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... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications LactoseIntolerance: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is lactoseintolerance? People who are lactoseintolerant have trouble digesting ...
... diet. Treatment of lactoseintolerance initially involves the elimination of all lactose-containing products from the diet. ... Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Food Allergies Inflammatory Bowel Disease LactoseIntolerance Narcotic Bowel Syndrome Radiation Therapy ...
About LactoseIntolerance For many kids, an ice cream sundae or a cool glass of milk at lunch means an ... a lactoseintolerance, contact your doctor. Who Gets LactoseIntolerance? Lactoseintolerance is more common among people of ...
... is caused by reduced production of lactase after infancy (lactase nonpersistence). If individuals with lactoseintolerance consume ... How common is lactoseintolerance? Lactoseintolerance in infancy resulting from congenital lactase deficiency is a rare ...
... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactoseintolerance managed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... enzyme. With some trial and error, people with lactoseintolerance can learn which milk products and how much ...
... Providers (05-5305B). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. [top] Suchy, F. J., Brannon, P. M., Carpenter, T. O., Fernandez, J. R., Gilsanz, V., Gould, J. B., et al. (2010). NIH consensus development conference statement: Lactoseintolerance and ...
Lactoseintolerance is common in Thai adults who ingest cow's milk but its incidence has not been clearly defined. The authors evaluated 45 volunteers (15 males, 35 females), aged 21-31 yrs old, who drank one 240-ml box of milk daily. A Lactose tolerance test was performed using a breath- hydrogen test (BHT) after oral intake of 25 g of lactose
Pipop Jirapinyo; Nuchnoi Thamonsiri; Renu Wongarn BA
The number of Americans affected by lactoseintolerance is estimated to be between 30 and 50 million people (NDDIC, 2005). Lactoseintolerance is the symptoms experienced when the dose of lactose exceeds the digestive capacity of intestinal lactase (lactose maldigestion). Symptoms of intolerance typically include stomach discomfort, excessive flatulence and soft stool or diarrhea and are dependent on dose of
This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactoseintolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactoseintolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactoseintolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactoseintolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy. PMID:24443063
Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V
... needed to grow and stay healthy. Milk for Kids With LactoseIntolerance Milk is good for kids. You know that. But it is good for ... Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Milk for Kids With LactoseIntolerance ? Serve milk with solid foods: ...
Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the worlds population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactoseintolerance, and its symptomatology and management.
Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair Jose
Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactoseintolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactoseintolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531
Nineteen of 20 healthy Oriental adults living in the United States developed abdominal cramps and diarrhea after ingesting an amount of lactose equivalent to that in one quart of milk; 14 reported similar symptoms after one or two glasses of milk; all had consumed milk as infants without having such symptoms. Two of 20 Caucasians tested were intolerant to milk
In a previous study we observed a clear difference in lactoseintolerance symptoms after a 25-g lactose load in two groups of persons with lactase nonpersistence and similar small intestinal lactase activity. From this observation we hypothesized a colon resistance factor. To identify this factor, the microbial composition of fecal samples of the two lactoseintolerant groups (one with mild
Yan Zhong; Marion G. Priebe; Roel J. Vonk; Cheng-Yu Huang; Jean-Michel Antoine; Tao He; Hermie J. M. Harmsen; Gjalt W. Welling
Lactase, the B-galactosidase enzyme, is responsible for splitting lactose molecule into glucose and galactose. Levels of lactase activity are a crucial determinant of lactoseintolerance. Lactoseintolerance causes diarrhea and subsequent chronically induced diarrhea results in colitis with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation often is linked to etiology of colon cancers. Two other hereditary disorders, uridyl transferase and galactokinase deficiency, such
Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactoseintolerance'. Although lactoseintolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactoseintolerance is not straightforward, especially in primary care. Aim: To summarize available evidence on the diagnostic performance of gastrointestinal symptoms and self-reported milk (lactose) intolerance
P. Jellema; F. G. Schellevis; D. A. W. M. van der Windt; C. M. F. Kneepkens; H. E. van der Horst
Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactoseintolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactoseintolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactoseintolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactoseintolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactoseintolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance.
Pohl, Daniel; Fruhauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark
Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactoseintolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactoseintolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactoseintolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactoseintolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactoseintolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953
Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark
... many people are affected or at risk for lactoseintolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... lactose do not get symptoms. 1 Who gets lactoseintolerance and who is at risk for it? Lactose ...
Background & Aims: Lactose malabsorption per se is not associated with alterations of bone mineral density (BMD) or calcium intake, but when intolerance symptoms are present a lower calcium intake and reduction of BMD values are evident. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether lactoseintolerance interferes with the achievement of an adequate peak bone mass in young
LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactoseintolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactoseintolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and
D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler
Lactoseintolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactoseintolerant. Some populations in Africa
Lactoseintolerance in children is commonly identified by a tolerance test utilizing 2 g lactose/kg body wt. Questions have been raised as to the appropriateness of this level. It has been suggested that levels of 0.6 to 1.3 g lactose/kg, which is the equ...
G. G. Graham D. M. Paige E. Leonardo J. Nakashima B. Adrianzen T
... us LactoseIntolerance Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Do you have rumbling abdominal sounds after eating ... you eliminate milk products from your diet? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...
Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactoseintolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactoseintolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ?19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactoseintolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactoseintolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p < 0.001). A greater proportion used supplements containing calcium (52% vs. 37%, p < 0.001) and vitamin D (58% vs. 46%, p < 0.001), but calcium intakes from the combination of milk products, alternatives, and supplements were lower (739 ± 30 mg·day(-1) vs. 893 ± 13 mg·day(-1), p < 0.0001). Variation in self-reported lactoseintolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactoseintolerant. Regardless of whether lactoseintolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised. PMID:23855270
A "reverse isotope dilution assay" herein, wherein a pathway that produces a given metabolite is assayed by diluting a labelled metabolite produced by a second constitutive pathway. In one aspect, the invention relates to a method for monitoring lactose maldigestion or lactoseintolerance in humans. Specifically, the method requires administering a reverse tracer of labeled glucose and unlabeled lactose to an individual and assessing labeled carbon dioxide in breath or blood. If the lactose is digested, the labeled CO.sub.2 produced by the labeled glucose is diluted by the metabolism of the lactose.
A female stumptail macaque had signs of intermittant diarrhea and chronic weight loss over a 2-year period during which she was fed a commercial laboratory maintenance diet. Intolerance of this individual to lactose, a ubiquitous constituent of most commercial primate diets, was diagnosed on the basis of lactose tolerance tests and favorable clinical response to dietary carbohydrate substitution with glucose.
Objective: To study and compare the incidence of lactoseintolerance among Kuwaiti and Asian healthy volunteers as measured by breath hydrogen level following challenge with lactose drink. Subjects and Methods: The study involved 70 Kuwaiti and 79 Asian healthy volunteers. The volunteers were physicians, medical students and other hospital workers. The study was carried out prospectively at Amiri Hospital, Kuwait.
Hala Al Sanae; Winston Saldanha; T. N. Sugathan; Abdul Majid Molla
Two evaluate the relationship between colonic methane production and carbohydrate malabsorption, we measured end-expiratory methane levels in 70 normal and 40 lactose-intolerant children. Time-dependent excretion of hydrogen and methane was determined every 30 min for 120 min following a fasting oral lactose challenge (2 g\\/kg). Mean breath hydrogen levels in normals (lactose-tolerant) equaled 3.7 parts per million (ppm) throughout the
Marvin S. Medow; Mark S. Glassman; Steven M. Schwarz; Leonard J. Newman
The majority of the world's adult population and an estimated 80 million Americans are hypolactasic and hence malabsorb ingested lactose. Although lactose malabsorption is easily identified, less readily assessed is the clinically important question of how often does this malabsorption induce symptoms. This review summarizes: (1) knowledge concerning the etiology and diagnosis of hypolactasia and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of lactose malabsorption and (2) the results of well-controlled trials of the symptomatic response of lactose malabsorbers to varying dosages of lactose and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions to alleviate these symptoms. We conclude that the clinical significance of lactose malabsorption has been overestimated by both the lay public and physicians in that commonly ingested doses of lactose (ie, the quantity in a cup of milk) usually do not cause perceptible symptoms when ingested with a meal. Symptoms occur when the lactose dosage exceeds that in a cup of milk or when lactose is ingested without other nutrients. Simple dietary instruction, rather than the use of commercial products to reduce lactose intake, is recommended for the vast majority of lactose-malabsorbing subjects. PMID:23632346
The most common cause of apparent ineffectiveness or resistance to treatment with oral levothyroxine (LT(4)) is the result of noncompliance, known as pseudomalabsorption. However, an abnormality in the bioavailability of LT(4) should also be considered in patients requiring large doses of LT(4) to achieve euthyroidism. The incidence of lactoseintolerance in Caucasian adult patients is 7%-20%, but the association with resistance to treatment with oral LT(4) is unusual. We report a 55-year-old woman in whom treatment LT(4) for hypothyroidism was found related to a previously undiagnosed oligo-symptomatic lactoseintolerance, an unusual association. Although rare, intolerance to lactose should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases that can cause malabsorption of LT(4). The possibility of correcting this disorder with simple dietary measures justifies its consideration. PMID:17123345
Lactose tolerance test was performed on 40 children suffering from protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and 10 control children.\\u000a Lactoseintolerance was documented in two cases of kwashiorkor by a flat curve, diarrhea, low stool pH, and presence of reducing\\u000a substances in the stools. Of 38 marasmic children, four had a maximum blood sugar rise below 2030 mg\\/dl, but they did
Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactoseintolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactoseintolerance (real or perceived).
Lactose malabsorption was assessed by the hydrogen breath test in 40 Italian patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 42 controls without abdominal disturbances. Sixty-five percent of patients were low milk consumers (0250 ml milk per day) compared with 38% of controls (PPP<0.05). During a four-month lactose-free diet as the only treatment 7.5% of patients became symptomfree (and remained so for
A. Bozzani; R. Penagini; P. Velio; G. Camboni; A. Corbellini; M. Quatrini; D. Conte; P. A. Bianchi
We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactoseintolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactoseintolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactoseintolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment. PMID:24078411
A number of adults believe they are lactoseintolerant but do not actually have impaired lactose digestion. To assess intervention outcomes, it is important to identify those who are truly lactoseintolerant. We developed a summed Likert rating scale to reflect the underlying latent properties that must be inferred rather than directly observed in screening for lactoseintolerance. Subjects: Over
"Lactoseintolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804
Lactoseintolerance is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 510%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's SH, NH, and OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, Km and Vmax, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel.
The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy tests to identify the offending foods, including "in vivo" and "in vitro" allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy and may indicate a lactoseintolerance, which is a recurrent condition affecting about 50% of adults. The aims of our study were the following: (1) What is the real incidence of the food hypersensitivity and the primary lactoseintolerance in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, initially referred to allergy or food intolerance? (2) Does lactoseintolerance affect the quality of life and compliance to the therapy program? We investigated 262 consecutive patients, 72 men and 190 women. An accurate and detailed history and clinical examination were completed to investigate the offending foods. The evaluation in each patient included: allergy tests, lactose H2 breath test (LHBT) and the HRQoL questionnaire. Five years after the diagnosis of lactoseintolerance, a questionnaire on the persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion and the diet compliance was distributed. Our results demonstrate an high prevalence of lactoseintolerance, more frequent in women; in these patients, bloating and diarrhea are the most reported symptoms. We observe only a significant positive correlation between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and LHBT+ patients, but not an augmented prevalence of food allergy and a negative impact on the HRQoL questionnaire of lactoseintolerance. PMID:21614464
This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactoseintolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.
By means of isotope 47Ca, changes in the rate and intensity of calcium absorption from lactose-free milk and normal milk were investigated as well as 47Ca losses in faeces and urine and Ca retention in the organism during a 7-day period in healthy volunteers and in patients with lactoseintolerance. The shape of 47Ca absorption curves after lactose-free milk in
OBJECTIVES:An increased prevalence of lactoseintolerance is seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recently, we demonstrated a high prevalence of abnormal lactulose breath test results in IBS suggesting bacterial overgrowth. Because symptoms of lactoseintolerance result from bacterial fermentation, the purpose of this study was to determine whether an abnormal lactose breath test is reflective of malabsorption or early presentation
ObjectivesAn increased prevalence of lactoseintolerance is seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recently, we demonstrated a high prevalence of abnormal lactulose breath test results in IBS suggesting bacterial overgrowth. Because symptoms of lactoseintolerance result from bacterial fermentation, the purpose of this study was to determine whether an abnormal lactose breath test is reflective of malabsorption or early presentation
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactoseintolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactoseintolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactoseintolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactoseintolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactoseintolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactoseintolerance. PMID:24079212
Background Lactoseintolerance is a common complication of diarrhoea in infants with malnutrition and a cause of treatment failure. A combination of nutritional injury and infectious insults in severe protein energy malnutrition reduces the capacity of the intestinal mucosa to produce lactase enzyme necessary for the digestion of lactose. The standard management of severe malnutrition involves nutritional rehabilitation with lactose-based high energy formula milk. However, some of these children may be lactoseintolerant, possibly contributing to the high rate of unfavorable treatment outcomes. This study was therefore designed to establish the prevalence of lactoseintolerance and associated factors in this population. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study involving 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea aged 3-60 months was done in Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit (MNU), Mulago hospital between October 2006 and February 2007. Results During the study period, 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea were recruited, 50 (25.5%) of whom had evidence of lactoseintolerance (stool reducing substance ? 1 + [0.5%] and stool pH < 5.5) and it occurred more commonly in children with kwashiorkor 27/75 (36.0%) than marasmic-kwashiorkor 6/25 (24.0%) and marasmus 17/96 (17.7%). Oedematous malnutrition (p = 0.032), perianal skin erosion (p = 0.044), high mean stool frequency (p = < 0.001) and having ?2 diarrhoea episodes in the previous 3 months (p = 0.007) were the independent predictors of lactoseintolerance. Other factors that were significantly associated with lactoseintolerance on bi-variate analysis included: young age of 3-12 months; lack of up to-date immunization; persistent diarrhoea; vomiting; dehydration, and abdominal distension. Exclusive breastfeeding for less than 4 months and worsening of diarrhoea on initiation of therapeutic milk were the other factors. Conclusions The prevalence of lactoseintolerance in this study setting of 25.5% is relatively high. Routine screening by stool pH and reducing substances should be performed especially in the severely malnourished children with diarrhoea presenting with oedematous malnutrition, perianal skin erosion, higher mean stool frequency and having had ?2 diarrhoea episodes in the previous 3 months. Use of lactose-free diets such as yoghurt should be considered for children found to have evidence of lactoseintolerance and whose response on standard therapeutic milk formula is poor.
