ratios of 9:1

A. M. Elmonsef Omar; Yrjö H. Roos

2007-01-01

69

Controlling biological systems: the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Controlling biological systems: the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli A. Agung Julius, namely, the lactose regulation system of the Escherichia coli bacteria. The conceptual idea behind hybrid model of the lactose regulation system of E. coli bacteria that capture important phenomena which

Pappas, George J.

70

Lactose\\/?-Lactoglobulin Interaction During Storage of Model Whey Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the pres- ence or absence of interaction between lactose and ?- lactoglobulin during storage of model whey powders at different water activities (aw). Model whey powders were prepared by colyophilization of lactose with in- creasing quantities of ?-lactoglobulin. These colyophi- lized ?-lactoglobulin:lactose powders, assigned as BL powders, were stored from 0.11 to

M. E. C. Thomas; J. Scher; S. Desobry

2004-01-01

71

Effects of Methanol on Physical Properties of ?-and ?-Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline &-lactose monohydrate and crystalline t-lactose were treated with absolute methanol at room temperature and at reflux temperature. Methanol also was added to fresh aqueous solutions of a- and t-lactose to initiate crystallization. For each of the dried products of these methanol treatments melting point, heat of fusion, and heat capacity (all three by differential scanning calorimetry), density, and crystalline

Kenneth D. Ross

1978-01-01

72

Metabolism of lactose by Lemna minor L. (duckweed) callus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The callus of Lemna minor L. (duckweed) is capable of heterotrophic assimilation of galactose and ?-lactose, whereas the intact plant is not. Sucrose-grown callus adapted rapidly, uniformly, and reversibly to utilization of galactose or lactose in heterotrophic growth. Single-nutrient deficiencies of callus growth medium were corrected fully by milk whey; the lactose of milk whey was utilized. Lemna callus grows

Hugh Frick; Kevin Morley

1995-01-01

73

Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted “initial OH” and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

2013-01-01

74

Mechanisms of post-flight orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post-flight orthostatic intolerance is a dramatic physiological consequence of human adaptation to microgravity made inappropriate by a sudden return to 1-G. The immediate mechanism is almost always a failure to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, specifically perfusion of the central nervous system, but vestibular dysfunction may occasionally be the primary cause. Orthostatic intolerance is present in a wide range of clinical disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The intolerance that is produced by spaceflight and 1-G analogs (bed rest, head-down tilt at a moderate angle, water immersion) is different from its clinical counterparts by being only transiently present in subjects who otherwise have normal cardiovascular and regulatory systems. However, the same set of basic pathophysiological elements should be considered in the analysis of any form of orthostatic intolerance.

Blomqvist, C. G.; Buckey, J. C.; Gaffney, F. A.; Lane, L. D.; Levine, B. D.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

1994-01-01

75

Analyzing phylogenetic trees with timed and probabilistic model checking: the lactose persistence case study.  

PubMed

Model checking is a generic verification technique that allows the phylogeneticist to focus on models and specifications instead of on implementation issues. Phylogenetic trees are considered as transition systems over which we interrogate phylogenetic questions written as formulas of temporal logic. Nonetheless, standard logics become insufficient for certain practices of phylogenetic analysis since they do not allow the inclusion of explicit time and probabilities. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of model checking techniques beyond qualitative phylogenetic properties and adapt the existing logical extensions and tools to the field of phylogeny. The introduction of time and probabilities in phylogenetic specifications is motivated by the study of a real example: the analysis of the ratio of lactose intolerance in some populations and the date of appearance of this phenotype. PMID:25339082

Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

2014-01-01

76

Sonocrystallisation of lactose in concentrated whey.  

PubMed

Whey concentrated to 32% lactose was sonicated at 30°C in a non-contact approach at flow rates of up to 12L/min. Applied energy density varied from 3 to 16J/mL at a frequency of 20kHz. Sonication of whey initiated the rapid formation of a large number of lactose crystals in response to acoustic cavitation which increased the rate of crystallisation. The rate of sonocrystallisation was greater than stirring for approximately 180min but slowed down between 120 and 180min as the metastable limit was reached. A second treatment with ultrasound at 120min delivering an applied energy density of 4J/mL stimulated further nuclei formation and the rate of crystallisation was maintained for >300min. Yield on the other hand was limited by the solubility of lactose and could not be improved. The crystal size distribution was narrower than that with stirring and the overall crystal size was smaller. PMID:24792784

Zisu, Bogdan; Sciberras, Michael; Jayasena, Vijay; Weeks, Mike; Palmer, Martin; Dincer, Tuna D

2014-11-01

77

Low Lactose Yogurts and Milk Beverages by Ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skim milk retentates from ultrafiltra- tion, containing approximately 20% pro- tein, were diluted with water to 3.3 to 4.6% protein, standardized with cream to 1.38 to 2.60% fat, and homogenized- pasteurized. Such cooled milk beverages displayed good flavor and low lactose. Yogurts made from these low lactose milk beverages contained .31 to .61% lactose, a smooth viscous texture, and firm

Frank V. Kosikowski

1979-01-01

78

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in three populations of northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption capacity was examined in 641 apparently healthy adolescents and adults (447 males and 194 females with an average age of 22.9 years and an age range of 16–46 years) using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. In the total sample, 89 lactose absorbers and 552 lactose malabsorbers were identified. Lactose malabsorption was

Wang Yongfa; Yan Yongshan; Xu Jiujin; Du Ruofu; S. D. Flatz; W. Kiihnan; G. Flatz

1984-01-01

79

[Celiac disease--the chameleon among the food intolerances].  

PubMed

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder resulting from gluten intolerance and is based on a genetically predisposition. Symptoms occur upon exposure to prolamin from wheat, rye, barley and related grain. The pathogenesis of celiac disease has not yet been sufficiently elucidated but is being considered as an autoimmune process. At its core are the deamidation of prolamin fragments, the building of specific antibodies and the activation of cytotoxic T-cells. The immunological inflammatory process is accompanied by structural damages of the enterocytes (villous atrophy, colonization and crypt hyperplasia). The symptoms and their extent depend on the type of the celiac disease; classic and non-classic forms are being distinguished (atypical, oligosymptomatic, latent and silent celiac disease). Characteristics of the classic presentation are malabsorption syndrome and intestinal symptoms such as mushy diarrhea and abdominal distension. The diagnosis of celiac disease is based on four pillars: Anamnesis and clinical presentation, serological evidence of coeliac specific antibodies (IgA-t-TG; IgA-EmA), small intestine biopsy and improvement of symptoms after institution of a gluten-free diet. The basis of the therapy is a lifelong gluten-free diet, i. e. wheat, rye, barley, spelt, green-core, faro-wheat, kamuth and conventional oats as well as food items obtained therefrom. Small amounts of up to 50 mg gluten per day are usually tolerated by most patients; amounts of > or = 100 mg/day lead mostly to symptoms. Gluten-free foods contain < or = 20 ppm or 20 mg/kg (Sign: symbol of the 'crossed ear' or label 'gluten-free'). At the beginning of the therapy the fat and lactose intake may need to be reduced; also the supplementation of single micronutrients (fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, B12, iron, and calcium) may be required. Alternative therapies are being developed but have not yet been clinically tested. PMID:24266248

Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

2013-10-01

80

Tolerance and Intolerance in Multicultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that some proponents of multicultural education (ME) appear to teach intolerance of certain kinds of speech. The essay argues, in support, the down-playing of tolerance in ME as cultural respect, accommodation, and harmony are stronger candidates as virtues. The essay goes on to point out that ME does not teach cultural…

Heslep, Robert D.

81

ORIGINAL PAPER Fast crystallization of lactose and milk powder  

E-print Network

of milk powder in a sorption box at different temperatures and water activities to assess and amorphous lactose in a sorption box (packed bed) ranged from several hours to a week (Jouppila et al. 1997ORIGINAL PAPER Fast crystallization of lactose and milk powder in fluidized bed dryer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies  

E-print Network

Review Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies and physiological -- Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and an important osmotic regulator of lacta- tion. It is digested by intestinal lactase, an enzyme expressed in new-borns. Its activity declines fol- lowing weaning

Boyer, Edmond

83

Mutarotational Kinetics and Glass Transition of Lactose Ronan LEFORT1*  

E-print Network

on heating the amorphous state, and reaches chemical equilibrium close above the glass transition temperature1 Mutarotational Kinetics and Glass Transition of Lactose Ronan LEFORT1* , Vincent CARON2** , Jean, Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex. Mutarotational Kinetics and Glass Transition of Lactose #12;2 Abstract We report

Boyer, Edmond

84

Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (lactose tolerance) in Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and seventy apparently healthy adult subjects from Afghanistan, mainly from the central and eastern parts of the country, were subjected to a lactose tolerance test. The change of blood glucose from the fasting concentration at 20 min after the administration of lactose showed a bimodal distribution. Forty-seven subjects had a rise of blood glucose concentration of more than

A. G. Rahimi; H. Delbriiek; R. Haeckel; H. W. Goedde; G. Flatz

1976-01-01

85

A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ?Bé densities as compared with higher initial ?Bé densities.

Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

2008-08-01

86

A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using {sup 14}C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation {sup 14}C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities.

Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Section of Physical Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A. [Food Biotechnology group, Section of Analytical, Environmental and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

2008-08-14

87

The protective effect of lactose on lyophilization of CNK-20402.  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to assess the feasibility of using lyophilization to stabilize an exploratory compound, CNK-20402, with a minimal amount of impurity (CNK-20193) formation. A mixed-level full factorial experimental design was used to screen excipients of glycine, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, and povidone K-12. Cryostage microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, Karl Fischer titration, HPLC, and water vapor sorption were used to assess the formulations' physicochemical properties and stability. Initial physical characterization from powder x-ray diffraction revealed that the mannitol- and glycine-containing formulations were crystalline with the patterns of the pure excipient, whereas the remaining formulations were amorphous in structure. Chemically, the formulations stored at 50 degrees C for 1 month had 2.36%, 1.05%, 0.81%, 0.79%, and 0.49% CNK-20193 for glycine, mannitol, drug alone, povidone K-12, and lactose formulations, respectively. The formulations containing drug-mannitol, drug alone, and drug-lactose were selected for accelerated stability study based on statistical analysis. Recovery of CNK-20193 in these formulations was 1.22%, 1.00%, and 0.55%, respectively, when stored at 40 degrees C/75% relative humidity storage conditions for 3 months. Water vapor sorption analysis revealed weight gains of over 7%, 21%, and 24% for the mannitol, lactose, and drug alone formulations, respectively. Testing formulations with different concentrations of lactose by water vapor sorption indicated that CNK-20402 concentrations as low as 10% (wt/wt) could inhibit the recrystallization of lactose. The lactose-containing formulation exhibited the best stability among the formulations tested. The protective mechanism of lactose on the CNK-20402, based on water vapor sorption studies, is believed to be a result of (1) the drug-lactose interaction, and (2) competition between lactose and drug for the residual water in the formulation. PMID:16353962

Lee, Yung-Chi; Nelson, Jared; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Seibert, Donna; Hsieh, Wen-Yaw; Braxton, Bryan

2005-01-01

88

Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

2000-01-01

89

Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?  

PubMed

'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing. PMID:22320279

Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

2012-02-01

90

Criteria for diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strict criteria for the diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance are formulated in the light of the case of an 8-week-old infant with severe diarrhoea and failure to thrive, who recovered on an elimination diet that was gluten-free. 8 weeks later an oral challenge with 2.5 g twice daily of powdered gluten for one day produced diarrhoea, weight loss, and impaired

A S McNeish; C J Rolles; L J Arthur

1976-01-01

91

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

92

[Isolation and characterization of lactose-fermenting yeasts Candida kefyr].  

PubMed

The search for lactose-fermenting yeast strains has been conducted among 162 strains isolated from various plants and 28 yeast strains isolated from cheese. Four yeast strains have been shown to ferment lactose. They have been identified as Candida kefyr. Specific beta-galactosidase activity of the studied strains grown on lactose-containing medium was 1501-2113 U/g cell. The ethanol production by strains C. kefyr C24 and C30 was significantly inhibited by the increase in substrate concentration (100 g/l). PMID:24437197

Ianieva, O D; Voronina, H O; Pidhors'ky?, V S

2013-01-01

93

Incidence and clinical significance of lactose malabsorption in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of lactose malabsorption was investigated in 85 patients with ulcerative colitis and 71 patients with Crohn's disease by means of lactose tolerance tests and disaccharidase determinations in small intestinal mucosa. Eight patients with ulcerative colitis (9%) and four with Crohn's disease (6%) had lactose malabsorption. A control group displayed a similar incidence. It is concluded that lactose malabsorption

E. Gudmand-Høyer; Stig Jarnum

1970-01-01

94

Finite state abstraction of a stochastic model of the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Finite state abstraction of a stochastic model of the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli on the lactose regulation system in Escherichia coli bacteria, one of the most extensively studied examples for the lactose regulation system in the Escherichia coli bacteria. The lactose operon [8] is one of the most

Sontag, Eduardo

95

Finite state abstraction of a stochastic model of the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Finite state abstraction of a stochastic model of the lactose regulation system of Escherichia coli on the lactose regulation system in Escherichia coli bacteria, one of the most extensively studied examples hybrid model for the lactose regulation system in the Escherichia coli bacteria. The lactose operon [10

Pappas, George J.

96

Moisture sorption isotherms for crystalline, amorphous and predominantly crystalline lactose powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sorption isotherms for amorphous lactose, crystalline ?-lactose monohydrate and a predominantly crystalline lactose powder were measured. No temperature dependence was observed over the range investigated (12–40°C), except for amorphous lactose at 12°C, which absorbed less moisture than observed at higher temperatures. The amount of water absorbed by crystalline powders at high water activity was dependent on the packing density

John Bronlund; Tony Paterson

2004-01-01

97

Production of cellulase using a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei growing on lactose in batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of cellulases in batch culture was studied using a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei C-5 growing on lactose. Growth kinetic parameters on 2% lactose were studied and the comparative results for growth and enzyme productivities at two different lactose levels are discussed. The cellulase synthesis rate depended on the lactose concentration in the medium. Although growth was favoured

B. K. Chaudhuri; Vikram Sahai

1993-01-01

98

Topography of lactose permease from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The topography of lactose permease, in native membrane vesicles and after reconstitution of the purified protein into proteoliposomes, has been investigated by labeling the membrane-embedded portions of the protein using photoactivatable, hydrophobic reagents and by labeling the exposed portions of the protein with water-soluble, electrophilic reagents. Some sites of modification have been localized in fragments of the protein produced by chemical and enzymatic cleavage. These define a number of hydrophilic loops and membrane-spanning regions and give some substance to topographic models of the permease. The N-terminal third of the molecule was labeled by three photoactivatable reagents (3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-m-iodophenyldiazirine and the phospholipid analogues 2-(aceto-(4-benzoylphenylether]-1-palmitoylphosphatidylcholine) and 2-(4-azido-2-nitrophenylaminoacetyl)-1-palmitoylphosphatidylcholin e) as well as the water soluble, electrophilic reagents. The C-terminal part of the molecule is labeled by the diazirine and, to a lesser extent, by the phospholipid analogues. It apparently has more nucleophilic groups accessible to water-soluble reagents than the N-terminal domain, in which the density of apparently unreactive ionizable residues proved to be unexpectedly high. The apparent lack of reactivity of some of these residues may be explained either by their being buried in the protein moiety within the membrane domain, or by their close association with other ionizable residues on the surface of the protein. PMID:3053685

Page, M G; Rosenbusch, J P

1988-11-01

99

Characterization of Lactose Powder Surfaces by Isothermal Microcalorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lactose samples containing various amounts of amorphicity were studied with an isothermal microcalorimetric technique,\\u000a which allow to detect the heat and the quantity of water sorption simultaneously. As interaction with vapor is characteristic\\u000a of different surfaces, the samples were easy to be discriminated from each other by studying sorption behavior. With the crystalline\\u000a lactose samples, the amount of sorbed

V.-P. Lehto; E. Laine

2001-01-01

100

Lactose content of modified enzyme-treated ‘dadih’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of ‘dadih’, a sweet ‘gel-like’ fresh milk product which is a popular dessert in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia is described. The lactose content of modified ‘dadih’ and enzyme-treated ‘dadih’ was monitored throughout 7 days, a period over which ‘dadih’ is normally stored and kept at 4°C. Modified ‘dadih’, made from fresh milk with 4.49% lactose, yields

D. M. A Manan; A Abd Karim; W. K Kit

1999-01-01

101

Water sorption and time-dependent crystallization behaviour of freeze-dried lactose–salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sorption properties of freeze-dried lactose, lactose\\/CaCl2, lactose\\/NaCl, lactose\\/MgCl2, and lactose\\/KCl mixtures in their molar ratio of (9:1) were investigated. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) models were used to model water sorption properties. Water is known to function as a plasticizer, depressing the glass transition and facilitating crystallization. Crystallization in the present study resulted in loss of sorbed water

A. M. Elmonsef Omar; Yrjö H. Roos

2007-01-01

102

Non responsive celiac disease due to coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed

Celiac disease is associated with several genetic disorders, but its association with hereditary fructose intolerance is rare. Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare autosomal recessive disease of fructose metabolism presenting as vomiting after intake of fructose. An association between these two distinct genetic gastrointestinal disorders is important as treatment failure of celiac disease calls for careful evaluation for hereditary fructose intolerance. We report a patient with an association of these two disorders. PMID:22461154

Bharadia, Lalit; Shivpuri, Deepak

2012-04-01

103

Chemical Intolerance in Primary Care Settings: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the Dartmouth–Northern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P <.001). Controlling for demographics, patients with chemical intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with non–chemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication intolerances in chemical intolerance, primary care clinicians could use the QEESI to identify patients for appropriate triage to comprehensive nonpharmacologic care. PMID:22778124

Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.

2012-01-01

104

Single-step granulation\\/tabletting of different grades of lactose: a comparison with high shear granulation and compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the particle size, particle morphology and crystallinity of lactose on the extrusion properties and on the quality of tablets were investigated using single-step granulation\\/tabletting as a tabletting technique. Results showed that particle size and type of lactose (?-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous ?-lactose and spray dried lactose) affected the powder feeding, the process performance as well as the process

E. I. Keleb; A. Vermeire; C. Vervaet; J. P. Remon

2004-01-01

105

Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

2012-01-01

106

Lactose particle engineering: Influence of ultrasound and anti-solvent on crystal habit and particle size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry - namely the role of ?-lactose - and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of ?-lactose in ?-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.

Kougoulos, E.; Marziano, I.; Miller, P. R.

2010-11-01

107

Research perspectives and role of lactose uptake rate revealed by its study using 14C-labelled lactose in whey fermentation.  

PubMed

The present investigation examines the effect of pH, temperature and cell concentration on lactose uptake rate, in relation with kinetics of whey fermentation using kefir and determines the optimum conditions of these parameters. Lactose uptake rate was measured by adding (14)C-labelled lactose in whey. The results reveal the role of lactose uptake rate, being the main factor that affects the rate of fermentation, in contrast to the activity of the enzymes involved in lactose bioconversion process. Lactose uptake rate results discussion showed that mainly Ca(2+) is responsible for the reduced whey fermentation rate in comparison with fermentations using synthetic media containing lactose. Likewise, the results draw up perspectives on whey fermentation research to improve whey fermentation rate. Those perspectives are research to remove Ca(2+) from whey, the use of nano and microtubular biopolymers and promoters such as ?-alumina pellets and volcan foaming rock kissiris in order to accelerate whey fermentation. PMID:21232943

Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Soupioni, Magdalini

2011-03-01

108

Mechanisms of sympathetic regulation in orthostatic intolerance  

PubMed Central

Sympathetic circulatory control is key to the rapid cardiovascular adjustments that occur within seconds of standing upright (orthostasis) and which are required for bipedal stance. Indeed, patients with ineffective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction rapidly develop orthostatic hypotension, prohibiting effective upright activities. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. However, many people experience episodic acute OI as postural faint or chronic OI in the form of orthostatic tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension that significantly reduce the quality of life. Potential mechanisms for OI are discussed including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction, and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution attributable to regional adrenergic hypofunction. PMID:22678960

2012-01-01

109

The intracellular galactoglycome in Trichoderma reesei during growth on lactose.  

PubMed

Lactose (1,4-0-?-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose) is used as a soluble carbon source for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases for-among other purposes-use in biofuel and biorefinery industries. The mechanism how lactose induces cellulase formation in T. reesei is enigmatic, however. Previous results from our laboratory raised the hypothesis that intermediates from the two galactose catabolic pathway may give rise to the accumulation of intracellular oligogalactosides that could act as inducer. Here we have therefore used high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry to study the intracellular galactoglycome of T. reesei during growth on lactose, in T. reesei mutants impaired in galactose catabolism, and in strains with different cellulase productivities. Lactose, allo-lactose, and lactulose were detected in the highest amounts in all strains, and two trisaccharides (Gal-?-1,6-Gal-?-1,4-Glc/Fru and Gal-?-1,4-Gal-?-1,4-Glc/Fru) also accumulated to significant levels. Glucose and galactose, as well as four further oligosaccharides (Gal-?-1,3/1,4/1,6-Gal; Gal-?-1,2-Glc) were only detected in minor amounts. In addition, one unknown disaccharide (Hex-?-1,1-Hex) and four trisaccharides were also detected. The accumulation of the unknown hexose disaccharide was shown to correlate with cellulase formation in the improved mutant strains as well as the galactose pathway mutants, and Gal-?-1,4-Gal-?-1,4-Glc/Fru and two other unknown hexose trisaccharides correlated with cellulase production only in the pathway mutants, suggesting that these compounds could be involved in cellulase induction by lactose. The nature of these oligosaccharides, however, suggests their formation by transglycosylation rather than by glycosyltransferases. Based on our results, the obligate nature of both galactose catabolic pathways for this induction must have another biochemical basis than providing substrates for inducer formation. PMID:23299458

Karaffa, Levente; Coulier, Leon; Fekete, Erzsébet; Overkamp, Karin M; Druzhinina, Irina S; Mikus, Marianna; Seiboth, Bernhard; Novák, Levente; Punt, Peter J; Kubicek, Christian P

2013-06-01

110

Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the ?/( ?+ ?) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is ?-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the ?/ ? mixed phase with smaller amounts of ?-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the ?/ ? mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as ?-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

2006-10-01

111

Additivity of water sorption, alpha-relaxations and crystallization inhibition in lactose-maltodextrin systems.  

PubMed

Water sorption of lactose-maltodextrin (MD) systems, structural relaxations and lactose crystallization were studied. Accurate water sorption data for non-crystalline lactose previously not available over a wide range of water activity, aw (<0.76aw) were derived from lactose-MD systems data. Structural relaxations and crystallization of lactose in lactose-maltodextrin (MD) systems were strongly affected by water and MD. At high MD contents, inhibition of crystallization was significant. Inhibition with a high dextrose equivalent (DE) MD was more pronounced possibly because of molecular number and size effects. At 0.55-0.76aw, inhibition increased with increasing MD content. At aw>0.66, the rate of lactose crystallization decreased at increasing MD contents. Different MDs with similar Tg in lactose-MD systems showed different crystallization inhibition effects. The results of the present study showed that the DE in selection of MD for applications has important effects on component crystallization characteristics. PMID:24750913

Potes, Naritchaya; Kerry, Joseph P; Roos, Yrjö H

2012-08-01

112

Comparative effects of exogenous lactase (?-galactosidase) preparations on in vivo lactose digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial-derived ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) enzyme preparations improvein vivo lactose digestion and tolerance through enhanced gastrointestinal digestion of lactose. Three different ß-gal preparations, Lactogest (soft gel capsule), Lactaid (caplet), and DairyEase (chewable tablet) and placebo were fed to lactose maldigesters with either 20 g or 50 g of lactose to compare the efficacy of these products and to further establish a dose-response

Meei-Yn Lin; Jack A. Dipalma; Margaret C. Martini; Carol J. Gross; Susan K. Harlander; Dennis A. Savaiano

1993-01-01

113

Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not different between control subjects and patients with OI. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

114

Exercise Intolerance in Individuals With Postconcussion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Little is known about exercise intolerance or the utility of an exercise evaluation in patients with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Objective: To assess exercise intolerance in male and female patients with PCS. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included a convenience sample of 34 patients with PCS (17 males, 17 females; age = 25.9 ± 10.9 years) and 22 uninjured individuals on whom we gathered historical deidentified laboratory data (control group; 11 males, 11 females; age = 23.3 ± 6.2 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Self-reported symptoms, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs), and the Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured before, during each minute of, and immediately after a graded treadmill exercise test (Balke protocol). Exercise was stopped when participants could no longer maintain the effort or reported the onset of or increase in PCS symptoms. Results: Exercise test duration (8.5 ± 4.4 minutes versus 17.9 ± 3.6 minutes; t51 = 1.8, P < .001), heart rate (142.8 ± 24.1 versus 175.2 ± 17.4; t54 = ?5.5, P < .001), and systolic BP (142.1 ± 18.3 mm Hg versus 155.5 ± 24.5 mm Hg; t53 = 2.3, P = .02) were lower, and diastolic BP (78.4 ± 10.2 mm Hg versus 73.5 ± 11.7 mm Hg; t53 = 2.2, P = .03) was higher at test cessation in the PCS than control group. Cox regression showed the odds of a shorter exercise duration were nearly 8 times greater in the PCS than control group (hazard ratio = 7.93; 95% confidence interval = 3.39, 18.56). In the general linear models that adjusted for differences in test duration, rating of perceived exertion was the only physiologic measure to show an overall difference between groups, with the control group reporting higher ratings than the PCS group (t53 = ?6.0, P < .001). Within the PCS group, systolic BP was the only measure to show a sex effect, with males showing higher pressure readings than females throughout the exercise tests (t31 = 2.8, P = .009). Conclusions: Patients with PCS had a symptom-limited response to exercise, and the treadmill test was a potentially useful tool to monitor the recovery from PCS. PMID:23952041

Kozlowski, Karl F.; Graham, James; Leddy, John J.; Devinney-Boymel, Lee; Willer, Barry S.

2013-01-01

115

Beta?galactosidase technology: A solution to the lactose problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose, a disaccharide more commonly known as milk sugar, is and has been a major problem for the dairy and food industry. First, the majority of human adults are incapable of digesting it owing to the deficiency of the hydrolytic enzyme beta?galactosidase and thus it is a health and nutritional problem; second, it is the main reason for the sandy

Triveni Piasad Shukla; Leopold E. Wierzbicki

1975-01-01

116

Water sorption and glass transition properties of spray dried lactose hydrolysed skim milk powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moisture sorption behaviour and glass transition temperature of spray dried skim milk powder with hydrolysed lactose (SMPHL) were determined. Spray drying of skim milk with hydrolysed lactose resulted in very low cyclone recovery of 25% and a large amount of powder remained stuck inside the spray dryer. The equilibrium moisture content of SMPHL was lower than that of lactose

Ashok K. Shrestha; Tony Howes; Benu P. Adhikari; Bhesh R. Bhandari

2007-01-01

117

Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii  

PubMed Central

The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

2014-01-01

118

Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

2000-01-01

119

[Hyponatremia : The water-intolerant patient].  

PubMed

Hyponatremia due to intolerance to water is a frequent clinical condition and associated with increased mortality. Besides the well known neurological symptoms, gait disturbances, falls, fractures and osteoporosis have also been described recently in patients with chronic hyponatremia. Acute hyponatremia is a more dramatic situation and needs rapid action when severe neurological symptoms are present. Hypertonic saline is recommended to treat this condition until relief of severe symptoms. The causes of hyponatremia have to be carefully examined. Especially diuretics, antidepressants and endocrine causes, e.g. hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism and hypoaldosteronism should be excluded by examination of the patient history, clinical examination and by laboratory tests. Patients should be classified as being euvolemic, hypovolemic or hypervolemic. Whereas acute hyponatremia with severe symptom should be treated with hypertonic saline, euvolemic hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) with mild and moderate symptoms can now be treated with tolvaptan, a selective V(2)-vasopressin antagonist. Oral tolvaptan has been shown to be an effective and potent aquaretic to treat hyponatremia caused by SIADH as evidenced by a simultaneous increase in serum sodium and a decrease in urine osmolality. The condition of patients with mild or moderate hyponatremia is also improved. Side effects associated with tolvaptan include increased thirst, dry mouth, polyuria and hypernatremia. Rapid increases in serum sodium should be avoided by close monitoring in a hospital setting. PMID:22911166

Hensen, J

2012-09-01

120

Physiological basis of food intolerance in VLBW.  

PubMed

To provide an overview on the role of gut immunity, nervous system and motility patterns in the development of feeding intolerance in newborns. Maturation of the GI is important not only for digestion and absorption, but for endocrine and exocrine function as well. There is little data available about the development of the motility function and of the mucosal barrier of the human gut, and in particular about the motility patterns and mucosal changes in newborns during early days of life. It is known that functional maturation of the gastrointestinal tract is quite different over time with respect to its anatomical development. Besides, the gastrointestinal tract through innate and specific immunologic factors, acts as a defense against ingested antigens. In addition to the mucous membrane integrity and digestion, numerous specific immunologic cells and mediators orchestrate such defensive mechanisms. In case of food antigens, the outcome is usually in favor of tolerance. Defects in that barrier, however, can lead to the development of aberrant immunologic responses, including hypersensitivity reactions. It is obvious that an appropriate feeding regimen during early infancy is in favor of food tolerance. However, in addition to genetic predisposition, development of tolerance is facilitated by an adequate gut barrier (immune or nonimmune), well-coordinated GI motility and nervous network, and appropriate food regimen. PMID:21942596

Indrio, Flavia; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Luciano; Di Mauro, Antonio; Francavilla, Ruggiero

2011-10-01

121

Antisolvent crystallisation is a potential technique to prepare engineered lactose with promising aerosolisation properties: effect of saturation degree.  

PubMed

Engineered lactose particles were prepared by anti-solvent crystallisation technique using lactose solutions with different saturation degrees. In comparison to commercial lactose, engineered lactose particles exhibited less elongated and more irregular shape (large aggregates composed of smaller sub-units), rougher surface texture, higher specific surface area, and different anomer form. Engineered lactose powders demonstrated smaller bulk density, smaller tap density, and higher porosity than commercial lactose powder. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing engineered lactose and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug demonstrated improved drug content homogeneity and higher amounts of drug delivered to lower airway regions. Higher fine particle fraction of drug was obtained in the case of lactose powders with higher porosity, higher specific surface area and higher fine particle content (<5 ?m). The results indicated that the higher the saturation degree of lactose solution used during crystallisation the smaller the specific surface area, the higher the amorphous lactose content, and the higher the ?-lactose content of engineered lactose particles. Also, lactose powders obtained from lactose solution with higher degree of saturation showed higher bulk and tap densities and smaller porosity. Engineered lactose powders crystallized from lower saturation degree (20% and 30% w/v) deposited higher amounts of drug on lower airway regions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is possible to prepare engineered lactose particles with favourable properties (e.g. higher fine particle fraction and better drug content homogeneity) for DPI formulations by using lactose solutions with lower degree of saturation during crystallisation process. PMID:22884837

Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

2012-11-01

122

Dry powder inhalers: mechanistic evaluation of lactose formulations containing salbutamol sulphate.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between physicochemical properties and aerosolisation performance of different grades of lactose. In order to get a wide range of physicochemical properties, various grades of lactose namely Flowlac 100 (FLO), Lactopress anhydrous 250 (LAC), Cellactose 80 (CEL), Tablettose 80 (TAB), and Granulac 200 (GRA) were used. The different lactose grades were carefully sieved to separate 63-90 ?m particle size fractions and then characterised in terms of size, shape, density, flowability, and solid state. Formulations were prepared by blending each lactose with salbutamol sulphate (SS) at ratio of 67.5:1 (w/w), and then evaluated in terms of SS content uniformity, lactose-SS adhesion properties, and in vitro aerosolisation performance delivered from the Aerolizer. Sieved lactose grades showed similar particle size distributions (PSDs) and good flow properties but different particle shape, particle surface texture, and particle solid state. Content uniformity assessments indicated that lactose particles with rougher surface produced improved SS homogeneity within DPI formulation powders. Lactose-SS adhesion assessments indicated that lactose particles with more elongated shape and the rougher surface showed smaller adhesion force between lactose and salbutamol sulphate. Lactose powders with higher bulk density and higher tap density produced smaller emission (EM) and higher drug loss (DL) of SS. In vitro aerosolisation for various lactose grades followed the following rank order in terms of deposition performance: GRA>TAB>LAC ? CEL>FLO. Linear relationships were established showing that in order to maximize SS delivery to lower airway regions, lactose particles with more elongated shape, more irregular shape, and rougher surface are preferred. Therefore, considerable improvement in DPI performance can be achieved by careful selection of grade of lactose included within DPI formulations. PMID:22197772

Kaialy, Waseem; Ticehurst, Martyn; Nokhodchi, Ali

2012-02-28

123

Analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity of oligosaccharides derived from lactose.  

PubMed

The increasing interest for prebiotic carbohydrates as functional food ingredients has promoted the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides and new lactose derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the chromatographic analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity studies of lactose-derived oligosaccharides. The most common chromatographic techniques used for the separation and structural characterization of this type of oligosaccharides, including GC and HPLC in different operational modes, coupled to various detectors are discussed. Insights on oligosaccharide MS fragmentation patterns, using different ionization sources and mass analyzers, as well as data on structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy are also described. Finally, this article deals with the bioactive effects of galacto oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which support their consumption to provide significant health benefits. PMID:24446419

Moreno, F Javier; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín

2014-06-01

124

Fermentation of Glucose, Lactose, Galactose, Mannitol, and Xylose by Bifidobacteria  

PubMed Central

For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3. PMID:5674058

de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.

