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Sample records for lactose intolerance

  1. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when a person eats something containing lactose, an enzyme in the small intestine called lactase breaks down ... intolerance do not produce enough of the lactase enzyme to break down lactose. Instead, undigested lactose sits ...

  2. Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    Lactase deficiency; Milk intolerance; Disaccharidase deficiency; Dairy product intolerance ... Babies' bodies make the lactase enzyme so they can digest milk, including breast milk. Babies born too early (premature) sometimes have lactose intolerance. Children who ...

  3. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lactose, the natural sugar found in milk and milk products. They have this condition because their bodies do ... people who think they are lactose intolerant avoid milk products and do not consume enough calcium and vitamin ...

  4. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods are the best source of calcium, a mineral that's important for bone growth. Because growing teens ... Recipes for Teens With Lactose Intolerance Vitamins and Minerals Mineral Chart Smart Supermarket Shopping Nutrition & Fitness Center ...

  5. Lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Charlene M

    Although lactose intolerance is very common it is not a serious health condition. The diagnosis is relatively simple and minimally invasive. Treatment is geared towards a life-long plan of management. Persons who have difficulty digesting lactose will learn by trial and error what food items cause distress and learn to avoid offending milk sugars. In addition many products are available over-the-counter to aid in digestion of lactose. Often these additives enable the person to consume lactose. Adequate amounts of calcium may be consumed by eating a carefully chosen diet containing lactose free sources of calcium in order to maintain healthy bone, nerve, and muscle development. PMID:15662762

  6. Lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in infant feeding, but its impact decreases as the child gets older and consumes less milk and dairy products. Congenital lactose intolerance is a very rare condition. However, lactase activity may be low and need to mature during the first weeks of life in many infants. However, the evidence that unabsorbed lactose is causing infantile crying and colic is contradictory. Unabsorbed lactose has a bifidogenic effect and improves calcium absorption. Lactose malabsorption may occur secondary and thus temporally to other etiologies such as infectious gastroenteritis, cow's milk allergy and celiac disease. One the cause is treated, lactase activity will gradually return to normal. The vast majority of Asian children will develop late onset congenital lactase deficiency. However, this entity only exceptionally causes symptoms before the age of 4-5 years. Symptoms are abdominal cramps, flatulence and watery, acid stools, and decrease the quality of life but lactose intolerance is not associated with "true disease". The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds and confirmed with a lactose breath test, if needed. These patients need to have a lifetime long reduced lactose intake to improve their quality of life. PMID:26715083

  7. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Vitamin D. 2010. Report. [ Top ] What products contain lactose? Lactose is present in many food products ... aware of the many food products that may contain even small amounts of lactose, such as bread ...

  8. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

  9. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weekend, everyone pigged out on cheese pizza and ice cream. Then they flopped on their sleeping bags for ... feel bad after drinking milk or eating cheese, ice cream, or anything else containing lactose. As with everything ...

  10. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or do not take a dietary supplement that contains calcium. Milk and milk products are major sources ... this test, the patient drinks a beverage that contains a known amount of lactose. A health care ...

  11. Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Expect Lactose Intolerance KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Lactose Intolerance Print A A A Text Size ... THIS TOPIC Calcium and Your Child Milk Allergy Digestive System Milk Allergy in Infants About Recipes for Kids ...

  12. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Share this: Page Content Not having enough lactase in the body is the cause of lactose ... describe why a person may not have enough lactase 1 : Primary lactose intolerance . This type develops in ...

  13. Management of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Tamm, A

    1994-01-01

    The management of lactose intolerance comprises two parts: (1) the basic principles of treatment in persons intolerant to a dietary dose of lactose, and (2) main manoeuvres to reduce the lactose content in food, and/or consumption of special products of milk or exogenous lactase enzyme. The tactics of management depend on the type of hypolactasia, the severity of intolerance, and on the age of the patient. Special attention is paid to the development of lactose intolerance in some patients via iatrogenic mechanisms such as certain drugs, gastric surgery and ionizing radiation. PMID:8042018

  14. Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Doctors usually diagnose lactose intolerance through a simple hydrogen breath test. A person blows into a tube ... there is a higher than average level of hydrogen and methane in the breath. That's because undigested ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a long history of dependence on unfermented milk products as an important food source. For example, only ... do people use for lactose intolerance? alactasia dairy product intolerance hypolactasia lactose malabsorption milk sugar intolerance For more information about naming genetic ...

  16. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents. PMID:16700234

  17. Lactose intolerance and health.

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Timothy J; Shaukat, Aasma; Shamliyan, Tatyana; Taylor, Brent C; MacDonald, Roderick; Tacklind, James; Rutks, Indulis; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Kane, Robert L; Levitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We systematically reviewed evidence to determine lactose intolerance (LI) prevalence, bone health after dairy-exclusion diets, tolerable dose of lactose in subjects with diagnosed LI, and management. DATA SOURCES We searched multiple electronic databases for original studies published in English from 1967-November 2009. REVIEW METHODS We extracted patient and study characteristics using author's definitions of LI and lactose malabsorption. We compared outcomes in relation to diagnostic tests, including lactose challenge, intestinal biopsies of lactase enzyme levels, genetic tests, and symptoms. Fractures, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared in categories of lactose intake. Reported symptoms, lactose dose and formulation, timing of lactose ingestion, and co-ingested food were analyzed in association with tolerability of lactose. Symptoms were compared after administration of probiotics, enzyme replacements, lactose-reduced milk and increasing lactose load. RESULTS Prevalence was reported in 54 primarily nonpopulation based studies (15 from the United States). Studies did not directly assess LI and subjects were highly selected. LI magnitude was very low in children and remained low into adulthood among individuals of Northern European descent. For African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian populations LI rates may be 50 percent higher in late childhood and adulthood. Small doses of lactose were well tolerated in most populations. Low level evidence from 55 observational studies of 223,336 subjects indicated that low milk consumers may have increased fracture risk. Strength and significance varied depended on exposure definitions. Low level evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of children (seven RCTs) and adult women (two RCTs) with low lactose intake indicated that dairy interventions may improve BMC in select populations. Most individuals with LI can tolerate up to 12 grams of lactose, though symptoms became more prominent at doses above 12 grams and appreciable after 24 grams of lactose; 50 grams induced symptoms in the vast majority. A daily divided dose of 24 grams was generally tolerated. We found insufficient evidence that use of lactose reduced solution/milk, with lactose content of 0-2 grams, compared to a lactose dose of greater than 12 grams, reduced symptoms of lactose intolerance. Evidence was insufficient for probiotics (eight RCTs), colonic adaptation (two RCTs) or varying lactose doses (three RCTs) or other agents (one RCT). Inclusion criteria, interventions, and outcomes were variable. Yogurt and probiotic types studied were variable and results either showed no difference in symptom scores or small differences in symptoms that may be of low clinical relevance. CONCLUSIONS There are race and age differences in LI prevalence. Evidence is insufficient to accurately assess U.S. population prevalence of LI. Children with low lactose intake may have beneficial bone outcomes from dairy interventions. There was evidence that most individuals with presumed LI or LM can tolerate 12-15 grams of lactose (approximately 1 cup of milk). There was insufficient evidence regarding effectiveness for all evaluated agents. Additional research is needed to determine LI treatment effectiveness. PMID:20629478

  18. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following tests also can help diagnose lactose intolerance: Hydrogen breath test. For this test, a person drinks ... beverage that has lactose in it. Then, the hydrogen level in the breath is measured at set ...

  19. Lactose intolerance: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Marchiondo, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of intestinal lactase, the enzyme required for lactose digestion, can result in symptoms of gastrointestinal malabsorption, or lactose intolerance. The knowledge needed for accurate nursing assessment, diagnostic procedural care, teaching, and referral of affected patients is reviewed. PMID:19331294

  20. Lactose intolerance in a calf.

    PubMed

    Olchowy, T W; Linnabary, R D; Andrews, F M; Longshore, R C

    1993-01-01

    Lactose intolerance was identified as the cause of bovine neonatal diarrhea. Glucose and xylose oral absorptions were normal whereas lactose absorption was reduced relative to normal calves. Lactase deficiency is common in people but rarely reported in animals. The treatment of whole milk with lactase alleviated the diarrhea. PMID:8455177

  1. Milk for Kids with Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lactose intolerance: Relax. Your child can still enjoy milk products and get the nourishment that milk gives. Nutrients ... your child is lactose intolerant, you can fit milk products in! You Can Help Your Child Enjoy Milk. ...

  2. From 'lactose intolerance' to 'lactose nutrition'.

    PubMed

    Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G; Surono, Ingrid S; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of lactose intolerance has become embedded in Western medicine and developing economy medicine. It is based on evidence that intestinal lactase activity persists into later childhood and throughout life in only a minority of the world's population, notably northern European-derived populations. These people have the T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the rs49882359 allele (C/T), also known as C/T-13910, the MCM6 gene which positively influences the lactase LCT gene. Other lactase persistent (LP) populations are found in Africa and the Middle East with different genetic variants. These SNPs represent co-evolution with dairying since the agricultural revolution and nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation. That said, gastrointestinal symptoms considered due to small intestinal lactose malabsorption are poorly correlated with lactase non-persistence (LNP), the situation for most people. With LNP, colonic microbiome lactase enables lactose fermentation to occur so that none is found in faeces. Whether the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases (hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane) produced cause symptoms is dose-dependent. Up to 25 g of lactose at any one time can usually be consumed by a LNP person, but its food and meal pattern context, the microbiomic characteristics, age and other factors may alter tolerance. Thus, the notion that lactose intolerance is a disorder or disease of LNP people is misplaced and has been one of cultural perspective. What actually matters is whether a particular dairy product as normally consumed give rise to symptoms. It is, therefore, proposed that lactose tolerance tests be replaced with dairy food tolerance tests. PMID:26715078

  3. Lactose intolerance and other disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Balvir S

    2014-09-01

    Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ? 50kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24596060

  4. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y T; Minocha, A

    2000-01-01

    Lactose intolerance affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Although the presentation is frequently atypical, it should be part of the differential diagnosis when evaluating nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. We review the terminology, types of lactase deficiencies, diagnostic procedures, and management. PMID:11126094

  5. Lactose intolerance: from diagnosis to correct management.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactose intolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactose intolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactose intolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy. PMID:24443063

  6. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani

    2015-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its prevalence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM prevalence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, respectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration>20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours. PMID:26715082

  7. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection. PMID:16805112

  8. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection. PMID:19960866

  9. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-10

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance. PMID:26917535

  10. Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are lactose intolerant. You may also have a hydrogen breath test to confirm this diagnosis. A hydrogen breath test is done by breathing into a machine that measures the amount of hydrogen in your breath within 90 minutes of consuming ...

  11. Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Melvin B

    2006-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations. Treatment consists of use of lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplementation, limitation of lactose-containing foods, or dairy elimination. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone mineral health and of other nutrients that facilitate growth in children and adolescents. If dairy products are eliminated, other dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements need to be provided. PMID:16951027

  12. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part 1].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-09-20

    Lactose intolerance is the most prevalent intestinal malabsorption disorder. After presentation of its history, the author describes the emergence of lactose intolerance during the evolution of species, and the biochemistry of lactose as well as features of human and bacterial lactase enzymes are then described. The unequal distribution of lactose intolerance in different continents and population is discussed, followed by presentation of past and present prevalence data in Hungary. Adult-type hypolactasia is caused by a polymorphism of the MCM6 gene located upstream from the lactase gene on the long arm of the chromosome 2. It can be determined with the polymerase chain reaction. The intestinal symptoms of lactose intolerance are well known, but its extra-intestinal manifestations are less recognised. Invasive diagnostic methods (determination of lactase activity from small intestinal biopsies, lactose tolerance test), are accurate, but have been replaced by the non-invasive methods; their gold standard is the H2 breath test. Genetic testing is being used more and more frequently in Hungary too, and, presumably, the methane breath test will be also available in the near future. Lactose intolerance can be accompanied by inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease and irritable bowel syndrome; it could be established whether this association is causal or not in order to start a correct diet and therapy. PMID:26550699

  13. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair José

    2012-01-01

    Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world’s population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management. PMID:22826639

  14. Secondary lactose intolerance in a neonatal goat.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Kenney, D G; O'Connor, A

    2000-08-01

    A 2-week-old Toggenburg kid was evaluated for persistent diarrhea and poor body condition. The herd had high morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea in neonatal kids. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed on the basis of results of a lactose tolerance test and glucose absorption test. Clinically normal herdmates were used as control animals. The kid responded to lactase supplementation. Cryptosporidium organisms were detected in feces of several affected kids during episodes of acute diarrhea. Lactose intolerance was presumed to have developed secondary to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. PMID:10935043

  15. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part II].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-10-25

    The author summarises the interrelations between lactose intolerance, calcium and vitamin D metabolism and osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance enhances the risk of forearm and hip fractures in some patients. Lactase gene genotype and fracture risk are related in some populations. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increase bone mineral content and they are justified in children, during pregnancy and lactation, and in postmenopausal women. The intake of milk and milk products could increase the risk of ovarian carcinoma. CC genotype of the lactase gene increased the risk of colorectal carcinoma in Finns; no such effect was observed in British, Spanish and Italian patients. Even small quantities of lactose in drugs (10-750 mg) could elicit intolerance symptoms due to individual susceptibility. In spite of public knowledge and advertising, controlled studies did not prove the beneficial effect of either a lactose-free diet, enzyme supplementation or probiotics in an evidence-based manner. While accepted guidelines are lacking, a personalised therapy is mandatory. In spite of increasing public interest in lactose intolerance, many unknown factors must still be studied. PMID:26477616

  16. How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to minimize symptoms without giving up milk and milk products completely. Studies show that the following strategies can ... cause fewer symptoms. Choose reduced-lactose milk and milk products, which have the same amount of calcium as ...

  17. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    PubMed

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p?intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients?=?83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders. PMID:23224632

  18. Fermentation, fermented foods and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    2002-12-01

    Lactose (milk sugar) is a fermentable substrate. It can be fermented outside of the body to produce cheeses, yoghurts and acidified milks. It can be fermented within the large intestine in those people who have insufficient expression of lactase enzyme on the intestinal mucosa to ferment this disaccharide to its absorbable, simple hexose sugars: glucose and galactose. In this way, the issues of lactose intolerance and of fermented foods are joined. It is only at the extremes of life, in infancy and old age, in which severe and life-threatening consequences from lactose maldigestion may occur. Fermentation as part of food processing can be used for preservation, for liberation of pre-digested nutrients, or to create ethanolic beverages. Almost all cultures and ethnic groups have developed some typical forms of fermented foods. Lessons from fermentation of non-dairy items may be applicable to fermentation of milk, and vice versa. PMID:12556948

  19. The clinical significance of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Neaverson, M A

    1980-10-01

    Lactose intolerance may give rise to a variety of gastro enterological symptoms depending on the degree of lactase deficiency present. A percentage of patients may be asymtomatic, but the presence of lactose in their diet leads to inadequate absorption of a variety of important nutrients resulting in deficiency disorders or less than optimal weight gain. The increase in migration from southern Europe and of late from Indo-China significantly increases the Australian population likely to be lactase-deficient. Many immigrants keen to adapt to the Australian way of life see milk as a new essential part of their diet. This, accompanied with a lack of basic English as a language, may compound the problem of diagnosis in these patients particularly if the medical practitioner is unaware of the syndrome. The ready availability of lactose-hydrolyzed milk powder as a Pharmaceutical Benefit should allow all patients to gain the nutritional advantage of milk without suffering the complications associated with lactose intolerance. PMID:6893545

  20. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  1. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates ?-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  2. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development. PMID:21335997

  3. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

  4. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Frhauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

  5. Systemic lactose intolerance: a new perspective on an old problem.

    PubMed

    Matthews, S B; Waud, J P; Roberts, A G; Campbell, A K

    2005-03-01

    Intolerance to certain foods can cause a range of gut and systemic symptoms. The possibility that these can be caused by lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose added to many foods and drinks inadequately labelled, confusing diagnosis based on dietary removal of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. This, with a 48 hour record of gut and systemic symptoms and a six hour breath hydrogen test, provides a new approach to the clinical management of lactose intolerance. The key is the prolonged effect of dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labelled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the wide range of systemic symptoms caused by lactose intolerance. This has important implications for the management of irritable bowel syndrome, and for doctors of many specialties. PMID:15749792

  6. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance. PMID:26393648

  7. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance. PMID:26393648

  8. [Pharmaceutical drugs containing lactose can as a rule be used by persons with lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Vinther, Siri; Rumessen, Jri Johannes; Christensen, Mikkel

    2015-03-01

    Lactose is often used as an excipient in pharmaceutical drugs. Current evidence indicates that the amount of lactose in most drugs is not sufficient to cause symptoms in persons with lactose intolerance, although interindividual differences in sensitivity probably exist. Patient preferences and/or suboptimal treatment adherence could be reasons for considering lactose-free drug alternatives. PMID:25786702

  9. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    He, T; Venema, K; Priebe, M G; Welling, G W; Brummer, R-J M; Vonk, R J

    2008-08-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic-active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance. PMID:18573099

  10. When to suspect lactose intolerance. Symptomatic, ethnic, and laboratory clues.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Minocha, A

    1998-09-01

    Lactose intolerance is widespread, with adult-type hypolactasia being the predominant cause of lactose malabsorption. Daily ingestion of less than 240 mL of milk is well tolerated by most lactose-intolerant adults. Some persons with normal lactase activity may become symptomatic on consumption of products containing lactose. Lactose maldigestion may coexist in adults with irritable bowel syndrome and in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Management consists primarily of dietary changes. People who avoid dairy products should receive calcium supplementation and should be advised to read ingredient labels carefully. Several lactase replacement products are available, but their efficacy varies. PMID:9742907

  11. [Lactose and gluten intolerance: which to suscept?].

    PubMed

    Van Gossum, M; Mascart, F; Rickaert, F; Codden, T; Colonius, V

    2000-09-01

    Lactose intolerance affects millions of people world-wide and should be suspected specially when evaluating gastrointestinal symptoms in ethnic populations in which it is prevalent. Fortunately, once a diagnosis is made, management is fairly straightforward. The authors discuss symptoms and methods of detection and offer their recommendations for helping patients with this common disorder. Coeliac disease is the end result of 3 processes that culminate in intestinal damage: genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immunological based inflammation. Epidemiological studies based on serologic tests suggest that the prevalence of coeliac disease has been significantly underestimated. The classic sprue syndrome of steatorrhea and malnutrition may be less common than more subtle and often monosymptomatic presentations of the disease. The authors discuss the diagnostic criteria and the clinical utility of serologic tests. PMID:11068484

  12. Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa…

  13. Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa

  14. [Lactose intolerance and consumption of milk and milk products].

    PubMed

    Sieber, R; Stransky, M; de Vrese, M

    1997-12-01

    The disaccharide lactose is present as a natural component of foods only in milk and dairy products. In the gastrointestinal tract, lactose is hydrolysed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase (lactase) into glucose and galactose. These components are absorbed. With the exception of the caucasian race, the lactase activity decreases in most people at an age of 4 to 6 years. Lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, and diarrhea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended to those persons that they refrain from the consumption of milk and dairy products. However, most lactose intolerant people are able to digest small amounts of milk. They can also consume cheese that contains no (hard and semi-hard) or only small amounts of lactose (present in only 10% of soft cheeses). These products are very important sources of calcium. Compared to milk, the lactose content of yogurt is usually lower by about one third. Studies during the last 10 years have shown that in spite of its lactose content yogurt is very well tolerated by lactose intolerant persons. This advantage is ascribed to the presence of living lactic acid bacteria in fermented dairy products which survive passage through the stomach and also to the lactase present in these products. PMID:9467238

  15. Clinical implications of lactose malabsorption versus lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Michael; Wilt, Timothy; Shaukat, Aasma

    2013-07-01

    The majority of the world's adult population and an estimated 80 million Americans are hypolactasic and hence malabsorb ingested lactose. Although lactose malabsorption is easily identified, less readily assessed is the clinically important question of how often does this malabsorption induce symptoms. This review summarizes: (1) knowledge concerning the etiology and diagnosis of hypolactasia and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of lactose malabsorption and (2) the results of well-controlled trials of the symptomatic response of lactose malabsorbers to varying dosages of lactose and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions to alleviate these symptoms. We conclude that the clinical significance of lactose malabsorption has been overestimated by both the lay public and physicians in that commonly ingested doses of lactose (ie, the quantity in a cup of milk) usually do not cause perceptible symptoms when ingested with a meal. Symptoms occur when the lactose dosage exceeds that in a cup of milk or when lactose is ingested without other nutrients. Simple dietary instruction, rather than the use of commercial products to reduce lactose intake, is recommended for the vast majority of lactose-malabsorbing subjects. PMID:23632346

  16. Dietary treatment of lactose intolerance in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Sinden, A A; Sutphen, J L

    1991-12-01

    During the past several years there have been many reports of alternative dietary therapies for primary and secondary lactose intolerance. We have learned that it is useful to feed through most episodes of mild diarrhea that previously would have been treated with clear liquid diets. Infant formulas, including both soy-protein and hydrolysate formulas with specially designed carbohydrate, protein, and fat components, are available to treat the infant with diarrheal syndromes and secondary lactase deficiency. Also, the diet can be supplemented with lactase. Specialized lactose-reduced products as well as cultured and fermented dairy products may be used in varying degrees for lactose-intolerant children. The ingestion of milk with food and fiber components in the diet has also been shown to improve symptoms of lactose intolerance. This review summarizes the essentials of diagnosis of and dietary therapy for lactose intolerance. Our findings indicate that a number of specialized formulas and products are available for successful dietary management of lactose intolerance in infants and children. PMID:1960350

  17. Recent advances in the management of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, D A; Kotz, C

    1989-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a concern for the majority of the world's population. Persons who experience symptoms following the consumption of milk should consult with their physician. Symptoms may be eliminated or reduced with good dietary management that includes: Limiting milk consumption to one glass at a time. Drinking milk with other foods rather than alone. Eating yogurts instead of fluid milk. Using enzyme tablets to predigest the lactose in milk or to supplement the body's own lactase. Possibly eating small amounts of dairy foods each day to adapt the colonic bacteria. For an additional review of the research findings on lactose intolerance and milk drinking, the reader is directed to reference 4, a very recent and complete review by Scrimshaw and Murray. For information on dietary management of lactose intolerance suitable for the consumer, contact your local affiliate of the National Dairy Council. PMID:2656797

  18. Lactose maldigestion and milk intolerance in healthy Greek schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ladas, S D; Katsiyiannaki-Latoufi, E; Raptis, S A

    1991-03-01

    The prevalence of lactose maldigestion in Greek adults is 75% but the age at which the lactase activity starts declining is not known. The prevalences of lactose maldigestion and intolerance were investigated in 150 randomly selected Greek children 5-12 y old by using breath-hydrogen analysis after ingestion of lactose (2 g/kg body wt, maximum 50 g) or 0.240 L of milk. Prevalence of lactose maldigestion increased with age (y = -7.30 + 6.49x, r = 0.88, P = 0.004), being 29.4% and 80.0% at ages 5 and 12 y, respectively. Before testing, the reported prevalences of milk-related symptoms by children with high and low lactose-digestion capacity were 21.1% and 39.7% (chi 2 = 5.96, P = 0.015), respectively. However, the corresponding prevalences of lactose intolerance after ingestion of milk were 7.3% and 8.6% (chi 2 = 0.1, P = 0.72) and only three children had a delta H2 greater than or equal to 20 ppm postprandially. Although intestinal lactase activity declines before age 5 y and many Greek children report milk-related symptoms, true malabsorption and intolerance of lactose after a glass of milk is rarely seen at this age. PMID:2000821

  19. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance12

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

  20. How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How many people are affected or at risk for lactose intolerance? ... media links Share this: Page Content How many people are lactose intolerant? The true number of people ...

  1. Lactose intolerance. Recognizing the link between diet and discomfort.

    PubMed

    Aurisicchio, L N; Pitchumoni, C S

    1994-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice. Evaluation involves obtaining a thorough nutritional history and recognizing associations between diet and gastrointestinal complaints. Lack of suspicion of the problem can lead to expensive and invasive diagnostic procedures, which may further aggravate patients' anxiety and result in iatrogenic complications. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, simple dietary management may resolve symptoms completely. PMID:8278293

  2. Overcoming the barrier of lactose intolerance to reduce health disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Judith K.; Miller, Gregory D.

    2002-01-01

    Federal health goals for the public have focused on reducing health disparities that exist between whites and various racial and ethnic groups. Many of the chronic diseases for which African Americans are at greater risk- hypertension, stroke, colon cancer, and obesity-may be exacerbated by a low intake of calcium and/or other dairy-related nutrients. For example, a low intake of dairy food nutrients, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, may contribute to the high risk of hypertension seen in African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that a low-fat diet rich in fruits and vegetables (8 to 10 servings) and low-fat dairy foods (3 servings) significantly reduced blood pressure-and was twice as effective in African-American participants. Calcium and dairy food consumption is particularly low among African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Average intakes are near the threshold of 600 to 700 mg/day, below which bone loss and hypertension can result. Although lactose intolerance may be partly to blame for the low calcium intakes due to reduced dairy food consumption by minority populations, culturally determined food preferences and dietary practices learned early in life also play a role. The high incidence figures for primary lactose maldigestion among minority groups grossly overestimates the number who will experience intolerance symptoms after drinking a glass of milk with a meal. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that by using a few simple dietary strategies, those who maldigest lactose (have low levels of the lactase enzyme) can easily tolerate a dairy-rich diet that meets calcium intake recommendations. Physicians and other health professionals can help their minority patients and the general public understand how to improve calcium nutrition by overcoming the surmountable barrier of lactose intolerance. At the same time they will be helping to reduce the incidence of calcium-related chronic diseases for which minority populations are at high risk. PMID:11853047

  3. Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

    2014-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

  4. Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Hassan, Mohamed E.

    2014-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 510%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's SH, NH, and OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, Km and Vmax, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

  5. [Lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance-related symptoms in adult healthy subjects from western France].

    PubMed

    Cloarec, D; Gouilloud, S; Bornet, F; Bruley des Varannes, S; Bizais, Y; Galmiche, J P

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD) and lactose intolerance is not well known in France. Using breath hydrogen and methane analysis after 50 g oral lactose load, we investigated the prevalences of LD, lactose intolerance, and methane producer status in 102 healthy adults born in western France, and we examined the relationships between these parameters and the daily milk consumption. In 10 subjects with LD and lactose intolerance, we studied the reproducibility of the lactose hydrogen breath test results for the diagnosis of LD and lactose intolerance and estimated the quantity of lactose malabsorbed in comparison with the lactulose hydrogen breath test. The prevalence of LD was 23.4 percent and symptoms of lactose intolerance were observed in 50 percent of the 24 subjects with LD. The daily milk consumption was not significantly different in the 24 subjects with LD and in the 78 subjects without LD (281 +/- 197 vs 303 +/- 217 ml/24 h). The prevalence of methane producer status was 42.1 percent. The symptomatic group of lactose malabsorbers (n = 12) was characterized by a shorter lactose mouth to caecum transit time (39 +/- 20 vs 88 +/- 48 min; P less than 0.05), and more marked hydrogen production (6.1 +/- 2.3 vs 3.4 +/- 2.4 10(3) ppm.min; P less than 0.04). In the 10 subjects with LD and lactose intolerance, the hydrogen breath test was reproducible for diagnosis of LD and lactose intolerance, and for hydrogen production. The quantity of lactose malabsorbed was 60 percent. In France, symptoms of lactose intolerance are not severe and do not affect the daily consumption of milk and dairy products. PMID:1752368

  6. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: What should be the best clinical management?

    PubMed

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Scarpa, Mariella; Oppia, Francesco; Cabras, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is the incomplete hydrolysis of lactose due to lactase deficiency, which may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other intestinal diseases. Primary adult-type hypolactasia is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from the physiological decline of lactase activity. Different methods have been used to diagnose LM. Lactose breath test represents the most reliable technique. A recent consensus conference has proposed the more physiological dosage of 25 g of lactose and a standardized procedure for breath testing. Recently a new genetic test, based on C/T13910 polymorphism, has been proposed for the diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia, complementing the role of breath testing. LM represents a well-known cause of abdominal symptoms although only some lactose malabsorbers are also intolerants. Diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward. Many non-malabsorber subjects diagnose themselves as being lactose intolerant. Blind lactose challenge studies should be recommended to obtain objective results. Besides several studies indicate that subjects with lactose intolerance can ingest up to 15 g of lactose with no or minor symptoms. Therefore a therapeutic strategy consists of a lactose restricted diet avoiding the nutritional disadvantages of reduced calcium and vitamin intake.Various pharmacological options are also available. Unfortunately there is insufficient evidence that these therapies are effective. Further double-blind studies are needed to demonstrate treatment effectiveness in lactose intolerance. PMID:22966480

  7. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: What should be the best clinical management?

    PubMed Central

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Scarpa, Mariella; Oppia, Francesco; Cabras, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is the incomplete hydrolysis of lactose due to lactase deficiency, which may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other intestinal diseases. Primary adult-type hypolactasia is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from the physiological decline of lactase activity. Different methods have been used to diagnose LM. Lactose breath test represents the most reliable technique. A recent consensus conference has proposed the more physiological dosage of 25 g of lactose and a standardized procedure for breath testing. Recently a new genetic test, based on C/T13910 polymorphism, has been proposed for the diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia, complementing the role of breath testing. LM represents a well-known cause of abdominal symptoms although only some lactose malabsorbers are also intolerants. Diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward. Many non-malabsorber subjects diagnose themselves as being lactose intolerant. Blind lactose challenge studies should be recommended to obtain objective results. Besides several studies indicate that subjects with lactose intolerance can ingest up to 15 g of lactose with no or minor symptoms. Therefore a therapeutic strategy consists of a lactose restricted diet avoiding the nutritional disadvantages of reduced calcium and vitamin intake.Various pharmacological options are also available. Unfortunately there is insufficient evidence that these therapies are effective. Further double-blind studies are needed to demonstrate treatment effectiveness in lactose intolerance. PMID:22966480

  8. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  9. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    .... Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, a sugar found in milk and.... Lactase breaks milk sugar down into two simpler forms of sugar called glucose and galactose, which are... and successfully digest lactose provided by human milk or by infant formulas. However, by the...

  10. Lactose intolerance and African Americans: implications for the consumption of appropriate intake levels of key nutrients.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs. PMID:19899495

  11. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Priebe, Marion G; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Stellaard, Frans; Sun, Xiaohong; Welling, Gjalt W; Vonk, Roel J

    2006-01-01

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28 Chinese subjects had undergone 1 glucose (placebo) and 2 lactose challenges, consistent lactose tolerant (n = 7) and intolerant (n = 5) subjects with no complaints after glucose administration were classified on the basis of the 6-h symptom scores. Before the challenges, fecal samples were collected for in vitro incubation with lactose. The incubation was carried out in a static system under anaerobic conditions for 5 h during which samples were taken for measurement of short-chain fatty acids, lactate, lactose, glucose, and galactose. Fecal bacterial composition was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The tolerant and intolerant groups did not differ in the rate or degree of hydrolysis of lactose or production of glucose and galactose. The intolerant group produced d- and l-lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate significantly faster than the tolerant group. In the intolerant group, the amounts of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and l-lactate produced were higher than those in the tolerant group. Fecal bacterial composition did not differ between the 2 groups. The results indicate that the degree and rate of lactose hydrolysis in the colon do not play a role in lactose intolerance. However, after lactose is hydrolyzed, a faster and higher production of microbial intermediate and end metabolites may be related to the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:16365059

  12. Dietary management of lactose intolerance--lactase treated milk versus soya milk.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Gupta, S

    1993-01-01

    Transient lactose intolerance secondary to infective diarrhoea is common in developing countries, & soya milk formula is commonly prescribed for its management. Lactose predigested milk feeding was done in 70 patients of test group while withdrawing lactose diet & 84.3% had control of motions with absent lactose in stool despite challenge feed, 3 days after withdrawal of lactose diet. 83.3% patients in control group fed soya milk had such improvement but the incidence of feed refusal was 30% in this group as compared to only 2.8% in lactaid group. Vomiting after feed was also found in 10% of babies fed soya milk as compared to none in lactaid group, thus proving superiority of lactaid in management of lactose intolerance diarrhoea. PMID:8514340

  13. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 68 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.350.61. P < 0.0001), but not with malabsorption. Non-GI symptoms occurred more commonly in patients with intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. PMID:23574302

  14. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM. PMID:26931253

  15. Treatment of lactose intolerance with exogenous beta-D-galactosidase in pellet form.

    PubMed

    Xenos, K; Kyroudis, S; Anagnostidis, A; Papastathopoulos, P

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of a new beta-D-galactosidase pellet formulation in the treatment of lactose intolerance was studied. The encapsuled beta-D-galactosidase (lactase) pellets were first tested in vitro for their enzymatic activity within an environment simulating gastric conditions and subsequently within an environment simulating duodenal conditions. Effectiveness was measured by the % of glucose formed by hydrolysis of lactose. The pellets were found to retain their enzymatic activity in gastric pH conditions (mean 69 +/- 1 mg/dl glucose) and were found to hydrolyse lactose in human duodenal fluid (106.35 +/- 1 mg/dl). Finally the effectiveness of the new lactase formulation on glucose absorption was studied in 8 lactose intolerant subjects in a randomized, double blind, crossover trial. After fasting, the subjects were given one capsule containing 100 u/ml beta-galactosidase (i.e. 10 pellets of 10 u/ml each) or one capsule containing placebo pellets, followed by 100 g lactose dissolved in water. The washout period between lactose challenges was one week. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured before and at intervals after the challenges and the subjects completed symptom questionnaires every eight hours for 24 hours. Results showed a statistically significant increase in plasma glucose levels 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after lactose ingestion (repeated measures analysis of variance, p<0.01). Subjective ratings of the severity of abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, vomiting and diarrhoea were significantly decreased following ingestion of the lactase pellets and lactose (no incidence of diarrhoea) compared with after ingestion of placebo and lactose. The results of the study were considered to be very promising as the beta-D-galactosidase formulation (which was produced at very low cost and with great ease) resisted inactivation in the stomach, effectively transformed lactose to glucose in vivo and reduced symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:9725505

  16. Effect of a single dose of lactase on symptoms and expired hydrogen after lactose challenge in lactose-intolerant subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanders, S W; Tolman, K G; Reitberg, D P

    1992-06-01

    The effect of a single dose or oral lactase on symptoms, breath hydrogen concentration, and glucose absorption in lactose-intolerant subjects challenged with lactose was studied. Volunteers underwent a lactose challenge test; those whose breath hydrogen concentrations increased 20 ppm or more and who met other criteria were admitted as subjects. After fasting, the subjects were given three chewable lactase tablets (total lactase dose, 9900 FCC units) or placebo tablets in a randomized, double-blind, crossover manner. The subjects also consumed 8 oz of whole milk in which 37.5 g of lactose powder was dissolved (total lactose content, 50 g). The washout period between lactose challenges was at least one week. Breath hydrogen and plasma glucose concentrations were measured before and at intervals after the challenges, and the subjects completed symptom-evaluation questionnaires every eight hours for four days. Twenty-four subjects completed the study. The maximum mean breath hydrogen concentration was significantly lower after lactase treatment than after placebo treatment. In 21 subjects, the area under the hydrogen concentration-time curve (AUC) was lower after lactase than after placebo; three subjects had hydrogen AUCs more than 300 ppm.hr lower. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose levels. Subjective ratings of the severity of abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, and diarrhea were lower during the first eight hours after challenge in lactase-treated subjects; ratings for bloating were lower during the next eight hours. Single doses of a chewable lactase tablet reduced the concentration of expired hydrogen and symptoms of lactose intolerance after a lactose challenge. PMID:1534729

  17. Effect of Raw Milk on Lactose Intolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mummah, Sarah; Oelrich, Beibei; Hope, Jessica; Vu, Quyen; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This pilot study aimed to determine whether raw milk reduces lactose malabsorption and/or lactose intolerance symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. METHODS We performed a crossover trial involving 16 adults with self-reported lactose intolerance and lactose malabsorption confirmed by hydrogen (H2) breath testing. Participants underwent 3, 8-day milk phases (raw vs 2 controls: pasteurized, soy) in randomized order separated by 1-week washout periods. On days 1 and 8 of each phase, milk consumption was 473 mL (16 oz); on days 2 to 7, milk dosage increased daily by 118 mL (4 oz), beginning with 118 mL (4 oz) on day 2 and reaching 710 mL (24 oz) on day 7. Outcomes were area under the breath H2 curve (AUC ∆H2) and self-reported symptom severity (visual analog scales: flatulence/gas, audible bowel sounds, abdominal cramping, diarrhea). RESULTS AUC ∆H2 (mean ± standard error of the mean) was higher for raw vs pasteurized on day 1 (113 ± 21 vs 71 ± 12 ppm·min·10−2, respectively, P = .01) but not day 8 (72 ± 14 vs 74 ± 15 ppm·min·10−2, respectively, P = .9). Symptom severities were not different for raw vs pasteurized on day 7 with the highest dosage (P >.7). AUC ∆H2 and symptom severities were higher for both dairy milks compared with soy milk. CONCLUSIONS Raw milk failed to reduce lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance symptoms compared with pasteurized milk among adults positive for lactose malabsorption. These results do not support widespread anecdotal claims that raw milk reduces the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24615309

  18. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-09-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  19. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-01-01

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal. PMID:26404364

  20. Lactose intolerance: a non-allergic disorder often managed by allergologists.

    PubMed

    Perino, A; Cabras, S; Obinu, D; Cavalli Sforza, L

    2009-02-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary bypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen may cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This condition is known as lactose intolerance. Lactase non-persistence is the ancestral state, whilst two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactase gene have been associated with lactase persistence. These are C/T 13910 and G/A 22018 substitutions. Lactase persistence, this Mendelian dominant trait, only became advantageous after the invention of agriculture, when milk from domesticated animals became available for adults to drink. Lactase persistence is then strongly correlated with the diary history of the population. Diagnosis is assessed clinically by elimination of dietary lactose or, better, by non-invasive tests including hydrogen breath test and genetic test. In patients with lactase non-persistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous beta-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation. PMID:19496347

  1. Properties of porcine and yogurt lactobacilli in relation to lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Burton, J P; Tannock, G W

    1997-10-01

    Lactobacilli that had been isolated from the stomach of piglets were tested for properties relevant to the production of fermented milk products for consumption by lactose-intolerant humans. The strains were characterized for beta-galactosidase activity, the ability to reduce the lactose concentration of milk, viability, and pH of the fermented milk over a 30-d period. Strains that had favorable attributes were studied further, and the optimal pH for beta-galactosidase activity, ability to grow in the presence of bile salts, and ability to deconjugate bile salts were determined. Commercial yogurts were also examined to determine whether products varied in characteristics that might affect tolerance of milk products by lactose-intolerant subjects. The Lactobacillus sp. isolated from pigs had lower beta-galactosidase activity than did Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains ATCC 11842 and NCDO 1489 and strains of lactobacilli isolated from yogurt. The beta-galactosidase activity of all strains decreased rapidly once the fermented milk was stored at 4 degrees C. Strain JB10, originating in the stomach contents of the piglets, had properties that were useful for the manufacture of fermented milk products for lactose-intolerant humans. Milk fermented by this strain had a lactose concentration of about 4.0% and contained 6.6 x 10(6) cfu/ml after storage at 4 degrees C for 20 d. Strain JB10 produced a beta-galactosidase that was active at pH 5.5 (35% of the activity at pH 7.0) and was not inhibited by the presence of bile acids in the culture medium. Beta-Galactosidase activity and lactose concentration varied among yogurts. PMID:9361203

  2. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins; de Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares; Havt, Alexandre; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Cid, David A C; de Moura Gondim Prata, Mara; Soares, Alberto Melo; Guerrant, Richard L; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%), bloating (68.5%), borborygmus (59.3%) and diarrhea (46.3%) compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (p<0.05). We observed a significant association between the presence of the alleles T-13910 and A-22018 and the lactose-tolerant phenotype (p<0.05). After evaluation of the biochemical blood test results for lactose, we found that the most effective cutoff for glucose levels obtained for lactose malabsorbers was <15 mg/dL, presenting an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve greater than 80.3%, with satisfactory values for sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSIONS: These data corroborate the association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (C>T-13910 and G>A-22018) with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL. PMID:26934237

  3. Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p = 0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p = 0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

  4. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y

    2015-09-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. PMID:26343715

  5. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mahdi; Diekmann, Lena; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. PMID:26343715

  6. Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector.

    PubMed

    During, M J; Xu, R; Young, D; Kaplitt, M G; Sherwin, R S; Leone, P

    1998-10-01

    Gene therapy is usually reserved for severe and medically refractory disorders because of the toxicity, potential long-term risks and invasiveness of most gene transfer protocols. Here we show that an orally administered adeno-associated viral vector leads to persistent expression of a beta-galactosidase transgene in both gut epithelial and lamina propria cells, and that this approach results in long-term phenotypic recovery in an animal model of lactose intolerance. A gene 'pill' associated with highly efficient and stable gene expression might be a practical and cost-effective strategy for even relatively mild disorders, such as lactase deficiency. PMID:9771745

  7. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wrong and how to best treat it. Important Nutrients Did you know... Non-Dairy Sources can Contain ... products are readily available sources of calcium, other nutrients, and vitamin D (when fortified). Not getting enough ...