Background & Aims: Bowel mucosal injury associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment might result in secondary lactoseintolerance. The frequency and clinical significance of 5-FU-related hypolactasia are unknown. Methods: One hundred fifty patients randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy regimens, the Mayo regimen or the simplified de Gramont regimen, were studied for lactose tolerance by using an
Pia Österlund; Tarja Ruotsalainen; Katri Peuhkuri; Riitta Korpela; Anneli Ollus; Minna Ikonen; Heikki Joensuu; Inkeri Elomaa
The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly\\u000a increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy\\u000a tests to identify the offending foods, including in vivo and in vitro allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy\\u000a and may indicate a lactoseintolerance, which
Background Lactoseintolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactoseintolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactoseintolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619.
A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the lactoseintolerance symptoms of lactose maldigesters after consuming lactose (as milk, lactose dissolved in water, milk products, or commercial product) with responses after a placebo under masked conditions. An English language MEDLINE search was conducted using the medical subject heading of ''lactoseintolerance'' from 1966 to January 2002. From an initial 1,553 citations,
Dennis A. Savaiano; Carol J. Boushey; George P. McCabe
Milk and milk products contain high concentrations of the disaccharide lactose (galactose and glucose linked by a beta-galactoside bond). Intestinal absorption of lactose requires that the disaccharide be hydrolyzed to its component monosaccharides, both ...
A. Shaukat B. C. Taylor I. Rutks J. Tacklind M. Levitt R. MacDonald R. L. Kane S. J. Schwarzenberg T. Shamliyan T. J. Wilt
Objective:To study the relationships of molecularly defined lactose malabsorption (LM) and self-reported lactoseintolerance (LI) to bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures among Finnish postmenopausal women.Design:A cross-sectional study of two cohorts.Setting:Helsinki University Central Hospital.Subjects:One cohort was population-based and comprised 453 women, aged 6278 (mean 69) y. Another comprised 52 women, aged 6985 (mean 75) y, with osteoporotic fractures and 59
N Enattah; T Pekkarinen; M J Välimäki; E Löyttyniemi; I Järvelä
... intolerance. On this page: Lactoseintolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose ... are listed on ingredient labels. back to top Gluten intolerance Gluten is a part of wheat, barley, ...
Background & Aims. Lactase non-persistence causes gastrointestinal symptoms after milk ingestion. Hydrogen breath test (BTH) and genotyping of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C>T 13,910 base pairs upstream of the lactase gene represent potential methods for diagnosis of this autosomal-recessive trait. The aim of the study was to compare the results of both tests in detecting lactose non-persistence in a
Marcin Krawczyk; Malgorzata Wolska; Stephanie Schwartz; Frank Gruenhage; Birgit Terjung; Piero Portincasa; Tilman Sauerbruch; Frank Lammert
Objective: To study tolerance to lactose in milk chocolate among symptomatic lactose maldigesters.Design: Randomized cross-over study.Subjects: Twenty-seven adult lactose maldigesters with symptomatic lactoseintolerance.Methods: A 100 g chocolate sample prepared with whole milk (12 g lactose), whole-milk powder (12 g lactose), low-lactose milk powder (2 g lactose) or lactose-free milk powder was eaten after an overnight fast. Gastrointestinal symptoms (flatulence,
Objective To determine whether African-American adolescent girls who were fed a dairy-rich diet for 21 days could adapt to lactose, experiencing an overall improvement in lactose tolerance as well as a decrease in hydrogen gas production.Design Twenty-oneday dietary intervention study.Subjects\\/setting Seventeen of 21 African-American girls (aged 11 to 15 years) enrolled in a calcium metabolism study chose to participate in
BETHANY A PRIBILA; STEVE R HERTZLER; BERDINE R MARTIN; CONNIE M WEAVER; DENNIS A SAVAIANO
Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A), while mean peak H2 levels (74.95?ppm versus 7.85), P < 0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B) were still positive, with the H2 level 20?ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7?ppm versus 66.64), P < 0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C) they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60?ppm). All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability.
Ibba, Ivan; Gilli, Agnese; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo
Carbohydrate intolerance (CI), has been recognized since the beginning of this century as an entity linked with gastrointestinal disorders) More recently, the work of different authors clearly shows that this problem is most frequently associated with diarrheal disease. 2 Clinically there is transient lactoseintolerance and often this intolerance can prolong and increase the severity of the diarrhea and lead
Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary hypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen causes gastrointestinal symptoms. The condition is known as lactoseintolerance. In patients with
Massimo Montalto; Valentina Curigliano; Luca Santoro; Monica Vastola; Giovanni Cammarota; Raffaele Manna; Antonio Gasbarrini; Giovanni Gasbarrini
Objective Kefir is a fermented milk beverage that contains different cultures than yogurt. The objective of this study was to determine whether kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion. Design Randomized block design. Subjects Fifteen healthy, free-living adults with lactose maldigestion. Main outcome measures Breath hydrogen excretion and lactoseintolerance symptoms were monitored hourly for 8
intolerance Table shows the result of administration of 250 mg of lactose digestive enzyme garactose to 20 persons with cow's milk intolerance, before an hour, half an hour of drinking cow's milk, and at the same time with cow's milk. The response of 18 persons was effective, and they did not complain of any symptoms. 2 persons had not diarrhoea,
It has been suggested that lactose malabsorption is an important factor in producing the diarrhoea of acute rotavirus infection. Accordingly, the lactose tolerance of gnotobiotic newborn lambs, infected with lamb rotavirus, has been investigated by clinical studies and tissue enzyme assays. Although lactase activity is low in affected areas of the small intestine, rotavirus infected lambs are not lactoseintolerant as assessed by the measurement of reducing substances in the faeces, or by the clinical effects and blood glucose levels after a 5.8 mmol (2 g)/kg lactose load on the second day post-infection. Lactoseintolerance could be demonstrated by using extremely high (29.2 mmol (10 g)/kg) doses of lactose, three or four times the normal dietary lactose intake. These experiments suggest that lactose-containing feeds (such as maternal milk) are not necessarily contraindicated in patients or animals with rotavirus diarrhoea. PMID:6260597
This paper explores two areas in which the translation of research into practice may be improved in the management of cry-fuss behaviours in the first few months of life. Firstly, babies who cry excessively are often prescribed proton pump inhibitors, despite evidence that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is very rarely a cause. The inaccuracy of commonly used explanatory mechanisms, the side-effects of acid-suppressive medications, and the failure to identify treatable problems, including feeding difficulty when the diagnosis of 'reflux' is applied, are discussed. Secondly, crying breastfed babies are still prescribed lactase or lactose-free formula, despite evidence that the problem of functional lactose overload is one of breastfeeding management. The mechanisms and management of functional lactose overload are discussed. These two problems of research translation need to be addressed because failure to identify and manage other causes of cry-fuss problems, including feeding difficulty, may have adverse outcomes for a small but significant minority of families. PMID:23495859
Food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a particular food or ingredient that may or may not be related to the immune system.\\u000a A deficiency in digestive enzymes can also cause some types of food intolerances like lactose and gluten intolerance. Food\\u000a intolerances may cause unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which usually begin\\u000a about half an
Opinion statement Lactose malabsorption is a syndrome producing constellation of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, diarrhea,\\u000a and sometimes nausea and\\/or vomiting. Primary causes of lactose malabsorption due to loss of intestinal lactase activity include\\u000a genetic\\/racial lactase nonpersistence, congenital lactase deficiency, and developmental lactase deficiency. Secondary lactose\\u000a malabsorption can be caused by any disorder that injures the small intestinal mucosa, such
The research field for applications of lactose hydrolysis has been investigated for several decades. Lactoseintolerance,\\u000a improvement for technical processing of solutions containing lactose, and utilization of lactose in whey are the main topics\\u000a for development of biotechnological processes. We report here the optimization of a hollow-fiber membrane reactor process\\u000a for enzymatic lactose hydrolysis. Lactase was circulated abluminally during luminal
Winfried Neuhaus; Senad Novalin; Mario Klimacek; Barbara Splechtna; Inge Petzelbauer; Alexander Szivak; Klaus D. Kulbe
Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated. PMID:24695892
The intolerance of milk by American Indians and other groups (Thais, Chinese, Filipinos, Melonesians of New Guinea, Australian Aborigines, Black groups of Africa, American Blacks, and Eskimos) due to the lack of the lactose enzyme is discussed in this article. (FF)
Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the worlds population, while secondary hypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen causes gastrointestinal symptoms. The condition is known as lactoseintolerance. In patients with lactase nonpersistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous ?-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, pharmacological and non pharmacological strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation. In this review the usefulness of these approaches is discussed and a therapeutic management with a flow chart is proposed.
The term statin intolerance refers to an inability to use statins because of muscle symptoms or elevated creatine kinase, and the major diagnostic challenge is to unambiguously link these to statin use. Roughly 5% to 10% of statin users develop statin intolerance, and because statin use is expected to increase--especially after recent updated guidelines have expanded the statin benefit groups--adverse effects from statins will become a growing issue. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology--and even the terminology--of statin-related muscle injury lacks clarity. Several risk factors have been identified, including advanced age, family history of myopathy and statin dose; many cases manifest only after patients are administered an interacting medication (e.g., azole antifungals, cimetidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin and cyclosporine). The diagnosis of myopathy remains challenging, especially because some patients can have normal serum creatine kinase levels despite demonstrable weakness and muscle biopsy-proven statin-induced myopathy. A statin withdrawal and rechallenge helps patients distinguish whether their myalgia symptoms are because of statins, but, in at least 1 clinical trial, even 5% of placebo-treated patients developed myalgias during a controlled withdrawal and rechallenge. No consensus exists for management of patients with statin intolerance. Many patients can eventually tolerate a statin but often at suboptimal doses. A subset of patients do well with nondaily regimens such as every other day or once weekly dosing. Some patients cannot tolerate statins at all, requiring nonstatin lipid-lowering medications--the benefit of which remains unclear with regard to preventing atherosclerotic events. Ultimately, statin intolerance undermines the drug adherence that is critical for achieving the benefits of lifelong lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, statin myopathy is a common challenge in lipid management, and further work is needed to establish a standard diagnostic criterion as well as treatment algorithms. PMID:24792743
Objective To test the hypothesis that complete elimination of lactose is not necessary to ensure tolerance by lactose maldigesters.Design Double-blind, randomized protocol in which challenge doses of 0, 2, 6, 12, and 20g lactose in water were fed to subjects after a 12-hour fast.Subjects 13 healthy, free-living adults who were lactose maldigesters.Main outcome measures Breath hydrogen production (a measure of
STEVEN R. HERTZLER; BAO-CHAU L. HUYNH; DENNIS A. SAVAIANO
Changes in blood glucose and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) following oral lactose tolerance tests (LTT) were measured in three groups of children. In three out of seventeen infants with secondary lactoseintolerance, only a small increase (less than 25 mg\\/100 ml) in glucose was found, but a normal decline (more than 50% of fasting value) in FFA concentration occurred.
Low-lactose milk was produced by incubating cow's milk with yeast lactase. Sixteen lactose tolerant and 15 intolerant volunteers ingested 500 ml of the product twice daily for I month. During the testing period all subjects received on three occasions the same volume of unmodified milk in double-blind tests. Symptoms recorded throughout the study and for an additional 15 day base-line
A. H. R. Cheng; J. Espinoza; H. L. Fones; F. Monckeberg; G. Rand; A. G. Hourigan
Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...
In a two-part article published in this journal in 1969 and 1970 (1, 2), I made an effort to relate the history of milk use to the exciting new medical evidence that revealed striking differences in the incidence of primary adult lactoseintolerance among the world's peoples. My review of the medical literature led to the conclusion that genetic determinants
Lactoseintolerance results in gastrointestinal discomfort and the malabsorption of certain nutrients, such as calcium. The replacement of milk with low-lactose and probiotic-enriched dairy products is an effective strategy of mitigating the symptoms of lactoseintolerance. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) is a safe, immunity-stimulating probiotic. We have developed a process to increase the hydrolysis of lactose and HN001 growth in yogurt versus ?-galactosidase (?G) concentration and enzymatic hydrolysis time (EHT) before bacterial fermentation. The objective of this study was to optimize the conditions by which yogurt is processed as a function of ?G and EHT using a multifactorial design, with lactose content, HN001 growth, process time, and sensory quality as dependent variables. Further, the shelf life of the optimized yogurt was evaluated. In the optimization study, polynomials explained the dependent variables. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients, HN001 growth correlated positively with the hydrolysis of lactose. However, low lactose content and high HN001 count increased the fermentation time and lowered the sensory quality. The optimized conditions-using polynomials to obtain yogurt with >1 × 10(7) cfu of HN001/mL, <10 g of lactose/L, and a minimum overall sensory quality of 7 on the Karlsruhe scale-yielded a theoretical value of 910 neutral lactose units/kg for ?G and 2.3h for EHT, which were validated in an industrial-scale assay. Based on a shelf-life study at 3 temperatures, the hydrolysis of lactose and the growth of HN001 continue during storage. Arrhenius equations were developed for the variables in the shelf-life study. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to develop a low-lactose yogurt to which HN001 has been added for lactose-intolerant persons who wish to strengthen their immune system. PMID:22720912
Ibarra, A; Acha, R; Calleja, M-T; Chiralt-Boix, A; Wittig, E
... include fish with soft bones, such as canned salmon or sardines broccoli and other leafy green vegetables ... liver, and certain kinds of fish, such as salmon. Also, being outside in the sunlight helps your ...
Approximately 70% of the world's population is lactase deficient. This article reviews the evolutionary history of lactase deficiency, recent recommendations to establish screening, and clinical practice guidelines for increased diagnosis of this important, yet often misunderstood condition of malabsorption. PMID:23778177
Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350
... help make our programs possible. Chef to Plate Restaurant Awareness Program The Gluten Intolerance Groups annual gluten-free awareness campaign for restaurants will take place in May, National Celiac Awareness ...
Background Lactoseintolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactoseintolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Results A thermostable ?-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase activity was 100°C and pH 6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. Conclusions The thermostablity of this recombinant ?-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization.
Discusses what food allergy and food intolerances are, possible allergic reactions, most common foods to which people are allergic, who is most susceptible, how it is diagnosed, and how it is treated. Includes graphic illustrations and b-roll. Based on me...