1968-01-01

125

The protective effect of lactose on lyophilization of CNK-20402  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was to assess the feasibility of using lyophilization to stabilize an exploratory compound, CNK-20402,\\u000a with a minimal amount of impurity (CNK-20193) formation. A mixed-level full factorial experimental design was used to screen\\u000a excipients of glycine, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, and povidone K-12. Cryostage microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Karl\\u000a Fischer titration, HPLC, and water vapor sorption were

Yung-Chi Lee; Jared Nelson; Katsuhiko Sueda; Donna Seibert; Wen-Yaw Hsieh; Bryan Braxton

2005-01-01

126

Management of Lactose Maldigestion by Consuming Milk Containing Lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nonfermented milk containing L.acidophilus or L. bulgaricus on lactose utilization bylactose maldigesters was investigated. Nonfermentedmilks containing L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus at 108 and 109 CFU\\/mlwere prepared using 2% low-fat milk. Lactosemaldigestion was monitored by measuring breath hydrogenat hourly intervals for 8 hr following consumption of400 ml of each diet. Nonfermented milk containing L. acidophilus B at108

Meei-Yn Lin; Chyuan-Liang Yen; Shu-Hua Chen

1998-01-01

127

Acquired intolerance to organic solvents and results of vestibular testing  

SciTech Connect

Among 160 consecutive patients referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Rigshospitalet, for symptoms connected with exposure to organic solvents, 20 exhibited symptoms of acquired intolerance to minor amounts of organic solvents. Later, an additional 30 consecutive patients with symptoms of acquired intolerance were included, yielding a total of 43 men and 7 women. The characteristics of the clinical syndrome described are complaints of dizziness, nausea, and weakness after exposure to minimal solvent vapor concentrations. After having tolerated long-term occupational exposure to moderate or high air concentrations of various organic solvents, the patients became intolerant within a short period of time. Since dizziness was a frequent complaint, we tried to obtain a measure of the patients' complaints using vestibular tests. As a diagnostic test the combined vestibular tests had a sensitivity of 0.55 and a specificity of 0.87. No differences between patients with and without intolerance could be detected by the vestibular tests used. We conclude that acquired intolerance to organic solvents is a new but characteristic and easily recognizable syndrome, often with severe consequences for the patient's working ability.

Gyntelberg, F.; Vesterhauge, S.; Fog, P.; Isager, H.; Zillstorff, K.

1986-01-01

128

Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

1998-01-01

129

Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance.  

PubMed

Environmental intolerance (EI) is characterized by attribution of several, multisystem symptoms to specific environmental exposures, such as exposure to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and everyday sounds. The symptoms are medically unexplained, non-specific and the symptoms overlap between different types of EI. To approach the issue of underlying mechanisms the matter of overlap in prevalence between intolerances can provide valuable information. The aim of the study was to examine if the overlap between intolerance to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, EMFs and sounds is larger than the expected overlap if no association would exist between them. The study was using cross-sectional data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden; a large questionnaire-based survey. 8520 adults (18-79 years) were randomly selected after stratification for age and sex, of whom 3406 (40%) participated. Individuals with the four types of intolerance were identified either through self-report, or by having been physician-diagnosed with a specific EI. The overlaps between the four EIs were greater than predictions based on coincidence for both self-reported and diagnosed cases (except for the overlap between diagnosed intolerance to sounds and EMFs). The results raise the question whether different types of EI share similar underlying mechanisms, or at least that the sufferers of EI share some predisposition to acquire the conditions. PMID:24029726

Palmquist, Eva; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Neely, Gregory; Stenberg, Berndt; Nordin, Steven

2014-01-01

130

Fourier transform infrared analysis of purified lactose permease: a monodisperse lactose permease preparation is stably folded, alpha-helical, and highly accessible to deuterium exchange.  

PubMed

The lactose permease, encoded by the lacY gene of Escherichia coli, is an integral membrane protein that functions as a proton and lactose symporter. In this study, we have characterized a novel monodisperse, purified preparation of lactose permease, as well as functionally reconstituted lactose permease, using spectroscopic techniques. The purification of monodisperse lactose permease has been aided by the development of a lacY gene product containing an amino-terminal six histidine affinity tag. In the novel purification method described here, lactose permease is purified from beta-dodecyl maltoside-solubilized membrane vesicles using three sequential column steps: hydroxyapatite, nickel-nitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity, and cation-exchange chromatography. The hydroxyapatite step was shown to be essential in reducing aggregation of the final purified protein. Amino acid composition analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis support the conclusion that the protein has been purified to greater than 90% homogeneity. The protein has been successfully reconstituted and has been shown to be active for lactose transport. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been performed on monodisperse lactose permease and on proteoliposomes containing functional lactose permease. FT-IR spectroscopy supports the conclusion that the monodisperse lactose permease preparation is 80% alpha-helical and stably folded at 20 degreesC; thermal denaturation is first detected at 70 degreesC. Because the purified protein is also readily susceptible to 2H exchange, these results suggest that the protein is conformationally flexible and that 2H exchange is facilitated as the result of conformational fluctuations from the folded state. PMID:9799497

Patzlaff, J S; Moeller, J A; Barry, B A; Brooker, R J

1998-11-01

131

Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation  

PubMed Central

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72. PMID:23319908

Berner, Jon

2013-01-01

132

Food allergy and food intolerance: towards a sociological agenda.  

PubMed

This article asks what sociological insights an analysis of food allergy and food intolerance might afford. We outline the parameters of debates around food allergy and food intolerance in the immunological, clinical and epidemiological literatures in order to identify analytic strands which might illuminate our sociological understanding of the supposed increase in both. Food allergy and food intolerance are contested and contingent terms and it is salient that the term true food allergy is replete throughout medico-scientific, epidemiological and popular discourses in order to rebuff spurious or 'nonallergic' claims of food-related symptoms. Complexity theory is introduced as a means of gaining analytic purchase on the food allergy debate. The article concludes that the use of this perspective provides a contemporary example of the 'double hermeneutic', in that the meanings and interpretations of contemporary explanations of food allergy are both permeated by, and can be made sense of, through recourse to complexity thinking. PMID:19841024

Nettleton, Sarah; Woods, Brian; Burrows, Roger; Kerr, Anne

2009-11-01

133

Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation.  

PubMed

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. PMID:23319908

Berner, Jon

2013-01-15

134

Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis lactose genes and regulation of their expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important trait of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis , that is used in industrial dairy fermentations, is the conversion of lactose into lactic acid. The enzymatic steps involved in the breakdown of lactose, that is transported into the cell via a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent lactose phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS lac<\\/SUP>), have been well established (Fig. 1). However, except for the molecular

Rooijen van R. J

1993-01-01

135

Lactose/beta-lactoglobulin interaction during storage of model whey powders.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence or absence of interaction between lactose and beta-lactoglobulin during storage of model whey powders at different water activities (a(w)). Model whey powders were prepared by colyophilization of lactose with increasing quantities of beta-lactoglobulin. These colyophilized beta-lactoglobulin:lactose powders, assigned as BL powders, were stored from 0.11 to 0.95 a(w). The water sorption behavior of BL powders was studied gravimetrically, and the state of lactose was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before storage, BL powders were amorphous. After storage, a loss of water was observed on moisture sorption isotherms of BL powders. It was related to the formation of lactose crystals, detected by DSC and SEM analysis, and to the structural collapse of the powders. Water loss due to lactose crystallization was shifted to higher a(w) with increasing beta-lactoglobulin content in BL powders. Moreover, kinetics of moisture sorption demonstrated that beta-lactoglobulin was also responsible for a slower crystallization process in BL powders. Then, the water sorption behavior of BL powders was very different from the behavior of the 2 compounds mixed after separate lyophilization. All these results pointed out interaction between lactose and beta-lactoglobulin, which appeared during lyophilization and still occurred during storage. This lactose/beta-lactoglobulin interaction stabilized model whey powders against lactose crystallization. PMID:15290962

Thomas, M E C; Scher, J; Desobry, S

2004-05-01

136

Minimal cross-intolerance with nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic or accelerated phase who are intolerant to imatinib  

PubMed Central

Nilotinib has significant efficacy in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) and in patients with CML-CP or CML in accelerated phase (CML-AP) after imatinib failure. We investigated the occurrence of cross-intolerance to nilotinib in imatinib-intolerant patients with CML. Only 1/75 (1%) patients with nonhematologic imatinib intolerance experienced a similar grade 3/4 adverse event (AE), and 3/75 (4%) experienced a similar persistent grade 2 nonhematologic AE on nilotinib. Only 7/40 (18%) patients with hematologic imatinib intolerance discontinued nilotinib, all because of grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Ninety percent of imatinib-intolerant patients with CML-CP who did not have complete hematologic response (CHR) at baseline (n = 52) achieved CHR on nilotinib. Nilotinib induced a major cytogenetic response in 66% and 41% of patients with imatinib-intolerant CML-CP and CML-AP (complete cytogenetic response in 51% and 30%), respectively. Minimal cross-intolerance was confirmed in patients with imatinib-intolerant CML. The favorable tolerability of nilotinib in patients with imatinib intolerance leads to alleviation of AE-related symptoms and significant and durable responses. In addition to its established clinical benefit in patients with newly diagnosed CML and those resistant to imatinib, nilotinib is effective and well-tolerated for long-term use in patients with imatinib intolerance. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00471497 PMID:21467546

Hochhaus, Andreas; le Coutre, Philipp D.; Rosti, Gianantonio; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Jabbour, Elias; Gillis, Kathryn; Woodman, Richard C.; Blakesley, Rick E.; Giles, Francis J.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Baccarani, Michele

2011-01-01

137

Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

2009-01-01

138

Rainbow Visibility: How One Catholic University Responded to Intolerance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)

Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn A.

2002-01-01

139

[Oral exposure testing in non-aspirin-induced analgesic intolerance].  

PubMed

Although intolerance reaction to analgesics are not uncommon, there is still a lack of standardized procedures to diagnose the problem. We retrospectively analyzed results of scratch tests as well as oral challenges with analgesics in order to evaluate risk and diagnostic relevance of these procedures. In 1987-1992 a total of 650 patients with supposed intolerance to drugs were tested by oral challenge. Among them were 98 patients with a positive history of intolerance to non-aspirin analgesics. In 56 patients the intolerance could be verified by oral challenge. In order of decreasing frequency, the most likely agents were propyphenazone, diclofenac, metamizole, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, indomethacin, phenazone (antipyrine), and paracetamol (acteaminophen). Oral provocation showed clear dose-response relationships. For propyphenazone, the half-effective provocation dose was the same for all symptoms (cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, anaphylactoid). Scratch testing was not of diagnostic significance. Standardized test protocols starting with low dose oral challenges are suitable and helpful in minimizing the risk of severe side effects. PMID:9081936

Wiedow, O; Brasch, J; Christophers, E

1996-12-01

140

Construct Validity of the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

b Background: Domestic violence against married women has persisted throughout Korean history. However, very little empirical research has been conducted in Korea about domestic violence, its causes, or women's responses. b Objective: To develop and test psychometrically the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale (KWAIS) to measure women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands in Korea. b Methods: The first

Myunghan Choi; Linda R. Phillips; Aurelio José Figueredo; Katheleen Insel; Sung-Kil Min

2008-01-01

141

Orthostatic Intolerance and Motion Sickness After Parabolic Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.

Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.

1999-01-01

142

The Influence of Milk Intolerance on Milk Consumption in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the impact of milk intolerance on milk consumption in older adults.Current public health policy emphasizes optimizing calcium intakes in the elderly. Fluid milk is a readily available source of calcium, but consumption may be limited by milk intolerance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of milk intolerance on milk consumption in

S. M. Elbon; M. A. Johnson; J. G. Fischer

1996-01-01

143

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium  

E-print Network

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Yogurt Manufactured from Whey-Caseinate Blends and Hydrolyzed Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of NDM by economi- cal whey-caseinate blends at 50 and 100% in the manufacture of yogurt was studied. Lactose in the yogurt mixes was hydro- lyzed to 50% and 75% before fermenta- tion to increase sweetness, which reduced added sucrose and simultaneously re- duced lactose. Two taste panels detected flavor differences between yogurts from the 100% replacement formula

C. A. Whalen; T. M. Gilmore; K. R. Spurgeon; J. G. Parsons

1988-01-01

145

Modeling of Lactose Crystallization and Color Changes in Model Infant Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose crystallization and color changes in formu- las containing ?-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch were investigated. Model infant formulas were pre- pared by colyophilization of 3 components (lactose, ?- lactoglobulin, and gelatinized starch). A mixture de- sign was used to choosethe percentage of each mixture component. These formulas were stored for 3 mo at different relative humidities (RH), ranging from ap-

A. Nasirpour; J. Scher; M. Linder; S. Desobry

2006-01-01

146

Determination of low levels of amorphous content in inhalation grade lactose by moisture sorption isotherms.  

PubMed

Alpha-lactose monohydrate is widely used as an excipient in dry powder inhalers, and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the drug delivery. Due to the processing, low levels of amorphous lactose could be present in the blends. Varying amounts could have a strong effect on the efficiency of drug delivery of the powder blends. Therefore, the accurate measurement of low levels of amorphous lactose content is very important. A new method was developed to measure the amorphous content, based on dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). In contrast to the traditional re-crystallization approach of amorphous lactose, the new method is based on moisture sorption isotherms. Moisture sorption isotherms of blends of crystalline alpha-lactose and freeze-dried or spray-dried amorphous lactose were measured. By fitting the data with a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) isotherm, a linear correlation was found between measured and actual amorphous content for the whole range of 0.1-100%. Differences between freeze-dried and spray-dried lactose, due to different molecular arrangements, could be removed by a preconditioning the samples at 35% RH prior to the isotherm measurement. It was shown that accurate determination of very low concentrations of amorphous lactose content is possible using moisture sorption isotherm analyses. PMID:20493937

Vollenbroek, Jasper; Hebbink, Gerald A; Ziffels, Susanne; Steckel, Hartwig

2010-08-16

147

Crystallization Rates for Amorphous Sucrose and Lactose Powders from Spray Drying: A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption tests have been used to assess the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and molecular structure on the crystallization process within spray-dried lactose and sucrose at both room temperature and 40°C. Increasing the temperature by 10°C more than doubled the crystallization rate, up to three times for the case of lactose. Below a threshold value of the relative humidity, little

T. A. G. Langrish; S. Wang

2009-01-01

148

Extracellular beta-galactosidase activity of a Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 mutant able to catabolize lactose.  

PubMed Central

Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 is unable to grow with lactose as the source of carbohydrate, although it does exhibit low beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) activity. Spontaneous mutants of strain S85 able to grow on lactose were isolated after spreading cells on a chemically defined agar medium with lactose as the carbohydrate source. A lactose-catabolizing isolate, designated L2, exhibited a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profile and an immunoblot profile with polyclonal antibodies to whole cells of S85 which were identical to those observed for S85. Strain L2 exhibited both cell-associated and extracellular beta-galactosidase activity with either p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside or lactose as the substrate. The cell-associated enzyme exhibited the greatest activity in the periplasmic space. Enzyme production was partially inhibited by glucose. The beta-galactosidase was activated by divalent cations and exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5. Analysis of the extracellular culture fluid revealed that glucose derived from the hydrolysis of lactose was used for growth, but galactose was not metabolized further. Cells were unable to take up the lactose analog, methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. These data suggest that beta-galactosidase of F. succinogenes L2 cleaves lactose outside the cells and that the glucose released is catabolized while the galactose accumulates in the extracellular culture fluid. Images PMID:2128006

Javorsky, P; Lee, S F; Gibbins, A M; Forsberg, C W

1990-01-01

149

Role of the bga1-Encoded Extracellular ?-Galactosidase of Hypocrea jecorina in Cellulase Induction by Lactose  

PubMed Central

Lactose is the only soluble and economically feasible carbon source for the production of cellulases or heterologous proteins regulated by cellulase expression signals by Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei). We investigated the role of the major ?-galactosidase of H. jecorina in lactose metabolism and cellulase induction. A genomic copy of the bga1 gene was cloned, and this copy encodes a 1,023-amino-acid protein with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. This protein has a molecular mass of 109.3 kDa, belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 35, and is the major extracellular ?-galactosidase during growth on lactose. Its transcript was abundant during growth on l-arabinose and l-arabinitol but was much less common when the organism was grown on lactose, d-galactose, galactitol, d-xylose, and xylitol. ?bga1 strains grow more slowly and accumulate less biomass on lactose, but the cellobiohydrolase I and II gene expression and the final cellulase yields were comparable to those of the parental strain. Overexpression of bga1 under the control of the pyruvate kinase promoter reduced the lag phase, increased growth on lactose, and limited transcription of cellobiohydrolases. We detected an additional extracellular ?-galactosidase activity that was not encoded by bga1 but no intracellular ?-galactosidase activity. In conclusion, cellulase production on lactose occurs when ?-galactosidase activity levels are low but decreases as the ?-galactosidase activities increase. The data indicate that bga1-encoded ?-galactosidase activity is a critical factor for cellulase production on lactose. PMID:15691940

Seiboth, Bernhard; Hartl, Lukas; Salovuori, Noora; Lanthaler, Karin; Robson, Geoff D.; Vehmaanpera, Jari; Penttila, Merja E.; Kubicek, Christian P.

2005-01-01

150

Distribution of physiological adult lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and malabsorber, in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1805 apparently healthy, adult and adolescent Germans (1572 males and 233 females with a mean age of 20.3 years) were examined for lactose absorption capacity employing a field version of the breath hydrogen (H2) test. The diagnostic parameter, maximal change of breath hydrogen concentration 120 or 150 min after a load of 50 g lactose, showed a

G. Flatz; J. N. Howell; J. Doench; S. D. Flatz

1982-01-01

151

High stability of immobilized ?-D-galactosidase for lactose hydrolysis and galactooligosaccharides synthesis.  

PubMed

?-D-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan and used in a packed-bed reactor for the continuous hydrolysis of lactose and the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The biocatalyst was tested for its optima pH and temperature, thermal stability in the presence of substrate and products, and operational stability. Immobilization increased the range of operational pH and temperature, and the enzyme thermal stability was sharply increased in the presence of lactose. Almost complete lactose hydrolysis was achieved for both milk whey and lactose solution at 37 °C at flow rates up to 2.6 mL min(-1). Maximal GOS concentration of 26 g L(-1) was obtained at a flow rate of 3.1 mL min(-1), with a productivity of 186 g L(-1) h(-1). Steady-state operation for 15 days showed the reactor stability concerning lactose hydrolysis. PMID:23618294

Klein, Manuela P; Fallavena, Lucas P; Schöffer, Jéssie da N; Ayub, Marco A Z; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ninow, Jorge L; Hertz, Plinho F

2013-06-01

152

[Lactose-free formula products available in Mexico. Their significance and applications].  

PubMed

Lactose in milk and dairy products can be significantly reduced by the utilization of microbial beta-galactosidases. These enzymes can be used to treat milk during its processing or they can be administered with milk at meal time as an enzyme replacement therapy in which case hydrolysis occurs in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose in milk can alternatively be eliminated by ultrafiltration, a process that divides milk components based on their size. A third way of reducing or eliminating lactose content is formulating a product or even "milk" from ingredients which avoid the use of lactose. Technologies like these are used to develop infant formula, enteral formula products and low-lactose milks. In this paper products of this kind available in Mexico are described. PMID:9122550

Rosado, J L; Mimiaga, C

1996-11-01

153

Strains and species of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milks (yogurts): effect on in vivo lactose digestion14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose in yogurt with live bacteria is better tolerated than lactose in other dairy foods, partly because of the activity of microbial fl-galactosidase (f3-gal), which digests lactose in vivo. To evaluate the ability of different strains and species oflactic acid bacteria to digest lactose in vivo, yogurts (containing mixtures ofstrains ofStreptococcus salivarius subsp therm ophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus)

Margaret C Martini; Eric C Lerebours; Wei-Jin Lin; Susan K Harlander; Nabil M Berrada; Jean M Antoine; Dennis A Savaiano

154

Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic states that lead to orthostatic intolerance.

Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.

2000-01-01

155

Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight.

Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Sundby, G. H.; Rostoft, S.; Sheynberg, N.; Aljuri, N.; Maa, M.; Mukkamala, R.; Sherman, D.; Toska, K.; Yelle, J.; Bloomfield, D.; Williams, G. H.; Cohen, R. J.

2001-01-01

156

Midodrine prevents orthostatic intolerance associated with simulated spaceflight.  

PubMed

Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. PMID:11356789

Ramsdell, C D; Mullen, T J; Sundby, G H; Rostoft, S; Sheynberg, N; Aljuri, N; Maa, M; Mukkamala, R; Sherman, D; Toska, K; Yelle, J; Bloomfield, D; Williams, G H; Cohen, R J

2001-06-01

157

Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

1991-01-01

158

Utilization of Lactose and Galactose by Streptococcus mutans: Transport, Toxicity, and Carbon Catabolite Repression? †  

PubMed Central

Abundant in milk and other dairy products, lactose is considered to have an important role in oral microbial ecology and can contribute to caries development in both adults and young children. To better understand the metabolism of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans, the major etiological agent of human tooth decay, a genetic analysis of the tagatose-6-phosphate (lac) and Leloir (gal) pathways was performed in strain UA159. Deletion of each gene in the lac operon caused various alterations in expression of a PlacA-cat promoter fusion and defects in growth on either lactose (lacA, lacB, lacF, lacE, and lacG), galactose (lacA, lacB, lacD, and lacG) or both sugars (lacA, lacB, and lacG). Failure to grow in the presence of galactose or lactose by certain lac mutants appeared to arise from the accumulation of intermediates of galactose metabolism, particularly galatose-6-phosphate. The glucose- and lactose-PTS permeases, EIIMan and EIILac, respectively, were shown to be the only effective transporters of galactose in S. mutans. Furthermore, disruption of manL, encoding EIIABMan, led to increased resistance to glucose-mediated CCR when lactose was used to induce the lac operon, but resulted in reduced lac gene expression in cells growing on galactose. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably high degree of complexity in the regulation of lactose/galactose catabolism. PMID:20190045

Zeng, Lin; Das, Satarupa; Burne, Robert A.

2010-01-01

159

Effect of moisture sorption on tabletting characteristics of spray dried (15% amorphous) lactose.  

PubMed

Spray dried (15% amorphous) lactose absorbs moisture when exposed to humidity. At 57% relative humidity (RH), the moisture uptake was 1.5%. It is suggested that the moisture is preferentially taken up in the amorphous regions, thereby increasing the actual moisture content in the amorphous parts up to 10%. The moisture uptake reduced the glass transition temperature below the operating temperature and thereby transformed the amorphous regions from a glassy to a rubbery state, setting up conditions for crystallisation of the lactose. Compaction of dry spray dried lactose led to a relatively low initial tablet strength. However, when pre-exposed to 57% RH for a short time period (2 to 4 hours) before compaction, the initial tablet strength increased markedly. This was due to moisture uptake which resulted in a higher molecular mobility of the amorphous spray dried lactose, and to an increase in plastic flow. Post compaction storage of tablets containing amorphous regions of spray dried lactose at 57% RH resulted in an increased tablet strength after 4 hours due to crystallisation. Spray dried lactose exposed to 57% RH for more than 6 hours before compaction led to the lowest initial tablet strength. Crystallisation of the amorphous regions of the spray dried lactose occurred before tabletting. No increase in tablet strength was noted on post compaction storage for these tablets. PMID:7816749

Sebhatu, T; Elamin, A A; Ahlneck, C

1994-09-01

160

HIV-related social intolerance and risky sexual behavior in a high HIV prevalence environment.  

PubMed

Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. PMID:24768779

Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj

2014-06-01

161

First Principles Calculation of Terahertz Vibrational Modes of a Disaccharide Monohydrate Crystal of Lactose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations of the crystalline vibrations of a lactose monohydrate crystal in the terahertz (THz) region were performed using periodic density functional theory calculations. The calculated vibrational modes in the THz region were derived from group motions with different sizes: molecules of lactose and crystal water, pyranose rings, and intramolecular frames. The intermolecular modes with large vibrational amplitude of lactose of 17.5-100.6 cm-1 and of crystal-water of 136.1-237.7 cm-1 were clearly separated. This article especially refers to the intermolecular vibrational modes of crystal water with the THz absorption, which provide detectable spectral features of hydrated crystals.

Saito, Shigeki; Inerbaev, Talgat M.; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Nobuaki; Note, Ryunosuke; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

2006-11-01

162

Borate enhances the production of lactulose from lactose by cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.  

PubMed

Cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used in the presence of borate to increase the production of lactulose from lactose. Maximum production of lactulose occurred using a 1:1M ratio of borate-lactose. Under this condition, the enzyme produced 614 g l(-1) lactulose from 700 g l(-1) lactose after incubation at pH 7.5 and 80 °C for 3h, with a conversion yield of 88% and a productivity of 205 g l(-1) h(-1). The yield and productivity of lactulose production obtained in the present study are among the highest achieved through chemical or biological synthesis. PMID:23177735

Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Jung-Eun; Oh, Deok-Kun

2013-01-01

163

Identification of major facilitator transporters involved in cellulase production during lactose culture of Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7.  

PubMed

Although lactose is a preferred cellulase inducer in the industrial production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei, the mechanism of induction is not fully understood. Because sugar transporters might be involved at an early step of induction by oligosaccharides, we sought permeases associated with cellulase induction by lactose. Two such MFS sugar transporters in the T. reesei hyper-cellulolytic PC-3-7 strain, an industrial cellulase producer developed in Japan, were identified in a screening for lactose permeases. Disruption of the genes encoding these two transporters resulted in decreased lactose uptake and delayed growth in lactose culture. Further, the deletion strains produced less cellulase when cultivated on lactose. No substantial differences were observed in cellulase production when PC-3-7 was cultivated in cellulose-based medium. The present work provides evidence that these transporters are critical for cellulase production in lactose culture. PMID:23649266

Porciuncula, Juliano de Oliveira; Furukawa, Takanori; Shida, Yosuke; Mori, Kazuki; Kuhara, Satoshi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

2013-01-01

164

Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aim. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of our current screening strategy postpartum and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. Retrospective analysis of files of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria from 01-01-2010 till 31-12-2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results. Of all 231 women with a recent history of GDM, 21.4% (46) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. Of the women tested, 39.1% (66) had glucose intolerance and 5.3% (9) had diabetes. These women were more often overweight (39.7% versus 25.3%, P = 0.009), were more often treated with basal-bolus insulin injections (52.0% versus 17.4%, P = 0.032), and had a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity, remaining significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and ethnicity (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2) in pregnancy 1.5 ± 0.5 versus 1.7 ± 0.4, P = 0.029; ISSI-2 postpartum 1.5 (1.2–1.9) versus 2.2 (1.8–2.6), P = 0.020; Matsuda index postpartum 3.8 (2.6–6.2) versus 6.0 (4.3–8.8), P = 0.021). Conclusion. Glucose intolerance is frequent in early postpartum and these women have a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity. One fifth of women did not attend the scheduled OGTT postpartum. PMID:25180037

Calewaert, Peggy; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal

2014-01-01

165

Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

1983-06-01

166

Plasmid-Determined Ability of a 'Salmonella Tennessee' Strain to Ferment Lactose and Sucrose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of a Salmonella Tennessee strain to ferment both lactose and sucrose was attributed to a conjugally transmissible plasmid, deoxyribonucleic acid molecular weight 164 megadaltons, bearing the genetic determinants of both fermentation characters...

E. M. Johnson, J. A. Wohlhieter, B. P. Placek, R. B. Sleet, L. S. Baron

1975-01-01

167

Allergy \\/Intolerance to Buckwheat and Other Food Products among Swedish Subjects with Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckwheat can be used to produce a gluten free flour valuable for persons with gluten intolerance (celiac disease). Celiac disease is affecting about 0.2% of adults in Sweden. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of buckwheat allergy\\/intolerance, as well as other types of food allergies\\/intolerance, among members of a society for celiac disease patients in

Jeong-Lim Kim; Gunilla Wieslander; Dan Norblck

2004-01-01

168

Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

1991-01-01

169

Predicting drug release from HPMC/lactose tablets.  

PubMed

Three mathematical models were applied to quantify drug release from HPMC/lactose-based matrix tablets loaded with varying amounts of theophylline: (i) a numerical model considering drug diffusion in axial and radial direction in cylinders as well as limited drug solubility effects, (ii) an analytical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion considering axial and radial mass transport in a cylinder, but neglecting limited drug solubility effects, and (iii) a simple early time approximation of the analytical solution, considering only radial mass transport and neglecting axial diffusion as well as limited drug solubility effects. The three models were fitted to experimentally determined drug release kinetics from various types of tablets in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Interestingly, the agreement between fitted theories and experimental data was similar in all cases. However, the determined system specific model parameters (apparent diffusion coefficients of theophylline in the polymeric matrices) were significantly biased when using simplified theories. Nevertheless, the reliability of theoretical predictions was similar for all three models, since the determined apparent diffusivities are partially "lumped" parameters. Thus, from a practical point of view, very simple equations can be used during product optimization, allowing estimating the effects of formulation parameters on drug release. PMID:23262427

Siepmann, J; Karrout, Y; Gehrke, M; Penz, F K; Siepmann, F

2013-01-30

170

Continuous production of lactic acid from glucose and lactose in a cell-recycle reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and lactic acid production ofLactobacillus delbreuckii were compared using glucose and lactose as carbon sources. A continuous-flow stirred-tank fermenter was coupled with a cross-flow\\u000a filtration unit to permit operation at high-cell concentrations. At steady state, yeast extract requirements for lactic-acid\\u000a production were lower when glucose was used as a substrate than with lactose fermentation. Once steady state was obtained,

Eric Ohleyer; Charles R. Wilke; Harvey W. Blanch

1985-01-01

171

The effects of operating conditions on lactose crystallization in a pilot-scale spray dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating conditions on the rate of drying and degree of crystallinity of lactose have been explored in a pilot-scale spray dryer. Temperature, moisture content, feed flow rate, atomizing air-flow rate, main air-flow rate and particle size have been varied to estimate the range of crystallinity of lactose obtainable in a pilot-scale spray dryer. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry

Debolina Das; Hazalea A. Husni; Timothy A. G. Langrish

2010-01-01

172

Influence of milk proteins on the development of lactose-induced stickiness in dairy powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stickiness behaviour of a range of spray dried dairy powders differing in protein\\/lactose ratio was determined using a fluidised bed apparatus. Powders with higher protein\\/lactose ratios were less susceptible to sticking. Stickiness was related to both the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the temperature increment by which Tg must be exceeded before sticking occurred (T?Tg). T?Tg values of approximately

S. A. Hogan; D. J. O'Callaghan

2010-01-01

173

Bistability of the naturally induced lactose utilization system of Escherichia coli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.

Stajic, Jelena; Wall, Michael

2006-03-01

174

Effect of lactose on gut microbiota and metabolome of infants with cow's milk allergy.  

PubMed

Allergic infants have an unusual gastrointestinal microbiota with low numbers of Bifidobacterium/Lactobacilli and high levels of Clostridium, staphylococci and Escherichia coli. Hydrolyzed formula used to treat these infants is deprived of lactose that instead may influence the gut microbial composition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of lactose on the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome of infants with cow's milk allergy. Infants prospectively enrolled received an extensively hydrolyzed formula with no lactose for 2?months followed by an identical lactose-containing formula for an additional 2?months. Healthy, age-gender-matched infants were used as controls. The following determinations were performed before and after the introduction of lactose in the diet: enumeration of cells present in the feces using FISH, counts of viable bacterial cells and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry/solid-phase microextraction analysis. The addition of lactose to the diet significantly increases the counts of Bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (p?lactose significantly increases the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (p?lactose to an extensively hydrolyzed formula is able to positively modulate the composition of gut microbiota by increasing the total fecal counts of Lactobacillus/Bifidobacteria and decreasing that of Bacteroides/Clostridia. The positive effect is completed by the increase of median concentration of short chain fatty acids, especially for acetic and butyric acids demonstrated by the metabolomic analysis. PMID:22435727

Francavilla, Ruggiero; Calasso, Maria; Calace, Laura; Siragusa, Sonya; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Vernocchi, Pamela; Brunetti, Luigia; Mancino, Giuseppe; Tedeschi, Giuseppe; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Indrio, Flavia; Laghi, Luca; Miniello, Vito L; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

2012-08-01

175

Sophorolipid Production with High Yields on Whey Concentrate and Rapeseed Oil without Consumption of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophorolipids were produced by single-step batch cultivation of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 on deproteinized whey concentrate and repeated feed of rapeseed oil. A mild sterilization method for whey was developed. High yields of 280 g dry sophorolipids l-1 were obtained from deproteinized whey concentrate containing 100 g lactose l-1 and 300 g rapeseed oil l-1. Surprisingly, the whey lactose was

Hans-J. Daniel; Ralf T. Otto; Matthias Reuss; Christoph Syldatk

1998-01-01

176

Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities  

SciTech Connect

A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

1985-04-01

177

Galacto-oligosaccharide production from lactose by an enzymic batch reaction using ?-galactosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymic reaction of lactose was carried out to produce galacto-oligosaccharide with a high degree of conversion. The reaction process was analysed with a simple model. The reaction involved a batch process operated with initial lactose concentrations ranging from 0·139 to 1·67 mol litre?1 at 40°C and pH 4·5 with ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. A maximum oligosaccharide conversion of over 30%

Ken-ichi Iwasaki; Mitsutoshi Nakajima; Shin-ichi Nakao

1996-01-01

178

At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.  