  8. Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Espaol What Other Kids Are Reading Girls and Puberty Boys and Puberty Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive ...

  9. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  10. Lactose maldigestion and milk intolerance: a study in rural and urban Mexico using physiological doses of milk.

    PubMed

    Rosado, J L; Gonzalez, C; Valencia, M E; Lpez, P; Palma, M; Lpez, B; Meja, L; Bez, M C

    1994-07-01

    Lactose digestion capacity after ingestion of physiological doses of milk and its effect on milk intolerance and consumption were studied in rural and urban populations from three regions of Mexico with different milk intakes. All subjects (n = 926) received two treatments: whole milk (240 mL for children and 360 mL for adults) and the same amount of 90% lactose-hydrolyzed milk; 72% of the subjects also received as a third treatment a water solution containing lactulose (8 g for children and 10 g for adults). Lactose maldigestion determined by a hydrogen breath test was detected in 2 to 43% of subjects (depending on age group) and was higher in subjects from central and southern Mexico than in subjects from northern Mexico (P < 0.01). Only the experience of major symptoms of intolerance affected milk consumption, and these symptoms were present in 0 to 11% of children > 4 y old and in 7 to 17% of the 13- to 60-y-old subjects. No significant differences were found in lactose maldigestion or milk intolerance between rural and urban populations, but milk consumption was higher in urban areas (P < 0.01). Milk consumption in our study was affected primarily by factors not related to the capacity to digest or tolerate the lactose in milk. PMID:8027855

  11. Efficacy of traditional rice-lentil-yogurt diet, lactose free milk protein-based formula and soy protein formula in management of secondary lactose intolerance with acute childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Nizami, S Q; Bhutta, Z A; Molla, A M

    1996-06-01

    Secondary lactose intolerance is often a cause of prolongation of diarrhoeal episodes. As appropriate management of lactose intolerance is elimination of lactose from diet, expansive lactose free formulae are often prescribed in acute childhood diarrhoea without establishing diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Since cheap weaning diets made from locally available cereals have been found effective in management of persistent diarrhoea, we postulated that same weaning diet made of rice lentil and yogurt (K-Y diet) could be effectively used in management of acute childhood diarrhoea associated with secondary lactose intolerance. We compared this K-Y diet with milk protein-based lactose free and soy-protein formula. Thirty children between 3-18 months of age completed dietary trial for 72 h. Of these nine children received K-Y diet (Group A), four children received milk protein-based formula (Group B) and 11 children received soy protein formula (Group C). Stool frequency was significantly reduced in children in Group A (13 +/- 6 on day 1 to 6 +/- 5 on day 3) and in Group B (13 +/- 5 on day 1 to 7 +/- 4 on day 3), but not in Group C (13 +/- 4 on day 1 to 10 +/- 8 on day 3). No significant difference was observed in intake of diet, total calories intake, and fluid intake among the three groups. It is concluded that cheap weaning diet made of locally available cereals and yogurt can be used effectively in management of secondary lactose intolerance associated with acute childhood diarrhoea. PMID:8699577

  12. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. PMID:26287234

  13. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. PMID:26287234

  14. Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

  15. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a 13C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity. PMID:26371036

  16. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity. PMID:26371036

  17. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and β-galactosidase

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Bertuccioli, Alexander; Marini, Eleonora; Ivaldi, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and β-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc). This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus β-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1) uncontrolled diet, 2) diet devoid of offending foods, and 3) uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and β-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®). Results Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation) significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. PMID:25733920

  18. Lactose intolerance in persistent diarrhoea during childhood: the role of a traditional rice-lentil (Khitchri) and yogurt diet in nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Z A; Nizami, S Q; Isani, Z

    1997-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is frequently encountered in children with persistent diarrhoea (PD). Selection of an appropriate milk-based formulation is a major management problem in the developing world. In a consecutive series of studies, we evaluated the role of feeding a traditional rice-lentil (khitchri) diet alone (KY) or in combination with either soy formula (KY-Soy) a dilute buffalo milk (KY-B), in children (age 6 months-3 years) with PD. Serial observations of stool output, caloric intake and weight gain of these children over a 14 day period indicated satisfactory tolerance of the KY diet with adequate weight gain. The weight gain and stool output was however higher in lactose intolerant children, with the worst results seen with K-Y and buffalo milk combination. While lactose intolerant children with PD do have higher. rates of therapeutic failure, our data indicates that a traditional diet and yogurt combination can be used satisfactorily for nutritional rehabilitation in over 80% of such children. PMID:9056732

  19. [Food intolerance].

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Adverse food reactions are common in the general population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the structure of food allergens and of the mechanisms involved is poor. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification based on the causative pathogenic mechanism. According to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into food allergies when they recognize immunological mechanisms and food intolerance when there are no immunological implications. The treatment of food intolerance is avoidance of the particular food. There are specific treatments for some food intolerance (beta-galactosidases for the management of lactose intolerance). PMID:19627745

  20. Comparative uptake of calcium from milk and a calcium-rich mineral water in lactose intolerant adults: implications for treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Halpern, G M; Van de Water, J; Delabroise, A M; Keen, C L; Gershwin, M E

    1991-01-01

    Despite the links between low calcium (Ca) intake and age-related bone loss, hypertension, and colon cancer, the majority of Western populations have average daily Ca intakes substantially below recommended daily allowances. Although dietary products are widely known as a rich and valuable source of Ca in the diet, consumption of diary products is low and has been decreasing because of perceptions of excess calories and fat in the diet, as well as taste aversions. During the last decade, a marked increase in the consumption of bottled waters has occurred. Since some of these waters are characterized by high concentrations of Ca, we have studied Ca bioavailability from a Ca-rich water, using 15 lactose intolerant male individuals as subjects, and compared such bioavailability to that from milk. We report herein that the bioavailability of Ca from the water was generally as good as or better than that from milk, a food product well known for its very high Ca bioavailability. Indeed, in eight of 15 subjects, there was a higher level of Ca absorption from mineral water than from milk; bioavailability was equal in five of 15 subjects; in contrast, in two of 15 subjects, the bioavailability of Ca absorption from milk was greater than that from the mineral water. The potential implications of this observation for the prevention and management of age-related bone loss are important for preventive medicine and indicate a new, important source of dietary Ca for lactose intolerant individuals. PMID:1790046

  1. Beneficial effects of long-term consumption of a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve Yakult may persist after suspension of therapy in lactose-intolerant patients.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Almeida CC; Lorena SL; Pavan CR; Akasaka HM; Mesquita MA

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of some probiotic strains for the management of lactose intolerance remains to be established.AIM: To evaluate the effects of a 4-week consumption of a probiotic product containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve Yakult (10(7)-10(9) CFU of each strain) on symptoms and breath hydrogen exhalation after a lactose load in lactose-intolerant patients and whether the beneficial results persisted after probiotic discontinuation.METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with lactose maldigestion and intolerance participated in this study, which comprised 4 hydrogen breath tests: baseline condition (20 g lactose), after lactase ingestion (9000 FCC units), at the end of 4-week probiotic supplementation, and a follow-up test performed 3 months after probiotic discontinuation. For each test, the area under the breath hydrogen concentration vs time curve (AUC(180 min)) was calculated, and symptom scores were recorded.RESULTS: The probiotic combination significantly reduced symptom scores (P < .01) and breath hydrogen AUC (P = .04) compared with the baseline condition. The comparison with the lactase test showed that symptom scores were similar (P > .05), despite the significantly higher (P = .01) AUC values after probiotic use. In the follow-up test, symptom scores and breath hydrogen AUC values remained similar to those found at the end of probiotic intervention.CONCLUSION: Four-week consumption of a probiotic combination of L casei Shirota and B breve Yakult seems to improve symptoms and decrease hydrogen production intake in lactose-intolerant patients. These effects may persist for at least 3 months after suspension of probiotic consumption.

  2. Effects of Exogenous Lactase Administration on Hydrogen Breath Excretion and Intestinal Symptoms in Patients Presenting Lactose Malabsorption and Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ibba, Ivan; Gilli, Agnese; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A), while mean peak H2 levels (74.95 ppm versus 7.85), P < 0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B) were still positive, with the H2 level 20 ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7 ppm versus 66.64), P < 0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C) they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60 ppm). All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability. PMID:24967391

  3. [Lactose in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    de Vrese, M; Sieber, R; Stransky, M

    1998-09-19

    The disaccharide lactose is naturally present as a component of foods in milk and dairy products. In the gastrointestinal tract, lactose is hydrolysed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase (lactase) into glucose and galactose. These components are absorbed. In most people lactase activity decreases at the age of approximately 2 years of age. After this lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhoea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended that these people abandon the consumption of milk and dairy products. However, most lactose-intolerant people are able to digest small amounts of milk (approximately 200 ml). They can also consume cheese without (hard and semi-hard cheese) or only low lactose content (only present in 10% of soft cheese). These products are a very important source of calcium. PMID:9783354

  4. Lactose intolerance genetic testing: is it useful as routine screening? Results on 1426 south-central Italy patients.

    PubMed

    Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Guarino, Donatella; Annicchiarico, Eleonora Brigida; Lisci, Rosalia; Penitente, Romina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2015-01-15

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a widespread condition throughout the world, causing lactose malabsorption. Several studies suggested that the identification of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations, located upstream the gene encoding the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of hypolactasia. We evaluated the frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 variants in a central-south Italian population and the usefulness of lactase deficiency genetic testing in the clinic practice. The genomic DNA of 1426 patients and 1000 healthy controls from central-south Italy was isolated from peripheral whole blood and genotyped for the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and sequencing. The frequencies of genotypes in the 1426 patients analysed were as follows: 1077 CC/GG (75.5%), 287 CT/GA (20.1%), 24 TT/AA (1.7%), 38 CC/GA (2.7%). Only 64 out of 1426 (4.5%) performed also L-BHT test, 29 of which were negative for L-BHT also in presence of different genotypes. Among the 35 individuals with L-BHT positive, 34 were CC/GG and only one CT/GA. Although lactose genetic test is a good predictor of persistence/non-persistence lactase in specific population, its use in the central-south Italy population should be limited given the high prevalence of the CCGG diplotype in normal individuals. PMID:25281930

  5. [Nutrition and bone health. Lactose and bone].

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Yamaura, Tomoko

    2010-03-01

    Lactose, a disaccharide in milk or dairy products, is known to promote calcium absorption. The enzyme lactase is needed to digest lactose. Although lactase is secreted normally in childhood, the secretion is decreased with growth, and the activity becomes lower in adulthood. When the activity of lactase is low, lactose passes intact the small intestine and reaches the large intestine, could cause unpleasantness such as diarrhea and stomach ache. This is called lactose intolerance. In this paper, we discuss promotion of calcium absorption by lactose, lactose intolerance, and bone health. PMID:20190373

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... controlled by a DNA sequence called a regulatory element, which is located within a nearby gene called MCM6 . Some individuals have inherited changes in this element that lead to sustained lactase production in the ...

  7. Diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or lactose intolerance in babies who cry a lot in the first few months overlooks feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores two areas in which the translation of research into practice may be improved in the management of cry-fuss behaviours in the first few months of life. Firstly, babies who cry excessively are often prescribed proton pump inhibitors, despite evidence that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is very rarely a cause. The inaccuracy of commonly used explanatory mechanisms, the side-effects of acid-suppressive medications, and the failure to identify treatable problems, including feeding difficulty when the diagnosis of 'reflux' is applied, are discussed. Secondly, crying breastfed babies are still prescribed lactase or lactose-free formula, despite evidence that the problem of functional lactose overload is one of breastfeeding management. The mechanisms and management of functional lactose overload are discussed. These two problems of research translation need to be addressed because failure to identify and manage other causes of cry-fuss problems, including feeding difficulty, may have adverse outcomes for a small but significant minority of families. PMID:23495859

  8. [Food allergies and intolerances in children].

    PubMed

    Olives, J P; Breton, A

    1998-02-15

    Allergies and food intolerance together comprise the manifestations of "adverse food reaction". The best known and most common are: allergy to cow's milk proteins (prevalence 0.5% to 7.5%), intolerance to lactose (prevalence after weaning 5 to 100%) and gluten intolerance (prevalence 0.5%). Treatment of these conditions is based on management of the diet by exclusion (or reduction) of the responsible food or antigen. PMID:9781094

  9. Adult lactose digestion status and effects on disease

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult assimilation of lactose divides humans into dominant lactase-persistent and recessive nonpersistent phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: To review three medical parameters of lactose digestion, namely: the changing concept of lactose intolerance; the possible impact on diseases of microbial adaptation in lactase-nonpersistent populations; and the possibility that the evolution of lactase has influenced some disease pattern distributions. METHODS: A PubMed, Google Scholar and manual review of articles were used to provide a narrative review of the topic. RESULTS: The concept of lactose intolerance is changing and merging with food intolerances. Microbial adaptation to regular lactose consumption in lactase-nonpersistent individuals is supported by limited evidence. There is evidence suggestive of a relationship among geographical distributions of latitude, sunhine exposure and lactase proportional distributions worldwide. DISCUSSION: The definition of lactose intolerance has shifted away from association with lactose maldigestion. Lactose sensitivity is described equally in lactose digesters and maldigesters. The important medical consequence of withholding dairy foods could have a detrimental impact on several diseases; in addition, microbial adaptation in lactase-nonpersistent populations may alter risk for some diseases. There is suggestive evidence that the emergence of lactase persistence, together with human migrations before and after the emergence of lactase persistence, have impacted modern-day diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigestion and lactose intolerance are not synonymous. Withholding dairy foods is a poor method to treat lactose intolerance. Further epidemiological work could shed light on the possible effects of microbial adaptation in lactose maldigesters. The evolutionary impact of lactase may be still ongoing. PMID:25855879

  10. Diagnosis and clinical observation of lactose-free milk powder on treatment of neonatal diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Chang, Jing; Yao, Aimei; Hu, Yulian; Yuan, Yuxiao; Yu, Fengqin; Ma, Zhanmin; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal lactose intolerance syndrome is a series of digestive system symptoms caused by the lack of lactase, and could not fully digest the lactose in breast milk or cow milk. Lactose is one of the disaccharides mainly existed in mammalian milk. Lactose content in breast milk is 7.2g/100ml, cow milk is 4.7g/100ml. Dairy products are the main energy sources for the newborn, and lactose provides 20% energy for infants. During the growth of the newborn, lactose not only play a significant role in energy supply, but also involve in the development of the brain growing. This study mainly studied the lactose development features, the reasons for lactose intolerance, and the measures to treat lactose deficiency. PMID:27005497

  11. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated. PMID:24695892

  12. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures. ... often very thin women) do not tolerate cold environments because they have very little body fat and are unable to keep warm.

  13. Milk Intolerance and the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Historian, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The intolerance of milk by American Indians and other groups (Thais, Chinese, Filipinos, Melonesians of New Guinea, Australian Aborigines, Black groups of Africa, American Blacks, and Eskimos) due to the lack of the lactose enzyme is discussed in this article. (FF)

  14. [Histamine intolerance].

    PubMed

    Hanuskov, E; Plevkov, J

    2013-01-01

    Histamine intolerance (HIT) is a pathological process that results from a disbalance between levels of released histamine and the ability of the body to metabolize it. Accumulated histamine leads to the onset of "histamine mediated" reactions which are usually excessive and decrease quality of life. Although we have a lot of knowledge about histamine intolerance, HIT is still vastly underestimated, because it manifests via the diversity of clinical symptoms, that are often misinterpreted by the patient and sometimes even by a physician. Clinical symptoms and their provocation by certain kinds of food, beverages and drugs are often attributed to the different diseases, such as food allergy and intolerance of sulfites, or other biogenic amines (eg. tyramine), mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases or adverse drug reactions in general. Proper diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine--free diet and supplementation of diaminooxidase can considerably improve patient's quality of life. PMID:23821960

  15. Food allergies and food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

    2006-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

  16. Lactose Tolerance Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Hydrogen Breath Test; Lactose Breath Test; Disaccharide Absorption Test; Oral Lactose Tolerance Formal name: Hydrogen Breath Test; Lactose Tolerance Test Related tests: Stool ...

  17. Statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zahid

    2014-05-15

    The term statin intolerance refers to an inability to use statins because of muscle symptoms or elevated creatine kinase, and the major diagnostic challenge is to unambiguously link these to statin use. Roughly 5% to 10% of statin users develop statin intolerance, and because statin use is expected to increase--especially after recent updated guidelines have expanded the statin benefit groups--adverse effects from statins will become a growing issue. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology--and even the terminology--of statin-related muscle injury lacks clarity. Several risk factors have been identified, including advanced age, family history of myopathy and statin dose; many cases manifest only after patients are administered an interacting medication (e.g., azole antifungals, cimetidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin and cyclosporine). The diagnosis of myopathy remains challenging, especially because some patients can have normal serum creatine kinase levels despite demonstrable weakness and muscle biopsy-proven statin-induced myopathy. A statin withdrawal and rechallenge helps patients distinguish whether their myalgia symptoms are because of statins, but, in at least 1 clinical trial, even 5% of placebo-treated patients developed myalgias during a controlled withdrawal and rechallenge. No consensus exists for management of patients with statin intolerance. Many patients can eventually tolerate a statin but often at suboptimal doses. A subset of patients do well with nondaily regimens such as every other day or once weekly dosing. Some patients cannot tolerate statins at all, requiring nonstatin lipid-lowering medications--the benefit of which remains unclear with regard to preventing atherosclerotic events. Ultimately, statin intolerance undermines the drug adherence that is critical for achieving the benefits of lifelong lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, statin myopathy is a common challenge in lipid management, and further work is needed to establish a standard diagnostic criterion as well as treatment algorithms. PMID:24792743

  18. Management and treatment of lactose malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Montalto, Massimo; Curigliano, Valentina; Santoro, Luca; Vastola, Monica; Cammarota, Giovanni; Manna, Raffaele; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world’s population, while secondary hypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen causes gastrointestinal symptoms. The condition is known as lactose intolerance. In patients with lactase nonpersistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous β-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, pharmacological and non pharmacological strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation. In this review the usefulness of these approaches is discussed and a therapeutic management with a flow chart is proposed. PMID:16482616

  19. Management and treatment of lactose malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Montalto, Massimo; Curigliano, Valentina; Santoro, Luca; Vastola, Monica; Cammarota, Giovanni; Manna, Raffaele; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2006-01-14

    Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary hypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen causes gastrointestinal symptoms. The condition is known as lactose intolerance. In patients with lactase nonpersistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous beta-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, pharmacological and non pharmacological strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation. In this review the usefulness of these approaches is discussed and a therapeutic management with a flow chart is proposed. PMID:16482616

  20. Intolerant tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights. PMID:8051515

  1. Allergies and Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Intolerance The way in which celiac disease, gluten intolerance and wheat allergy are defined means a ... celiac disease may provide an incorrect diagnosis of gluten intolerance or wheat allergy. Understanding the differences between ...

  2. Breath hydrogen excretion after lactose and whole milk ingestion. A prospective comparison in lactase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sategna-Guidetti, C; Cruto, E; Capobianco, P

    1989-06-01

    As the 50 g of lactose in the usual clinical test is unphysiologic both because it is equivalent to 1 L milk and because the usual dietary intake is not the purified sugar, but milk, we undertook a prospective comparison of the absorption of lactose after both lactose and milk ingestion with an equivalent lactose content. We studied 51 healthy volunteers, using the hydrogen breath test technique. All patients received 25 g lactose in aqueous solution. Subjects with an abnormal test had the test repeated with 500 ml whole cow's milk, whereas subjects with a normal test repeated the test after ingesting the unabsorbable sugar lactulose to detect the capacity of their colonic flora to produce the gas. Symptoms of gastrointestinal intolerance were also recorded. Compared to an equivalent lactose amount, milk lactose is better absorbed (8% of the entire population malabsorbed 500 ml whole milk, whereas 33.33% malabsorbed 25 g lactose) and induces intolerance in fewer subjects. We conclude that milk rather than pure lactose must be used in clinical evaluation of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:2754215

  3. Maximum permissive dosage of lactose and lactitol for transitory diarrhea, and utilizable capacity for lactose in Japanese female adults.

    PubMed

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Nakamura, Sadako; Ichinose, Makoto

    2005-04-01

    This study aims to estimate the tolerable lactose intake which can be utilized in the digestion by lactase and in the fermentation by intestinal microbes in Japanese female adults. The first, the maximum permissive dosage of lactose not to induce transitory diarrhea was estimated based on the oral ingestion of lactose at several dose levels in all the subjects, and compared with that of lactitol which is not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes. A second lactose tolerance test involving 10 g and 30 g of lactose was carried out in 10 subjects showing resistance to diarrhea, and serum glucose and insulin levels and the amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath were measured for comparison with those of glucose and lactitol. Subjects were 43 Japanese female adults (average: age 20.5+/-2.1 y, weight 51.3+/-5.1 kg) who had not been diagnosed as having either hypolactasia or being lactose intolerant. Serum glucose and insulin levels were scarcely elevated following the ingestion of both 10 g and 30 g of lactose, while the amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath was greatly increased following the ingestion of 30 g of lactose, but these levels were less following the ingestion of 10 g of lactose. In contrast, the ingestion of 15 g of glucose significantly increased blood glucose and insulin levels, while no hydrogen was detected in the breath. The maximum permissive dosage of lactose not to induce transitory diarrhea was 0.72 g/kg of body weight and that of lactitol was 0.36 g/kg of body weight in Japanese adults. The digestive capacity of lactase is less than 10 g of lactose by single ingestion, while intestinal microflora are able to ferment approximately 20-30 g of lactose. In addition, the ingestion of more than 10 g of lactose might be contributed as prebiotics. PMID:16022189

  4. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  5. Chemical intolerance.

    PubMed

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven; Skovbjerg, Sine

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach. PMID:26088215

  6. Lactose: the milk sugar from a biotechnological perspective.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ana C; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Polaina, Julio

    2004-01-01

    Lactose is a very important sugar because of its abundance in the milk of humans and domestic animals. Lactose is a valuable asset as a basic nutrient and the main substrate in fermentative processes that led to the production of fermented milk products, such as yogurt and kefir. In some instances, lactose also can be a problem as the causative agent of some diseases, such as lactose intolerance and galactosemia, or for being a by-product generated in huge amounts by the cheese industry. The study of the biochemical reactions leading to the synthesis and assimilation of lactose has provided valuable models for the understanding of biosynthetic and catabolic processes. Lactose-hydrolyzing enzymes are structurally and phylogenetically related to different types of beta-galactosidases and bacterial cellobiases involved in the enzymatic degradation of cellulose. Biotransformation of lactose, by either enzymatic or fermentative procedures, is important for different types of industrial applications in dairy and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:15969327

  7. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

  8. [Abuse of artificial sweetener as differential diagnosis of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Weglage, J; Weber, P; Fliedner, M; Grohmann, J; Zass, R; Rossi, R

    1996-01-01

    A two year old dystrophic boy with chronic diarrhea was described. At the age of 6 month the boy developed a severe gastroenteritis with a secundary lactase deficiency. Dietary treatment was however not successful and consequently the boy became dystrophic. At last, an abuse of sweetener was diagnosed. PMID:8851321

  9. What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the mixes to make them prepared or frozen breakfast foods such as doughnuts, frozen waffles and pancakes, toaster pastries, and sweet rolls boxed breakfast cereals instant potatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks potato ...

  10. What People with Lactose Intolerance Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sources of vitamin D include egg yolks, fish oil, saltwater fish, liver, fortified margarine, and breakfast cereals. ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National ...

  11. The diagnosis and management of patients with lactose-intolerance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sherry L; Attel, Susan

    2013-07-10

    Approximately 70% of the world's population is lactase deficient. This article reviews the evolutionary history of lactase deficiency, recent recommendations to establish screening, and clinical practice guidelines for increased diagnosis of this important, yet often misunderstood condition of malabsorption. PMID:23778177

  12. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  13. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  14. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drink a large amount of a liquid that contains lactose. Blood samples are taken over a two- ... Lactase tablets : Help people digest solid foods that contain lactose; one to three tablets are taken just ...

  15. Intolerance of Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Meghan L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive neurologic condition that, by its nature, carries uncertainty as a hallmark characteristic. Although all patients face uncertainty, there is variability in how individuals cope with its presence. In other populations, the concept of intolerance of uncertainty has been conceptualized to explain this variability such that individuals who have difficulty tolerating the possibility of future occurrences may engage in thoughts or behaviors by which they attempt to exert control over that possibility or lessen the uncertainty but may, as a result, experience worse outcomes, particularly in terms of psychological well-being. This topical review introduces MS-focused researchers, clinicians, and patients to intolerance of uncertainty, integrates the concept with what is already understood about coping with MS, and suggests future steps for conceptual, assessment, and treatment-focused research that may benefit from integrating intolerance of uncertainty as a central feature. PMID:26300700

  16. Preparation of lactose-free pasteurized milk with a recombinant thermostable ?-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Results A thermostable ?-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase activity was 100C and pH6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. Conclusions The thermostablity of this recombinant ?-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization. PMID:24053641

  17. Amperometric detection of lactose using ?-galactosidase immobilized in layer-by-layer films.

    PubMed

    Campos, Paula P; Moraes, Marli L; Volpati, Diogo; Miranda, Paulo B; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Ferreira, Marystela

    2014-07-23

    A direct, low-cost method to determine the concentration of lactose is an important goal with possible impact in various types of industry. In this study, a biosensor is reported that exploits the specific interaction between lactose and the enzyme ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) normally employed to process lactose into glucose and galactose for lactose-intolerant people. The biosensor was made with ?-Gal immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films with the polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(vinyl sufonate) (PVS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a layer of Prussian Blue (PB). With an ITO/PB/(PEI/PVS)1(PEI/?-Gal)30 architecture, lactose could be determined with an amperometric method with sensitivity of 0.31 ?A mmol(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.13 mmol L(-1), which is sufficient for detecting lactose in milk and for clinical exams. Detection occurred via a cascade reaction involving glucose oxidase titrated as electrolytic solution in the electrochemical cell, while PB allowed for operation at 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode, thus avoiding effects from interfering species. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy data for the interface between the LbL film and a buffer containing lactose indicated that ?-Gal lost order, which is the first demonstration of structural effects induced by the molecular recognition interaction with lactose. PMID:24991705

  18. Histamine and histamine intolerance.

    PubMed

    Maintz, Laura; Novak, Natalija

    2007-05-01

    Histamine intolerance results from a disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. Histamine is a biogenic amine that occurs to various degrees in many foods. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be rapidly detoxified by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the main enzyme for the metabolism of ingested histamine. It has been proposed that DAO, when functioning as a secretory protein, may be responsible for scavenging extracellular histamine after mediator release. Conversely, histamine N-methyltransferase, the other important enzyme inactivating histamine, is a cytosolic protein that can convert histamine only in the intracellular space of cells. An impaired histamine degradation based on reduced DAO activity and the resulting histamine excess may cause numerous symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction. The ingestion of histamine-rich food or of alcohol or drugs that release histamine or block DAO may provoke diarrhea, headache, rhinoconjunctival symptoms, asthma, hypotension, arrhythmia, urticaria, pruritus, flushing, and other conditions in patients with histamine intolerance. Symptoms can be reduced by a histamine-free diet or be eliminated by antihistamines. However, because of the multifaceted nature of the symptoms, the existence of histamine intolerance has been underestimated, and further studies based on double-blind, placebo-controlled provocations are needed. In patients in whom the abovementioned symptoms are triggered by the corresponding substances and who have a negative diagnosis of allergy or internal disorders, histamine intolerance should be considered as an underlying pathomechanism. PMID:17490952

  19. Evolution and Collective Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhoite, Fred H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Examines behavioral and intellectual conformity as major attitudes in shaping political behavior. Manifestations of coercion within human and animal social units are presented, including religious intolerance, prohibition of artistic activity and literary expression, and rejection of outsiders. Available from: Managing Editor, Department of

  20. Management of statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Raju, Soma B; Varghese, Kiron; Madhu, K

    2013-11-01

    Statins are the revolutionary drugs in the cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. But they also possess several adverse effects like myopathy with elevation of hepatic transaminases (>3 times the upper limit of normal) or creatine kinase (>10 times the upper limit of normal) and some rare side-effects, including peripheral neuropathy, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and erectile dysfunction. Due to these adverse effects, patients abruptly withdrew statins without consulting physicians. This abrupt discontinuation of statins is termed as statin intolerance. Statin-induced myopathy constitutes two third of all side-effects from statins and is the primary reason for statin intolerance. Though statin intolerance has considerably impacted cardiovascular outcomes in the high-risk patients, it has been well effectively managed by prescribing statins either as alternate-day or once weekly dosage regimen, as combination therapy with a non-statin therapy or and by dietary intervention. The present article reviews the causes, clinical implications of statin withdrawal and management of statin intolerance. PMID:24381870

  1. High lactose tolerance in North Europeans: a result of migration, not in situ milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Vuorisalo, Timo; Arjamaa, Olli; Vasemgi, Anti; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Tourunen, Auli; Saloniemi, Irma

    2012-01-01

    The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, which must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose before the sugars can be digested. While 65% or more of the total human population are lactose intolerant, in some human populations lactase activity commonly persists into adulthood. Lactose tolerance is exceptionally widespread in Northern European countries such as Sweden and Finland, with tolerance levels of 74% and 82%, respectively. Theoretically, this may result either from a strong local selection pressure for lactose tolerance, or from immigration of lactose tolerant people to Northern Europe. We provide several lines of archaeological and historical evidence suggesting that the high lactose tolerance in North Europeans cannot be explained by selection from in situ milk consumption. First, fresh cow milk has not belonged to the traditional diet of Swedes or Finns until recent times. Second, not enough milk has been available for adult consumption. Cattle herding has been neither widespread nor productive enough in Northern Europe to have provided constant access to fresh milk. We suggest that the high prevalence of lactose tolerance in Finland in particular may be explained by immigration of people representing so-called Corded Ware Culture, an early culture representing agricultural development in Europe. PMID:22643754

  2. Lactose maldigestion, calcium intake and osteoporosis in African-, Asian-, and Hispanic-Americans.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K A; Savaiano, D A

    2001-04-01

    Dietary calcium is critical for the development of the human skeleton and likely plays an important role in the prevention of osteoporosis. Dairy products provide approximately three-fourths of calcium consumed in the diet and are the most concentrated sources of this essential nutrient. One obstacle that likely interferes with calcium consumption among many ethnic groups is lactose maldigestion. The real or perceived occurrence of intolerance symptoms after dairy food consumption may cause maldigesters to avoid dairy products. Several investigators have observed a relationship between lactose maldigestion, dietary calcium and osteoporosis in Caucasian populations. Research on ethnically diverse populations is necessary to better understand how lactose maldigestion influences the risk for osteoporosis. Low calcium intakes, a greater than previously thought potential for low bone density and extensive lactose maldigestion among Hispanic-American and Asian-American populations may create an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Dietary management strategies for lactose maldigesters to increase calcium consumption include consuming (1) dairy foods with meals, (2) yogurts, (3) calcium-fortified foods, (4) using lactose digestive aids and (5) including dairy foods daily in the diet to enhance colonic metabolism of lactose. PMID:11349943

  3. Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10-13 year-old female adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...

  4. Lactose malabsorption and colonic fermentations alter host metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Virginie; Even, Patrick C; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Blachier, Franois; Benamouzig, Robert; Tom, Daniel; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Lactose malabsorption is associated with rapid production of high levels of osmotic compounds, such as organic acids and SCFA in the colon, suspected to contribute to the onset of lactose intolerance. Adult rats are lactase deficient and the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the metabolic consequences of acute lactose ingestion, including host-microbiota interactions. Rats received diets of 25% sucrose (S25 control group) or 25% lactose (L25 experimental group). SCFA and lactic acid were quantified in intestinal contents and portal blood. Expression of SCFA transporter genes was quantified in the colonic mucosa. Carbohydrate oxidation (Cox) and lipid oxidation (Lox) were computed by indirect calorimetry. Measurements were performed over a maximum of 13 h. Time, diet and time diet variables had significant effects on SCFA concentration in the caecum (P<0001, P=0004 and P=0007, respectively) and the portal blood (P<0001, P=004 and P<0001, respectively). Concomitantly, expression of sodium monocarboxylate significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the L25 group (P=0003 at t = 6 h and P<005 at t = 8 h). During 5 h after the meal, the L25 group's changes in metabolic parameters (Cox, Lox) were significantly lower than those of the S25 group (P=002). However, after 5 h, L25 Cox became greater than S25 (P=0004). Thus, enhanced production and absorption of SCFA support the metabolic changes observed in calorimetry. These results underline the consequences of acute lactose malabsorption and measured compensations occurring in the host's metabolism, presumably through the microbiota fermentations and microbiota-host interactions. PMID:23321004

  5. Lactose nutrition in lactase nonpersisters.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Lactose handling by the human gut by most people, beyond being breast-fed, has been considered a disorder rather than physiological. A non-human mammalian milk source is novel for the majority. During the first 6 months of life, when neonates and infants are best breast-fed, lactose along with other macronutrients, provides energy, but may have other functions as well. At birth, babies are endowed with their mother's vaginal microbiome, but not if they are born by Caesarean section. How much maternal milk lactose survives the infant's small intestine and is processed by this unique gut microbiome and to what end is still uncertain, but no lactose or galactose appears in the faeces. Once intestinal lactase activity declines in most infants, lactose may enhance innate immunity through the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), which is best achieved by lactose synergy with other colonic fermentation metabolites such as butyrate. It is of interest whether this lactose function or a variant of it persists. It might not be evident when lactase is persistent, as it is in most people of northern European ancestry. Population genomics indicate that lactase persistence became prevalent only about 3000-1000 BC, the Bronze Age of Eurasia. Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) in lactase nonpersisters who consume dairy foods are partly dose dependent and not usually evident with single lactose intakes≤25 g per day. Spreading intake across the day reduces the risk as can various dietary patterns. Nevertheless, individual differences in GIS lactose sensitivity may merit public health and clinical consideration. PMID:26715080

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Lysinuric protein intolerance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Lysinuric protein intolerance On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed March 2008 What is lysinuric protein intolerance? Lysinuric protein intolerance is a disorder caused ...

  7. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  8. Hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images PMID:9610797

  9. [Histamine intolerance mimics anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Stolze, I; Peters, K-P; Herbst, R A

    2010-09-01

    Histamine intolerance is a clinically heterogeneous disease. We present a woman who suffered from weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, flushing and bronchial asthma for several years. When placed on a histamine-poor diet, she experienced weight gain and improvement of other all signs and symptoms, supporting the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Therefore, this disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. PMID:19907926

  10. Lactose metabolism in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed Central

    Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N; Robert-Baudouy, J

    1985-01-01

    Wild-type strains of the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are unable to use lactose as a carbon source for growth although they possess a beta-galactosidase activity. Lactose-fermenting derivatives from some wild types, however, can be obtained spontaneously at a frequency of about 5 X 10(-7). All Lac+ derivatives isolated had acquired a constitutive lactose transport system and most contained an inducible beta-galactosidase. The transport system, product of the lmrT gene, mediates uptake of lactose in the Lac+ derivatives and also appears to be able to mediate uptake of melibiose, raffinose, and galactose. Two genes encoding beta-galactosidase enzymes were detected in E. chrysanthemi strains. That mainly expressed in the wild-type strains was the lacZ product. The other, the lacB product, is very weakly expressed in these strains. These enzymes showed different affinities for the substrates o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside and lactose and for the inhibitors isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and galactose. The lmrT and lacZ genes of E. chrysanthemi, together with the lacI gene coding for the regulatory protein controlling lacZ expression, were cloned by using an RP4::miniMu vector. When these plasmids were transferred into Lac- Escherichia coli strains, their expression was similar to that in E. chrysanthemi. The cloning of the lmrT gene alone suggested that the lacZ or lacB gene is not linked to the lmrT gene on the E. chrysanthemi chromosome. One Lac+ E. chrysanthemi derivative showed a constitutive synthesis of the beta-galactosidase encoded by the lacB gene. This mutation was dominant toward the lacI lacZ cloned genes. Besides these mutations affecting the regulation of the lmrT or lacB gene, the isolation of structural mutants unable to grow on lactose was achieved by mutagenic treatment. These mutants showed no expression of the lactose transport system, the lmrT mutants, or the mainly expressed beta-galactosidase, lacZ mutants. The lacZ mutants retained a very low beta-galactosidase level, due to the lacB product, but this level was low enough to permit use of the lacZ mutants for the construction of gene fusions with the Escherichia coli lac genes. PMID:3920205

  11. Dairy sensitivity, lactose malabsorption, and elimination diets in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, S

    1997-02-01

    The ability of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to tolerate dairy products and the guidance they receive from physicians and nutritionists on this subject are important considerations in the management of their IBD. Although most affected persons are able to consume a glass of milk daily without discomfort, additional consideration must be given to specific factors that can be relevant to certain individuals. The declaration by patients that they are "dairy sensitive" may be related to lactose intolerance or malabsorption, the long-chain triacylglycerol content of milk, allergy to milk proteins, as well as psychologic factors and the misconception that dairy products can be detrimental to their health. The prevalence of lactose malabsorption is significantly greater in patients with Crohn disease involving the small bowel than it is in patients with Crohn disease involving the colon or ulcerative colitis. In the latter colonic conditions the prevalence of lactose malabsorption is mainly determined by ethnic risk, which is based on genetic factors. In addition, lactose malabsorption in Crohn disease of the small bowel may be determined by factors other than lactase enzyme activity, such as bacterial overgrowth and/or small bowel transit time. Physicians differ widely in the advice they give their patients: some dogmatically advise avoidance of dairy products when the diagnosis is made whereas others discount the possible role of dairy in the management of IBD. IBD patients avoid dairy products more than they would need to based on the prevalence of lactose malabsorption and/or milk intolerance, probably partly because of incorrect patient perceptions and arbitrary advice from physicians and authors of popular diet books. Adequate scientific and clinical information is now available to permit recommendations about the intake of dairy products for each IBD patient. PMID:9022546

  12. Improved parameters of lactose maldigestion using lactulose.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, A; Rivard, J; Fokeeff, K

    2001-07-01

    Lactulose is a disaccharide derived from lactose. There has been recent rekindling of interest in the possible benefits of pro- and prebiotics: mainly, lactic acid-producing bacteria and lactulose for the lower intestine. Since lactose maldigestion is a common genetic trait, we undertook this study to delineate similar effects between these two disaccharides. Nine healthy lactose maldigesting subjects underwent two separate periods of three weeks adaptation, first with 10 g twice daily lactulose and then 1.5 g twice daily lactose (in milk). Adaptation was defined by reduced breath Hydrogen (BH2) and symptoms after 50 g lactose challenges. In six subjects fecal beta-galactosidase was measured. All subjects consumed some lactose daily. In the first period, eight subjects improved symptoms and reduced BH2 significantly, while in the second period they did not. Fecal beta-galactosidase significantly increased after lactulose. This study supports the notion that lactulose and lactose may have similar clinical effects. PMID:11478504

  13. Redefining lactose as a conditional prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2004-03-01

    Lactose in dairy products is maldigested by up to 70% to 75% of the world's population and many people may therefore suffer symptoms reminiscent of irritable bowel syndrome. As a result, most research to date has concentrated on ways of improving lactose tolerance to enhance dairy as a source of nutrition. However, research on other possible benefits of lactose and its maldigestion has lagged. In view of an exponential growth in the understanding of intestinal microfloral host interactions and the expanding therapeutical potential of probiotics, a reassessment of the role of lactose as a potential prebiotic in lactase nonpersistent subjects is required. Gibson and Roberfroid introduced the concept of prebiotics and outlined definitive requirements for such a compound. The present article examines scientific and clinical knowledge about the properties of lactose and argues that in lactase nonpersistent subjects, lactose qualifies as a prebiotic. PMID:15054489

  14. [Trial of milk with low-lactose contents in acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Brunser, O; Araya, M; Espinoza, J; Cruchet, S; Pacheco, I

    1990-01-01

    Fifty infants with acute diarrhea (less than or equal to 5 days of duration) were refed with either a low-lactose formula (experimental group, N = 25) or whole powdered cow's milk (control group, N = 25). During a two-month follow up etiology, clinical course, changes of anthropometric parameters and tolerance to the milk products were evaluated. The etiology of diarrhoea, the mean duration of the episodes (3.6 +/- 1.9 and 3.9 +/- 1.9 days in the experimental and control group, respectively) and the clinical course were comparable in both groups. Nutritional parameters remained unchanged during and after the episode. In two children (8.3%) of the control group stools continued to be liquid, fecal pH was 5 and reducing substances were positive. They had to be refed with the low-lactose product to induce remission of the symptoms. Both products were well tolerated. These findings suggest that availability of low-lactose formulae may be advantageous in the clinical management of infants with acute diarrhea and evidence of lactose intolerance. PMID:2136689

  15. [Effect of prolonged consumption of lactose or hydrolyzed lactose in the rat. 2. Digestibility, retention and utilization of lactose components].