Statins are the revolutionary drugs in the cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. But they also possess several adverse effects like myopathy with elevation of hepatic transaminases (>3 times the upper limit of normal) or creatine kinase (>10 times the upper limit of normal) and some rare side-effects, including peripheral neuropathy, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and erectile dysfunction. Due to these adverse effects, patients abruptly withdrew statins without consulting physicians. This abrupt discontinuation of statins is termed as statin intolerance. Statin-induced myopathy constitutes two third of all side-effects from statins and is the primary reason for statin intolerance. Though statin intolerance has considerably impacted cardiovascular outcomes in the high-risk patients, it has been well effectively managed by prescribing statins either as alternate-day or once weekly dosage regimen, as combination therapy with a non-statin therapy or and by dietary intervention. The present article reviews the causes, clinical implications of statin withdrawal and management of statin intolerance. PMID:24381870
An assessment was made of the efficacy of a beta-galactosidase, obtained from Aspergillus niger and added to intact milk, in decreasing lactose malabsorption and intolerance. Sixteen adult patients with malabsorption and intolerance to this sugar were studied in a double-blind crossover study vs. placebo. A 5-hour hydrogen breath test was used to assess malabsorption of lactose contained in 400 ml milk. When compared with placebo, the addition of exogenous lactase to intact milk caused a statistically significant reduction in the maximum breath H2 concentration (P less than 0.01) and in the cumulative H2 excretion (P less than 0.005). In the same way, the cumulative index for gastrointestinal intolerance was significantly lower (P less than 0.005) after the ingestion of lactase-added milk. This study demonstrates that enzyme replacement therapy, with beta-galactosidases obtained from Aspergillus niger, is effective in decreasing lactose malabsorption and its consequent intolerance in adult subjects with lactase deficiency. PMID:1543816
Corazza, G R; Benati, G; Sorge, M; Strocchi, A; Calza, G; Gasbarrini, G
Lactose malabsorption is associated with rapid production of high levels of osmotic compounds, such as organic acids and SCFA in the colon, suspected to contribute to the onset of lactoseintolerance. Adult rats are lactase deficient and the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the metabolic consequences of acute lactose ingestion, including host-microbiota interactions. Rats received diets of 25% sucrose (S25 control group) or 25% lactose (L25 experimental group). SCFA and lactic acid were quantified in intestinal contents and portal blood. Expression of SCFA transporter genes was quantified in the colonic mucosa. Carbohydrate oxidation (Cox) and lipid oxidation (Lox) were computed by indirect calorimetry. Measurements were performed over a maximum of 13 h. Time, diet and time × diet variables had significant effects on SCFA concentration in the caecum (P<0·001, P=0·004 and P=0·007, respectively) and the portal blood (P<0·001, P=0·04 and P<0·001, respectively). Concomitantly, expression of sodium monocarboxylate significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the L25 group (P=0·003 at t = 6 h and P<0·05 at t = 8 h). During 5 h after the meal, the L25 group's changes in metabolic parameters (Cox, Lox) were significantly lower than those of the S25 group (P=0·02). However, after 5 h, L25 Cox became greater than S25 (P=0·004). Thus, enhanced production and absorption of SCFA support the metabolic changes observed in calorimetry. These results underline the consequences of acute lactose malabsorption and measured compensations occurring in the host's metabolism, presumably through the microbiota fermentations and microbiota-host interactions. PMID:23321004
Exercise intolerance (EI) is a frequent cause of medical attention, although it is sometimes difficult to come to a final diagnosis. However, there is a group of patients in whom EI is due to a metabolic dysfunction. McArdle's disease (type V glucogenosis) is due to myophosphorylase (MPL) deficiency. The ischemic exercise test shows a flat lactate curve. The most frequent mutations in the PYGM gene (MPL gene) in Spanish patients with MPL deficiency are R49X and W797R. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is invariably associated to repetitive episodes of myoglobinuria triggered by exercise, cold, fever or fasting. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of CPT II deficiency in muscle. The most frequent mutation in the CPT2 gene is the S113L. Patients with muscle adenylate deaminase deficiency usually show either a mild myopathy or no symptom. The diagnosis is based on the absence of enzyme activity in muscle and the lack of rise of ammonia in the forearm ischemic exercise test. The mutation Q12X in the AMPD1 gene is strongly associated with the disease. Exercise intolerance is a common complaint in patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) deficiencies, although it is often overshadowed by other symptoms and signs. Only recently we have come to appreciate that exercise intolerance can be the sole presentation of defects in the mtDNA, particularly in complex I, complex III, complex IV, or in some tRNAs. In addition, myoglobinuria can be observed in patients under statin treatment, particularly if associated with fibrates, due to an alteration in the assembly of the complex IV of the MRC. PMID:12838448
An X-ray structure of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) in an inward-facing conformation has been solved. LacY contains N- and C-terminal domains, each with six transmembrane helices, positioned pseudosymmetrically. Ligand is bound at the apex of a hydrophilic cavity in the approximate middle of the molecule. Residues involved in substrate binding and H+ translocation are aligned parallel to the membrane at the same level and may be exposed to a water-filled cavity in both the inward- and outward-facing conformations, thereby allowing both sugar and H+ release directly into either cavity. These structural features may explain why LacY catalyzes galactoside/H+ symport in both directions utilizing the same residues. A working model for the mechanism is presented that involves alternating access of both the sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane.
Two hundred forty-two patients referred for various gastrointestinal complaints were evaluated for clinical parameters that would predict findings of lactose malabsorption. Breath hydrogen and blood glucose lactose tests were performed after ingestion of 50 g lactose. Presenting complaints, duration of symptoms, and patient demographics such as age, sex, and ethnic heritage were not different between lactose malabsorbers and absorbers as
Colonic fermentation plays an important role inthe prevention of lactoseintolerance and intestinaldisorders. The objectives of this study were to evaluatewhether supplementation with bifidobacteria modify colonic fermentation of lactose andshort-chain fatty acid production and to assessinfluence of the pH in an in vitro continuous culturesystem. There was a significantly greater reduction inlactose concentrations at pH 6.7 than that at either
Oral lactose and glucose/galactose loading tests were done in Bantu children convalescing from kwashiorkor and pellagra. Small bowel biopsies and disaccharidase estimations were performed in all except 2 patients. Lactose absorption was more impaired and intestinal lactase levels were lower in the pellagra than in the kwashiorkor group. The fact that diarrhoea after admission to hospital was less common in pellagra than kwashiorkor was ascribed to a lesser lactose load due to the early introduction of a mixed diet in the former group, in comparison with milk feeds only in the latter group. The absence of troublesome diarrhoea while on moderate quantities of lactose in the diet, in the presence of low intestinal lactase levels, but evidence of lactose malabsorption after loading, has a bearing on preventive and therapeutic nutrition programmes in non-Caucasian children. Lactase deficiency is not necessarily synonymous with symptomatic lactoseintolerance if the threshold is not exceeded. Concern is expressed that excessive caution against the use of milk may lead to a worsening of infantile malnutrition in developing countries.
Prinsloo, J. G.; Wittmann, W.; Kruger, H.; Freier, E.
Adverse drug reactions appear during the clinical use of a drug and constitute a health problem, as they are an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality. In addition, they constitute a major drawback for drug development. Intolerance processes occurring after administration of low drug doses are known as idiosyncratic reactions or as hypersensitivity reactions; the most commonly accepted mechanism for immunological activation is the hapten hypothesis. Most drugs are not reactive per se towards proteins, hence in a number of cases bioactivation seems to be a prerequisite for adduct formation and the subsequent hypersensitivity reaction. Although biotransformation is normally associated with a decreased toxicity, metabolites are sometimes more toxic and reactive than the parent drug. Drug metabolizing enzymes develop their activities especially in liver, where reactive metabolites bind to proteins inducing hepatotoxicity, whereas in skin keratinocytes exhibit the highest biotransformation capability. In the present review, some specific examples of the toxicological consequences of drug biotransformation are given. They include nimesulide, metamizol, celecoxib, paracetamol, dapsone, sulfamethoxazole, amodiaquine, nevirapine, troglitazone, zileuton, felbamate, panadiplon, benzbromarone, fipexide and flutamide. In general, these examples are taken from the recent scientific literature, mostly published during the last decade. PMID:20214587
Andreu, Inmaculada; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Miranda, Miguel A
The research field for applications of lactose hydrolysis has been investigated for several decades. Lactoseintolerance, improvement for technical processing of solutions containing lactose, and utilization of lactose in whey are the main topics for development of biotechnological processes. We report here the optimization of a hollow-fiber membrane reactor process for enzymatic lactose hydrolysis. Lactase was circulated abluminally during luminal flow of skim milk. The main problem, the growth of microorganisms in the enzyme solution, was minimized by sterile filtration, ultraviolet irradiation, and temperature adjustment. Based on previous experiments at 23 +/- 2 degrees C, further characterization was carried out at 8 +/- 2 degrees C, 15 +/- 2 degrees C (beta-galactosidase), and 58 +/- 2 degrees C (thermostable beta-glycosidase) varying enzyme activity and flow rates. For a cost-effective process, the parameters 15 +/- 2 degrees C, 240 U/mL of beta-galactosidase, an enzyme solution flow rate of 25 L/h, and a skim milk flow rate of about 9 L/h should be used in order to achieve an aimed productivity of 360 g/(L x h) and to run at conditions for the highest process long-term stability. PMID:16891662
Neuhaus, Winfried; Novalin, Senad; Klimacek, Mario; Splechtna, Barbara; Petzelbauer, Inge; Szivak, Alexander; Kulbe, Klaus D
Transport of lactose into Kluyveromyces lactis was accomplished by a highly specific system inducible by lactose and galactose. The biosynthesis of the transport enzyme was strongly repressed by glucose. For non-induced cells, lactose penetrated by passive transport, like galactose in any type of cells. The lactose transport showed aK (m) 1.2 -4 mm, was temperature-dependent (76 kJ/mol) and was blocked by metabolic inhibitors. PMID:18425681
Lactose malabsorption was studied in 41 American Indians of various tribes. There were 36 adults (age 18 to 57 years) and 5 children (age 3 to 22 months). Thirty-seven had only an oral lactose tolerance test (LTT), two had only an assay of intestinal enzymes, and two had both the LTT and assay. LTTs were performed using 1 g lactose\\/kg
Wild-type strains of the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are unable to use lactose as a carbon source for growth although they possess a beta-galactosidase activity. Lactose-fermenting derivatives from some wild types, however, can be obtained spontaneously at a frequency of about 5 X 10(-7). All Lac+ derivatives isolated had acquired a constitutive lactose transport system and most contained an inducible beta-galactosidase. The transport system, product of the lmrT gene, mediates uptake of lactose in the Lac+ derivatives and also appears to be able to mediate uptake of melibiose, raffinose, and galactose. Two genes encoding beta-galactosidase enzymes were detected in E. chrysanthemi strains. That mainly expressed in the wild-type strains was the lacZ product. The other, the lacB product, is very weakly expressed in these strains. These enzymes showed different affinities for the substrates o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside and lactose and for the inhibitors isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and galactose. The lmrT and lacZ genes of E. chrysanthemi, together with the lacI gene coding for the regulatory protein controlling lacZ expression, were cloned by using an RP4::miniMu vector. When these plasmids were transferred into Lac- Escherichia coli strains, their expression was similar to that in E. chrysanthemi. The cloning of the lmrT gene alone suggested that the lacZ or lacB gene is not linked to the lmrT gene on the E. chrysanthemi chromosome. One Lac+ E. chrysanthemi derivative showed a constitutive synthesis of the beta-galactosidase encoded by the lacB gene. This mutation was dominant toward the lacI lacZ cloned genes. Besides these mutations affecting the regulation of the lmrT or lacB gene, the isolation of structural mutants unable to grow on lactose was achieved by mutagenic treatment. These mutants showed no expression of the lactose transport system, the lmrT mutants, or the mainly expressed beta-galactosidase, lacZ mutants. The lacZ mutants retained a very low beta-galactosidase level, due to the lacB product, but this level was low enough to permit use of the lacZ mutants for the construction of gene fusions with the Escherichia coli lac genes.
Dairy propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest for their role as starters in cheese technology and as well as their functions as probiotics. Previous studies have demonstrated that Propionibacterium acidipropionici metabolize lactose by a ?-galactosidase that resists the gastrointestinal transit and the manufacture of a Swiss-type cheese, so that could be considered for their inclusion in a probiotic product assigned to intolerant individuals. In the present work we studied the effect of the sequential addition of lactose and lactate as first or second energy sources on the growth and ?-galactosidase activity of P. acidipropionici Q4. The highest ?-galactosidase activity was observed in a medium containing only lactate whereas higher final biomass was obtained in a medium with lactose. When lactate was used by this strain as a second energy source, a marked increase of the intracellular pyruvate level was observed, followed by lactate consumption and increase of specific ?-galactosidase activity whereas lactose consumption became negligible. On the contrary, when lactose was provided as second energy source, lactic acid stopped to be metabolized, a decrease of the intracellular pyruvate concentration was observed and ?-galactosidase activity sharply returned to a value that resembled the observed during the growth on lactose alone. Results suggest that the relative concentration of each substrate in the culture medium and the intracellular pyruvate level were decisive for both the choice of the energetic substrate and the ?-galactosidase activity in propionibacteria. This information should be useful to decide the most appropriate vehicle to deliver propionibacteria to the host in order to obtain the highest ?-galactosidase activity. PMID:22202442
This paper reports an investigation of factors concerned in the hydrol- ysis of lactose by acids, including a study of the solubility of mixtures of glucose and galactose and of methods for the production of hydrolyzed lactose sirups. By hydro!yzing lactose into its more soluble hexose con- stituents, higher sugar concentrations could be obtained in some dairy prod- ucts which
There are remarkably few reports on D-arabitol production from lactose. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the osmophilic yeast Kluyveromyces lactis NBRC 1903 convert lactose to extracellular D-arabitol. The present study was undertaken to determine the participation of osmotic stress caused by lactose on D-arabitol production by K. lactis NBRC 1903 and to provide the information on the kinetics of D-arabitol production from lactose by K. lactis NBRC 1903. It was confirmed that D-arabitol production was triggered when an initial lactose concentration was above 278 mmol L(-1). D-Arabitol yield increased with an increase in initial lactose concentration. The highest D-arabitol concentration of 79.5 mmol L(-1) was achieved in the cultivation of K. lactis NBRC 1903 in a medium containing 555 mmol L(-1) lactose and 40 g L(-1) yeast extract. Lactose was found to play two important roles in D-arabitol production by K. lactis NBRC 1903 grown on lactose. First, lactose was assimilated as the substrate both for cell growth and D-arabitol production. Second, a high lactose concentration induced cellular response to high osmotic stress and up-regulated the flow from D-glucose-6-phosphate to D-arabitol. The arrest of cell growth triggered D-arabitol production. PMID:20358191
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a common cause of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption syndrome all over the world. Though it was considered uncommon in India in past, it is being described frequently recently. Some patients with celiac disease do not improve despite gluten free diet (GFD). A study described 15 cases of celiac disease unresponsive to GFD in whom small intestinal
Uday C Ghoshal; Ujjala Ghoshal; Asha Misra; Gourdas Choudhuri
Provided are compositions comprising an opiate analgesic and an active compound containing the R isomer of N-methylnalorphine in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Also provided are methods of treating opiate intolerance by administration of an active compound containing R N-methylnalorphine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The active compound may administered either acutely or chronically to subjects receiving opiate treatment. Further provided are methods of inducing analgesia by administering to a subject an opiate analgesic concurrently with an active compound containing R N-methylnalorphine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642
Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C
One hundred sixteen healthy black children ages 13 to 59 months, representing high and low socioeconomic deciles, were studied for lactose malabsorption. A fasting lactose tolerance test using 2 g of lactose\\/kg of body weight was carried out. Glucose was determined at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mm. Of the 116 preschcolers 34 (29%) evidenced lactose malabsorption as determined by
David M. Paige; Theodore M. Bayless; E. David Meiits; Lenora Davis
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were
This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.