PubMed

Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817

Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

2013-04-01

179

Modeling of lactose crystallization and color changes in model infant foods.  

PubMed

Lactose crystallization and color changes in formulas containing beta-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch were investigated. Model infant formulas were prepared by colyophilization of 3 components (lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and gelatinized starch). A mixture design was used to choose the percentage of each mixture component. These formulas were stored for 3 mo at different relative humidities (RH), ranging from approximately 0 to 94.6%, to study the lactose crystallization and color changes. Crystallization kinetics was studied by gravimetric methods, and lactose state (crystalline vs. amorphous) was verified before and after storage by differential scanning calorimetry. Before storage, lyophilized lactose was amorphous, but during storage it crystallized, depending on the RH. The lactose crystallization RH depended on the quantity of beta-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch, and by increasing these quantities, the crystallization RH increased. For some formulas, the crystallization RH was noted at 3 different RH during storage. The first was noted after 1 d of storage and the second and third were observed later on, showing that crystallization is a time-dependent phenomenon. Nonenzymatic browning was studied in model infant formulas by yellow color changes of samples at 11.3, 43.2, 54.5, and 75.4% RH. In this study, 7 mathematical models were proposed to predict the moisture sorption properties and color changes at different RH, and the models were validated by experimental results. PMID:16772552

Nasirpour, A; Scher, J; Linder, M; Desobry, S

2006-07-01

180

Hypersensitivity Reaction After Inhalation of a Lactose-Containing Dry Powder Inhaler  

PubMed Central

Milk protein allergy–induced reactions from lactose-containing dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have not been widely described in the literature. Lactose is a common inactive ingredient in many pharmaceutical products that is used to enhance the stability of active substances in medicinal products, including asthma medications. Contamination of lactose with milk proteins has been identified in reports of inhaled corticosteroid product lot testing. Serious respiratory sequelae may follow after the inhalation of a DPI corticosteroid in a patient with milk protein allergy because DPIs that contain lactose may be contaminated with milk proteins. Lactose-containing DPIs are contraindicated in patients with milk protein allergy. Although manufacturers identify this contraindication in product package inserts, some drug references may not include this information and health care professionals may lack awareness. Clinicians should consider reviewing multiple medication resources for warnings and contraindications of medications to prevent complications. We describe a refractory asthma exacerbation secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction following administration of a lactose-containing DPI corticosteroid and long-acting ?2 agonist combination in a child with a milk protein allergy. PMID:25309152

Motheral, Lesley

2014-01-01

181

Hypersensitivity reaction after inhalation of a lactose-containing dry powder inhaler.  

PubMed

Milk protein allergy-induced reactions from lactose-containing dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have not been widely described in the literature. Lactose is a common inactive ingredient in many pharmaceutical products that is used to enhance the stability of active substances in medicinal products, including asthma medications. Contamination of lactose with milk proteins has been identified in reports of inhaled corticosteroid product lot testing. Serious respiratory sequelae may follow after the inhalation of a DPI corticosteroid in a patient with milk protein allergy because DPIs that contain lactose may be contaminated with milk proteins. Lactose-containing DPIs are contraindicated in patients with milk protein allergy. Although manufacturers identify this contraindication in product package inserts, some drug references may not include this information and health care professionals may lack awareness. Clinicians should consider reviewing multiple medication resources for warnings and contraindications of medications to prevent complications. We describe a refractory asthma exacerbation secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction following administration of a lactose-containing DPI corticosteroid and long-acting ?2 agonist combination in a child with a milk protein allergy. PMID:25309152

Robles, Janie; Motheral, Lesley

2014-07-01

182

The influence of physical properties and morphology of crystallised lactose on delivery of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhalers.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanistic evaluation of physicochemical properties of new engineered lactose on aerosolisation performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) delivered from dry powder inhaler (DPI). Different crystallised lactose particles were obtained from binary mixtures of butanol:acetone. The sieved fractions (63-90 ?m) of crystallised lactose were characterised in terms of size, shape, flowability, true density and aerosolisation performance (using multiple twin stage impinger (MSLI), Aerolizer(®) inhaler device, and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug). Compared to commercial lactose, crystallised lactose particles were less elongated, covered with fine lactose particles, and had a rougher surface morphology. The crystallised lactose powders had a considerably lower bulk and tap density and poorer flow when compared to commercial lactose. Engineered carrier with better flow showed improved drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug "deposited" on the inhaler device and throat, and a smaller drug aerodynamic diameter upon inhalation. Aerodynamic diameter of salbutamol sulphate increased as lactose aerodynamic diameter decreased (linear, R(2)=0.9191) and/or as fine particle lactose content increased (linear, R(2)=0.8653). Improved drug aerosolisation performance in the case of crystallised lactose particles was attributed to lower drug-carrier adhesion forces due to a rougher surface and higher fine particle content. In conclusion, this work proved that using binary combinations of solvents in crystallisation medium is vital in modification of the physicochemical and micromeritic properties of carriers to achieve a desirable aerosolisation performance from DPI formulations. Among all lactose samples, lactose particles crystallised from pure butanol generated the highest overall DPI formulations desirability. PMID:21962946

Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Larhrib, Hassan; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Kolosionek, Ewa; Nokhodchi, Ali

2012-01-01

183

Variability of gluten intolerance in treated childhood coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

Fifty children consecutively attending a clinic for coeliac disease co-operated in a trial; 10 found to have flat mucosa were excluded. Forty children of mean age 9.8 years, whose duodenal or jejunal mucosa had returned to normal or near normal appearance after a mean of 5.8 years on gluten-free diets, were put back on normal diets. In 37, mucosal occurred in a mean of 16.9 months (four to 74 months). Four of the 37 had serial biopsies, in which mucosal enzymes (particularly lactase) fell and interepithelial lymphocyte counts rose before the mucosal morphology was regarded as definitely 'coeliac'. Three children had normal mucosal appearance after 58 to 73 months on normal diets, one of whom showed temporary mucosal abnormalities, another having occasionally low enzymes, in both suggesting underlying gluten sensitivity. Lactase suppression and raised IEL counts appear to be sensitive indicators of gluten intolerance. In our experience, a diagnosis of coeliac disease based on severe mucosal damage and a satisfactory response to a gluten-free but milk-containing diet implies a very strong likelihood of permanent or prolonged gluten intolerance, but with a striking variability in its expression. Images Figure PMID:428824

McNicholl, B; Egan-Mitchell, B; Fottrell, P F

1979-01-01

184

Intolerance of sexy peers: intrasexual competition among women.  

PubMed

Intrasexual competition among males of different species, including humans, is well documented. Among females, far less is known. Recent nonexperimental studies suggest that women are intolerant of attractive females and use indirect aggression to derogate potential rivals. In Study 1, an experimental design was used to test the evolutionary-based hypothesis that women would be intolerant of sexy women and would censure those who seem to make sex too readily available. Results provide strong empirical support for intrasexual competition among women. Using independent raters, blind to condition, we found that almost all women were rated as reacting negatively ("bitchy") to an attractive female confederate when she was dressed in a sexually provocative manner. In contrast, when she was dressed conservatively, the same confederate was barely noticed by the participants. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to assess whether the sexy female confederate from Study 1 was viewed as a sexual rival by women. Results indicated that as hypothesized, women did not want to introduce her to their boyfriend, allow him to spend time alone with her, or be friends with her. Findings from both studies are discussed in terms of evolutionary theory. PMID:21932332

Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sharma, Aanchal

2011-01-01

185

Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

2010-01-01

186

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

2014-10-01

187

Role of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose phosphotransferase system of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the regulation of lactose uptake.  

PubMed Central

When Streptococcus mutans GS5 was grown in equimolar (5 mM) amounts of glucose and lactose, a classical diauxic growth curve was obtained. Glucose was taken up during the first growth phase, followed by a 60-min lag, and then lactose was transported. Synthesis of lactose phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzymes was repressed until the complete exhaustion of glucose, indicative of an inducer exclusion mechanism of repression. The enzyme phospho-beta-galactosidase, however, was found in small amounts even in the presence of glucose. Repression was not observed when GS5 was grown in equimolar amounts of fructose and lactose. Although fructose was taken up preferentially, synthesis of the lactose PTS occurred from the onset of growth in these sugars. It is proposed that a component of the glucose PTS may be a regulatory factor in lactose transport. Glucose PTS- mutants did not display diauxic growth in glucoselactose mixtures and, in fact, transported the disaccharide preferentially. PMID:6420344

Liberman, E S; Bleiweis, A S

1984-01-01

188

Evaluation of Granulated Lactose as a Carrier for DPI Formulations 1: Effect of Granule Size.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of large granulated lactose carrier particle systems on aerosol performance of dry powder inhaler formulations. Granulated lactose carriers with average sizes ranging from 200 to 1,000 ?m were prepared and subsequently fractionated into separate narrow size powders. The fractionated granulated lactose (GL) samples were characterized in terms of size, specific surface area, surface roughness, morphology, density, flowability, and solid-state. The in vitro aerosolization performance was performed on the different size fractions of GL samples from a commercial inhaler device (Aerolizer®) with a model formulation (2% w/w salbutamol sulfate). The cascade impaction parameters employed were 60 or 90 L/min with standard (aperture size, 0.6 mm) or modified piercing holes (aperture size, 1.2 mm) of the inhaler loaded capsules. It was shown that the largest size fraction formulation (850-1000 ?m) had a slight improvement in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to immediately preceding size fractions, explained by a smaller adhesive force between drug and carrier. Compared to commercial piercing holes, enlarged piercing holes generated a slight decreasing trend of FPF as the lactose powder sizes increased from 200-250 ?m to 600-850 ?m, perhaps due to the reduced detachment force by flow forces. The size, surface roughness, density, and flowability of lactose carrier as well as device design all contributed to the aerosol dispersion performance of granulated lactose-based adhesive mixtures. It was concluded that poorer or enhanced redispersion performance is not an inherent property to the significantly large size of granulated lactose carriers as previously contended. PMID:24962007

Du, Ping; Du, Ju; Smyth, Hugh D C

2014-12-01

189

Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the…

Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

2007-01-01

190

Exercise Intolerance in Rats With Hypertensive Heart Disease Is Associated With Impaired Diastolic Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in functional capacity is one of the most important clinical manifestations of hypertensive heart disease, but its cause is poorly understood. Our purpose was to evaluate potential causes of hypertension-induced exercise intolerance, focusing on identifying the type(s) of cardiac dysfunction associated with the first signs of exercise intolerance during the course of hypertensive heart disease. Exercise capacity was

Marco Guazzi; Daniel A. Brenner; Carl S. Apstein; Kurt W. Saupe

191

The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general…

Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

2010-01-01

192

Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

2010-01-01

193

Height of primary school children and parents' perceptions of food intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the national study of health and growth parents' responses to a self completed questionnaire were used to categorise children according to their experience of food intolerance. The heights of the children in each group were then compared. Useful responses to the questions on food intolerance were received for 6813 (85%) children in the sample and measurements of height obtained

Charles E Price; Roberto J Rona; Susan Chinn

1988-01-01

194

Mathematical modeling and simulation of steady state plug flow for lactose-lactase hydrolysis in fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed mathematical model for evaluating lactose hydrolysis with immobilized enzyme in a packed bed tubular reactor is\\u000a presented. The model accounts for axial and radial dispersion effects, chemical reaction and external mass transfer resistances\\u000a but is void of significant internal diffusion resistances of the particles. The comprehensive model was then simplified to\\u000a a plug flow model for lactose-lactose hydrolysis

O. A. Olafadehan; D. S. Aribike; A. M. Adeyemo

2009-01-01

195

The Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Dynamic Vapor Sorption to Quantify Low Amorphous Contents of Crystalline Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To explore the use of a combined near infrared spectroscopy and gravimetric sorption apparatus in providing an accurate quantification of amorphous contents of predominantly crystalline lactose.

Sarah E. Hogan; Graham Buckton

2001-01-01

196

234 LE LAIT/ MAI-JUIN1978 / N 575-576 Isomrisation du lactose en solution aqueuse  

E-print Network

, plusieurs procédés concernant la production de lactulose à partir du lactose pur ont été décrits. On peut234 LE LAIT/ MAI-JUIN1978 / N° 575-576 Isomérisation du lactose en solution aqueuse et du lactose Géraudière - 44072Nantes cedex Résumé L'isomérisation du lactose en lactulose a été effectuée sur une résine

Boyer, Edmond

197

[Old age and illness--destroying the intolerable?].  

PubMed

The spectacular criminal case of a nurse who because of killing seven old patients in an intensive care ward had been sentenced to jail for 11 years is shown as example of radical thinking in the face of intolerability of serious illness and age. The deficit model of age is on the one hand justly criticized and called invalid, on the other hand negative aspects of age may not be concealed in the face of hedonistic principles of the present epoch. There is no doubt about the monstrosity of the case of the guilty nurse but it may be exemplary for a frequent defensive behaviour against the phenomena of age. If this is right this singular case may be characteristic of common thinking on the unbearable presumption of age. Self defense turning into aggressivity because of foreseeing the own fate of hopeless illness in moribund aged would then have to be seen as a socially significant attitude. PMID:1869232

Heinrich, K

1991-05-01

198

Mechanisms of Orthostatic Intolerance During Real and Simulated Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session MP1 includes short reports on: (1) Orthostatic Tests after 42 Days of Simulated Weightlessness; (2) Effects of 12 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity on Central Circulatory Hemodynamics in the Rhesus Monkey; (3) Increased Sensitivity and Resetting of Baroflex Control of Exercise Heart Rate After Prolonged Bed-Rest; (4) Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics and Deconditioning During Head-down Bed Rest; (5) The Cardiovascular Effects of 6 Hours of Head-down Tilt Upon Athletes and Non-athletes; (6) Individual Susceptibility to Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance: Contributions of Gender-related and Microgravity-related Factors; (7) Cassiopee Mission 1996: Comparison of Cardiovascular Alteration after Short and Long-term Spaceflights; (8) Cerebral and Femoral Flow Response to LBNP during 6 Month MIR Spaceflights (93-95); and (9) Cerebrovascular Changes due to Spaceflight and Postflight Presyncope.

1997-01-01

199

Fruit-induced FPIES masquerading as hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) symptoms develop at first introduction of fruit during weaning. We report on an infant with suspected HFI who presented with repeated episodes of vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of fruit-containing meals. The first episode occurred at age 4 months. Despite negative genetic testing for HFI, strict avoidance of fruit ingestion resulted in lack of recurrence of symptoms. Oral-fructose-tolerance testing conducted with an apple mousse did not determine hypoglycemia or fructosuria but caused severe hypotension. Allergy evaluations were negative, and the history was diagnostic for fruit-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Because this non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy, it may be misinterpreted as HFI. We advise pediatricians to consider food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the differential diagnosis when there is a suspicion of HFI. PMID:25002667

Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Cotugno, Giovanna; Koch, Pierluigi; Dahdah, Lamia

2014-08-01

200

Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn: 1.20--1.35). The Mark-Houwink equation was obtained as [eta] = 2.15 x 10-4Mv0.73. Hydrogels produced in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide swelled as much as 21-fold in deionized water. Copolymerization of styrene with lactose-O-(vinylbenzyl)oxime in dimethylsulfoxide-toluene (1:1, v/v) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator are discussed in Chapter 5. The resulting hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers were characterized by viscometry, TGA, DSC, GPC, and solubility tests in solvents of varied polarities. Chapter 6 documents the preparation of polystyrene beads with different length of oligo(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers. Swelling in different solvents, solvent accessibility, and reagent diffusion of these beads with different crosslinking density were studied and the results indicated that the PEG-crosslinked polymers showed slightly better solvent accessibility in polar solvents than the analogous DVB-crosslinked networks.

Zhou, Wenjing

201

Stability of sugar solutions: a novel study of the epimerization kinetics of lactose in water.  

PubMed

This article reports on the stereochemical aspects of the chemical stability of lactose solutions stored between 25 and 60 °C. The lactose used for the preparation of the aqueous solutions was ?-lactose monohydrate with an anomer purity of 96% ? and 4% ? based on the supplied certificate of analysis (using a GC analytical protocol), which was further confirmed here by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Aliquots of lactose solutions were collected at different time points after the solutions were prepared and freeze-dried to remove water and halt epimerization for subsequent analysis by NMR. Epimerization was also monitored by polarimetry and infrared spectroscopy using a specially adapted Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) method. Hydrolysis was analyzed by ion chromatography. The three different analytical approaches unambiguously showed that the epimerization of lactose in aqueous solution follows first order reversible kinetics between 25 to 60 °C. The overall rate constant was 4.4 × 10(-4) s(-1) ± 0.9 (± standard deviation (SD)) at 25 °C. The forward rate constant was 1.6 times greater than the reverse rate constant, leading to an equilibrium constant of 1.6 ± 0.1 (±SD) at 25 °C. The rate of epimerization for lactose increased with temperature and an Arrhenius plot yielded an activation energy of +52.3 kJ/mol supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of lactose epimerization involves the formation of extremely short-lived intermediate structures. The main mechanism affecting lactose stability is epimerization, as no permanent hydrolysis or chemical degradation was observed. When preparing aqueous solutions of lactose, immediate storage in an ice bath at 0 °C will allow approximately 3 min (180 s) of analysis time before the anomeric ratio alters significantly (greater than 1%) from the solid state composition of the starting material. In contrast a controlled anomeric composition (~38% ? and ~62% ?) will be achieved if an aqueous solution is left to equilibrate for over 4 h at 25 °C, while increasing the temperature up to 60 °C rapidly reduces the required equilibration time. PMID:24815988

Jawad, Rim; Drake, Alex F; Elleman, Carole; Martin, Gary P; Warren, Frederick J; Perston, Benjamin B; Ellis, Peter R; Hassoun, Mireille A; Royall, Paul G

2014-07-01

202

Fat Distribution and Glucose Intolerance Among Greenland Inuit  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit participated in a population-based study. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. VAT and SAT were measured by ultrasound according to a validated protocol. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors was obtained by interview. RESULTS Mean SATs were 1.8 and 3.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Mean VATs were 7.0 and 6.3 cm in men and women, respectively. The total prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9%. Percentage of body fat generally was most strongly associated with all outcomes. Both SAT and VAT were significantly associated with glucose intolerance, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, and ISI0,120. VAT was more strongly associated with all outcomes than was SAT. After further adjustment for BMI or WC, VAT was associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend toward a negative or no association with SAT. CONCLUSIONS High mean values of SAT may to a large extent explain the high WC in Inuit populations, and this is suggested to contribute to the lower observed metabolic risk for a given level of obesity. PMID:23656981

J?rgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald; Bjerregaard, Peter

2013-01-01

203

Vascular responsiveness to norepinephrine in sympathicotonic orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

Sympathicotonic orthostatic intolerance (hypotension, tachycardia, or both) is associated with normal or excessive orthostatic increases in plasma norepinephrine concentration and is reversible by the inflation of a military anti-shock trouser suit enveloping the lower limbs and abdomen. These facts suggest that one possible mechanism of the disorder might be a defect in alpha-adrenergic receptor or postreceptor responsiveness of the veins or arterioles. We have investigated in 11 patients and 15 healthy controls the blood pressure and heart rate responses to increasing rates of intravenous norepinephrine infusion (1 to 16 micrograms/min), the dorsal hand vein contractile responses to increasing rates of norepinephrine infusion (1 to 256 ng/min) with a linear variable differential transformer, and the platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor densities and dissociation constants. No statistically significant difference in any of these parameters was found between the normal subjects and nine of the 11 patients with orthostatic intolerance. The venous contractile response to norepinephrine was excessive in one patient and was virtually absent in another. Because supersensitivity of the hand veins to norepinephrine suggests up-regulation of alpha 2-receptors resulting from postganglionic autonomic insufficiency, this finding in one patient with sympathicotonic orthostatic hypotension might have been caused by venous denervation. The venous unresponsiveness to norepinephrine in the other patient presumably resulted from a defect in the venous receptors or smooth muscle function. It is evident that norepinephrine responsiveness and the innervation of the arterioles and hand veins was normal in the other nine patients, in whom the defect must have been mediated by some other mechanism. PMID:2160509

Miller, J W; Streeten, D H

1990-05-01

204

[Hydrolyzed lactose contained in the ultrafiltrate of milk or milk products in an enzymatic membrane reactor].  

PubMed

Milk and milk by-products with a low lactose content, very interesting from a nutritional and technological point of view, were obtained by the application of the enzymatic membrane reactor technique. A previous separation of the aqueous phase of milk or ultrafiltrate was necessary and realized by ultrafiltration. The enzyme, a commercial beta-galactosidase, was maintained in solution in the retentate part of the membrane reactor. The optimal conditions of the lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey ultrafiltrates were determined. The behaviour of the aqueous phase of milk in membrane reactor, specially of mineral salts, was studied. Three possibilities were proposed to avoid a calcium-phosphate deposit on the surface of (and in) the reactor membranes: a precipitation of calcium salts by heating, a partial demineralization by electrodialysis or ion exchange, a calcium complexation by addition of sodium citrate. A continuous process for the lactose hydrolysis of milk and demineralized whey or milk ultrafiltrate was proposed. The organoleptic quality of low lactose milk, before and after heat treatment, was evaluated by a tasting panel. High sweeting syrup, were obtained by concentration of lactose hydrolyzed and demineralized ultrafiltrates. Nutritional aspects of these products are discussed specially from the toxicological point of view of galactose. PMID:101122

Roger, L; Maubois, J L; Thapon, J L; Brule, G

1978-01-01

205

Permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus with mild detergent for whey lactose hydrolysis and augmentation of mixed culture.  

PubMed

Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese-manufacturing industries, and the utilization of whey is a challenging problem either to use it or dispose it, because only few microorganisms can metabolize the whey lactose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by ?-galactosidase is the approach for biotechnological application. Kluyveromyces marxianus cells were permeabilized with non-toxic, biodegradable, anionic detergent N-lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) for the enzyme activity. The permeabilization process parameters (N-LS concentration, solvent volume, temperature and incubation time) were optimized. The maximum ?-galactosidase activity of 1,220 IU/g dry weight was obtained using permeabilized cells under optimized conditions. Moreover, viability of the permeabilized cells was also evaluated, which showed that cells were alive; however, viability was reduced by two log cycles. The permeabilized cells were evaluated for whey lactose hydrolysis. The maximum lactose hydrolysis of 91% was observed with 600 mg (dry cell weight/100 mL) in whey powder (5% w/v) solution at 180-min incubation, pH 6.5 and 30 °C. Further, the hydrolyzed whey was evaluated for amelioration of growth of non-lactose-consuming yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae was able to grow in hydrolyzed whey simultaneously with K. marxianus. The study confirmed that N-LS could be used to permeabilize K. marxianus cells to make available the enzyme activity. PMID:24500798

Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Bezawada, Jyothi; Yan, Song; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

2014-03-01

206

Lactose autoinduction with enzymatic glucose release: characterization of the cultivation system in bioreactor.  

PubMed

The lactose autoinduction system for recombinant protein production was combined with enzymatic glucose release as a method to provide a constant feed of glucose instead of using glycerol as a carbon substrate. Bioreactor cultivation confirmed that the slow glucose feed does not prevent the induction by lactose. HPLC studies showed that with successful recombinant protein production only a very low amount of lactose was metabolized during glucose-limited fed-batch conditions by the Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS in well-aerated conditions, which are problematic for glycerol-based autoinduction systems. We propose that slow enzymatic glucose feed does not cause a full activation of the lactose operon. However recombinant PDI-A protein (A-domain of human disulfide isomerase) was steadily produced until the end of the cultivation. The results of the cultivations confirmed our earlier observations with shaken cultures showing that lactose autoinduction cultures based on enzymatic glucose feed have good scalability, and that this system can be applied also to bioreactor cultivations. PMID:24215862

Mayer, Sonja; Junne, Stefan; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Glazyrina, Julia; Glauche, Florian; Neubauer, Peter; Vasala, Antti

2014-02-01

207

Increased levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes in saliva, induced sputum, urine and blood from patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:A diagnosis of aspirin-intolerant asthma requires aspirin provocation in specialist clinics. Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is increased in aspirin-intolerant asthma. A study was undertaken to investigate new biomarkers of aspirin intolerance by comparing basal levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in saliva, sputum and ex vivo stimulated blood in subjects with aspirin-intolerant and aspirin-tolerant asthma. The effects of

F Gaber; K Daham; A Higashi; N Higashi; A Gülich; I Delin; A James; M Skedinger; P Gyllfors; M Nord; S-E Dahlén; M Kumlin; B Dahlén

2008-01-01

208

Production of lactosucrose from sucrose and lactose by a levansucrase from Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

Lactosucrose (4(G)-beta-D-galactosylsucrose) is an oligosaccharide consisting of galactose, glucose, and fructose. In this study, we prepared lactosucrose from lactose and sucrose using a levansucrase derived from Zymomonas mobilis. Optimum conditions for lactosucrose formation were 23 degrees C, pH 7.0, 18.0% (w/v) lactose monohydrate, and 18% (w/v) sucrose as substrates, and 1 unit of enzyme/ml of reaction mixture. Under these conditions, the lactosucrose conversion efficiency was 28.5%. The product was purified and confirmed to be O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->2)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, or lactosucrose. A mixed-enzyme system containing a levansucrase and a glucose oxidase was applied in order to increase the efficiency of lactose and sucrose conversion to lactosucrose, which rose to 43.2% as s result. PMID:19884774

Han, Woo-Cheul; Byun, Sun-Ho; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Sohn, Eun Hwa; Lim, Jung Dae; Um, Byung Hun; Kim, Chul Ho; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

2009-10-01

209

Inhalable Lactose-Based Dry Powder Formulations of Low Molecular Weight Heparin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Currently low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is administered as subcutaneous injection. This study sought to investigate the feasibility of LMWH as an inhalable dry powder (DPI) formulation and evaluate the interaction of the drug with lactose when used as a carrier. The study also compares the extent of pulmonary absorption of LMWH administered as a dry powder with that administered as an aerosolized aqueous solution. Methods The formulations were prepared by mixing LMWH in an aqueous solution of lactose followed by lyophilization of the resulting solution. The lyophilized preparation was then ground and sieved. Physical characterization of the formulations was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, and determination of aerodynamic diameter. For in vivo studies, formulations were administered to anesthetized rats, and drug absorption was monitored by measuring plasma antifactor Xa activity. Results and Conclusions In the FTIR scan, all characteristic peaks of lactose and LMWH were observed, suggesting that there was no strong interaction between lactose and LMWH. Although the aerodynamic diameter of the formulation (DPI-2) that was sieved through 170- and 230-mesh screens was similar to that of the formulation (DPI-1) sieved through 120- and 170-mesh screens, the particle sizes of the two formulations were significantly different. Dry powder formulations of LMWH were better absorbed compared to an inhalable solution of LMWH. One of the dry powder formulations (DPI-2) produced an almost 1.5-fold increase in the relative bioavailability (41.6%) compared to the liquid formulation of LMWH (32.5%). Overall, the data presented here suggest that lactose does not adversely affect the physical-chemical characteristics of the drug, and that lactose can be used as a carrier for pulmonary delivery of LMWH. PMID:19778265

Bai, Shuhua; Gupta, Vivek

2010-01-01

210

Investigation of Electrostatic Behavior of a Lactose Carrier for Dry Powder Inhalers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aims to elucidate the electrostatic behavior of a model lactose carrier used in dry powder inhaler formulations\\u000a by examining the effects of ambient relative humidity (RH), aerosolization air flow rate, repeated inhaler use, gelatin capsule\\u000a and tapping on the specific charge (nC\\/g) of bulk and aerosolized lactose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Static and dynamic electrostatic charge measurements were performed using

Keat Theng Chow; Kewu Zhu; Reginald B. H. Tan; Paul W. S. Heng

2008-01-01

211

Le Lait (1980), LX, 619-634 tude compare de l'hydrolyse du lactose  

E-print Network

lactose du lactosérum déprotéiné, qui conduisent à la production d'un mélange de sucres liquides, ouvrentLe Lait (1980), LX, 619-634 �tude comparée de l'hydrolyse du lactose à l'aide des résines résine échangeuse de cations (R.E.C.) et la seconde l'hydrolyse enzymatique. Dans ce dernier cas, l'enzyme

Boyer, Edmond

212

Le Lait (1981), 61, 282-293 L'hydrolyse du lactose  

E-print Network

justifiant l'hydrolyse est l'intolérance à l'égard du lactose. Une insuffisance de la production de lactase. On a examiné ensuite les possibilités d'hydrolyse de longue durée du lactose à l'aide de petites doses d'enzyme température d'une ligne de production déterminée. #12;TABLEAU 1 Doses d'enzyme à employer pour obtenir, dans

Boyer, Edmond

213

Lactose-Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Poly-L-Lysine as Hepatoma Cell-Targeted Gene Carrier  

E-print Network

Lactose-Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Poly-L-Lysine as Hepatoma Cell-Targeted Gene Carrier Young the delivery of DNA into cells, lactose-poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted poly-L-lysine (Lac- PEG-PLL) polymers on determining the safety of gene transfer procedures, sometimes with efficacy as a secondary goal (3). A major

Park, Jong-Sang

214

Water-solid interactions. III. Effect of glass transition temperature, Tg, and processing on tensile strength of compacts of lactose and lactose/polyvinyl pyrrolidone.  

PubMed

The effect of moisture sorption at different relative humidities on the tensile strength and the physical stability of compacts of crystalline and partly amorphous lactose, alone and in binary mixtures with PVP, has been studied. Furthermore, the role of moisture as a plasticizer and its effect on the glass transition temperature, Tg, are related to the compactibiltiy. Samples were conditioned for 2 hr using a climate test chamber at different relative humidities. Moisture sorption was determined, the radial crushing strength for compacts was measured immediately and after storage, and the tensile strength was calculated. The glass transition temperature, Tg, was determined using DSC. The tensile strength of the compacts was found to depend on both the conditioning humidity and the humidity during storage. An increase in humidity to a level at which the glass transition temperature, Tg, fell below the operating temperature, T, resulted in transition from a rigid glassy state to a mobile rubbery state. For compacts of partly amorphous lactose, an increase in the tensile strength was observed during storage of tablets, due to recrystallization of the amorphous regions above Tg. Tablets of mixtures of lactose and PVP exhibit a sharp decrease in tensile strength at humidities above 70% RH, due to the glass-to-rubber transition of PVP. PMID:9552346

Stubberud, L; Arwidsson, H G; Hjortsberg, V; Graffner, C

1996-07-01

215

Breath hydrogen test for lactose absorption capacity: importance of timing of hydrogen excretion and of high fasting hydrogen concentration.  

PubMed

The breath hydrogen (H2) test for lactose absorption capacity is a simple, noninvasive method for the determination of the adult lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and malabsorber, in healthy subjects. Two breath H2 tests with a load of 50 g lactose monohydrate were performed on 25 healthy adult lactose malabsorbers in order to determine the validity of simplified versions of the test for field studies. A high variability of peak H2 excretion times, rapid changes in breath H2 concentrations and a significant correlation of intraindividual peak H2 excretion times were observed. High fasting excretion of H2 in breath was a frequent cause of misclassification of probands. It is recommended that at least three breath samples per proband should be collected in field studies of lactose absorption and that special diagnostic criteria be applied in classifying subjects with high initial H2 excretion. PMID:6711477

Flatz, G; Kühnau, W; Naftali, D

1984-05-01

216

Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ills  

PubMed Central

Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and thus requires promptly and effective treatment. Prokinetic agents are currently considered as the first-line therapy given issues relating to parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric placement. Currently, the agents of choice are erythromycin and metoclopramide, either alone or in combination, which are highly effective with relatively low incidence of cardiac, hemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. Diarrhea, however, can occur in up to 49% of patients who are treated with the dual prokinetic therapy, which is not associated with Clostridium difficile infection and settled soon after the cessation of the drugs. Hence, the use of prokinetic therapy over a long period or for prophylactic purpose must be avoided, and the indication for ongoing use of the drug(s) must be reviewed frequently. Second line therapy, such as total parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric feeding, must be considered once adverse effects relating the prokinetic therapy develop. PMID:25133043

Nguyen, Nam Q

2014-01-01

217

Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?  

PubMed

Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

Barrett, Jacqueline S; Gibson, Peter R

2012-07-01

218

Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate value of three carbohydrate sources incorporated into a dry pelleted milk replacer for piglets weaned were replaced by an association of soluble fish protein concentrate (SFPC 80) and the carbohydrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

2012-01-01

220

Galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis from lactose and whey by ?-galactosidase immobilized in PVA.  

PubMed

The synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) by ?-galactosidase immobilized in both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) lenses and sol-gel carriers was studied and compared with the performance of the free enzyme. PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase retained 95 % of the initial activity after seven repeated uses and retained 51 % of the initial activity after 3 months of storage, while sol-gel-immobilized ?-galactosidase only retained 39 % of the initial activity under storage. Lactose conversion takes place at a higher rate in the PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, while the lowest rate of lactose conversion was noticed with immobilized ?-galactosidase in sol-gel. Continuous production of GOS from either lactose or whey, with PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, was performed in a packed-bed reactor. A maximum GOS production of 30 % of total sugars was attained for a 40-% lactose feed solution with a feed rate of 10.8 ml/h, at pH 4.5 and 40 °C, corresponding to a productivity of 117 g/l?h. The maximum GOS productivity of 344 g/l?h was obtained at a flow rate of 28.7 ml/h. 3-OS and 4-OS were the major types of GOS formed. Conversion of whey in continuous mode resulted in GOS production of 15 % of total sugars and formation of 45 % 3-OS, 40 % 4-OS, and 15 % 5-OS. PMID:22941309

Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Fernandes, Pedro; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Fonseca, Luis

2012-11-01

221

Galactooligosaccharides formation during enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: towards a prebiotic-enriched milk.  