    PubMed

    Poiffait, A; David, C; Adrian, J

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional balances are made with groups of 12 rats Wistar receiving well-balanced diets with 40 p. 100 of sucrose (T), or 40 p. 100 of lactose (L and P), or hydrolyzed lactose (LH and PH). Whey (L) and ultrafiltration permeate (P) are used in crude state or after enzymic industrial lactase hydrolysis (LH and PH). The animals consume diets during eight months. Faeces contain neither lactose nor galactose, but glucose in small quantities. In all urines occurs about 0,5 mg/day of glucose. The lactose diets (L and P) provoke a week lactosury (0,36 p. 100 of ingestion). Galactose and galactitol are abundant in urines: with lactose diets (L and P), the urinary excretion is equal to 4 p. 100 of ingested galactose. In urines of hydrolyzed lactose diets (LH and PH) the excretion reaches 26 p. 100 of ingestion. In this case the excretion is remarkably invariable from third day of eighth month: the urinary galactose corresponds to 23 p. 100 and galactitol to 3 p. 100 of consumed galactose. The urines of lactose diets (L and P) and hydrolyzed lactose diets (LH and PH) contain 100 and 300 mg/day of non sugar reducing substances respectively, i.e. 40 p. 100 of total urinary reducing power. The apparent retention of lactose (L and P) is 95,5 p. 100 and that of the hydrolyzed lactose (LH and PH) is 86 p. 100 after 8 months of experiment but it is estimated that digestive flora consumes 40 p. 100 of dietary lactose (L and P). PMID:7085207

  16. Urticarial intolerance reaction to cetirizine.

    PubMed

    Schrter, S; Damveld, B; Marsch, W C

    2002-05-01

    The paradoxical acute exacerbation of pre-existing chronic idiopathic urticaria accompanied by intense generalized pruritus, facial oedema, and dyspnoea in a 36-year-old-woman 3-4 h after a single oral dose of 10 mg cetirizine (Zyrtec tablets), suggested the presence of an underlying intolerance reaction. However, a type I hypersensitivity reaction also had to be excluded. Detailed allergy testing supported the view that the patient had suffered an intolerance reaction to cetirizine. This is the third known case of most probably a nonallergic generalized urticaria following the administration of cetirizine, a drug with extensive usage worldwide. However a type I sensitization to cetirizine is indeed possible, as has been demonstrated in this research with the verification of cetirizine-specific IgE antibodies in one of the control sera. PMID:12072003

  17. [Intolerance reactions of the skin].

    PubMed

    Sacher, R

    1987-07-01

    Intolerance reactions of the skin in which a decision is made on allergic and toxic genesis have increased in significance in recent years. Whereas antibodies blocking bacterial or viral antigens are formed in the normergic immune reaction, nonblocking antibodies to animal, plant or chemical heterologous substances are formed in an allergy as a result of an misdirected immunological reaction. Sensitization is favored by a) large structure and protein affinity of the allergen, b) irritation of the affected part of the skin by fungi or chemicals and c) genetic predisposition. Depending on the clinical manifestation, a distinction is made between inhaled allergens (bronchial asthma, hay fever), allergens ingested with the food (food allergy) and allergens which have come in contact with the skin (immediate reaction - urticaria, late reaction - contact eczema). Intolerance reactions of the skin which can be ruled out as the cause of an allergy are designated as toxic. Acute toxic reactions are based on violent or intensively physical (heat, cold, radiation), chemical (acids, alkalis, heavy metal salts, oils, solvents) or microbial damage to the skin (infection by fungi, bacteria, viruses). The degenerative eczema as the most important form of chronic toxic intolerance reaction arises by weak but continuously acting longterm mechanical or chemical exposures. PMID:2957865

  18. [Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].

    PubMed

    Lei, O

    2014-11-01

    The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

  19. Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-03-01

    In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry. PMID:24517206

  20. Internal dynamics of lactose permease.

    PubMed

    Dornmair, K; Jhnig, F

    1989-12-01

    The transport protein lactose permease was reconstituted in vesicles of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, and the internal dynamics were studied by measuring the fluorescence anisotropy decay of the tryptophan residues and of a covalently bound pyrene label. For the tryptophans three relaxation processes and for the pyrene two relaxation processes with relaxation times in the nanosecond range were observed. The slowest process, of approximately 50 ns, is assigned to orientational fluctuations of membrane-spanning helices. When the temperature is decreased below the lipid-phase transition, this relaxation process is slowed down and restricted in amplitude. Because the transport rate is known to also decrease below the phase transition, this observation suggests a coupling between internal dynamics and transport. This coupling is analyzed on the basis of the Kramers relation for chemical reactions. PMID:2690075

  1. In vivo lactose digestion in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; McClead, R E; Cordero, L

    1996-11-01

    In vitro studies of intestinal lactase activity and breath-hydrogen studies have suggested that the capacity for lactose digestion in preterm infants is less than the usual intake. To explore this question using an in vivo approach, we determined the fraction of dietary lactose hydrolyzed to glucose (and galactose) in 14 preterm infants with a gestational age of 26-31 wk at the time of birth but a postconceptional age of 31-37 wk at the time of study. The percentage of lactose digested was estimated after 6-h, primed, constant gastric infusions of [1-(13)C]glucose and D-[-1-(13)C]lactose on alternate days. A coefficient of lactose fermentation was derived from the rates of pulmonary excretion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Mean (+/- SD) lactose digestion was 79 +/- 26%. There was a significant inverse rank (r = -0.799, P < 0.01) and linear (r = -0.587, P < 0.05) correlation between this variable and postconceptional age. The percentage of lactose fermented averaged 35 +/- 27%. PMID:8901788

  2. Effects of lactose-containing vs lactose-free infant formula on postprandial superior mesenteric artery flow in term infants.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Schroeder VA; Mattioli LF; Kilkenny TA; Belmont JM

    2014-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary dextrose and fructose may promote vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. In certain infant populations, altered postprandial mesenteric hyperemia (PPH) may increase risk for feeding intolerance.OBJECTIVE: To compare superior mesenteric artery (SMA) PPH following feeds of lactose-containing (LC) formula vs lactose-free (LF; dextrose + sucrose) formula.METHODS: In a 2 × 2 crossover study with 6 term newborns, 3 received LC first followed by LF 3 hours later. The remaining 3 received the reverse order. Ultrasound measures of pre- and postprandial SMA flow, diameter, and resistance were taken 5 minutes preprandial and 10, 30, and 40 minutes postprandial.RESULTS: Mean ± SD age and weight (n = 6) were 24.1 ± 2.3 hours and 3.1 ± 0.21 kg. Formula intake was similar for LC and LF (22.5 ± 2.8 mL and 25 ± 1.8 mL, respectively; P = .076). Both formulas increased SMA flow at 10 and 30 minutes. However, postprandial flow was greater for LC overall (P = .004) and especially at 30 minutes (LC 103 ml/min, 52% increase vs LF 92.7 ml/min, 31% increase; P = .014). For both formulas, vasodilation was seen at 10 and 30 minutes and was overall significantly greater following LC than following LF (9.1% VS 6.5%; P = .028). Both formulas elicited significant decreases in sma vascular resistance over the 10- to 30-minute period (overall P = .016). However, decreases did not differ across formulas (P = .672).CONCLUSIONS: The LC formula elicited a greater SMA PPH response than did LF. SMA flow for both formulas was within normal limits; thus, differences are likely inconsequential for a term newborn. However, in a vulnerable preterm infant, differences may become significant.

  3. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26242570

  4. Diagnosis of hypolactasia and lactose malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Arola, H

    1994-01-01

    The article briefly describes the various methods that are available for diagnosing hypolactasia. Special attention is drawn to the fact that different methods are useful at different levels of the health care organization. When the test result indicates lactose malabsorption, general malabsorption should be excluded by a glucose-galactose tolerance test, for example. If the glucose-galactose tolerance test produces a normal result, it can be assumed that the patient has primary adult-type selective lactose malabsorption. The possibility of secondary lactose malabsorption must be excluded according to the principles described by Villako & Maaroos (104). PMID:8042016

  5. A genetic study of lactose digestion in Nigerian families.

    PubMed

    Ransome-Kuti, O; Kretchmer, N; Johnson, J D; Gribble, J T

    1975-03-01

    The ability to digest orally administered lactose was determined in individuals representing a number of Nigerian ethnic groups. The data are mainly presented as family pedigrees. In those families where both parents were unable to digest lactose, all of the progeny were lactose nondigestors. If one parent, usually of Northern garopena origin or of the Fulani tribe, could digest lactose, then the progeny contained some or all individuals who were capable of digesting the disaccharide. There was no difference in the results when either the mother or the father was the lactose digestor. Ten families were studied where one parent was of Europena or Yoruba-European origin (lactose digestor) while the other was proper Yoruba 0lactose nondigestor). From these matings, there were 18 lactose digestors and 11 lactose nondigestors. We have concluded that the ability to digest lactose is transmitted as an autosomal dominant and represents the mutated gene or a polymorphism. PMID:1112447

  6. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were

  7. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  8. Review article: lactose--a potential prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, A

    2002-09-01

    Lactose maldigestion, which affects a large majority of the world's population, has been mostly linked with uncomfortable symptoms. In addition, dairy consumption is variably blamed or recommended for a number of ill effects. There is, however, emerging evidence that certain lactic acid-producing bacteria, which selectively consume prebiotics, may be beneficial against some lower intestinal diseases. Lactose maldigestion and lactose should perhaps be re-evaluated as a potential provider of such a prebiotic. This historical and observational review discusses lactose and argues the opinion that it has prebiotic potential. Moreover, in maldigesters, natural ingestion or lack thereof may be relevant in the pathogenesis of diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:12197838

  9. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    PubMed

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using β-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 μm and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity. PMID:25022681

  10. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  11. Orthostatic intolerance and the headache patient.

    PubMed

    Mack, Kenneth J; Johnson, Jonathan N; Rowe, Peter C

    2010-06-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) refers to a group of clinical conditions, including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated hypotension (NMH), in which symptoms worsen with upright posture and are ameliorated by recumbence. The main symptoms of chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes include light-headedness, syncope or near syncope, blurring of vision, headaches, problems with short-term memory and concentration, fatigue, intolerance of low impact exercise, palpitations, chest pain, diaphoresis, tremulousness, dyspnea or air hunger, nausea, and vomiting. This review discusses what is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder, potential treatments, and understanding its role in the patient with chronic headache pain. PMID:20541103

  12. Diagnosing lactose malabsorption in children: difficulties in interpreting hydrogen breath test results.

    PubMed

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Entenmann, Andreas; Karall, Daniela; Müller, Thomas; Schimkowitsch, Alexander; Amann, Anton; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is caused by insufficient enzymatic degradation of the disaccharide by intestinal lactase. Although hydrogen (H2) breath tests (HBTs) are routinely applied to diagnose LM, false-negative results are not uncommon. Thirty-two pediatric patients (19 females, 13 males) were included in this prospective study. After oral lactose administration (1 g kg(-1) bodyweight to a maximum of 25 g), breath H2 was measured by electrochemical detection. HBT was considered positive if H2 concentration exceeded an increase of  ⩾20 ppm from baseline. In addition to H2, exhaled methane (CH4), blood glucose concentrations and clinical symptoms (flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea) were monitored. A positive HBT indicating LM was found in 12/32 (37.5%) patients. Only five (41.7%, 5/12) of these had clinical symptoms during HBT indicating lactose intolerance (LI). Decreased blood glucose concentration increments (⩽20 mg dL(-1) (⩽1.1 mmol L(-1))) were found in 3/5 of these patients. CH4 concentrations  ⩾10 ppm at any time during the test were observed in 5/32 (15.6%) patients and in 9/32 (28.1%) between 1 ppm and 9 ppm above baseline after lactose ingestion. In patients with positive HBT 10/12 (83.3%) showed elevated CH4 (>1 ppm) above baseline in breath gas, whereas in patients with negative HBT this figure was only 4/17 (23.5%). In addition to determining H2 in exhaled air, documentation of clinical symptoms, measurement of blood glucose and breath CH4 concentrations may be helpful in deciding whether in a given case an HBT correctly identifies patients with clinically relevant LM. PMID:26934035

  13. Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted initial OH and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

  14. Mechanisms of post-flight orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Buckey, J. C.; Gaffney, F. A.; Lane, L. D.; Levine, B. D.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Post-flight orthostatic intolerance is a dramatic physiological consequence of human adaptation to microgravity made inappropriate by a sudden return to 1-G. The immediate mechanism is almost always a failure to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, specifically perfusion of the central nervous system, but vestibular dysfunction may occasionally be the primary cause. Orthostatic intolerance is present in a wide range of clinical disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The intolerance that is produced by spaceflight and 1-G analogs (bed rest, head-down tilt at a moderate angle, water immersion) is different from its clinical counterparts by being only transiently present in subjects who otherwise have normal cardiovascular and regulatory systems. However, the same set of basic pathophysiological elements should be considered in the analysis of any form of orthostatic intolerance.

  15. Construction of lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose fermentation into ethanol fuel.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Guo, Xuewu; Shen, Tong; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2013-04-01

    Two lactose-consuming diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, AY-51024A and AY-51024M, were constructed by expressing the LAC4 and LAC12 genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the host strain AY-5. In AY-51024A, both genes were targeted to the ATH1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to abolish the activity of acid/neutral trehalase. In AY-51024M, both genes were respectively integrated into the MIG1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to relieve glucose repression. Physiologic studies of the two transformants under anaerobic cultivations in glucose and galactose media indicated that the expression of both LAC genes did not physiologically burden the cells, except for AY-51024A in glucose medium. Galactose consumption was initiated at higher glucose concentrations in the MIG1 deletion strain AY-51024M than in the corresponding wild-type strain and AY-51024A, wherein galactose was consumed until glucose was completely depleted in the mixture. In lactose medium, the Sp. growth rates of AY-51024A and AY-51024M under anaerobic shake-flasks were 0.025 and 0.067h(-1), respectively. The specific lactose uptake rate and ethanol production of AY-51024M were 2.50g lactoseg CDW(-1)h(-1) and 23.4gl(-1), respectively, whereas those of AY-51024A were 0.98g lactoseg CDW(-1)h(-1) and 24.3g lactoseg CDW(-1)h(-1), respectively. In concentrated cheese whey powder solutions, AY-51024M produced 63.3gl(-1) ethanol from approximately 150gl(-1) initial lactose in 120h, conversely, AY-51024A consumed 63.7% of the initial lactose and produced 35.9gl(-1) ethanol. Therefore, relieving glucose repression is an effective strategy for constructing lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae. PMID:23344501

  16. Lactose ingestion in the adult golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    DiBattista, D

    1991-03-01

    Adult mammals generally demonstrate a lower preference for the disaccharide sugar lactose than for any other common sugar, and because adults typically have low levels of the intestinal enzyme lactase, lactose ingestion may cause gastrointestinal distress. The lactose intake of adult golden hamsters was examined in three experiments; the main findings were: (a) hamsters allowed to choose between tap water and lactose solutions (maximum concentration = 32% weight/volume) over a 20-day period showed a clear preference for lactose solutions and ingested substantial quantities of lactose (up to 3 g/100 g body weight/day) without noticeable adverse effects; (b) hamsters consuming a single diet with lactose added (maximum concentration = 50%) over a period of days ingested up to 3.42 g/100 g body weight/day of lactose without noticeable adverse effects; (c) both hamsters with prior exposure to lactose solutions and those without such exposure consumed similar amounts of 32% lactose solution over an 8-day period, suggesting that hamsters' lactose intake does not depend on the occurrence of adaptation. It is suggested that the fermentative capacity of the hamster's pregastric pouch may underlie this animal's unusual tolerance for lactose. PMID:2032461

  17. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  18. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  19. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  20. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  1. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  2. Analyzing phylogenetic trees with timed and probabilistic model checking: the lactose persistence case study.

    PubMed

    Requeno, Jos Ignacio; Colom, Jos Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Model checking is a generic verification technique that allows the phylogeneticist to focus on models and specifications instead of on implementation issues. Phylogenetic trees are considered as transition systems over which we interrogate phylogenetic questions written as formulas of temporal logic. Nonetheless, standard logics become insufficient for certain practices of phylogenetic analysis since they do not allow the inclusion of explicit time and probabilities. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of model checking techniques beyond qualitative phylogenetic properties and adapt the existing logical extensions and tools to the field of phylogeny. The introduction of time and probabilities in phylogenetic specifications is motivated by the study of a real example: the analysis of the ratio of lactose intolerance in some populations and the date of appearance of this phenotype. PMID:25339082

  3. Deconditioning in patients with orthostatic intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay; Allison, Thomas G.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the frequency and degree of deconditioning, clinical features, and relationship between deconditioning and autonomic parameters in patients with orthostatic intolerance. Methods: We retrospectively studied all patients seen for orthostatic intolerance at Mayo Clinic between January 2006 and June 2011, who underwent both standardized autonomic and exercise testing. Results: A total of 184 patients (84 with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome [POTS] and 100 without orthostatic tachycardia) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 89% were women, and median age was 27.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2237 years). Symptom duration was 4 years (IQR 27.8). Of the patients, 90% had deconditioning (reduced maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max%] <85%) during exercise. This finding was unrelated to age, gender, or duration of illness. The prevalence of deconditioning was similar between those with POTS (95%) and those with orthostatic intolerance (91%). VO2max% had a weak correlation with a few autonomic and laboratory parameters but adequate predictors of VO2max% could not be identified. Conclusion: Reduced VO2max% consistent with deconditioning is present in almost all patients with orthostatic intolerance and may play a central role in pathophysiology. This finding provides a strong rationale for retraining in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. None of the autonomic indices are reliable predictors of deconditioning. PMID:22993288

  4. Enzymatic maturation of the gastrointestinal tract and its relevance to food allergy and intolerance in infancy.

    PubMed

    McNeish, A S

    1984-12-01

    The biologic clock that determines the temporal sequence of maturation of digestive and absorptive processes in the gastrointestinal tract is genetically predetermined, but may be modified by dietary, hormonal, or other factors. In general it may be said that the gastrointestinal tract of full-term neonates is capable of digesting and absorbing a nutritionally adequate quantity of dietary protein but capacity is limited. Very low birth weight preterm infants, who are surviving the early neonatal period in increasing numbers, have immaturity of a wide range of digestive and membrane-associated absorptive processes; in addition macromolecular absorption may be increased. Whether a limited capacity to digest food protein results in increased or altered antigenic stimulation of these immature infants remains speculative with present knowledge. Immaturity of intestinal lactase may lead to problems of lactose intolerance, but there is recent evidence that lactase activity may be inducible by milk feeding. PMID:6439078

  5. Food allergy and food intolerance in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P B

    1999-01-01

    Food intolerance is a reproducible adverse reaction to a specific food ingredient that is not psychologically based. Food allergy is a form of food intolerance in which there is evidence that the response is caused by an immunological reaction to food. Other mechanisms of food intolerance include enzyme defects (e.g. lactase deficiency), pharmacological effects (e.g. histamine), toxic properties (e.g. haemagglutinating lectins) and irritants (e.g. spices). Food allergy in children is a highly contentious subject and there is often a striking lack of published evidence from which to base clinical decisions. The true prevalence of food allergy in children is unknown, although there is evidence of an increasing incidence of allergic reactions to some foods, especially peanuts. Our understanding of why some children are unable to tolerate certain foods (e.g. cow's milk, egg), or how they grow out of this intolerance, is very poor. Symptoms of food allergy in children are diverse and include vomiting, poor weight gain, abdominal pain, malabsorption, cough, wheeze, rhinitis, atopic eczema, urticaria and angioedema. Despite the lack of objective data to support the notion that food intolerance contributes to behaviour in children, this is a belief firmly held by many parents and some professionals. The gold standard for diagnosing food intolerance is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). There is often a poor correlation between the results of food provocation tests and those of skin prick tests of radioallergosorbent tests for specific food antibodies. For proven food allergy, elimination diets are the mainstay of management. In children these must be closely supervised to avoid nutritional deficiency and compromise of growth. Some children who have had severe (anaphylactic) reactions after food need to have a supply of self-injectable adrenaline made available to their parents and teachers and must also practice strict avoidance of the offending food. PMID:11132467

  6. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guimares, Pedro MR; Oliveira, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity. PMID:21326922

  7. [Celiac disease--the chameleon among the food intolerances].

    PubMed

    Strhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder resulting from gluten intolerance and is based on a genetically predisposition. Symptoms occur upon exposure to prolamin from wheat, rye, barley and related grain. The pathogenesis of celiac disease has not yet been sufficiently elucidated but is being considered as an autoimmune process. At its core are the deamidation of prolamin fragments, the building of specific antibodies and the activation of cytotoxic T-cells. The immunological inflammatory process is accompanied by structural damages of the enterocytes (villous atrophy, colonization and crypt hyperplasia). The symptoms and their extent depend on the type of the celiac disease; classic and non-classic forms are being distinguished (atypical, oligosymptomatic, latent and silent celiac disease). Characteristics of the classic presentation are malabsorption syndrome and intestinal symptoms such as mushy diarrhea and abdominal distension. The diagnosis of celiac disease is based on four pillars: Anamnesis and clinical presentation, serological evidence of coeliac specific antibodies (IgA-t-TG; IgA-EmA), small intestine biopsy and improvement of symptoms after institution of a gluten-free diet. The basis of the therapy is a lifelong gluten-free diet, i. e. wheat, rye, barley, spelt, green-core, faro-wheat, kamuth and conventional oats as well as food items obtained therefrom. Small amounts of up to 50 mg gluten per day are usually tolerated by most patients; amounts of > or = 100 mg/day lead mostly to symptoms. Gluten-free foods contain < or = 20 ppm or 20 mg/kg (Sign: symbol of the 'crossed ear' or label 'gluten-free'). At the beginning of the therapy the fat and lactose intake may need to be reduced; also the supplementation of single micronutrients (fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, B12, iron, and calcium) may be required. Alternative therapies are being developed but have not yet been clinically tested. PMID:24266248

  8. Differential impact of lactose/lactase phenotype on colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Shrier, Ian; Heilpern, Debra; Je, Jung Sung; Park, Sunghoon; Chong, George; Lalonde, Catherine; Cote, Louis-Francois; Lee, Byong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to digest lactose divides the worlds population into two phenotypes that may be risk variability markers for several diseases. Prebiotic effects likely favour lactose maldigesters who experience lactose spilling into their colon. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of fixed-dose lactose solutions on fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in digesters and maldigesters, and to determine whether the concept of a difference in ability to digest lactose is supported. METHODS: A four-week study was performed in 23 lactose mal-digesters and 18 digesters. Following two weeks of dairy food withdrawal, subjects ingested 25 g of lactose twice a day for two weeks. Stool bifidobacteria and lactobacilli counts pre- and postintervention were measured as the primary outcome. For secondary outcomes, total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, beta-galactosidase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in stool, as well as breath hydrogen and symptoms following lactose challenge tests, were measured. RESULTS: Lactose maldigesters had a mean change difference (0.72 log10 colony forming units/g stool; P=0.04) in bifidobacteria counts compared with lactose digesters. Lactobacilli counts were increased, but not significantly. Nevertheless, reduced breath hydrogen after lactose ingestion correlated with lactobacilli (r=?0.5; P<0.001). Reduced total breath hydrogen and symptom scores together, with a rise in fecal enzymes after intervention, were appropriate, but not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite failure to achieve full colonic adaptation, the present study provided evidence for a differential impact of lactose on microflora depending on genetic lactase status. A prebiotic effect was evident in lactose maldigesters but not in lactose digesters. This may play a role in modifying the mechanisms of certain disease risks related to dairy food consumption between the two phenotypes. PMID:20559580

  9. Water-lactose behavior as a function of concentration and presence of lactic acid in lactose model systems.

    PubMed

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2015-12-01

    The presence of high amounts of lactic acid in acid whey restricts its ability to be further processed because lactose appears to remain in its amorphous form. A systematic study is lacking in this regard especially during the concentration step. Hence, the main aim of the study was to establish the structure and behavior of water molecules surrounding lactose in the presence of 1% (wt/wt) lactic acid at a concentration up to 50% (wt/wt). Furthermore, the crystallization nature of freeze-dried lactose with or without lactic acid was established using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two mechanisms were proposed to describe the behavior of water molecules around lactose molecules during the concentration of pure lactose and lactose solutions with lactic acid. Pure lactose solution exhibited a water evaporation enthalpy of ~679 Jg(-1), whereas lactose+ lactic acid solution resulted in ~965 Jg(-1) at a 50% (wt/wt) concentration. This indicates a greater energy requirement for water removal around lactose in the presence of lactic acid. Higher crystallization temperatures were observed with the presence of lactic acid, indicating a delay in crystallization. Furthermore, less crystalline lactose (~12%) was obtained in the presence of lactic acid, indicating high amorphous nature compared with pure lactose where ~50% crystallinity was obtained. The Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the strong hydration layer consisting lactic acid and H3O(+) ions surrounded lactose molecules via strong H bonds, which restricted water mobility, induced a change in structure of lactose, or both, creating unfavorable conditions for lactose crystallization. Thus, partial or complete removal of lactic acid from acid whey may be the first step toward improving the ability of acid whey to be processed. PMID:26476948

  10. Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey

    SciTech Connect

    Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

  11. Sonocrystallisation of lactose in concentrated whey.

    PubMed

    Zisu, Bogdan; Sciberras, Michael; Jayasena, Vijay; Weeks, Mike; Palmer, Martin; Dincer, Tuna D

    2014-11-01

    Whey concentrated to 32% lactose was sonicated at 30C in a non-contact approach at flow rates of up to 12L/min. Applied energy density varied from 3 to 16J/mL at a frequency of 20kHz. Sonication of whey initiated the rapid formation of a large number of lactose crystals in response to acoustic cavitation which increased the rate of crystallisation. The rate of sonocrystallisation was greater than stirring for approximately 180min but slowed down between 120 and 180min as the metastable limit was reached. A second treatment with ultrasound at 120min delivering an applied energy density of 4J/mL stimulated further nuclei formation and the rate of crystallisation was maintained for >300min. Yield on the other hand was limited by the solubility of lactose and could not be improved. The crystal size distribution was narrower than that with stirring and the overall crystal size was smaller. PMID:24792784

  12. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    SciTech Connect

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. )

    1991-04-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

  13. Prevalence of lactose malabsorption among patients with functional bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Enck, P; Kremer, A; Kuhlbusch, R; Niederau, C; Erckenbrecht, J F; Berges, W

    1990-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lactose malabsorption among patients with functional gastrointestinal disturbances we prospectively evaluated all patients referred to a gastrointestinal outpatient clinic over a period of 18 months. All patients had a breath hydrogen test following oral lactose in addition to the standard diagnostic procedures. In 37 of the total of 64 patients no organic cause of the gastrointestinal complaints was found. In 9 of these 37 patients (24%) the breath hydrogen test indicated lactose malabsorption. Three to 6 month later most of the patients with lactose malabsorption showed a significant reduction of gastrointestinal complaints after they had maintained a lactose-poor diet. In comparison, patients with functional disturbances but without lactose malabsorption reported nor or only minor improvement of symptoms; most of these patients had consulted another physician since the last visit in the clinic. PMID:2402933

  14. Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Katie L; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M; Daughters, Stacey B; Hong, L Elliot

    2014-12-15

    Impaired tolerance to distress may help explain part of the cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). This project investigated distress intolerance in SZ patients as compared to controls, and whether distress intolerance represented an independent domain in relationship to symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity. Healthy controls (n=43) and SZ (n=65) completed a psychological distress challenge experiment and their levels of intolerance to distress were estimated. SZ showed increased distress intolerance such that they were significantly more likely to terminate the distress challenge session early compared to controls. Greater distress intolerance was associated with reduced functional capacity and worse cognitive performance in SZ. Mediation analyses suggested that distress intolerance had an independent effect on functional capacity, while some of this effect was mediated by cognitive performance. Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient?s ability to tolerate distress. PMID:25107316

  15. Intolerance of uncertainty in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Summers, Berta J; Matheny, Natalie L; Sarawgi, Shivali; Cougle, Jesse R

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic construct associated with several anxiety and related disorders. Three studies were conducted to explore the potential relationship between IU and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Study 1 revealed a positive relationship between IU and BDD symptoms above symptoms of anxiety and depression in an unselected student sample (N=88). Study 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between IU and BDD symptoms above negative affectivity and intolerance of ambiguity in a community sample (N=116). Study 3 found that a clinical BDD sample (N=23) reported greater IU than healthy controls (N=20), though this relationship was accounted for by symptoms of anxiety and depression. Greater IU predicted functional impairment in the clinical sample above BDD symptoms and past-week anxiety and depression. The observed relationship between IU and BDD symptoms provides preliminary support for the relevance of IU to this population. PMID:26688272

  16. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  17. Statin intolerance: now a solved problem.

    PubMed

    Sikka, P; Kapoor, S; Bindra, V K; Sharma, M; Vishwakarma, P; Saxena, K K

    2011-01-01

    Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients. PMID:22120862

  18. Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

  19. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ∘Bé densities as compared with higher initial ∘Bé densities.

  20. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using {sup 14}C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-14

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation {sup 14}C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities.

  1. CALCIUM AND ZINC ABSORPTION FROM LACTOSE-CONTAINING AND LACTOSE-FREE INFANT FORMULAS 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Calcium absorption is enhanced by the presence of lactose, but the quantitative significance of this effect in infant formulas is uncertain. It is also not known whether lactose affects zinc absorption. Objective: We measured the absorption of calcium and zinc from infant formulas by ...

  2. Systems Analysis of Lactose Metabolism in Trichoderma reesei Identifies a Lactose Permease That Is Essential for Cellulase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei’s cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

  3. Systems analysis of lactose metabolism in Trichoderma reesei identifies a lactose permease that is essential for cellulase induction.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

  4. Anomeric discrimination and rapid analysis of underivatized lactose, maltose, and sucrose in vegetable matrices by U-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using porous graphitic carbon.

    PubMed

    Gabbanini, Simone; Lucchi, Elena; Guidugli, Federico; Matera, Riccardo; Valgimigli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by intestinal lactase deficiency, and a lactose-free diet represents the simplest way to avoid gastrointestinal symptoms. The emerging use of dietary supplements requires analytical tools that are capable of assessing these analytes, particularly for those based on dry herbal extracts that contain lactose together with maltose and sucrose, because of cross-contamination and/or deliberate addition as excipient. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and MS/MS are valuable detection methods for underivatized disaccharides; however, the absence of distinctive ions and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns does not allow discrimination of stereoisomers without good chromatographic resolution. We developed an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ESI (U-HPLC-ESI) approach, based on porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns, working at 5 C to separate and detect the disaccharides in their anomeric forms as formate adducts obtained directly in-column by eluting with formate buffer/acetonitrile gradient mixtures. Using a Paul trap, we monitored the adducts [M + HCOO](-) at m/z 387 in ESI negative mode (MS(1)) as well as the CID fragment ion [M - H](-) at m/z 341 (MS(2)) and used MS(3) fragment ions at m/z 178 and 161 to confirm disaccharides identity in complex vegetable matrices. Complete resolution of lactose ?- and ?-anomers, maltose ?- and ?-anomers, and sucrose was obtained with R ? 2.0 for all peaks and selectivity ? = 1.2 between ?- and ?-anomers of lactose. The limits of detection were in the range of 3-7 g/l (ppb) for the target disaccharides. Because of the rapidity and good anomeric discrimination, the described method represents an alternative tool to investigate the mutarotation phenomenon for reducing disaccharides. PMID:20862732

  5. [Histamine intolerance--possible dermatologic sequences].

    PubMed

    Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Seserko, Ana; Duvanci?, Tomislav; Situm, Mirna; Mihi?, Josip

    2012-12-01

    Although histamine intolerance (HIT) is not very frequently encountered, it can have serious consequences. Food intolerance is a non allergic hypersensitivity to food that does not include the immune system even though the symptoms are similar to those of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. HIT apparently develops as a result of an impaired diamine oxidase (DAO) activity due to gastrointestinal disease or through DAO inhibition, as well as through a genetic predisposition which was proven in a number of patients. The intake of histamine-rich foods as well as alcohol or drugs which cause either the release of histamine or the blocking of DAO can lead to various disorders in many organs (gastrointestinal system, skin, lungs, cardiovascular system and brain), depending on the expression of histamine receptors. Dermatologic sequels can be rashes, itch, urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, eczema and even acne, rosacea, psoriasis, and other. Recognizing the symptoms due to HIT is especially important in treating such patients. The significance of HIT in patients with atopic dermatitis in whom the benefit of a low histamine diet has been proven is becoming increasingly understood recently. Because of the possibility of symptoms affecting numerous organs, a detailed history of symptoms following the intake of histamine-rich foods or drugs that interfere with histamine metabolism is essential for making the diagnosis of HIT. Considering that such symptoms can be the result of multiple factors, the existence of HIT is usually underestimated, but considerable expectations are being made from future studies. PMID:23814966

  6. Chemical Intolerance in Primary Care Settings: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the DartmouthNorthern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P <.001). Controlling for demographics, patients with chemical intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with nonchemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication intolerances in chemical intolerance, primary care clinicians could use the QEESI to identify patients for appropriate triage to comprehensive nonpharmacologic care. PMID:22778124

  7. [Isolation and characterization of lactose-fermenting yeasts Candida kefyr].

    PubMed

    Ianieva, O D; Voronina, H O; Pidhors'kyĭ, V S

    2013-01-01

    The search for lactose-fermenting yeast strains has been conducted among 162 strains isolated from various plants and 28 yeast strains isolated from cheese. Four yeast strains have been shown to ferment lactose. They have been identified as Candida kefyr. Specific beta-galactosidase activity of the studied strains grown on lactose-containing medium was 1501-2113 U/g cell. The ethanol production by strains C. kefyr C24 and C30 was significantly inhibited by the increase in substrate concentration (100 g/l). PMID:24437197

  8. Failure to improve parameters of lactose maldigestion using the multiprobiotic product VSL3 in lactose maldigesters: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yesovitch, Rose; Cohen, Albert; Szilagyi, Andrew

    2004-02-01

    Lactose maldigestion is a common genetic trait in up to 70% of the world's population. In these subjects, the ingestion of lactose may lead to prebiotic effects which can be confirmed by measurement of breath hydrogen. After a period of continuous lactose ingestion, colonic bacterial adaptation is measurable as improved parameters of lactose digestion. There may be inherent benefits in this process of adaptation which may protect against some diseases. We attempt to link therapeutically beneficial probiotics (VSL3, Seaford Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ontario) with improvement in parameters of lactose maldigestion. Two groups of five subjects with maldigestion were fed one or four packets of VSL3 (one packet containing 450 x 10(9) live bacteria) before testing and then 17 days later. A 50 g lactose challenge was carried out before and after feeding. While there was a trend toward increasing rather than reducing of summed breath hydrogen, no statistically significant changes were observed between results from before testing and those from testing 17 days later. The authors conclude that direct consumption of the probiotic VSL3 may not improve parameters of lactose maldigestion without metabolic activation. In its present format, therefore, the test for colonic adaptation cannot be used to demonstrate direct bacterial embedding with VSL3. PMID:14997218

  9. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Roy, Amy K.; Furr, Jami M.; Gotimer, Kristin; Beidas, Rinad S.; Dugas, Michel J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has contributed to our understanding of excessive worry and adult anxiety disorders, but there is a paucity of research on IU in child samples. This gap is due to the absence of a psychometrically sound measure of IU in youth. The present study adapted parallel child- and parent-report forms of the Intolerance of

  10. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable

  11. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  12. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps unsurprisingly, the greatest ability to emerge from burial in all other species was from shallow (2 cm) burial. Although survival was consistently highly dependent on duration and depth of burial as expected, emergence behaviour was not as easily predictable thereby confounding predictions. We conclude that responses to burial are highly species specific and therefore tolerance generalisations are likely to be oversimplifications. These data may be used to inform environmental impact models that allow forecasting of the cumulative impacts of seabed disturbance and may provide mitigation measures for the sustainable use of the seabed. PMID:26901775

  13. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps unsurprisingly, the greatest ability to emerge from burial in all other species was from shallow (2 cm) burial. Although survival was consistently highly dependent on duration and depth of burial as expected, emergence behaviour was not as easily predictable thereby confounding predictions. We conclude that responses to burial are highly species specific and therefore tolerance generalisations are likely to be oversimplifications. These data may be used to inform environmental impact models that allow forecasting of the cumulative impacts of seabed disturbance and may provide mitigation measures for the sustainable use of the seabed. PMID:26901775

  14. Evolution of milk oligosaccharides and lactose: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Urashima, T; Fukuda, K; Messer, M

    2012-03-01

    Mammalian milk or colostrum contains up to 10% of carbohydrate, of which free lactose usually constitutes more than 80%. Lactose is synthesized within lactating mammary glands from uridine diphosphate galactose (UDP-Gal) and glucose by a transgalactosylation catalysed by a complex of ?4-galactosyltransferase and ?-lactalbumin (?-LA). ?-LA is believed to have evolved from C-type lysozyme. Mammalian milk or colostrum usually contains a variety of oligosaccharides in addition to free lactose. Each oligosaccharide has a lactose unit at its reducing end; this unit acts as a precursor that is essential for its biosynthesis. It is generally believed that milk oligosaccharides act as prebiotics and also as receptor analogues that act as anti-infection factors. We propose the following hypothesis. The proto-lacteal secretions of the primitive mammary glands of the common ancestor of mammals contained fat and protein including lysozyme, but no lactose or oligosaccharides because of the absence of ?-LA. When ?-LA first appeared as a result of its evolution from lysozyme, its content within the lactating mammary glands was low and lactose was therefore synthesized at a slow rate. Because of the presence of glycosyltransferases, almost all of the nascent lactose was utilized for the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The predominant saccharides in the proto-lacteal secretions or primitive milk produced by this common ancestor were therefore oligosaccharides rather than free lactose. Subsequent to this initial period, the oligosaccharides began to serve as anti-infection factors. They were then recruited as a significant energy source for the neonate, which was achieved by an increase in the synthesis of ?-LA. This produced a concomitant increase in the concentration of lactose in the milk, and lactose therefore became an important energy source for most eutherians, whereas oligosaccharides continued to serve mainly as anti-microbial agents. Lactose, in addition, began to act as an osmoregulatory molecule, controlling the milk volume. Studies on the chemical structures of the milk oligosaccharides of a variety of mammalian species suggest that human milk or colostrum is unique in that oligosaccharides containing lacto-N-biose I (LNB) (Gal(?1 ? 3)GlcNAc, type I) predominate over those containing N-acetyllactosamine (Gal(?1 ? 4)GlcNAc, type II), whereas in other species only type II oligosaccharides are found or else they predominate over type I oligosaccharides. It can be hypothesized that this feature may have a selective advantage in that it may promote the growth of beneficial colonic bacteria, Bifidobacteria, in the human infant colon. PMID:22436215

  15. Mechanisms of sympathetic regulation in orthostatic intolerance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic circulatory control is key to the rapid cardiovascular adjustments that occur within seconds of standing upright (orthostasis) and which are required for bipedal stance. Indeed, patients with ineffective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction rapidly develop orthostatic hypotension, prohibiting effective upright activities. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. However, many people experience episodic acute OI as postural faint or chronic OI in the form of orthostatic tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension that significantly reduce the quality of life. Potential mechanisms for OI are discussed including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction, and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution attributable to regional adrenergic hypofunction. PMID:22678960

  16. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to glucose promotes evolvability in lactose.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F

    2016-02-01

    The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations-six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone-from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes-iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs-that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits. PMID:26748670

  17. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial ?-Galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial ?-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37C) ?-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9?U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10C, the K. lactis ?-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis ?-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55C), at the end of a 12?h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9?U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of ?-galactosidases in the food industry. PMID:26587283

  18. Fermentation of lactose by yeast cells secreting recombinant fungal lactase.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, S; Hartley, B S

    1993-12-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with a yeast multicopy expression vector carrying the cDNA for Aspergillus niger secretory beta-galactosidase under the control of ADH1 promoter and terminator were studied for their fermentation properties on lactose (V. Kumar, S. Ramakrishnan, T. T. Teeri, J. K. C. Knowles, and B. S. Hartley, Biotechnology 10:82-85, 1992). Lactose was hydrolyzed extracellularly into glucose and galactose, and both sugars were utilized simultaneously. Diauxic growth patterns were not observed. However, a typical biphasic growth was observed on a mixture of glucose and galactose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with transformants of a haploid S. cerevisiae strain, GRF167. Polyploid distiller's yeast (Mauri) transformants were selected simply on the basis of the cloned gene expression on X-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) plates. Rapid and complete lactose hydrolysis and higher ethanol (0.31 g/g of sugar) and biomass (0.24 g/g of sugar) production were observed with distiller's yeast grown under aerobic conditions. A constant proportion (10%) of the population retained the plasmid throughout the fermentation period (48 h). Nearly theoretical yields of ethanol were obtained under anaerobic conditions on lactose, glucose, galactose, and whey permeate media. However, the rate and the amount of lactose hydrolysis were lower under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. All lactose-grown cells expressed partial galactokinase activity. PMID:8285714