The LacZ gene encoding beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (L. bulgaricus) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli, followed by purification and characterization of the protein. The recombinant enzyme was shown to be a homotetramer and could be distinguished from homologues by its relatively low and broad optimal temperature range, from 35 to 50 degrees C, coupled with an optimal pH of 5.0-5.5. Remarkably, the E491A mutant showed the same optimal temperature, but displayed an optimal pH at 6.5-7.0. Whilst these beta-galactosidases are inhibited by Cu(2+) they require only 1mM Mn(2+) and 1mM Co(2+) for optimal activity and thermostability. The wild-type enzyme was remarkably stable at acid pH values when compared to mutant E491A. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the E491A mutation affected catalysis rather than enzyme affinity. Furthermore, the wild-type protein efficiently cleaved lactose extracted from whey; however, in milk the E491A mutant showed the highest lactose bioconversion rate. Thus, these enzymes are interesting at the industrial level for hydrolysis of lactose extracted from whey or milk, and thus could contribute to overcoming the lactoseintolerance problem generated by milk products. PMID:19786095
Lactoseintolerance is a serious global health problem. A lactose hydrolysis enzyme, thermostable ?-galactosidase, BgaB (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus) has attracted the attention of industrial biologists because of its potential application in processing lactose-containing products. However, this enzyme experiences galactose product inhibition. Through homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we have identified the galactose binding sites in the thermostable ?-galactosidase BgaB (BgaB). The binding sites are formed from Glu303, Asn310, Trp311, His354, Arg109, Phe341, Try272, Asn147, Glu148, and H354; these residues are all important for enzyme catalysis. A ligand-receptor binding model has been proposed to guide site-directed BgaB mutagenesis experiments. Based upon the model and the MD simulations, we recommend mutating Arg109, Phe341, Trp311, Asn147, Asn310, Try272, and His354 to reduce galactose product inhibition. In vitro site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed our predictions. The success rate for mutagenesis was 66.7 %. The best BgaB mutant, F341T, can hydrolyze lactose completely, and is the most promising enzyme for use by the dairy industry. Thus, our study is a successful example of optimizing enzyme catalytic chemical reaction by computer-guided modifying the catalytic site of a wild-type enzyme. PMID:23585056
Handling and storage alter infant food powders due to lactose crystallization and interactions among compo- nents. Model infant foods were prepared by colyophiliza- tion of lactose, ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percent- age of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of infant food powders. The kinetics of crystallization was studied
A. Nasirpour; V. Landillon; B. Cuq; J. Scher; S. Banon; S. Desobry
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) refers to a group of clinical conditions, including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated hypotension (NMH), in which symptoms worsen with upright posture and are ameliorated by recumbence. The main symptoms of chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes include light-headedness, syncope or near syncope, blurring of vision, headaches, problems with short-term memory and concentration, fatigue, intolerance of low impact exercise, palpitations, chest pain, diaphoresis, tremulousness, dyspnea or air hunger, nausea, and vomiting. This review discusses what is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder, potential treatments, and understanding its role in the patient with chronic headache pain. PMID:20541103
Mack, Kenneth J; Johnson, Jonathan N; Rowe, Peter C
Post-flight orthostatic intolerance is a dramatic physiological consequence of human adaptation to microgravity made inappropriate by a sudden return to 1-G. The immediate mechanism is almost always a failure to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, specifically perfusion of the central nervous system, but vestibular dysfunction may occasionally be the primary cause. Orthostatic intolerance is present in a wide range of clinical disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The intolerance that is produced by spaceflight and 1-G analogs (bed rest, head-down tilt at a moderate angle, water immersion) is different from its clinical counterparts by being only transiently present in subjects who otherwise have normal cardiovascular and regulatory systems. However, the same set of basic pathophysiological elements should be considered in the analysis of any form of orthostatic intolerance.
Blomqvist, C. G.; Buckey, J. C.; Gaffney, F. A.; Lane, L. D.; Levine, B. D.; Watenpaugh, D. E.
The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted initial OH and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed.
Purpose To engineer lactose crystals of desired size, shape, surface and particle size distribution (PSD) as a carrier for dry powder\\u000a inhalers (DPI) by ultrasound assisted in-situ seeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Lactose crystals were obtained from solution by ultrasound assisted in-situ seeding, followed by growth in viscous glycerin solution. The crystals were characterized for physical properties and 6390 ?m\\u000a size fractions of different batches were
Ravindra S. Dhumal; Shailesh V. Biradar; Anant R. Paradkar; Peter York
Purpose By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physicalchemical changes are known to occur, leading\\u000a to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability\\u000a of a steroid in the presence of a commonly used excipient, lactose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A steroid was either mixed or wet granulated with lactose with
Florentine Nieuwmeyer; Kees van der Voort Maarschalk; Herman Vromans
The callus of Lemna minor L. (duckweed) is capable of heterotrophic assimilation of galactose and ?-lactose, whereas the intact plant is not. Sucrose-grown callus adapted rapidly, uniformly, and reversibly to utilization of galactose or lactose in heterotrophic growth. Single-nutrient deficiencies of callus growth medium were corrected fully by milk whey; the lactose of milk whey was utilized. Lemna callus grows
The objective of this study was to evaluate the pres- ence or absence of interaction between lactose and ?- lactoglobulin during storage of model whey powders at different water activities (aw). Model whey powders were prepared by colyophilization of lactose with in- creasing quantities of ?-lactoglobulin. These colyophi- lized ?-lactoglobulin:lactose powders, assigned as BL powders, were stored from 0.11 to
The aim of this study was to conduct storage studies on the moisture sorption and caking properties of lactose powder containing different polymorphs (i.e. alpha-monohydrate, alpha-anhydrous unstable, alpha-anhydrous stable, beta-anhydrous) and spray-dried lactose. The dry sample was compacted using a texture analyzer in paper cylinders and stored at relative humidity (RH) of 33%, 43%, 57% and 75% (25 degrees C, for 3 months). The samples were monitored for weight gain, moisture content, alpha/beta balance and hardness. A simple new method of powder compression for measuring the degree of hardness of caked lactose was developed using a texture analyzer. Clear distinctions were found in the storage behavior of the five different samples. Storage at various RHs caused severe caking to beta-lactose anhydrous and spray-dried lactose. The beta-lactose anhydrous was hygroscopic at 75% RH. The spray-dried lactose, which contained some amorphous lactose, was hygroscopic at all RHs studied. Its moisture sorption behavior differed from that of its major component, alpha-lactose monohydrate, by initially absorbing moisture then desorbing. alpha-Lactose monohydrate was less hygroscopic at 75% RH and it formed friable cakes. The alpha-lactose anhydrous stable was hygroscopic at 75% RH and initially formed hard cakes which became friable during storage. The unstable form of anhydrous alpha-lactose was hygroscopic at all levels of RH studied but did not cake. PMID:18485633
Listiohadi, Y; Hourigan, J A; Sleigh, R W; Steele, R J
Objective: To study the frequency and degree of deconditioning, clinical features, and relationship between deconditioning and autonomic parameters in patients with orthostatic intolerance. Methods: We retrospectively studied all patients seen for orthostatic intolerance at Mayo Clinic between January 2006 and June 2011, who underwent both standardized autonomic and exercise testing. Results: A total of 184 patients (84 with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome [POTS] and 100 without orthostatic tachycardia) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 89% were women, and median age was 27.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2237 years). Symptom duration was 4 years (IQR 27.8). Of the patients, 90% had deconditioning (reduced maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max%] <85%) during exercise. This finding was unrelated to age, gender, or duration of illness. The prevalence of deconditioning was similar between those with POTS (95%) and those with orthostatic intolerance (91%). VO2max% had a weak correlation with a few autonomic and laboratory parameters but adequate predictors of VO2max% could not be identified. Conclusion: Reduced VO2max% consistent with deconditioning is present in almost all patients with orthostatic intolerance and may play a central role in pathophysiology. This finding provides a strong rationale for retraining in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. None of the autonomic indices are reliable predictors of deconditioning.
Parsaik, Ajay; Allison, Thomas G.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.
Lactose permease structure is deemed consistent with a mechanical switch device for H+-coupled symport. Because the crystallography-assigned docking position of thiodigalactoside (TDG) does not make close contact with several amino acids essential for symport; the switch model requires allosteric interactions between the proton and sugar binding sites. The docking program, Autodock 3 reveals other lactose-docking sites. An alternative cotransport mechanism is proposed where His-322 imidazolium, positioned in the central pore equidistant (57 Å) between six charged amino acids, Arg-302 and Lys-319 opposing Glu-269, Glu-325, Asp-237, and Asp-240, transfers a proton transiently to an H-bonded lactose hydroxyl group. Protonated lactose and its dissociation product H3O+ are repelled by reprotonated His-322 and drift in the electrostatic field toward the cytosol. This Brownian ratchet model, unlike the conventional carrier model, accounts for diminished symport by H322N mutant; how H322 mutants become uniporters; why exchanging Lys-319 with Asp-240 paradoxically inactivates symport; how some multiple mutants become revertant transporters; the raised export rate and affinity toward lactose of uncoupled mutants; the altered specificity toward lactose, melibiose, and galactose of some mutants, and the proton dissociation rate of H322 being 100-fold faster than the symport turnover rate.
Naftalin, Richard J.; Green, Nicholas; Cunningham, Philip
Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity.
Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity. PMID:21326922
Domingues, Lucília; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Oliveira, Carla
Dairy foods (DFs) contain complex ingredients that could affect different diseases. The control of lactose digestion phenotypically divides populations into those who can [lactase persistent (LP)] and those who cannot [lactase nonpersistent (LNP)] assimilate lactose. LNP subjects, however, can adapt to lactoseintolerance through intestinal bacteria. The DF/LNP status interactions may function as disease risk modifiers. We evaluated the relationship between DF and LNP with colorectal, breast, prostate, ovarian, lung, and stomach cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Yearly per capita DF consumption, LNP national prevalence, cancer mortality, and incidence of IBD were obtained from several sources. A negative binomial regression model was used to derive incremental risks. There were statistically significant (P
This essay argues that some proponents of multicultural education (ME) appear to teach intolerance of certain kinds of speech. The essay argues, in support, the down-playing of tolerance in ME as cultural respect, accommodation, and harmony are stronger candidates as virtues. The essay goes on to point out that ME does not teach cultural
Two hundred patients (156 women) with the irritable bowel syndrome were treated with dietary exclusion for three weeks. Of the 189 who completed this study, 91 (48.2%) showed symptomatic improvement. Subsequent challenge with individual foods showed that 73 of these 91 responders were able to identify one or more food intolerances and 72 remained well on a modified diet during
Expired radiocarbon dioxide has been collected by a simple autotitration method following the ingestion of lactose-1-14C. With this method, which is suitable for clinical use, 12 subjects with alactasia have been readily separated from 24 normals, both groups being defined by strict criteria. This test, which may be used to measure the absorption of other sugars, is especially suitable for population surveys and may be used to investigate the distribution of disaccharidase deficiency. A further advantage is that false low readings resulting from rapid plasma clearance of absorbed sugar do not occur with this method although they may do so in up to one in three lactose tolerance tests, thereby overestimating the prevalence of alactasia.
Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by
Robert Winker; Alfred Barth; Daniela Bidmon; Ivo Ponocny; Michael Weber; Otmar Mayr; David Robertson; Richard Maier; Alex Pilger; Paul Haber; Hugo W. Rudiger
Whey concentrated to 32% lactose was sonicated at 30°C in a non-contact approach at flow rates of up to 12L/min. Applied energy density varied from 3 to 16J/mL at a frequency of 20kHz. Sonication of whey initiated the rapid formation of a large number of lactose crystals in response to acoustic cavitation which increased the rate of crystallisation. The rate of sonocrystallisation was greater than stirring for approximately 180min but slowed down between 120 and 180min as the metastable limit was reached. A second treatment with ultrasound at 120min delivering an applied energy density of 4J/mL stimulated further nuclei formation and the rate of crystallisation was maintained for >300min. Yield on the other hand was limited by the solubility of lactose and could not be improved. The crystal size distribution was narrower than that with stirring and the overall crystal size was smaller. PMID:24792784
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields is a relatively new phenomenon, which is not fully understood. Extensive research has been carried out to exclude or confirm out that symptoms reported by sufferers are caused by electromagnetic field. This article describes outcomes of recent experiments and meta-analyses. The article may answer to the question if electromagnetic field does really cause reported symptoms, furthermore, it provides hypothetical explanation of this phenomenon. Keywords: electromagnetic hypersensitivity - electromagnetic field - nonspecific symptoms - nocebo effect. PMID:24506686
Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.
Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)
Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients. PMID:22120862
Sikka, P; Kapoor, S; Bindra, V K; Sharma, M; Vishwakarma, P; Saxena, K K
The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ?Bé densities as compared with higher initial ?Bé densities.
Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.
Study objective: To determine the digestion and absorption of lactose, a combination of lactose and glucose polymers, and glucose polymers alone in infants born at 28 to 42 weeks of gestation. Design: Each infant received the three carbohydrate solutions (85 gm\\/L concentration) in random order. Setting: Tertiary care urban children's hospital. Interventions: A double-lumen perfusion catheter was placed in the
Treatment of alpha-lactose with certain alcohols (C(1)-C(5)) at temperature of from about 120 C to about 160 C and pressures of from about 150 to 200 psi for sufficient time will result in complete transformation of all forms of alpha-lactose to beta-lact...