PubMed

The formation of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in skim milk during treatment with several commercial ?-galactosidases (Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae) was analysed in detail, at 4 and 40°C. The maximum GOS concentration was obtained at a lactose conversion of approximately 40-50% with B. circulans and A. oryzae ?-galactosidases, and at 95% lactose depletion for K. lactis ?-galactosidase. Using an enzyme dosage of 0.1% (v/v), the maximum GOS concentration with K. lactis ?-galactosidase was achieved in 1 and 5h at 40 and 4 °C, respectively. With this enzyme, it was possible to obtain a treated milk with 7.0 g/L GOS - the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) concentration is between 5 and 15 g/L--and with a low content of residual lactose (2.1g/L, compared with 44-46 g/L in the initial milk sample). The major GOS synthesised by this enzyme were 6-galactobiose [Gal-?(1 ? 6)-Gal], allolactose [Gal-?(1 ? 6)-Glc] and 6'-O-?-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-?(1 ? 6)-Gal-?(1 ? 4)-Glc]. PMID:24128493

Rodriguez-Colinas, Barbara; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Ballesteros, Antonio O; Plou, Francisco J

2014-02-15

222

NIR analysis of cellulose and lactose—Application to ecstasy tablet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose and lactose are the most frequently used excipients in illicit ecstasy production. The aim of this project was to use near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the different chemical forms of these two substances, as well as for the differentiation of their origin (producer). It was possible to distinguish between the different chemical forms of both

Ines Baer; Robert Gurny; Pierre Margot

2007-01-01

223

Rheology, granule growth and granule strength: Application to the wet granulation of lactose–MCC mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at better understanding the wet granulation process of a binary mixture composed of microcrystalline cellulose (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble). It investigates the effect of formulation (proportion of the different components in the mixture) on the granule growth kinetics, the evolution of granule morphology during granulation, the wet mass consistency and dry granule strength of the

T. M. Chitu; D. Oulahna; M. Hemati

2011-01-01

224

Rapid Simultaneous Determination of Organic Acids, Free Amino Acids, and Lactose in Cheese by Capillary Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the si- multaneous separation of 11 metabolically important organic acids (oxalic, formic, citric, succinic, orotic, uric, acetic, pyruvic, propionic, lactic, and butyric), 10 amino acids (Asp, Glu, Tyr, Gly, Ala, Ser, Leu, Phe, Lys, and Trp), and lactose has been optimized, validated, and tested in dairy products. Repeatability and linearity were calculatedfor eachcompound, withdetection

J. M. Izco; M. Tormo; R. Jiménez-Flores

2002-01-01

225

Significance of Leydig Cell Neoplasia in Rats Fed Lactitol or Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactitol is a disaccharide sugar alcohol (polyol) which is derived from lactose by catalytic hydrogenation and which may be used as a noncariogenic, reduced calorie sugar substitute in different foods. In the context of the safety evaluation of lactitol, a chronic carcinogenicity\\/toxicity study was conducted in a Wistar-derived strain of rats. In addition to effects that occur commonly in rats

Albert Bär

1992-01-01

226

Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent  

E-print Network

high biological oxygen demand (BOD). The main cause of the BOD in dairy wastewater is due to residual of whey utilization as well as pollution reduction as lactose recovery itself can reduce the BOD of whey analysis and found to be affected by crystallization time as well as seeding. ­ (BOD) (BOD) 80

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Overexpression of a modified amaranth protein in Escherichia coli with minimal media and lactose as inducer.  

PubMed

In this research it was attempted to overexpress the acidic subunit, from the 11S amaranth seed globulin termed amarantin, modified with antihypertensive peptides in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) by manipulating some factors in batch fermenter such as growth medium composition, inducer (isopropyl ?-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG] or lactose), air flow, cultivation temperature, agitation speed and induction time. The possibility of using several minimal media and lactose as inducer to increase yields of the recombinant protein was investigated. Previous fermentations at flask level showed that two minimal culture media (A6 and A7) and 0.5% (w/v) lactose presented high yields of the engineered protein expression. Thus, the latter two media were tested at fermenter level, the lactose inducer, and different environmental conditions. Factors with significant effects were identified by Plackett-Burman design with center points and were adjusted at the level suggested and the yields of the recombinant protein were increased from 303.2 to 1,531 mg L(-1) in A6 and from 363.4 to 1,681 mg L(-1) in A7. Unlike some patents where the highest productivity was achieved at 24 h or afterwards, in this research the best productivity of the recombinant acidic subunit was attained at 4 and 6 h of induction using both media, respectively. PMID:23294401

Morales-Camacho, Jocksan Ismael; Dominguez-Dominguez, Jorge; Paredes-Lopez, Octavio

2013-04-01

228

Lactose absorption in patients with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with and without favism.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has recently been suggested that primary lactase deficiency might have been selected for by malaria, as has been previously shown to occur for thalasaemia and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. AIMS: To test this hypothesis, the prevalence of primary lactase deficiency in G6PD deficient subjects and in controls from the area of Sassari (Northern Sardinia) was determined, which in the past was characterised by an intermediate malarial endemicity. SUBJECTS: 70 adult subjects with G6PD deficiency, 34 of whom had a past history of favism, and 50 age matched control subjects. METHODS: The capacity to absorb lactose was assessed by measuring breath hydrogen production after oral administration of lactose (50 g) by a gas chromatographic method. RESULTS: Twenty per cent of G6PD deficient subjects with a positive history of favism and 22% of G6PD deficient subjects without a positive history of favism were lactose absorbers compared with 14% lactose absorbers in the control group. The differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the prevalence of primary lactase deficiency in the area of Sassari is relatively high, but comparable to that seen in the adult population from another area of southern Italy (Naples) where malaria was less endemic. PMID:8991858

Meloni, T; Colombo, C; Ogana, A; Mannazzu, M C; Meloni, G F

1996-01-01

229

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption and awareness of milk intolerancein ltaly?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 308 healthy Italian adults ( I 92 females, I I 6 males; mean age 29.2 yr) were examined using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. Two geographical groups were formed according to the birth places of the probands' grandparents: 208 subjects from northern Italy (mainly from the regions of Piemonte, Lombardia,

G Roberto Burgio; Gebhard Flatz; Cristiana Barbera; Rosario Patan; Attilio Boner; Cinzia Cajozzo; Sibylle D Flaiz

230

Weighted singular value distribution of RRI series applied to the characterization of heat intolerance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear scheme was used for the analysis of variability in the heart beat interval [R-R interval (RRI)] data to differentiate heat-intolerant humans from the heat tolerant. All subjects studied had previously suffered exertional heatstroke. Core temperature (Tre ) and electrocardiogram data from 11 heat-tolerant (HT) and 6 heat-intolerant (HIT) males were studied, the grouping being based on the distinguishing

Partha Pratim Kanjilal; Richard R. Gonzalez; Daniel Sender Moran

2006-01-01

231

Catabolism of Glucose and Lactose in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Studied by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-13Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-13Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-13C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by 13C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway involved in energy recruitment from these two sugars. On the basis of our experimental results, a model of sugar metabolism in B. animalis subsp. lactis is proposed. PMID:24077711

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Irene; Gaspar, Paula; Sanchez, Borja; Gueimonde, Miguel; Neves, Ana Rute

2013-01-01

232

Unexpected Different Binding of Mistletoe Lectins from Plant Extracts to Immobilized Lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine  

PubMed Central

Mistletoe Extracts (ME) are of growing interest to pharmacological research because of their apoptosis-inducing/cytostatic and immunomodulatory effects. The standardization of the three different groups of Mistletoe Isolectins (ML-I, II and III) is often rendered more difficult since the primary structures are nearly identical. Their classification is based on their Galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc)-specificity which was measured by various inhibitory assays. The aim of the present study was to improve the characterization of the direct binding activity of the isolectins from ME to immobilized lactose, GalNAc and to the oligosaccharide asialofetuin. After careful ultrafiltration of fresh ME, affinity chromatography was carried out using lactose- agarose, GalNAc—agarose and asialofetuin—affigel 15 columns. MLs were further purified by Sephadex G-100 or by cation exchange chromatography which was adapted to a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. Proteins from both fresh plants and commercial ME were able to bind immobilized lactose to a considerable extent. The majority of this lectin has a B-chain with a Molecular Weight (MW) of 34kD and an A-chain with a MW of 29 kD (ML-I). Only a minor part of the lactose-binding proteins has a lower MW, namely 32kD and 27kD (MLII). However, neither MLs which were eluted from lactose columns, nor the proteins from fresh plant or ME showed a direct binding to the immobilized GalNAc. In spite of this deficiency, GalNAc was able to induce a considerable (25% and 32%) inhibitory effect on their binding to immobilized asialofetuin indicating a discrepancy between the lectin binding and inhibiting effects of GalNAC. Consequently, for an improved standardization of ME more specific sugar molecules are necessary. PMID:19662176

Hajto, Tibor; Krisztina, Fodor; Ildiko, Aponyi; Zsolt, Pallai; Peter, Balogh; Peter, Nemeth; Pal, Perjesi

2007-01-01

233

Assessment of the inhibition of ricin toxicity by lactose in milk.  

PubMed

The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 ?g/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 ?Ci of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 ?g/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 ?g/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 ?g/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 ?g/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk. PMID:24290678

Lumor, Stephen E; Deen, Bronwyn D; Ronningen, Ian; Smith, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Neal R; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

2013-12-01

234

The role of transmembrane domain III in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Deletion of putative transmembrane helix III from the lactose permease of Escherichia coli results in complete loss of transport activity. Similarly, replacement of this region en bloc with 23 contiguous Ala, Leu, or Phe residues abolishes active lactose transport. The observations suggest that helix III may contain functionally important residues; therefore, this region was subjected to Cys-scanning mutagenesis. Using a functional mutant devoid of Cys residues (C-less permease) each residue from Tyr 75 to Leu 99 was individually replaced with Cys. Twenty-one of the 25 mutants accumulate lactose to > 70% of the steady-state exhibited by C-less permease, and an additional 3 mutants transport to lower, but significant levels (40-60% of C-less). Cys replacement for Leu 76 results in low transport activity (18% of C-less). However, when placed in the wild-type background, mutant Leu 76-->Cys exhibits highly significant rates of transport (55% of wild type) and steady-state levels of lactose accumulation (65% of wild type). Immunoblots reveal that the mutants are inserted into the membrane at concentrations comparable to wild type. Studies with N-ethylmaleimide show that mutant Gly 96-->Cys is rapidly inactivated, whereas the other single-Cys mutants are not altered significantly by the alkylating agent. Moreover, the rate of inactivation of Gly 96-->Cys permease is enhanced at least 2-fold in the presence of beta-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta, D-galactopyranoside. The observations demonstrate that although no residue per se appears to be essential, structural properties of helix III are important for active lactose transport. PMID:7756986

Sahin-Toth, M.; Frillingos, S.; Bibi, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaback, H. R.

1994-01-01

235

Syncope and orthostatic intolerance increase risk of brain lesions in migraineurs and controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We and others showed that migraineurs are at increased risk of subclinical and clinical ischemic brain lesions. Migraineurs also have a higher prevalence of frequent syncope and orthostatic intolerance, symptoms that are associated with transient reductions in cerebral blood flow. In this study, we assessed whether these autonomic symptoms may contribute to the increased risk of brain lesions in migraine. Methods: Migraineurs (n = 291) and controls (n = 140) from the population-based, cross-sectional CAMERA (Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiologic Risk Analysis) cohort (aged 30–60 years, and free of other neurologic symptoms) underwent 1) brain MRI scan, and 2) structured telephone interview including questions on frequent syncope (?5/lifetime) and orthostatic intolerance. Results: Frequent syncope (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.3–5.5) and orthostatic intolerance (OR = 2.0 [1.1–3.6]) were independent risk factors for high load of deep white matter lesions. Effects were strongest in women and similar in migraineurs and controls. Migraine diagnosis did not mediate or moderate these associations. Individuals with orthostatic intolerance had higher prevalence of high periventricular white matter lesion load (OR = 1.9 [1.1–3.5]). Syncope and orthostatic intolerance were not related to subclinical infarcts or infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Frequent syncope, orthostatic intolerance, and migraine independently increase the risk of white matter lesions, particularly in females. PMID:23616159

Thijs, Roland D.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Launer, Lenore J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; van Dijk, J. Gert

2013-01-01

236

Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2).

Serrador, J. M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Brown, T. E.; Kassam, M. S.; Bondar, R. L.; Schlegel, T. T.

2000-01-01

237

Gluten intolerance: Sex-and age-related features  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia) or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD) according to sex and age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study reviewed clinical and biochemical features of patients with suspected CD admitted to the Hospital General of Móstoles (Madrid, Spain) between July 2001 and June 2005. Two hundred fifty-two patients were analyzed, in whom intestinal biopsy was performed due to clinical and/or biochemical abnormalities suggestive of CD. One hundred seventy-eight asymptomatic relatives of the affected patients were also included. Overall, 125 patients showed diagnostic features of CD in the intestinal biopsy. RESULTS: The results confirmed higher prevalence of typical forms of CD in children (67% in children compared with only 14.3% in adults). CD seemed to be more frequent in adult women than in men (ratio of women to men 4:1), but it is worth noting that men diagnosed were most often referred with a typical clinical picture, so atypical forms of the disease in men may have been underdiagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: CD shows atypical features in adults, and physicians must include this disorder in the differential diagnosis of adults with iron deficiency or slight hypertransaminasemia. Increased awareness of the disease and extensive availability of accurate serological tests will lead to improved diagnosis of this disorder, both in children and adults. PMID:17111054

Llorente-Alonso, MJ; Fernandez-Acenero, MJ; Sebastian, M

2006-01-01

238

Lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions for high-dose dosimetry with 10-MeV electron beam irradiation.  

PubMed

In the present study, dosimetric characterisation of aqueous solutions of lactose and sucrose was analysed by UV spectrometry following irradiation using 10-MeV electron beam at doses between 0.5 and 10.5 kGy. As a dosimetric index, absorbance is selected at 256 and 264 nm for lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions, respectively. The intensity of absorbance for irradiated solutions depends on the pre-irradiation concentration of lactose and sucrose. The post-irradiation stability of both solutions was investigated at room temperature for a measurement period of 22 d. PMID:21765157

Amraei, Reza; Kheirkhah, Monire; Raisali, Gholamreza

2012-05-01

239

Orthostatic intolerance in 6 degrees head-down tilt and lower body negative pressure loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.

Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi

240

Intranasal challenge with aspirin in the diagnosis of aspirin intolerant asthma: evaluation of nasal response by acoustic rhinometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDNasal provocation tests with lysine-aspirin have recently been introduced for assessment of aspirin intolerant asthma. A study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of acoustic rhinometry, a new non-invasive technique, in the diagnosis of aspirin intolerant asthma\\/rhinitis.METHODSFifteen patients with aspirin intolerant asthma\\/rhinitis (nine women, mean (SD) age 54.7 (14) years), eight patients with aspirin tolerant asthma\\/rhinitis (three women, mean (SD)

J Casadevall; P-J Ventura; J Mullol; C Picado

2000-01-01

241

Batch and continuous synthesis of lactulose from whey lactose by immobilized ?-galactosidase.  

PubMed

In this study, lactulose synthesis from whey lactose was investigated in batch and continuous systems using immobilized ?-galactosidase. In the batch system, the optimal concentration of fructose for lactulose synthesis was 20%, and the effect of galactose, glucose and fructose on ?-galactosidase activity was determined for hydrolysis of whey lactose and the transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis. Galactose and fructose were competitive inhibitors, and glucose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of galactose and glucose were stronger in the transgalactosylation reaction than they were in the hydrolysis reaction. In addition, when immobilized ?-galactosidase was reused for lactulose synthesis, its catalytic activity was retained to the extent of 52.9% after 10 reuses. Lactulose was synthesized continuously in a packed-bed reactor. We synthesized 19.1g/l lactulose during the continuous flow reaction at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. PMID:23122115

Song, Yoon Seok; Lee, Hee Uk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

2013-01-15

242

Lactose-Functionalized Dendrimers Arbitrate the Interaction of Galectin-3/MUC1 Mediated Cancer Cellular Aggregation.  

PubMed

By using lactose-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as a tunable multivalent platform, we studied cancer cell aggregation in three different cell lines (A549, DU-145, and HT-1080) with galectin-3. We found that small lactose-functionalized G(2)-dendrimer 1 inhibited galectin-3-induced aggregation of the cancer cells. In contrast, dendrimer 4 (a larger, generation 6 dendrimer with 100 carbohydrate end groups) caused cancer cells to aggregate through a galectin-3 pathway. This study indicates that inhibition of cellular aggregation occurred because 1 provided competitive binding sites for galectin-3 (compared to its putative cancer cell ligand, TF-antigen on MUC1). Dendrimer 4, in contrast, provided an excess of ligands for galectin-3 binding; this caused crosslinking and aggregation of cells to be increased. PMID:25138772

Michel, Anna K; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Avraham; Cloninger, Mary J

2014-09-22

243

The effects of high shear blending on alpha-lactose monohydrate.  

PubMed

alpha-Lactose monohydrate is an important pharmaceutical excipient used extensively in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. The ways in which a high shear blending process affect this material have been investigated and important process parameters have been identified. Total energy input (kJ/kg), blade design and the conditions in which lactose was stored prior to blending were found to have the most significant effect on the apparent particle size distribution of the processed material, which may subsequently affect the performance of DPI formulations. The power conditions used during blending, equipment temperature and humidity of the headspace above the powder were found to be less important in this respect. Additionally, it was found that high energy blending could induce changes in the water sorption characteristics of the material, although the formation of amorphous material could not be confirmed. PMID:17398047

Bridson, R H; Robbins, P T; Chen, Y; Westerman, D; Gillham, C R; Roche, T C; Seville, J P K

2007-07-18

244

Exopolysaccharide and extracellular metabolite production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, grown on lactose in continuous culture.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2483, when grown on lactose in continuous culture, showed increasing specific yields and volumetric productivities of exopolysaccharide (EPS) with increasing dilution rate. Specific and volumetric productivities of lactate and galactose, as extracellular metabolites, increased in response to the incremental changes in the dilution rate up to 0.4 h(-1). Elevated Y(p/s) values determined for EPS (0.025 g EPS x g lactose(-1)) at the dilution rates of 0.3 h(-1)-0.4 h(-1), relative to those determined at lower dilution rates, suggest a diversion of carbon flux towards EPS being associated with the higher rates of growth. PMID:14571975

Welman, Alan; Maddox, Ian; Archer, Richard

2003-09-01

245

Influence of lactose on the diffusion of calcium ions at physiological temperature.  

PubMed

Mutual diffusion coefficients for calcium chloride (0.100 mol dm(-3)) in aqueous solutions containing lactose at various concentrations (from 0.005 to 0.200 mol dm(-3)) have been measured at 37°C (physiological temperature), by using a conductimetric cell coupled to an automatic system to follow the diffusion. This cell uses an open-ended capillary method based on the measurement of the electrical resistance of a solution placed inside the capillaries at recorded times. The analysis of the CaCl2 diffusion coefficient values obtained suggests the presence of some CaCl2/lactose aggregates in the media, which are influenced by the temperature. PMID:24912727

Verissimo, Luis M P; Ribeiro, Vânia C M; Ribeiro, Ana C F; Melia Rodrigo, M; Esteso, Miguel A

2014-11-15

246

Formation of budesonide\\/?-lactose glass solutions by ball-milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to obtain amorphous budesonide stabilised by blending with an excipient characterised by a higher glass transition temperature, namely ?-lactose, has been studied. We carried out the mixing of the two compounds at room temperature by ball-milling. The four obtained blends (containing, respectively, 10, 30, 50 and 70%w of budesonide) are X-ray amorphous and exhibit a single glass transition

E. Dudognon; J. F. Willart; V. Caron; F. Capet; T. Larsson; M. Descamps

2006-01-01

247

Formation of budesonide\\/alpha-lactose glass solutions by ball-milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to obtain amorphous budesonide stabilised by blending with an excipient characterised by a higher glass transition temperature, namely alpha-lactose, has been studied. We carried out the mixing of the two compounds at room temperature by ball-milling. The four obtained blends (containing, respectively, 10, 30, 50 and 70%w of budesonide) are X-ray amorphous and exhibit a single glass transition

E. Dudognon; J. F. Willart; V. Caron; F. Capet; T. Larsson; M. Descamps

2006-01-01

248

Characterization of bovine serum albumin glycated with glucose, galactose and lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and proteins, known as glycation, has re- ceived increased attention from nutritional and medical research. In addition, there is a large interest in obtaining glycoconjugates of pure well-characterized oligosaccharides for biological research. In this study, glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by d-glucose, d-galactose and d-lactose under dry-heat at 60°C for 30, 60, 120,

Ana Irene Ledesma-Osuna; Gabriela Ramos-Clamont; Luz Vázquez-Moreno

2008-01-01

249

Lactose Determination in Raw Milk with a Two-Enzyme Based Electrochemical Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor, coupled with two enzymes (ß -galactosidase and glucose oxidase) immobilized on the surface of the sensor covered with a cellulose acetate dialysis membrane (cut off 100), is proposed for the analysis of lactose in raw milk. The resulting hydrogen peroxide formation is measured with a platinum electrode polarized at +650 mV versus Ag\\/AgCl. The procedure

R. Pilloton; M. Mascini; I. G. Casella; M. R. Festa; E. Bottari

1987-01-01

250

Long-term complications in Estonian galactosemia patients with a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate long-term complications and measure urinary galactose and galactitol excretion in classical galactosemia patients in Estonia who have been treated with a less restricted lactose-free diet and metabolic control. Our study group consisted of five classical galactosemia patients aged 7–14years and diagnosed since 1996 in Estonia. Their diet eliminates lactose present

K. Krabbi; M.-L. Uudelepp; K. Joost; R. Zordania; K. Õunap

2011-01-01

251

Effect of low lactose dairy powder addition on the properties of gluten-free batters and bread quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different low lactose dairy ingredients including sodium caseinate (SC), milk protein isolate (MPI), whey protein isolates\\u000a (WPIS and WPIM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were tested in a gluten-free bread formulation and compared to controls\\u000a with the addition of no dairy ingredient (C) and one dairy ingredient containing lactose, skim milk powder. Rheological characterisation\\u000a (frequency sweep and creep-recovery) of the

Maria Helena B. Nunes; L. A. M. Ryan; Elke K. Arendt

2009-01-01

252

Hybrid immobilization of galactosyl lactose and cellobiose on a gold substrate to modulate biological responses.  

PubMed

Bioactive O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-glucopyranose (4'-galactosyl lactose) was site-selectively modified at a reducing end with thiosemicarbazide (TSC). As-synthesized 4'-galactosyl lactose-TSC was immobilized on a gold substrate with cellobiose-TSC as a spacer through spontaneous self-assembly chemisorption via SAu bonding. Quartz crystal microbalance analysis suggested the successful formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4'-galactosyl lactose-TSC and/or cellobiose-TSC. Galactose-binding lectin exhibited the highest affinity for hybrid SAMs with an equimolar ratio of the two oligosaccharide-TSCs, while glucose-binding lectin showed decreasing adsorption with a decrease in cellobiose-TSC ratios. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which recognize galactose residues, efficiently adhered to the hybrid SAMs. Higher enzymatic deethoxylation of ethoxyresorufin via cytochrome P450 appeared on hybrid SAMs. These results suggested that clustering of the bioactive sugars was involved in the cellular responses, possibly via biological carbohydrate-protein interactions. This approach to designing carbohydrate-based scaffolds should provide a basis for the functional development of glyco-decorated biointerfaces for cell culture applications. PMID:23218308

Kitaoka, Takuya; Yoshiyama, Chiharu; Uemura, Fumi

2013-01-30

253

Adaptive Evolution of the Lactose Utilization Network in Experimentally Evolved Populations of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to novel environments is often associated with changes in gene regulation. Nevertheless, few studies have been able both to identify the genetic basis of changes in regulation and to demonstrate why these changes are beneficial. To this end, we have focused on understanding both how and why the lactose utilization network has evolved in replicate populations of Escherichia coli. We found that lac operon regulation became strikingly variable, including changes in the mode of environmental response (bimodal, graded, and constitutive), sensitivity to inducer concentration, and maximum expression level. In addition, some classes of regulatory change were enriched in specific selective environments. Sequencing of evolved clones, combined with reconstruction of individual mutations in the ancestral background, identified mutations within the lac operon that recapitulate many of the evolved regulatory changes. These mutations conferred fitness benefits in environments containing lactose, indicating that the regulatory changes are adaptive. The same mutations conferred different fitness effects when present in an evolved clone, indicating that interactions between the lac operon and other evolved mutations also contribute to fitness. Similarly, changes in lac regulation not explained by lac operon mutations also point to important interactions with other evolved mutations. Together these results underline how dynamic regulatory interactions can be, in this case evolving through mutations both within and external to the canonical lactose utilization network. PMID:22253602

Quan, Selwyn; Ray, J. Christian J.; Kwota, Zakari; Duong, Trang; Balazsi, Gabor; Cooper, Tim F.; Monds, Russell D.

2012-01-01

254

Blood pressure and plasma renin activity as predictors of orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of 3 h standing, followed by a period of head-up tilt (HUT) on physiological response (orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate), as well as on plasma vasopressin (PVP) and renin activity (PRA) were studied in 13 dehydrated (to 2.4 pct loss of body weight) subjects. Seven subjects showed signs of orthostatic intolerance (INT), manifested by sweating, pallor, nausea and dizziness. Prior to these symptoms, the INT subjects exhibited lower systolic (SP) and pulse (PP) pressures, and an elevated PRA, compared to the tolerant (TOL) subjects. HUT has aggravated increases of RPA in the INT subjects and caused an increase, higher than in TOL subjects, in PVP, while rehydration has greatly attenuated the PVP response to the HUT and decreased the PRA response. It is concluded that dehydration, together with measurements of SP, PP and PRA, may serve as a means of predicting orthostatic intolerance and may provide a physiological model for studying the causes of intolerance.

Harrison, M. H.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1985-01-01

255

Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies. Neurolab Autonomic Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.

Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.

2000-01-01

256

Odor and noise intolerance in persons with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms. PMID:25166918

Nordin, Steven; Neely, Gregory; Olsson, David; Sandström, Monica

2014-09-01

257

Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms. PMID:25166918

Nordin, Steven; Neely, Gregory; Olsson, David; Sandstrom, Monica

2014-01-01

258

Feeding Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... an allergy or more severe intolerance to cow's milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) or wheat (CELIAC DISEASE). See your baby's doctor. Infants who are lactose intolerant may benefit from switching to a soy formula. Toddlers may ...

259

Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose  

PubMed Central

Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

2013-01-01

260

Sacral neuromodulation outcomes for the treatment of refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity stratified by indication: Lack of anticholinergic efficacy versus intolerability  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Patients may fail oral overactive bladder therapies due to either poor drug efficacy or intolerability. We determined if the success of sacral neuromodulation varies if performed secondary to lack of anticholinergic efficacy versus drug intolerability. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 152 patients undergoing staged sacral neuromodulation from 2004 to 2010 for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity with or without urge incontinence. Outcomes following sacral neuromodulation trials were compared based on the primary indication for anticholinergic failure: lack of drug efficacy versus intolerable side effects. Results: Overall, successful sacral neuromodulation trials were reported in 70% (106/152) of patients. Successful outcomes were noted in 70% (89/128) and 71% (17/24) of patients with poor anti-cholinergic efficacy and drug intolerability, respectively (p = NS). Conclusions: We found no significant difference in outcome success in patients undergoing sacral neuromodulation trials for refractory detrusor overactivity due to lack of anticholinergic efficacy versus intolerability. PMID:23069697

Davis, Tanya; Makovey, Iryna; Guralnick, Michael L.; O'Connor, R. Corey

2013-01-01

261

A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow’s milk intolerance  

PubMed Central

We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow’s milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:22992216

2012-01-01

262

Irritating, shocking, and intolerable TV programs : norms, values, and concerns of viewers in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the negative reactions of Dutch viewers to the content of television programs. The results show that a vast majority is sometimes irritated by TV programs, that a somewhat smaller majority is sometimes shocked by the programs, and that one fifth of the viewing population consider certain programs to be intolerable. The most frequently mentioned genres are games,

Ard Heuvelman; Allerd Peeters

2005-01-01

263

Hate in the Ivory Tower: A Survey of Intolerance on College Campuses and Academia's Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of institutional responses to incidents of intolerance on college and university campuses was conducted. A questionnaire was sent to the deans of student affairs and student newspaper editors at 128 four-year colleges and universities; and interviews were conducted with administrators, students, faculty, and staff from 58 institutions, 11…

People for the American Way, Washington, DC.

264

Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate…

Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

2009-01-01

265

Confirming persistence of gluten intolerance in children diagnosed as having coeliac disease in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In young infants the clinical and investigative features of coeliac disease (CD) may be mimicked by other conditions such as cow's milk intolerance or secondary disaccharidase deficiency. It is therefore especially important to confirm a diagnosis of CD by later gluten challenge in such infants. Sixteen children in whom the diagnosis of CD had been made before the age of

C J Rolles; M Anderson; A S McNeish

1975-01-01

266

Abstract Submission for ESPGHAN Update 2012 Immunology including Food Allergy and Intolerance  

E-print Network

Abstract Submission for ESPGHAN Update 2012 Immunology including Food Allergy and Intolerance this abstract previously been presented or published?: No Objectives and Study: Allergy afflicts one third signs that a child may be at risk of developing allergies. Methods: To this end, we recruited a cohort

Dupont, Pierre

267

Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

1993-01-01

268

Autogenic-Feedback Training: A Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance in Aerospace Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.; Stevenson, J.; Maloney, S.; Knapp, J.

1994-01-01

269

Defining the IntolerableChild Work, Global Standards and Cultural Relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores some of the unresolved tensions between `universalistic' and `relativistic' approaches in the establishment of standards and strategies designed to prevent or overcome the abuse of children's capacity to work. Global standards (on children's rights, on unacceptable or intolerable forms of children's work, etc.) require universal notions of (ideal, normal or `tolerable') childhood, while cultural relativism stresses the

BEN WHITE

1999-01-01

270

Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long-vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight in Veteran Astronauts  

E-print Network

Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long- vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight-duration spaceflight is about 20%. How- ever, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose-duration (129­190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before

271

Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered

B. J Yates; I. A Kerman

1998-01-01

272

Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant

Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.

2013-01-01

273

The use of crude cell extracts of lactic acid bacteria optimized for beta-galactosidase activity to form galactooligosaccharides with lactose, mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine.  

E-print Network

??Several lactic acid bacteria contain ?-galactosidases. Beta galactosidases catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer acceptor sugars onto galactose, producing galactooligosaccharides. The aim of this work was… (more)

Lee, Vivian Shin Yuan

2009-01-01

274

The Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post space flight orthostatic intolerance among Space Shuttle crew members following exposure to extended periods of microgravity has been of significant concern to the safety of the shuttle program. Following the Challenger accident, flight crews were required to wear launch and entry suits (LES). It was noted that overall, there appeared to be a higher degree of orthostatic intolerance among the post-Challenger crews (approaching 30%). It was hypothesized that the increased heat load incurred when wearing the LES, contributed to an increased degree of orthostatic intolerance, possibly mediated through increased peripheral vasodilatation triggered by the heat load. The use of liquid cooling garments (LCG) beneath the launch and entry suits was gradually implemented among flight crews in an attempt to decrease heat load, increase crew comfort, and hopefully improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and landing. The hypothesis that the use of the LCG during reentry and landing would decrease the degree of orthostasis has not been previously tested. Operational stand-tests were performed pre and post flight to assess crewmember's cardiovascular system's ability to respond to gravitational stress. Stand test and debrief information were collected and databased for 27 space shuttle missions. 63 crewpersons wearing the LCG, and 70 crewpersons not wearing the LCG were entered into the database for analysis. Of 17 crewmembers who exhibited pre-syncopal symptoms at the R+O analysis, 15 were not wearing the LCG. This corresponds to a 21% rate of postflight orthostatic intolerance among those without the LCG, and a 3% rate for those wearing LCG. There were differences in these individual's average post-flight maximal systolic blood pressure, and lower minimal Systolic Blood pressures in those without LCG. Though other factors, such as type of fluid loading, and exercise have improved concurrently with LCG introduction, from this data analysis, it appears that LCG usage provided a significant degree of protection from post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

Billica, Roger; Kraft, Daniel

1997-01-01

275

The surface roughness of lactose particles can be modulated by wet-smoothing using a high-shear mixer.  

PubMed

The surface morphology of a-lactose monohydrate particles was modified by a new wet-smoothing process performed in a high-shear mixer using solvents. Successive steps of wetting and drying of lactose powders during rolling in the mixer's cylindrical bowl were performed. Smoothed particles were tested for size distribution, flow, and packing. The wet-smoothing process flattened the surface and rounded the edges of lactose particles. In comparison with original lactose, an improvement of powder packing and flow properties was evidenced. When the process was performed in the presence of a ternary agent such as magnesium stearate, the smoothing was improved. The evolution of rugosity during the smoothing process was assessed through a fractal descriptor of SEM picture. Atomic force microscopy and surface area measurements quantified the surface rugosity. A very significant reduction of the rugosity, more remarkable in the presence of magnesium stearate, was measured. This new process of powder wet-smoothing allows the preparation of lactose particles with different degrees of smoothed surface for the control of flow and packing properties and particle-particle interactions. PMID:15760057

Ferrari, Franca; Cocconi, Daniela; Bettini, Ruggero; Giordano, Ferdinando; Santi, Patrizia; Tobyn, Michael; Price, Robert; Young, Paul; Caramella, Carla; Colombo, Paolo

2004-01-01

276

Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using ?-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-09-01

277

Intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b are essential for cellulase induction on lactose in Trichoderma reesei.  