  19. Nutrition, population growth and disease: a short history of lactose.

    PubMed

    Brssow, Harald

    2013-08-01

    Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. PMID:23574334

  20. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), H, C, HH-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139C; m/z 1,113 [M + H?]; wavelength of maximum absorption, ?(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ?, 8.1037 10?), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.01.1 and 4.91.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.60.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65C for 30 min) milk (1.20.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.30.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria in human subjects are able to digest and utilize urea nitrogen in formation of essential amino acids that are available to the host human. These findings suggest that LU in milk might have a functional role in human health. PMID:22118076

  1. Linking flowability and granulometry of lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Boschini, F; Delaval, V; Traina, K; Vandewalle, N; Lumay, G

    2015-10-15

    The flowing properties of 10 lactose powders commonly used in pharmaceutical industries have been analyzed with three recently improved measurement methods. The first method is based on the heap shape measurement. This straightforward measurement method provides two physical parameters (angle of repose ?r and static cohesive index ?r) allowing to make a first screening of the powder properties. The second method allows to estimate the rheological properties of a powder by analyzing the powder flow in a rotating drum. This more advanced method gives a large set of physical parameters (flowing angle ?f, dynamic cohesive index ?f, angle of first avalanche ?a and powder aeration %ae) leading to deeper interpretations. The third method is an improvement of the classical bulk and tapped density measurements. In addition to the improvement of the measurement precision, the densification dynamics of the powder bulk submitted to taps is analyzed. The link between the macroscopic physical parameters obtained with these methods and the powder granulometry is analyzed. Moreover, the correlations between the different flowability indexes are discussed. Finally, the link between grain shape and flowability is discussed qualitatively. PMID:26283279

  2. Prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and behavioural symptoms occurring before (anticipatory/associative) and after methotrexate (MTX) administration, termed MTX intolerance, in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS), previously validated in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients, was used to determine MTX intolerance prevalence in 291 RA/PsA patients. The MISS consisted of four domains: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and behavioural symptoms, occurring upon, prior to (anticipatory) and when thinking of MTX (associative). MTX intolerance was defined as ?6 on the MISS with ?1 point on anticipatory and/or associative and/or behavioural items. Results A total of 123 patients (42.3%) experienced at least one gastrointestinal adverse effect. The prevalence of MTX intolerance was 11%. MTX intolerance prevalence was higher in patients on parenteral (20.6%) than on oral MTX (6.2%) (p?intolerance, in order to intervene timely and avoid discontinuation of an effective treatment. PMID:24345416

  3. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    PubMed

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment. PMID:26978392

  4. Neural Correlates of Intolerance of Uncertainty in Clinical Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wever, Mirjam; Smeets, Paul; Sternheim, Lot

    2015-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty is a key contributor to anxiety-related disorders. Recent studies highlight its importance in other clinical disorders. The link between its clinical presentation and the underlying neural correlates remains unclear. This review summarizes the emerging literature on the neural correlates of intolerance of uncertainty. In conclusion, studies focusing on the neural correlates of this construct are sparse, and findings are inconsistent across disorders. Future research should identify neural correlates of intolerance of uncertainty in more detail. This may unravel the neurobiology of a wide variety of clinical disorders and pave the way for novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26185902

  5. Absorption of lactose from colon of newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D; Ailabouni, A H; Powers, P A; McClung, H J; Li, B U; Heitlinger, L A; Sloan, H R

    1991-07-01

    Piglets in three age groups (1-3, 9-11, and 16-25 days after birth) were used for in vivo colonic perfusions. Studies compared an isosmolar (312 mosM) with a high osmolar (551 mosM) solution and two equimolar substrates (with hexose concentrations of 73.1 mM), lactose and glucose-galactose. From the isosmolar perfusates, lactose absorption was 0.43 +/- 0.04 in the 18-20 day olds and 1.04 +/- 0.2 mumol.cm-1.min-1 in the 1-3 day olds; absorption from the glucose-galactose solution was negligible in all age groups (less than 0.05 +/- 0.05 mumol.cm-1.min-1). From the high osmolar perfusate, lactose absorption also exceeded that of glucose and galactose. In a third set of perfusion studies, the concentration of lactose was varied between 15 and 240 mM perfusate. Five-day-old animals absorbed 67% more lactose than 18-day-old animals; the right colon absorbed 57% more than the left. Lactose absorption, correlated with its concentration in the perfusate (r = 0.99), was nonsaturable at concentrations up to 240 mM, and was correlated with the uptake both of sodium (r2 = 0.59 for young and 0.64 for older neonates) and of chloride (r2 = 0.55 for young and 0.31 for older neonates). The results suggest that lactose may be removed from the colon without apparent cleavage by beta-galactosidase. PMID:1907103

  6. Exercise Intolerance in Individuals With Postconcussion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Karl F.; Graham, James; Leddy, John J.; Devinney-Boymel, Lee; Willer, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Little is known about exercise intolerance or the utility of an exercise evaluation in patients with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Objective: To assess exercise intolerance in male and female patients with PCS. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included a convenience sample of 34 patients with PCS (17 males, 17 females; age = 25.9 10.9 years) and 22 uninjured individuals on whom we gathered historical deidentified laboratory data (control group; 11 males, 11 females; age = 23.3 6.2 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Self-reported symptoms, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs), and the Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured before, during each minute of, and immediately after a graded treadmill exercise test (Balke protocol). Exercise was stopped when participants could no longer maintain the effort or reported the onset of or increase in PCS symptoms. Results: Exercise test duration (8.5 4.4 minutes versus 17.9 3.6 minutes; t51 = 1.8, P < .001), heart rate (142.8 24.1 versus 175.2 17.4; t54 = ?5.5, P < .001), and systolic BP (142.1 18.3 mm Hg versus 155.5 24.5 mm Hg; t53 = 2.3, P = .02) were lower, and diastolic BP (78.4 10.2 mm Hg versus 73.5 11.7 mm Hg; t53 = 2.2, P = .03) was higher at test cessation in the PCS than control group. Cox regression showed the odds of a shorter exercise duration were nearly 8 times greater in the PCS than control group (hazard ratio = 7.93; 95% confidence interval = 3.39, 18.56). In the general linear models that adjusted for differences in test duration, rating of perceived exertion was the only physiologic measure to show an overall difference between groups, with the control group reporting higher ratings than the PCS group (t53 = ?6.0, P < .001). Within the PCS group, systolic BP was the only measure to show a sex effect, with males showing higher pressure readings than females throughout the exercise tests (t31 = 2.8, P = .009). Conclusions: Patients with PCS had a symptom-limited response to exercise, and the treadmill test was a potentially useful tool to monitor the recovery from PCS. PMID:23952041

  7. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not different between control subjects and patients with OI. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  8. Lactose particle engineering: Influence of ultrasound and anti-solvent on crystal habit and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougoulos, E.; Marziano, I.; Miller, P. R.

    2010-11-01

    This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry - namely the role of ?-lactose - and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of ?-lactose in ?-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.

  9. Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

  10. Lysinuric Protein Intolerance Presenting with Multiple Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Jennifer E.; Burrage, Lindsay C.; Miller, Marcus J.; Liu, Pengfei; Hardison, Matthew T.; Elsea, Sarah H.; Sun, Qin; Yang, Yaping; Willis, Alecia S.; Schlesinger, Alan E.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lee, Brendan H.

    2014-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in SLC7A7, which encodes a component of the dibasic amino acid transporter found in intestinal and renal tubular cells. Patients typically present with vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, failure to thrive, and symptomatic hyperammonemia after protein-rich meals. Long-term complications may include pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, renal disease, and osteoporosis. We present a 5-year-old male who was followed in our skeletal dysplasia clinic for 3 years for multiple fractures, idiopathic osteoporosis, and short stature in the absence of typical features of LPI. Whole exome sequencing performed to determine the etiology of the osteoporosis and speech delay identified a nonsense mutation in SLC7A7. Chromosome microarray analysis identified a deletion involving the second allele of the same gene, and biochemical analysis supported the diagnosis of LPI. Our patients atypical presentation underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for LPI in patients with unexplained fractures and idiopathic osteoporosis, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of hyperammonemia after protein rich meals or other systemic features of classical LPI. This case further demonstrates the utility of whole exome sequencing in diagnosis of unusual presentations of rare disorders for which early intervention may modify the clinical course. PMID:25419514

  11. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:24601766

  12. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support. PMID:26198889

  13. Intolerance of Ambiguity and Student Performance in Social Work Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Liane V.; Sherman, Edmund

    1987-01-01

    Social workers must assist people in coping with complex, often apparently insoluble, problems. Data are presented on the relationship between intolerance of ambiguity and a variety of performance and preference measures of 212 social work students. (Author/MH)

  14. Antroduodenal motility in neurologically handicapped children with feeding intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Werlin, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and feeding intolerance are common in neurologically handicapped children. The aim is to determine the etiologies of feeding intolerance in neurologically handicapped children who are intolerant of tube feedings. Methods Eighteen neurologically handicapped children, followed in the Tube Feeding Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin who were intolerant of gastrostomy feedings. The charts of these 18 patients were reviewed. Past medical history, diagnoses, history of fundoplication and results of various tests of gastrointestinal function including barium contrast radiography, endoscopy and antroduodenal manometry were documented. Results Five of 11 children had abnormal barium upper gastrointestinal series. Seven of 14 had abnormal liquid phase gastric emptying tests. Two of 16 had esophagitis on endoscopy. All 18 children had abnormal antroduodenal motility. Conclusions In neurologically handicapped children foregut dysmotility may be more common than is generally recognized and can explain many of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologically handicapped children. PMID:15341670

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of lactose crystallization in gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Coupland, John N

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements (2.25 MHz center frequency) were used to follow bulk crystallization of lactose (43% and 46%) from gelatin (1.5% and 3%) gels at 25 °C, and compared to turbidity (500 nm) and isothermal calorimetric measurements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased slightly (approximately 0.5%) during crystallization while ultrasonic attenuation was low in the absence of lactose crystals and increased progressively during crystallization. The lag time before the onset of crystallization decreased and the maximum rate of increase in attenuation during crystallization increased with increasing lactose supersaturation but was not affected by gelatin concentration (P < 0.05). Similar results were seen in turbidity and isothermal calorimetric measurements. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have the potential to measure crystallization kinetics in complex food matrices and to be applied on-line. Practical Application: Many foods contain crystals that affect their taste and texture (for example, lactose crystals can give a grainy defect in ice cream). The formation of crystals is often hard to predict so methods to measure the development of crystals inside real foods are useful. In this study, we show that as lactose crystallizes in a gelatin gel the ultrasonic attenuation--capacity to absorb sound--increases and can be related to the amount of crystals present. Ultrasound is easier to apply in real food processing than the existing methodologies. PMID:21535675

  16. Lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide adulteration in milk.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-06-21

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect semicarbazide and lactose semicarbazone in milk was developed as part of a programme to set up methods for detecting the economically motivated adulteration of raw milk with nitrogen-containing compounds. The detection of semicarbazide was hampered by that fact that this compound tended to give broad, poor intensity peaks in the hydrophobic interaction chromatographic method employed. When spiked into milk at levels of 20-200 ppm, semicarbazide either partially or completely reacted with the matrix, which both increased the limit of detection of the method and made the setting of a threshold by using low level spikes almost impossible. Thus using lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide addition to milk was investigated. Lactose semicarbazone was detected in semicarbazide-spiked milk, and its identity was confirmed by fragmentation analysis and comparison with the synthesised compound. The level of lactose semicarbazone correlated with the amount of semicarbazide added to the milk, and the acidic conditions employed in the extraction method appeared to enhance the sensitivity of detection by driving the semicarbazone-forming reaction towards completion. Thus lactose semicarbazone can be used as a marker for the addition of semicarbazide to milk; however, both compounds should be monitored during surveys looking for the semicarbazide adulteration of milk. PMID:23683401

  17. Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, T P; Diamond, J

    1999-03-01

    We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size. PMID:10070136

  18. Selection and Neutrality in Lactose Operons of Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Dean, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of the permeases and ?-galactosidases of six lactose operons which had been transduced into a common genetic background from natural isolates of Escherichia coli were investigated. The fitnesses conferred by the operons were determined using chemostat competition experiments in which lactose was the sole growth-limiting factor. The cell wall is demonstrated to impose a resistance to the diffusion of galactosides at low substrate concentrations. A steady state model of the flux of lactose through the metabolic pathway (diffusion, uptake and hydrolysis) is shown to be proportional to fitness. This metabolic model is used to explain why an approximately twofold range in activity among the permease alleles confers a 13% range in fitness, whereas a similar range in activity among alleles of the ?-galactosidase confers a 0.5% range in fitness. This metabolic model implies that selection need not be maximized when a resource is scarce. PMID:2513251

  19. Use of lactose against the deadly biological toxin ricin.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    Developing a technology for detecting and decontaminating biological toxins is needed. Ricin from Ricinus communis is a highly poisonous toxin; it was formerly used for an assassination in London and in postal attacks in the United States. Ricin is readily available from castor beans and could be used as a biological agent. We propose using glycotechnology against the illegal use of ricin. Lactose (a natural ligand of this toxin) was incorporated into polyacrylamide-based glycopolymers at variable sugar densities (18-100%) and evaluated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and the real agent, ricin. Glycopolymers (18-65% lactose densities) effectively interfered with the toxin-lactoside adhesion event (>99% efficiency within 20 min). This supported the notion of using the mammary sugar lactose against a deadly biological toxin. PMID:20369893

  20. Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Lin, M Y; Yen, C L; Chen, S H

    1998-01-01

    The influence of nonfermented milk containing L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus on lactose utilization by lactose maldigesters was investigated. Nonfermented milks containing L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus at 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/ml were prepared using 2% low-fat milk. Lactose maldigestion was monitored by measuring breath hydrogen at hourly intervals for 8 hr following consumption of 400 ml of each diet. Nonfermented milk containing L. acidophilus B at 10(8) CFU/ml were not effective in reducing breath hydrogen and symptoms. Nonfermented milk containing L. acidophilus B at 10(9) CFU/ml only slightly decreased breath hydrogen production; however, the symptoms were significantly improved. Nonfermented milks containing L. bulgaricus 449 at 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/ml were effective in reducing breath hydrogen and symptoms. The results for bulgaricus milk were all significant. In this study, L. acidophilus B and L. bulgaricus 449 were chosen because of their similar beta-galactosidase activity and bile sensitivity. L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus are both thermophilic lactobacilli and an active transport (permease) system is found in both species for lactose transport. The major factor affecting in vivo lactose digestion in this study appears to be the bacterial cell wall/membrane structures. That the cell wall/membrane structures of L. acidophilus are different from those of L. bulgaricus can be indirectly proven by the results of sonication time for maximum beta-galactosidase activity measurement. The results of this study indicate that L. bulgaricus is usually a better choice than L. acidophilus for manufacturing nonfermented milks for lactose maldigesters. PMID:9508514

  1. Glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Lee, Shou-Dong; Chang, Full-Young

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C and to evaluate the relationship between interferon (IFN) treatment and glucose intolerance in these patients. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the outpatient clinic of Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Chronic hepatitis C was defined as persistent presence of anti-HCV and persistent elevation of liver transaminase for at least 1.5 folds for at least 6 months. Moreover, patients were further categorized into normal fasting glucose and glucose intolerance (diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose) according to the diagnostic criteria of American Diabetic Association. RESULTS: Totally, 359 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled (212 males and 147 females, mean age = 58.1 13.0 years). One hundred and twenty-three patients (34.3%) had received various forms of IFN treatment. One hundred and twenty-five patients (34.6%) had glucose intolerance, including 99 patients (27.6%) with DM and 26 patients (7.0%) with impaired fasting glucose. In comparison with those with normal fasting glucose levels, patients with chronic hepatitis C with glucose intolerance were significantly older, had a significantly higher body mass index, and they were more likely to suffer from obesity, to have family history of diabetes and to have had previous IFN treatment. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed significantly that age 57 years, obesity, previous history of IFN treatment and the presence of family history of diabetes were independent risk factors associated with the presence of glucose intolerance in chronic hepatitis C patients. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 34.6% of Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C had glucose intolerance. Chronic hepatitis C patients who were older in age, obese, had previous IFN treatment history and had family history of diabetes were prone to develop glucose intolerance. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based report to confirm that interferon treatment to be an independent risk factor to develop glucose intolerance. PMID:12632506

  2. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Hee; Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan; Yoon, Sung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder. PMID:26761881

  3. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder. PMID:26761881

  4. Effect of Lactose Monolaurate on Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Ashwini; Shen, Shujie; Shen, Fen Ann; Miller, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of sucrose monolaurate and a novel ester, lactose monolaurate (LML), were tested. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria to both esters. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of LML were 5 to 9.5 mM for Listeria monocytogenes isolates and 0.2 to 2 mM for Mycobacterium isolates. PMID:22344640

  5. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. Copies may be... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... a fluid, concentrate, or a dry product form. The acidity of reduced lactose whey may be adjusted...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. Copies may be... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... a fluid, concentrate, or a dry product form. The acidity of reduced lactose whey may be adjusted...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. Copies may be... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... a fluid, concentrate, or a dry product form. The acidity of reduced lactose whey may be adjusted...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. Copies may be... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... a fluid, concentrate, or a dry product form. The acidity of reduced lactose whey may be adjusted...

  9. Dependency of lactose absorption on lactase activity in starved rats.

    PubMed

    Leichter, J; Goda, T; Koldovsky, O

    1987-11-01

    The effects of starvation on intestinal disaccharidase activities and disaccharide absorption were studied in rats. Adult male rats were starved for either 16 or 72 h and the specific activity of lactase and sucrase was determined together with the absorption of lactose, sucrose, and glucose in vitro by the everted sac technique. The specific activity of lactase was significantly higher and the specific activity of sucrase was lower in the 72-h starved animals when compared with the 16-h starved group. The higher specific lactase activity in the 72-h starved animals was reflected in enhanced absorption of lactose as determined by the transfer of the constituent monosaccharides into the serosal fluid. The transfer of glucose into the serosal fluid by the glucose sac was also higher in the 72-h starved rats but not to the same extent as that of lactose. The absorption of sucrose was not significantly different between the two groups of animals. This study shows that the increase of intestinal lactase activity induced by starvation of adult rats correlates with in vitro increased lactose absorption. PMID:3130173

  10. Biohydrogen production from lactose: influence of substrate and nitrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R; Fierro, J; Fernndez, C; Cuetos, M J; Gmez, X

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen produced from renewable sources may be considered the energy vector of the future. However, reducing process costs is imperative in order to achieve this goal. In the present research, the effect of nitrogen (N), initial pH and substrate content for starting up the dark fermentative process was studied using the response surface methodology. Anaerobic digested dried sludge (biosolid pellets) was used as the inoculum. Synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate in batch reactors. A decrease in H2 production was observed with the increase in N and lactose concentrations. This drop was considerably greater when the concentration of lactose was at its lower level. Although the increase in lactose concentration results in a lower H2 production, the effect of N on the response is attenuated at higher levels of lactose. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH on the fermentation system was not significant. The evaluation on the process under semi-continuous conditions was performed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). The process was evaluated at different C/N ratios using synthetic wastewater. Results showed higher hydrogen yields with the gradual decrease in nitrogen content. The addition of cheese whey to the ASBR resulted in a H2 production rate of 0.18?L?H2?L(-1)?d(-1). PMID:25799253

  11. Acquired intolerance to organic solvents and results of vestibular testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gyntelberg, F.; Vesterhauge, S.; Fog, P.; Isager, H.; Zillstorff, K.

    1986-01-01

    Among 160 consecutive patients referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Rigshospitalet, for symptoms connected with exposure to organic solvents, 20 exhibited symptoms of acquired intolerance to minor amounts of organic solvents. Later, an additional 30 consecutive patients with symptoms of acquired intolerance were included, yielding a total of 43 men and 7 women. The characteristics of the clinical syndrome described are complaints of dizziness, nausea, and weakness after exposure to minimal solvent vapor concentrations. After having tolerated long-term occupational exposure to moderate or high air concentrations of various organic solvents, the patients became intolerant within a short period of time. Since dizziness was a frequent complaint, we tried to obtain a measure of the patients' complaints using vestibular tests. As a diagnostic test the combined vestibular tests had a sensitivity of 0.55 and a specificity of 0.87. No differences between patients with and without intolerance could be detected by the vestibular tests used. We conclude that acquired intolerance to organic solvents is a new but characteristic and easily recognizable syndrome, often with severe consequences for the patient's working ability.

  12. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  13. Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A; Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-03-25

    The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis.

  14. Feeding Problems in Infants and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Yes These symptoms may be a sign of LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, the inability to digest lactose. Lactose is a ... allergy or more severe intolerance to cow's milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) or wheat (CELIAC DISEASE). See your baby's doctor. ...

  15. Reduced rate of breath hydrogen excretion with lactose tolerance tests in young children using whole milk.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Garcia-Ibaez, R; Viteri, F E

    1979-04-01

    On 14 occasions, 1.75 g/kg of body weight of lactose was given in whole milk to preschool children who had significant malabsorption with aqueous lactose solution. The volume of hydrogen excreted in the breath was less after the milk meal. Moreover, the hydrogen response to the nonabsorbable disaccharide, lactulose, was greater with aqueous, solution than with a liquid meal but their difference disappeared when metoclopramide was given with the lactulose: meal. The slower hydrogen production is attributed to slower intestinal delivery of lactose in meals; this phenomenon may account for clinical lactose tolerance often seen in children with demonstrated lactose malabsorption. PMID:571202

  16. Management of malnourished children with acute diarrhoea and sugar intolerance.

    PubMed

    Beau, J P; Fontaine, O; Garenne, M

    1990-04-01

    A protocol of nutritional rehabilitation using fermented milk, vegetable oil and caster sugar has been tested on 54 Senegalese children, aged 6-36 months, admitted with acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. At the time of admission, 39 per cent of children were dehydrated and 26 per cent had sugar intolerance. In the course of treatment three went home against medical advice and one died from acute pneumonia with respiratory-heart failure. Among the cases of marasmus there were no differences in mean weight gain between children with sugar intolerance and others despite a longer duration of diarrhoea in the first group. Furthermore, the experimental protocol has never been compromised because of worsening diarrhoea or weight loss. These results indicate that a formula based on fermented milk together with oral rehydration can be used to treat malnourished children with acute diarrhoea and sugar intolerance. PMID:2355409

  17. Management of malnourished children with acute diarrhoea and sugar intolerance.

    PubMed

    Beau, J P; Fontaine, O; Garenne, M

    1989-12-01

    A protocol of nutritional rehabilitation using fermented milk, vegetable oil, and castor sugar has been tested on 54 Senegalese children age 6-36 months admitted with acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. At time of admission, 39 per cent of children were dehydrated and 26 per cent had sugar intolerance. In the course of treatment three absconded and one died from acute pneumonia with respiratory and heart failure. Among those with marasmus there were no differences in mean weight gains between children with sugar intolerance and others, despite a longer duration of diarrhoea in the first group. Furthermore, the treatment protocol has never been compromised because of worsening diarrhoea or weight loss. These results indicate that a formula based on fermented milk together with oral rehydration can be used to treat malnourished children with acute diarrhoea and sugar intolerance. PMID:2514280

  18. Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-02-20

    The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48 h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ? 71 ?m) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of ? and ?-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of ?-lactose was more as compared to ?-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations. PMID:25460546

  19. [Histamine intolerance syndrome. Its significance for ENT medicine].

    PubMed

    Bttcher, I; Klimek, L

    2008-08-01

    The symptoms of histamine intolerance are similar to those of the IgE-mediated allergic immune response. Patients affected by this disease, mostly middle-aged women, suffer from conditions such as headaches and rhinitis, particularly after consuming histamine-rich foods, indulging in alcoholic beverages, or taking certain pharmaceuticals. Moreover, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions can be observed with this syndrome. This article describes the biochemical processes and cellular background of histamine intolerance syndrome and discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within otorhinolaryngology. It is our goal to direct attention to this often unrecognized clinical picture and to contribute to increased immunologic knowledge of this disease. PMID:18649066

  20. [Histamine intolerance and pseudoallergy--do they exist?].

    PubMed

    Hannuksela, Matti; Haahtela, Tari

    2012-01-01

    Histamine intolerance (HIT) is a controversial syndrome, in which the body is believed to react to histamine released by certain foodstuffs. Symptoms include among other things headache, urticaria and abdominal discomfort. Several fruits, nuts, spices and food additives have been regarded as pseudoallergens. Since there is no objective investigation to prove HIT, the diagnosis is based on symptoms. On the basis of literature, better clinical studies are needed. Because the phenomenon remains unclear, use of the terms histamine intolerance and pseudoallergens is not recommended. PMID:22667048

  1. The intracellular galactoglycome in Trichoderma reesei during growth on lactose.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, Levente; Coulier, Leon; Fekete, Erzsébet; Overkamp, Karin M; Druzhinina, Irina S; Mikus, Marianna; Seiboth, Bernhard; Novák, Levente; Punt, Peter J; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-06-01

    Lactose (1,4-0-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose) is used as a soluble carbon source for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases for-among other purposes-use in biofuel and biorefinery industries. The mechanism how lactose induces cellulase formation in T. reesei is enigmatic, however. Previous results from our laboratory raised the hypothesis that intermediates from the two galactose catabolic pathway may give rise to the accumulation of intracellular oligogalactosides that could act as inducer. Here we have therefore used high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry to study the intracellular galactoglycome of T. reesei during growth on lactose, in T. reesei mutants impaired in galactose catabolism, and in strains with different cellulase productivities. Lactose, allo-lactose, and lactulose were detected in the highest amounts in all strains, and two trisaccharides (Gal-β-1,6-Gal-β-1,4-Glc/Fru and Gal-β-1,4-Gal-β-1,4-Glc/Fru) also accumulated to significant levels. Glucose and galactose, as well as four further oligosaccharides (Gal-β-1,3/1,4/1,6-Gal; Gal-β-1,2-Glc) were only detected in minor amounts. In addition, one unknown disaccharide (Hex-β-1,1-Hex) and four trisaccharides were also detected. The accumulation of the unknown hexose disaccharide was shown to correlate with cellulase formation in the improved mutant strains as well as the galactose pathway mutants, and Gal-β-1,4-Gal-β-1,4-Glc/Fru and two other unknown hexose trisaccharides correlated with cellulase production only in the pathway mutants, suggesting that these compounds could be involved in cellulase induction by lactose. The nature of these oligosaccharides, however, suggests their formation by transglycosylation rather than by glycosyltransferases. Based on our results, the obligate nature of both galactose catabolic pathways for this induction must have another biochemical basis than providing substrates for inducer formation. PMID:23299458

  2. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  3. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance, are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, ambiguity aversion represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, ambiguity intolerance describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome

  5. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose

    PubMed Central

    Sherajee, Shamshad J.; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 μg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20 mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation. PMID:24201309

  6. Orthostatic Intolerance and Motion Sickness After Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.

  7. High fat programming induces glucose intolerance in weanling Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cerf, M E; Louw, J

    2010-05-01

    We sought to determine whether maintenance on a high fat diet during defined periods of gestation and lactation induced glucose intolerance in weanling Wistar rats or affected food intake, weight, and glucose concentrations in mothers. Experimental groups comprised mothers and their weanling offspring maintained on a high fat diet during gestation and lactation (HFGL), during gestation only (HFG), or during lactation only (HFL). Maternal food intake, body weight, and fasting blood glucose concentrations were determined during lactation. Glucose tolerance was measured in the three-week-old weanling offspring. After overnight fasting, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in the weanlings. Glucose was collected at (0), 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. HFGL and HFL weanlings had greater glucose concentrations compared to control weanlings at 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. For HFG weanlings, greater glucose concentrations were only found at 30 min, which normalized at 60 min. In all of the experimental groups, the highest glucose concentrations were demonstrated at 30 min, whereas the peak was achieved at 15 min in the control weanlings. Overt glucose intolerance was induced in weanlings maintained on a high fat diet throughout both gestation and lactation or throughout lactation only. Further, weanlings maintained on a high fat diet solely throughout gestation displayed milder glucose intolerance. Developmental programming with a high fat diet during defined periods of gestation and lactation induces glucose intolerance in weanling rats. PMID:20195946

  8. Accuracy assessments for laser diffraction measurements of pharmaceutical lactose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Nia; Shrimpton, John; Palmer, Mark; Prime, Dave; Johal, Bal

    2007-12-01

    The accuracy of laser diffraction size measurements of dry powder inhaler particles, which play an important role in guiding effective inhaler system design, is assessed. Additionally, data for lactose particle shape characteristics are presented. Comparisons made between microscopy and cohesion-minimized laser diffraction size measurements for pharmaceutical lactose particles indicate that non-sphericity causes a broadening of the size distribution while the median diameter is unchanged. This is corroborated by data in the literature. Poured particles and those dispensed from an inhaler shared a common characteristic agglomerate modal diameter that was absent in the cohesion-minimized wet suspension. It is concluded that the interpretation of integral measurements of the particle size distribution using laser diffraction, for cohesive particle systems, is reasonable. The method of dispensing particles from an inhaler and delivery through an artificial throat is critical and both decreased the proportion of agglomerates present.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, is given in paragraphs (b)(1)(i...), pp. 760-761, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... form. The acidity of reduced lactose whey may be adjusted by the addition of safe and suitable...

  10. Dissolution mechanism of tablets produced from coated lactose powder.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, C; Pilpel, N

    1987-04-01

    The use of the equation of Kitazawa et al in the analysis of the dissolution process of tablets produced from lactose powder coated with paraffin has suggested either an initial breaking of the tablets into particles that subsequently break down into smaller particles or a progressive breaking of the tablet into smaller particles. The former produces a change in rate constant from k1 to k2. PMID:2884295

  11. Effects of paraffin coatings on the shearing properties of lactose.

    PubMed

    Irono, C I; Pilpel, N

    1982-08-01

    An annular shear cell has been employed to measure the shearing properties of lactose powder coated with up to 10(-4) mol g-1 of powder of a series of paraffin hydrocarbons. The angle of internal friction, delta, of the coated powders was independent of their packing density. The shearing properties of the powders depended on the concentration, the viscosity and thickness of the coating material. PMID:6126556

  12. Influence of amorphous content on compaction behaviour of anhydrous alpha-lactose.

    PubMed

    Ziffels, S; Steckel, H

    2010-03-15

    Modified lactoses are widely used as filler-binders in direct compression of tablets. Until today, little about the compaction behaviour of anhydrous alpha-lactose is known. In this study, a new method to prepare anhydrous alpha-lactose from alpha-lactose monohydrate by desiccation with heated ethanol was evaluated and the influence of amorphous content in the lactose powder prior to modification on powder properties, compaction behaviour and storage stability was determined. The modification process led to anhydrous alpha-lactose with decreased bulk and tapped density, increased flow rate and significantly higher specific surface area. Due to the higher specific surface area, the compaction behaviour of the anhydrous alpha-lactose was found to be significantly better than the compaction behaviour of powder blends consisting of alpha-lactose monohydrate and amorphous lactose. An influence of the amorphous content prior to modification could be observed only at higher compaction forces. In general, tablets of modified powders needed longer time to disintegrate directly after compression. However, the storage stability of modified tablets was found to be better compared to the amorphous-crystalline tablets which were influenced by storage conditions, initial crushing strength as well as amorphous content due to the re-crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage. PMID:20005927

  13. Lack of effect of lactose digestion status on baseline fecal microflora

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Shrier, Ian; Chong, George; Je, Jung Sung; Park, Sunghoon; Heilpern, Debra; Lalonde, Catherine; Cote, Louis-Francois; Lee, Byong

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The genetics of intestinal lactase divide the worlds population into two phenotypes: the ability (a dominant trait) or inability (a recessive trait) to digest lactose. A prebiotic effect of lactose may impact the colonic flora of these phenotypes differently. OBJECTIVE: To detect and evaluate the effects of lactose on subjects divided according to their ability to digest lactose. METHODS: A total of 57 healthy maldigesters (n=30) and digesters (n=27) completed diet questionnaires, genetic and breath hydrogen testing, and quantitative stool analysis for species of bacteria. Log10 transformation of bacterial counts was compared with lactose intake in both groups using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between genetic and breath hydrogen tests. Daily lactose intake was marginally lower in lactose maldigesters (median [interquartile range] 12.2 g [31 g] versus 15 g [29.6 g], respectively). There was no relationship between lactose intake and breath hydrogen tests in either group. There were no differences in bacterial counts between the two groups, nor was there a relationship between bacterial counts and lactose intake in either group. CONCLUSION: The differential bacterial effects of lactose were not quantitatively detected in stool samples taken in the present study. PMID:19893771

  14. Detection of Dissolved Lactose Employing an Optofluidic Micro-System

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Emanuel; Keplinger, Franz; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a novel optofluidic sensor principle is employed for a non-invasive and label-free characterization of lactose containing liquid samples. Especially for medicine and food industry, a simple, fast and accurate determination of the amount of lactose in various products is highly desirable. The presented system exploits the impact of dissolved molecules on the refractive index for sample characterization. On the optofluidic chip, a microfluidic channel filled with the analyte is hit by slightly diverging laser light. The center incident angle of the beam on-chip is set close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. Both the reflected and the transmitted light signals are recorded at the solid-liquid interface. The ratio of those two signals is then used as representative value for the analyte. Using this principle, lactose containing samples were differentiated based on their concentrations at a step size of 10 mmol/L. The use of the signals ratio instead of a single signal approach improves the stability of the system significantly, allowing for higher resolutions to be achieved. Furthermore, the fabrication of the devices in PDMS ensures biocompatibility and provides low absorbance of light in the visible range.

  15. Detection of Dissolved Lactose Employing an Optofluidic Micro-System.

    PubMed

    Weber, Emanuel; Keplinger, Franz; Vellekoop, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a novel optofluidic sensor principle is employed for a non-invasive and label-free characterization of lactose containing liquid samples. Especially for medicine and food industry, a simple, fast and accurate determination of the amount of lactose in various products is highly desirable. The presented system exploits the impact of dissolved molecules on the refractive index for sample characterization. On the optofluidic chip, a microfluidic channel filled with the analyte is hit by slightly diverging laser light. The center incident angle of the beam on-chip is set close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. Both the reflected and the transmitted light signals are recorded at the solid-liquid interface. The ratio of those two signals is then used as representative value for the analyte. Using this principle, lactose containing samples were differentiated based on their concentrations at a step size of 10 mmol/L. The use of the signals ratio instead of a single signal approach improves the stability of the system significantly, allowing for higher resolutions to be achieved. Furthermore, the fabrication of the devices in PDMS ensures biocompatibility and provides low absorbance of light in the visible range. PMID:26859402

  16. Microwave-assisted isomerisation of lactose to lactulose and Maillard conjugation of lactulose and lactose with whey proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Nooshkam, Majid; Madadlou, Ashkan

    2016-06-01

    Lactose was isomerised to lactulose by microwave heating and purified by a methanolic procedure to a product with approximately 72% lactulose content. Afterwards, lactose and the lactulose-rich product (PLu) were conjugated with either whey protein isolate (WPI) or its antioxidant hydrolysate (WPH) through microwaving. Lactose had a higher Maillard reactivity than PLu, and WPH was more reactive than WPI. The browning intensity of WPI-sugar systems was however higher than that of WPH-sugar pairs. Atomic force microscopy showed larger (up to ≈103nm) particles for WPI-PLu conjugates compared to WPH-PLu counterparts (up to ≈39nm). The Maillard conjugation progressively increased the radical-scavenging activity of WPI/WPH-sugar pairs with increasing conjugation time and improved the foaming properties of WPI and WPH. The WPI/WPH-sugar conjugates showed higher solubility and emulsification index than unreacted counterpart pairs. For native WPI, β-lactoglobulin was not degraded by in vitro gastric digestion, whereas for WPH-PLu conjugates degraded completely. PMID:26830553

  17. Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

    SciTech Connect

    Domingues, L.; Dantas, M.M.; Lima, N.; Teixeira, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cetevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding the {beta}-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lactose concentrations, total lactose consumption was observed with a conversion yield of ethanol close to the expected theoretical value. For the continuously operating bioreactor, an ethanol productivity of 11 g L{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} (corresponding to a feed lactose concentration of 50 g L{sup {minus}1} and a dilution rate of 0.55 h{sup {minus}1}) was obtained, which is 7 times larger than the continuous conventional systems. The system stability was confirmed by keeping it in operation for 6 months.

  18. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    PubMed

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110?M, 125?M, 150?M, 200?M, 350?M (?-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ?80% ?-AL), DCL11 (spray dried ?-lactose monohydrate containing ?15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated ?-lactose monohydrate containing ?12% ?-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110?M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work). PMID:25212639

  19. Microbial Ecophysiology of Whey Biomethanation: Intermediary Metabolism of Lactose Degradation in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chartrain, M.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The intermediary carbon and electron flow routes for lactose degradation during whey biomethanation were studied in continuous culture. The chemostat was operated under lactose-limited conditions with a 100-h retention time. The carbon balance observed for lactose degradation was 4.65 mmol of CH4, 4.36 mmol of CO2 and 1.15 mmol of cellular carbon per mmol of lactose consumed, with other intermediary metabolites (i.e., acetate, lactate, etc.) accounting for less than 2% of the lactose consumed. The carbon and electron recoveries for this biomethanation were 87 and 90%, respectively. 14C tracer studies demonstrated that lactose biomethanation occurred in three distinct but simultaneous phases. Lactose was metabolized primarily into lactate, ethanol, acetate, formate, and carbon dioxide. During this hydrolytic phase, 82% of the lactose was transformed into lactate. These metabolites were transformed into acetate and H2-CO2 in a second, acetogenic, phase. Finally, the direct methane precursors were transformed during the methanogenic phase, with acetate accounting for 81% of the methane formed. A general scheme is proposed for the exact carbon and electron flow route during lactose biomethanation, which predicts the prevalent microbial populations in this ecosystem. PMID:16346969

  20. Oral health in coeliac disease and cow's milk protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Wenckert, I; Blomquist, H K; Fredrikzon, B

    1984-01-01

    The oral health of 24 children and adolescents, 19 with coeliac disease (CD) and 5 with cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI) were compared with that of 24 randomly selected paired controls. Mineralisation disorders in the form of hypoplasias and/or opacities occurred in 74% of the cases of CD and 68% of their controls. All 5 cases with CMPI had mineralisation disorders, as did 2 of their controls. The disorders usually took the form of opacities, and both these and the hypoplasias were of a mild nature in all the groups. Serious hypoplasias did not occur at all. The caries status was, on average, better in the CD and CMPI groups than in the controls. Recurrent oral lesions occurred with almost the same frequency in the intolerance groups and in the controls. The study, therefore, gave no clear evidence that CD or CMPI involves a significant risk of poorer oral health, provided adequate paediatric and dental care is given. PMID:6585998

  1. Reflections on the Institute of Medicine's systemic exertion intolerance disease.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Furst, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States has recently proposed that the term systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) replace chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, the IOM proposed a new case definition for SEID, which includes substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre?illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, postexertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Unfortunately, these recommendations for a name change were not vetted with patient and professional audiences, and the new criteria were not evaluated with data sets of patients and controls. A recent poll suggests that the majority of patients reject this new name. In addition, studies have found that prevalence rates will dramatically increase with the new criteria, particularly due to the ambiguity revolving around exclusionary illnesses. Findings suggest that the new criteria select more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than several other criteria. The implications of these findings are discussed in the current review. PMID:26176405

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty and decisions about delayed, probabilistic rewards.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Christian C; Ishida, Kanako; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Worry is the inflated concern about potential future threats and is a hallmark feature of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous theoretical work has suggested that worry may be a consequence of intolerance of uncertainty (IU). The current study seeks to explore the behavioral consequences of IU. Specifically, we examine how IU might be associated with aspects of reward-based decision making. We utilized a simple laboratory gambling task in which participants chose between small, low-probability rewards available immediately at the beginning of each trial and large, high-probability rewards only available after some variable delay. Results demonstrate that higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty were associated with a tendency to select the immediately available, but less valuable and less probable rewards. IU also predicted decision-makers' sensitivity to outcomes. We discuss the cognitive and affective mechanisms that are likely to underlie the observed decision-making behavior and the implications for anxiety disorders. PMID:21658521

  3. Food intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis. II. Clinical and histological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    van de Laar, M A; Aalbers, M; Bruins, F G; van Dinther-Janssen, A C; van der Korst, J K; Meijer, C J

    1992-01-01

    Six patients with rheumatoid factor positive rheumatoid arthritis who had shown a marked symptomatic improvement during four weeks of hypoallergic, artificial diet were studied in greater detail. Placebo controlled rechallenges showed intolerance for specific foodstuffs in four patients. In three of these patients biopsies of both the synovial membrane and of the proximal small intestine were carried out before and during allergen free feeding. In two patients, both with raised serum IgE concentrations and specific IgE antibodies to certain foods, a marked reduction of mast cells in the synovial membrane and proximal small intestine was demonstrated. Although the number of food intolerant patients with RA remains limited and markers of allergic activity are scanty, our observations suggest an underlying immunoallergological mechanism. PMID:1575572

  4. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic states that lead to orthostatic intolerance.