Disposal of lactose in whey and whey permeates is one of the most significant problems with regard to economics and environmental impact faced by the dairy industries. The enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by beta-galactosidase constitutes the basis of the most biotechnological processes currently developed to exploit the sugar content of whey. Keeping this in view, lactose hydrolysis in whey was performed using CTAB permeabilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells. Permeabilization of K. marxianus cells in relation to beta-galactosidase activity was carried out using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to avoid the problem of enzyme extraction. Different process parameters (biomass load, pH, temperature, and incubation time) were optimized to enhance the lactose hydrolysis in whey. Maximum hydrolysis (90.5%) of whey lactose was observed with 200 mg DW yeast biomass after 90 min of incubation period at optimum pH of 6.5 and temperature of 40 degrees C. PMID:18431601
Low levels of intestinal lactase activity are found in many otherwise healthy adults and children. Increasing consideration is being given to this problem in children and its implications for continued milk consumption. It has been suggested that continue...
If the many mechanisms of lactose destruction which appear to operate in heated milk are to be understood, some technique of following the phe- nomena with precision must be developed. As yet there is no method with sufficient specificity by which total lactose destruction in heated milk can be measured. Larsen and Gould (5) have demonstrated this in a recent
Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947
Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P
The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality. PMID:24879397
This article from the National Lipid Association Statin Intolerance Panel provides a framework for understanding statin intolerance and makes general recommendations for health professionals. For specific guidance on adverse events related to muscle, liver, cognition, and glucose metabolism, one should refer to the other reports of the Statin Safety Task Force for those topics. Although statin adverse effects rarely lead to permanent sequelae, symptomatic intolerance frequently hinders cardiovascular risk reduction by statins. We emphasize here the advisory role of the clinician helping each patient to make personal decisions on statin tolerability. We identify a pressing need for further research on statin intolerance and make suggestions for research design. PMID:24793444
Guyton, John R; Bays, Harold E; Grundy, Scott M; Jacobson, Terry A
Statins are the first-line pharmacotherapy for cholesterol reduction. Use of these drugs in large randomized clinical trials has consistently shown significant reductions in major vascular events, including death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary revascularization. The updated guidelines for the treatment of high blood cholesterol from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), will lead to an increase in the number of patients taking statins. Hence, the number of cases of statin intolerance may subsequently increase, emphasizing the need to understand and treat this important problem. PMID:24727470
Tompkins, R; Schwartzbard, A; Gianos, E; Fisher, E; Weintraub, H
Sneezing, flush, headache, diarrhea, skin itch, and shortness of breath are symptoms occurring in patients intolerant to wine after drinking one glass of red wine. The role of histamine in wine intolerance was evaluated by a red wine provocation test in 28 patients with a history of wine intolerance and in 10 controls with good tolerance of wine. Patients were challenged with 125 ml red wine (equivalent to 50 micrograms histamine); blood samples were drawn before and after 15 and 30 minutes. Plasma histamine was assessed by a radioimmunoassay. Lung function tests were performed before and after the wine test. Twenty-two of twenty-eight patients had symptoms showing significantly higher plasma histamine levels 30 minutes after wine challenge (p < .01) compared with asymptomatic controls. Basal histamine levels of patients were higher (p < .05) than in controls. A slight asthmatic attack as well as a 30% decrease of FEF 25 was seen in 2/22 patients. Terfenadine premedication significantly eliminated symptoms in 10/12 patients (p < .05) in a subsequent wine test. Histamine assessment was done in 52 wines (red, white, and champagne) and in 17 beers by radioimmunoassay. Histamine levels ranged from 3-120 micrograms/l in white wines; 15-670 micrograms/l in champagnes; 60-3800 micrograms/l in red wines; and 21-305 micrograms/l in beers. Histamine is causing wine intolerance. Patients intolerant to wine seem to have diminished histamine degradation probably based on a deficiency of diamine oxidase. PMID:8005453
Crystal structures of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) reveal twelve, mostly irregular transmembrane ?-helices surrounding a large cavity open to the cytoplasm and a tightly sealed periplasmic side (inward-facing conformation). However, LacY is highly dynamic, and binding of a galactopyranoside causes closing of the inward-facing cavity with opening of a complementary outward-facing cavity. Therefore, the coupled, electrogenic translocation of a sugar and an H+ across the cytoplasmic membrane via LacY very likely involves a global conformational change that allows alternating access of sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane. Here the various biochemical/biophysical approaches that provide strong support for the alternating access mechanism are reviewed. Evidence is also presented indicating that opening of the periplasmic cavity is probably the limiting step for binding as well as transport.
Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H. Ronald
Although histamine intolerance (HIT) is not very frequently encountered, it can have serious consequences. Food intolerance is a non allergic hypersensitivity to food that does not include the immune system even though the symptoms are similar to those of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. HIT apparently develops as a result of an impaired diamine oxidase (DAO) activity due to gastrointestinal disease or through DAO inhibition, as well as through a genetic predisposition which was proven in a number of patients. The intake of histamine-rich foods as well as alcohol or drugs which cause either the release of histamine or the blocking of DAO can lead to various disorders in many organs (gastrointestinal system, skin, lungs, cardiovascular system and brain), depending on the expression of histamine receptors. Dermatologic sequels can be rashes, itch, urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, eczema and even acne, rosacea, psoriasis, and other. Recognizing the symptoms due to HIT is especially important in treating such patients. The significance of HIT in patients with atopic dermatitis in whom the benefit of a low histamine diet has been proven is becoming increasingly understood recently. Because of the possibility of symptoms affecting numerous organs, a detailed history of symptoms following the intake of histamine-rich foods or drugs that interfere with histamine metabolism is essential for making the diagnosis of HIT. Considering that such symptoms can be the result of multiple factors, the existence of HIT is usually underestimated, but considerable expectations are being made from future studies. PMID:23814966
Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Seserko, Ana; Duvanci?, Tomislav; Situm, Mirna; Mihi?, Josip
Distress intolerance is an important transdiagnostic variable that has long been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Self-report measurement strategies for distress intolerance (DI) have emerged from several different models of psychopathology and these measures have been applied inconsistently in the literature in the absence of a clear gold standard. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies and samples, thus hampering the advancement of this research agenda. This study evaluated the latent factor structure of existing measures of DI to examine the degree to which they are capturing the same construct. Results of confirmatory factor analysis in three samples totaling 400 participants provided support for a single-factor latent structure. Individual items of these four scales were then correlated with this factor to identify those that best capture the core construct. Results provided consistent support for 10 items that demonstrated the strongest concordance with this factor. The use of these 10 items as a unifying measure in the study of DI and future directions for the evaluation of its utility are discussed. PMID:22697451
Distress intolerance is an important transdiagnostic variable that has long been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Self-report measurement strategies for distress intolerance have emerged from several different models of psychopathology and these measures have been applied inconsistently in the literature in the absence of a clear gold standard. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies and samples, thus hampering the advancement of this research agenda. This study evaluated the latent factor structure of existing measures of DI to examine the degree to which they are capturing the same construct. Results of confirmatory factor analysis in 3 samples totaling 400 participants provided support for a single factor latent structure. Individual items of these four scales were then correlated with this factor to identify those that best capture the core construct. Results provided consistent supported for 10 items that demonstrated the strongest concordance with this factor. The use of these 10 items as a unifying measure in the study of DI and future directions for the evaluation of its utility are discussed.
PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the DartmouthNorthern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P <.001). Controlling for demographics, patients with chemical intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with nonchemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication intolerances in chemical intolerance, primary care clinicians could use the QEESI to identify patients for appropriate triage to comprehensive nonpharmacologic care.
Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.
A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable
Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has contributed to our understanding of excessive worry and adult anxiety disorders, but there is a paucity of research on IU in child samples. This gap is due to the absence of a psychometrically sound measure of IU in youth. The present study adapted parallel child- and parent-report forms of the Intolerance of
Comer, Jonathan S.; Roy, Amy K.; Furr, Jami M.; Gotimer, Kristin; Beidas, Rinad S.; Dugas, Michel J.; Kendall, Philip C.
BackgroundPatients diagnosed with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance report symptoms of lightheadedness, fatigue, and nausea accompanied by an exaggerated tachycardia when assuming the upright posture. Often, these symptoms are present in the absence of any decrease in arterial pressure. We hypothesized that patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance would have impaired cardiac vagal and integrated baroreflex function, lower blood volume, and increased venous
William B. Farquhar; J. Andrew Taylor; Stephen E. Darling; Karen P. Chase; Roy Freeman
The objective of the investigation was to study lactose (milk sugar) digestion and milk tolerance and its association with dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome in pregnant black women. This study examined two broad areas of interest. The first explored ...
Many future events are unpredictable, which is considered unacceptable by individuals with an intolerance of uncertainty (IU). We investigated the influence of two related personality traits, IU and habitual worrying on neural correlates of affective uncertainty with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty females viewed a warning cue that always preceded an aversive picture, a safety cue that always preceded a neutral picture and an uncertainty cue that signaled that an aversive or a neutral picture might be shown (probability: 50%:50%). The processing of uncertainty was associated with activation of the posterior frontomedian cortex (PFMC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. IU and habitual worrying were positively correlated with amygdala activity during experienced uncertainty. Moreover, IU correlated negatively with PFMC activity. This response pattern might reflect that uncertainty is threatening to individuals high in IU and that they lack adequate cognitive mechanism to cope with the uncertainty. PMID:20570602
Schienle, Anne; Köchel, Angelika; Ebner, Franz; Reishofer, Gernot; Schäfer, Axel
Sympathetic circulatory control is key to the rapid cardiovascular adjustments that occur within seconds of standing upright (orthostasis) and which are required for bipedal stance. Indeed, patients with ineffective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction rapidly develop orthostatic hypotension, prohibiting effective upright activities. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. However, many people experience episodic acute OI as postural faint or chronic OI in the form of orthostatic tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension that significantly reduce the quality of life. Potential mechanisms for OI are discussed including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction, and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution attributable to regional adrenergic hypofunction.
The yeast Trichosporon beigelii produced the highest amount of biomass when grown in chemical-defined medium with a ratio of carbon source to nitrogen source of 30:1. On the other hand, carbon-limited medium (C-N ratio 2:1) enhanced unsaturated fatty acids synthesis. The yeast efficiently converted unsalted whey lactose to biomass, while sodium chloride in whey raised lactose assimilation to single-cell oil (SCO). 20 references.
Tahoun, M.K.; El-Merheb, Z.; Salem, A.; Youssef, A.
Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. PMID:23574334
Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with a yeast multicopy expression vector carrying the cDNA for Aspergillus niger secretory beta-galactosidase under the control of ADH1 promoter and terminator were studied for their fermentation properties on lactose (V. Kumar, S. Ramakrishnan, T. T. Teeri, J. K. C. Knowles, and B. S. Hartley, Biotechnology 10:82-85, 1992). Lactose was hydrolyzed extracellularly into glucose and galactose, and both sugars were utilized simultaneously. Diauxic growth patterns were not observed. However, a typical biphasic growth was observed on a mixture of glucose and galactose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with transformants of a haploid S. cerevisiae strain, GRF167. Polyploid distiller's yeast (Mauri) transformants were selected simply on the basis of the cloned gene expression on X-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) plates. Rapid and complete lactose hydrolysis and higher ethanol (0.31 g/g of sugar) and biomass (0.24 g/g of sugar) production were observed with distiller's yeast grown under aerobic conditions. A constant proportion (10%) of the population retained the plasmid throughout the fermentation period (48 h). Nearly theoretical yields of ethanol were obtained under anaerobic conditions on lactose, glucose, galactose, and whey permeate media. However, the rate and the amount of lactose hydrolysis were lower under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. All lactose-grown cells expressed partial galactokinase activity.
With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H?]; wavelength of maximum absorption, ?(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ?, 8.1037 × 10?), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria in human subjects are able to digest and utilize urea nitrogen in formation of essential amino acids that are available to the host human. These findings suggest that LU in milk might have a functional role in human health. PMID:22118076
The genetics of lactose utilization within the slow-lactose-fermenting Lactococcus lactis strain NCDO2054 was studied with respect to the organization, expression, and evolution of the lac genes. Initially the b-galac- tosidase gene (lacZ) was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant on a 7-kb HpaI fragment. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the complete fragment revealed part of a gal-lac operon, and
Background : Refeeding of artificially fed infants with lactose-containing formula after oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea was concluded to be indifferent to non-lactose formula by a meta- analysis. In Thai as well as Asian infants and children with low lactase level from genetically determinant and with rotavirus infection, lactose malabsorption is most likely to occur and
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and behavioural symptoms occurring before (anticipatory/associative) and after methotrexate (MTX) administration, termed MTX intolerance, in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS), previously validated in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients, was used to determine MTX intolerance prevalence in 291 RA/PsA patients. The MISS consisted of four domains: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and behavioural symptoms, occurring upon, prior to (anticipatory) and when thinking of MTX (associative). MTX intolerance was defined as ?6 on the MISS with ?1 point on anticipatory and/or associative and/or behavioural items. Results A total of 123 patients (42.3%) experienced at least one gastrointestinal adverse effect. The prevalence of MTX intolerance was 11%. MTX intolerance prevalence was higher in patients on parenteral (20.6%) than on oral MTX (6.2%) (p?0.001). Conclusion Besides well-known gastrointestinal symptoms after MTX, RA and PsA patients experienced these symptoms also before MTX intake. RA and PsA patients on MTX should be closely monitored with the MISS for early detection of MTX intolerance, in order to intervene timely and avoid discontinuation of an effective treatment.
The connection between orthostatic intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome was first introduced in 1995. It was demonstrated that many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome also had some form of orthostatic intolerance. Some studies suggested that dysautonomia may be the common problem in patients with these syndromes. Although these conditions affect an important number of people, especially younger adults, orthostatic intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome are among the least understood of the autonomic disorders and sustained research is focused particularly on elucidating their pathogenesis and identifying the most effective methods of treatment. PMID:24340521
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not different between control subjects and patients with OI. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.
Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.
This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry - namely the role of ?-lactose - and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of ?-lactose in ?-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.
Background Dysphagia and feeding intolerance are common in neurologically handicapped children. The aim is to determine the etiologies of feeding intolerance in neurologically handicapped children who are intolerant of tube feedings. Methods Eighteen neurologically handicapped children, followed in the Tube Feeding Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin who were intolerant of gastrostomy feedings. The charts of these 18 patients were reviewed. Past medical history, diagnoses, history of fundoplication and results of various tests of gastrointestinal function including barium contrast radiography, endoscopy and antroduodenal manometry were documented. Results Five of 11 children had abnormal barium upper gastrointestinal series. Seven of 14 had abnormal liquid phase gastric emptying tests. Two of 16 had esophagitis on endoscopy. All 18 children had abnormal antroduodenal motility. Conclusions In neurologically handicapped children foregut dysmotility may be more common than is generally recognized and can explain many of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologically handicapped children.