PubMed

Lactose (1,4-O-?-d-galacto-pyranosyl-d-glucose) induces cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei and is in fact one of the most important soluble carbon sources used to produce cellulases on an industrial level. The mechanism underlying the induction is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cellular functions of the intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b in the induction of cellulase genes by lactose in T. reesei. We demonstrated that while CEL1a and CEL1b were functionally equivalent in mediating the induction, the simultaneous absence of these intracellular ?-glucosidases abolished cbh1 gene expression on lactose. d-Galactose restored the efficient cellulase gene induction in the ?cel1a strain independently of its reductive metabolism, but not in the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain. A further comparison of the transcriptional responses of the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain complemented with wild-type CEL1a or a catalytically inactive CEL1a version and the ?cel1a strain constitutively expressing CEL1a or the Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase LAC4 showed that both the CEL1a protein and its glycoside hydrolytic activity were indispensable for cellulase induction by lactose. We also present evidence that intracellular ?-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. PMID:24879125

Xu, Jintao; Zhao, Guolei; Kou, Yanbo; Zhang, Weixin; Zhou, Qingxin; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

2014-08-01

278

Glass transition and water effects on sucrose inversion by invertase in a lactose-sucrose system.  

PubMed

Enzymatic changes are often detrimental to quality of low-moisture foods. In the present study, effects of glass transition and water on sucrose inversion in a lactose-sucrose food model were investigated. Amorphous samples were produced by freeze-drying lactose-sucrose (2:1)-invertase (20 mg invertase/49.4 g of carbohydrate) dissolved in distilled water. Sorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 24 degrees C. Sucrose hydrolysis was determined by monitoring glucose content using a test kit and the amounts of fructose, glucose, and sucrose using HPLC. The glass transition temperatures, T(g), at various water contents were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The BET and the GAB sorption models were fitted to experimental data up to a(w) 0.444 and 0.538, respectively. Water sorption and DSC results suggested time-dependent crystallization of sugars at a(w) 0.444 and above. Significant sucrose hydrolysis occurred only above T(g), concomitantly with crystallization. Sucrose hydrolysis and crystallization were not likely in glassy materials. PMID:10888568

Kouassi, K; Roos, Y H

2000-06-01

279

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

280

Characterisation of adhesional properties of lactose carriers using atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe technique was investigated as a method for the characterisation of adhesional properties of pharmaceutical powder surfaces. Lactose carriers used in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were chosen for investigation since adhesion between the carrier surface and drug particles has been proposed to affect the dispersion of drug particles. Individual adhesion forces were determined by measuring the detachment forces in air between the colloid probe and the lactose particle surface. The colloid probe consisted of a silica sphere (10 microm diameter) attached to a V-shaped silicon nitride cantilever (spring constant, k=0.42 N/m). Adhesion forces were calculated from individual force-distance curves using Hooke's Law. Individual forces measured at various adhesion sites were observed to be reproducible and stable over 10 min (coefficient of variation, CV below 5%). The adhesion force distribution determined from measurements at multiple sites (n>50) on each sample followed a log-normal relationship (regression coefficient, r(2) ranged between 0.95 and 0.99). This enabled characterisation in terms of the geometric mean adhesion force and a geometric standard deviation (GSD). Significant differences (P<0.001) in adhesion force were observed between samples, ranging from 37.47+/-1.95 to 117.48+/-2.20 nN. This study demonstrates the suitability of AFM as sensitive technique for the characterisation of adhesional properties of pharmaceutical particles. PMID:11377036

Louey, M D; Mulvaney, P; Stewart, P J

2001-06-01

281

The effect of bismuth on the selective oxidation of lactose on supported palladium catalysts.  

PubMed

The selective oxidation of lactose by molecular oxygen has been studied in a batch reactor containing an aqueous slurry of 0.5 kmol m-1 reactant and 1.0 kg m-3 catalyst. The in situ Bi promotion of a commercial Pd-C catalyst resulted in 100% selectivity to sodium lactobionate up to conversions of 95% in the pH range 7-10 and at temperatures up to 333 K. Performing the reaction under such conditions that the oxygen transfer to the liquid phase was rate-controlling allowed the production of sodium lactobionate in high yields in approximately 1 h. A maximum initial reaction-rate of 0.47 mol kg-1 s-1 was found at a molar Bi to Pd ratio of 0.50-0.67. Fifteen batches of lactose were oxidized with the same charge of catalyst without significant loss in initial activity or selectivity. Such other aldoses as maltose, glucose, and galactose could be oxidized analogously with similar selectivities. PMID:2279242

Hendriks, H E; Kuster, B F; Marin, G B

1990-09-01

282

Efficacy of partially hydrolyzed corn syrup solids as a replacement for lactose in manufactured liquid diets for neonatal pigs.  

PubMed

Feeding manufactured liquid diets to early-weaned pigs improves growth performance and reduces days to market weight compared with pigs receiving pelleted dry feed. Few alternative dietary ingredients are utilized in manufactured liquid diets other than byproducts of the dairy industry, especially for sources of carbohydrates. This experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of starch from partially hydrolyzed corn syrup solids (CSS), at two different levels of hydrolyzation, as a replacement for lactose in manufactured liquid diets. Forty-eight pigs were removed from sows at 1 d of age and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 1) control with lactose as the carbohydrate source, 2) lactose replaced (gram for gram) with CSS (dextrose equivalent [DE]-20), and 3) lactose replaced with DE-42. In addition, 10 pigs were randomly removed from several litters to provide estimates of initial body composition and small intestinal variables. Twenty-four pigs were removed from the study on d 10 of treatment, and the remaining 24 pigs were removed on d 20 of treatment. Pigs averaged 9,845 +/- 191 g at d 20 of treatment regardless of dietary treatment (P > 0.20). No differences in ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency were detected between treatment groups from d 0 to 20 (P > 0.19). Whole-body water, protein, lipid, and ash accretion rates were unaffected by dietary treatment from d 0 to 10 or from d 0 to 20 (P > 0.20). The replacement of lactose with CSS did not affect intestinal villi height or width, or crypt depth (P > 0.10). Pigs fed lactose tended to have greater lactase activity on d 10 than pigs fed CSS (P < 0.07). Also, pigs fed lactose tended to have lower oligosaccharidase activity than pigs fed the DE-20 diet on d 20 (P < 0.07). No other differences in lactase, maltase, or long oligosaccharidase specific activity on d 10 or 20 of treatment were detected (P > 0.12). Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were unaffected by diet on d 10 and 20 of treatment. In addition, dry matter digestibility of the diets averaged approximately 85.6 +/- 0.8% and was unaffected by dietary treatment or day of treatment. These results suggest that partially hydrolyzed CSS can be used as a replacement for lactose in manufactured liquid diets for neonatal pigs. PMID:11831512

Oliver, W T; Mathews, S A; Phillips, O; Jones, E E; Odle, J; Harrell, R J

2002-01-01

283

Microflora and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed Central

We compared the microbiological and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance who restrict their dietary sugar intake with that of control subjects who do not. The two groups showed no significant differences in chemical composition of plaque: the mean protein, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate contents were similar. Dental plaque from both groups contained similar numbers of total colony-forming units per microgram of plaque protein, and Streptococcus sanguis, an indigenous nonpathogen, was isolated with equal frequency from plaque samples of both groups. However, potentially odontopathic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were isolated three to four times more frequently from plaque samples of control subjects than from plaque samples of subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance. Clearly, diet (sucrose in particular) influences the colonization and multiplication of specific cariogenic organisms in dental plaque. PMID:7399699

Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E; Mettraux, G; Graf, H

1980-01-01

284

Food intolerance and food allergy in children: a review of 68 cases.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and laboratory features of 68 children with food intolerance or food allergy are reviewed. Young children were affected the most with 79% first experiencing symptoms before age 1 year. Forty-eight (70%) children presented with gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea, colic, abdominal pain, failure to thrive), 16 (24%) children with skin manifestations (eczema, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, other rashes), and 4 (6%) children with wheeze. Twenty-one children had failed to thrive before diagnosis. A single food (most commonly cows' milk) was concerned in 28 (41%) cases. Forty (59%) children had multiple food intolerance or allergy; eggs, cows' milk, and wheat were the most common. Diagnosis was based on observing the effect of food withdrawal and of subsequent rechallenge. In many children food withdrawal will mean the use of an elimination diet which requires careful supervision by a dietician. Laboratory investigations were often unhelpful in suggesting or confirming the diagnosis. PMID:7138062

Minford, A M; MacDonald, A; Littlewood, J M

1982-01-01

285

Cutting-edge issues in celiac disease and in gluten intolerance.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-dependent immune-mediated disease with a prevalence in the general population estimated between 0.3% and 1.2%. Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that only 10-20% of cases of CD are identified on the basis of clinical findings and that laboratory tests are crucial to identify subjects with subtle or atypical symptoms. The correct choice and clinical use of these diagnostic tools may enable accurate diagnosis and early recognition of silent CD cases. In this review, we have considered some relevant aspects related to the laboratory diagnosis of CD and, more extensively, of gluten intolerance, such as the best combination of tests for early and accurate diagnosis, the diagnostic role of new tests for detecting antibodies against neoepitopes produced by the transglutaminase-gliadin complex, the forms of non-celiac gluten intolerance (gluten sensitivity), and the use and significance of measuring cytokines in CD. PMID:21181303

Bizzaro, N; Tozzoli, R; Villalta, D; Fabris, M; Tonutti, E

2012-06-01

286

DIMENSIONS OF FRUSTRATION INTOLERANCE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO SELF-CONTROL PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frustration intolerance beliefs are central to the theory and practice of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. However, there\\u000a has been little investigation of the content of these beliefs, and empirical evidence linking specific beliefs to distinct\\u000a psychological problems is sparse. To redress this, the Frustration–Discomfort Scale has been developed as a multidimensional\\u000a measure. This was used to explore the relationship between

Neil Harrington

2005-01-01

287

Genetic difference in HLA-DR phenotypes between coeliac disease and transitory gluten intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic differences in HLA phenotypes were studied in coeliac disease to investigate why some patients do not react with mucosal damage after gluten challenge. Forty five children with coeliac disease and 16 with transitory gluten intolerance were typed; 76 subjects served as controls. HLA phenotypes in children with coeliac disease had significantly higher proportions of DR3\\/X and DR5\\/7 than controls

R Meuli; W J Pichler; H Gaze; M J Lentze

1995-01-01

288

Possible Association of SLC22A2 Polymorphisms with Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute bronchoconstriction following the ingestion of aspirin. Solute carrier family 22, member 2 (SLC22A2), also known as organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), is predominantly expressed in the luminal membrane of airway epithelial cells and has been shown to mediate the transport of prostaglandins on the cyclooxygenase pathway which is regulated

Tae-Joon Park; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Joon-Seol Bae; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Ji-Yong Chun; Jin-Sol Lee; Jason Yongha Kim; Charisse Flerida Pasaje; Sang Heon Cho; Soo-Taek Uh; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S. Choi; In Song Koh; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin

2011-01-01

289

An investigation of appraisals in individuals vulnerable to excessive worry: the role of intolerance of uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have been conducted to examine whether the construct of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) (Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur,\\u000a & Freeston, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 215–226, 1998b) meets formal criteria as a cognitive vulnerability for excessive and uncontrollable worry. Cognitive models\\u000a of anxiety suggest that vulnerability is manifest in the manner in which individuals process information. As such, cognitive\\u000a bias

Naomi Koerner; Michel J. Dugas

2008-01-01

290

Novel multidrug therapy for children with cyclosporine-resistant or -intolerant nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective treatment for children with refractory nephrotic syndrome (NS), especially in those with cyclosporine (CsA)-resistant\\u000a or CsA-intolerant NS, has yet to be established. Recently, the efficacy of multidrug therapy consisting of tacrolimus (Tac),\\u000a mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in combination with prednisolone (PDN) in adult patients with refractory NS has been reported.\\u000a We successfully treated 14 consecutive children with refractory CsA-resistant

Tomomi Aizawa-Yashiro; Kazushi Tsuruga; Shojiro Watanabe; Eishin Oki; Etsuro Ito; Hiroshi Tanaka

2011-01-01

291

Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension. There is a predilection for younger rather than older adults and for women more than men. Its cause is unknown; partial sympathetic denervation or hypovolemia has been proposed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma renin activity, perhaps from defects in sympathetic innervation of the kidney, could underlie a hypovolemia, giving rise to these clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had orthostatic intolerance, together with a raised upright plasma norepinephrine (> or = 600 pg/mL). Patients underwent a battery of autonomic tests and biochemical determinations. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the blood volume and plasma renin activity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). The tachycardic response to upright posture correlated with the severity of the hypovolemia. There was also a correlation between the plasma renin activity measured in these patients and their concomitant plasma aldosterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance.

Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Ertl, A. C.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

1997-01-01

292

Weight History, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Levels in Middle-aged Swedish Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between weight history and glucose intolerance was examined in a cross-sectional study consisting of 3,128 Swedish men aged 35-56 years, 52 percent of whom had a family background of diabetes mellitus. Oral glucose tolerance testing detected 55 cases of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and 172 cases of impaired glucose tolerance. Among men with no family history of diabetes,

Sofia Carisson; Per-Gunnar Persson; Michael Alvarsson; Suad Efendic; Anders Norman; Leif Svanstrom; Claes-Goran Ostenson; Valdemar Grill

293

Safety of Iron Sucrose in Hemodialysis Patients Intolerant to Other Parenteral Iron Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This report summarizes the data gathered in four prospective studies of intravenous iron sucrose therapy administered to iron-deficient hemodialysis patients with a history of intolerance to other parenteral iron preparations. Methods: A total of 130 iron dextran- and\\/or sodium ferric gluconate-sensitive patients received intravenous iron sucrose therapy to correct iron deficiency, and\\/or maintain body iron stores. A history of

Chaim Charytan; Michael H. Schwenk; Mourhege M. Al-Saloum; Bruce S. Spinowitz

2004-01-01

294

Resolution of suckling intolerance in a 6-month-old chiropractic patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To discuss the management and resolution of suckling intolerance in a 6-month-old infant. Clinical Features: A 6-month-old boy with a 412-month history of aversion to suckling was evaluated in a chiropractic office. Static and motion palpation and observation detected an abnormal inward dishing at the occipitoparietal junction, as well as upper cervical (C1-C2) asymmetry and fixation. These indicated the

David P. Holtrop

2000-01-01

295

Contributions of MSNA and stroke volume to orthostatic intolerance following bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined whether the altered orthostatic tolerance following 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) was related to inadequate sympathetic outflow or to excessive reductions in cardiac output during a 10- to 15-min head-up tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography), and stroke volume blood velocity (SVV, Doppler ultrasound) were assessed during supine 30 degrees (5 min) and 60 degrees (5-10 min) HUT positions in 15 individuals who successfully completed the pre-HDBR test without evidence of orthostatic intolerance. Subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT, n = 9) or intolerant (OI, n = 6) following the post-HDBR test. MSNA, BP, and SVV during supine and HUT postures were not altered in the OT group. Hypotension during 60 degrees HUT in the post-bed rest test for the OI group (P < 0.05) was associated with a blunted increase in MSNA (P < 0.05). SVV was reduced following HDBR in the OI group (main effect of HDBR, P < 0.02). The data support the hypothesis that bed rest-induced orthostatic intolerance is related to an inadequate increase in sympathetic discharge that cannot compensate for a greater postural reduction in stroke volume.

Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

1999-01-01

296

Nitric oxide in microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance: relevance to spinal cord injury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in cardiovascular deconditioning which is marked by orthostatic intolerance in the returning astronauts and recovering bed-ridden patients. Recent studies conducted in our laboratories at University of California, Irvine have revealed marked elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the kidney, heart, brain, and systemic arteries coupled with significant reduction of NO production in the cerebral arteries of microgravity-adapted animals. We have further demonstrated that the observed alteration of NO metabolism is primarily responsible for the associated cardiovascular deconditioning. Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently complicated by orthostatic intolerance that is due to the combined effects of the disruption of efferent sympathetic pathway and cardiovascular deconditioning occasioned by prolonged confinement to bed. In this presentation, I will review the nature of altered NO metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. The possible relevance of the new findings to orthostatic intolerance in patients with acute SCI and its potential therapeutic implications will be discussed.

Vaziri, N. D.; Purdy, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

297

Current issues on safety of prokinetics in critically ill patients with feed intolerance  

PubMed Central

Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness should be treated promptly given its adverse impact on morbidity and mortality. The technical difficulty of postpyloric feeding tube placement and the morbidities associated with parenteral nutrition prevent these approaches being considered as first-line nutrition. Prokinetic agents are currently the mainstay of therapy for feed intolerance in the critically ill. Current information is limited but suggests that erythromycin or metoclopramide (alone or in combination) are effective in the management of feed intolerance in the critically ill and not associated with significant cardiac, haemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. However, diarrhoea is a very common gastrointestinal side effect, and can occur in up to 49% of patients who receive both erythromycin and metoclopramide. Fortunately, the diarrhoea associated with prokinetic treatments has not been linked to Clostridium difficile infection and settles soon after the drugs are ceased. Therefore, prolonged or prophylactic use of prokinetics should be avoided. If diarrhoea occurs, the drugs should be stopped immediately. To minimize avoidable adverse effects the ongoing need for prokinetic drugs in these patient should be reviewed daily. PMID:25083212

Yi Mei, Swee Lin Chen

2011-01-01

298

Control of obesity and glucose intolerance via building neural stem cells in the hypothalamus?  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently revealed to exist in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Here, following our observation showing that a partial loss of hypothalamic NSCs caused weight gain and glucose intolerance, we studied if NSCs-based cell therapy could be developed to control these disorders. While hypothalamus-implanted NSCs failed to survive in mice with obesity, NF-?B inhibition induced survival and neurogenesis of these cells, leading to effects in counteracting obesity and glucose intolerance. To generate an alternative cell source, we revealed that iPS-derived NSCs were converted into htNSCs by neuropeptide treatment. Of note, obesity condition potentiated the transfer of carotid artery-injected NSCs into the hypothalamus. These iPS-derived cells when engineered with NF-?B inhibition were also effective in reducing obesity and glucose intolerance, and neurogenesis towards POMCergic and GABAergic lineages was accountable. In conclusion, building NSCs in the hypothalamus represents a strategy for controlling obesity and glucose disorders. PMID:24749061

Li, Juxue; Tang, Yizhe; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Yan, Jingqi; Cai, Dongsheng

2014-01-01

299

A Case of Chlorpheniramine Maleate-Induced Hypersensitivity With Aspirin Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic disease, such as allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema. Although several previous reports describe hypersensitivity to antihistamines such as cetirizine and hydroxyzine, documented cases of chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old Korean woman who presented with urticaria after ingesting a cold medication. Over the previous 5 years, she had also experienced a food allergy to crab and shrimp, allergic rhinitis, and repeated urticaria after ingesting cold medication. Provocation with aspirin elicited generalized urticaria. Intravenous chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone was injected for symptom control, but in fact appeared to aggravate urticaria. A second round of skin and provocation tests for chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone showed positive results only for chlorpheniramine. She was diagnosed with aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity, and was instructed to avoid these drugs. To date, this is the second of only two cases of chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance. Although the relationship between aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity is unclear, physicians should be aware of the possibility of urticaria or other allergic reactions in response to antihistamines. PMID:21217928

Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, So-Hee; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young

2011-01-01

300

Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the 3H-free- cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic signaling. PMID:22522760

Bertato, Marina P; Oliveira, Carolina P; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L; Lerario, Antonio C; Maranhao, Raul C

2012-01-01

301

Cloning and Characterization of Sialidases with 2-6? and 2-3? Sialyl Lactose Specificity from Pasteurella multocida†  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella multocida is a mucosal pathogen that colonizes the respiratory system of susceptible hosts. Most isolates of P. multocida produce sialidase activity, which may contribute to colonization of the respiratory tract or the production of lesions in an active infection. We have cloned and sequenced a sialidase gene, nanH, from a fowl cholera isolate of P. multocida. Sequence analysis of NanH revealed that it exhibited significant amino acid sequence homology with many microbial sialidases. Insertional inactivation of nanH resulted in a mutant strain that was not deficient in sialidase production. However, this mutant exhibited reduced enzyme activity and growth rate on 2-3? sialyl lactose compared to the wild type. Subsequently, we demonstrated the presence of two sialidases by cloning another sialidase gene that differed from nanH in DNA sequence and substrate specificity. NanB demonstrated activity on both 2-3? and 2-6? sialyl lactose, while NanH demonstrated activity only on 2-3? sialyl lactose. Neither enzyme liberated sialic acid from colominic acid (2-8? sialyl lactose). Recombinant E. coli containing the sialidase genes were able to utilize several sialoconjugants when they were provided as sole carbon sources in minimal medium. These data suggest that sialidases have a nutritional function and may contribute to the ability of P. multocida to colonize and persist on vertebrate mucosal surfaces. PMID:11092845

Mizan, Shaikh; Henk, Adam; Stallings, Amy; Maier, Marie; Lee, Margie D.

2000-01-01

302

Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product.  

PubMed

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 g L(-1) lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system, a productivity of 0.43 g L(-1) h(-1) was obtained which is 307 % of that achieved in a non-product removal batch reactor (0.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) where approximately 60 g L(-1) whey permeate lactose was fermented. The productivity obtained in this system is much higher than that achieved in other product removal systems (perstraction 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and gas stripping 0.32 g L(-1) h(-1)). This membrane was also used to concentrate butanol from approximately 2.50 g L(-1) in the reactor to 755 g L(-1). Using this membrane, ABE selectivities and fluxes of 24.4-44.3 and 0.57-4.05 g m(-2) h(-1) were obtained, respectively. Pervaporation restricts removal of water from the reaction mixture thus requiring significantly less energy for product recovery when compared to gas stripping. PMID:25326775

Qureshi, N; Friedl, A; Maddox, I S

2014-12-01

303

The effect of LacI autoregulation on the performance of the lactose utilization system in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The lactose operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm system for quantitative understanding of gene regulation in prokaryotes. Yet, none of the many mathematical models built so far to study the dynamics of this system considered the fact that the Lac repressor regulates its own transcription by forming a transcriptional roadblock at the O3 operator site. Here we study the effect of autoregulation on intracellular LacI levels and also show that cAMP-CRP binding does not affect the efficiency of autoregulation. We built a mathematical model to study the role of LacI autoregulation in the lactose utilization system. Previously, it has been argued that negative autoregulation can significantly reduce noise as well as increase the speed of response. We show that the particular molecular mechanism, a transcriptional roadblock, used to achieve self-repression in the lac system does neither. Instead, LacI autoregulation balances two opposing states, one that allows quicker response to smaller pulses of external lactose, and the other that minimizes production costs in the absence of lactose. PMID:23658223

Semsey, Szabolcs; Jauffred, Liselotte; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Erdossy, János; Stéger, Viktor; Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep

2013-07-01

304

Effect of penicillin and virginiamycin on drug resistance in lactose-fermenting enteric flora.  

PubMed Central

Three groups of beagle dogs were fed either a control diet, a diet containing virginiamycin (55 microgram/g of diet), or a diet containing penicillin (110 microgram/g of diet). The proportions of lactose-fermenting organisms in their feces that were resistant to ampicillin, dihydrostreptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were measured by a comparative plate-counting procedure. Both antibiotic-supplemented diets resulted in an increase (P < 0.001) in the occurrence of ampicillin, dihydrostreptomycin, and tetracycline resistances during the time of their administration. The occurrence of these resistances was greater (P < 0.001) in the group receiving penicillin than in the group receiving virginiamycin. In addition to the above resistances, a greater (P < 0.001) occurrence of resistance to a sulfonamide (sulfamethoxypyridazine) due to treatment was found by susceptibility testing of isolates. Representative isolates were able to transfer their resistance to a strain of Escherichia coli K-12. PMID:6158912

Gaines, S A; Rollins, L D; Williams, R D; Selwyn, M

1980-01-01

305

High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

2014-01-01

306

The use of inverse gas chromatography and gravimetric vapour sorption to study transitions in amorphous lactose.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the glass transition of amorphous lactose under well-controlled temperature and humidity, using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and to relate these data to gravimetric vapour sorption experiments. Amorphous lactose (spray-dried) was exposed to a stepwise increment in the relative humidity (%RH) under isothermal conditions in an IGC. At the end of each conditioning step a decane injection was made, and the retention volumes were calculated using the maximum peak height (V(max)) method. The pressure drop across the column was recorded using the pressure transducers. These measurements were performed at various temperatures from 25 to 40 degrees C. The extent of water sorption at identical humidity (%RH) and temperature conditions was determined gravimetrically using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). At each T, it was possible to determine: (1) a transition at low RH relating to the onset of mobility; (2) changes in retention volume relating to the point, where T(g) = T; (3) changes in pressure drop, which were related to the sample collapse. The rate and extent of water sorption was seen to alter at T(g) and also at a collapse point. Combinations of temperature and critical %RH (%cRH required to lower the dry glass transition temperature to the experimental temperature) obtained from IGC were comparable to those obtained from DVS. It was shown that at each T, the sample spontaneously crystallised, when T(g) was 32 degrees C below T. Inverse gas chromatograph can be used in this novel way to reveal the series of transitions that occur in amorphous materials. PMID:15814237

Ambarkhane, Ameet V; Pincott, Kim; Buckton, Graham

2005-04-27

307

Regulation of lactose catabolism in Streptococcus mutans: purification and regulatory properties of phospho-beta-galactosidase.  

PubMed Central

Phospho-beta-galactosidase (P-beta-gal), the enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the metabolism of intracellular lactose phosphate, occurred at high specific activity in the cytoplasm in 12 of 13 strains of streptococcus mutans grown on lactose but not other carbon sources. The P-beta-gal from S. mutans SL1 was purified 13-fold using diethylaminoethyl-cellulose ion exchange and agarose A--0.5 M molecular exclusion column chromatography. The molecualr weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 40,000, and its pH optimum was 6.5 in three different buffer systems. P-beta-gal activity was inhibited by Co2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+, but other cations, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, orthophosphate, and fluoride had no effect upon enzyme activity. The kinetic response of P-beta-gal to a model substrate, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-6-phosphate, obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km for this substrate was 0.19 mM. In addition to being under genetic control, P-beta-gal activity was regulated by a number of biologically active metabolites. Enzyme activity was inhibited in a sigmoidal fashion by phosphoenolpyruvate. The M 0.5 V value for phosphoenolpyruvate was 2.8 mM, and the Hill coefficient (n) was 3. In addition, P-beta-gal exhibited strong inhibition by ATP, galactose-6-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate. In contrast to inhibition of P-beta-gal activity by phosphoenolpyruvate, the inhibition exerted by ATP, galactose-6-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate obeyed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the Ki values for these inhibitors were 0.55, 1.6, and 4.0 mM, respectively. PMID:33899

Calmes, R; Brown, A T

1979-01-01

308

Cold Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... hand muscle strength (Bruno et al., 1985) . The body's thermostat, the area of the brain that causes blood vessels to contract, and the hypothalmus, the part that controls the body's inner environment, may have been affected during the ...

309

Cysteine scanning mutagenesis of putative transmembrane helices IX and X in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Using a functional lactose permease mutant devoid of Cys residues (C-less permease), each amino-acid residue in putative transmembrane helices IX and X and the short intervening loop was systematically replaced with Cys (from Asn-290 to Lys-335). Thirty-four of 46 mutants accumulate lactose to high levels (70-100% or more of C-less), and an additional 7 mutants exhibit lower but highly significant lactose accumulation. As expected (see Kaback, H.R., 1992, Int. Rev. Cytol. 137A, 97-125), Cys substitution for Arg-302, His-322, or Glu-325 results in inactive permease molecules. Although Cys replacement for Lys-319 or Phe-334 also inactivates lactose accumulation, Lys-319 is not essential for active lactose transport (Sahin-Tóth, M., Dunten, R.L., Gonzalez, A., & Kaback, H.R., 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10547-10551), and replacement of Phe-334 with leucine yields permease with considerable activity. All single-Cys mutants except Gly-296 --> Cys are present in the membrane in amounts comparable to C-less permease, as judged by immunological techniques. In contrast, mutant Gly-296 --> Cys is hardly detectable when expressed at a relatively low rate from the lac promoter/operator but present in the membrane in stable form when expressed at a high rate from T7 promoter. Finally, studies with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) show that only a few mutants are inactivated significantly. Remarkably, the rate of inactivation of Val-315 --> Cys permease is enhanced at least 10-fold in the presence of beta-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (TDG) or an H+ electrochemical gradient (delta mu-H+). The results demonstrate that only three residues in this region of the permease -Arg-302, His-322, and Glu-325-are essential for active lactose transport. Furthermore, the enhanced reactivity of the Val-315 --> Cys mutant toward NEM in the presence of TDG or delta mu-H+ probably reflects a conformational alteration induced by either substrate binding or delta mu-H+. PMID:8318887

Sahin-Toth, M.; Kaback, H. R.

1993-01-01

310

Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.  

PubMed

The food contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) is pointed out as a risk factor in development of food allergy and food intolerance, two adverse food reactions increasing worldwide. We evaluated the consequences of perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA on immune-specific response to the food antigen ovalbumin (OVA) at adulthood. Perinatal exposure to BPA (0.5, 5, or 50 ?g/kg/d) from 15th day of gravidity to pups weaning resulted in an increase of anti-OVA IgG titers at all BPA dosages in OVA-tolerized rats, and at 5 ?g/kg/d in OVA-immunized rats compared to control rats treated with vehicle. In BPA-treated and OVA-tolerized rats, increased anti-OVA IgG titers were associated with higher IFN? secretion by the spleen. This result is in accordance with the increase of activated CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) T lymphocytes observed in spleen of BPA-exposed rats compared to controls. Finally, when BPA-treated OVA-tolerized rats were orally challenged with OVA, colonic inflammation occurred, with neutrophil infiltration, increased IFN?, and decreased TGF?. We show that perinatal exposure to BPA altered oral tolerance and immunization to dietary antigens (OVA). In summary, the naive immune system of neonate is vulnerable to low doses of BPA that trigger food intolerance later in life.-Menard, S., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Leveque, M., Braniste, V., Lencina, C., Naturel, M., Moussa, L., Sekkal, S., Harkat, C., Gaultier, E., Theodorou, V., Houdeau, E. Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A. PMID:25085925

Menard, Sandrine; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Leveque, Mathilde; Braniste, Viorica; Lencina, Corinne; Naturel, Manon; Moussa, Lara; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Gaultier, Eric; Theodorou, Vassilia; Houdeau, Eric

2014-11-01

311

Marked exacerbation of orthostatic intolerance after long- vs. short-duration spaceflight in veteran astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.

Meck, J. V.; Reyes, C. J.; Perez, S. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ziegler, M. G.

2001-01-01

312

Fructose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression in adult patients with fructose intolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption following fructose ingestion (fructose intolerance) are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is hypothesized to be related an abnormality of intestinal fructose transporter proteins. Objective To assess the expression of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins, glucose transport protein 5 (GLUT5) and 2 (GLUT2), in FGID. Methods The expression of GLUT5 and GLUT2 protein and mRNA in small intestinal biopsy tissue was investigated using real-time reverse-transcription PCR and Western immunoblotting in 11 adults with FGID and fructose intolerance ascertained by breath testing and in 15 controls. Results Median expression levels of GLUT5 mRNA normalized to beta-actin were 0.18 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.13–0.21) in patients and 0.17 (IQR 0.12–0.19) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective levels of GLUT2 mRNA were 0.26 (IQR 0.20–0.31) and 0.26 (IQR 0.19–0.31) (p?>?0.05). Median expression levels of GLUT5 protein normalized to alpha-tubulin were 0.95 (IQR 0.52–1.68) in patients and 0.95 (IQR 0.59–1.15) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective protein expression levels for GLUT2 were 1.56 (IQR 1.06–2.14) and 1.35 (IQR 0.96–1.79) (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Human fructose intolerance may not be associated with marked changes in GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression. Replication of these results in a larger subject group, including measures of transporter activation and membrane and subcellular localization, is warranted. PMID:24918004

Li, Xinhua; Ho, Sherry SY; Leong, Sai Mun; Wong, Reuben K; Koay, Evelyn SC; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

2014-01-01

313

Pregnancy delivery and puerperium in a patient with lysinuric protein intolerance--a case report.  