  5. Hyperinsulinemia. A link between hypertension obesity and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Modan, M; Halkin, H; Almog, S; Lusky, A; Eshkol, A; Shefi, M; Shitrit, A; Fuchs, Z

    1985-01-01

    Hypertension and glucose intolerance, determined in a random population sample (n = 2,475), showed a highly significant (P less than 0.001) association from the mildest levels of both conditions, independent of the confounding effects of age, sex, obesity, and antihypertensive medications. Summary rate ratios for hypertension were 1.48 (1.18-1.87) in abnormal tolerance and 2.26 (1.69-2.84) in diabetes compared with normal tolerance. Altogether, 83.4% of the hypertensives were either glucose-intolerant or obese--both established insulin-resistant conditions. Fasting and post-load insulin levels in a representative subgroup (n = 1,241) were significantly elevated in hypertension independent of obesity, glucose intolerance, age, and antihypertensive medications. The mean increment in summed 1- and 2-h insulin levels (milliunits per liter) compared with nonobese normotensives with normal tolerance was 12 for hypertension alone, 47 for obesity alone, 52 for abnormal tolerance alone, and 124 when all three conditions were present. The prevalence of concentrations (milliequivalents per liter) of erythrocyte Na+ greater than or equal to 7.0, K+ less than 92.5, and plasma K+ greater than or equal to 4.5 in a subsample of 59 individuals with all combinations of abnormal tolerance obesity and hypertension was compared with those in 30 individuals free of these conditions. Altogether, 88.1% of the former vs. 40.0% of the latter group presented at least one of these three markers of internal cation imbalance (P less than 0.001). We conclude that insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia (a) are present in the majority of hypertensives, (b) constitute a common pathophysiologic feature of obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension, possibly explaining their ubiquitous association, and (c) may be linked to the increased peripheral vascular resistance of hypertension, which is putatively related to elevated intracellular sodium concentration. Images PMID:3884667

  6. Orthostatic intolerance and motion sickness after parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Brown, T. E.; Wood, S. J.; Benavides, E. W.; Bondar, R. L.; Stein, F.; Moradshahi, P.; Harm, D. L.; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Low, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Because it is not clear that the induction of orthostatic intolerance in returning astronauts always requires prolonged exposure to microgravity, we investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy subjects before and after the brief micro- and hypergravity of parabolic flight. Concomitantly, we investigated the effect of parabolic flight-induced vomiting on orthostatic tolerance, R-wave-R-wave interval and arterial pressure power spectra, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex and Valsalva responses. After parabolic flight 1) 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate 30 min of upright tilt (compared to 2 of 16 before flight); 2) 6 of 16 subjects vomited; 3) new intolerance to upright tilt was associated with exaggerated falls in total peripheral resistance, whereas vomiting was associated with increased R-wave-R-wave interval variability and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness; and 4) the proximate mode of new orthostatic failure differed in subjects who did and did not vomit, with vomiters experiencing comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction and nonvomiters experiencing signs and symptoms reminiscent of the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome. Results suggest, first, that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those developing after space flight can develop after a brief (i.e., 2-h) parabolic flight and, second, that recent vomiting can influence the results of tests of autonomic cardiovascular function commonly utilized in returning astronauts.

  7. Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

  8. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by lactose ingestion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    DiBattista, D

    1990-02-01

    Because adult rats have very low levels of the intestinal enzyme lactase, the ingestion of appreciable quantities of the disaccharide lactose may cause gastrointestinal distress. The present experiment was designed to demonstrate that adult rats will learn to avoid previously neutral stimuli which have been paired with lactose ingestion. Adult rats ingested both a novel solution [either tap water (WA) or 0.1% saccharin (SA)] and a novel food substance (49% powdered lab chow + 50% added disaccharide + 1% saccharin) during a single conditioning session. The added disaccharide was either sucrose (group SU-SA), lactose (groups HL-SA and HL-WA), or equal amounts of these two disaccharides (group LL-SA); a fifth group (LC-SA) consumed a sucrose-containing diet to which lithium chloride was added (5 mg per 1 g of diet). Separate feeding tests and drinking tests, carried out over several weeks, were used to assess the extent of conditioned taste avoidance. In the four feeding tests, rats were allowed to ingest powdered lab chow with added saccharin (but without added disaccharide), while in the four drinking tests, rats chose between tap water and a 0.1% saccharin solution. Group HL-SA demonstrated a substantial conditioned avoidance in both feeding and drinking tests, but group HL-WA showed avoidance only in feeding tests. Conditioned avoidance was weak in group LL-SA; the strongest avoidance was observed in lithium chloride-treated rats (group LC-SA). Results are related to previous research and to the hypothesis that a learned avoidance of milk may facilitate the weaning process in mammals. PMID:2333339

  9. Essential fatty acid deficiency in mice impairs lactose digestion.

    PubMed

    Lukovac, S; Los, E L; Stellaard, F; Rings, E H H M; Verkade, H J

    2008-09-01

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice induces fat malabsorption. We previously reported indications that the underlying mechanism is located at the level of the intestinal mucosa. We have investigated the effects of EFA deficiency on small intestinal morphology and function. Mice were fed an EFA-deficient or control diet for 8 wk. A 72-h fat balance, the EFA status, and small intestinal histology were determined. Carbohydrate absorptive and digestive capacities were assessed by stable isotope methodology after administration of [U-(13)C]glucose and [1-(13)C]lactose. The mRNA expression and enzyme activity of lactase, and concentrations of the EFA linoleic acid (LA) were measured in small intestinal mucosa. Mice fed the EFA-deficient diet were markedly EFA-deficient with a profound fat malabsorption. EFA deficiency did not affect the histology or proliferative capacity of the small intestine. Blood [13C6]glucose appearance and disappearance were similar in both groups, indicating unaffected monosaccharide absorption. In contrast, blood appearance of [13C]glucose, originating from [1-(13)C]lactose, was delayed in EFA-deficient mice. EFA deficiency profoundly reduced lactase activity (-58%, P<0.01) and mRNA expression (-55%, P<0.01) in mid-small intestine. Both lactase activity and its mRNA expression strongly correlated with mucosal LA concentrations (r=0.77 and 0.79, respectively, P<0.01). EFA deficiency in mice inhibits the capacity to digest lactose but does not affect small intestinal histology. These data underscore the observation that EFA deficiency functionally impairs the small intestine, which in part may be mediated by low LA levels in the enterocytes. PMID:18653724

  10. Roller compaction: Effect of morphology and amorphous content of lactose powder on product quality.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Osborne, James D; Althaus, Tim O; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    The effect of morphology and amorphous content, of three types of lactose, on the properties of ribbon produced using roller compaction was investigated. The three types of lactose powders were; anhydrous SuperTab21AN, α-lactose monohydrate 200 M, and spray dried lactose SuperTab11SD. The morphology of the primary particles was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the powder amorphous content was quantified using NIR technique. SEM images showed that 21AN and SD are agglomerated type of lactose whereas the 200 M is a non-agglomerated type. During ribbon production, an online thermal imaging technique was used to monitor the surface temperature of the ribbon. It was found that the morphology and the amorphous content of lactose powders have significant effects on the roller compaction behaviour and on ribbon properties. The agglomerated types of lactose produced ribbon with higher surface temperature and tensile strength, larger fragment size, lower porosity and lesser fines percentages than the non-agglomerated type of lactose. The lactose powder with the highest amorphous content showed to result in a better binding ability between the primary particles. This type of lactose produced ribbons with the highest temperature and tensile strength, and the lowest porosity and amount of fines in the product. It also produced ribbon with more smooth surfaces in comparison to the other two types of lactose. It was noticed that there is a relationship between the surface temperature of the ribbon during production and the tensile strength of the ribbon; the higher the temperature of the ribbon during production the higher the tensile strength of the ribbon. PMID:26117279

  11. HIV-related Social Intolerance and Risky Sexual Behavior in a High HIV Prevalence Environment

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2,000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudional Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. PMID:24768779

  12. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    ?-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  13. Lactose hydrolysis by ?-galactosidase enzyme: optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Das, Bipasha; Roy, Ananda Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to optimize the process of lactose hydrolysis using free and immobilized ?-galactosidase to produce glucose and galactose. Response surface methodology (RSM) by central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the degree of hydrolysis by varying three parameters, temperature (15-45C), solution pH (5-9) and ?-galactosidase enzyme concentration (2-8mg/mL) for free mode of analysis and sodium alginate concentration (2-4%), calcium chloride concentration (3-6%) and enzyme concentration (2-8mg/mL) for immobilized process. Based on plots and variance analysis, the optimum operational conditions for maximizing lactose hydrolysis were found to be temperature (35.5C), pH (6.7) and enzyme concentration (6.7mg/mL) in free mode and sodium alginate concentration (3%), calcium chloride concentration (5.9%) and enzyme concentration (5.2mg/mL) in immobilized mode. PMID:25842188

  14. Effect of compression pressure on inhalation grade lactose as carrier for dry powder inhalations

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Neha Sureshrao; Jamaiwar, Swapnil; Umekar, Milind Janrao; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study focused on the potential effects of compression forces experienced during lactose (InhaLac 70, 120, and 230) storage and transport on the flowability and aerosol performance in dry powder inhaler formulation. Materials and Methods: Lactose was subjected to typical compression forces 4, 10, and 20 N/cm2. Powder flowability and particle size distribution analysis of un-compressed and compressed lactose was evaluated by Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, the angle of repose and by laser diffraction method. Aerosol performance of un-compressed and compressed lactose was assessed in dispersion studies using glass twin-stage-liquid-impenger at flow rate 40-80 L/min. Results: At compression forces, the flowability of compressed lactose was observed same or slightly improved. Furthermore, compression of lactose caused a decrease in in vitro aerosol dispersion performance. Conclusion: The present study illustrates that, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolization performance was observed. Thus, the compression of the lactose fines onto the surfaces of the larger lactose particles due to compression pressures was hypothesized to be the cause of these observed performance variations. The simulations of storage and transport in an industrial scale can induce significant variations in formulation performance, and it could be a source of batch-to-batch variations. PMID:27014618

  15. CONTRIBUTION OF PLASMA GALACTOSE AND GLUCOSE TO MILK LACTOSE SYNTHESIS DURING GALACTOSE INGESTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that plasma glucose contributed 80% in the fed and 60% in the fasted state to lactose synthesis in humans, while de novo synthesis in the breast contributing to both the glucose and galactose moieties accounted for the remaining 20 and 40%, respectively, of lactose. T...

  16. Comparative effects of exogenous lactase (beta-galactosidase) preparations on in vivo lactose digestion.

    PubMed

    Lin, M Y; Dipalma, J A; Martini, M C; Gross, C J; Harlander, S K; Savaiano, D A

    1993-11-01

    Microbial-derived beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) enzyme preparations improve in vivo lactose digestion and tolerance through enhanced gastrointestinal digestion of lactose. Three different beta-gal preparations, Lactogest (soft gel capsule), Lactaid (caplet), and DairyEase (chewable tablet) and placebo were fed to lactose maldigesters with either 20 g or 50 g of lactose to compare the efficacy of these products and to further establish a dose-response relationship for use. All enzyme preparations dramatically reduced both the peak and total breath hydrogen production when fed with milk containing 20 g of lactose. Four capsules of Lactogest, two caplets of Lactaid, or two tablets of DairyEase (each treatment containing approx 6000 IU) reduced total hydrogen production significantly (P < 0.05) below that observed with two capsules of Lactogest (containing approx 3000 IU) in a stoichiometric manner. Symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) less severe with all the beta-gal products. In contrast, with 50 g of lactose in water, peak and total hydrogen production was modestly, but not significantly reduced by the enzyme treatment. Furthermore, symptom scores for bloating, cramping, nausea, pain, diarrhea, and flatus were not different between treatments and the control. The 50-g lactose dose appeared to overwhelm the ability of either 3000 or 6000 IU of beta-gal to assist significantly with lactose digestion. Results from these studies demonstrate the relative equivalency of chewable, caplet, and soft-gel beta-gal products, based on IUs of enzyme fed. PMID:8223076

  17. Recurrent abdominal pain and lactose maldigestion in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, A M; DiPalma, J A

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain of childhood affects 10 to 15% of school-aged children and leads to disability and learning difficulties. Lactose maldigestion may be a causative or contributory factor that when identified may lead to improvement. Thus, formal diagnostic testing using breath hydrogen lactose challenge methods is encouraged. This review focuses on this important condition and management options. PMID:9384061

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of crystallized-particle size in lactose-powder by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Sakura; Imai, Yoh; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to evaluate crystallized lactose particle of size below 30 ?m, which is far too small compared to the wavelength of incident terahertz (THz)-wave. The THz-absorption spectrum of lactose is successfully deconvoluted by Lorentzian to two spectra with peaks at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz) derived from ?-lactose monohydrate, and a spectrum at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) from anhydrous ?-lactose after removal of the broad-band spectrum by polynomial cubic function. Lactose is mainly crystallized into ?-lactose monohydrate from the supersaturated solution at room temperature with a small amount of anhydrous ?-lactose below 4%. The absorption feature is dependent on the crystallized particle size and the integrated intensity ratio of the two absorptions due to ?-lactose monohydrate is correlated in linear for the size.

  19. [Lactose-free formula products available in Mexico. Their significance and applications].

    PubMed

    Rosado, J L; Mimiaga, C

    1996-11-01

    Lactose in milk and dairy products can be significantly reduced by the utilization of microbial beta-galactosidases. These enzymes can be used to treat milk during its processing or they can be administered with milk at meal time as an enzyme replacement therapy in which case hydrolysis occurs in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose in milk can alternatively be eliminated by ultrafiltration, a process that divides milk components based on their size. A third way of reducing or eliminating lactose content is formulating a product or even "milk" from ingredients which avoid the use of lactose. Technologies like these are used to develop infant formula, enteral formula products and low-lactose milks. In this paper products of this kind available in Mexico are described. PMID:9122550

  20. Effect of lactose concentration on batch production of ethanol from cheese whey using Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of lactose concentration on growth of Candida pseudotropicalis and ethanol production from cheese whey under batch conditions was investigated. Four initial lactose concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 g/L (5 to 20% wt/vol) were used. High concentration of lactose had an inhibitory effect on the specific growth rate, lactose utilization rate, and ethanol production rate. The maximum cell concentration was influenced by the initial substrate concentration as well as ethanol concentration. Inhibition of ethanol production was more pronounced at higher initial lactose concentrations. The maximum ethanol yield (96.6% of the theoretical yield) was achieved with the 100 g/L initial substrate concentration. The results indicated that pH control during alcohol fermentation of cheese whey is not necessary. 41 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Prevalence and Characteristics of Chemical Intolerance: A Japanese Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Iwao; Katoh, Takahiko; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Arashidani, Keiichi; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    Population-based cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of chemical intolerance and to examine the characteristics of the sample. A Web-based survey was conducted that included 7,245 adults in Japan. The criteria for chemical intolerance proposed by Skovbjerg yielded a prevalence of 7.5% that was approximately consistent with that reported from a Danish population-based survey. Female gender, older age, and renovation in the house during the past 7years were positively associated with chemical intolerance. Improvements in the condition were observed with daily ventilation habits. Medical history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, multiple chemical sensitivity, and depression were associated with chemical intolerance. Fatigue, depressed mood, and somatic symptoms were also positively correlated with chemical intolerance. Better elucidation of the causes, comorbidities, concomitants, and consequences of chemical intolerance has the potential to provide effective solutions for its prevention and treatment. PMID:25137616

  2. pH changes in human dental plaque from lactose and milk before and after adaptation.

    PubMed

    Birkhed, D; Imfeld, T; Edwardsson, S

    1993-01-01

    pH changes in human dental plaque in vivo from lactose and milk have been studied in four separate mouthrinse experiments. (1) pH was measured in plaque samples of 12 subjects before and after 6 weeks of frequent daily mouthrinsing with 10% lactose. The pH decreases were significantly more pronounced after the adaptation period than before (p < 0.001), 4 of the 12 subjects showing about the same low plaque pH from lactose as from glucose. (2) Similar to the previous experiment, frequent daily mouthrinsing with low-fat bovine milk in 10 subjects resulted in more pronounced pH decreases in plaque after an adaptation period of 4 weeks (p < 0.001). (3) Single mouthrinses, without any prior adaptation, with bovine standard milk, human breast milk, lactose-hydrolysed bovine standard milk, 5% lactose and 5% sucrose were compared regarding the effect on plaque pH in 7 subjects. All solutions resulted in pH falls. The most pronounced were found with sucrose, followed by the lactose-hydrolysed milk. (4) Bovine standard milk, 5% lactose and 10% sucrose were compared after a single mouthrinse in 5 subjects using interdental plaque pH wire telemetry. Lactose and milk were fermented more slowly than sucrose. In a separate study, acid production from lactose was also measured in two oral strains each of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus sanguis. The results from these experiments indicated that at least part of the lactose transport and catabolism in all studied streptococcus strains seems to be regulated by inducible enzymes. PMID:8448773

  3. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  4. Use of octreotide in the treatment of refractory orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kanjwal, Khalil; Saeed, Bilal; Karabin, Beverly; Kanjwal, Yousuf; Grubb, Blair P

    2012-01-01

    There have been reports on the use of octreotide in patients with orthostatic hypotension, postural tachycardia syndrome, and orthostatic syncope. However, there are little if any data on the use of octreotide in patients who have failed multiple other medications. This study was a retrospective chart analysis and was approved by our Institutional Review Board. A total of 12 patients were identified for inclusion in this study. The diagnosis of orthostatic intolerance was based on patient history, physical examination, and response to Head Up Tilt Table testing. These patients had failed multiple medications and were ultimately treated with octreotide. In a retrospective chart review, we collected data, including demographic information, presenting symptoms, laboratory data, tilt-table response, standing heart rate, standing blood pressure before and after treatment (wherever available), and treatment outcomes. Twelve patients aged 33 18 years, eight (66.7%) females, were found to have symptoms of refractory orthostatic intolerance and failed multiple regimens of medication and were ultimately treated with octreotide administration. Five patients (41.7%) had demonstrated a postural tachycardia syndrome pattern, five (41.7%) a neurocardiogenic, and two (16.6%) a dysautonomic response on a Head Up Tilt Table. Symptoms of syncope and orthostatic palpitations improved in six (50%) of the patients. Standing heart rate was significantly reduced after octreotide administration (80 8 versus 108 13; P < 0.05). The standing systolic blood pressure was increased after octreotide administration (107 26 versus 116 22). Three patients (25%) reported complete elimination of syncope, whereas another three had reduction in the frequency of their syncope. However, symptoms of fatigue improved only in two (29%) of the seven patients. Octreotide may improve symptoms in some patients with refractory orthostatic intolerance. PMID:20535001

  5. Perceived psychosocial stress and glucose intolerance among pregnant Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, M.L.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Pekow, P.; Braun, B.; Markenson, G.; Dole, N.; Manson, J.E.; Solomon, C.G.; Carbone, E.T.; Chasan-Taber, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Prior literature suggests a positive association between psychosocial stress and the risk of diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but studies during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the relationship between stress and glucose intolerance among 1115 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study in Western Massachusetts (2006–2011). Methods Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was administered in early (mean = 12.3 weeks gestation; range 4.1–18 weeks) and mid-(mean = 21.3 weeks gestation; range 18.1–26 weeks) pregnancy. Participants were classified as having a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance, based on the degree of abnormality on glucose tolerance testing between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance was 4.1%, 7.2%, and 14.5%, respectively. Absolute levels of early or mid-pregnancy stress were not significantly associated with glucose intolerance. However, participants with an increase in stress from early to mid-pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (95% confidence intervals: 1.0–6.9) as compared to those with no change or a decrease in stress after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In addition, every one-point increase in stress scores was associated with a 5.5 mg/dL increase in screening glucose level (β = 5.5; standard deviation = 2.8; P = 0.05), after adjusting for the same variables. Conclusion In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, stress patterns during pregnancy may influence the risk of glucose intolerance. PMID:24948416

  6. Down on heights? One in three has visual height intolerance.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The distressing phenomenon of visual height intolerance (vHI) occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing control of balance and falling from some height. Epidemiological data of this condition in the general population are lacking. Assignment of prevalence, determinants, and compensation of vHI was performed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 3,517 individuals representing the German population. Life-time prevalence of vHI is 28 % (females 32 %). A higher prevalence is associated independently with a family history of vHI, anxiety disorders, migraine, or motion sickness susceptibility. Women aged 50-59 have a higher prevalence than younger women or men of all ages. Initial attacks occur most often (30 %) in the second decade; however, attacks can manifest throughout life. The main symptoms are fearfulness, inner agitation, a queasy-stomach feeling, subjective postural instability with to-and-fro vertigo, and weakness in the knees. Climbing a tower is the first most common precipitating stimulus; the spectrum of such stimuli widens with time in more than 50 % of afflicted individuals. The most frequent reaction to vHI is to avoid the triggering stimuli (>50 %); 11 % of susceptible individuals consult a doctor, most often a general practitioner, neurologist, ENT doctor, or psychiatrist. In brief, visual height intolerance affects one-third of the general population, considerably restricting the majority of these individuals in their daily activities. The data show that the two terms do not indicate a categorical distinction but rather a continuum from slight forms of visual height intolerance to the specific phobia of fear of heights. PMID:23070463

  7. Orthostatic intolerance without postural tachycardia: how much dysautonomia?

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Singer, Wolfgang; Allison, Thomas G.; Sletten, David M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance occur in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI) without tachycardia. We recently reported that deconditioning is almost universal in both patient groups. In this study, we focussed on the question of how much dysautonomia, besides orthostatic tachycardia, is there in POTS vs. OI, and how the two groups compare in regards to clinical, autonomic, laboratory, and exercise variables. Methods We retrospectively studied all patients referred for orthostatic intolerance at Mayo Clinic between January 2006 and June 2011, who underwent standardized autonomic and exercise testing. Results Eighty-four POTS and 100 OI fulfilled inclusion criteria, 89 % were females. The mean age was 25 and 32 years, respectively. Clinical presentation, autonomic parameters, laboratory findings, and degree of deconditioning were overall similar between the two groups, except for the excessive orthostatic heart rate (HR) rise and mild vasomotor findings observed in POTS but not in OI (slightly larger Valsalva ratio and incomplete blood pressure recovery during Valsalva). Both groups responded poorly to various medications. Severely deconditioned patients were similar to non-deconditioned patients, except for 24 h urine volume (1,555 vs. 2,417 ml), sweat loss on thermoregulatory sweat test (1.5 vs. 0.5 %), and few respiratory parameters during exercise, which are likely clinically insignificant. Conclusion Though similar in clinical presentation, POTS and OI are different entities with greater, albeit still mild, dysautonomia in POTS. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of minimal dysautonomia in the absence of orthostatic tachycardia as seen in OI remain uncertain. PMID:23729158

  8. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  9. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MALABSORPTION, an inability to absorb some foods, or LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or WHEAT INTOLERANCE (CELIAC DISEASE). Avoid the foods ... beverages that cause your symptoms. People who have lactose intolerance can use lactose enzyme tablets or drops to ...

  10. [Lactose and its implications in gastroenterology. Nutrition and food sciences].

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    1996-11-01

    The development of the practice of dairying allowed humans to become the only species of mammals to consume milk after the time of weaning. Milk contains the sugar, lactose, which requires the enzyme, intestinal lactase, to digest. Adult mammals do not retain ordinarily express this enzyme after early life, but through evolution, some groups of humans-notably those who practice dairying-have evolved to have the persistence of lactase into adulthood. In Meso-America, South America, Asia and most of Africa, the majority of individuals are genetically lactase non-persistent. With milk as an element of the diet, this human polymorphism for lactase produced its implication in gastroenterology, nutrition and food sciences for both those who can digest and those who cannot digest this sugar. Here, we review the issues of terminology, molecular genetics, diagnosis, health consequences, and management of different lactase states at a general and generic level. PMID:9122542

  11. Self-reported intolerance of uncertainty and behavioural decisions.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Duranceau, Sophie; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Zerff, Marissa; Gonzales, Josh; Mishra, Sandeep

    2016-06-01

    Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) appears to be a robust transdiagnostic risk factor related to anxiety and depression. Most transdiagnostic IU research has used the self-report Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short Form; however, there is comparatively little research exploring presumed behavioral correlates of IU. The current study was designed to assess relationships between self-reported IU and decisions in uncertainty-based behavioral tasks (specifically, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, the Risky Gains Task, and the Modified Iowa Gambling Task). Participants comprised compensated community members (n = 108; 69% women) and undergraduates (n = 98; 78% women). Community member compensation was not contingent on performance, but undergraduate compensation was partially contingent on performance. Results replicated prior research, with both samples producing small (r = .19) to moderate (r = -.29) correlations (ps < .05) between self-reported IU and outcome variables from each of the behavioral tasks. The relationships were larger in the undergraduate sample, likely due to the compensation incentive. In general, the results suggest that increasing IU is associated with increasingly risk adverse behaviors; however, the relationship appears complex and in need of substantial additional research to understand how clinically-significant IU would impact pathology-related behaviours. PMID:26788617

  12. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

  13. Variability of gluten intolerance in treated childhood coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholl, B; Egan-Mitchell, B; Fottrell, P F

    1979-01-01

    Fifty children consecutively attending a clinic for coeliac disease co-operated in a trial; 10 found to have flat mucosa were excluded. Forty children of mean age 9.8 years, whose duodenal or jejunal mucosa had returned to normal or near normal appearance after a mean of 5.8 years on gluten-free diets, were put back on normal diets. In 37, mucosal occurred in a mean of 16.9 months (four to 74 months). Four of the 37 had serial biopsies, in which mucosal enzymes (particularly lactase) fell and interepithelial lymphocyte counts rose before the mucosal morphology was regarded as definitely 'coeliac'. Three children had normal mucosal appearance after 58 to 73 months on normal diets, one of whom showed temporary mucosal abnormalities, another having occasionally low enzymes, in both suggesting underlying gluten sensitivity. Lactase suppression and raised IEL counts appear to be sensitive indicators of gluten intolerance. In our experience, a diagnosis of coeliac disease based on severe mucosal damage and a satisfactory response to a gluten-free but milk-containing diet implies a very strong likelihood of permanent or prolonged gluten intolerance, but with a striking variability in its expression. Images Figure PMID:428824

  14. Healthy diet and lifestyle clustering and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Perry, I J

    2002-11-01

    Glucose intolerance represents a spectrum of abnormalities, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is a major public health challenge worldwide, with rapidly increasing prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This global epidemic of diabetes is largely driven by the globalisation of Western culture and lifestyles. Specifically, there is now evidence from large-scale observational studies, and from intervention studies, of powerful synergistic interactions between diet, obesity, exercise, smoking and alcohol in the development of glucose intolerance. It is estimated that >90% of cases of type 2 diabetes in the population could be prevented with the adoption of a prudent diet (high in cereal fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in trans-fatty acids and glycaemic load), avoidance of overweight and obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2), engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 0.5 h/d, non-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption. These findings are biologically plausible and have major public health implications. They form the basis for a clear, simple and coherent message for health promotion and public policy. However, to make progress on these issues health will need to be placed at the centre of public policy and relevant vested interests tackled, notably in the food, entertainment, tobacco and automobile industries. PMID:12691184

  15. Intolerance of sexy peers: intrasexual competition among women.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sharma, Aanchal

    2011-01-01

    Intrasexual competition among males of different species, including humans, is well documented. Among females, far less is known. Recent nonexperimental studies suggest that women are intolerant of attractive females and use indirect aggression to derogate potential rivals. In Study 1, an experimental design was used to test the evolutionary-based hypothesis that women would be intolerant of sexy women and would censure those who seem to make sex too readily available. Results provide strong empirical support for intrasexual competition among women. Using independent raters, blind to condition, we found that almost all women were rated as reacting negatively ("bitchy") to an attractive female confederate when she was dressed in a sexually provocative manner. In contrast, when she was dressed conservatively, the same confederate was barely noticed by the participants. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to assess whether the sexy female confederate from Study 1 was viewed as a sexual rival by women. Results indicated that as hypothesized, women did not want to introduce her to their boyfriend, allow him to spend time alone with her, or be friends with her. Findings from both studies are discussed in terms of evolutionary theory. PMID:21932332

  16. Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D; Ritchey, P Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents and assessing only a single domain of prejudice. We addressed the intergenerational transmission of prejudice and stereotyping using three competing models: same-sex, parent equivalent, and differential effects. Using multiple regressions in which parents' scores were entered separately, along with control variables, different maternal and paternal influences were detected. Mothers were the primary influence for prejudice regarding HIV/AIDS, fatness, and race, and fathers were the primary influence for male and female stereotyping and prejudice against homosexuals, supporting the differential effects model. We also established that prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains reflected a more general proclivity to be intolerant. In contrast to prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains, fathers and mothers about equally shaped the adolescents' intolerance, supporting the parent equivalent model. PMID:15673220

  17. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. PMID:25466047

  18. Kinetics and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JA6.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M

    2014-07-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24504708

  19. Utilization of Lactose and Galactose by Streptococcus mutans: Transport, Toxicity, and Carbon Catabolite Repression?

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lin; Das, Satarupa; Burne, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant in milk and other dairy products, lactose is considered to have an important role in oral microbial ecology and can contribute to caries development in both adults and young children. To better understand the metabolism of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans, the major etiological agent of human tooth decay, a genetic analysis of the tagatose-6-phosphate (lac) and Leloir (gal) pathways was performed in strain UA159. Deletion of each gene in the lac operon caused various alterations in expression of a PlacA-cat promoter fusion and defects in growth on either lactose (lacA, lacB, lacF, lacE, and lacG), galactose (lacA, lacB, lacD, and lacG) or both sugars (lacA, lacB, and lacG). Failure to grow in the presence of galactose or lactose by certain lac mutants appeared to arise from the accumulation of intermediates of galactose metabolism, particularly galatose-6-phosphate. The glucose- and lactose-PTS permeases, EIIMan and EIILac, respectively, were shown to be the only effective transporters of galactose in S. mutans. Furthermore, disruption of manL, encoding EIIABMan, led to increased resistance to glucose-mediated CCR when lactose was used to induce the lac operon, but resulted in reduced lac gene expression in cells growing on galactose. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably high degree of complexity in the regulation of lactose/galactose catabolism. PMID:20190045

  20. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  1. Interactions among lactose, β-lactoglobulin and starch in co-lyophilized mixtures as determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hajihashemi, Zohreh; Nasirpour, Ali; Scher, Joël; Desobry, Stéphane

    2014-11-01

    Processing and storage change food powders containing a large quantity of lactose due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model food systems were prepared by co-lyophilization of lactose, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of food powders. Interactions among lactose, BLG and starch were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) at different relative humidities (RH), before and after 3 months storage. Results showed the presence of hydrogen bonds among these components. Moreover, interactions or formation of hydrogen bonds among lactose, starch and BLG preserved BLG against freezing and freeze-drying shocks. Lactose crystallization could be identified by comparing infrared spectra of amorphous and crystallized lactose at O - H and C - H stretching vibration bands. PMID:26396334

  2. A mechanistic investigation on the utilization of lactose as a protective agent for multi-unit pellet systems.

    PubMed

    Chin, Wun Chyi; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-03-01

    The effect of lactose particle size on the extent of pellet coat damage was investigated. The extent of pellet coat damage increased linearly with lactose median particle size. It was observed that coated pellets compressed with coarser lactose grades had larger and deeper surface indentations. The surfaces of the pellets compressed with coarser lactose grades were also found to be significantly rougher. Micronized lactose was capable of protecting pellet coats from damage brought about by the presence of coarser lactose particles. The findings suggested a protective effect that micronized lactose conferred to pellet coats was not only through dimensional delimitations but also by higher interparticulate friction and longer particle rearrangement phase. As a result, the pellet volume fraction in the system was reduced. The extent of pellet coat damage was found to escalate when the pellet volume fraction in such system increased beyond a critical value of 0.39. PMID:25519982

  3. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both

  4. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that

  5. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  6. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely

  7. Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

  8. Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2007-01-01

    Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the

  9. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general

  10. Studies on Intolerance in American Life. Program in American History and Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs.

    The narrative selected for this unit on intolerance illustrates the perennial and universal methods for scapegoating. The general teaching objectives are to lead the students: 1) to feelings of tolerance toward individuals and groups who are different; 2) to investigate intolerance in terms of some of its causes: fear, deprivation, threatened

  11. Defined bacterial culture development for methane generation from lactose. [Streptococcus lactis; Clostridium formicoaceticum; Methanococcus mazei

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Tang, I.C.; Okos, M.R.

    1988-06-20

    The defined microbial cultures for methane generation from lactose were investigated. A mixed culture consisting of homolactic (Streptococcus lactis), homoacetic (Clostridium formicoaceticum), and acetate-utilizing methanogenic (Methanococcus mazei) bacteria was used to convert lactose and whey permeate to methane at mesophilic temperatures (35-37/sup 0/C) and a pH around 7.0. Lactose was first converted to lactic acid by S. lactis, then to acetic acid by C. formicoaceticum, and finally to methane and CO/sub 2/ by M. mazei. About 5.3 mol methane were obtained from each mole of lactose consumed, and the conversion of acetate to methane was the rate-limiting step for this mixed-culture fermentation.

  12. Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

  13. Mechanisms of Orthostatic Intolerance During Real and Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP1 includes short reports on: (1) Orthostatic Tests after 42 Days of Simulated Weightlessness; (2) Effects of 12 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity on Central Circulatory Hemodynamics in the Rhesus Monkey; (3) Increased Sensitivity and Resetting of Baroflex Control of Exercise Heart Rate After Prolonged Bed-Rest; (4) Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics and Deconditioning During Head-down Bed Rest; (5) The Cardiovascular Effects of 6 Hours of Head-down Tilt Upon Athletes and Non-athletes; (6) Individual Susceptibility to Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance: Contributions of Gender-related and Microgravity-related Factors; (7) Cassiopee Mission 1996: Comparison of Cardiovascular Alteration after Short and Long-term Spaceflights; (8) Cerebral and Femoral Flow Response to LBNP during 6 Month MIR Spaceflights (93-95); and (9) Cerebrovascular Changes due to Spaceflight and Postflight Presyncope.

  14. Human Gut Microbiota Changes Reveal the Progression of Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuying; Shen, Dongqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Jie, Zhuye; Qiu, Xinmin; Zhang, Chunfang; Chen, Yingli; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 44), prediabetes (Pre-DM; n = 64), or newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 13). Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP) and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6) had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24013136

  15. Vascular responsiveness to norepinephrine in sympathicotonic orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Miller, J W; Streeten, D H

    1990-05-01

    Sympathicotonic orthostatic intolerance (hypotension, tachycardia, or both) is associated with normal or excessive orthostatic increases in plasma norepinephrine concentration and is reversible by the inflation of a military anti-shock trouser suit enveloping the lower limbs and abdomen. These facts suggest that one possible mechanism of the disorder might be a defect in alpha-adrenergic receptor or postreceptor responsiveness of the veins or arterioles. We have investigated in 11 patients and 15 healthy controls the blood pressure and heart rate responses to increasing rates of intravenous norepinephrine infusion (1 to 16 micrograms/min), the dorsal hand vein contractile responses to increasing rates of norepinephrine infusion (1 to 256 ng/min) with a linear variable differential transformer, and the platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor densities and dissociation constants. No statistically significant difference in any of these parameters was found between the normal subjects and nine of the 11 patients with orthostatic intolerance. The venous contractile response to norepinephrine was excessive in one patient and was virtually absent in another. Because supersensitivity of the hand veins to norepinephrine suggests up-regulation of alpha 2-receptors resulting from postganglionic autonomic insufficiency, this finding in one patient with sympathicotonic orthostatic hypotension might have been caused by venous denervation. The venous unresponsiveness to norepinephrine in the other patient presumably resulted from a defect in the venous receptors or smooth muscle function. It is evident that norepinephrine responsiveness and the innervation of the arterioles and hand veins was normal in the other nine patients, in whom the defect must have been mediated by some other mechanism. PMID:2160509

  16. Human gut microbiota changes reveal the progression of glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuying; Shen, Dongqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Jie, Zhuye; Qiu, Xinmin; Zhang, Chunfang; Chen, Yingli; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n?=?44), prediabetes (Pre-DM; n?=?64), or newly diagnosed T2DM (n?=?13). Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP) and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6) had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24013136

  17. Hepatic lipase deficiency produces glucose intolerance, inflammation and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Andrs-Blasco, Irene; Herrero-Cervera, Andrea; Vinu, ngela; Martnez-Hervs, Sergio; Piqueras, Laura; Sanz, Mara Jess; Burks, Deborah Jane; Gonzlez-Navarro, Herminia

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus constitute a major problem to global health, and their incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which affects up to 90% of obese people and nearly 70% of the overweight, is commonly associated with MetS characteristics such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. In the present study, we demonstrate that hepatic lipase (HL)-inactivation in mice fed with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet produced dyslipidemia including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. These changes were accompanied by glucose intolerance, pancreatic and hepatic inflammation and steatosis. In addition, compared with WT mice, HL(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced circulating MCP1 levels, monocytosis and higher percentage of CD4+Th17+ cells. Consistent with increased inflammation, livers from HL(-/-) mice had augmented activation of the stress SAPK/JNK- and p38-pathways compared with the activation levels of the kinases in livers from WT mice. Analysis of HL(-/-) and WT mice fed regular chow diet showed dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance in HL(-/-) mice without any other changes in inflammation or hepatic steatosis. Altogether, these results indicate that dyslipidemia induced by HL-deficiency in combination with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet promotes hepatic steatosis and inflammation in mice which are, at least in part, mediated by the activation of the stress SAPK/JNK- and p38-pathways. Future studies are warranted to asses the viability of therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of these kinases to reduce hepatic steatosis associated to lipase dysfunction. PMID:26423094

  18. At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.

    PubMed

    Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

    2013-04-01

    Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817

  19. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

    1985-04-01

    A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

  20. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. PMID:25529422

  1. Bistability of the naturally induced lactose utilization system of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajic, Jelena; Wall, Michael

    2006-03-01

    In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.

  2. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed. PMID:26184291

  3. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    PubMed

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed. PMID:26184291

  4. Quantifying the release of lactose from polymer matrix tablets with an amperometric biosensor utilizing cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kns, Patrik; Schulz, Christopher; Piculell, Lennart; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo; Wahlgren, Marie

    2014-07-01

    The release of lactose (hydrophilic) from polymer tablets made with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) have been studied and compared to the release of ibuprofen, a hydrophobic active substance. Lactose is one of the most used excipients for tablets, but lactose release has not been widely studied. One reason could be a lack of good analytical tools. A novel biosensor with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was used to detect the lactose release, which has a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) layer that increases the response. A sample treatment using polyethylenimine (PEI) was developed to eliminate possible denaturants. The developed methodology provided a good approach to detect and quantify the released lactose. The release was studied with or without the presence of a model amphiphilic substance, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in the release medium. Ibuprofen showed very different release rates in the different media, which was attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the drug, the HMPAA and the SDS in the release medium. The release of hydrophilic lactose, which did not associate to any of the other components, was rapid and showed only minor differences. The new methodology provides a useful tool to further evaluate tablet formulations by a relatively simple set of experiments. PMID:24726632

  5. [Beta-galactosidase activity of strains of Kluyveromyces spp. and production of ethanol from lactose].