Complex carbohydrate intolerance occurred in three of 105 patients with protracted diarrhea of infancy. Nosocomial gastroenteritis complicated a primary disorder of carbohydrate absorption (primary glucose galactose malabsorption, two; primary sucrase isomaltase deficiency, one) in all patients. Their course was characterized by protracted diarrhea, variable degrees of villus atrophy on intestinal biopsy tissue, and negative caloric balance requiring intravenous alimentation for periods varying from 6 to 16 weeks. Dietary management required rigid exclusion of all offending carbohydrates from the diet. Delay in the diagnosis of primary carbohydrate intolerance varied from 2 weeks to 6 months. Complex carbohydrate intolerance may be more common than has been reported, and should be considered in all infants with protracted diarrhea of infancy when there is persistent carbohydrate intolerance. PMID:3361380
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs[Formula: see text]). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:24601766
Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas
Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.
Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.
The present study provides support for a positive association between cesarean delivery and persistent cow milk allergy/cow's milk intolerance. Correspondingly, a negative association was seen between cesarean delivery and early outgrown cow milk allergy/intolerance. A possible explanation is that cesarean delivery, rather than increasing the overall risk of food allergy, increases the risk of persistency of disease among food allergic children. PMID:16076303
Eggesbø, M; Botten, G; Stigum, H; Samuelsen, S O; Brunekreef, B; Magnus, P
This study was undertaken to investigate and compare some biochemical and physiological properties related to sugar metabolism of 4 laboratory strains and 13 freshly isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans from carious and caries-free tooth surfaces and from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance. Growth in Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems)-yeast extract in the presence of various sugars was almost the same for all of the fresh isolates, which grew generally better than the laboratory strains. This was especially noticeable on sucrose where the fresh isolates (including those isolated from hereditary-fructose-intolerant patients) grew two to four times more rapidly than the laboratory strains. The rate of acid production by the fresh isolates, measured with resting cells in the presence of glucose, was quite comparable to the rate of the laboratory strains. The glucose analog, 2-deoxyglucose, inhibited the acid production from glucose by two laboratory strains (6715 and ATCC 27352), but none of the fresh isolates was affected by its presence. The antibiotic, gramicidin D, which allows free diffusion of H+ across the cell membrane, inhibited the acid production of all of the strains. Phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase activity toward ?-methylglucoside was found in all of the laboratory and freshly isolated strains. 2-Deoxyglucose phosphotransferase activity was detected in all of the laboratory strains, but many clinical strains, especially those from hereditary-fructose-intolerant patients, contained very low or almost undetectable 2-deoxyglucose phosphotransferase activity. In one strain, the activity was restored after repeated culturing in Trypticase-yeast extract medium supplemented with glucose. Glucokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in all of the strains tested. No marked differences were observed for these two enzymes between the fresh isolates and the laboratory strains except for three clinical strains which possessed low levels of glucokinase. The growth of all of the strains in a broth containing 4 mM glucose and 4 mM lactose was studied. Various patterns were observed: diauxie, glucose utilized before lactose but without diauxie, both sugars consumed concurrently, and lactose consumed more rapidly than glucose.
We compared the tolerance of a diet providing 20 g\\/d lactose and a lactose-free diet in 14 patients with short-bowel syndrome with either the colon in continuity (group A, n = 8) or a terminal jejunostomy (group B, n = 6). Lactose tolerance was studied after a single 20-g lactose load in the fasting state, and during two 3-d periods
Philippe Marteau; Bernard Messing; Eviano Arrigoni; Françoise Briet; Bernard Flourié; Marie-Christine Morin; Jean-Claude Rambaud
Microbial-derived ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) enzyme preparations improvein vivo lactose digestion and tolerance through enhanced gastrointestinal digestion of lactose. Three different ß-gal preparations, Lactogest (soft gel capsule), Lactaid (caplet), and DairyEase (chewable tablet) and placebo were fed to lactose maldigesters with either 20 g or 50 g of lactose to compare the efficacy of these products and to further establish a dose-response
Meei-Yn Lin; Jack A. Dipalma; Margaret C. Martini; Carol J. Gross; Susan K. Harlander; Dennis A. Savaiano
Lactose was continuously removed from skim milk using two ultrafilters in series, with intermediate recycle. Reduced recycle flow rates at constant lactose stream (permeate product) flow rate resulted in slightly better removal of lactose from the milk feed, although this mode of operation increased the protein loss from the final milk retentate product. Increased permeate flow rate at constant recycle
Three of the most important catalytic systems for isomerization of lactose to lactulose have been studied, i.e. sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and boric acid, and sodium aluminate. Effect of parameters such as catalyst concentration, processing time and temperature on rate of reaction, maximum conversion of lactose to lactulose and by-product formation have been investigated. Variation of sugars concentration (lactose, lactulose,
Farzin Zokaee; Tahereh Kaghazchi; Abbas Zare; Mansooreh Soleimani
Engineered lactose particles were prepared by anti-solvent crystallisation technique using lactose solutions with different saturation degrees. In comparison to commercial lactose, engineered lactose particles exhibited less elongated and more irregular shape (large aggregates composed of smaller sub-units), rougher surface texture, higher specific surface area, and different anomer form. Engineered lactose powders demonstrated smaller bulk density, smaller tap density, and higher porosity than commercial lactose powder. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing engineered lactose and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug demonstrated improved drug content homogeneity and higher amounts of drug delivered to lower airway regions. Higher fine particle fraction of drug was obtained in the case of lactose powders with higher porosity, higher specific surface area and higher fine particle content (<5 ?m). The results indicated that the higher the saturation degree of lactose solution used during crystallisation the smaller the specific surface area, the higher the amorphous lactose content, and the higher the ?-lactose content of engineered lactose particles. Also, lactose powders obtained from lactose solution with higher degree of saturation showed higher bulk and tap densities and smaller porosity. Engineered lactose powders crystallized from lower saturation degree (20% and 30% w/v) deposited higher amounts of drug on lower airway regions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is possible to prepare engineered lactose particles with favourable properties (e.g. higher fine particle fraction and better drug content homogeneity) for DPI formulations by using lactose solutions with lower degree of saturation during crystallisation process. PMID:22884837
A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.
Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.
Environmental intolerance (EI) is characterized by attribution of several, multisystem symptoms to specific environmental exposures, such as exposure to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and everyday sounds. The symptoms are medically unexplained, non-specific and the symptoms overlap between different types of EI. To approach the issue of underlying mechanisms the matter of overlap in prevalence between intolerances can provide valuable information. The aim of the study was to examine if the overlap between intolerance to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, EMFs and sounds is larger than the expected overlap if no association would exist between them. The study was using cross-sectional data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden; a large questionnaire-based survey. 8520 adults (18-79 years) were randomly selected after stratification for age and sex, of whom 3406 (40%) participated. Individuals with the four types of intolerance were identified either through self-report, or by having been physician-diagnosed with a specific EI. The overlaps between the four EIs were greater than predictions based on coincidence for both self-reported and diagnosed cases (except for the overlap between diagnosed intolerance to sounds and EMFs). The results raise the question whether different types of EI share similar underlying mechanisms, or at least that the sufferers of EI share some predisposition to acquire the conditions. PMID:24029726
Palmquist, Eva; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Neely, Gregory; Stenberg, Berndt; Nordin, Steven
We have constructed strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that grow on lactose (Lac+). S. cerevisiae strain YNN27, which, like all S. cerevisiae, is unable to grow on lactose, was transformed with pKR1B-LAC4-1. This plasmid has a selectable marker gene conferring resistance to the antibiotic G418 and carries a 13-kilobase region of the Kluyveromyces lactis genome including LAC4, a beta-galactosidase gene. Transformants were selected first for G418 resistance and then for growth on lactose. Southern hybridization experiments showed that Lac+ transformants had integrated 15-25 tandem copies of the vector into a host chromosome. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Lac+ phenotype in pKR1B-LAC4-1-transformed S. cerevisiae is due to expression of a K. lactis lactose permease gene that lies between 2 and 8.6 kilobase upstream of LAC4 and also to expression of LAC4. The permease gene has been designated LAC12. Images
These days, inhalation constitutes a promising administration route for many drugs. However, this route exhibits unique limitations, and formulations aimed at pulmonary delivery should include as few as possible additives in order to maintain lung functionality. The purpose of this work was to investigate the safety of lactose and chitosan to the pulmonary tissue when delivered by inhalation. The study
M. J. de Jesús Valle; R. J. Dinis-Oliveira; F. Carvalho; M. L. Bastos; A. Sánchez Navarro
Freshly isolated strains of oral actinomycetes were obtained from human dental plaque and were tested for the ability to coaggregate with common laboratory stock strains of Streptococcus sanguis. Strains belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bifidobacterium, and Bacterionema were isolated. Only members of the genus Actinomyces coaggregated with the streptococci, and only Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii exhibited lactose-reversible interactions. A total of 61 strains, consisting of all of the A. viscosus isolates and 86% of the A. naeslundii isolates, coaggregated; 87% inhibited lactose-reversible coaggregation. On the basis of this property and the altered ability of strains to coaggregate after heat treatment of the cells, we delineated four coaggregation groups. The other 13% of the strains constituted a fifth group, which was characterized by a pattern of closely related interactions that were not reversed by lactose. Compared with previously characterized coaggregation properties determined with stock culture strains of actinomycetes, more than 80% of these fresh isolates exhibited identical coaggregation properties. Thus, most of the coaggregation between freshly isolated oral actinomycetes and streptococci involves lactose-reversible cell-cell interactions, which suggests that such coaggregation is mediated by a network of lectin-carbohydrate interactions between complementary cell surface structures on the two cell types.
The aim of this study was to assess a novel lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes (MLs) as an MR contrast agent to target hepatocytes as well as to evaluate the targeting ability of MLs for in vivo applications. In the present work, 17 nm sized iron oxide cores functionalized with anionic MLs bearing lactose moieties were used for targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-r), which is highly expressed in hepatocytes. Non-functionalized anionic MLs were tested as negative controls. The size distribution of lactose and anionic MLs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). After intravenous administration of both MLs, contrast enhancement in the liver was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Label retention was monitored non-invasively by MRI and validated with Prussian blue staining and TEM for up to eight days post MLs administration. Although the MRI signal intensity did not show significant differences between functionalized and non-functionalized particles, iron-specific Prussian blue staining and TEM analysis confirmed the uptake of lactose MLs mainly in hepatocytes. In contrast, non-functionalized anionic MLs were mainly taken up by Kupffer and sinusoidal cells. Target specificity was further confirmed by high-resolution MR imaging of phantoms containing isolated hepatocytes, Kupffer cell (KCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) fractions. Hypointense signal was observed for hepatocytes isolated from animals which received lactose MLs but not from animals which received anionic MLs. These data demonstrate that galactose-functionalized MLs can be used as a hepatocyte targeting MR contrast agent to potentially aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases if the non-specific uptake by KCs is taken into account. PMID:24210051
Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Struys, Tom; Dresselaers, Tom; Hodenius, Michael; Mannaerts, Inge; Ni, Yicheng; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Grunsven, Leo A; De Cuyper, Marcel; Himmelreich, Uwe
Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72.
Numerous undesirable reactions to alcoholic beverages, foods, drugs and other substances are characterized by allergy-like signs and symptoms and yet show unambiguously negative allergy test results. Such persons should be assessed for evidence of histamine intolerance caused by histamine overload and/or diamine oxidase deficiency. Diamine oxidase is the main histamine degrading enzyme with a predominantly gut activity. This would explain why nutritional allergies are often primarily suspected. The clinical evidence for histamine intolerance is based on chronic headache, diarrhoea, vomiting, flush, urticaria, asthma-like symptoms, rhinitis and others. Histamine restricted food, supported if necessary by H1 antihistamine blockade are simple but highly efficacious measures as shown by us in large patient groups. Intolerance to red wine probably is the most outstanding clinical characteristic and a directed question must be included into any allergy history in order to avoid missing a very major diagnostic spectrum with good therapeutic maneuverability. PMID:9012205
In man, the dietary milk sugar, lactose, is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose by the small intestinal enzyme, lactase. This enzyme is located in the brush border of the small intestinal epithelial cell. Recent studies have called attention to the associ...
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hyperandrogenic disorder affecting 4-7% of women, is often associated with metabolic alterations, chiefly insulin resistance and obesity. Based on available scientific evidence, PCOS should be regarded as an independent risk for the development of glucose intolerance states. This short review summarizes the available literature on the prevalence and incidence of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes in this disorder. In addition, some insights on potential factors responsible for individual susceptibility are discussed. Targeted intervention studies focused on prevention and treatment of glucose intolerance states in PCOS are warranted. PMID:24105073
Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. PMID:23319908
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) obtained during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose contain large amounts of glucose, galactose, and unreacted lactose, which do not have prebiotic properties and increase the calorific value of the product. In this work, the isomerization of the GOS mixture by the action of sodium aluminate has been studied. During the reaction, lactose, glucose, and galactose were isomerized to lactulose, fructose, and tagatose, respectively, and in addition allolactose, 6-galactobiose, and 6'-galactosyl-lactose were also converted to the corresponding keto-sugars. The effect of time, temperature, and aluminate/initial lactose ratio has been studied. After 9 h at 40 degrees C and molar ratio aluminate/lactose 3:1, the isomerization yield was >60%, and the amount of final carbohydrates was close to 90% of the initial product. This process considerably decreases the amount of lactose, glucose, and galactose. PMID:18983158
The clinical and immunological manifestations of food intolerance in obese patients were studied. Food intolerance was diagnosed in 32.6 and 33.4% in obese patients stage 2 and stage 3 respectively, and was basically determined by 13 proteinaceous food products. The changes in immune status in obese patients created conditions for development of food intolerance. The timely diagnose food intolerance allows to personalize the diet therapy. PMID:23461178
Sentsova, T B; Gapparova, K M; Grigor'ian, O N; Vorozhko, I V; Kirillova, O O; Chekhonina, Iu G
Objective: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), also known as multiple chemical sensitivity, is a chronic, polysymptomatic condition that cannot be explained by an organic disease. Physical and psychological complaints are believed to be sustained by low levels of chemically unrelated substances in the environment. At present, it is unclear whether IEI is an environmental illness or a variant of somatoform disorders
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome
When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)
The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the
Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.
Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common condition with prevalence estimates of 2-4% in the general population. Epidemiological data suggest that SDB is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance are also well-recognized risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. A number of recent clinic-based studies suggest that, independent of obesity, SDB may adversely affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the link between SDB, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. A MEDLINE search for SDB and metabolic disorders was performed and 24 articles that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Population-based studies indicate that habitual snoring is independently associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Studies that have used objective measures of SDB (e.g. polysomnography) provide further support for an independent link between SDB, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. However, studies on the treatment of SDB with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have yielded inconsistent results and overall do not reveal an improvement in the metabolic disturbance after treatment. Although population-based prospective data on the metabolic implications of SDB are still lacking, current data point to an independent association between SDB and impaired glucose homeostasis. Potential mediators of this association include altered adrenergic function, the direct effects of hypoxemia on glucose regulation, and release of proinflammatory cytokines that affect metabolism. PMID:12853008
Punjabi, Naresh M; Ahmed, Murtuza M; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Beamer, Brock A; O'Donnell, Christopher P
The accuracy of laser diffraction size measurements of dry powder inhaler particles, which play an important role in guiding effective inhaler system design, is assessed. Additionally, data for lactose particle shape characteristics are presented. Comparisons made between microscopy and cohesion-minimized laser diffraction size measurements for pharmaceutical lactose particles indicate that non-sphericity causes a broadening of the size distribution while the median diameter is unchanged. This is corroborated by data in the literature. Poured particles and those dispensed from an inhaler shared a common characteristic agglomerate modal diameter that was absent in the cohesion-minimized wet suspension. It is concluded that the interpretation of integral measurements of the particle size distribution using laser diffraction, for cohesive particle systems, is reasonable. The method of dispensing particles from an inhaler and delivery through an artificial throat is critical and both decreased the proportion of agglomerates present.
Stevens, Nia; Shrimpton, John; Palmer, Mark; Prime, Dave; Johal, Bal
Modified lactoses are widely used as filler-binders in direct compression of tablets. Until today, little about the compaction behaviour of anhydrous alpha-lactose is known. In this study, a new method to prepare anhydrous alpha-lactose from alpha-lactose monohydrate by desiccation with heated ethanol was evaluated and the influence of amorphous content in the lactose powder prior to modification on powder properties, compaction behaviour and storage stability was determined. The modification process led to anhydrous alpha-lactose with decreased bulk and tapped density, increased flow rate and significantly higher specific surface area. Due to the higher specific surface area, the compaction behaviour of the anhydrous alpha-lactose was found to be significantly better than the compaction behaviour of powder blends consisting of alpha-lactose monohydrate and amorphous lactose. An influence of the amorphous content prior to modification could be observed only at higher compaction forces. In general, tablets of modified powders needed longer time to disintegrate directly after compression. However, the storage stability of modified tablets was found to be better compared to the amorphous-crystalline tablets which were influenced by storage conditions, initial crushing strength as well as amorphous content due to the re-crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage. PMID:20005927
Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas,
Lactose malabsorption is characterized by adeficiency of mucosal lactase. As a consequence, lactosereaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria toshort-chain fatty acids, CO2, andH2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms ofirritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can beseen in about 50% of lactose malabsorbers. Having madethe observation that females with lactose malabsorption not only showed
Lactase deficiency has a high prevalence worldwide. Thus, a valid symptom scale would be a useful tool for identifying patients\\u000a with lactose malabsorption. Objective To develop, validate, and apply a symptoms questionnaire on lactose malabsorption to identify lactose malabsorbers diagnosed\\u000a with the gold-standard hydrogen breath test. Methods In the first part of the study, 292 patients completed a questionnaire at
Francesc Casellas; E. Varela; A. Aparici; M. Casaus; P. Rodríguez
This study determined the sensory characteristics of ultrapasteurized (UP) lactose-free milk of different fat contents, and compared them with regular milk. Nine milk samples (six UP lactose-free and three regular) containing 0, 2 or 3g milkfat\\/100mL were tested by a descriptive panel. A consumer test with three UP lactose-free milk and three regular samples was also conducted. The skim milks were
Koushik Adhikari; Lauren M. Dooley; Edgar Chambers IV; Natnicha Bhumiratana
The genetics of lactose utilization within the slow-lactose-fermenting Lactococcus lactis strain NCDO2054 was studied with respect to the organization, expression, and evolution of the lac genes. Initially the ?-galactosidase gene (lacZ) was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant on a 7-kb HpaI fragment. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the complete fragment revealed part of a gal-lac operon, and the genes were characterized by inactivation and complementation analyses and in vitro enzyme activity measurements. The gene order is galK-galT-lacA-lacZ-galE; the gal genes encode enzymes of the Leloir pathway for galactose metabolism, and lacA encodes a galactoside acetyltransferase. The galT and galE genes of L. lactis LM0230 (a lactose plasmid-cured derivative of the fast-lactose-fermenting L. lactis C2) were highly similar at the nucleotide sequence level to their counterparts in strain NCDO2054 and, furthermore, had the same gene order except for the presence of the intervening lacA-lacZ strain NCDO2054. Analysis of mRNA for the gal and lac genes revealed an unusual transcriptional organization for the operon, with a surprisingly large number of transcriptional units. The regulation of the lac genes was further investigated by using fusions consisting of putative promoter fragments and the promoterless ?-glucuronidase gene (gusA) from E. coli, which identified three lactose-inducible intergenic promoters in the gal-lac operon. The greater similarity of the lacA and lacZ genes to homologs in gram-negative organisms than to those of gram-positive bacteria, in contrast to the homologies of the gal genes, suggests that the genes within the gal operon of L. lactis NCDO2054 have been recently acquired. Thus, the lacA-lacZ genes appear to have engaged the promoters of the gal operon in order to direct and control their expression.
Vaughan, Elaine E.; Pridmore, R. David; Mollet, Beat
An 8-year-old boy was referred for recent onset of easy fatigue. He showed hyperCKemia and mild scapular winging. Muscle biopsy on the quadriceps muscle demonstrated slight fibre size variability. Dystrophin was normally distributed, carnitine palmitoyl transferase and glycolytic enzymes had normal activities. In the following years the patient developed exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria. Immunohistochemistry showed marked reduction of alpha-sarcoglycan, confirmed by Western blotting. Molecular analysis revealed compound heterozygosity with Arg284Cys and Glu137Lys substitutions, corresponding to nucleotide changes C850 T and G409 A in the gene. At present the patient, 20 years old, shows mild proximal weakness with prominent involvement of the paraspinal muscles, dorsal kyphosis and lumbar hyperlordosis. Exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria, already described in Becker muscular dystrophy, should be also considered among the possible presentations of sarcoglycan deficiencies. PMID:12075495
Mongini, T; Doriguzzi, C; Bosone, I; Chiadò-Piat, L; Hoffman, E P; Palmucci, L
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic states that lead to orthostatic intolerance.
Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.
Sixty four patients, age range 1-20 years, with cystic fibrosis had their tolerance to glucose assessed according to their glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) concentrations. Raised concentrations were found in 24 (37.5%). Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on 21 patients with raised HbA1 and 13 patients with normal HbA1 concentrations. C peptide responses were also measured to assess islet cell function. Patients with normal HbA1 had normal glucose tolerance and C peptide response. Seven of 21 patients with raised HbA1 concentrations were glucose intolerant. The remaining 14 patients with raised HbA1 concentrations had normal glucose tolerance but a reduced C peptide response, suggesting impaired islet cell function. There were no appreciable differences in the incidence of chest infections, respiratory function, and chest x-ray scores among patients with normal HbA1 concentrations, raised HbA1 concentrations, and normal oral glucose tolerant tests, and patients who were glucose intolerant. No correlation was found between HbA1 concentration and age or Shwachman score. Measuring HbA1 concentrations periodically is useful in detecting and monitoring glucose intolerance in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Stutchfield, P R; O'Halloran, S; Teale, J D; Isherwood, D; Smith, C S; Heaf, D
Many astronauts after being weightless in space become hypotensive and presyncopal when they assume an upright position. This phenomenon, known as orthostatic intolerance, may interfere with astronaut function during reentry and after spaceflight and may limit the ability of an astronaut to exit a landed spacecraft unaided during an emergency. Orthostatic intolerance is more pronounced after long-term spaceflight and is a major concern with respect to the extended flights expected aboard the International Space Station and for interplanetary exploration class missions, such as a human mission to Mars. Fully effective countermeasures to this problem have not yet been developed. To test the hypothesis that alpha-adrenergic stimulation might provide an effective countermeasure, we conducted a 16-day head-down-tilt bed-rest study (an analog of weightlessness) using normal human volunteers and administered the alpha(1)-agonist drug midodrine at the end of the bed-rest period. Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight.
Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Sundby, G. H.; Rostoft, S.; Sheynberg, N.; Aljuri, N.; Maa, M.; Mukkamala, R.; Sherman, D.; Toska, K.; Yelle, J.; Bloomfield, D.; Williams, G. H.; Cohen, R. J.
Because it is not clear that the induction of orthostatic intolerance in returning astronauts always requires prolonged exposure to microgravity, we investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy subjects before and after the brief micro- and hypergravity of parabolic flight. Concomitantly, we investigated the effect of parabolic flight-induced vomiting on orthostatic tolerance, R-wave-R-wave interval and arterial pressure power spectra, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex and Valsalva responses. After parabolic flight 1) 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate 30 min of upright tilt (compared to 2 of 16 before flight); 2) 6 of 16 subjects vomited; 3) new intolerance to upright tilt was associated with exaggerated falls in total peripheral resistance, whereas vomiting was associated with increased R-wave-R-wave interval variability and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness; and 4) the proximate mode of new orthostatic failure differed in subjects who did and did not vomit, with vomiters experiencing comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction and nonvomiters experiencing signs and symptoms reminiscent of the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome. Results suggest, first, that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those developing after space flight can develop after a brief (i.e., 2-h) parabolic flight and, second, that recent vomiting can influence the results of tests of autonomic cardiovascular function commonly utilized in returning astronauts.
Schlegel, T. T.; Brown, T. E.; Wood, S. J.; Benavides, E. W.; Bondar, R. L.; Stein, F.; Moradshahi, P.; Harm, D. L.; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Low, P. A.
We report the insertion of a transmembrane protein, lactose permease (LacY) from Escherichia coli (E. coli), in supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG), in biomimetic molar proportions. We provide evidence of the preferential insertion of LacY in the fluid domains. Analysis of the self-assembled protein arrangements showed that LacY: (i) is inserted as a monomer within
Laura Picas; Adrián Carretero-Genevrier; M. Teresa Montero; J. L. Vázquez-Ibar; Bastien Seantier; Pierre-Emmanuel Milhiet; Jordi Hernández-Borrell
Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. PMID:24768779
The successful separation of the disaccharide lactose from a complex mixture of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) with the continuous chromatography of simulated moving bed (SMB) technique is described. Since lactose is the main carbohydrate in human milk with well-known functions for the infant, it is necessary to separate it from the rest of the oligosaccharides to divide them into less
Andreas Geisser; Tatjana Hendrich; Günther Boehm; Bernd Stahl
Anomalies are observed in some of the physical and mechanical properties of mixtures of lactose, paracetamol and oxytetracycline when small amounts of colloidal silicon dioxide are added to them. Owing to its differing propensities to coat the particles of the host powders, the silicon dioxide acts as a glidant for the lactose and paracetamol, but as an antiglidant for the oxytetracycline. PMID:13180
The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromo- somal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300
M. J. Gosalbes; CARLOS DAVID ESTEBAN; JOSELUIS GALAN; GASPAR PEREZ-MARTINEZ
Oral lactose and glucose\\/galactose loading tests were done in Bantu children convalescing from kwashiorkor and pellagra. Small bowel biopsies and disaccharidase estimations were performed in all except 2 patients. Lactose absorption was more impaired and intestinal lactase levels were lower in the pellagra than in the kwashiorkor group. The fact that diarrhoea after admission to hospital was less common in
The behaviour of dry powder blends for inhalation, depending on the amount of fine lactose particles smaller than 10microm and the presence of magnesium stearate (MgSt), was studied in this work. A laser light diffraction method was developed to determine accurately size and volume fraction of these fine lactose particles in coarse carrier lactose (x(50) approximately 220microm). A linear relationship between measured volume fraction undersize at 10microm Q(3)(10microm) and added fine lactose could be established. Aerodynamic particle size distribution analysis of lactose showed that the fine lactose was attached to the coarse particles. In the presence of MgSt this interaction was increased. Consequently, the number of free active sites on the carrier surface was reduced and the investigated drug (formoterol fumarate dihydrate) was more effectively delivered. Addition of fine lactose and MgSt improved the aerodynamic performance the drug, as determined by resulting fine particle fraction, by 3% (for each 1% of added fine lactose) and 10%, respectively. Stability tests indicated that added MgSt was the most relevant of the studied parameter to achieve a stable aerodynamic performance. Its ability to protect the moisture uptake into the system was considered as rational for this effect. PMID:17689898
Twenty-four patients undergoing pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancies had Â¹â´C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of their treatment. The Â¹â´C-lactose breath test was performed by administering 2 ..mu..Ci of Â¹â´C-lactose by mouth along with 50 g of lactose. Breath samples were collected in ethanolic hyamine 1, 2, and 3 hr later; the radioactivity of the trapped
The effect of lactose concentration on growth of Candida pseudotropicalis and ethanol production from cheese whey under batch conditions was investigated. Four initial lactose concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 g/L (5 to 20% wt/vol) were used. High concentration of lactose had an inhibitory effect on the specific growth rate, lactose utilization rate, and ethanol production rate. The maximum cell concentration was influenced by the initial substrate concentration as well as ethanol concentration. Inhibition of ethanol production was more pronounced at higher initial lactose concentrations. The maximum ethanol yield (96.6% of the theoretical yield) was achieved with the 100 g/L initial substrate concentration. The results indicated that pH control during alcohol fermentation of cheese whey is not necessary. 41 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada)
To study the influence of phosphoglucomutase (PGM) activity on exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis in glucose- and lactose-growing Streptococcus thermophilus, a knockout PGM mutant and a strain with elevated PGM activity were constructed. The pgmA gene, encoding PGM in S. thermophilus LY03, was identified and cloned. The gene was functional in Escherichia coli and was shown to be expressed from its own promoter. The pgmA-deficient mutant was unable to grow on glucose, while the mutation did not affect growth on lactose. Overexpression of pgmA had no significant effect on EPS production in glucose-growing cells. Neither deletion nor overexpression of pgmA changed the growth or EPS production on lactose. Thus, the EPS precursors in lactose-utilizing S. thermophilus are most probably formed from the galactose moiety of lactose via the Leloir pathway, which circumvents the need for a functional PGM.