PubMed

The paper presents the course of pregnancy delivery and early postpartum period in a 23-year-old woman with lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI). The pregnancy was uneventful and resulted in a caesarean birth to a healthy baby at 37 weeks gestation. Nevertheless, the course of pregnancy in women with LPI is associated with a significantly increased risk of serious complications, including acute hyperammonemia, preeclampsia and postpartum bleeding, as well as fetus intrauterine growth retardation. In many cases, intensive metabolic monitoring and a proper diet with protein limitation and appropriate amino acids supplementation may significantly reduce the risk for both the mother and the newborn. PMID:24032281

Miko?ajek-Bedner, Wioletta; Torbé, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Michalczyk, Micha?; Gizewska, Maria; Rokicki, Dariusz; Rzepka, Rafa?; Konstanty-Kurkiewicz, Violetta; Doma?ski, Maciej; Czajka, Ryszard

2013-07-01

314

Aspirin-tolerant asthmatics generate more lipoxins than aspirin-intolerant asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation,resulting from overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as leukotrienes (LT). The authors questioned,the biosynthetic capacity of asthmatic,patients for lipoxins (LX) and 15-epimer lipoxins (15-epi-LX), endogenous regulators of inflammatory respon- ses that inhibit pro-inflammatory,events. Levels of LXA4, 15-epi-LXA4 and LTC4 were determined in 14 clinically cha- racterized aspirin-intolerant asthmatics (AIA), 11 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics (ATA)

M. Sanak; B. D. Levy; C. b. Clish; N. Chiang; K. Gronert; L. Mastalerz; C. n. Serhan; A. Szczeklik

2000-01-01

315

Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

316

Impact of Galactose, Lactose, and Grobiotic-B70 on Growth Performance and Energy Utilization When Fed to Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three chick assays were conducted to de- termine the effect of increasing dietary galactose (GAL), lactose (LAC), and Grobiotic-B70, a LAC fermentation product, on growth performance, toxicity, and energy utilization when fed to commercial broiler chicks. One- day-old male commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to treatments in each assay. In all assays, a 22% CP corn-soybean meal-dextrose basal diet

M. W. Douglas; M. Persia; C. M. Parsons

317

Succinic Acid Production by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens ATCC 29305 Growing on Galactose, Galactose\\/Glucose, and Galactose\\/Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was anaerobically grown on galactose, galactose\\/glucose, or galactose\\/lactose in order to study its galactose fermentation. Unlike a previous report, A. succiniciproducens was found to efficiently metabolize galactose as the sole carbon source at a rate of 2.4 g\\/g-DCW\\/h and produced succinic acid with as high a yield of 87% as with using glucose. When glucose and

Ho Nam Chang; Sang Yup Lee

2008-01-01

318

The State of Aggregation of Casein Affects the Storage Stability of Amorphous Sucrose, Lactose, and Their Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the state of aggregation of casein (micellar or non-micellar, as milk protein concentrate [MPC] or sodium caseinate\\u000a [Na-caseinate], respectively) on water sorption, plasticization, and crystallization of freeze-dried matrices containing sucrose,\\u000a lactose or their blends were studied. The Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) equation satisfactorily fitted to the water sorption\\u000a data. In most cases, sugar crystallization—studied by water sorption behavior,

César Vega; Yrjö H. Roos

2007-01-01

319

A method for qualitative identification of sugars and semiquantitative determination of lactose content suitable for a variety of foods1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiquantitative chromatographic technique was developed and standardized using water\\/chloroform extracts of foods which are spotted onto heat-activated silica gel thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plates, run in butanol\\/acetic acid\\/ether\\/water, developed in acidic anisaldehyde, and quantitated planimetrically using Purdy and Truter's formula. Clinically sig- nificant amounts of lactose were found in low-calorie sweeteners, breads, yogurt, margarine, peni- cillin, Gantrisin, and other

Dennis E. Lee; Clinton B. Lillibridge; Kathleen Drechsler; Brett Fromme

320

Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing\\u000a Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of\\u000a the ldh1 gene, encoding the main l-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a

Reinout De Boeck; Luz Adriana Sarmiento-Rubiano; Inmaculada Nadal; Vicente Monedero; Gaspar Pérez-Martínez; María J. Yebra

2010-01-01

321

Efficient cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei in continuous cultivation on lactose medium with a computer-controlled feeding strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-foaming hydrophobin II deletant of the Trichoderma reesei strain Rut-C30 was used for production of cellulases by continuous cultivation on lactose medium in a laboratory fermenter. The control paradigm of the addition of new medium to the continuous process was based on the growth dynamics of the fungus. A decrease in the rate of base addition to the cultivation

M. J. Bailey; J. Tähtiharju

2003-01-01

322

Improved xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei grown on l-arabinose and lactose or d-glucose mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 was grown on eight different natural or rare aldopentoses as the main carbon source and on mixtures of an aldopentose with d-glucose or lactose. The fungal cells consumed all aldopentoses tested, except l-xylose and l-ribose. The highest total xylanase and cellulase activities were achieved when cells were grown on l-arabinose as the main carbon source. The

H. Xiong; O. Turunen; O. Pastinen; M. Leisola; N. von Weymarn

2004-01-01

323

NMR confirmation of an alkali-insoluble glucan from Kluyveromyces marxianus cultivated on a lactose-based medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus grown in a sterile lactose-based medium, were extracted with sodium hydroxide to give a fraction of alkali-insoluble yeast (AIY) glucan. From 1H- and 13C-NMR characterization it was concluded that the glucan consisted mostly of ß(1 ? 3) linkages and was similar to that obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the preparations for skin revitalization and

Tredwell Lukondeh; Nicholas J. Ashbolt; Peter L. Rogers; James M. Hook

2003-01-01

324

Influence de l'ingestion de lactose sur le mtabolisme protique de l'agneau nouveau-n  

E-print Network

). Introduction. L'ingestion de colostrum s'accompagne d'une stimulation du métabolisme protéique de l., 1985a). La digestion du lactose du colostrum assure au nouveau-né, dès les premiers repas, un apport de musculaire consécutive à l'ingestion de colostrum par l'agneau nouveau-né pourrait en partie résulter des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Heat tolerance testing: association between heat intolerance and anthropometric and fitness measurements.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between heat intolerance, as determined by performance on a heat tolerance test (HTT), and anthropometric measurements (body surface-to-mass ratio, percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]). Relationships between predictive variables and specific physiological measurements recorded during the HTT were examined. A total of 34 male and 12 female participants, recruited from the military community, underwent anthropometric measurements, a maximal aerobic exercise test, and a standardized HTT, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 5 km/h at 2% grade for 120 minutes at 40°C and 40% relative humidity. VO2max negatively correlated with maximum core temperature (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.48, p < 0.01) although percent body fat showed a positive correlation with maximum HR (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). VO2max was the only independent attribute that significantly influenced both the maximum HR and core temperature attained during HTT. Logistic regression analyses indicated that VO2max was the only independent parameter (OR = 0.89, p = 0.026) that significantly contributed to overall HTT performance. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with heat intolerance, as defined by HTT performance, and can be addressed as a preventative measure for exertional heat illness. This study provides further evidence that the HTT can be an effective tool for assessment of thermoregulatory patterns. PMID:25373064

Lisman, Peter; Kazman, Josh B; O'Connor, Francis G; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia A

2014-11-01

326

Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight in Veteran Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance following short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence following long-duration spaceflight is unknown. We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after their long-duration (129 - 190 days) spaceflights and compared these data to those obtained during stand tests before and after their previous short-duration missions and also to tilt test data from 20 different short-duration (8 - 16 days) flight astronauts. Five of these six became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights: only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. Five of the twenty astronauts who flew on other short-duration flights, became presyncopal during upright tilt on landing day. Long-duration presyncopal subjects had lower stroke volumes, lower cardiac outputs and higher peripheral vascular resistance than short-duration presyncopal subjects, but their heart rate responses were not different. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after a long but not short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably related to altered autonomic function.

Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Reyes, Carlos; Perez, Sondra A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

327

Baroreflex dysfunction induced by microgravity: potential relevance to postflight orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity imposes adaptive changes in the human body. This review focuses on the changes in baroreflex function produced by actual spaceflight, or by experimental models that simulate microgravity, e.g., bed rest. We will analyze separately studies involving baroreflexes arising from carotid sinus and aortic arch afferents ("high-pressure baroreceptors"), and cardiopulmonary afferents ("low-pressure receptors"). Studies from unrelated laboratories using different techniques have concluded that actual or simulated exposure to microgravity reduces baroreflex function arising from carotid sinus afferents ("carotic-cardiac baroreflex"). The techniques used to study the carotid-cardiac baroreflex, using neck suction and compression to simulate changes in blood pressure, have been extensively validated. In contrast, it is more difficult to selectively study aortic arch or cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. Nonetheless, studies that have examined these baroreceptors suggest that microgravity produces the opposite effect, ie, an increase in the gain of aortic arch and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. Furthermore, most studies have focus on instantaneous changes in heart rate, which almost exclusively examines the vagal limb of the baroreflex. In comparison, there is limited information about the effect of microgravity on sympathetic function. A substantial proportion of subjects exposed to microgravity develop transient orthostatic intolerance. It has been proposed that alterations in baroreflex function play a role in the orthostatic intolerance induced by microgravity. The evidence in favor and against this hypothesis is reviewed.

Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

328

Diagnosis and management of food allergy and intolerance in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This paper reviews food allergy and intolerance in dogs and cats. Adverse reactions to ingested food components can affect many systems and can produce signs involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and central nervous system, and these clinical signs are reviewed. Most basic food ingredients have the potential to induce an allergic response, although most reactions are caused by proteins. In particular, dogs and cats can become sensitive to cow's milk, beef, fish or cereal. Food allergy and intolerance is rare in dogs and cats, although the incidence in practice is difficult to establish. Clinical signs are quite variable, depending on the individual response, although the major clinical sign is pruritus. Diagnosis can be difficult, as there is no single test available to help the clinician to confirm or refute the presence of food sensitivity. Diagnosis is based on dietary investigation in the form of elimination diets and test meals. Elimination diets for dogs include lamb, chicken, rabbit, horse meat and fish as sources of protein, with rice or potatoes. Successful elimination diets for cats include lamb, chicken, rabbit or venison, with rice. Improvement in clinical signs while on the elimination diet is suggestive of food allergy. The diagnosis should be confirmed by feeding the original diet, with the development of clinical signs within 7 to 14 days of feeding. PMID:7848179

Wills, J; Harvey, R

1994-10-01

329

HIV-2 infection, end-stage renal disease and protease inhibitor intolerance: which salvage regimen?  

PubMed

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and enfuvirtide are ineffective against HIV-2 replication. These considerations may have particular significance in the formulation of second-line or salvage regimens for HIV-2 infection when resistance or toxicity precludes the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) or specific nucleoside analogues. We describe a case of a treatment-experienced patient with important limitations in therapeutic options dictated by the presence of HIV-2 infection, severe HIV nephropathy (requiring haemodialysis), intolerance to PIs and clinical contraindications to the use of some nucleoside analogues (anaemia, pancreatic toxicity and high cardiovascular risk). A three-drug regimen based on raltegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine was given, with no major toxicity, good immunological response and complete viral suppression. Our case indicates that regimens based on integrase inhibitors could represent an effective alternative in PI-resistant or PI-intolerant patients with HIV-2, and that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may be used in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring haemodialysis who cannot take other nucleoside analogues because of treatment-limiting adverse effects. PMID:21344955

Francisci, Daniela; Martinelli, Laura; Weimer, Liliana E; Zazzi, Maurizio; Floridia, Marco; Masini, Giulia; Baldelli, Franco

2011-01-01

330

Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity leads to an increase in inflammation and insulin resistance. This study determined antioxidant activity of flaxseed and its role in inflammation and insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people. Methods Using a randomized crossover design, nine obese glucose intolerant people consumed 40 g ground flaxseed or 40 g wheat bran daily for 12 weeks with a 4-week washout period. Plasma inflammation biomarkers (CRP, TNF-?, and IL-6), glucose, insulin, and thiobaribituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were measured before and after of each supplementation. Results Flaxseed supplementation decreased TBARS (p = 0.0215) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.0382). Flaxseed or wheat bran supplementation did not change plasma inflammatory biomarkers. A positive relationship was found between TBARS and HOMA-IR (r = 0.62, p = 0.0003). Conclusions The results of the study weakly support that decreased insulin resistance might have been secondary to antioxidant activity of flaxseed. However, the mechanism(s) of decreased insulin resistance by flaxseed should be further determined using flaxseed lignan. PMID:21554710

2011-01-01

331

Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: results from a reputation-based model.  

PubMed

When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance. PMID:25215779

Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A; Cuesta, José A

2014-08-01

332

Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: Results from a reputation-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.

Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.

2014-08-01

333

[Intolerance of gluten--a new disease or undiagnosed celiac disease].  

PubMed

The prevalence of celiac disease is about 1% in the population and is growing due to the wide use of immunological methods of diagnosis. In recent years, in-depth research of the celiac disease has led not only to an increase in the number of patients with celiac disease, but also to the emergence of a broad spectrum of diseases associated with the ingestion of gluten. In this regard, a new pathology, known as "gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity", attracted special attention of researchers. Studies in recent years have established that patients with this pathology may have both gastrointestinal symptoms and extraintestinal manifestations. Examinations of such patients usually do not find histological changes of the mucous membrane of the small intestine and autoimmune antibodies (to tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and endomysial (EMA)); however an increased level of gliadin antibodies (AGA) is often observed. Allergy to gluten is also absent. A gluten-free diet for such patients, like in case of the celiac disease, leads to the disappearance of clinical symptoms. Exact criteria for the diagnosis of this nosology have not been identified so far, but most researchers believe that prevalence of "gluten intolerance" is much higher than that of celiac disease. PMID:22830230

Sabel'nikova, E A

2012-01-01

334

Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Renin Exhibit Glucose Intolerance and Diet-Genotype Interactions  

PubMed Central

Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass. PMID:23308073

Fletcher, Sarah J.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Kim, Jung Han; Saxton, Arnold M.; Wasserman, David H.; De Taeye, Bart; Voy, Brynn H.; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

2013-01-01

335

Manufacture of low lactose concentrated ultrafiltered-diafiltered retentate from buffalo milk and skim milk.  

PubMed

Lactose concentration was reduced by 68.64 and 74.64 % in buffalo milk and skim milk by their respective 3.05 fold and 4.4 fold UF-DF concentration. The maximum UF-DF concentration of buffalo milk to 66.65 % volume reduction was observed as compared to 74.35 % volume reduction in buffalo skim milk. Average initial permeate flux rate of buffalo milk (42.86 l/h/m(2)) was much lower than skim milk (71.43 l/h/m(2)), which dropped to 2.86 and 5.95 l/h/m(2) during UF-DF concentration. The initial permeate flux rate of homogenized buffalo milk (26.79 l/h/m(2)) was comparatively lower than that of buffalo milk which dropped to 2.38 l/h/m(2) after 66.33 % volume reduction and 3.02 fold UF-DF concentration. PMID:24493903

Solanki, Puneet; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2014-02-01

336

Dynamic modeling of gene expression in prokaryotes: application to glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Coexpression of genes or, more generally, similarity in the expression profiles poses an unsurmountable obstacle to inferring the gene regulatory network (GRN) based solely on data from DNA microarray time series. Clustering of genes with similar expression profiles allows for a course-grained view of the GRN and a probabilistic determination of the connectivity among the clusters. We present a model for the temporal evolution of a gene cluster network which takes into account interactions of gene products with genes and, through a non-constant degradation rate, with other gene products. The number of model parameters is reduced by using polynomial functions to interpolate temporal data points. In this manner, the task of parameter estimation is reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations, thus making the computation time shorter by orders of magnitude. To eliminate irrelevant networks, we test each GRN for stability with respect to parameter variations, and impose restrictions on its behavior near the steady state. We apply our model and methods to DNA microarray time series' data collected on Escherichia coli during glucose-lactose diauxie and infer the most probable cluster network for different phases of the experiment.

Jaroslav Albert; Marianne Rooman

2011-06-01

337

Milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose activates intestinal CD11c+ cells through TLR4  

PubMed Central

Breast milk oligosaccharides shape the intestinal environment by affecting mucosal immunity and bacterial colonization. To clarify the role of milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose (3SL) in intestinal physiology and disease, we investigated colitis development in Il10?/? mice exposed to normal or 3SL-deficient milk during lactation. Onset and progression of intestinal inflammation were delayed in Il10?/? mice deficient for the ?2,3 sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) responsible for 3SL biosynthesis. The proinflammatory role of 3SL was confirmed by showing that oral supplementation of newborn Il10?/?;St3gal4?/? mice with 3SL increased colitis severity. Conversely, fostering of newborn Il10?/? mice to lactating St3gal4?/? mothers reduced colitis severity. 3SL directly stimulated mesenteric lymph node CD11c+ dendritic cells and induced production of cytokines required for expansion of TH1 and TH17 T cells. The stimulatory effect of 3SL was attenuated in Tlr4-deficient CD11c+ cells, demonstrating that 3SL induces inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus, 3SL directly modulates mucosal immunity, which increases susceptibility to colitis. PMID:24101501

Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Hennet, Thierry; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Borsig, Lubor

2013-01-01

338

Investigating the moisture-induced crystallization kinetics of spray-dried lactose.  

PubMed

Gravimetric water sorption experiments were performed to study the crystallization behavior of amorphous spray-dried lactose over a wide range of temperature and humidity conditions. Experiments performed at 25 degrees C between 48 and 60% relative humidity (RH) showed that the onset time to crystallization increased dramatically with decreasing humidity. At 55% RH and above, crystallization occurred in a single detectable step, while below a two-step process was observed. Experiments performed at 51% RH between 22 and 32 degrees C indicated the induction time to crystallization onset increased with decreasing temperature. Above 25 degrees C at 51% RH, crystallization occurred in one measurable step, while below crystallization occurred in two steps. The constant RH with varying temperature results were modeled to determine the crystallization mechanism. Above 25 degrees C a mechanism consisting of two competing reaction sequences fit the data with a 0.9997 correlation coefficient. Both reaction sequences have two steps: an auto-catalytic first step is followed by a three-dimensional diffusion controlled water loss step. PMID:16466870

Burnett, D J; Thielmann, F; Sokoloski, T; Brum, J

2006-04-26

339

The quantification of small degrees of disorder in lactose using solution calorimetry.  

PubMed

There is a realisation that small quantities of amorphous material can have a significant impact on the properties of crystalline solids. Consequently there is a growing interest in quantifying the amount of amorphous material that is present in "crystalline powders". Success has been reported when using isothermal microcalorimetry and vapour sorption techniques, however, the use of solution calorimetry has largely been ignored. In this study the enthalpies of solution of mixtures of amorphous and crystalline lactose are reported concentrating on the range 0-10% w/w amorphous content. It was found that there was a possible error due to water vapour penetration into the ampoule, resulting in crystallisation of the amorphous content, however this was overcome by double sealing the ampoules with wax. Subsequently there was a good correlation between the enthalpy of solution and the amorphous content, which was not adversely affected by stirring rate used during the experiment. Over the range from 0 to 10% amorphous content, quantification of the amorphous content of an unknown would be good to +/-0.5%. The effects of residual moisture retained within a sample were also investigated. Storage at 33% or 43% RH resulted in a much reduced wetting (exothermic) response compared with that seen for completely dry samples, which in turn led to a higher net enthalpy of solution. PMID:11036230

Hogan, S E; Buckton, G

2000-10-10

340

Milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose activates intestinal CD11c+ cells through TLR4.  

PubMed

Breast milk oligosaccharides shape the intestinal environment by affecting mucosal immunity and bacterial colonization. To clarify the role of milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose (3SL) in intestinal physiology and disease, we investigated colitis development in Il10(-/-) mice exposed to normal or 3SL-deficient milk during lactation. Onset and progression of intestinal inflammation were delayed in Il10(-/-) mice deficient for the ?2,3 sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) responsible for 3SL biosynthesis. The proinflammatory role of 3SL was confirmed by showing that oral supplementation of newborn Il10(-/-);St3gal4(-/-) mice with 3SL increased colitis severity. Conversely, fostering of newborn Il10(-/-) mice to lactating St3gal4(-/-) mothers reduced colitis severity. 3SL directly stimulated mesenteric lymph node CD11c(+) dendritic cells and induced production of cytokines required for expansion of TH1 and TH17 T cells. The stimulatory effect of 3SL was attenuated in Tlr4-deficient CD11c(+) cells, demonstrating that 3SL induces inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus, 3SL directly modulates mucosal immunity, which increases susceptibility to colitis. PMID:24101501

Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Hennet, Thierry; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Borsig, Lubor

2013-10-22

341

Continuous lactose fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum--assessment of energetics and product yields of the acidogenesis.  

PubMed

An assessment of both the growth and the metabolism of acidogenic cells Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 is reported in the paper. Tests were carried out in a CSTR under controlled pH conditions. Cultures were carried out using a semi-synthetic medium supplemented with lactose as carbon source. Acids and solvents, that represent products of the ABE process, have been purposely added in controlled amounts to the culture medium to investigate their effects on the product yields. The mass fractional yield of biomass and products were expressed as a function of the specific growth rate taking into account the Pirt model. The maximum ATP yield and the maintenance resulted 29.1 g(DM)/mol(ATP) and 0.012 mol(ATP)/g(DM)h, respectively. Quantitative features of the C. acetobutylicum growth model were in good agreement with experimental results. The model proposes as a tool to estimate the mass fractional yield even for fermentations carried out under conditions typical of the solventogenesis. PMID:22305171

Napoli, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

2012-03-10

342

Simplified scheme for identification of prompt lactose-fermenting members of the Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

A brief, simplified scheme involving the spot indole test and colonial morphology was evaluated for genus level identification of prompt lactose-fermenting (PLF) members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One hundred and ninety-four consecutive, clinically important PLF gram-negative rods isolated in a clinical microbiology laboratory were identified by this simplified scheme, as well as by standard biochemical tests, and the API 20E (Analytab Products, Inc., Plainview, N.Y.) system. In the simplified scheme a flat, spot indole-positive colony was identified as Escherichia coli. Spot indole-negative organisms forming nucoid colonies were identified as Klebsiella sp. or Enterobacter sp. on the basis of semisolid motility and ornithine decarboxylase tests. Approximately 94% of the study isolates followed reactions typical for E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Enterobacter sp. as defined by this simplified scheme. When compared with the standard and Analytab Products Inc. identifications, the overall accuracy was 97.4%. The accuracy of identification of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Enterobacter sp. was 98.1%, 95.6%, and 87.5%, respectively. This simplified scheme is recommended for identification of selected PLF isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:794078

Hicks, M J; Ryan, K J

1976-01-01

343

High-level succinic acid production and yield by lactose-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in ptsG mutant Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli strains with foreign genes under the isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible promoters such as lac, tac, and trc were engineered and considered as the promising succinic acid-producing bacteria in many reports. The promoters mentioned\\u000a above could also be induced by lactose, which had not been attempted for succinic acid production before. Here, the efficient\\u000a utilization of lactose as inducer was demonstrated in

Dan Wang; Qiang Li; Yu Mao; Jianmin Xing; Zhiguo Su

2010-01-01

344

Moisture-induced surface crystallization of spray-dried amorphous lactose particles studied by atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to show that atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to obtain mechanistic and kinetic information about the process of moisture-induced surface crystallization of single particles of amorphous lactose. Completely amorphous lactose particles were prepared by spray-drying a solution of alpha-lactose monohydrate, and moisture-induced crystallization was monitored for a bed of particles by microcalorimetry and for single particles by AFM. From the AFM images it was found that crystallization of the surface of single particles can be described in terms of a sequence of three events: an initial smoothening of the surface, formation of crystalline nanostructures dispersed in amorphous material, and growth of these structures to a complete crystalline surface. The surface roughness parameter rugosity was used to estimate the fraction crystalline surface, and the growth kinetics were found to obey the JMAK equation. The fraction crystalline surface at different times could also be estimated by determining the growth rate of individual crystals. It was concluded that AFM offers a unique means of visualizing the process of moisture-induced surface crystallization of amorphous particles and enables mechanistic and kinetic information about the process to be extracted. PMID:14648633

Mahlin, Denny; Berggren, Jonas; Alderborn, Göran; Engström, Sven

2004-01-01

345

The acid tolerant and cold-active ?-galactosidase from Lactococcus lactis strain is an attractive biocatalyst for lactose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the ?-galactosidase from the dairy Lactococcus lactis IL1403 strain was cloned, sequenced and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme has a tetrameric arrangement composed of four identical 120 kDa subunits. Biochemical characterization showed that it is optimally active within a wide range of temperatures from 15 to 55 °C and of pH from 6.0 to 7.5. For its maximal activity this enzyme requires only 0.8 mM Fe(2+) and 1.6 mM Mg(2+). Purified protein displayed a high catalytic efficiency of 102 s(-1) mM(-1) for lactose. The enzyme stability was increased by immobilization mainly at low pH (from 4.0 to 5.5) and high temperatures (55 and 60 °C). The bioconversion of lactose using the L. lactis ?-galactosidase allows the production of lactose with a high bioconversion rate (98 %) within a wide range of pH and temperature. PMID:23180374

Vincent, Violette; Aghajari, Nushin; Pollet, Noémie; Boisson, Anaïs; Boudebbouze, Samira; Haser, Richard; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

2013-04-01

346

What People with Diabetes Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Diabetes ...

347

What People with Lupus Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Lupus ...

348

What Prostate Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking

349

What People with Asthma Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking

350

What People with Celiac Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Celiac ...

351

What People with Anorexia Nervosa Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Anorexia ...

352

Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking

353

Time-resolved study of the inner space of lactose permease.  

PubMed Central

Pyranine (8-hydroxy pyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate) is a commonly used photoacid that discharges a proton when excited to its first electronic singlet state. Follow-up of its dissociation kinetics reveals the physicochemical properties of its most immediate environment. At vanishing ionic strength the dye adsorbs to the Escherichia coli lactose permease with stoichiometry of 1:1 and an association constant of 2.5 x 10(5) M(-1). The reversal of the binding at high ionic strength and the lower pK value of the bound dye imply that positive charge(s) stabilize the dye in its site. The fluorescence decay curve of the bound dye was measured by time-correlated single photon counting and the measured transient was subjected to kinetic analysis based on the geminate recombination model. The analysis indicated that the binding domain is a cleft (between 9 and 17 A deep) characterized by low activity of water (a((water)) = 0.71), reduced diffusivity of protons, and enhanced electrostatic potential. The binding of pyranine and a substrate are not mutually exclusive; however, when the substrate is added, the dye-binding environment is better solvated. These properties, if attributed to the substrate-conducting pathway, may explain some of the forces operating on the substrate in the cavity. The reduced activities of the water strips the substrate from some of its solvation water molecules and replace them by direct interaction with the protein. In parallel, the lower dielectric constant enhances the binding of the proton to the protein, thus keeping a tight seal that prevents protons from diffusing. PMID:11222310

Nachliel, E; Pollak, N; Huppert, D; Gutman, M

2001-01-01

354

Monitoring DNA binding to Escherichia coli lactose repressor using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.  

PubMed

Lactose repressor protein (LacI) functions as a negative transcription regulator in Escherichia coli by binding to the operator DNA sequence. Our understanding of the immobilized LacI function and the effect of ligand binding on the conformation of LacI-DNA complexes remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined the difference in functionality of wild-type and mutant LacI binding to the target DNA using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). To direct the orientation of LacI binding to the gold surface, residue 334 was substituted with cysteine (T334C) to generate a sulfur-gold linkage. Position 334 is located on the surface opposite the DNA-binding domain and remote from the site for inducer binding. With T334C immobilized on the gold surface, our sensors successfully detect operator binding as well as the release of the operator DNA from the repressor in the presence of inducer isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Besides the natural operator DNA sequence (O(1)), a symmetric high-affinity DNA sequence (O(sym)), and a non-specific DNA (O(ns)) sequence with low affinity were also used. In addition, the impact of anti-inducer o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-fucoside (ONPF), which stabilizes LacI operator binding, was examined. The results from immobilized mutant LacI are in good agreement with known solution parameters for LacI-ligand interactions, demonstrating that QCM-D provides a rapid and efficient measurement of DNA binding and impact of ligands upon binding for this complex oligomeric protein. PMID:21410208

Xu, Jia; Liu, Kai-Wei; Matthews, Kathleen S; Biswal, Sibani L

2011-04-19

355

Opening the periplasmic cavity in lactose permease is the limiting step for sugar binding.  

PubMed

The lactose permease (LacY) catalyzes galactoside/H(+) symport via an alternating access mechanism in which sugar- and H(+)-binding sites in the middle of the molecule are alternatively exposed to either side of the membrane by opening and closing of inward- and outward-facing cavities. The crystal structures of wild-type LacY, as well as accessibility data for the protein in the membrane, provide strong support for a conformation with a tightly closed periplasmic side and an open cytoplasmic side (an inward-facing conformation). In this study, rates of substrate binding were measured by stopped-flow with purified LacY either in detergent or in reconstituted proteoliposomes. Binding rates are compared with rates of sugar-induced opening of the periplasmic pathway obtained by using a recently developed method based on unquenching of Trp fluorescence. A linear dependence of galactoside-binding rates on sugar concentration is observed in detergent, whereas reconstituted LacY binds substrate at a slower rate that is independent of sugar concentration. Rates of opening of the periplasmic cavity with LacY in detergent are independent of substrate concentration and are essentially the same for different galactosidic sugars. The findings demonstrate clearly that reconstituted LacY is oriented physiologically with a closed periplasmic side that limits access of sugar to the binding site. Moreover, opening of the periplasmic cavity is the limiting factor for sugar binding with reconstituted LacY and may be the limiting step in the overall transport reaction. PMID:21896727

Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Sugihara, Junichi; Kaback, H Ronald

2011-09-13

356

Update on the theory and management of orthostatic intolerance and related syndromes in adolescents and children  

PubMed Central

Orthostasis means standing upright. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. ‘Initial orthostatic hypotension’ on rapid standing is a normal form of OI. However, other people experience OI that seriously interferes with quality of life. These include episodic acute OI, in the form of postural vasovagal syncope, and chronic OI, in the form of postural tachycardia syndrome. Less common is neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, which is an aspect of autonomic failure. Normal orthostatic physiology and potential mechanisms for OI are discussed, including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution. General and specific treatment options are proposed. PMID:23244360

Stewart, Julian M

2014-01-01

357

Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: results from a model with reputation  

E-print Network

When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping or not others, and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as 'leading eight') enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one out of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, skin colour...) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviours can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyse the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree ...

Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A

2014-01-01

358

Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

2010-01-01

359

Transferrin hypoglycosylation in hereditary fructose intolerance: using the clues and avoiding the pitfalls.  

PubMed

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is caused by a deficiency of aldolase B due to mutations of the ALDOB gene. The disease poses diagnostic problems because of unspecific clinical manifestations. We report three cases of HFI all of whom had a chronic disease with neurological, nephrological or gastroenterological symptoms, whereas nutritional fructose intolerance, the pathognomonic sign of HFI, was apparent only in retrospect. In all patients a hypoglycosylated pattern of transferrin isoforms was found but was misinterpreted as a sign of CDG Ix. The correct diagnosis was achieved with marked delay (26, 36 and 24 months, respectively) by sequencing of the ALDOB gene two common mutations were identified on both alleles or on one (A150P/A175D, A150P/-, and A150P/A175D). The diagnosis was further supported by normalization of transferrin isoforms on a fructose-free diet. Data available in two patients showed that following the fructose restriction the type I pattern of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin detectable on fructose-containing diet disappeared after 3-4 weeks. These cases illustrate that in the first years of life HFI may show misleading variability in clinical presentation and that protein glycosylation analysis such as transferrin isofocusing may give important diagnostic clues. However, care should be taken not to misinterpret the abnormal results as CDG Ix as well as to remember that a normal profile does not exclude HFI due to the possibility of spontaneous fructose restriction in the diet. The presented data also emphasize the usefulness of ALDOB mutation screening for diagnosis of HFI. PMID:17457694

Adamowicz, M; P?oski, R; Rokicki, D; Morava, E; Gizewska, M; Mierzewska, H; Pollak, A; Lefeber, D J; Wevers, R A; Pronicka, E

2007-06-01

360

PPAR? activation attenuates glucose intolerance induced by mTOR inhibition with rapamycin in rats.  