    PubMed

    de Figueroa, L C; Heluane, H; Rintoul, M; Crdoba, P R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the behavior of yeast of the genus Kluyveromyces (K. fragilis 507, K. lactis 29 and K. lactis 10), which grow on lactose as sole carbon source, since they possess an enzyme system for the utilization of this sugar. We determined the beta-galactosidase activity of these strains, grown in the logarithmic phase in media containing glucose and lactose. On addition of 0 to 12% v/v ethanol to cells treated with toluene, we did not observe inhibition of the enzyme in strain 10 of Kluyveromyces lactis, which showed the greatest activity (704.4 Units). Since there exist the possibility of industrial utilization of concentrated whey (4 times), we performed fermentation tests of the three strains, at 30 C, in media containing initial lactose concentrations of 16.5 and 24.5%. After 48 h the residual lactose concentration was practically zero, and the ethanol concentrations had reached 7.60 and 10.10% v/v. It might be expected that the rate of fermentation of a disaccharide such as lactose would be related to the rate of hydrolysis of the sugar, so that strains having a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis should show a higher fermentation rate. However, we did not observe such behavior, as strains of Kluyveromyces having enzymatic activities as different as K. lactis 10 (704.4 U) and K. lactis 29 (189.7 U) did not show any great difference in the production of ethanol from lactose. PMID:2129474

  6. Hypersensitivity Reaction After Inhalation of a Lactose-Containing Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Motheral, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Milk protein allergy–induced reactions from lactose-containing dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have not been widely described in the literature. Lactose is a common inactive ingredient in many pharmaceutical products that is used to enhance the stability of active substances in medicinal products, including asthma medications. Contamination of lactose with milk proteins has been identified in reports of inhaled corticosteroid product lot testing. Serious respiratory sequelae may follow after the inhalation of a DPI corticosteroid in a patient with milk protein allergy because DPIs that contain lactose may be contaminated with milk proteins. Lactose-containing DPIs are contraindicated in patients with milk protein allergy. Although manufacturers identify this contraindication in product package inserts, some drug references may not include this information and health care professionals may lack awareness. Clinicians should consider reviewing multiple medication resources for warnings and contraindications of medications to prevent complications. We describe a refractory asthma exacerbation secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction following administration of a lactose-containing DPI corticosteroid and long-acting β2 agonist combination in a child with a milk protein allergy. PMID:25309152

  7. Population dynamics of a Lac- strain of Escherichia coli during selection for lactose utilization.

    PubMed

    Foster, P L

    1994-10-01

    During selection for lactose utilization, Lac+ revertants of FC40, a Lac- strain of Escherichia coli, appear at a high rate. Yet, no Lac+ revertants appear in the absence of lactose, or in its presence if the cells have another, unfulfilled requirement for growth. This study investigates more fully the population dynamics of FC40 when incubated in the absence of a carbon source or when undergoing selection for lactose utilization. In the absence of a carbon source, the viable cell numbers do not change over 6 days. When incubated in liquid lactose medium, Lac- cells do not undergo any measurable increase in numbers or in turbidity for at least 2 days. When FC40 is plated on lactose minimum medium in the presence of scavenger cells, the upper limit to the amount of growth of Lac- cells during 5 days is one doubling, and there is no evidence for turnover (i.e., a balance between growth and death). The presence of a minority population that could form microcolonies was not detected. The implications of these results, plus the fact that the appearance of Lac+ revertants during lactose selection is nearly constant with time, are discussed in reference to several models that have been postulated to account for adaptive mutations. PMID:7828809

  8. Nutritional consequences of low dose milk supplements consumed by lactose-malabsorbing children.

    PubMed

    Brown, K H; Khatun, M; Parry, L; Ahmed, M G

    1980-05-01

    The nutritional consequences of supplementary milk consumption by lactose-malabsorbing children were determined by nutrient balance studies. Twelve subjects received a marginally adequate rice and vegetable base-line diet alone and with simulated milk supplements containing either glucose or lactose during three separate balance periods. The diets were equally well accepted and tolerated. The children gained significantly more weight and had improved apparent nitrogen absorption and retention on the milk supplemented diets (P less than 0.001), and there was no difference between the effects of glucose milk and lactose milk. Fecal wet weights and energy and carbohydrate excretions were modestly increased with the lactose-containing diet, but not significantly so. It is suggested that low dose milk supplements can be well utilized when consumed by lactose malabsorbers in conjunction with other foods. Milk consumption need not be discouraged for populations among whom lactose malabsorption is widely prevalent, but milk should be provided in relatively low doses and the clinical responses to its consumption should be monitored. PMID:6892752

  9. Competitive interactions between glucose and lactose with BSA: which sugar is better for children?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulan; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2016-04-01

    The interactions of the sugars glucose and lactose with the transport protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using fluorescence, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The results indicated that glucose could be bonded and transported by BSA, mainly involving hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions (ΔH = -86.13 kJ mol(-1)). The obtained fluorescence data from the binding of sugar and BSA were processed by the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, and the extracted concentration profiles showed that the equilibrium constant, rglucose:BSA, was about 7. However, the binding of lactose to BSA did not quench the fluorescence significantly, and this indicated that lactose could not be directly transported by BSA. The binding experiments were further performed using the fluorescence titration method in the presence of calcium and BSA. Calcium was added so that the calcium/BSA reactions could be studied in the presence or absence of glucose, lactose or hydrolysis products. The results showed that hydrolyzed lactose seemed to enhance calcium absorption in bovine animals. It would also appear that for children, lactose provides better nutrition; however, glucose is better for adults. PMID:26906109

  10. The LuxS Based Quorum Sensing Governs Lactose Induced Biofilm Formation by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Duanis-Assaf, Danielle; Steinberg, Doron; Chai, Yunrong; Shemesh, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus species present a major concern in the dairy industry as they can form biofilms in pipelines and on surfaces of equipment and machinery used in the entire line of production. These biofilms represent a continuous hygienic problem and can lead to serious economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis is apparently dependent on LuxS quorum sensing (QS) by Autoinducer-2 (AI-2). However, the link between sensing environmental cues and AI-2 induced biofilm formation remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of lactose, the primary sugar in milk, on biofilm formation by B. subtilis and its possible link to QS processes. Our phenotypic analysis shows that lactose induces formation of biofilm bundles as well as formation of colony type biofilm. Furthermore, using reporter strain assays, we observed an increase in AI-2 production by B. subtilis in response to lactose in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, we found that expression of eps and tapA operons, responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis in B. subtilis, were notably up-regulated in response to lactose. Importantly, we also observed that LuxS is essential for B. subtilis biofilm formation in the presence of lactose. Overall, our results suggest that lactose may induce biofilm formation by B. subtilis through the LuxS pathway. PMID:26779171

  11. A novel combined thermometric and amperometric biosensor for lactose determination based on immobilised cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, Maria; Buzas, Orsolya; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Larsson, Per-Olof; Gorton, Lo; Danielsson, Bengt

    2012-01-15

    A novel method for lactose determination in milk is proposed. It is based on oxidation of lactose by cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, immobilised in an enzyme reactor. The reactor was prepared by cross-linking CDH onto aminopropyl-silanised controlled pore glass (CPG) beads using glutaraldehyde. The combined biosensor worked in flow injection analysis (FIA) mode and was developed for simultaneous monitoring of the thermometric signal associated with the enzymatic oxidation of lactose using p-benzoquinone as electron acceptor and the electrochemically generated current associated with the oxidation of the hydroquinone formed. A highly reproducible linear response for lactose was obtained between 0.05 mM and 30 mM. For a set of more than 500 samples an R.S.D. of less than 10% was achieved. The assay time was ca. 2 min per sample. The sensor was applied for the determination of lactose in dairy milk samples (milk with a fat content of 1.5% or 3% and also "lactose free" milk). No sample preparation except dilution with buffer was needed. The proposed method is rapid, suitable for repeated use and allows the possibility to compare results from two different detection methods, thus providing a built-in quality assurance. Some differences in the response observed between the methods indicate that the dual approach can be useful in mechanistic studies of redox enzymes. In addition, a dual system opens up interesting possibilities for studies of enzyme properties and mechanisms. PMID:22078845

  12. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial β-Galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial β-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55°C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37°C) β-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9 U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10°C, the K. lactis β-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis β-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55°C), at the end of a 12 h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9 U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of β-galactosidases in the food industry. PMID:26587283

  13. The LuxS Based Quorum Sensing Governs Lactose Induced Biofilm Formation by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Duanis-Assaf, Danielle; Steinberg, Doron; Chai, Yunrong; Shemesh, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus species present a major concern in the dairy industry as they can form biofilms in pipelines and on surfaces of equipment and machinery used in the entire line of production. These biofilms represent a continuous hygienic problem and can lead to serious economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis is apparently dependent on LuxS quorum sensing (QS) by Autoinducer-2 (AI-2). However, the link between sensing environmental cues and AI-2 induced biofilm formation remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of lactose, the primary sugar in milk, on biofilm formation by B. subtilis and its possible link to QS processes. Our phenotypic analysis shows that lactose induces formation of biofilm bundles as well as formation of colony type biofilm. Furthermore, using reporter strain assays, we observed an increase in AI-2 production by B. subtilis in response to lactose in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, we found that expression of eps and tapA operons, responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis in B. subtilis, were notably up-regulated in response to lactose. Importantly, we also observed that LuxS is essential for B. subtilis biofilm formation in the presence of lactose. Overall, our results suggest that lactose may induce biofilm formation by B. subtilis through the LuxS pathway. PMID:26779171

  14. Glucose and galactose absorption after ingestion of milk containing hydrolysed lactose in calves with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, A

    2000-10-01

    Ten calves which had contracted acute diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, coronavirus and Cryptosporidium were used to test the hypothesis that feeding lactose-hydrolysed cow's milk instead of unprocessed cow's milk improves sugar absorption in diarrhoeic calves. The animals were rehydrated with an orally administered solution containing electrolytes and glucose. Thereafter the calves received one test meal of whole fresh cow's milk whose lactose had been hydrolysed by added lactase and one test meal of unprocessed cow's milk at an interval of 24 h in a cross-over design trial. In comparison with unprocessed milk, the intake of milk containing hydrolysed lactose resulted in a slight decrease of mean breath hydrogen concentration (P = 0.18), but also a slight decrease of mean blood galactose concentration (P = 0.14). There was no treatment effect on mean plasma glucose concentration. Peak plasma glucose and blood galactose concentration tended to be delayed after the intake of lactose-hydrolysed milk, which implies that gastric emptying was probably delayed. The results show that feeding milk which contains hydrolysed lactose does not significantly improve lactose utilization in calves that are suffering from benign infectious diarrhoea. PMID:11075541

  15. Dry powders for oral inhalation free of lactose carrier particles.

    PubMed

    Healy, Anne Marie; Amaro, Maria Ins; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia

    2014-08-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) products have traditionally comprised a simple formulation of micronised drug mixed with a carrier excipient, typically lactose monohydrate. The presence of the carrier is aimed at overcoming issues of poor flowability and dispersibility, associated with the cohesive nature of small, micronised active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles. Both the powder blend and the DPI device must be carefully designed so as to ensure detachment of the micronised drug from the carrier excipient on inhalation. Over the last two decades there has been a significant body of research undertaken on the design of carrier-free formulations for DPI products. Many of these formulations are based on sophisticated particle engineering techniques; a common aim in formulation design of carrier-free products being to reduce the intrinsic cohesion of the particles, while maximising dispersion and delivery from the inhaler. In tandem with the development of alternative formulations has been the development of devices designed to ensure the efficient delivery and dispersion of carrier-free powder on inhalation. In this review we examine approaches to both the powder formulation and inhaler design for carrier-free DPI products. PMID:24735676

  16. Energy-based analysis of milling alpha-lactose monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ding, Y; Papadopoulos, D G; Ghadiri, M

    2004-04-01

    Some observations on the milling of alpha-lactose monohydrate with a Retsch single-ball mill are reported. The effects of mill loading and frequency of the mill motion were investigated. At a given frequency, a lower mill loading showed a higher milling efficiency. For a given mill loading, size reduction rate increased exponentially with frequency. The milling behavior was analyzed with three energy-based models; namely, Rittinger's, Kick's, and Bond's models. The results suggest that Rittinger's model best describes the milling behavior for low mill loadings at high frequencies, whereas the data for high loading milling at low frequencies fit Kick's model better. The results also indicate that attrition and/or chipping is the dominant mechanism for milling at low frequencies with high loadings because of the shear action of the milling ball rolling on the powder bed. Also, as a result of impact of the milling ball on the two ends of the milling jar, fragmentation is responsible for size reduction at high frequencies with low loadings. PMID:14999726

  17. Novel high-performance metagenome ?-galactosidases for lactose hydrolysis in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Erich, Sarah; Kuschel, Beatrice; Schwarz, Thilo; Ewert, Jacob; Bhmer, Nico; Niehaus, Frank; Eck, Jrgen; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-09-20

    The industrially utilised ?-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces spp. and Aspergillus spp. feature undesirable kinetic properties in praxis, such as an unsatisfactory lactose affinity (KM) and product inhibition (KI) by galactose. In this study, a metagenome library of about 1.3 million clones was investigated with a three-step activity-based screening strategy in order to find new ?-galactosidases with more favourable kinetic properties. Six novel metagenome ?-galactosidases (M1-M6) were found with an improved lactose hydrolysis performance in original milk when directly compared to the commercial ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (GODO-YNL2). The best metagenome candidate, called "M1", was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in a bioreactor (volume 35 L), resulting in a total ?-galactosidase M1 activity of about 1100 ?katoNPGal,37 C L(-1). Since milk is a sensitive and complex medium, it has to be processed at 5-10 C in the dairy industry. Therefore, the ?-galactosidase M1 was tested at 8 C in milk and possessed a good stability (t1/2=21.8 d), a desirably low apparent KM,lactose,8 C value of 3.80.7 mM and a high apparent KI,galactose,8 C value of 196.655.5 mM. A lactose hydrolysis process (milk, 40 nkatlactose mLmilk,8 C(-1)) was conducted at a scale of 0.5L to compare the performance of M1 with the commercial ?-galactosidase from K. lactis (GODO-YNL2). Lactose was completely (>99.99%) hydrolysed by M1 and to 99.6% (w/v) by K. lactis ?-galactosidase after 25 h process time. Thus, M1 was able to achieve the limit of <100 mg lactose per litre milk, which is recommended for dairy products labelled as "lactose-free". PMID:26122513

  18. Evaluation of granulated lactose as a carrier for DPI formulations 1: effect of granule size.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Du, Ju; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of large granulated lactose carrier particle systems on aerosol performance of dry powder inhaler formulations. Granulated lactose carriers with average sizes ranging from 200 to 1,000 μm were prepared and subsequently fractionated into separate narrow size powders. The fractionated granulated lactose (GL) samples were characterized in terms of size, specific surface area, surface roughness, morphology, density, flowability, and solid-state. The in vitro aerosolization performance was performed on the different size fractions of GL samples from a commercial inhaler device (Aerolizer®) with a model formulation (2% w/w salbutamol sulfate). The cascade impaction parameters employed were 60 or 90 L/min with standard (aperture size, 0.6 mm) or modified piercing holes (aperture size, 1.2 mm) of the inhaler loaded capsules. It was shown that the largest size fraction formulation (850-1000 μm) had a slight improvement in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to immediately preceding size fractions, explained by a smaller adhesive force between drug and carrier. Compared to commercial piercing holes, enlarged piercing holes generated a slight decreasing trend of FPF as the lactose powder sizes increased from 200-250 μm to 600-850 μm, perhaps due to the reduced detachment force by flow forces. The size, surface roughness, density, and flowability of lactose carrier as well as device design all contributed to the aerosol dispersion performance of granulated lactose-based adhesive mixtures. It was concluded that poorer or enhanced redispersion performance is not an inherent property to the significantly large size of granulated lactose carriers as previously contended. PMID:24962007

  19. Characterization of lactose utilization and ?-galactosidase in Lactobacillus brevis KB290, the hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Saito, Tadao

    2012-12-01

    Unlike dairy lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus brevis cannot ferment milk. We characterized the lactose utilization by L. brevis KB290. In a carbohydrate fermentation assay using API 50 CHL, we showed during 7 days L. brevis did not ferment lactose. L. brevis grew to the stationary phase in 2 weeks in MRS broth containing lactose as the carbon source. L. brevis slowly consumed the lactose in the medium. L. brevis hydrolyzed lactose and a lactose analog, o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (ONPGal). This ?-galactosidase activity for ONPGal was not repressed by glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose, or maltose showing the microorganism may not have carbon catabolite repression. We purified the L. brevis ?-galactosidase using ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographies. The enzyme's molecular weight is estimated at 72 and 37 kDa using SDS-PAGE analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the larger protein was 90 % similar to the sequence of the putative ?-galactosidase (YP_796339) and the smaller protein was identical to the sequence of the putative ?-galactosidase (YP_796338) in L. brevis ATCC367. This suggests the enzyme is a heterodimeric ?-galactosidase. The specific activity of the purified enzyme for lactose is 55 U/mg. We speculate inhibition of lactose transport delays the lactose utilization in L. brevis KB290. PMID:22936499

  20. Fermentation of raffinose by lactose-fermenting strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and by sucrose-fermenting strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, G; Luke, R K; Richmond, M H

    1978-01-01

    Introduction of plasmids carrying the lacY gene (lactose permease gene) into Yersinia enterocolitica results in cells being able to ferment both lactose and raffinose. Transfer of such plasmids into Escherichia coli C600 (lacY) confers ability to ferment lactose but not raffinose. Derivatives of C600 that ferment both lactose and sucrose (Lac+ Scr+ strains) are able to ferment raffinose, but do not grow well on raffinose minimal medium. Fermentation of raffinose by Lac+ strains of Y. enterocolitica, and by Lac+ Scr+ strains of E. coli, is explained in terms of transport of raffinose via the lac permease and subsequent breakdown catalyzed by invertase. PMID:344338

  1. Kinetic approaches to lactose operon induction and bimodality.

    PubMed

    Michel, Denis

    2013-05-21

    The quasi-equilibrium approximation is acceptable when molecular interactions are fast enough compared to circuit dynamics, but is no longer allowed when cellular activities are governed by rare events. A typical example is the lactose operon (lac), one of the most famous paradigms of transcription regulation, for which several theories still coexist to describe its behaviors. The lac system is generally analyzed by using equilibrium constants, contradicting single-event hypotheses long suggested by Novick and Weiner (1957). Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566) and recently refined in the study of (Choi et al., 2008. A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell. Science 322, 442-446). In the present report, a lac repressor (LacI)-mediated DNA immunoprecipitation experiment reveals that the natural LacI-lac DNA complex built in vivo is extremely tight and long-lived compared to the time scale of lac expression dynamics, which could functionally disconnect the abortive expression bursts and forbid using the standard modes of lac bistability. As alternatives, purely kinetic mechanisms are examined for their capacity to restrict induction through: (i) widely scattered derepression related to the arrival time variance of a predominantly backward asymmetric random walk and (ii) an induction threshold arising in a single window of derepression without recourse to nonlinear multimeric binding and Hill functions. Considering the complete disengagement of the lac repressor from the lac promoter as the probabilistic consequence of a transient stepwise mechanism, is sufficient to explain the sigmoidal lac responses as functions of time and of inducer concentration. This sigmoidal shape can be misleadingly interpreted as a phenomenon of equilibrium cooperativity classically used to explain bistability, but which has been reported to be weak in this system. PMID:23454080

  2. Orthostatic Intolerance Ambulation in Patients Using Patient Controlled Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang Ok

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesics are widely used to reduce postoperative pain and to enhance post-operative recovery. However, orthostatic intolerance (OI) induced by opioid containing intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IPCA) may hinder postoperative recovery. This study investigated factors that affect OI in patients receiving IPCA for postoperative pain control. Methods OI was instantly evaluated at the time of first ambulation in 175 patients taking opioid containing IPCA after open and laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomies. Patients were classified as having OI if they experienced dizziness, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, headache, somnolence and syncope. Factors contributing to OI were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results Out of 175 patients, 61 (52.6%) male and 44 (74.6%) female patients experienced OI at the time of first ambulation. The frequency of OI related symptoms were dizziness (97, 55.4%), nausea (46, 26.3%), headache (9, 5.1%), blurred vision (3, 1.7%) and vomiting (2, 1.1%). Significant risk factors for OI were gender (P=0.002) and total amount of opioids administered (P=0.033). Conclusions The incidence of OI is significantly higher in male than in female patients and is influenced by the opioid dose. PMID:23862002

  3. Wheat Allergy and Intolerence; Recent Updates and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2016-01-01

    The current review paper highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially α-amylase inhibitors, ω-5 gliadins, prolamins, nonprolamin, glucoprotein, and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions, i.e., celiac disease, baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. This instant paper highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this paper showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The paper would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance. PMID:24915366

  4. Genes and exercise intolerance: insights from McArdle disease.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Godfrey, Richard; Santalla, Alfredo; Coll-Cant, Jaume; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Pins, Toms; Arenas, Joaqun; Martn, Miguel Angel; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is caused by inherited deficiency of a key enzyme in muscle metabolism, the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, "myophosphorylase," which is encoded by the PYGM gene. Here we review the main pathophysiological, genotypic, and phenotypic features of McArdle disease and their interactions. To date, moderate-intensity exercise (together with pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion) is the only treatment option that has proven useful for these patients. Furthermore, regular physical activity attenuates the clinical severity of McArdle disease. This is quite remarkable for a monogenic disorder that consistently leads to the same metabolic defect at the muscle tissue level, that is, complete inability to use muscle glycogen stores. Further knowledge of this disorder would help patients and enhance understanding of exercise metabolism as well as exercise genomics. Indeed, McArdle disease is a paradigm of human exercise intolerance and PYGM genotyping should be included in the genetic analyses that might be applied in the coming personalized exercise medicine as well as in future research on genetics and exercise-related phenotypes. PMID:26465709

  5. Managing the patient with episodic sinus tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Narichania, Aalap D; Schleifer, J William; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Patients with episodic sinus tachycardia and associated orthostatic intolerance present a diagnostic and management dilemma to the clinician. We define this group of disorders to include sinus node reentrant tachycardia (SNRT), inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IAST), and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). After a brief review of the current understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this group of disorders, we focus on the diagnosis and management of IAST and POTS. Our approach attempts to recognize the considerable overlap in pathophysiology and clinical presentation between these two heterogeneous conditions. Thus, we focus on a mechanism-based workup and therapeutic approach. Sinus tachycardia related to identifiable causes should first be ruled out in these patients. Next, a basic cardiovascular and autonomic workup is suggested to exclude structural heart disease, identify a putative diagnosis, and guide therapy. We review both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy, with a focus on recent advances. Larger randomized control trials and further mechanistic studies will help refine management in the future. PMID:25524735

  6. Mechanisms of microgravity induced orthostatic intolerance: implications for effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with reduced circulating blood volume, although cardiac atrophy might also contribute. Space flight and ground based experiments have demonstrated that an inability to provide adequate peripheral vasoconstriction in astronauts that become presyncopal may be associated with several mechanisms including reduced sympathetic nerve activity, arterial smooth muscle atrophy and/or hyporeactivity, hypersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors, etc. In addition, an inability to provide adequate tachycardia in presyncopal subjects may be associated with reduced carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Based on the current knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular mechanisms that are altered during exposure to microgravity, a major focus of future research should be directed to the systematic evaluation of potential countermeasures that specifically target and restore the function of these mechanisms. Based on a preliminary systematic evaluation presented in this review, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, G-suit inflation, artificial gravity, and specific pharmacological interventions, alone or in combination, have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

  7. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenjing

    The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn: 1.20--1.35). The Mark-Houwink equation was obtained as [eta] = 2.15 x 10-4Mv0.73. Hydrogels produced in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide swelled as much as 21-fold in deionized water. Copolymerization of styrene with lactose-O-(vinylbenzyl)oxime in dimethylsulfoxide-toluene (1:1, v/v) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator are discussed in Chapter 5. The resulting hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers were characterized by viscometry, TGA, DSC, GPC, and solubility tests in solvents of varied polarities. Chapter 6 documents the preparation of polystyrene beads with different length of oligo(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers. Swelling in different solvents, solvent accessibility, and reagent diffusion of these beads with different crosslinking density were studied and the results indicated that the PEG-crosslinked polymers showed slightly better solvent accessibility in polar solvents than the analogous DVB-crosslinked networks.

  9. Production of galacto-oligosaccharide from lactose by Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, N; Yamashiro, A; Yokozeki, K

    1995-01-01

    Our stock cultures were screened for microorganisms that can produce galacto-oligosaccharide (Gal-OS) from lactose. Of the 574 strains of bacteria and yeasts tested, Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119, Rhodotorula minuta IFO879, and Sirobasidium magnum CBS6803 were found to be efficient producers of Gal-OS from lactose and S. elviae CBS8119 was selected as a representative, high-level producing strain. With toluene-treated resting S. elviae CBS8119 cells, 135 mg of Gal-OS per ml was produced from 360-mg/ml lactose. During this reaction, the by-product glucose was found to inhibit Gal-OS production. Therefore, in order to remove the glucose from the reaction mixture, a culture method in which cell growth followed the enzymatic reaction was devised, which increased the yield of Gal-OS considerably because of the consumption of glucose for cell growth. Under such conditions, 232 mg of Gal-OS per ml was produced from 360-mg/ml lactose after incubation at 30 degrees for 60 h. The structure of the major product was identified as O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D- glucopyranose (4'-galactosyl-lactose) by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:8526516

  10. Hydrolysis of whey lactose by immobilized ?-galactosidase in a bioreactor with a spirally wound membrane.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Nastya; Ivanov, Yavor; Damyanova, Stanka; Kostova, Iliana; Godjevargova, Tzonka

    2016-01-01

    The ?-galactosidase was covalently immobilized onto a modified polypropylene membrane, using glutaraldehyde. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis of lactose (4.7%) by immobilized ?-galactosidase in a batch process were determined 13.6U enzyme activity, 40C, pH 6.8 and 10h. The obtained degree of hydrolysis was compared with results received by a free enzyme. It was found, that the lactose hydrolysis by an immobilized enzyme was 1.6 times more effective than the lactose hydrolysis by a free enzyme. It was determined that the stability of the immobilized enzyme was 2 times higher in comparison with the stability of free enzyme. The obtained immobilized system ?-galactosidase/polypropylene membrane was applied to produce glucose-galactose syrup from waste whey. The whey characteristics and the different preliminary treatments of the whey were investigated. Then the whey lactose hydrolysis in a bioreactor by an immobilized enzyme on a spirally wound membrane was performed. The optimal membrane surface and the optimal flow rate of the whey through the membrane module were determined, respectively 100cm(2) and 1.0mLmin(-1). After 10h, the degree of lactose hydrolysis was increased to 91%. The operation stability was studied. After 20th cycle the yield of bioreactor was 69.7%. PMID:26586589

  11. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Farahnak, F; Seki, T; Ryu, D D; Ogrydziak, D

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10 to 16 x 10 mug of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10 mug of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place. PMID:16346992

  12. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  13. Quantitation of ?-Lactalbumin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Adjuvant Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rui; Qu, Longmei; Luo, Nan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Chen, Lijiang

    2014-01-01

    Lactose is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient, sometimes irreplaceable. Traces of residual proteins left during production of lactose are potential allergen to body. The present paper describes a sensitive and specific LC-MS method for the determination of ?-lactalbumin (?-La) in lactose samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH300 C18 column (2.1 150?mm, 1.7??m) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile containing 0.1% TFA (80?:?20, v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of m/z 2364 for ?-La. The calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 10?g/mL. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 7.6% and the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 104.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.15?g/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05?g/mL. This method was then successfully applied to investigate 6 different lactose samples. The application can provide technical preparation for the development of specification of lactose. PMID:25548567

  14. Permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus with mild detergent for whey lactose hydrolysis and augmentation of mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Bezawada, Jyothi; Yan, Song; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-03-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese-manufacturing industries, and the utilization of whey is a challenging problem either to use it or dispose it, because only few microorganisms can metabolize the whey lactose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by β-galactosidase is the approach for biotechnological application. Kluyveromyces marxianus cells were permeabilized with non-toxic, biodegradable, anionic detergent N-lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) for the enzyme activity. The permeabilization process parameters (N-LS concentration, solvent volume, temperature and incubation time) were optimized. The maximum β-galactosidase activity of 1,220 IU/g dry weight was obtained using permeabilized cells under optimized conditions. Moreover, viability of the permeabilized cells was also evaluated, which showed that cells were alive; however, viability was reduced by two log cycles. The permeabilized cells were evaluated for whey lactose hydrolysis. The maximum lactose hydrolysis of 91% was observed with 600 mg (dry cell weight/100 mL) in whey powder (5% w/v) solution at 180-min incubation, pH 6.5 and 30 °C. Further, the hydrolyzed whey was evaluated for amelioration of growth of non-lactose-consuming yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae was able to grow in hydrolyzed whey simultaneously with K. marxianus. The study confirmed that N-LS could be used to permeabilize K. marxianus cells to make available the enzyme activity. PMID:24500798

  15. Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Gosalbes, Mara Jos; Esteban, Carlos David; Galn, Jos Luis; Prez-Martnez, Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3? end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, ?-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

  16. Transgenic chickens expressing beta-galactosidase hydrolyze lactose in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Mozdziak, Paul E; Pophal, Simone; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Petitte, James N

    2003-10-01

    Chickens do not possess the necessary enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze lactose into glucose and galactose. The bacterial enzyme beta-galactosidase can convert lactose into glucose and galactose. Transgenic chickens that carry the E. coli lacZ gene and express beta-galactosidase could potentially utilize lactose as an energy source. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of the transgenic chicken small intestinal mucosa to hydrolyze lactose into glucose and galactose. Lactase activity was examined in the intestinal muscosa from wild-type chickens and two lines of chickens that carry the lacZ gene and express beta-galactosidase. Lactase activity was significantly higher in both transgenic lines compared with wild-type birds (P < 0.05). The presence of the beta-galactosidase enzyme was revealed by X-gal staining in the intestine of transgenic chickens, whereas it was not present in the wild-type chickens. Overall, it appears that inserting the lacZ gene, which encodes beta-galactosidase, has resulted in a chicken that can utilize lactose as an energy source. This study demonstrates that transgenic technology can be used to modify nutrient utilization in domestic poultry. PMID:14519787

  17. Associations of the lactase persistence allele and lactose intake with body composition among multiethnic children.

    PubMed

    Malek, Adil J; Klimentidis, Yann C; Kell, Kenneth P; Fernndez, Jos R

    2013-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern with a multifaceted and sometimes confounding etiology. Dairy products have been implicated as both pro- and anti-obesogenic, perhaps due to the confounding relationship between dairy, lactose consumption, and potential genetic predisposition. We aimed to understand how lactase persistence influenced obesity-related traits by observing the relationships among lactose consumption, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the lactase (LCT) gene and body composition parameters in a sample of multiethnic children (n=296, 7-12years old). We hypothesized that individuals with the lactase persistence (LP) allele of the LCT SNP (rs4988235) would exhibit a greater degree of adiposity and that this relationship would be mediated by lactose consumption. Body composition variables were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and a registered dietitian assessed dietary intake of lactose. Statistical models were adjusted for sex, age, pubertal stage, ethnic group, genetic admixture, socio-economic status, and total energy intake. Our findings indicate a positive, significant association between the LP allele and body mass index (p=0.034), fat mass index (FMI) (p=0.043), and waist circumference (p=0.008), with associations being stronger in males than in females. Our results also reveal that lactose consumption is positively and nearly significantly associated with FMI. PMID:23479116

  18. Drying and denaturation characteristics of whey protein isolate in the presence of lactose and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Amdadul; Chen, Jie; Aldred, Peter; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-06-15

    The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65C and 80C) for 500s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose. PMID:25660851

  19. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

  20. Histamine 50-skin-prick test: a tool to diagnose histamine intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

  1. Enhanced Conversion of Lactose to Glycerol by Kluyveromyces fragilis Utilizing Whey Permeate as a Substrate.

    PubMed

    Jenq, W; Speckman, R A; Crang, R E; Steinberg, M P

    1989-03-01

    Kluyveromyces fragilis (CBS 397) is a nonhalophilic yeast which is capable of lactose utilization from whey permeate and high glycerol production under anaerobic growth conditions. However, the optimum yields of glycerol (11.6 mg/ml of whey permeate medium) obtained in this study occurred only in the presence of 1% Na(2)SO(3) as a steering agent. The use of other concentrations of Na(2)SO(3), as well as 5% NaCl and 1% ascorbic acid, had no or detrimental effects on cell growth, lactose utilization, and glycerol production. Glycerol yields were greater in cultures grown from a light inoculum of K. fragilis than in cultures in which a resuspended mass of cells was introduced into the medium. The results of this study suggest that this strain of K. fragilis may be useful commercially in the utilization of cheese whey lactose and the concomitant production of glycerol. PMID:16347865

  2. Amino acid substitution in the lactose carrier protein with the use of amber suppressors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, A M; Lee, J I; King, S C; Wilson, T H

    1992-01-01

    Five lacY mutants with amber stop codons at known positions were each placed into 12 different suppressor strains. The 60 amino acid substitutions obtained in this manner were tested for growth on lactose-minimal medium plates and for transport of lactose, melibiose, and thiomethylgalactoside. Most of the amino acid substitutions in the regions of the putative loops (between transmembrane alpha helices) resulted in a reasonable growth rate on lactose with moderate-to-good transport activity. In one strain (glycine substituted for Trp-10), abnormal sugar recognition was found. The substitution of proline for Trp-33 (in the region of the first alpha helix) showed no activity, while four additional substitutions (lysine, leucine, cysteine, and glutamic acid) showed low activity. Altered sugar specificity was observed when Trp-33 was replaced by serine, glutamine, tyrosine, alanine, histidine, or phenylalanine. It is concluded that Trp-33 may be involved directly or indirectly in sugar recognition. PMID:1644770

  3. Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-α-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

  4. Simultaneous determination of hydrolysis and mutarotation rates during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Teruel, Michael A; Reyes-de-Corcuera, Jos I; Young, Owen

    2008-09-24

    An experiment is described in which a custom-made glucose electrode is used to directly monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose to glucose. The transient profile of beta- d-glucose can be used to simultaneously determine the rate constants for mutarotation and for enzymatic hydrolysis by applying a dynamic nonlinear regression routine. Due to differences in the mutarotation rate constants between lactose and glucose, the beta- d-glucose concentration "overshoots" equilibrium under certain conditions, which can be modeled mathematically. This overshoot can be observed reliably and used to quantify the differences in mutarotational equilibria between glucose and lactose. These observations may be important for the analysis of dairy products and commercial lactase preparations and illustrate an unusual kinetic phenomenon caused by intramolecular forces. This approach may also be important for the accurate determination of a variety of oligosaccharides such as glycogen, which tend to be composed primarily of one stereoisomer. PMID:18712880

  5. Influence of inverse gas chromatography measurement conditions on surface energy parameters of lactose monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Planinsek, Odon; Zadnik, Jernej; Rozman, Stefan; Kunaver, Matjaz; Dreu, Rok; Srcic, Stane

    2003-04-30

    Surface energy of any powder determined by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) should be independent of the measurement conditions or type of column used. In this study stainless steel and glass columns were filled with lactose powder. Dispersive and polar components of surface free energy were determined at different flow rates of carrier gas using lactose alone or diluted with calcinated diatomite (Chromosorb W). It was found that measurement conditions did not influence the value of the dispersive parameter of surface energy. On the contrary, K(a) and K(d) values were found to be dependent on dilution of lactose with Chromosorb W. The influence of other parameters on the results was found to be much smaller. PMID:12695007

  6. Lactose biosensor based on lactase and galactose oxidase immobilized in polyvinyl formal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep K; Kumar, Ashok; Chaudhary, Reeti; Suman; Pundir, Suman; Pundir, C S; Sehgal, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    A lactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing lactase and galactose oxidase in a polyvinyl formal membrane and was attached to the oxygen electrode of a dissolved oxygen analyzer for estimation of lactose in milk and food products. The enzyme immobilized polyvinyl formal membrane was characterized by atomic force microscopy. The biosensor showed the linearity for 1-7 g dl(-1) of lactose and can be reused for up to 20 measurements. The effects of pH, temperature and the stability of the immobilized lactase and galactose oxidase in PVF membrane were also studied. The enzyme membrane was found stable up to 35 degrees C and had a shelf-life of more than three months at 4 degrees C. PMID:17701488

  7. Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, J. M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Brown, T. E.; Kassam, M. S.; Bondar, R. L.; Schlegel, T. T.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2).

  8. Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Fitz, Werner; Brandt, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the general population lifetime and point prevalence of visual height intolerance and acrophobia, to define their clinical characteristics, and to determine their anxious and depressive comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted within a German population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. A representative sample of 2,012 individuals aged 14 and above was selected. Defined neurological conditions (migraine, Menière's disease, motion sickness), symptom pattern, age of first manifestation, precipitating height stimuli, course of illness, psychosocial impairment, and comorbidity patterns (anxiety conditions, depressive disorders according to DSM-IV-TR) for vHI and acrophobia were assessed. The lifetime prevalence of vHI was 28.5% (women 32.4%, men 24.5%). Initial attacks occurred predominantly (36%) in the second decade. A rapid generalization to other height stimuli and a chronic course of illness with at least moderate impairment were observed. A total of 22.5% of individuals with vHI experienced the intensity of panic attacks. The lifetime prevalence of acrophobia was 6.4% (women 8.6%, men 4.1%), and point prevalence was 2.0% (women 2.8%; men 1.1%). VHI and even more acrophobia were associated with high rates of comorbid anxious and depressive conditions. Migraine was both a significant predictor of later acrophobia and a significant consequence of previous acrophobia. VHI affects nearly a third of the general population; in more than 20% of these persons, vHI occasionally develops into panic attacks and in 6.4%, it escalates to acrophobia. Symptoms and degree of social impairment form a continuum of mild to seriously distressing conditions in susceptible subjects. PMID:25262317

  9. Utility of Corrected QT Interval in Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Bin; Hong, Soonwoong; Park, Jin-Woo; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.833.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.530.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.36.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.30.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.728.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.59.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.80.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=??0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=??0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH. PMID:25180969

  10. Utility of corrected QT interval in orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Bin; Hong, Soonwoong; Park, Jin-Woo; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.833.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.530.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.36.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.30.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.728.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.59.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.80.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=?-0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=?-0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH. PMID:25180969

  11. Optimization of alkyl beta-D-galactopyranoside synthesis from lactose using commercially available beta-galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D E; Stanley, R A; Furneaux, R H

    1993-08-20

    Commercially available lactase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23) enzymes produced from Kluyveromyces fragilis and Kluyveromyces lactis were accessed as catalysts for use in the production of beta-galactopyranosides of various alcohols using lactose as galactosyl donor. The yield of galactoside was enhanced by using the highest practical concentrations of both lactose and alcohol acceptor. The concentrations and thus yield, were limited by the solubility of the substrates. The increase in galactoside yield with increasing lactose concentration appeared to be specific to the lactose substrate and not due to water activity alterations, because addition of maltose to a fixed concentration of lactose had no effect. During the course of the reaction, the yield of galactoside peaked after around 70% to 80% of the lactose was consumed, due to hydrolysis of the product by the enzyme. A wide variety of compounds with primary or secondary hydroxyl groups could act as acceptors, the essential requirement being at least some water solubility. Addition of organic cosolvents had little effect on galactoside yield except when it increased the water solubility of sparingly soluble alcohols. Some galactosides were synthesized on a gram scale to determine practical product recoveries and improve purification methods for large-scale synthesis. Initial purification by hydrophobic chromatography (for galactosides of hydrophobic alcohols) or strong anion-exchange chromatography (for galactosides of hydrophilic alcohols) separated galactosides, galactobiosides, and higher oligomers from reducing sugars. A facile separation of the galactoside and galactobioside could then be effected by flash chromatography on silica gel. PMID:18613088

  12. Lactose maldigestion during methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Fijlstra, M; Rings, E H H M; Verkade, H J; van Dijk, T H; Kamps, W A; Tissing, W J E

    2011-02-01

    Patients with chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis suffer from anorexia, diarrhea, and stomach pain, often causing weight loss and malnutrition. When the intestinal function during mucositis would be known, a rational feeding strategy might improve the nutritional state, accelerate recuperation, and increase survival of mucositis patients. We developed a methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis rat model to study nutrient digestion and absorption. To determine lactose digestion and absorption of its derivative glucose during mucositis, we injected Wistar rats intravenously with MTX (60 mg/kg) or 0.9% NaCl (controls). Four days later, we orally administered trace amounts of [1-(13)C]lactose and [U-(13)C]glucose and quantified the appearance of labeled glucose in the blood for 3 h. Finally, we determined plasma citrulline level and harvested the small intestine to assess histology, myeloperoxidase level, glycohydrolase activity, immunohistochemical protein, and mRNA expression. MTX-treated rats showed profound villus atrophy and epithelial damage. During the experimental period, the absorption of lactose-derived [1-(13)C]glucose was 4.2-fold decreased in MTX-treated rats compared with controls (P < 0.01). Lactose-derived [1-(13)C]glucose absorption correlated strongly with villus length (rho = 0.86, P < 0.001) and with plasma citrulline level (rho = 0.81, P < 0.001). MTX treatment decreased jejunal lactase activity (19.5-fold, P < 0.01) and immunohistochemical protein and mRNA expression (39.7-fold, P < 0.01) compared with controls. Interestingly, MTX treatment did not affect the absorption of [U-(13)C]glucose during the experimental period. We conclude that lactose digestion is severely decreased during mucositis while glucose absorption is still intact, when supplied in trace amounts. Plasma citrulline level might be a useful objective, noninvasive marker for lactose maldigestion during mucositis in clinic. PMID:21088238

  13. Lactose Variability of Escherichia coli in Thermally Stressed Reactor Effluent Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kasweck, K. L.; Fliermans, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lactose-utilizing and nalidixic acid-resistant populations of Escherichia coli, having an optimum growth temperature of 37°C, were placed in modified diffusion chambers. The chambers were submerged in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of a 1,100-hectare lake (Par Pond) which receives cooling water from a nuclear production reactor. Control chambers were placed in a deep-water reservoir and a Flowing-Streams Laboratory, both of which had comparable temperatures to Par Pond. The populations of E. coli were sampled regularly for up to 3 weeks. Viability of the bacteria was determined by dilution plating to nutrient agar followed by replicate plating onto selective medium to determine lactose utilization and nalidixic acid sensitivity. Initial populations of E. coli were lactose positive but changed to lactose negative in Par Pond when the reactor was operating (i.e., cooling water from the heat exchangers was being discharged to the lake). This alteration occurred most rapidly in the chambers closest to the cooling-water discharge point. Such changes did not occur in a deep-water reservoir, in Par Pond when the reactor was not operating, or in the Flowing-Streams Laboratory. The nalidixic acid-resistant characteristic remained stable regardless of the chambers' placement or reactor operations. Although the reasons for such alterations are unclear, it appears that lactose-negative populations of E. coli are selected for in these reactor effluent waters. The loss of the lactose characteristic prevents the recognition and identification of E. coli in this cooling lake (when the reactor is operating) and may prevent the assessment of water quality based on coliform recognition. PMID:365111

  14. Triboelectrification of spray-dried lactose prepared from different feedstock concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, O E; Carter, P A; Rowley, G; Merrifield, D R

    2000-01-01

    Powder systems may acquire electrostatic charge during various pharmaceutical processing operations and may give rise to difficulties in handling and powder flow, mainly due to adhesion/cohesion effects. We have investigated the electrostatic charging of spray-dried lactose prepared from different feedstock concentrations using a laboratory spray-dryer. Triboelectrification of the spray-dried lactose samples was effected through contact with the stainless steel surface of either a mixing vessel or a cyclone separator. Results from both techniques showed differences in charge accumulation and particle-steel adhesion between the spray-dried lactose samples. As the feedstock concentration used to produce the spray-dried lactose was increased in the range 10-50% w/v, the mean charge on the lactose decreased from -20.8 to -1.3 nC g(-1) and -54.9 to -4.1 nC g(-1) for the mixing vessel and cyclone separator, respectively, with a corresponding decrease in adhesion. In addition, as the feedstock concentration was increased from 10 to 50% w/v, decreases were obtained in surface area values (1.06 to 0.56 m2 g(-1)), pore diameter (198.7 to 83.5 microm) and pore volume (1.09 to 0.75 cm3 g(-1)), and together with differences in crystal form correlated with the charge and adhesion results. The results suggested that the feedstock concentration could have a considerable influence on the charging and adhesional properties of spray-dried lactose. This may have relevance during pharmaceutical processing and manufacturing operations. PMID:10716598

  15. Natural history of soy allergy and/or intolerance in children, and clinical use of soy-protein formulas.

    PubMed

    Cantani, A; Lucenti, P

    1997-05-01

    Atopic diseases of infants and children are common, debilitating, chronic and sometimes even life-threatening. Several well-conducted studies in high risk babies have demonstrated a significant reduction in the prevalence and severity of atopic diseases with dietary and environmental manipulations. The currently available cow's milk (CM) substitutes for infants are soy protein (SP) formulas (SPFs), hydrolyzed formulas (HF), and home-made meat-based formulas. Soybeans have been cultivated in Eastern countries for many centuries and were first used to feed US babies with CM allergy (CMA) in 1929. Since then, SPFs containing purified SP, a mixture of vegetable oils, and purified carbohydrate have been developed. From a nutritional point of view, SPFs are adequate, support normal growth, protein status, bone mineralization, are well accepted, and economical. SPFs are used for different conditions including CMA, lactose and galactose intolerance and in the management of severe gastroenteritis, and some studies show that feeding SPFs for the first six months of life significantly reduces the prevalence of atopic diseases in high risk babies. Although gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis (AD) may occur in some SPF-fed children, anaphylaxis following the ingestion of soybean is extremely rare in children. However, in the past few years the antigenicity/allergenicity of SPFs has been over-emphasized in the medical literature. In this paper on the natural history of soy antigenicity/allergenicity we discuss all the pros and cons of SPFs, their composition and nutritional value, the basic immune definitions, chemistry and characterization of SPs. We then discuss the antigenicity and allergenicity of SPFs in animals, recent data on the use of SPFs and the incidence of soy allergy in children, clinical reactions to SPFs, and the clinical relevance of skin testing and IgE antibodies to soy, challenge test procedure, clinical indication of SPFs, and their relevance in the prevention of atopy. We have meta-analyzed 17 different studies and conclude that history-based SPF allergy incidence totals 27%, in skin prick tests (SPT) RAST-oral food challenge (OFC)/double-blind food challenge (DBFC)-based epidemiological studies attains 3%, and in challenge test studies 4%. We suggest that double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) studies in larger cohorts of babies may establish a more reliable prevalence of SPF allergy in different disorders associated with CMA. PMID:9617775

  16. Crystallization of amorphous lactose at high humidity studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alexander I.; Yang, Bin; Goldup, Stephen M.; Watkinson, Michael; Donnan, Robert S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the first use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the hydration and crystallization of an amorphous molecular solid at high humidity. Lactose in its amorphous and monohydrate forms exhibits different terahertz spectra due to the lack of long range order in the amorphous material. This difference allowed the transformation of amorphous lactose to its monohydrate form at high humidity to be studied in real time. Spectral fitting of frequency-domain data allowed kinetic data to be obtained and the crystallization was found to obey Avrami kinetics. Bulk changes during the crystallization could also be observed in the time-domain.