PubMed

mTOR inhibition with rapamycin induces a diabetes-like syndrome characterized by severe glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which is due to increased hepatic glucose production as well as reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake and adipose tissue PPAR? activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological PPAR? activation attenuates the diabetes-like syndrome associated with chronic mTOR inhibition. Rats treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in combination or not with the PPAR? ligand rosiglitazone (15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 15 days were evaluated for insulin secretion, glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake, and insulin signaling. Rosiglitazone corrected fasting hyperglycemia, attenuated the glucose and insulin intolerances, and abolished the increase in fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels induced by rapamycin. Surprisingly, rosiglitazone markedly increased the plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to refeeding in rapamycin-treated rats. Furthermore, rosiglitazone partially attenuated rapamycin-induced gluconeogenesis, as evidenced by the improved pyruvate tolerance and reduced mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Rosiglitazone also restored insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and its incorporation into glycogen in skeletal muscle of rapamycin-treated rats, which was associated with normalization of Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. However, the rapamycin-mediated impairments of adipose tissue glucose uptake and incorporation into triacylglycerol were unaffected by rosiglitazone. Our findings indicate that PPAR? activation ameliorates some of the disturbances in glucose homeostasis and insulin action associated with chronic rapamycin treatment by reducing gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion and restoring muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake. PMID:24619883

Festuccia, William T; Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Belchior, Thiago; Chimin, Patricia; Paschoal, Vivian A; Magdalon, Juliana; Hirabara, Sandro M; Simões, Daniel; St-Pierre, Philippe; Carpinelli, Angelo; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves

2014-05-01

361

Hepatic Glucose Intolerance Precedes Hepatic Steatosis in the Male Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) Mouse  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are known to play a role in modulating metabolic processes within the body. The Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice have been shown to harbor factors of Metabolic syndrome with central adiposity, hyperinsulinemia and male-specific hepatic steatosis. To determine the effects of estrogen ablation and subsequent replacement in males on whole body glucose metabolism, three- and six-month-old male ArKO mice were subjected to whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests and analyzed for ensuing metabolic changes in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Estrogen-deficient male ArKO mice showed increased gonadal adiposity which was significantly reduced upon 17?-estradiol (E2) treatment. Concurrently, elevated ArKO serum leptin levels were significantly reduced upon E2 treatment and lowered serum adiponectin levels were restored to wild type levels. Three-month-old male ArKO mice were hyperglycemic, and both glucose and pyruvate intolerant. These phenotypes continued through to 6 months of age, highlighting a loss of glycemic control. ArKO livers displayed changes in gluconeogenic enzyme expression, and in insulin signaling pathways upon E2 treatment. Liver triglycerides were increased in the ArKO males only after 6 months of age, which could be reversed by E2 treatment. No differences were observed in insulin-stimulated ex vivo muscle glucose uptake nor changes in ArKO adipose tissue and muscle insulin signaling pathways. Therefore, we conclude that male ArKO mice develop hepatic glucose intolerance by the age of 3 months which precedes the sex-specific development of hepatic steatosis. This can be reversed upon the administration of exogenous E2. PMID:24520329

Van Sinderen, Michelle L.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; J?rgensen, Sebastian B.; To, Sarah Q.; Knower, Kevin C.; Clyne, Colin D.; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D.; Herridge, Kerrie A.; Jones, Margaret E. E.; Simpson, Evan R.; Boon, Wah Chin

2014-01-01

362

Muscle oxygen transport and utilization in heart failure: implications for exercise (in)tolerance  

PubMed Central

The defining characteristic of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an exercise intolerance that is inextricably linked to structural and functional aberrations in the O2 transport pathway. CHF reduces muscle O2 supply while simultaneously increasing O2 demands. CHF severity varies from moderate to severe and is assessed commonly in terms of the maximum O2 uptake, which relates closely to patient morbidity and mortality in CHF and forms the basis for Weber and colleagues' (167) classifications of heart failure, speed of the O2 uptake kinetics following exercise onset and during recovery, and the capacity to perform submaximal exercise. As the heart fails, cardiovascular regulation shifts from controlling cardiac output as a means for supplying the oxidative energetic needs of exercising skeletal muscle and other organs to preventing catastrophic swings in blood pressure. This shift is mediated by a complex array of events that include altered reflex and humoral control of the circulation, required to prevent the skeletal muscle “sleeping giant” from outstripping the pathologically limited cardiac output and secondarily impacts lung (and respiratory muscle), vascular, and locomotory muscle function. Recently, interest has also focused on the dysregulation of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? as well as reactive oxygen species as mediators of systemic and muscle dysfunction. This brief review focuses on skeletal muscle to address the mechanistic bases for the reduced maximum O2 uptake, slowed O2 uptake kinetics, and exercise intolerance in CHF. Experimental evidence in humans and animal models of CHF unveils the microvascular cause(s) and consequences of the O2 supply (decreased)/O2 demand (increased) imbalance emblematic of CHF. Therapeutic strategies to improve muscle microvascular and oxidative function (e.g., exercise training and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant strategies, in particular) and hence patient exercise tolerance and quality of life are presented within their appropriate context of the O2 transport pathway. PMID:22101528

Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Musch, Timothy I.

2012-01-01

363

Busulfan in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) resistant or intolerant to hydroxyurea are limited. Busulfan is effective as first-line therapy, but there is scarce information on this drug as second-line treatment. The efficacy of busulfan in patients with advanced PV or ET refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea was assessed in 36 patients (PV n?=?15, ET n?=?21) treated for a median of 256 days. Complete hematological response (CHR) was achieved in 83 % of patients, after a median time of 203 days (range 92-313). The probability of sustained CHR at 1 and 2 years was 87 and 62 %, respectively. Time to CHR was shorter in patients treated with ?14 mg of busulfan per week than with lower doses (141 versus 336 days, p?=?0.01). Partial molecular response was achieved in three out of nine (33 %) patients. Busulfan was stopped in 27 patients (75 %) due to CHR achievement in 18 cases (67 %), hematological toxicity in 8 cases (30 %), and disease transformation in 1 case. With a median follow-up of 721 days, six patients have died, with the probability of survival at 2 years being 85 %. The probability of thrombosis at 2 years was 11 %. Transformation into acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in three cases, all of them in a JAK2V617F-negative clone carrying additional mutations. Busulfan, at a dose of 2 mg/day, is an effective option for elderly patients with PV or ET who fail to hydroxyurea, but a significant rate of transformation was observed. PMID:24981691

Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Hernández-Boluda, Juan Carlos; Ferrer-Marín, Francisca; Antelo, María Luisa; Burgaleta, Carmen; Mata, M Isabel; Xicoy, Blanca; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Gómez-Casares, M Teresa; Durán, M Antonia; Marcote, Bárbara; Ancochea, Agueda; Senín, Alicia; Angona, Anna; Gómez, Montse; Vicente, Vicente; Cervantes, Francisco; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles

2014-12-01

364

Mycophenolate mofetil for maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis in patients resistant to or intolerant of azathioprine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Azathioprine is standard therapy for maintenance of remission in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. However, approximately 15% of patients are intolerant of therapy and 10% do not respond to it. There is a need for alternative therapies. We describe here the results of mycophenolate mofetil therapy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.Patients: We studied seven patients with type 1 AIH (six

Paul D Richardson; Peter D James; Stephen D Ryder

2000-01-01

365

Shaking Up the Status Quo: Challenging Intolerance of the Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Community at a Private Roman Catholic University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prejudice and discrimination against lesbian, gay and bisexual students, faculty, and staff on college campuses is an important issue that demands attention. Intolerance for the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community is often intensified by a lack of knowledge and understanding between heterosexuals and the LGB community, a problem that could…

Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn

2006-01-01

366

The Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America. Student Text ("Us and Them") and Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Shadow of Hate" resource kit provides a videotape program (40 minutes), 20 copies of a 128-page student text ("Us and Them"), and a 32-page teacher's guide. This document consists of single copies of the two printed components of this kit. The resource traces the history of racial, religious, and social intolerance in the United States.…

Carnes, Jim; Roberson, Houston

367

Cardiovascular deconditioning during weightlessness simulation and the use of Lower Body Negative Pressure as a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cardiovascular function is one of the main disturbed by weightlessness: it is particularly affected by the astronaut's return to Earth, where symptoms linked to the cardiovascular deconditioning syndrom appear in the following forms: (1) orthostatic intolerance with its risk of syncope: (2) higher submaximal oxygen consumption for an equivalent work load. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) is intended to stimulate the venous system of the lower limbs; however, the specific effects of periodical LBNP sessions on the orthostatic intolerance have never been studied. With this objective in mind, 5 volunteers took part in two recent antiorthostatic bedrest experiments for 30 days. In the first experiment 3 subjects were submitted to several sessions of LBNP experiment per day and 2 others were controls; in the second experiment the LBNP group of the 1st one became controls and vice-versa. Two orthostatic investigations were performed: (1) 5 days before the bedrest; (2) at the end of the 30 day bedrest period. The results showed: (1) when the subjects were controls, a high orthostatic intolerance post bedrest with 3 syncopes and one presyncopal state during the first minutes of the tilt test; (2) when the subjects were submitted to LBNP sessions, no orthostatic intolerance.

Güell, Antonio; Braak, Laurent; le Traon, Anne Pavy; Gharib, Claude

368

Intolerance of Uncertainty as a Framework for Understanding Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is a problem for many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). There is a paucity of models of the cognitive processes underlying this. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has utility in explaining anxiety in neurotypical populations but has only recently received attention in ASD. We modelled the relationship between anxiety…

Boulter, Christina; Freeston, Mark; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui

2014-01-01

369

Beneficial effect of dietary Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major contributor to both glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Ephedra sinica on high-fat diet-fed mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups; the normal group, the obese and diabetic control group treated with a high-fat diet, the positive control group treated with a high-fat diet containing acarbose, and the experimental group treated with a high-fat diet containing Ephedra sinica. The effects of Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance were measured by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma biochemistry, body and epididymal fat weight; the expression of adiponectin, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and leptin was also determined. Ephedra sinica reduced weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation, improved glucose intolerance on the OGTT, decreased triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the controls. Moreover, it reduced weight gain and fasting glucose levels and improved HDL-cholesterol levels more than acarbose. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ephedra sinica upregulated the expression of adiponectin and PPAR-?, and downregulated the expression of TNF-?. From these results, we suggest that Ephedra sinica may reduce obesity and hyperglycemia by increasing PPAR-? and adiponectin and reducing TNF-?, and that it may have the potential to be used clinically as an ingredient in food or drugs effective in obesity-related glucose intolerance treatments. PMID:22969956

Song, Moon-Koo; Um, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Byung-Cheol

2012-04-01

370

Biological control of intolerant hardwood competition: Silvicultural efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum and worker productivity in conifer plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vigorous vegetative reproduction of intolerant deciduous competition limits the efficacy of mechanical release operations in young softwood plantations. Applying bioherbicides such as the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouzar could improve the effectiveness of release by reducing stump sprouting while gaining public acceptance. A field experiment was conducted in Québec (Canada) in two white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench

Vincent Roy; Denise Dubeau; Isabelle Auger

2010-01-01

371

Agreement between milk fat, protein, and lactose observations collected from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) and a real-time milk analyzer.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to quantify the agreement between AfiLab real-time milk analyzer (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) measures for fat, protein, and lactose based on near-infrared spectrum light scattering, and those collected on Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test days and measured with the Bentley 2000 analyzer (Bentley Instruments Inc., Chaska, MN), which uses mid-infrared spectrum light. The AfiLab data were collected twice daily for each milking cow in the herd at 12-h intervals from the double-12 parlor at the University of Florida Dairy Unit (Hague, FL) from January 2010 to December 2011. Bentley data for the 23 DHIA test days in 2010 and 2011 were also obtained. Approximately 450 cows were tested each month. Tested milk was collected during 1 milking each month, alternating monthly between morning and evening milkings. AfiLab data were matched with Bentley fat and protein (n=10,273; 23 test days) and lactose (n=6,741; 16 test days). Overall means ± standard deviations (SD) of monthly mean Bentley fat, protein, and lactose were 3.74 ± 0.80%, 3.06 ± 0.37%, and 4.76 ± 0.30%, respectively. Overall means ± SD of monthly mean AfiLab minus Bentley observations were -0.08 ± 0.12 percentage points (PP) for fat (n=23), 0.02 ± 0.11 PP for protein (n=23), and -0.02 ± 0.08 PP for lactose (n=16). Overall means ± SD of monthly within-test-day SD of AfiLab minus Bentley observations were 0.66 ± 0.11 PP for fat, 0.27 ± 0.03 PP for protein, and 0.26 ± 0.03 PP for lactose. Overall means ± SD of the corresponding monthly correlations were 0.59 ± 0.09 for fat, 0.67 ± 0.04 for protein, and 0.46 ± 0.08 for lactose. Averaging the AfiLab observations from up to 6 milkings before and after the test-day milking improved the agreement for protein and lactose but not for fat. Averaging the 13 protein observations improved the mean difference to 0.01 ± 0.10 PP and the SD of the difference to 0.23 ± 0.03 PP. The correlation increased to 0.78 ± 0.04. Averaging the 13 lactose observations improved the SD of the difference to 0.23 ± 0.02 PP, but the mean of the difference decreased to -0.03 ± 0.09 PP. The correlation for lactose increased to 0.55 ± 0.05. Generally, AfiLab slightly overestimated low Bentley components and underestimated high Bentley components. We found some evidence for a systematic cow effect on lack of agreement for lactose, but not for fat and protein. The agreement between AfiLab and Bentley observations was better for protein and lactose than that for fat. Combinations of AfiLab observations from various milkings improved the agreement for protein and lactose. AfiLab real-time milk analyzers may be helpful to estimate DHIA observations. PMID:24630652

Kaniyamattam, K; De Vries, A

2014-05-01

372

Use of whey lactose from dairy industry for economical kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in mixed cultures with yeasts.  

PubMed

To evaluate the feasibility of producing kefiran industrially, whey lactose, a by-product from dairy industry, was used as a low cost carbon source. Because the accumulation of lactic acid as a by-product of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens inhibited cell growth and kefiran production, the kefir grain derived and non-derived yeasts were screened for their abilities to reduce lactic acid and promote kefiran production in a mixed culture. Six species of yeasts were examined: Torulaspora delbrueckii IFO 1626; Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216; Debaryomyces hansenii TISTR 5155; Saccharomyces exiguus TISTR 5081; Zygosaccharomyces rouxii TISTR 5044; and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis TISTR 5018. The mixed culture of L. kefiranofaciens with S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 enhanced the kefiran production best from 568 mg/L in the pure culture up to 807 and 938 mg/L in the mixed cultures under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, respectively. The optimal conditions for kefiran production by the mixed culture were: whey lactose 4%; yeast extract 4%; initial pH of 5.5; and initial amounts of L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 of 2.1×10(7) and 4.0×10(6)CFU/mL, respectively. Scaling up the mixed culture in a 2L bioreactor with dissolved oxygen control at 5% and pH control at 5.5 gave the maximum kefiran production of 2,580 mg/L in batch culture and 3,250 mg/L in fed-batch culture. PMID:21315193

Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Radchabut, Sirilaor

2011-10-01

373

High level production of ?-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.  

PubMed

A ?-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant ?-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the ?-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries. PMID:24435763

Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

2014-03-01

374

Faox enzymes inhibited Maillard reaction development during storage both in protein glucose model system and low lactose UHT milk.  

PubMed

Fructosamines, also known as Amadori products, are formed by the condensation of glucose with the amino group of amino acids or proteins. These compounds are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can be formed either endogenously during aging and diabetes, and exogenously in heat-processed food. The negative effects of dietary AGEs on human health as well as their negative impact on the quality of dairy products have been widely described, therefore specific tools able to prevent the formation of glycation products are needed. Two fructosamine oxidase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus sp. namely, Faox I and Faox II catalyze the oxidative deglycation of Amadori products representing a potential tool for inhibiting the Maillard reaction in dairy products. In this paper, the ability of recombinant Faox I and II in limiting the formation of carboxy-methyl lysine (CML) and protein-bound hydroxymethyl furfurol (b-HMF) in a commercial UHT low lactose milk and a beta-lactoglobulin (?-LG) glucose model system was investigated. Results show a consistent reduction of CML and b-HMF under all conditions. Faox effects were particularly evident on b-HMF formation in low lactose commercial milk. Peptide analysis of the ?-LG glucose system identified some peptides, derived from cyanogen bromide hydrolysis, as suitable candidates to monitor Faox action in milk-based products. All in all data suggested that non-enzymatic reactions in dairy products might be strongly reduced by implementing Faox enzymes. PMID:23604465

Troise, Antonio Dario; Dathan, Nina A; Fiore, Alberto; Roviello, Giovanni; Di Fiore, Anna; Caira, Simonetta; Cuollo, Marina; De Simone, Giuseppina; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M

2014-02-01

375

Rle du lactose dans la formation d'entrocolite ulcroncrosante (ecun) exprimentale chez la caille gnotoxnique monoassocie des souches de Clostridium butyricum  

E-print Network

production d'hydrogène est de 9 cm3/24 h/100g en moyenne. En conlusion, la présence de lactose dans le régime études en cours détermineront si cette enzyme est responsable in vivo de la production élevée dRôle du lactose dans la formation d'entérocolite ulcéronécrosante (ecun) expérimentale chez la

Boyer, Edmond

376

Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs  

PubMed Central

With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

377

Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs.  

PubMed

With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

378

ALCAPA Presents in an Adult with Exercise Intolerance but Preserved Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly that usually manifests as severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency during the first one to two months of life. The majority of these cases die in infancy if not corrected early upon presentation. Adulthood presentation is rare and most of the untreated patients who reach adulthood present with left ventricular dysfunction, severe mitral regurgitation, and sometimes myocardial infarction. Here we report a case of a 20-year-old woman with a history of exercise intolerance since childhood that was misinterpreted as asthma until a 2D-Echo revealed ALCAPA with RCA collaterals to the left anterior descending artery, preserved LV ejection fraction, and absence of apparent mitral valve abnormality. One month after the ALCAPA diagnosis, she successfully underwent surgical reconstruction of left main and pulmonary artery without any major complications. She had normal left ventricular function without apparent ischemic cardiac symptoms eighteen months after procedure. PMID:24826255

Liu, Yan; Miller, Beth W.

2012-01-01

379

ALCAPA Presents in an Adult with Exercise Intolerance but Preserved Cardiac Function.  

PubMed

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly that usually manifests as severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency during the first one to two months of life. The majority of these cases die in infancy if not corrected early upon presentation. Adulthood presentation is rare and most of the untreated patients who reach adulthood present with left ventricular dysfunction, severe mitral regurgitation, and sometimes myocardial infarction. Here we report a case of a 20-year-old woman with a history of exercise intolerance since childhood that was misinterpreted as asthma until a 2D-Echo revealed ALCAPA with RCA collaterals to the left anterior descending artery, preserved LV ejection fraction, and absence of apparent mitral valve abnormality. One month after the ALCAPA diagnosis, she successfully underwent surgical reconstruction of left main and pulmonary artery without any major complications. She had normal left ventricular function without apparent ischemic cardiac symptoms eighteen months after procedure. PMID:24826255

Liu, Yan; Miller, Beth W

2012-01-01

380

Intolerance of Uncertainty: A Common Factor in the Treatment of Emotional Disorders  

PubMed Central

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a characteristic predominantly associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, emerging evidence indicates that IU may be a shared element of emotional disorders. Aims This study aimed to examine IU across diagnostic categories, change in IU during transdiagnostic treatment, and the relationship between change in IU and treatment outcome. Method Patients diagnosed with heterogeneous anxiety and depressive disorders received up to 18 weeks of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention. Patient self-reported IU and self-report and clinician-rated symptom/functioning measures were administered at pretreatment and posttreatment. Results When controlling for negative affectivity, IU correlated with measures of depressive symptoms and worry severity at pretreatment. Patients with GAD and panic disorder exhibited the highest pretreatment IU scores, yet IU scores did not differ significantly based on the presence or absence of a specific diagnosis. A significant decrease in IU was observed, and change in IU was related to reduced anxiety and depressive symptom levels at posttreatment across diagnostic categories. Discussion Change in IU can be observed across problem areas in transdiagnostic treatment and such change is correlated with treatment outcome. PMID:23381685

Boswell, James F.; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

381

Increased sympathetic activation in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance: role of systemic adrenoreceptor sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by adrenergic symptoms with standing. Changes in central sympathetic tone or in adrenoreceptor sensitivity could contribute to this syndrome. In OI patients and control subjects, we determined heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes after incremental bolus doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine before and during ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan. SBP decreased by 17+/-1.6 mm Hg in patients and 3.9+/-3.8 mm Hg in control subjects (P<0.01) with trimethaphan. Patients with a larger decrease (28+/-3.8 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP with trimethaphan had greater supine SBP and supine and upright plasma norepinephrine levels than did patients with a lesser decrease (3.0+/-3.0 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP. Supine and orthostatic HRs were similar for the groups. The majority of patients had a normal HR response to isoproterenol before and during ganglionic blockade. Phenylephrine increased SBP similarly in patients and control subjects before and during blockade. Sympathetic support is increased in a subgroup of OI patients. Hyperadrenergic and nonhyperadrenergic subgroups have similar degrees of orthostatic tachycardia. Our findings suggest that the hyperadrenergic features of OI cannot be completely explained by systemic hypersensitivity of postsynaptic alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoreceptors but rather originates in enhanced sympathetic activation.

Jordan, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Black, Bonnie K.; Robertson, David

2002-01-01

382

Calorimetric Properties of Dehydrating Pollen (Analysis of a Desiccation-Tolerant and an Intolerant Species).  

PubMed Central

The physical state of water in the desiccation-tolerant pollen of Typha latifolia L. and the desiccation-sensitive pollen of Zea mays L. was studied using differential scanning calorimetry in an attempt to further unravel the complex mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. Melting transitions of water were not observed at water content (wc) values less than 0.21 (T. latifolia) and 0.26 (Z. mays) g H2O/g dry weight. At moisture levels at which melting transitions were not observable, water properties could be characterized by changes in heat capacity. Three hydration regions could be distinguished with the defining wc values changing as a function of temperature. Shifts in baseline power resembling second-order transitions were observed in both species and were interpreted as glass-to-liquid transitions, the glass-transition temperatures being dependent on wc. Irrespective of the extent of desiccation tolerance, both pollens exhibited similar state diagrams. The viability of maize pollen at room temperature decreased gradually with the removal of the unfrozen water fraction. In maize, viability was completely lost before grains were sufficiently dried to enter into a glassy state. Apparently, the glassy state per se cannot provide desiccation tolerance. From the existing data, we conclude that, although no major differences in the physical behavior of water could be distinguished between desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant pollens, the physiological response to the loss of water varies between the two pollen types. PMID:12226289

Buitink, J.; Walters-Vertucci, C.; Hoekstra, F. A.; Leprince, O.

1996-01-01

383

Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors in the periphery. Recent studies have demonstrated that signals from vestibular otolith organs play an important role in regulating blood pressure during changes in posture in a 1-g environment. Because spaceflight results in plastic changes in the vestibular otolith organs and in the processing of inputs from otolith receptors, it is possible that another contributing factor to postflight orthostatic hypotension is alterations in the gain of vestibular influences on cardiovascular control. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, although controlled studies will be required to determine the relationship between changes in the vestibular system and orthostatic hypotension following exposure to microgravity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Yates, B. J.; Kerman, I. A.

1998-01-01

384

Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

Rubin, Marilyn

1991-01-01

385

"But it might be a heart attack": intolerance of uncertainty and panic disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

Panic disorder models describe interactions between feared anxiety-related physical sensations (i.e., anxiety sensitivity; AS) and catastrophic interpretations therein. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been implicated as necessary for catastrophic interpretations in community samples. The current study examined relationships between IU, AS, and panic disorder symptoms in a clinical sample. Participants had a principal diagnosis of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia (n=132; 66% women). IU was expected to account for significant variance in panic symptoms controlling for AS. AS was expected to mediate the relationship between IU and panic symptoms, whereas IU was expected to moderate the relationship between AS and panic symptoms. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that IU accounted for significant unique variance in panic symptoms relative to AS, with comparable part correlations. Mediation and moderation models were also tested and suggested direct and indirect effects of IU on panic symptoms through AS; however, an interaction effect was not supported. The current cross-sectional evidence supports a role for IU in panic symptoms, independent of AS. PMID:24873884

Carleton, R Nicholas; Duranceau, Sophie; Freeston, Mark H; Boelen, Paul A; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

2014-06-01

386

Intolerance of uncertainty mediates the relation between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and anger.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report elevated anger compared with nonanxious individuals; however, the pathways linking GAD and anger are currently unknown. We hypothesized that negative beliefs about uncertainty, negative beliefs about worry and perfectionism dimensions mediate the relationship between GAD symptoms and anger variables. We employed multiple mediation with bootstrapping on cross-sectional data from a student sample (N = 233) to test four models assessing potential mediators of the association of GAD symptoms to inward anger expression, outward anger expression, trait anger and hostility, respectively. The belief that uncertainty has negative personal and behavioural implications uniquely mediated the association of GAD symptoms to inward anger expression (confidence interval [CI] = .0034, .1845, PM = .5444), and the belief that uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything uniquely mediated the association of GAD symptoms to outward anger expression (CI = .0052, .1936, PM = .4861) and hostility (CI = .0269, .2427, PM = .3487). Neither negative beliefs about worry nor perfectionism dimensions uniquely mediated the relation of GAD symptoms to anger constructs. We conclude that intolerance of uncertainty may help to explain the positive connection between GAD symptoms and anger, and these findings give impetus to future longitudinal investigations of the role of anger in GAD. PMID:24579760

Fracalanza, Katie; Koerner, Naomi; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

2014-01-01

387

Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

Jahid, Md. Abu

388

Profilin-1 haploinsufficiency protects against obesity-associated glucose intolerance and preserves adipose tissue immune homeostasis.  

PubMed

Metabolic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Previously, we showed that the actin-binding protein profilin-1 (pfn) plays a role in atherogenesis because pfn heterozygote mice (PfnHet) exhibited a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion burden and vascular inflammation. In the current study, we tested whether pfn haploinsufficiency would also limit diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). First, we found that a high-fat diet (HFD) upregulated pfn expression in epididymal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) but not in the liver or muscle of C57BL/6 mice compared with normal chow. Pfn expression in WAT correlated with F4/80, an established marker for mature macrophages. Of note, HFD elevated pfn protein levels in both stromal vascular cells and adipocytes of WAT. We also found that PfnHet were significantly protected from HFD-induced glucose intolerance observed in pfn wild-type mice. With HFD, PfnHet displayed blunted expression of systemic and WAT proinflammatory cytokines and decreased accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, which were also preferentially biased toward an M2-like phenotype; this correlated with preserved frequency of regulatory T cells. Taken together, the findings indicate that pfn haploinsufficiency protects against diet-induced IR and inflammation by modulating WAT immune homeostasis. PMID:23884883

Romeo, Giulio R; Pae, Munkyong; Eberlé, Delphine; Lee, Jongsoon; Shoelson, Steven E

2013-11-01

389

Mutations in the promoter region of the aldolase B gene that cause hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single base mutations in the promoter, intronic enhancer, and the first exon, which is entirely untranslated. One mutation, g.-132G>A, is located within the promoter at an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide within a transcription factor-binding site. A second mutation, IVS1+1G>C, is at the donor splice site of the first exon. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays show a decrease in nuclear extract-protein binding at the g.-132G>A mutant site. The promoter mutation results in decreased transcription using luciferase reporter plasmids. Analysis of cDNA from cells transfected with plasmids harboring the IVS1+1G>C mutation results in aberrant splicing leading to complete retention of the first intron (~5 kb). The IVS1+1G>C splicing mutation results in loss of luciferase activity from a reporter plasmid. These novel mutations in ALDOB represent 2% of alleles in American HFI patients, with IVS1+1G>C representing a significantly higher allele frequency (6%) among HFI patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity. PMID:20882353

Coffee, Erin M; Tolan, Dean R

2010-12-01

390

Management of Intolerance to Casting the Upper Extremities in Claustrophobic Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Some patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities. We hypothesized their that intolerance with excessive anxiety to casts is due to claustrophobia triggered by cast immobilization. The aim of this study is to analyze the relevance of cast immobilization to the feeling of claustrophobia and discover how to handle them. Methods. There were nine patients who showed the caustrophobic symptoms with their casts. They were assesed whether they were aware of their claustrophobis themselves. Further we investigated the alternative immobilization to casts. Results. Seven out of nine cases that were aware of their claustrophobic tendencies either were given removable splints initially or had the casts converted to removable splints when they exhibited symptoms. The two patients who were unaware of their latent claustrophobic tendencies were identified when they showed similar claustrophobic symptoms to the previous patients soon after short arm cast application. We replaced the casts with removable splints. This resolved the issue in all cases. Conclusions. We should be aware of the claustrophobia if patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities, where removal splint is practical alternative to cast to continue the treatment successfully. PMID:25379544

Nagura, Issei; Kanatani, Takako; Sumi, Masatoshi; Inui, Atsuyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kokubu, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

391

Impaired kisspeptin signaling decreases metabolism and promotes glucose intolerance and obesity.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (Kiss1r KO mice). Compared with WT littermates, adult Kiss1r KO females displayed dramatically higher BW, leptin levels, and adiposity, along with strikingly impaired glucose tolerance. Conversely, male Kiss1r KO mice had normal BW and glucose regulation. Surprisingly, despite their obesity, Kiss1r KO females ate less than WT females; however, Kiss1r KO females displayed markedly reduced locomotor activity, respiratory rate, and energy expenditure, which were not due to impaired thyroid hormone secretion. The BW and metabolic phenotype in Kiss1r KO females was not solely reflective of absent gonadal estrogen, as chronically ovariectomized Kiss1r KO females developed obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced metabolism, and glucose intolerance compared with ovariectomized WT females. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to reproduction, kisspeptin signaling influences BW, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis in a sexually dimorphic and partially sex steroid-independent manner; therefore, alterations in kisspeptin signaling might contribute, directly or indirectly, to some facets of human obesity, diabetes, or metabolic dysfunction. PMID:24937427

Tolson, Kristen P; Garcia, Christian; Yen, Stephanie; Simonds, Stephanie; Stefanidis, Aneta; Lawrence, Alison; Smith, Jeremy T; Kauffman, Alexander S

2014-07-01

392

Mutations in the Promoter Region of the Aldolase B Gene that cause Hereditary Fructose Intolerance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single base mutations in the promoter, intronic enhancer, and the first exon, which is entirely untranslated. One mutation, g.–132G>A, is located within the promoter at an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide within a transcription factor-binding site. A second mutation, IVS1+1G>C, is at the donor splice site of the first exon. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays show a decrease in nuclear extract-protein binding at the g.–132G>A mutant site. The promoter mutation results in decreased transcription using luciferase reporter plasmids. Analysis of cDNA from cells transfected with plasmids harboring the IVS1+1G>C mutation results in aberrant splicing leading to complete retention of the first intron (~ 5 kb). The IVS1+1G>C splicing mutation results in loss of luciferase activity from a reporter plasmid. These novel mutations in ALDOB represent 2% of alleles in American HFI patients, with IVS1+1G>C representing a significantly higher allele frequency (6%) among HFI patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity. PMID:20882353

Coffee, Erin M.; Tolan, Dean R.

2010-01-01

393

Haemolytic anaemia and exercise intolerance due to phosphofructokinase deficiency in related springer spaniels.  

PubMed

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in dogs causing haemolytic crises and exertional myopathy. The clinical signs may be confused with those of recurrent immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia. The deficiency has been commonly observed in field trial (working) English springer spaniels (ESSPs), but also in the conformation line of ESSPs in the USA over the past two decades. This report documents the first family of ESSPs found with PFK deficiency in Europe. Two related adult ESSPs in Denmark had intermittent signs of pigmenturia after exercise (hunting) and had evidence of a regenerative haemolytic anaemia. Based upon DNA sequencing data, both dogs had the previously described nonsense point mutation in the muscle-type PFK gene (delta2228G-->A). Study of 17 related family members using a simple and accurate PFK-DNA test revealed one additional PFK-deficient dog (with minor exercise intolerance), nine carriers and seven normal (or 'clear') ESSPs. Recently, the authors have also identified PFK carriers and affected ESSPs in the UK. Screening for PFK deficiency is recommended for ESSPs with suspicious clinical signs and before using any for field trials or breeding in order to prevent the further spread of this hereditary disorder. PMID:11440399

Skibild, E; Dahlgaard, K; Rajpurohit, Y; Smith, B F; Giger, U

2001-06-01

394

Radiofrequency Sacral Rhizotomy for the Management of Intolerable Neurogenic Bladder in Spinal Cord Injured Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of radiofrequency (RF) sacral rhizotomy of the intolerable neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injured patients. Method Percutaneous RF sacral rhizotomy was performed on 12 spinal cord injured patients who had neurogenic bladder manifested with urinary incontinence resisted to an oral and intravesical anticholinergic instillation treatment. Various combinations of S2, S3, and S4 RF rhizotomies were performed. The urodynamic study (UDS) was performed 1 week before RF rhizotomy. The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and voiding diaries were compared 1 week before and 4 weeks after therapy. Total volume of daily urinary incontinence (ml/day) and clean intermittent catheterization (ml/time) volume of each time were also monitored. Results After RF sacral rhizotomy, bladder capacity increased in 9 patients and the amount of daily urinary incontinence decreased in 11 patients. The mean maximal bladder capacity increased from 292.5 to 383.3 ml (p<0.05) and mean daily incontinent volume decreased from 255 to 65 ml (p<0.05). Bladder trabeculation and vesicoureteral reflux findings did not change 4 weeks after therapy. Conclusion This study revealed that RF sacral rhizotomy was an effective method for neurogenic bladder with uncontrolled incontinence using conventional therapy among spinal cord injured patients. PMID:22639745

Cho, Kang Hee

2012-01-01

395

Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.  

PubMed

Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of ?-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased ?-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. PMID:23262275

Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

2013-03-01

396

Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance  

PubMed Central

Introduction Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions are associated with IEI would add to our understanding of this complex disorder. Purpose To examine if measures of somato-sensory amplification, autonomic perception and absorption are associated with IEI. Methods The study included individuals with self-reported or physician-diagnosed IEI. Participants (n = 732) completed questionnaires that included items on descriptive variables of IEI, the Somato-Sensory Amplification Scale (SSAS), the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and a Negative Affectivity Scale (NAS). Results Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between SSAS, APQ, and IEI, while small and inverse associations were seen between TAS and IEI. Conclusions The association with SSAS and APQ suggests that perceptual personality characteristics are important in understanding this disorder. PMID:19953345

Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

2009-01-01

397

Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in ulcerative colitis: Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent co-morbidities of ulcerative colitis patients. The epidemiological association of these diseases suggested a genetic sharing and has challenged gene identification. Diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis has also relevant clinical and therapeutic implications, with potential clinical impact on the follow up and outcome of patients. These diseases share specific complications, such as neuropathy, hepatic steatosis, osteoporosis and venous thrombosis. It is still unknown whether the coexistence of these diseases may increase their occurrence. Diabetes and hyperglycaemia represent relevant risk factors for postoperative complications and pouch failure in ulcerative colitis. Medical treatment of ulcerative colitis in patients with diabetes mellitus may be particularly challenging. Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice of active ulcerative colitis. Their use may be associated with the onset of glucose intolerance and diabetes, with difficult control of glucose levels and with complications in diabetic patients. Epidemiologic and genetic evidences about diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis patients and shared complications and treatment of patients with these diseases have been discussed in the present review. PMID:24707133

Maconi, Giovanni; Furfaro, Federica; Sciurti, Roberta; Bezzio, Cristina; Ardizzone, Sandro; de Franchis, Roberto

2014-01-01

398

Impaired kisspeptin signaling decreases metabolism and promotes glucose intolerance and obesity  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (Kiss1r KO mice). Compared with WT littermates, adult Kiss1r KO females displayed dramatically higher BW, leptin levels, and adiposity, along with strikingly impaired glucose tolerance. Conversely, male Kiss1r KO mice had normal BW and glucose regulation. Surprisingly, despite their obesity, Kiss1r KO females ate less than WT females; however, Kiss1r KO females displayed markedly reduced locomotor activity, respiratory rate, and energy expenditure, which were not due to impaired thyroid hormone secretion. The BW and metabolic phenotype in Kiss1r KO females was not solely reflective of absent gonadal estrogen, as chronically ovariectomized Kiss1r KO females developed obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced metabolism, and glucose intolerance compared with ovariectomized WT females. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to reproduction, kisspeptin signaling influences BW, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis in a sexually dimorphic and partially sex steroid–independent manner; therefore, alterations in kisspeptin signaling might contribute, directly or indirectly, to some facets of human obesity, diabetes, or metabolic dysfunction. PMID:24937427

Tolson, Kristen P.; Garcia, Christian; Yen, Stephanie; Simonds, Stephanie; Stefanidis, Aneta; Lawrence, Alison; Smith, Jeremy T.; Kauffman, Alexander S.

2014-01-01

399

Glucose intolerance is associated with altered calcium homeostasis: A possible link between increased serum calcium concentration and cardiovascular disease mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum calcium concentration has recently been shown to predict cardiovascular mortality in a large health-screening program. Since impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, we examined the association between glucose intolerance and serum calcium in a population-based cohort study. To characterize this association, we measured total serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

Nicholas J. Wareham; Christopher D. Byrne; Colin Carr; Nicholas E. Day; Barbara J. Boucher; C. Nicholas Hales

1997-01-01

400

Leukotriene-related gene polymorphisms in ASA-intolerant asthma: an association with a haplotype of 5-lipoxygenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study has demonstrated the possible involvement of a leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) gene polymorphism in ASA-intolerant asthma (AIA) in a Polish population, whereas no significant association was noted in other populations. To investigate the role of genetic polymorphism in AIA development, we screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the key enzymes involved in arachidonate metabolism, and the cysteinyl

Jeong-Hee Choi; Hae-Sim Park; Heung-Bum Oh; June-Hyuk Lee; Yu-Jin Suh; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung-Doo Shin

2004-01-01

401

Active and passive smoking and development of glucose intolerance among young adults in a prospective cohort: CARDIA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether active and passive smokers are more likely than non-smokers to develop clinically relevant glucose intolerance or diabetes.\\u000aDESIGN: Coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) is a prospective cohort study begun in 1985-6 with 15 years of follow-up.\\u000aSETTING: Participants recruited from Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California,\\u000aUSA. PARTICIPANTS: Black and

Thomas K. Houston; Sharina D. Person; Mark J. Pletcher; Kiang Liu; Carlos Iribarren; Catarina I. Kiefe

2006-01-01

402

Stress-Induced Increase in Kynurenic Acid as a Potential Biomarker for Patients With Schizophrenia and Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Several lines of evidence have linked the endogenous neuromodulator kynurenic acid (KYNA) to schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The KYNA level was measured in saliva samples taken at baseline and at 2 times following a laboratory-based psychological stress challenge in 128 participants (64 patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics and 64 healthy controls from the community). EXPOSURE Laboratory-based psychological stress challenge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quitting the stressful task early was used as a behavioral marker of distress intolerance. RESULTS Patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher rate of distress intolerance compared with healthy controls (P = .003). Salivary KYNA levels increased significantly between baseline and 20 minutes following the stress task in both patients and controls (mean [SEM], 6.72 nM [0.65 nM] vs 8.43 nM [1.05 nM], respectively; P = .007). Patients who were unable to tolerate the stressful tasks and quit early showed significantly higher levels of KYNA than patients who tolerated the psychological stressor (P = .02) or healthy controls (P = .02). In patients with distress intolerance, KYNA elevation significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms (? = 0.64; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Distress intolerance is more common in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with this behavioral phenotype have elevated salivary KYNA levels. This stress response behavior–linked biomarker may aid heterogeneity reduction in schizophrenia and other stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24806441

Chiappelli, Joshua; Pocivavsek, Ana; Nugent, Katie L.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L. Elliot

2014-01-01

403

Comparative neurophysiological study for the diagnosis of mild polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance.  

PubMed

This article evaluates diagnostic sensitivity of minimal F-wave latency, sural/radial amplitude ratio (SRAR), dorsal sural/radial amplitude ratio (DSRAR), sympathetic skin response (SSR), and R-R interval variability (RRIV) for detecting early polyneuropathy in patients with glucose intolerance and diabetic patients. F-wave latencies were more prolonged in diabetic patients with normal and abnormal nerve conduction studies than control subjects (p < .001). SRAR was lower, SSR latency was more prolonged, and RRIV was lower in diabetic patients with abnormal nerve conduction studies than healty controls (p < .001). SSR latency was more prolonged and RRIV was lower in diabetic patients with normal nerve conduction studies than healty controls (p < .01, p < .05, respectively). DSRAR was lower in diabetic patients with normal and abnormal nerve conduction studies than control subjects (p < .001). DSRAR was also lower in patients with glucose intolerance than control subjects (p < .01). DSRAR was the most sensitive and specific test in either of diabetic patients with normal nerve conduction studies (sensitivity 66%, specificity 90%) and diabetic patients with abnormal nerve conduction studies (sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%). DSRAR is the most reliable method for detection of early nerve pathology. Patients with glucose intolerance might have subclinical neuropathy that can be demonstrated with DSRAR analysis. PMID:16753899

Turgut, Nilda; Güldiken, Sibel; Balci, Kemal; Tugrul, Armagan; Berberoglu, Ufuk; Altun, Betül Ugur

2006-06-01

404

Common Nonsynonymous Substitutions in SLCO1B1 Predispose to Statin Intolerance in Routinely Treated Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Go-DARTS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SLCO1B1 gene variants are associated with severe statin-induced myopathy. We examined whether these variants are also associated with general statin intolerance in a large population of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving statins as part of routine clinical care. A total of 4,196 individuals were genotyped for rs4149056 (Val174Ala) and rs2306283 (Asp130Asn). Intolerance was defined by serum biochemistry and also

L A Donnelly; A S F Doney; R Tavendale; C C Lang; E R Pearson; H M Colhoun; M I McCarthy; A T Hattersley; A D Morris; C N A Palmer; CNA Palmer

2011-01-01

405

Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype distribution in azathioprine-tolerant and -intolerant patients with various disorders. The impact of TPMT genotyping in predicting toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the distribution of the thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype among azathioprine (Aza)-tolerant and -intolerant patients with various disorders, and to investigate a possible relationship with the Aza metabolite levels. Methods Forty-six Aza-tolerant and six Aza-intolerant patients had the TPMT genotype distribution determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the forty-six Aza-tolerant patients had the Aza metabolite

Lene O. Reuther; Ben Vainer; Jesper Sonne; Niels-Erik Larsen

2004-01-01

406

The influence of lactose carrier on the content homogeneity and dispersibility of beclomethasone dipropionate from dry powder aerosols.  

PubMed

Dry powder formulations for inhalation usually comprise a mixture of coarse lactose (CL), employed as a carrier, and micronized drug. It was the aim of this study to determine the effects of fine lactose (FL), blended as a tertiary component on the mixing homogeneity and dispersibility of a model hydrophobic drug, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP). BDP particles (volume median diameter (VMD) 4.6 microm) existed mainly as agglomerates, the majority of which were not dispersed into primary particles after aerosolization at a high shear force (4.7 psi). The resultant particle size distribution of BDP was multi-modal with VMD varying between 4.7 and 30.2 microm. Ternary interactive mixtures were prepared to consist of CL, FL and BDP with a fixed ratio of lactose to BDP of 67.5:1 w/w, but two concentrations of FL, i.e. 2.5 and 5%, w/w. The mixing was carried out using different sequences of adding the three components for two mixing times (15 and 60 min). Binary mixtures composed of CL and BDP were prepared for both mixing times as the controls, and these exhibited a coefficient of variation (COV) in BDP content <= 5%. Addition of FL to the binary formulations greatly reduced the content uniformity of BDP if the final powder were prepared by first mixing CL with FL before mixing with the drug (COV>20%, after mixing for 15 min). However, the mixtures, prepared using other mixing sequences, had a similar uniformity of BDP content to the binary mixtures. All ternary mixtures containing 2.5% FL consistently produced a significantly higher (ANOVA P<0.01) fine particle fraction (FPF, 3.1--6.1%) and fine particle dose (FPD, 13.6--30.1 microg) of BDP than the binary mixtures (FPF, 0.3-0.4%; FPD, 1.6-2.1 microg) after aerosolization at 60 l min(-1) via a Rotahaler into a twin stage liquid impinger. The mixing sequences exerted a significant (P<0.05) effect on the dispersion and deaggregation of BDP from the formulations prepared using a mixing time of 15 min but such an effect disappeared when the mixing time was lengthened to 60 min. The dispersibility of BDP was always higher from the ternary mixtures than from the binary mixtures. BDP delivery from dry powder inhalers was improved markedly by adding FL to the formulation, without substantial reduction in the content uniformity of the drug. PMID:10704792

Zeng, X M; Pandhal, K H; Martin, G P

2000-03-20

407

Assessment of the Magnitude of Contextual and Individual Demographic Effects on Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Intolerance in Rural Southwest China: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine the contribution of individual and contextual socioeconomic status (SES) to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in the adult population in rural southwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study of diabetes was performed in 4801(2152 men) Chinese adults (?25 years old). Multilevel logistic regression model was used to examine the association between individuals’ and townships’ variables and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Results The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance were 7.1% (3.6% for undiagnosed) and 8.8% in adults aged ?25 years, respectively, and increasing with age. Females were more likely to develop diabetes than males. The probability of developing diabetes increased with BMI. Both contextual and individual educational level and yearly household income were found to be negatively associated with the prevalence of diabetes. Residence in communities with a higher percentage of ethnic minorities was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. Smoking had a protective effect for diabetes, drinking had a positive association with diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are common in rural adults of southwest China by international standards. These results indicate that diabetes mellitus has become a major public health problem in rural areas in southwest China, and strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are needed. PMID:23874667

Wang, Ke-wei; Shu, Zhan-kun; Cai, Le; Wu, Jun-Qing; Wei, Wei

2013-01-01

408

Genetic Diversity in the Lactose Operons of Lactobacillus helveticus Strains and Its Relationship to the Role of These Strains as Commercial Starter Cultures  

PubMed Central

Two novel insertion sequence elements, ISLhe1 and ISLhe15, were located upstream of the genes encoding the ?-galactosidase enzyme in Lactobacillus helveticus commercial starter strains. Strains with the IS982 family element, ISLhe1, demonstrated reduced ?-galactosidase activity compared to the L. helveticus type strain, whereas strains with the ISLhe15 element expressed ?-galactosidase in the absence of lactose. PMID:15746373

Callanan, M. J.; Beresford, T. P.; Ross, R. P.

2005-01-01

409

Hydrolysis of milk\\/whey lactose by ? galactosidase: A comparative study of stirred batch process and packed bed reactor prepared with calcium alginate entrapped enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium alginate entrapped ? galactosidase preparations were used for the hydrolysis of lactose from solution, milk and whey in batch processes as well as in continuous packed bed columns. The efficiency of columns, containing calcium alginate entrapped soluble and crosslinked concanavalin A complex of ? galactosidase was examined at various flow rates at room temperature 32°C, for the continuous hydrolysis

Toshiba Haider; Qayyum Husain

2009-01-01

410

Etude exprimentale qualitative de l'absorption des glucides aprs ingestion d'un repas base de lactose chez le porc  

E-print Network

, the animals received a test meal containing 400 g lactose and 150 g of a mixture of nitrogen, minerals sugars and true glucose) in pigs fed these sugars. Four animals (47-49 kg liveweight) were fitted, and consequently of absorption, occurred 60 to 70 min after the beginning of the meal, as in starch intake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition  

SciTech Connect

Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff (UCLA); (TTU)

2011-08-29

412

Antidiabetic-drug combination treatment for glucose intolerance in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine.  

PubMed

Second generation antipsychotic drugs are routinely used as treatment for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including olanzapine, cause metabolic side-effects such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Individual antidiabetic drugs can help control elevated glucose levels in patients treated with antipsychotics, but the effects of combining antidiabetics, which routinely occurs with Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, have never been studied. Presently, we compared the effects of the three different antidiabetics metformin (500mg/kg, p.o.), rosiglitazone (30mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10mg/kg, p.o.) on metabolic dysregulation in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine. In addition, dual combinations of each of these antidiabetics were compared head-to-head against each other and the individual drugs. The animals received two daily treatments with antidiabetics and were then treated acutely with olanzapine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured, followed by a 2h glucose tolerance test. Olanzapine caused a large and highly significant glucose intolerance compared to vehicle treated rats. Rosiglitazone decreased glucose levels non-significantly, while both metformin and glyburide significantly decreased glucose levels compared to olanzapine-only treated animals. For antidiabetic dual-drug combinations, the rosiglitazone-metformin group showed an unexpected increase in glucose levels compared to all of the single antidiabetic drugs. However, both the metformin-glyburide and rosiglitazone-glyburide groups showed significantly greater reductions in glucose levels following olanzapine than with single drug treatment alone for metformin or rosiglitazone, bringing glucose levels down to values equivalent to vehicle-only treated animals. These findings indicate that further study of antidiabetic dual-drug combinations in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs is warranted. PMID:24140931

Boyda, Heidi N; Procyshyn, Ric M; Asiri, Yahya; Wu, Claire; Wang, Cathy K; Lo, Ryan; Pang, Catherine C Y; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M

2014-01-01

413

Glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the U.S. Virgin Islands.  

PubMed Central

This study describes the prevalence on glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the United States Virgin Islands. A population-based sample of 1026 individuals 20 years of age or older was recruited on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, where 80% of the population classify their race as African American and 20% indicate their ethnicity as Hispanic. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria was used to classify glucose tolerance for the entire sample. Persons 40 years of age or older (405) were also administered a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Among the major race/ethnic groups, the prevalence of diabetes in patients 20 years of age or older (age-adjusted to the 1995 world population) was 14.1% for non-Hispanic blacks (n = 712), 12.1% for Hispanic blacks (n = 145), 13.5% for Hispanic whites (n = 70) and 1.2% for non-Hispanic whites (n = 37). In each group, the prevalence of diabetes increased with age and appeared higher for men. Among individuals 40 years of age or older a slightly higher prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was found when using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria compared to ADA criteria (WHO 10.3%, ADA 7.7% for black non-Hispanic persons and WHO 10.4%, ADA 6.0% for all other groups combined). The prevalence of diabetes for African Americans residing in the U.S. Virgin Islands is similar to rates for the African-American population on the United States mainland and is double that of estimates for blacks on neighboring islands. PMID:11918382

Tull, Eugene S.; LaPorte, Ronald; Kriska, Andrea; Mark, Joseph; Hatcher, Ann T.

2002-01-01

414

Abnormal norepinephrine clearance and adrenergic receptor sensitivity in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of >/=30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen patients with chronic OI and 10 control subjects underwent a battery of autonomic tests. Systemic norepinephrine (NE) kinetics were determined with the patients supine and standing before and after tyramine administration. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity, hemodynamic responses to bolus injections of adrenergic agonists, and intrinsic heart rate were determined. Resting supine NE spillover and clearance were similar in both groups. With standing, patients had a greater decrease in NE clearance than control subjects (55+/-5% versus 30+/-7%, P<0.02). After tyramine, NE spillover did not change significantly in patients but increased 50+/-10% in control subjects (P<0.001). The dose of isoproterenol required to increase heart rate 25 bpm was lower in patients than in control subjects (0.5+/-0.05 versus 1.0+/-0.1 microg, P<0.005), and the dose of phenylephrine required to increase systolic blood pressure 25 mm Hg was lower in patients than control subjects (105+/-11 versus 210+/-12 microg, P<0.001). Baroreflex sensitivity was lower in patients (12+/-1 versus 18+/-2 ms/mm Hg, P<0.02), but the intrinsic heart rate was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased NE clearance with standing, resistance to the NE-releasing effect of tyramine, and increased sensitivity to adrenergic agonists demonstrate dramatically disordered sympathetic cardiovascular regulation in patients with chronic OI.

Jacob, G.; Shannon, J. R.; Costa, F.; Furlan, R.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

1999-01-01

415

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance.  

PubMed

Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of "ripening" sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods. PMID:24678255

Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

2013-12-01

416

Dysfunctional survival-signaling and stress-intolerance in aged murine and human myocardium.  

PubMed

Changes in cytoprotective signaling may influence cardiac aging, and underpin sensitization to ischemic insult and desensitization to 'anti-ischemic' therapies. We tested whether age-dependent shifts in ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) tolerance in murine and human myocardium are associated with reduced efficacies and coupling of membrane, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial survival-signaling. Hormesis (exemplified in ischemic preconditioning; IPC) and expression of proteins influencing signaling/stress-resistance were also assessed in mice. Mouse hearts (18 vs. 2-4 mo) and human atrial tissue (75±2 vs. 55±2 yrs) exhibited profound age-dependent reductions in I-R tolerance. In mice aging negated cardioprotection via IPC, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonism (opioid, A1 and A3 adenosine receptors) and distal protein kinase c (PKC) activation (4 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA). In contrast, p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) activation (1 ?M anisomycin), mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (mKATP) opening (50 ?M diazoxide) and permeability transition pore (mPTP) inhibition (0.2 ?M cyclosporin A) retained protective efficacies in older hearts (though failed to eliminate I-R tolerance differences). A similar pattern of change in protective efficacies was observed in human tissue. Murine hearts exhibited molecular changes consistent with altered membrane control (reduced caveolin-3, cholesterol and caveolae), kinase signaling (reduced p70 ribosomal s6 kinase; p70s6K) and stress-resistance (increased G-protein receptor kinase 2, GRK2; glycogen synthase kinase 3?, GSK3?; and cytosolic cytochrome c). In summary, myocardial I-R tolerance declines with age in association with dysfunctional hormesis and transduction of survival signals from GPCRs/PKC to mitochondrial effectors. Differential changes in proteins governing caveolar and mitochondrial function may contribute to signal dysfunction and stress-intolerance. PMID:24316036

Peart, Jason N; Pepe, Salvatore; Reichelt, Melissa E; Beckett, Nikkie; See Hoe, Louise; Ozberk, Victoria; Niesman, Ingrid R; Patel, Hemal H; Headrick, John P

2014-02-01

417

Chronic orthostatic intolerance: a disorder with discordant cardiac and vascular sympathetic control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (COI) is a debilitating autonomic condition in young adults. Its neurohumoral and hemodynamic profiles suggest possible alterations of postural sympathetic function and of baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 COI patients and 16 healthy volunteers, intra-arterial blood pressure (BP), ECG, central venous pressure (CVP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded at rest and during 75 degrees tilt. Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variabilities provided indices of sympathovagal modulation of the sinoatrial node (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency components, LF/HF) and of sympathetic vasomotor control (LFSAP). Baroreflex mechanisms were assessed (1) by the slope of the regression line obtained from changes of RR interval and MSNA evoked by pharmacologically induced alterations in BP and (2) by the index alpha, obtained from cross-spectral analysis of RR and SAP variabilities. At rest, HR, MSNA, LF/HF, and LFSAP were higher in COI patients, whereas BP and CVP were similar in the two groups. During tilt, BP did not change and CVP fell by the same extent in the 2 groups; the increase of HR and LF/HF was more pronounced in COI patients. Conversely, the increase of MSNA was lower in COI than in control subjects. Baroreflex sensitivity was similar in COI and control subjects at rest; tilt reduced alpha similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: COI is characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest and by a blunted postganglionic sympathetic response to standing, with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic overactivity. Baroreflex mechanisms maintain their functional responsiveness. These data suggest that in COI, the functional distribution of central sympathetic tone to the heart and vasculature is abnormal.

Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Snell, M.; Robertson, D.; Porta, A.; Harris, P.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.

1998-01-01

418

Raised cerebrovascular resistance in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance: evidence for sympathetic vasoconstriction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) exhibit symptoms suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion and an excessive decrease in cerebral blood flow associated with standing despite sustained systemic blood pressure. In 9 patients (8 women and 1 man aged 22 to 48 years) with IOI, we tested the hypothesis that volume loading (2000 cc normal saline) and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonism improve systemic hemodynamics and cerebral perfusion and that the decrease in cerebral blood flow with head-up tilt (HUT) could be attenuated by alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade with phentolamine. At 5 minutes of HUT, volume loading (-20+/-3.2 bpm) and phenylephrine (-18+/-3.4 bpm) significantly reduced upright heart rate compared with placebo; the effect was diminished at the end of HUT. Phentolamine substantially increased upright heart rate at 5 minutes (20+/-3.7 bpm) and at the end of HUT (14+/-5 bpm). With placebo, mean cerebral blood flow velocity decreased by 33+/-6% at the end of HUT. This decrease in cerebral blood flow with HUT was attenuated by all 3 interventions. We conclude that in patients with IOI, HUT causes a substantial decrease in cerebrovascular blood flow velocity. The decrease in blood flow velocity with HUT can be attenuated with interventions that improve systemic hemodynamics and therefore decrease reflex sympathetic activation. Moreover, alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade also blunts the decrease in cerebral blood flow with HUT but at the price of deteriorated systemic hemodynamics. These observations may suggest that in patients with IOI, excessive sympathetic activity contributes to the paradoxical decrease in cerebral blood flow with upright posture.

Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Paranjape, S. Y.; Barwise, J.; Robertson, D.

1998-01-01

419

Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures  

PubMed Central

Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations. PMID:23872557

Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J. H.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Pronk, Jack T.; Smid, Eddy J.; Bron, Peter A.

2013-01-01

420

New mechanisms to explain the effects of added lactose fines on the dispersion performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation.  

PubMed

Fine excipient particles or 'fines' have been shown to improve the dispersion performance of carrier-based formulations for dry powder inhalation. Mechanistic formulation studies have focussed mainly on explaining this positive effect. Previous studies have shown that higher drug contents may cause a decrease in dispersion performance, and there is no reason why this should not be true for fines with a similar shape, size and cohesiveness as drug particles. Therefore, the effects on drug detachment of 'fine lactose fines' (FLF, X50 = 1.95 µm) with a similar size and shape as micronised budesonide were studied and compared to those of 'coarse lactose fines' (CLF, X50 = 3.94 µm). Furthermore, interactions with the inhalation flow rate, the drug content and the mixing order were taken into account. The observed effects of FLF are comparable to drug content effects in that the detached drug fraction was decreased at low drug content and low flow rates but increased at higher flow rates. At high drug content the effects of added FLF were negligible. In contrast, CLF resulted in higher detached drug fractions at all flow rates and drug contents. The results from this study suggest that the effects of fines may be explained by two new mechanisms in addition to those previously proposed. Firstly, fines below a certain size may increase the effectiveness of press-on forces or cause the formation of strongly coherent fine particle networks on the carrier surface containing the drug particles. Secondly, when coarse enough, fines may prevent the formation of, or disrupt such fine particle networks, possibly through a lowering of their tensile strength. It is recommended that future mechanistic studies are based on the recognition that added fines may have any effect on dispersion performance, which is determined by the formulation and dispersion conditions. PMID:24489969

Grasmeijer, Floris; Lexmond, Anne J; van den Noort, Maarten; Hagedoorn, Paul; Hickey, Anthony J; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

2014-01-01

421

New Mechanisms to Explain the Effects of Added Lactose Fines on the Dispersion Performance of Adhesive Mixtures for Inhalation  

PubMed Central

Fine excipient particles or ‘fines’ have been shown to improve the dispersion performance of carrier-based formulations for dry powder inhalation. Mechanistic formulation studies have focussed mainly on explaining this positive effect. Previous studies have shown that higher drug contents may cause a decrease in dispersion performance, and there is no reason why this should not be true for fines with a similar shape, size and cohesiveness as drug particles. Therefore, the effects on drug detachment of ‘fine lactose fines’ (FLF, X50?=?1.95 µm) with a similar size and shape as micronised budesonide were studied and compared to those of ‘coarse lactose fines’ (CLF, X50?=?3.94 µm). Furthermore, interactions with the inhalation flow rate, the drug content and the mixing order were taken into account. The observed effects of FLF are comparable to drug content effects in that the detached drug fraction was decreased at low drug content and low flow rates but increased at higher flow rates. At high drug content the effects of added FLF were negligible. In contrast, CLF resulted in higher detached drug fractions at all flow rates and drug contents. The results from this study suggest that the effects of fines may be explained by two new mechanisms in addition to those previously proposed. Firstly, fines below a certain size may increase the effectiveness of press-on forces or cause the formation of strongly coherent fine particle networks on the carrier surface containing the drug particles. Secondly, when coarse enough, fines may prevent the formation of, or disrupt such fine particle networks, possibly through a lowering of their tensile strength. It is recommended that future mechanistic studies are based on the recognition that added fines may have any effect on dispersion performance, which is determined by the formulation and dispersion conditions. PMID:24489969

Grasmeijer, Floris; Lexmond, Anne J.; van den Noort, Maarten; Hagedoorn, Paul; Hickey, Anthony J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, Anne H.

2014-01-01

422

GAL4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the lactose-galactose regulon of Kluyveromyces lactis and creates a new phenotype: glucose repression of the regulon.  

PubMed Central

A Kluyveromyces lactis mutant defective in lac9 cannot induce beta-galactosidase or galactokinase activity and is unable to grow on lactose or galactose. When this strain was transformed with the GAL4 positive regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae it was able to grow on lactose or galactose as the sole carbon source. Transformants bearing GAL4 exhibited a 4.5-h generation time on galactose or lactose, versus 24 h for the nontransformed lac9 strain. A K. lactis lac9 strain bearing two integrated copies of GAL4 showed 3.5-fold induction of beta-galactosidase activity and 1.8-fold induction of galactokinase activity compared with 15.6-fold and 4.4-fold induction, respectively, for the LAC9 wild-type strain. In transformants bearing 10 integrated copies of GAL4, the induced level of beta-galactosidase was nearly as high as in the LAC9 wild-type strain. In addition to restoring lactose and galactose gene expression, GAL4 in K. lactis lac9 mutant cells conferred a new phenotype, severe glucose repression of lactose and galactose-inducible enzymes. Glucose repressed beta-galactosidase activity 35- to 74-fold and galactokinase activity 14- to 31-fold in GAL4 transformants, compared with the 2-fold glucose repression exhibited in the LAC9 wild-type strain. The S. cerevisiae MEL1 gene was repressed fourfold by glucose in LAC9 cells. In contrast, the MEL1 gene in a GAL4 lac9 strain was repressed 20-fold by glucose. These results indicate that the GAL4 and LAC9 proteins activate transcription in a similar manner. However, either the LAC9 or GAL4 gene or a product of these genes responds differently to glucose in K. lactis. Images PMID:3102945

Riley, M I; Hopper, J E; Johnston, S A; Dickson, R C

1987-01-01

423

Effects of glucose availability on expression of the key genes involved in synthesis of milk fat, lactose and glucose metabolism in bovine mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

As the main precursor for lactose synthesis, large amounts of glucose are required by lactating dairy cows. Milk yield greatly depends on mammary lactose synthesis due to its osmoregulatory property for mammary uptake of water. Thus, glucose availability to the mammary gland could be a potential regulator of milk production. In the present study, the effect of glucose availability on expression of the key genes involved in synthesis of milk fat, lactose and glucose metabolism in vitro was investigated. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated for 12 h with various concentrations of glucose (2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mmol/L). The higher concentrations of glucose (10-20 mmol/L) did not affect the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, diacyl glycerol acyl transferase, glycerol-3 phosphate acyl transferase and ?-lactalbumin, whereas fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and beta-1, 4-galactosyl transferase mRNA expression increased at 10 mmol/L and then decreased at 20 mmol/L. The content of lactose synthase increased with increasing concentration of glucose, with addition of highest value at 20 mmol/L of glucose. Moreover, the increased glucose concentration stimulated the activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and elevated the energy status of the BMEC. Therefore, it was deduced that after increasing glucose availability, the extra absorbed glucose was partitioned to entering the synthesis of milk fat and lactose by the regulation of the mRNA expression of key genes, promoting glucose metabolism by glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway as well as energy status. These results indicated that the sufficient availability of glucose in BMEC may promote glucose metabolism, and affect the synthesis of milk composition. PMID:23799073

Liu, Hongyun; Zhao, Ke; Liu, Jianxin

2013-01-01

424

Effect of the variation of the level of lactose conversion in an immobilized lactase reactor upon operating costs for the production of Baker's yeast from hydrolyzed permeate obtained from the ultrafiltration of cottage cheese whey  

SciTech Connect

Operating costs for the production of Baker's yeast from hydrolyzed permeate from the ultrafiltration of cottage cheese whey were calculated as a function of the level of lactose conversion in the immobilized lactase reactor. These costs were calculated for the case of 90% conversion of lactose in the reactor and compared to those which result when running the reactor at lower conversions with recycle of unreacted lactose. Total operating costs were estimated by combining individual operating costs for the immobilized enzyme reactor, costs associated with processing a lactose recycle stream, and energy costs associated with cooling the reactor feed stream and sterilizing the hydrolysate stream. It was determined that operating costs are minimized at about 9.9 cents per pound of lactose when the reactor is run at approximately 72% conversion. This represents a savings of 2.4 cents per pound of lactose over the case of a once-through 90% conversion of lactose in the reactor. 8 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Scott, T.C.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Amundson, C.H.

1987-01-01

425

Impact of the 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria on classification of glucose intolerance among Kuwaitis below 50 years of age.  

PubMed

Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes is emerging as a leading chronic non-communicable disease among the adult Kuwaiti population. Based on the World Health Organization and similar reports the projected estimates for subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes by the years 2000 and 2010 show a striking tendency to high rates of the disease in our area. We report the prevalence rates of glucose intolerance among a relatively young adult Kuwaiti population below 50 years of age and the effect of implementing the recent 1997 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria on the frequency of type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose among this group. The overall prevalence rate for the three categories of glucose intolerance reached as high as 15.8% (95% CI, 14.2 to 17.4). Age, though all subjects were below 50 years, parental history of type 2 diabetes, diastolic blood pressure and serum triglycerides were found to be significant associated risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity was an apparent significant factor associated with the three forms of glucose intolerance (p < 0.001). Obesity and physical inactivity were documented in both non-diabetic and more so in diabetic Kuwaiti adults, which should form the basis of any immediate intervention programme. An integrated approach to the prevention of the described critical risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes is highly recommended in Kuwait. Research, focused on genetics of type 2 diabetes in the highly susceptible Kuwaiti population, should be planned. PMID:10664317

Abdella, N; Al Nakhi, A; Al Arouj, M; Assoussi, A; Moussa, M

1999-09-01

426

Enhanced Lipid Oxidation and Maintenance of Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Despite Glucose Intolerance in a Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background Diet-induced obesity is a rising health concern which can lead to the development of glucose intolerance and muscle insulin resistance and, ultimately, type II diabetes mellitus. This research investigates the associations between glucose intolerance or muscle insulin resistance and tissue specific changes during the progression of diet-induced obesity. Methodology C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 3 or 8 weeks. Disease progression was monitored by measurements of body/tissue mass changes, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and ex vivo glucose uptake in intact muscles. Lipid metabolism was analyzed using metabolic chambers and ex vivo palmitate assays in intact muscles. Skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissues were analyzed for changes in inflammatory gene expression. Plasma was analyzed for insulin levels and inflammatory proteins. Histological techniques were used on muscle and liver cryosections to assess metabolic and morphological changes. Principal Findings/Conclusions A rapid shift in whole body metabolism towards lipids was observed with HFD. Following 3 weeks of HFD, elevated total lipid oxidation and an oxidative fiber type shift had occurred in the skeletal muscle, which we propose was responsible for delaying intramyocellular lipid accumulation and maintaining muscle’s insulin sensitivity. Glucose intolerance was present after three weeks of HFD and was associated with an enlarged adipose tissue depot, adipose tissue inflammation and excess hepatic lipids, but not hepatic inflammation. Furthermore, HFD did not significantly increase systemic or muscle inflammation after 3 or 8 weeks of HFD suggesting that early diet-induced obesity does not cause inflammation throughout the whole body. Overall these findings indicate skeletal muscle did not contribute to the development of HFD-induced impairments in whole-body glucose tolerance following 3 weeks of HFD. PMID:23951235

Trajcevski, Karin E.; O'Neill, Hayley M.; Wang, David C.; Thomas, Melissa M.; Al-Sajee, Dhuha; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Ceddia, Rolando B.; Hawke, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

427

Glucose Intolerance and Lipid Metabolic Adaptations in Response to Intrauterine and Postnatal Calorie Restriction in Male Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Enhanced de novo lipogenesis (DNL), an adult hepatic adaption, is seen with high carbohydrate or low-fat diets. We hypothesized that ad libitum intake after prenatal calorie restriction will result in adult-onset glucose into