  17. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively.

  18. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    da-Costa-Pinto, E A; Collares, E F

    1997-06-01

    Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w) starch (control group, N = 48) or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48) received 35.5% (w/w) starch and 20% (w/w) lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v) or glucose+galactose (5% or 10%, w/v). Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P > 0.02). For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P > 0.02) for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose +2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P < 0.02) in the group fed a lactose-enriched chow (38.5%) than in the control group (41.6%). For the 5% glucose +5% galactose solution the median values were not statistically different between groups, 65.0% for the control group and 58.8% for the experimental group. The median values of the specific lactase activity in the small intestine homogenate was 0.74 U/g in the control group and 0.91 U/g in the experimental group. These values were not statistically different (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow. PMID:9292108

  19. [Jaffe color test-based microtechnique for determination of milk lactose].

    PubMed

    Khramov, V A; Kolome?tseva, A S; Papichev, N V

    2008-01-01

    The picric acid reaction (Jaffe test) that is widely used in clinical biochemical practice to determine creatinine has proven to be suitable for the assay of lactose in milk samples. The reaction conditions (picric acid concentration, sample heating time, etc.) were examined to optimize this method. The specificity of this color test was also studied. Other reducing sugars, as well as glucose-6-phosphate and glycerol yielded a picric acid reaction. The level of lactose in the test milk samples (n = 14) ranged from 0.120 to 0.148 mmol/l. PMID:18590158

  20. Two types of radicals in whole milk powder. Effect of lactose crystallization, lipid oxidation, and browning reactions.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Marianne K; Lauridsen, Lene; Skibsted, Leif H; Risbo, Jens

    2005-03-01

    Whole milk powder was stored in closed vials at 60 degrees C to induce crystallization of lactose within a short time scale. After an induction period of 3-4 days simultaneous crystallization of lactose, increase of water activity, formation of browning products, and increase of radical content took place. Radicals detected before lactose crystallization were characterized by a narrow ESR spectrum (g = 2.006) and could be depleted by removal of oxygen and therefore were assigned to oxidation processes. Late-stage radicals present after crystallization of lactose gave much wider spectra (g = 2.0048) and were independent of oxygen availability and assigned to late-stage Maillard reaction products. The study indicates that the processes of lactose crystallization, browning, and formation of radical species (g = 2.0048) are strongly coupled, while lipid oxidation is less dependent on the other processes. PMID:15740077

  1. Diagnostic and Public Health Dilemma of Lactose-Fermenting Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium in Cattle in the Northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Patrick L.; Shin, Sang J.; Lein, Donald H.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of lactose-fermenting Salmonella strains in clinical case materials presented to microbiology laboratories presents problems in detection and identification. Failure to detect these strains also presents a public health problem. The laboratory methods used in detecting lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from six outbreaks of salmonellosis in veal calves are described. Each outbreak was caused by a multiply-resistant and lactose-fermenting strain of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. The use of Levine eosin-methylene blue agar in combination with screening of suspect colonies for C8 esterase enzyme and inoculation of colonies into sulfide-indole-motility medium for hydrogen sulfide production was particularly effective for their detection. A hypothesis for the creation of lactose-fermenting salmonellae in the environment is presented. It is proposed that the environment and husbandry practices of veal-raising barns provide a unique niche in which lactose-fermenting salmonellae may arise. PMID:10699026

  2. The responses of blood galactose to oral doses of lactose, galactose plus glucose and milk to piglets.

    PubMed

    Bird, P H; Atwood, C S; Hartmann, P E

    1995-05-01

    The capacity of intestinal lactase (EC 3.2.1.23) of piglets to hydrolyse lactose in vivo was investigated by measuring the response of blood galactose to doses of lactose, galactose plus glucose and both whole and skimmed milk. Following the administration of oral doses of lactose dissolved in water to piglets from 2 to 18 d of age the adjusted galactose area under the curve (AUC) was between 1.12 and 1.36 arbitrary units, while following a dose of galactose plus glucose dissolved in water it was between 1.56 and 1.98 arbitrary units. Whereas these results suggest that the rate of digestion of lactose appeared to limit the amount of galactose reaching the peripheral blood after a dose of lactose dissolved in water, there was no significant correlation between the capacity of piglets to hydrolyse physiological amounts of lactose and the age of the piglets (2- to 18-d-old piglets; r 0.11). Following oral doses of sow's milk containing either lactose, or galactose plus glucose, the adjusted galactose AUC values were 0.94 and 1.00 arbitrary units respectively, in 10-d-old piglets. Thus, the limitation to the digestion of lactose observed when it was present in water was not evident for lactose in sow's milk. Since there was no significant difference between the adjusted galactose AUC following a dose of whole milk (0.95 arbitrary units) and that following a dose of skimmed milk (1.03 arbitrary units), the presence of fat in sow's milk did not appear to affect the utilization of lactose by the sucking piglets. PMID:7626593

  3. Statin intolerance - an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat V; Greenfield, Robert S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R; Ray, Kausik K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-06-01

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10 - 15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25907232

  4. FOOD INTOLERANCES AND ASSOCIATED SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELLA TECHNIQUE WITHOUT GASTRIC RING

    PubMed Central

    MOREIRA, Marcella de Arruda; ESPÍNOLA, Patrícia Ramos Maciel; de AZEVEDO, Camila Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is considered the only effective method to treat refractory obesity, and especially for those in which clinical treatment was not successful. However, the appearance of food intolerances and clinical manifestations are quite common. Aim To identify food intolerances and associated them to symptoms in patients undergoing Fobi-Capella technique without gastric ring. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of adult patients who had more than one year after surgery. Demographic, anthropometric, weight and preoperative height data were investigated. Nutritional status was classified according to the criteria established by the World Health Organization. It was considered food intolerance the presence of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or bloating after eating a particular food. Results The sample consisted of 61 patients who attended the nutritional consultation of which 26 (42.6%) had food intolerance, mostly related to red meat (n=12; 34.3%) during the first six months of operation; there was a significant difference between the periods between 0 and 6 months, and 7 to 12 (p=0.02). Among the symptoms reported by patients, nausea was the most recurrent until the 6th month, but without significant differences between the two periods (p=0.06). Conclusions The Fobi-Capella procedure without gastric ring promoted high frequency of intolerance to meat in general, especially for the red, chicken and fish, on this sequence; nausea was the most frequent symptom. These data suggest the need for adequate nutritional monitoring throughout the postoperative period. PMID:25861067

  5. Statin intolerance - an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat V; Greenfield, Robert S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R; Ray, Kausik K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-03-16

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10-15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25861286

  6. Minor component effects on the determination of fat, protein, and lactose in milk by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hop, E.; Lutz, E. T.; Luinge, Hendrik J.; de Jong, E. A.; van Hemert, H. A.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk by infrared spectrometry may be affected by the presence of minor components absorbing in interfering spectral regions. The size of these effects is reported. Also, analyses with conventional filter infrared spectrometers are compared with newly developed FT-IR based methods in combination with multivariate calibration techniques.

  7. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  8. Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the

  9. Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight Under Commercial Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a commercially available lactic acid bacteria (LAB) probiotic alone and supplemented with lactose as prebiotic, was evaluated for effects on turkey body weight during the brooding and grow out phases under commercial conditions in two experiments. Turkey poults were given the probioti...

  10. Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

  11. Gastric emptying of maltose, sucrose, lactose and lactulose in rats with ontogenic lactase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Collares, E F; Belangero, V M; Da-Silva, P E

    1991-01-01

    The gastric emptying of maltose, sucrose, lactose and lactulose was compared in young adult rats with ontogenic lactase deficiency. Eight animals were employed for each sugar meal at each time of study (total number of animals = 192). Each animal received a test meal consisting of a solution of the sugar (100 mg/ml) and phenol red as marker and gastric retention was measured at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min after orogastric infusion of the test meal. Gastric retention was determined by measuring the concentration of the marker in the residual test meal recovered from the stomach after killing the animal. There was no difference between the gastric emptying of lactose and lactulose. The gastric emptying of maltose was significantly slower during the initial 30 min and the emptying of sucrose was identical to that of maltose only at 5 min and could not be distinguished from that of lactose and lactulose at later times. These data support the observation, made in human subjects, that, under conditions of ontogenic lactase deficiency, the modulation of gastric emptying of lactose is ineffective. It is possible that the rapid emptying of sucrose is due to the saturation of sucrase because of substrate overload which impairs the intestinal inhibitory control of gastric emptying. PMID:1823268

  12. Efficient ethanol production from glucose, lactose, and xylose by recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alterthum, F; Ingram, L O

    1989-08-01

    Lactose and all of the major sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose) present in cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli containing plasmid-borne genes encoding the enzymes for the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis. Environmental tolerances, plasmid stability, expression of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase, substrate range, and ethanol production (from glucose, lactose, and xylose) were compared among eight American Type Culture Collection strains. E. coli ATCC 9637(pLO1297), ATCC 11303(pLO1297), and ATCC 15224(pLO1297) were selected for further development on the basis of environmental hardiness and ethanol production. Volumetric ethanol productivities per hour in batch culture were 1.4 g/liter for glucose (12%), 1.3 g/liter for lactose (12%), and 0.64 g/liter for xylose (8%). Ethanol productivities per hour ranged from 2.1 g/g of cell dry weight with 12% glucose to 1.3 g/g of cell dry weight with 8% xylose. The ethanol yield per gram of xylose was higher for recombinant E. coli than commonly reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glucose. Glucose (12%), lactose (12%), and xylose (8%) were converted to (by volume) 7.2% ethanol, 6.5% ethanol, and 5.2% ethanol, respectively. PMID:2675762

  13. Hydrolysis of lactose in whey permeate for subsequent fermentation to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Coté, A; Brown, W A; Cameron, D; van Walsum, G P

    2004-06-01

    Fermentation of lactose in whey permeate directly into ethanol has had only limited commercial success, as the yields and alcohol tolerances of the organisms capable of directly fermenting lactose are low. This study proposes an alternative strategy: treat the permeate with acid to liberate monomeric sugars that are readily fermented into ethanol. We identified optimum hydrolysis conditions that yield mostly monomeric sugars and limit formation of fermentation inhibitors such as hydroxymethyl furfural by caramelization reactions. Both lactose solutions and commercial whey permeates were hydrolyzed using inorganic acids and carbonic acid. In all cases, more glucose was consumed by secondary reactions than galactose. Galactose was recovered in approximately stoichiometric proportions. Whey permeate has substantial buffering capacity-even at high partial pressures (>5500 kPa[g]), carbon dioxide had little effect on the pH in whey permeate solutions. The elevated temperatures required for hydrolysis with CO2-generated inhibitory compounds through caramelization reactions. For these reasons, carbon dioxide was not a feasible acidulant. With mineral acids reversion reactions dominated, resulting in a stable amount of glucose released. However, the Maillard browning reactions also appeared to be involved. By applying Hammet's acidity function, kinetic data from all experiments were described by a single line. With concentrated inorganic acids, low reaction temperatures allowed lactose hydrolysis with minimal by-product formation and generated a hexose-rich solution amenable to fermentation. PMID:15453474

  14. Incorporation of acetaminophen as an active pharmaceutical ingredient into porous lactose.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Amirali; Saffari, Morteza; Dehghani, Fariba; Langrish, Timothy

    2016-02-29

    A new formulation method for solid dosage forms with drug loadings from 0.650.03% to 391% (w/w) of acetaminophen (APAP) as a model drug has been presented. The proposed method involves the production of highly-porous lactose with a BET surface area of 201m(2)/g as an excipient using a templating method and the incorporation of drug into the porous structure by adsorption from a solution of the drug in ethanol. Drug deposition inside the carrier particles, rather than being physically distributed between them, eliminated the potential drug/carrier segregation, which resulted in excellent blend uniformities with relative standard deviations of less than 3.5% for all drug formulations. The results of DSC and XRD tests have shown deposition of nanocrystals of APAP inside the nanopores of lactose due the nanoconfinement phenomenon. FTIR spectroscopy has revealed no interaction between the adsorbed drug and the surface of lactose. The final loaded lactose particles had large BET surface areas and high porosities, which significantly increased the crushing strengths of the produced tablets. In vitro release studies in phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) have shown an acceptable delivery performance of 85% APAP release within 7minutes for loaded powders filled in gelatin capsules. PMID:26768724

  15. Lactose-mediated carbon catabolite repression of putrescine production in dairy Lactococcus lactis is strain dependent.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoa; Linares, Daniel M; Fernndez, Maria; Martn, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species most widely used as a primary starter in the dairy industry. However, several strains of L.lactis produce the biogenic amine putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. We previously reported the putrescine biosynthesis pathway in L.lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 to be regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose but not lactose (Linares etal., 2013). The present study shows that both these sugars repress putrescine biosynthesis in L.lactis subsp. lactis T3/33, a strain isolated from a Spanish artisanal cheese. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both glucose and lactose repressed the transcriptional activity of the aguBDAC catabolic genes of the AGDI route. Finally, a screening performed in putrescine-producing dairy L.lactis strains determined that putrescine biosynthesis was repressed by lactose in all the L.lactis subsp. lactis strains tested, but in only one L.lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Given the obvious importance of the lactose-repression in cheese putrescine accumulation, it is advisable to consider the diversity of L.lactis in this sense and characterize consequently the starter cultures to select the safest strains. PMID:25791004

  16. Role of conserved residues in hydrophilic loop 8-9 of the lactose permease.

    PubMed Central

    Pazdernik, N J; Jessen-Marshall, A E; Brooker, R J

    1997-01-01

    A peptide motif, GXXX(D/E)(R/K)XG(R/K)(R/K), has been conserved in a large group of evolutionarily related membrane proteins that transport small molecules across the membrane. Within the superfamily, this motif is located in two cytoplasmic loops that connect transmembrane segments 2 and 3 and transmembrane segments 8 and 9. In a previous study concerning the loop 2-3 motif of the lactose permease (A. E. Jessen-Marshall, N. J. Paul, and R. J. Brooker, J. Biol. Chem. 270:16251-16257, 1995), it was shown that the first-position glycine and the fifth-position aspartate are critical for transport activity since a variety of site-directed mutations greatly diminished the rate of transport. In the current study, a similar approach was used to investigate the functional significance of the conserved residues in the loop 8-9 motif. In the wild-type lactose permease, however, this motif has been evolutionarily modified so that the first-position glycine (an alpha-helix breaker) has been changed to proline (also a helix breaker); the fifth position has been changed to an asparagine; and one of the basic residues has been altered. In this investigation, we made a total of 28 single and 7 double mutants within the loop 8-9 motif to explore the functional importance of this loop. With regard to transport activity, amino acid substitutions within the loop 8-9 motif tend to be fairly well tolerated. Most substitutions produced permeases with normal or mildly defective transport activities. However, three substitutions at the first position (i.e., position 280) resulted in defective lactose transport. Kinetic analysis of position 280 mutants indicated that the defect decreased the Vmax for lactose uptake. Besides substitutions at position 280, a Gly-288-to-Thr mutant had the interesting property that the kinetic parameters for lactose uptake were normal yet the rates of lactose efflux and exchange were approximately 10-fold faster than wild-type rates. The results of this study suggest that loop 8-9 may facilitate conformational changes that translocate lactose. PMID:9006028

  17. Kinetic studies on exploring lactose hydrolysis potential of ? galactosidase extracted from Lactobacillus plantarum HF571129.

    PubMed

    Selvarajan, E; Mohanasrinivasan, V

    2015-10-01

    A novel intracellular ?-galactosidases produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HF571129, isolated from an Indian traditional fermented milk product curd was purified and characterized. The ?-galactosidases is a hetrodimer with a molecular weight of 60kDa (larger subunit) and 42kDa (smaller subunit), as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was purified 7.23 fold by ultrasonication, ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography with an overall recovery of 30.41%. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis of its preferred substrates, o-nitrophenyl- ?-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) and lactose, are 50C (both), and optimum pH for these reactions is 6.5 and 7.5, respectively. The ?-galactosidases showed higher affinity for ONPG (Km, 6.644mM) as compared to lactose (Km, 23.28mM). Galactose, the end product of lactose hydrolysis was found to be inhibited (47%). The enzyme activity was drastically altered by the metal ion chelators EDTA, representing that this enzyme is a metalloenzyme. The enzyme was activated to a larger extent by Mg(2+) (73% at 1mM), while inhibited at higher concentrations of Na(+) (54% at 100mM), K(+) (16% at 100mM) and urea (16% at 100mM). The thermal stability study indicated an inactivation energy of Ed?=?171.37kJmol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters such as ?H, ?S and ?G, were determined as a function of temperature. About 88% of lactose was hydrolyzed at room temperature within 1h. The study suggested that this enzyme showed its obvious superiority in the industrial lactose conversion process. PMID:26396367

  18. An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Conzuelo, F; Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Ruiz, M A; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2010-06-23

    An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose is reported. The bioelectrode design is based on the use of a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrode on which the enzymes beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal), glucose oxidase (GOD), peroxidase (HRP) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) are coimmobilized by a dialysis membrane. beta-Gal catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose, and the produced glucose is catalytically oxidized to gluconic acid and H(2)O(2), which is reduced in the presence of HRP. This enzyme reaction is mediated by TTF, and the reduction of TTF(+) at 0.00 V (vs Ag/AgCl) gives rise to an amperometric signal proportional to the lactose concentration. The biosensor exhibits a good repeatability of the measurement carried out with the same biosensor, a good reproducibility of the responses obtained with different biosensors and a useful lifetime of 28 days. A linear calibration plot was obtained for lactose over the 1.5 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-4) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 4.6 x 10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (sucrose, lactulose, fructose, arabinose, maltose, galactose, glucose and uric and ascorbic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. Furthermore, the bioelectrode exhibits a suitable performance in flow-injection systems in connection with amperometric detection. The developed biosensor was applied to the determination of lactose in milk and other foodstuffs (chocolate, butter, margarine, yogurt, cheese and mayonnaise), and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit. PMID:20509693

  19. Simulation of roller compaction with subsequent tableting and characterization of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Langridge, John

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are by far the most common solid oral dosage forms, and many drugs need to be granulated before they can be tableted. Increasingly roller compaction is being used as a dry granulation technique; however it is a very time and material intensive method. Thus some mini roller compactors and simulations of the roller compaction process have been developed as a means of studying the technique at small scale. An important factor in the selection of materials for roller compaction is their ability to be recompressed into tablets after the initial roller compaction and milling steps. In this paper the roller compaction process was simulated on the basis of some models by Gereg and Cappola (2002) and Zinchuk et al. (2004). An eccentric tableting machine was used to make compacts from alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous beta-lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.6-0.9). These compacts were milled immediately to granules with a rotary granulator. The properties of the granules were analyzed and compared to the properties of the original powders. These granules and powders were then tableted at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.75-0.95) and their properties including elastic recovery, crushing force and 3D-model were analyzed. The properties of the tablets made from the granules were compared to the properties of the tablets made from the powders to determine which excipients are most suitable for the roller compaction process. The study showed that anhydrous beta-lactose is the preferred form of lactose for use in roller compaction since compaction did not affect tablet crushing force to a large extent. With the simulation of roller compaction process one is able to find qualified materials for use in roller compaction without the necessity of a great deal of material and time. PMID:18728996

  20. Blood pressure and plasma renin activity as predictors of orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 3 h standing, followed by a period of head-up tilt (HUT) on physiological response (orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate), as well as on plasma vasopressin (PVP) and renin activity (PRA) were studied in 13 dehydrated (to 2.4 pct loss of body weight) subjects. Seven subjects showed signs of orthostatic intolerance (INT), manifested by sweating, pallor, nausea and dizziness. Prior to these symptoms, the INT subjects exhibited lower systolic (SP) and pulse (PP) pressures, and an elevated PRA, compared to the tolerant (TOL) subjects. HUT has aggravated increases of RPA in the INT subjects and caused an increase, higher than in TOL subjects, in PVP, while rehydration has greatly attenuated the PVP response to the HUT and decreased the PRA response. It is concluded that dehydration, together with measurements of SP, PP and PRA, may serve as a means of predicting orthostatic intolerance and may provide a physiological model for studying the causes of intolerance.

  1. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  2. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Molena-Fernandes, C; Bersani-Amado, C A; Ferraro, Z M; Hintze, L J; Nardo, N; Cuman, R K N

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  3. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

  4. Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies. Neurolab Autonomic Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.

  5. Chemical and proteolysis-derived changes during long-term storage of lactose-hydrolyzed ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Therese; Jensen, Hanne B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Clausen, Morten R; Eggers, Nina; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

    2014-11-19

    Proteolytic activity in milk may release bitter-tasting peptides and generate free amino terminals that react with carbohydrates, which initiate Maillard reaction. Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) heat treatment inactivates the majority of proteolytic enzymes in milk. In lactose-hydrolyzed milk a ?-galactosidase preparation is applied to the milk after heat treatment, which has proteolytic side activities that may induce quality deterioration of long-term-stored milk. In the present study proteolysis, glycation, and volatile compound formation were investigated in conventional (100% lactose), filtered (60% lactose), and lactose-hydrolyzed (<1% lactose) UHT milk using reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteolysis was observed in all milk types. However, the degree of proteolysis was significantly higher in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to the conventional and filtered milk. The proteins most prone to proteolysis were ?-CN and ?s1-CN, which were clearly hydrolyzed after approximately 90 days of storage in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk. PMID:25356780

  6. Effects of Topical Fucosyl-Lactose, a Milk Oligosaccharide, on Dry Eye Model: An Example of Nutraceutical Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Romano, Giovanni Luca; Leggio, Gian Marco; Gagliano, Caterina; Reibaldi, Michele; Avitabile, Teresio; Uva, Maurizio G.; Musumeci, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colostrum has been proposed to treat severe dryness and problematic eye lesions showing a beneficial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-fucosyl-lactose, a natural sugar present in the human colostrum, in an experimental dry eye. Methods: Dry eye was induced in adult male New Zealand albino rabbits by topical administration of 1% atropine. Tear volume (Schirmer’s test), tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining and tear osmolarity were assessed. Fucosyl-lactose eye drops was instilled at different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and, 1%). Results: After 24 h from first atropine administration, tear volume and TBUT values were significantly improved in groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose in a dose-dependent manner. Tear volume increased from 5.25 to 10.75 mm and TBUT values from 8.75 to 34.5 s with 0.01% or 1% 2-fucosyl-lactose treatment, respectively. No changes were observed in terms of corneal staining among the all groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose. Atropine instillation caused an increase of tear osmolarity (428 mOsm/L), which was reversed by topical treatment with 2-fucosyl-lactose at all doses. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 2-fucosyl-lactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, has protective effect on tear film stability. PMID:26635610

  7. Stomachaches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... say they have a food intolerance . Conditions like lactose intolerance often cause belly pain when someone eats the food (milk products in the case of lactose intolerance). If you notice a reaction after eating certain ...

  8. Contact lens intolerance: refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lpez-Lpez, Mara; Pelegrn-Snchez, Jos Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Garca-Ayuso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.

  9. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  10. Computer simulation studies in fluid and calcium regulation and orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The systems analysis approach to physiological research uses mathematical models and computer simulation. Major areas of concern during prolonged space flight discussed include fluid and blood volume regulation; cardiovascular response during shuttle reentry; countermeasures for orthostatic intolerance; and calcium regulation and bone atrophy. Potential contributions of physiologic math models to future flight experiments are examined.

  11. Does Homeschooling or Private Schooling Promote Political Intolerance? Evidence from a Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend civil liberties to people who hold views with which one disagrees. Some have claimed that private schooling and homeschooling are institutions that propagate political intolerance by fostering separatism and an unwillingness to consider alternative viewpoints. I empirically test this claim by

  12. Gamma Knife radiosurgery in steroid-intolerant Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Myong; Park, Jung-Soo; Koh, Eun-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare cause of painful ophthalmoplegia due to idiopathic chronic granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus. Usually clinical manifestations are well controlled by corticosteroid therapy, but steroid dependency or resistance is common. We report a case of marked improvement of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome without symptom relapse after Gamma Knife radiosurgery in a patient with steroid intolerance. PMID:26611689

  13. Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

    1993-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  14. Long-term Patency of Primary Arterial Repair and the Modified Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lannau, Bernd; Bliley, Jacqueline; James, Isaac B.; Wang, Sheri; Sivak, Wesley; Kim, Kang; Fowler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the long-term arterial patency of repaired arteries in the upper extremity and any morbidity resulting from the subsequent occlusion of these vessels. Concurrently, a new questionnaire, the modified Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (mod CISS) questionnaire, was developed to allow for better assessment of cold intolerance. Methods: Thirteen patients who had undergone repair of the radial (4 patients), ulnar (6 patients), brachial (1 patient), digital (1), and an undefined lower arm artery (1) were examined using questionnaires, physical examination, and high-resolution ultrasound. Results: Outcome measures that were statistically significantly worse in the group of patients who presented with nerve injuries included cold intolerance symptoms, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, Michigan Hand Questionnaire, and grip strength (middle setting on dynamometer). The results from the mod CISS correlated with high statistical significance with the results of the CISS score for the injured hand. Of note, wrist extension was significantly better with patent arteries. Conclusions: Sixty-seven percent of arterial repairs remained patent at 6 years (mean) follow-up. The presence of nerve injury has a higher impact on the outcome metrics assessed in this study than arterial patency. Our modification of the CISS score enhances its utility as a survey of cold intolerance. PMID:26893976

  15. Autogenic-Feedback Training: A Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance in Aerospace Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.; Stevenson, J.; Maloney, S.; Knapp, J.

    1994-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

  16. Does Homeschooling or Private Schooling Promote Political Intolerance? Evidence from a Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend civil liberties to people who hold views with which one disagrees. Some have claimed that private schooling and homeschooling are institutions that propagate political intolerance by fostering separatism and an unwillingness to consider alternative viewpoints. I empirically test this claim by…

  17. Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of Ambiguity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, David M.; And Others

    The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld

  18. Hypersensitivity to Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Children and Adolescents: Cross-Intolerance Reactions.

    PubMed

    Blanca-Lpez, N; Cornejo-Garca, J A; Plaza-Sern, M C; Doa, I; Torres-Jan, M J; Canto, G; Padilla-Espaa, L; Kidon, M; Perkins, J R; Blanca, M

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used worldwide and are responsible for several types of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in all age groups. The 2 major groups of DHRs to NSAIDs are those induced by immunological mechanisms (selective reactions) and those where inflammatory mediators are released through activation of the prostaglandin-leukotriene pathway without specific immunological recognition (cross-intolerance). In the present review, we focus on cross-intolerance reactions, which are the most frequent DHRs and are becoming a topic of major interest in children and adolescents. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are the drugs that most frequently cause DHRs in children; other NSAIDs are responsible for reactions in adolescents. In vivo and in vitro tests are of limited diagnostic value, with some exceptions for the less common selective reactions. In cross-intolerance, the clinical history and controlled administration are in many instances the only way to establish a diagnosis and look for alternatives. The clinical history is diagnostic when consistent symptoms occur repeatedly after exposure to NSAIDs with different chemical structures. Cutaneous and respiratory symptoms often co-occur in young children. The natural history of these reactions in children is unknown, and some patients can develop tolerance over time. Atopy remains a major risk factor for cross-intolerant reactions. The increasing interest in hypersensitivity to NSAIDs with improvements in patient phenotyping and the information provided by pharmacogenetics will improve our understanding and management of these reactions in the near future. PMID:26310040

  19. Novel MTND1 mutations cause isolated exercise intolerance, complex I deficiency and increased assembly factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, GrainneS.; Blakely, EmmaL.; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Tuppen, HelenA.L.; Greaves, LauraC.; He, Langping; Baker, Angela; Falkous, Gavin; Newman, Jane; Trenell, MichaelI.; Lecky, Bryan; Petty, RichardK.; Turnbull, DougM.; McFarland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular characterization of two adults with progressive exercise intolerance and severe isolated mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency due to novel MTND1 mutations. We demonstrate compensatory CI assembly factor up-regulation probably partially rescuing the clinical phenotype. PMID:25626417

  20. Sarcopenic obesity and the pathogenesis of exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2015-06-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF) in older adults. The primary chronic symptom in patients with HFpEF, even when well compensated, is severe exercise intolerance. Cardiac and peripheral functions contribute equally to exercise intolerance in HFpEF, though the latter has been the focus of fewer studies. Of note, multiple studies with exercise training have shown that exercise intolerance can improve significantly in the absence of improvements in exercise cardiac output, indicating a role of peripheral, noncardiac adaptations. In addition, clinical drug trials performed to date in HFpEF, all of which have focused on influencing cardiovascular function, have not been positive on primary clinical outcomes and most have not improved exercise capacity. Mounting evidence indicates that sarcopenic obesity, characterized by the coexistence of excess fat mass and decreased muscle mass, could contribute to the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in older HFpEF patients and may provide avenues for novel treatments. PMID:25750186

  1. Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.

    2013-01-01

    The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant

  2. Spectroscopic and structural studies on lactose species in aqueous solution combining the HATR and Raman spectra with SCRF calculations.

    PubMed

    Mrquez, Mara Jimena; Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Davies, Lilian; Brandn, Silvia Antonia

    2015-04-30

    In this work, the ? and ? isomers, the ?-lactose monohydrate and dihydrate and the dimeric species of lactose were studied from the spectroscopic point of view in gas and aqueous solution phases combining the infrared, Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance (HATR) and Raman spectra with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Aqueous saturated solutions of ?-lactose monohydrate and solutions at different molar concentrations of ?-lactose monohydrate in water were completely characterized by infrared, HATR and Raman spectroscopies. For all the species in solution, the solvent effects were studied using the solvation polarizable continuum (PCM) and solvation (SM) models and, then, their corresponding solvation energies were predicted. The vibrational spectra of those species in aqueous solution were completely assigned by employing the Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology and the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations. The stabilities of all those species were studied by using the natural bond orbital (NBO), and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations. PMID:25704196

  3. Study of whey fermentation by kefir immobilized on low cost supports using 14C-labelled lactose.

    PubMed

    Soupioni, Magdalini; Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-10-01

    Brewer's Spent Grains (BSG) and Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR) were used as supports for kefir cells immobilization and the role of lactose uptake rate by kefir in the positive activity of produced biocatalysts during whey fermentation was investigated. Lactose uptake rate by the immobilized cells was recorded using (14)C-labelled lactose and the effect of various conditions (pH, temperature and kind of support) on it and consequently on fermentation time and ethanol production was examined. The results showed that lactose uptake rate was correlated to fermentation rate and increased as temperature was increased up to 30C at pH 5.5. The same results have been recently noticed by using biocatalysts with Delignified Cellulosic Materials (DCM) and Gluten Pellets (GP), but fermentation time of about 7h by kefir immobilized on DCM and BSG resulted to two fold lower than that on GP and MSR. The highest alcohol concentration was observed by MSR. PMID:23385156

  4. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  5. Synthesis of PEGylated lactose analogs for inhibition studies on T.cruzi trans-sialidase.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, M Eugenia; Ratier, Laura; Agusti, Rosala; Frasch, Alberto C C; de Lederkremer, Rosa M

    2010-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, expresses a unique enzyme, the trans-sialidase (TcTS) involved in the transfer of sialic acid from host glycoconjugates to mucins of the parasite. The enzyme is shed to the medium and may affect the immune system of the host. We have previously described that lactose derivatives effectively inhibited the transfer of sialic acid to N-acetyllactosamine. Lactitol also prevented the apoptosis caused by the TcTS, although it is rapidly eliminated from the circulatory system. In this paper we report covalent conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with lactose, lactobionolactone and benzyl beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-2-amino-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (1) with the hope to improve the bioavailability, though retaining their inhibitory properties. Different conjugation methods have been used and the behavior of the PEGylated products in the TcTS reaction was studied. PMID:20645127

  6. Crystal growth mechanisms of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.

  7. Batch and continuous synthesis of lactulose from whey lactose by immobilized ?-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoon Seok; Lee, Hee Uk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2013-01-15

    In this study, lactulose synthesis from whey lactose was investigated in batch and continuous systems using immobilized ?-galactosidase. In the batch system, the optimal concentration of fructose for lactulose synthesis was 20%, and the effect of galactose, glucose and fructose on ?-galactosidase activity was determined for hydrolysis of whey lactose and the transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis. Galactose and fructose were competitive inhibitors, and glucose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of galactose and glucose were stronger in the transgalactosylation reaction than they were in the hydrolysis reaction. In addition, when immobilized ?-galactosidase was reused for lactulose synthesis, its catalytic activity was retained to the extent of 52.9% after 10 reuses. Lactulose was synthesized continuously in a packed-bed reactor. We synthesized 19.1g/l lactulose during the continuous flow reaction at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. PMID:23122115

  8. Quinolone resistance and ornithine decarboxylation activity in lactose-negative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gomig, Franciane; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; de Freitas, Denis Leandro; Labas, Larissa; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Esmerino, Luiz Antonio; de Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Appel, Marcia Helena; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Nader, Helena Bonciani; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials primarily involves mutations in gyrA and parC genes. To date, no studies have examined the potential relationship between biochemical characteristics and quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E. coli strains. The present work analyzed the quinolone sensitivity and biochemical activities of fifty-eight lactose-negative uropathogenic E. coli strains. A high percentage of the isolates (48.3%) was found to be resistant to at least one of the tested quinolones, and DNA sequencing revealed quinolone resistant determining region gyrA and parC mutations in the multi-resistant isolates. Statistical analyses suggested that the lack of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is correlated with quinolone resistance. Despite the low number of isolates examined, this is the first study correlating these characteristics in lactose-negative E. coli isolates. PMID:26413057

  9. Transgalactosylation of lactose for synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides using Kluyveromyces marxianus NCIM 3551.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Mishra, Saroj; Chand, Subhash

    2015-06-25

    Among a number of yeast strains screened for whole cell transgalactosylating activity, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCIM 3551 was found to be most suitable biocatalyst for production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Cell permeabilization lead to an efficient bioconversion by β-galactosidase resulting in synthesis of GOS. A maximum GOS yield of 36% (w/w) of total sugars was achieved and the products consisted of tri- and tetra-galacto-oligosaccharides. A lactose conversion rate of 80% and productivity of 24g/L/h was obtained under the optimum conditions at lactose concentration of 20% (w/v), temperature 40°C, pH 6.5 and enzyme units after 3h of reaction time. Tetrasaccharides were the main component of the reaction mixture. The products were quantitated by HPLC and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. PMID:25976627

  10. Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

    1998-06-01

    At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

  11. Nucleation of Alpha lactose monohydrate induced using flow through a venturi orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, J. S.; Paterson, A. H. J.; Bronlund, J. E.; Jones, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    Nucleation is a determinant of the final crystal size distribution produced during a crystallization process. Other studies in the literature have shown that mixing influences alpha lactose monohydrate nucleation. To investigate this in more detail, three different sized Venturi orifices were used to provide a point of passive mixing for supersaturated lactose solutions. This system allowed the study of different factors associated with characterising the mixing process, including cavitation, power input, Reynolds number and vortex formation. A strong relationship was found between the number of vortices created in the system and the nucleation rate. It is speculated that the vortices decrease the distance required for diffusion of molecules in the system, increasing the rate at which they can come together to form a stable nuclei.

  12. Defining the critical material attributes of lactose monohydrate in carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines %?

  13. Relation between dietary-induced increase of intestinal lactase activity and lactose digestion and absorption in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Leichter, J; Goda, T; Bhandari, S D; Bustamante, S; Koldovsk, O

    1984-12-01

    To study the relation between dietary-induced increase of intestinal lactase activity and lactose absorption, 11-wk-old rats were fed either a high-starch (70 cal%), low-fat (7 cal%) diet or a low-starch (5 cal%), high-fat (73 cal%) diet for 7 days. Food intake and body weight changes were similar in the two dietary groups. In the first experiment, lactose absorption was studied in vivo after oral administration of 600 mg lactose (10% solution in water with added [3H]PEG) to rats fasted for 16 h. Groups of rats were killed at time 0 and at 1-h intervals for the next 3 h. Lactase activity and lactose absorption were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in the high-starch group than in the low-starch group. In the subsequent experiment, 9-wk-old rats were fed the two isocaloric diets for 3 days. By use of the everted sac technique, we have demonstrated a significantly higher absorption of monosaccharides from lactose in the high-starch diet group; also, glucose transport was higher in the high-starch diet-fed animals. When Tris, an inhibitor of lactase, was added into the mucosal fluid, absorption of lactose was abolished and no effect was seen on glucose absorption (in vivo and in vitro). In both experiments, significant linear regression was established between lactase activity and lactose absorption. Our results thus show that the increase in lactase activity, induced by feeding a high-starch diet to adult rats, is accompanied by an increased capacity to hydrolyze lactose and absorb the constituent monosaccharides. PMID:6439052

  14. Intermittent hypoxia-induced glucose intolerance is abolished by ?-adrenergic blockade or adrenal medullectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Devera, Ronald; Yao, Qiaoling; Mesarwi, Omar; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep and is associated with dysregulation of glucose metabolism. We developed a novel model of clinically realistic IH in mice to test the hypothesis that IH causes hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance via activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Mice were exposed to acute hypoxia of graded severity (21, 14, 10, and 7% O2) or to IH of graded frequency [oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of 0, 15, 30, or 60, SpO2 nadir 80%] for 30 min to measure levels of glucose fatty acids, glycerol, insulin, and lactate. Glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests were then performed under each hypoxia condition. Next, we examined these outcomes in mice that were administered phentolamine (?-adrenergic blockade) or propranolol (?-adrenergic blockade) or that underwent adrenal medullectomy before IH exposure. In all experiments, mice were maintained in a thermoneutral environment. Sustained and IH induced hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in a dose-dependent fashion. Only severe hypoxia (7% O2) increased lactate, and only frequent IH (ODI 60) increased plasma fatty acids. Phentolamine or adrenal medullectomy both prevented IH-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. IH inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and phentolamine prevented the inhibition. Propranolol had no effect on glucose metabolism but abolished IH-induced lipolysis. IH-induced insulin resistance was not affected by any intervention. Acutely hypoxia causes hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in a dose-dependent manner. During IH, circulating catecholamines act upon ?-adrenoreceptors to cause hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. PMID:25315697

  15. Frequency and prognostic value of resistance/intolerance to hydroxycarbamide in 890 patients with polycythaemia vera.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Kerguelen, Ana; Hernández-Boluda, Juan C; Pérez-Encinas, Manuel; Ferrer-Marín, Francisca; Bárez, Abelardo; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Cuevas, Beatriz; Mata, M Isabel; García-Gutiérrez, Valentín; Aragües, Pilar; Montesdeoca, Sara; Burgaleta, Carmen; Caballero, Gonzalo; Hernández-Rivas, J Angel; Durán, M Antonia; Gómez-Casares, M Teresa; Besses, Carles

    2016-03-01

    The clinical significance of resistance/intolerance to hydroxycarbamide (HC) was assessed in a series of 890 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). Resistance/intolerance to HC was recorded in 137 patients (15·4%), consisting of: need for phlebotomies (3·3%), uncontrolled myeloproliferation (1·6%), failure to reduce massive splenomegaly (0·8%), development of cytopenia at the lowest dose of HC to achieve a response (1·7%) and extra-haematological toxicity (9%). With a median follow-up of 4·6 years, 99 patients died, resulting in a median survival of 19 years. Fulfilling any of the resistance/intolerance criteria had no impact on survival but when the different criteria were individually assessed, an increased risk of death was observed in patients developing cytopenia [Hazard ratio (HR): 3·5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·5-8·3, P = 0·003]. Resistance/intolerance had no impact in the rate of thrombosis or bleeding. Risk of myelofibrotic transformation was significantly higher in those patients developing cytopenia (HR: 5·1, 95% CI: 1·9-13·7, P = 0·001) and massive splenomegaly (HR: 9·1, 95% CI: 2·3-35·9, P = 0·002). Cytopenia at the lowest dose required to achieve a response was also an independent risk factor for transformation to acute leukaemia (HR: 20·3, 95% CI: 5·4-76·5, P < 0·001). In conclusion, the unified definition of resistance/intolerance to HC delineates a heterogeneous group of PV patients, with those developing cytopenia being associated with an adverse outcome. PMID:26898196

  16. Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15?kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259?T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370

  17. High ethanol productivity from lactose by immobilized cells of Kluyveromyces fragilis and Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, P; Kamini, N R

    1991-09-01

    Ethanol production from 200 g lactose/l by Kluyveromyces fragilis immobilized in calcium alginate was 63 g/l whereas with co-immobilized K. fragilis and Zymomonas mobilis 72 g ethanol/l was attained. With free cells of K. fragilis, only 52 g ethanol/l was obtained. The beads were relatively stable without significant reduction in activity for about six batches of fermentation. PMID:24425196

  18. A consideration of the range and strength of interparticle forces in coated lactose powder.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, C; Pilpel, N

    1988-12-01

    A study has been made of the range and strength of interparticle forces in lactose powder coated with increasing concentrations of paraffins at different temperatures. Marked changes occurred in these forces as the paraffin content was altered and the temperature increased from -10 degrees to +50 degrees C. The strength and range of interparticle forces depended on the mechanical properties of the coating materials and the surface free energy of the coated powders. PMID:2907572

  19. Impact of lactose starvation on the physiology of Lactobacillus casei GCRL163 in the presence or absence of tween 80.

    PubMed

    Al-Naseri, Ali; Bowman, John P; Wilson, Richard; Nilsson, Rolf E; Britz, Margaret L

    2013-11-01

    The global proteomic response of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei strain GCRL163 under carbohydrate depletion was investigated to understand aspects of its survival following cessation of fermentation. The proteome of L. casei GCRL163 was analyzed quantitatively after growth in modified MRS (with and without Tween 80) with different levels of lactose (0% lactose, starvation; 0.2% lactose, growth limiting; 1% lactose, non-growth-limited control) using gel-free proteomics. Results revealed that carbohydrate starvation lead to suppression of lactose and galactose catabolic pathways as well as pathways for nucleotide and protein synthesis. Enzymes of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, amino acid synthesis, and pyruvate and citrate metabolism become more abundant as well as other carbohydrate catabolic pathways, suggesting increased optimization of intermediary metabolism and scavenging. Tween 80 did not affect growth yield; however, proteins related to fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the presence of Tween 80. The data suggest that L. casei adeptly switches to a scavenging mode, using both citrate and Tween 80, and efficiently adjusts energetic requirements when carbohydrate starved and thus can sustain survival for weeks to months. Explaining the adaptation of L. casei during lactose starvation will assist efforts to maintain viability of L. casei and extend its utility as a beneficial dietary adjunct and fermentation processing aid. PMID:24066708

  20. Is cow's milk suitable for the dietary supplementation of rural Gambian children? 1. Prevalence of lactose maldigestion.

    PubMed

    Erinoso, H O; Hoare, S; Spencer, S; Lunn, P G; Weaver, L T

    1992-01-01

    To define the age-related prevalence of lactose maldigestion (LM), 218 children aged 13-72 months from a rural Gambian village were studied using a lactose breath hydrogen test. There was a significant rise in LM from 21% to 76% between the 2nd and 3rd-5th years of life (p < 0.001). Only eight children had diarrhoea within 2 weeks before the test. Diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort followed in only seven children (3%). There was no difference in mean time of introduction of supplementary diet or cessation of breastfeeding between children aged 12-36 months with lactose digestion and LM. There was a greater proportion of children with normal lactose digestion than with LM in those still receiving breast milk (85% vs 15%), and a greater proportion of LM in the fully weaned group (63% vs 37%) (p < 0.001). There was no relation between weight-for-age or weight-for-height and the ability to digest lactose. The ability to digest lactose is lost in the majority of children during the 2nd year, coincident with the cessation of breastfeeding, but is not a major factor associated with growth failure thereafter. PMID:1283664

  1. Lactose-hydrolyzed milk is more prone to chemical changes during storage than conventional ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Therese; Clausen, Morten R; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Eggers, Nina; Nyegaard, Steffen; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Sundgren, Anja; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

    2014-08-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose gives rise to reactions that change the chemistry and quality of ambient-stored lactose-hydrolyzed ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare chemical changes in lactose-hydrolyzed and conventional UHT milk during a 9 month ambient storage period. Several complementary analyses of volatiles, free amino acids, acetate, furosine, and level of free amino terminals were concluded. The analyses revealed an increased level of free amino acids and an increased formation rate of specific compounds such as furosine and 2-methylbutanal in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk compared to conventional UHT milk during storage. These observations indicate more favorable conditions for Maillard and subsequent reactions in lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to conventional UHT milk stored at ambient temperature. Furthermore, it is postulated that proteolytic activity from the lactase-enzyme preparation may be responsible for the observed higher levels of free amino acids in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk. PMID:25019952

  2. Evaluation of melt rheology of lactose-filled polyethylene glycol composites by means of capillary rheometery.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Bahareh; Motlagh, Ghodratollah H; Majidi S, Shabnam; Kaffashi, Babak; Nojoumi, Seyed A; Haririan, Ismaeil

    2013-02-01

    In this study melt rheological behavior of lactose-filled polyethylene glycol (PEG) composites as a low melting polymeric carrier for controlled release drugs was investigated using a capillary rheometer. The effect of lactose concentration and process variables such as temperature and ram speed on the flow behavior of PEG has been studied. The composites were found to be shear thinning in behavior when extruded, and the results were well described by power-law model in each case. Stronger shear thinning behavior was observed by raising the filler concentration and decreasing the temperature, while the flow index has been decreased. In all compositions a significant increase in shear viscosity was found by an increase in the filler content. In fact, shear viscosity increased linearly by weight fraction of filler, but there was a dramatic increase after the filler content raised above 20 wt% of lactose which might be the result of the strong interaction among filler particles. Furthermore, decreasing the process temperature resulted in an increase in shear viscosity, and the temperature dependence of shear viscosity decreased as the shear rate increased. The extensional viscosity of composites was calculated in each case. The results showed that the ratio of the extensional viscosity to shear viscosity was in the range of 500-1200. PMID:22141378

  3. [Preparation of budesonide sustained-release dry powder for inhalation and influence of lactose content].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng-lin; Wang, Xiu-hua; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Lan; Muenster, Uwe; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-09-01

    Using high pressure homogenization method combined with spray-drying, budesonide-loaded chitosan microparticles were prepared and the in vitro release profile was investigated. The microparticles were then blended with lactose using a vortex mixer, influence of mixing speed, mixing time on drug recovery rate and content homogeneity were investigated. Meanwhile, influence of lactose content on drug recovery rate, content homogeneity, powder flowability and in vitro deposition were studied. It turned out that budesonide was released from the microparicles in a sustained manner, with fine particle fraction as high as 46.0%, but the powder flowability was poor. After blending with 10 times of lactose, the drug recovery rate was 96.5%, with relative standard deviation of drug content 2.5%, and fine particle fraction of the formulation increased to 59.6% with good flowability. It's demonstrated that using a vortex mixer, budesonide sustained-release dry powder for inhalation with good recovery and content homogeneity could be prepared, the formulation had good flowability and was suitable for pulmonary inhaling. PMID:26757557

  4. Improving functionality of whole egg powder by the addition of gelatine, lactose, and pullulan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mehmet; Ko, Banu; Susyal, Gonca; Yilmazer, Melike Sakin; Ba?datl?o?lu, Neriman; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2011-01-01

    The addition of gelatine (G), lactose (L), pullulan (P), and their mixtures at equal ratios (gelatine + lactose [GL] and gelatin + pullulan [GP]) to whole egg prior to drying was studied. Their effects on the functional properties (emulsion and gelling ability, water holding capacity of gel, foaming, color) and soluble protein content of spray dried egg powder during the 6 mo of storage at 20 C and 50% relative humidity were investigated. It was demonstrated that the emulsion and foaming stability, water holding capacity of gel, and color change were significantly affected by the storage time, whereas storage time did not affect the strength of gel texture prepared by egg powders. Gelatine and pullulan improved the foaming stability and water holding capacity. Lactose caused a decrease in emulsion and foaming stability values. The maximum color change was observed for the plain egg powder, showing that mixing whole egg with carbohydrate- and/or protein-based additives before the drying process preserved the color of egg powder. Adding carbohydrate and/or protein caused significant changes in functional properties of egg powder. PMID:22416722

  5. Binding of spin-labeled galactosides to the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Klai, T; Hideg, K; Altenbach, C; Hubbell, W L; Kaback, H R

    2000-09-19

    A series of nitroxide spin-labeled alpha- or beta-galactopyranosides and a nitroxide spin-labeled beta-glucopyranoside have been synthesized and examined for binding to the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Out of the twelve nitroxide spin-labeled galactopyranosides synthesized, 1-oxyl-2, 5, 5-trimethyl-2-[3-nitro-4-N-(hexyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranosid-1 -yl )]aminophenyl pyrrolidine (NN) exhibits the highest affinity for the permease based on the following observations: (a) the analogue inhibits lactose transport with a K(I) about 7 microM; (b) NN blocks labeling of single-Cys148 permease with 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino) naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS) with an apparent affinity of about 12 microM; (c) electron paramagnetic resonance demonstrates binding of the spin-labeled sugar by purified wild-type permease in a manner that is reversed by nonspin-labeled ligand. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(D)) is about 23 microM and binding stoichiometry is approximately unity. In contrast, the nitroxide spin-labeled glucopyranoside does not inhibit active lactose transport or labeling of single-Cys148 permease with MIANS. It is concluded that NN binds specifically to lac permease with an affinity in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, affinity of the permease for the spin-labeled galactopyranosides is directly related to the length, hydrophobicity, and geometry of the linker between the galactoside and the nitroxide spin-label. PMID:10985783

  6. Milk, yogurt, and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Wenru; Sang, Lei; Dai, Xiaoli; Wei, Danping; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer. PMID:25298278

  7. The intolerance to functional genetic variation of protein domains predicts the localization of pathogenic mutations within genes.

    PubMed

    Gussow, Ayal B; Petrovski, Slav; Wang, Quanli; Allen, Andrew S; Goldstein, David B

    2016-01-01

    Ranking human genes based on their tolerance to functional genetic variation can greatly facilitate patient genome interpretation. It is well established, however, that different parts of proteins can have different functions, suggesting that it will ultimately be more informative to focus attention on functionally distinct portions of genes. Here we evaluate the intolerance of genic sub-regions using two biological sub-region classifications. We show that the intolerance scores of these sub-regions significantly correlate with reported pathogenic mutations. This observation extends the utility of intolerance scores to indicating where pathogenic mutations are mostly likely to fall within genes. PMID:26781712

  8. Glucose intolerance associated with hypoxia in people living at high altitudes in the Tibetan highland

    PubMed Central

    Okumiya, Kiyohito; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wenling; Kato, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kasahara, Yoriko; Fujisawa, Michiko; Wada, Taizo; Wang, Hongxin; Dai, Qingxiang; Xu, Huining; Qiao, Haisheng; Ge, Ri-Li; Norboo, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Ando, Kazuo; Inamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shinya; Ishine, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the association between glucose intolerance and high altitudes (2900–4800 m) in a hypoxic environment in Tibetan highlanders and to verify the hypothesis that high altitude dwelling increases vulnerability to diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerated by lifestyle change or ageing. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study on Tibetan highlanders. Participants We enrolled 1258 participants aged 40–87 years. The rural population comprised farmers in Domkhar (altitude 2900–3800 m) and nomads in Haiyan (3000–3100 m), Ryuho (4400 m) and Changthang (4300–4800 m). Urban area participants were from Leh (3300 m) and Jiegu (3700 m). Main outcome measure Participants were classified into six glucose tolerance-based groups: DM, intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG), normoglycaemia (NG), fasting DM, fasting IHG and fasting NG. Prevalence of glucose intolerance was compared in farmers, nomads and urban dwellers. Effects of dwelling at high altitude or hypoxia on glucose intolerance were analysed with the confounding factors of age, sex, obesity, lipids, haemoglobin, hypertension and lifestyle, using multiple logistic regression. Results The prevalence of DM (fasting DM)/IHG (fasting IHG) was 8.9% (6.5%)/25.1% (12.7%), respectively, in all participants. This prevalence was higher in urban dwellers (9.5% (7.1%)/28.5% (11.7%)) and in farmers (8.5% (6.1%)/28.5% (18.3%)) compared with nomads (8.2% (5.7%)/15.7% (9.7%)) (p=0.0140/0.0001). Dwelling at high altitude was significantly associated with fasting IHG+fasting DM/fasting DM (ORs for >4500 and 3500–4499 m were 3.59/4.36 and 2.07/1.76 vs <3500 m, respectively). After adjusting for lifestyle change, hypoxaemia and polycythaemia were closely associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, hypoxaemia and the effects of altitudes >3500 m play a major role in the high prevalence of glucose intolerance in highlanders. Tibetan highlanders may be vulnerable to glucose intolerance, with polycythaemia as a sign of poor hypoxic adaptation, accelerated by lifestyle change and ageing. PMID:26908520

  9. Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

  10. EvoTol: a protein-sequence based evolutionary intolerance framework for disease-gene prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Rackham, Owen J. L.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Petretto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Methods to interpret personal genome sequences are increasingly required. Here, we report a novel framework (EvoTol) to identify disease-causing genes using patient sequence data from within protein coding-regions. EvoTol quantifies a gene's intolerance to mutation using evolutionary conservation of protein sequences and can incorporate tissue-specific gene expression data. We apply this framework to the analysis of whole-exome sequence data in epilepsy and congenital heart disease, and demonstrate EvoTol's ability to identify known disease-causing genes is unmatched by competing methods. Application of EvoTol to the human interactome revealed networks enriched for genes intolerant to protein sequence variation, informing novel polygenic contributions to human disease. PMID:25550428

  11. [Debating histamine intolerance: are adverse reactions to histamine-containing foods fact or fiction?].

    PubMed

    Reese, I

    2014-06-01

    Low-histamine diets are very popular and often self-imposed among people suspecting histamine intolerance. Most of these diets avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on their quality of life, but in most cases no long-term benefit. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release could also be responsible for symptoms. The role of ingested histamine-below the level for intoxication-is discussed controversially. However, it is obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance. If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergists and nutritionists. PMID:24898510

  12. Developing scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU): a new perspective on transdiagnostic.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; McEvoy, Peter M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Brandt, Charles P; Boelen, Paul A; Mahoney, Alison E J; Deacon, Brett J; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-04-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a construct of growing prominence in literature on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Existing measures of IU do not define the uncertainty that respondents perceive as distressing. To address this limitation, we developed eight scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU) relating to various anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. We used exploratory factor analysis and item characteristic curves in two large undergraduate samples (Ns=627 and 628) to derive eight three-item DSIU scales (24 items total) that exhibited excellent psychometric properties. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structures of the scales and the transdiagnostic nature of IU. Each scale predicted unique variance in its respective symptom measure beyond a traditional measure of IU. DSIU represents a theoretically proximal and causal intermediary between known vulnerability factors and disorder symptomatology. The DSIU scales can be used to advance theories of psychopathology and inform case conceptualization and treatment planning. PMID:25728016

  13. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups. PMID:23909701

  14. Cassia cinnamon for the attenuation of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance resulting from sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Jitomir, Jean; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological investigations reveal a concomitant increase in sleep loss and metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, over the past several decades. An increasing body of scientific evidence indicates that acute sleep loss induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance profiles similar to those of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Experimentally, cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) supplementation facilitates glucose disposal in healthy humans, which may be achieved by enhancing (1) insulin sensitivity via increased phosphorylation of signaling proteins and (2) insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4-mediated glucose uptake into muscle cells. Because peripheral insulin resistance is primarily a consequence of reduced muscle insulin sensitivity, C. cassia and C. cassia extracts may attenuate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed following sleep loss. PMID:19627193

  15. Cutting-edge issues in celiac disease and in gluten intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, N; Tozzoli, R; Villalta, D; Fabris, M; Tonutti, E

    2012-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-dependent immune-mediated disease with a prevalence in the general population estimated between 0.3% and 1.2%. Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that only 10-20% of cases of CD are identified on the basis of clinical findings and that laboratory tests are crucial to identify subjects with subtle or atypical symptoms. The correct choice and clinical use of these diagnostic tools may enable accurate diagnosis and early recognition of silent CD cases. In this review, we have considered some relevant aspects related to the laboratory diagnosis of CD and, more extensively, of gluten intolerance, such as the best combination of tests for early and accurate diagnosis, the diagnostic role of new tests for detecting antibodies against neoepitopes produced by the transglutaminase-gliadin complex, the forms of non-celiac gluten intolerance (gluten sensitivity), and the use and significance of measuring cytokines in CD. PMID:21181303

  16. The diagnosis and management of cow milk protein intolerance in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Whitney Merrill; Allen, Patricia Jackson

    2005-01-01

    Cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI) affects 3% of infants under the age of 12 months and is often misdiagnosed as GERD or colic, risking dangerous exposure to antigens. Most infants out grow CMPI by 12 months; however, those with IgE-mediated reactions usually continue to be intolerant to cow's milk proteins and also develop other allergens including environmental allergens that cause asthmatic symptoms. Clinical manifestations of CMPI include diarrhea, bloody stools, vomiting, feeding refusal, eczema, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, allergic rhinitis, coughing, wheezing, failure to thrive, and anaphylaxis. The research and literature showed that CMPI is easily missed in the primary care setting and needs to be considered as a cause of infant distress and clinical symptoms. This article focuses on correctly diagnosing CMPI and managing it in the primary care setting. PMID:16411542

  17. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats?

    PubMed Central

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?2-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2> 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. PMID:24103449

  18. Muscle Histidine-Containing Dipeptides Are Elevated by Glucose Intolerance in Both Rodents and Men

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, Sanne; Everaert, Inge; Deldicque, Louise; Vallova, Silvia; de Courten, Barbora; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef; Derave, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscle carnosine and its methylated form anserine are histidine-containing dipeptides. Both dipeptides have the ability to quench reactive carbonyl species and previous studies have shown that endogenous tissue levels are decreased in chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Design and Methods Rodent study: Skeletal muscles of rats and mice were collected from 4 different diet-intervention studies, aiming to induce various degrees of glucose intolerance: 45% high-fat feeding (male rats), 60% high-fat feeding (male rats), cafeteria feeding (male rats), 70% high-fat feeding (female mice). Body weight, glucose-tolerance and muscle histidine-containing dipeptides were assessed. Human study: Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis in 35 males (9 lean, 8 obese, 9 prediabetic and 9 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients) and muscle carnosine and gene expression of muscle fiber type markers were measured. Results Diet interventions in rodents (cafeteria and 70% high-fat feeding) induced increases in body weight, glucose intolerance and levels of histidine-containing dipeptides in muscle. In humans, obese, prediabetic and diabetic men had increased muscle carnosine content compared to the lean (+21% (p>0.1), +30% (p<0.05) and +39% (p<0.05), respectively). The gene expression of fast-oxidative type 2A myosin heavy chain was increased in the prediabetic (1.8-fold, p<0.05) and tended to increase in the diabetic men (1.6-fold, p = 0.07), compared to healthy lean subjects. Conclusion Muscle histidine-containing dipeptides increases with progressive glucose intolerance, in male individuals (cross-sectional). In addition, high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance was associated with increased muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in female mice (interventional). Increased muscle carnosine content might reflect fiber type composition and/or act as a compensatory mechanism aimed at preventing cell damage in states of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:25803044

  19. Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Ertl, A. C.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension. There is a predilection for younger rather than older adults and for women more than men. Its cause is unknown; partial sympathetic denervation or hypovolemia has been proposed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma renin activity, perhaps from defects in sympathetic innervation of the kidney, could underlie a hypovolemia, giving rise to these clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had orthostatic intolerance, together with a raised upright plasma norepinephrine (> or = 600 pg/mL). Patients underwent a battery of autonomic tests and biochemical determinations. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the blood volume and plasma renin activity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). The tachycardic response to upright posture correlated with the severity of the hypovolemia. There was also a correlation between the plasma renin activity measured in these patients and their concomitant plasma aldosterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance.

  20. TREATMENT STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH STATIN INTOLERANCE: THE CLEVELAND CLINIC EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Mampuya, Warner M.; Frid, David; Rocco, Michael; Huang, Julie; Brennan, Danielle M.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Cho, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Statin therapy is a proven effective treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, a significant number of patients cannot tolerate statins. This study was conducted to review treatment strategies for patients intolerant to statin therapy with a focus on intermittent statin dosing. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 1605 patients referred to the Cleveland Clinic Preventive Cardiology section for statin intolerance between January 1995 and March 2010 with at least a six-month follow-up. The changes in lipid profile, achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals and statin tolerance rate were analyzed. 72.5% of patients with prior statin intolerance were able to tolerate a statin for the median follow-up time of 31 months. Patients on intermittent statin dosing (n=149) had significantly lower LDL-C reduction compared to daily dosing group (n=1014) (21.34.0% vs 27.71.4%, p<0.001). But compared to the statin discontinued group (n=442), they had a significantly higher LDL-C reduction (21.34.0% vs 8.32.2%, p<0.001), and a significantly higher portion achieved their ATPIII goal of LDL-C (61% vs 44%, p<0.05). There was a trend toward a decrease in all-cause mortality at 8 years for patients on daily and intermittent statin dosing compared with those who discontinued statin (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS The majority of patients with previous statin intolerance can tolerate subsequent trial of statin. A strategy of intermittent statin dosing can be an effective therapeutic option in some patients and may result in reduction in LDL-C and achievement of LDL-C goals. PMID:24016512

  1. A case of chlorpheniramine maleate-induced hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, So-Hee; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic disease, such as allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema. Although several previous reports describe hypersensitivity to antihistamines such as cetirizine and hydroxyzine, documented cases of chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old Korean woman who presented with urticaria after ingesting a cold medication. Over the previous 5 years, she had also experienced a food allergy to crab and shrimp, allergic rhinitis, and repeated urticaria after ingesting cold medication. Provocation with aspirin elicited generalized urticaria. Intravenous chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone was injected for symptom control, but in fact appeared to aggravate urticaria. A second round of skin and provocation tests for chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone showed positive results only for chlorpheniramine. She was diagnosed with aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity, and was instructed to avoid these drugs. To date, this is the second of only two cases of chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance. Although the relationship between aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity is unclear, physicians should be aware of the possibility of urticaria or other allergic reactions in response to antihistamines. PMID:21217928

  2. Does the use of glycerin laxatives decrease feeding intolerance in preterm infants?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vibhuti; Chirinian, Nevart; Lee, Shoo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycerin laxatives are often prescribed in the neonatal population for meconium evacuation and to promote enteral feeding. However, the literature regarding their effectiveness has not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of glycerin enema or suppository in preventing feeding intolerance in preterm infants at ≤32 weeks’ gestational age or weighing ≤1500 g at birth. METHODS: The Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched to identify studies that evaluated glycerin enemas/suppositories for feeding intolerance. Using the Evidence Evaluation Worksheet adapted from the American Heart Association’s International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, eligible studies were scored for quality, level of evidence and direction of support. RESULTS: Two clinical studies that evaluated meconium evacuation and feeding intolerance were included. One study showed no difference in the time to complete meconium evacuation or establishment of full enteral feeds, while the other showed that the times to first meconium passage and full enteral feeding were significantly shorter, and the rate of sepsis was lower in the glycerin enema group. CONCLUSION: The evidence regarding the effectiveness of glycerin laxatives for improving feeding tolerance is inconclusive in infants at ≤32 weeks’ gestational age or weighing ≤1500 g at birth. PMID:23115504

  3. Nitric oxide in microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance: relevance to spinal cord injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, N. D.; Purdy, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in cardiovascular deconditioning which is marked by orthostatic intolerance in the returning astronauts and recovering bed-ridden patients. Recent studies conducted in our laboratories at University of California, Irvine have revealed marked elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the kidney, heart, brain, and systemic arteries coupled with significant reduction of NO production in the cerebral arteries of microgravity-adapted animals. We have further demonstrated that the observed alteration of NO metabolism is primarily responsible for the associated cardiovascular deconditioning. Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently complicated by orthostatic intolerance that is due to the combined effects of the disruption of efferent sympathetic pathway and cardiovascular deconditioning occasioned by prolonged confinement to bed. In this presentation, I will review the nature of altered NO metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. The possible relevance of the new findings to orthostatic intolerance in patients with acute SCI and its potential therapeutic implications will be discussed.

  4. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  5. Artificial gravity: a possible countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Moore, Steven T; Diedrich, Andr; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None of the astronauts who were centrifuged had orthostatic intolerance when tested with head-up passive tilt after flight. Thus, centrifugation may also have helped maintain post-flight hemodynamic responses to orthostasis by preserving the gain of the otolith-sympathetic reflex. A comparison with two fellow Neurolab orbiter crewmembers not exposed to artificial gravity provided some support for this hypothesis. One of the two had hemodynamic changes in response to post-flight tilt similar to orthostatically intolerant subjects from previous missions. More data is necessary to evaluate this hypothesis, but if it were proven correct, in-flight short-radius centrifugation may help counteract orthostatic intolerance after space flight. PMID:15835033

  6. Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose with and without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Latulippe, Marie E.; Skoog, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provided in tests for malabsorption, which is thought to be a key cause of intolerance, often exceeds the normal physiological absorption capacity for this sugar. To help health professionals accurately identify and treat this condition, this article reviews clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance (i.e., malabsorption that manifests with symptoms) relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake. Because simultaneous consumption of glucose attenuates fructose malabsorption, information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided. PMID:21793722

  7. Contributions of MSNA and stroke volume to orthostatic intolerance following bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether the altered orthostatic tolerance following 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) was related to inadequate sympathetic outflow or to excessive reductions in cardiac output during a 10- to 15-min head-up tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography), and stroke volume blood velocity (SVV, Doppler ultrasound) were assessed during supine 30 degrees (5 min) and 60 degrees (5-10 min) HUT positions in 15 individuals who successfully completed the pre-HDBR test without evidence of orthostatic intolerance. Subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT, n = 9) or intolerant (OI, n = 6) following the post-HDBR test. MSNA, BP, and SVV during supine and HUT postures were not altered in the OT group. Hypotension during 60 degrees HUT in the post-bed rest test for the OI group (P < 0.05) was associated with a blunted increase in MSNA (P < 0.05). SVV was reduced following HDBR in the OI group (main effect of HDBR, P < 0.02). The data support the hypothesis that bed rest-induced orthostatic intolerance is related to an inadequate increase in sympathetic discharge that cannot compensate for a greater postural reduction in stroke volume.

  8. Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.

  9. Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, B; Sykura, B; Zunft, H J; Blaut, M

    1997-05-01

    Constipation is an ailment encountered often in elderly people. A study was initiated to test the effects of lactose or inulin on the bowel habits of constipated elderly patients and to correlate these effects with several variables measured in feces such as microflora composition, concentration of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), pH, and the activities of beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase, Groups of 15 and 10 patients received lactose and inulin, respectively, for a period of 19 d. The dose, 20 g/d from days 1 to 8, was gradually increased to 40 g/d from days 9 to 11 and was kept at this dose from days 12 to 19. There was considerable interindividual variations with this kind of dietary intervention. Inulin increased bifidobacteria significantly from 7.9 to 9.2 log10/g dry feces, but decreased enterococci in number and enterobacteria in frequency. In individuals consuming lactose, a noticeable increase in fecal counts of enterococci and a decrease in lactobacilli and clostridia was detected. Total bacterial counts remained unchanged. No changes in the concentrations of fecal SCFAs and lactate were observed. SCFAs showed a slight trend toward higher molar ratios of acetate to butyrate in response to the intake of lactose or inulin. The fecal pH and the beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase activities were not influenced by sugar intake. Inulin showed a better laxative effect than lactose and reduced functional constipation with only mild discomfort. PMID:9129468

  10. Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-09-01

    In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using β-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

  11. Direct pelletization in a rotary processor controlled by torque measurements. III. Investigation of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose grade.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of different grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and lactose in a direct pelletization process in a rotary processor. For this purpose, a mixed 2- and 3-level factorial study was performed to determine the influence of the particle size of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (approximately 60 and 105 microm) and lactose (approximately 30, 40, and 55 microm), as well as MCC type (Avicel and Emcocel) on the pelletization process and the physical properties of the prepared pellets. A 1:4 mixture of MCC and lactose was applied, and granulation liquid was added until a 0.45 Nm increase in the torque of the friction plate was reached. All combinations of the 3 factors resulted in spherical pellets of a high physical strength. The particle size of MCC was found to have no marked effect on the amount of water required for agglomerate growth or on the size of the resulting pellets. An increasing particle size of lactose gave rise to more spherical pellets of a more narrow size distribution as well as higher yields. The MCC type was found to affect both the release of the model drug from the prepared pellets and the size distribution. Generally, the determined influence of the investigated factors was small, and direct pelletization in a rotary processor was found to be a robust process, insensitive to variations in the particle size and type of MCC and the particle size of lactose. PMID:16354010

  12. The surface roughness of lactose particles can be modulated by wet-smoothing using a high-shear mixer.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Franca; Cocconi, Daniela; Bettini, Ruggero; Giordano, Ferdinando; Santi, Patrizia; Tobyn, Michael; Price, Robert; Young, Paul; Caramella, Carla; Colombo, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The surface morphology of a-lactose monohydrate particles was modified by a new wet-smoothing process performed in a high-shear mixer using solvents. Successive steps of wetting and drying of lactose powders during rolling in the mixer's cylindrical bowl were performed. Smoothed particles were tested for size distribution, flow, and packing. The wet-smoothing process flattened the surface and rounded the edges of lactose particles. In comparison with original lactose, an improvement of powder packing and flow properties was evidenced. When the process was performed in the presence of a ternary agent such as magnesium stearate, the smoothing was improved. The evolution of rugosity during the smoothing process was assessed through a fractal descriptor of SEM picture. Atomic force microscopy and surface area measurements quantified the surface rugosity. A very significant reduction of the rugosity, more remarkable in the presence of magnesium stearate, was measured. This new process of powder wet-smoothing allows the preparation of lactose particles with different degrees of smoothed surface for the control of flow and packing properties and particle-particle interactions. PMID:15760057

  13. Effect of Dairy and Nondairy Calcium on Fecal Fat Excretion in Lactose Digester and Maldigester Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchowski, Maciej S.; Aslam, Muhammad; Dossett, Cynthia; Dorminy, Cindy; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose maldigestion is not known. Objective To investigate the effect of dairy and nondairy dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose digesters and maldigesters during moderate energy restriction. Design A randomized cross-over trial comparing the effect of 500 mg vs. 1500 mg dairy and nondairy calcium on fecal fat excretion in 34 healthy adults during moderate (? 30%) energy restriction diet-induced weight loss for 12 weeks. The participants were classified as lactose digester or maldigester on the basis of breath hydrogen test. Measurements Anthropometric parameters and body composition, resting energy expenditure, energy and nutrient intake, fecal fat, physical activity, blood pressure, blood and urine sampling for pertinent measurements. Results Fecal fat loss expressed as percent of fat intake was significantly higher with 1500 mg (high-Ca) compared to 500 mg (low-Ca) calcium intake per day (mean: 3.0%; the 95% CI: 2.3 to 3.7%; P <0.001) independent of calcium source and lactose digestion status. Conclusions During moderate energy restriction induced weight loss a high-Ca diet causes an increase in fecal fat excretion independent of calcium source. Calcium intake related fecal fat loss is also independent of the ability to digest lactose and it is not diminished over time. PMID:19823185

  14. Production, purification, and characterization of a potential thermostable galactosidase for milk lactose hydrolysis from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Chen, H; Xia, Y; Zhao, J; Tian, F; Zhang, H

    2008-05-01

    Beta-galactosidase, commonly named lactase, is one of the most important enzymes used in dairy processing; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose to its constituent monosaccharides glucose and galactose. Here, a thermostable beta-galactosidase gene bgaB from Bacillus stearothermophilus was cloned and expressed in B. subtilis WB600. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a combination of heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography techniques. The purified beta-galactosidase appeared as a single protein band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE gel with a molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa. Its isoelectric point, determined by polyacryl-amide gel isoelectric focusing, was close to 5.1. The optimum temperature and pH for this beta-galactosidase activity were 70 degrees C and pH 7.0, respectively. Kinetics of thermal inactivation and half-life times for this thermostable enzyme at 65 and 70 degrees C were 50 and 9 h, respectively, and the K(m) and V(max) values were 2.96 mM and 6.62 micromol/min per mg. Metal cations and EDTA could not activate this thermostable enzyme, and some divalent metal ions, namely, Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Sn(2+), inhibited its activity. Thiol reagents had no effect on the enzyme activity, and sulfhydryl group blocking reagents inactivated the enzyme. This enzyme possessed a high level of transgalactosylation activity in hydrolysis of lactose in milk. The results suggest that this recombinant thermostable enzyme may be suitable for both the hydrolysis of lactose and the production of galactooligosaccharides in milk processing. PMID:18420605

  15. Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. )

    1993-07-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

  16. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

  17. Studies of gene control regions. III. Binding of synthetic and modified synthetic lac operator DNAs to lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Yansura, D G; Goeddel, D V; Cribbs, D L; Caruthers, M H

    1977-03-01

    Chemically synthesized lactose operator DNA was tested for binding with lactose repressor protein. These operator DNAs were found to (1) bind specifically to lactose SQ repressor as measured by release of binding with the inducing ligand isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside, (2) have dissociation half-lives of 37 seconds (21 base-paired duplex) and 46 seconds (26 base-paired duplex) and (3) have dissociation half-lives with x86 repressor of 9 minutes (21 base-paired duplex) and 18 minutes (26 base paired duplex). Modified operators containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine and deoxyuridine at specific sites were also prepared. These analogs bound both repressors about as tightly as the wild type sequence. PMID:866187

  18. Lactose inhibits regulatory T-cell-mediated suppression of effector T-cell interferon-? and IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno

    2014-12-14

    Our interest in lactose as an immunomodulatory molecule results from studies showing that lactose binds to galectin-9, which has been shown to have various regulatory functions in the immune system including regulation of T-cell responses. Impaired regulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 type immune responses and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in many human immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lactose on immune regulation using co-cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived Treg and effector T cells (Teff) obtained from twenty healthy adults. Treg, i.e. CD4+CD25+CD127-, were isolated from PBMC by immunomagnetic separation. The fraction of CD4+CD127- cells that was depleted of CD25+ cells was used as Teff. Treg and Teff at a ratio 1:5 were activated and the effects of lactose on the secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-17 were analysed using ELISA for protein and quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA. Treg down-regulated the secretion of both IFN-? (8.8-3.9 ng/ml, n 20, P= 0.003) and IL-17 (0.83-0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.04) in co-cultures, while in the presence of lactose the levels of secreted IFN-? and IL-17 remained high and no down-regulation was observed (16.4 v. 3.99 ng/ml, n 20, P< 0.0001, and 0.74 v. 0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.005, respectively). We showed that lactose inhibits human Treg-mediated suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in vitro. PMID:25331548

  19. Continuous lactose fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum--assessment of solventogenic kinetics.

    PubMed

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Salatino, Piero; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    This work reports the results of a series of tests on the specific butanol production rate by Clostridium acetobutylicum continuous cultures. The tests were carried out using lactose as carbon source to mimic cheese-whey. A continuous stirred tank reactor equipped with a microfiltration unit was used. The dilution rate (D) ranged between 0.02 and 0.15h(-1) and the ratio R of the permeate stream rate to the stream fed to the reactor ranged between 14% and 95%. For each set of D and R values, the continuous cultures were characterized in terms of concentration of cells, acids and solvents. Results were processed to assess the concentration of acidogenic cells, solventogenic cells, spores and the specific butanol production rate. The max butanol productivity was 0.5gL(-1)h(-1) at D=0.1h(-1) and R=95%. The butanol productivity referred to solventogenic cells was expressed as a function of concentration of lactose, acids and butanol. PMID:25621726

  20. Transfer of (15)N from oral lactose-ureide to lysine in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan A; Gibson, Neil R; Bundy, Rafe; Hounslow, Angela; Millward, D Joe; Wootton, Stephen A

    2004-09-01

    The metabolic fate of salvaged urea-nitrogen was explored in normal adults who had consumed a diet that provided 36 g protein/day for 7 days. We hypothesised that the colonic microflora utilise nitrogen derived from urea salvage to synthesise lysine in functionally significant amounts for the host. Oral lactose-[(15)N(15)N]ureide is resistant to digestion but is fermented by the colonic microflora to release (15)NH3, which can be used for amino acid synthesis. Prime and intermittent oral doses of lactose-[(15)N(15)N]ureide were ingested for 18 h, urine was collected every 3 h and stools were collected for a further 2 days. Amino acids were isolated from urine and from faecal bacterial protein and the enrichment measured. Compared with baseline values, there was significant enrichment (atoms per cent excess) in faecal bacterial glycine (0.0526), alanine (0.117), lysine (0.0875) and histidine (0.0487), and in urinary glycine (0.016), alanine (0.0144) and lysine (0.0098), but not hisitidine. These data show that the gastrointestinal bacteria can utilise urea-nitrogen in the formation of essential and non-essential amino acids that are available to the host. We estimate that on this low protein diet the amount of lysine from bacterial synthesis and available to the host may be 30 mg/kg/day. These data have important implications for our current perceptions for the dietary requirements for essential amino acids. PMID:15762310