A spectrophotometric assay was developed for the quantification of lactose in aqueous solution via a one-pot enzymatic cascade reaction at 25 °C and pH 7.2. Lactose (0.2-1.8 mM), E. coli ?-galactosidase (?-Gal), Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and o-phenylenediamine (OPD) were incubated, and the increase in absorbance at 417 nm (A (417)) due to the formation of DAP (2,3-diaminophenazine), the dimeric oxidation product of OPD, was followed. The increase in A (417) was found to depend linearly on the initial lactose concentration via three consecutive but simultaneously occurring enzymatic reaction steps catalyzed by ?-Gal, GOD, and HRP. No pre-incubation of lactose with ?-Gal is needed with this simple lactose assay. PMID:21845526
Of 110 cases having watery diarrhea,sugar intolerance was observed in 75 subjects (68%), majority of whom (97%) were below 2 years. While nutritional status was not associated with the occurrence of sugar\\u000a intolerance, children from rural areas had a higher incidence than urban children. Stools in children with sugar intolerance\\u000a were watery, moderate to large in quantity, often explosive with
B. A. Ashoka; K. Anke Gowda; P. V. Salimath; S. Venkat Rao
Objectives:This study estimates the prevalence of perceived food intolerance and its consequences in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), evaluates the utility of common tests for food intolerance, studies the relation between perceived food intolerance and other disorders, and discusses the etiology.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting:National health survey.Subjects:A selection of the population (n=11078) in Oppland county, Norway, was invited to a health screening,
Objectives: The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of odour intolerance in adults with respect to both self-reported general intolerance and affective and behavioural consequences. Furthermore, we aimed to relate odour intolerance to explanatory variables and risk factors. Method: This is a cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. A random sample of 1900 inhabitants from the age of 20, stratified
Å. Johansson; A. Brämerson; E. Millqvist; S. Nordin; M. Bende
A female patient suffered a typical attack of typhoid fever due to a lactose-negative, fully susceptible Salmonella typhi strain. During convalescence she became febrile, and a lactose-fermenting S. typhi strain resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim was isolated from blood culture. This isolated was shown to harbor a plasmid which cotransferred lactose fermentation and antibiotic resistance. PMID:3650270
The degree to which the ability to absorb lactose can be regained after recovery from an acute episode of severe malnutrition is in doubt. Lactase activity was indirectly assessed by means of a standard lactose tolerance test (2 g lactose per kilogram of body weight) in 71 Peruvian Mestizo infants and children (age 5 to 55 months) who had suffered
Joanne Leslie; William C. MacLean; George G. Graham
Lactose malabsorption was studied, by hydrogen breath test, in 72 adults suffering from irritable bowel syndrome, in 20 ulcerative colitis patients, and in 69 healthy subjects. The minimum dose of lactose required to cause a positive breath test was determined, and the symptoms caused and the resulting hydrogen eliminated quantified. A high incidence of lactose malabsorption was shown at standard
G. Sciarretta; G. Giacobazzi; A. Verri; P. Zanirato; G. Garuti; P. Malaguti
There have been reports on the use of octreotide in patients with orthostatic hypotension, postural tachycardia syndrome, and orthostatic syncope. However, there are little if any data on the use of octreotide in patients who have failed multiple other medications. This study was a retrospective chart analysis and was approved by our Institutional Review Board. A total of 12 patients were identified for inclusion in this study. The diagnosis of orthostatic intolerance was based on patient history, physical examination, and response to Head Up Tilt Table testing. These patients had failed multiple medications and were ultimately treated with octreotide. In a retrospective chart review, we collected data, including demographic information, presenting symptoms, laboratory data, tilt-table response, standing heart rate, standing blood pressure before and after treatment (wherever available), and treatment outcomes. Twelve patients aged 33 ± 18 years, eight (66.7%) females, were found to have symptoms of refractory orthostatic intolerance and failed multiple regimens of medication and were ultimately treated with octreotide administration. Five patients (41.7%) had demonstrated a postural tachycardia syndrome pattern, five (41.7%) a neurocardiogenic, and two (16.6%) a dysautonomic response on a Head Up Tilt Table. Symptoms of syncope and orthostatic palpitations improved in six (50%) of the patients. Standing heart rate was significantly reduced after octreotide administration (80 ± 8 versus 108 ± 13; P < 0.05). The standing systolic blood pressure was increased after octreotide administration (107 ± 26 versus 116 ± 22). Three patients (25%) reported complete elimination of syncope, whereas another three had reduction in the frequency of their syncope. However, symptoms of fatigue improved only in two (29%) of the seven patients. Octreotide may improve symptoms in some patients with refractory orthostatic intolerance. PMID:20535001
The distressing phenomenon of visual height intolerance (vHI) occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing control of balance and falling from some height. Epidemiological data of this condition in the general population are lacking. Assignment of prevalence, determinants, and compensation of vHI was performed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 3,517 individuals representing the German population. Life-time prevalence of vHI is 28 % (females 32 %). A higher prevalence is associated independently with a family history of vHI, anxiety disorders, migraine, or motion sickness susceptibility. Women aged 50-59 have a higher prevalence than younger women or men of all ages. Initial attacks occur most often (30 %) in the second decade; however, attacks can manifest throughout life. The main symptoms are fearfulness, inner agitation, a queasy-stomach feeling, subjective postural instability with to-and-fro vertigo, and weakness in the knees. Climbing a tower is the first most common precipitating stimulus; the spectrum of such stimuli widens with time in more than 50 % of afflicted individuals. The most frequent reaction to vHI is to avoid the triggering stimuli (>50 %); 11 % of susceptible individuals consult a doctor, most often a general practitioner, neurologist, ENT doctor, or psychiatrist. In brief, visual height intolerance affects one-third of the general population, considerably restricting the majority of these individuals in their daily activities. The data show that the two terms do not indicate a categorical distinction but rather a continuum from slight forms of visual height intolerance to the specific phobia of fear of heights. PMID:23070463
NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.
Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.
Idiopathic environmental intolerance is characterized by a variety of non-specific symptoms involving several organs within the same individual, and attributed to the exposure to chemical odors (multiple chemical sensitivities) or to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (electromagnetic hypersensitivity). Symptoms occur following an exposure to agents generally regarded as harmless due to the low levels of exposure, and they do not answer to any definition of organic diseases. The lack of established etiology renders treatment difficult. It is important for practitioner to recognize such disorders and assess the social and professional impact so as to improve patients' quality of life. PMID:24851372
Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed. PMID:23849047
Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24504708
Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M
A colorimetric microplate-adapted lactose assay was developed to quantify lactose in dairy products. The assay was based on the coupled enzymatic reaction of ?-galactosidase-glucose oxidase-horseradish peroxidase using Amplex red as detection probe. The assay showed good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 0.5mmol of lactose/L, with a limit of detection of 0.0433mmol/L and a limit of quantification of 0.1313mmol/L. The lactose assay at optimized conditions (5 U of ?-galactosidase/mL, 5 U of glucose oxidase/mL, 1 U of horseradish peroxidase/mL, and 100?mol of Amplex red/L for 1h at 37°C in the dark) showed good correlation with a commercial lactose enzymatic kit with intraassay variation below 10% and interassay variations below 7.6%. The developed lactose microplate assay can be adopted as routine analysis for lactose determination in dairy products due to its relatively low cost compared with a commercial kit, relatively short reaction time, and high sensitivity and reproducibility. PMID:24534513
Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Mohanty, Indira P; Noratto, Giuliana D
Sucrose tolerance tests were performed on several adult Eskimos who reported a history of intolerance to sweets. Six experienced severe diarrhea and a rise in capillary blood glucose of less than 20 mg\\/100 ml after a 50-g oral dose of sucrose. The Eskimo apparently exhibits a higher incidence of sucrose intolerance than does any other population tested. This condition may
The aim of this study was to use 3D modeling to differentiate not only among the four different types of lactose alpha-lactose monohydrate, spray-dried lactose, agglomerated lactose and lactose anhydrous but also between products from different manufacturers. Further "box-counting" fractal analysis of SEM images was done to gain additional information on tableting characteristics and tablet properties which can be found in the fractal structure. Twelve different materials from different manufacturers were analyzed for their powder-technological and physicochemical properties. They were tableted on an eccentric tableting machine at graded maximum relative densities and the recorded data, namely force, time, and displacement were analyzed by the 3D modeling technique. Tablet properties such as, elastic recovery, crushing force and morphology were analyzed. The results show that 3D modeling can precisely distinguish deformation behavior for different types of lactose and also for the same type of material produced with a slightly different technique. Furthermore, the results showed that the amorphous content of the lactose determined the compactibility of the material, which is due to a reversible exceeding of the glass transition temperature of the material. The three fractal dimensions DBW (box surface dimension), DWBW (pore/void box mass dimension), and DBBW (box solid mass dimension) are capable of describing morphological differences in lactose materials. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the fractal surface structure of the lactose-based materials is strongly correlated to tableting characteristics and tablet properties. Especially with regards to 3D modeling, it was found that the fractal indices can describe the parameters time plasticity d, pressure plasticity e, and fast elastic decompression, which is the inverse of omega. In addition, the 3D parameters are able to describe the powder and tablet fractal indices. In conclusion, the 3D modeling is not only able to characterize the compression process but it can also provide information on the final tablet morphology. PMID:17523001
Jelcic, Z; Hauschild, K; Ogiermann, M; Picker-Freyer, K M
Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactose-drug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be employed as a method of altering the FPF of salbutamol sulphate from powder blends. Lactose particles were prepared by an anti-solvent recrystallisation process using various ratios of the two solvents. Crystallised lactose or commercial lactose was mixed with salbutamol sulphate and in vitro deposition studies were performed using a multistage liquid impinger. Solid-state characterisation results showed that commercial lactose was primarily composed of the ?-anomer whilst the crystallised lactose samples comprised a ?/? mixture containing a lower number of moles of water per mole of lactose compared to the commercial lactose. The crystallised lactose particles were also less elongated and more irregular in shape with rougher surfaces. Formulation blends containing crystallised lactose showed better aerosolisation performance and dose uniformity when compared to commercial lactose. The highest FPF of salbutamol sulphate (38.0 ± 2.5%) was obtained for the lactose samples that were crystallised from a mixture of ethanol/butanol (20:60) compared to a FPF of 19.7 ± 1.9% obtained for commercial lactose. Engineered lactose carriers with modified anomer content and physicochemical properties, when compared to the commercial grade, produced formulations which generated a high FPF. PMID:21057906
Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Royall, Paul; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali
Intolerance of uncertainty has been defined as the unwillingness to tolerate the possibility that negative events may occur in the future, no matter how low the probability [Personality Individual Differences 17 (1994), 791802]. Previous research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be more specific to worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than to other anxiety disorders [e.g., Dugas, M. J.,
Robert M. Holaway; Richard G. Heimberg; Meredith E. Coles
Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the
Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.
Racism, sexism, and homophobia do not fit into any current diagnostic category. The authors propose that those who engage in such behaviors display a form of psychopathology deserving of its own category. The common denominator seems to be intolerance. The authors explore the possibility of an intolerant personality disorder, outline likely symptoms, and suggest some possible treatment considerations. PMID:12769238
Post-flight orthostatic intolerance, the inability to maintain blood pressure while in an upright position, is an established, space-related medical problem. Orthostatic intolerance has been shown to progress to presyncope (inability to maintain standing ...
Increased recognition of low intestinal lactose activity in major population groups has focused attention on the nutritional implications of these findings in children who are offered milk as a major source of nutrients. While current evidence demonstrate...
Experiments with mixtures of whey and corn showed that more than 85% of the lactose was degraded into ethanol. The applicability of cellulose was investigated by means of potatoes. Cellulase is inhibited by glucose, which is a fermentation intermediate, a...
Session MP1 includes short reports on: (1) Orthostatic Tests after 42 Days of Simulated Weightlessness; (2) Effects of 12 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity on Central Circulatory Hemodynamics in the Rhesus Monkey; (3) Increased Sensitivity and Resetting of Baroflex Control of Exercise Heart Rate After Prolonged Bed-Rest; (4) Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics and Deconditioning During Head-down Bed Rest; (5) The Cardiovascular Effects of 6 Hours of Head-down Tilt Upon Athletes and Non-athletes; (6) Individual Susceptibility to Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance: Contributions of Gender-related and Microgravity-related Factors; (7) Cassiopee Mission 1996: Comparison of Cardiovascular Alteration after Short and Long-term Spaceflights; (8) Cerebral and Femoral Flow Response to LBNP during 6 Month MIR Spaceflights (93-95); and (9) Cerebrovascular Changes due to Spaceflight and Postflight Presyncope.
In patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), we often find intolerance reactions against wool, whereas irritation by synthetic fibers is still a matter of discussion. In a randomized clinical study on 55 patients with AD and 31 healthy controls, we investigated the irritative capacity of poncho-like shirts made of 4 different materials (A: cotton; B, C, D: synthetics of different fiber structure). The intensity of itching or discomfort due to repeated wearing of these shirts was evaluated by means of a point system (max.comfort = 10 points, max. discomfort = 1 point). Our study clearly showed that the irritative capacity of synthetic shirts is significantly higher in patients with AD, while cotton shirts were best tolerated. We also observed significant difference regarding the surface structure and diameter of the synthetic fibers under investigation. PMID:2291289
The spectacular criminal case of a nurse who because of killing seven old patients in an intensive care ward had been sentenced to jail for 11 years is shown as example of radical thinking in the face of intolerability of serious illness and age. The deficit model of age is on the one hand justly criticized and called invalid, on the other hand negative aspects of age may not be concealed in the face of hedonistic principles of the present epoch. There is no doubt about the monstrosity of the case of the guilty nurse but it may be exemplary for a frequent defensive behaviour against the phenomena of age. If this is right this singular case may be characteristic of common thinking on the unbearable presumption of age. Self defense turning into aggressivity because of foreseeing the own fate of hopeless illness in moribund aged would then have to be seen as a socially significant attitude. PMID:1869232
To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n?=?44), prediabetes (Pre-DM; n?=?64), or newly diagnosed T2DM (n?=?13). Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP) and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6) had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24013136
Sympathicotonic orthostatic intolerance (hypotension, tachycardia, or both) is associated with normal or excessive orthostatic increases in plasma norepinephrine concentration and is reversible by the inflation of a military anti-shock trouser suit enveloping the lower limbs and abdomen. These facts suggest that one possible mechanism of the disorder might be a defect in alpha-adrenergic receptor or postreceptor responsiveness of the veins or arterioles. We have investigated in 11 patients and 15 healthy controls the blood pressure and heart rate responses to increasing rates of intravenous norepinephrine infusion (1 to 16 micrograms/min), the dorsal hand vein contractile responses to increasing rates of norepinephrine infusion (1 to 256 ng/min) with a linear variable differential transformer, and the platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor densities and dissociation constants. No statistically significant difference in any of these parameters was found between the normal subjects and nine of the 11 patients with orthostatic intolerance. The venous contractile response to norepinephrine was excessive in one patient and was virtually absent in another. Because supersensitivity of the hand veins to norepinephrine suggests up-regulation of alpha 2-receptors resulting from postganglionic autonomic insufficiency, this finding in one patient with sympathicotonic orthostatic hypotension might have been caused by venous denervation. The venous unresponsiveness to norepinephrine in the other patient presumably resulted from a defect in the venous receptors or smooth muscle function. It is evident that norepinephrine responsiveness and the innervation of the arterioles and hand veins was normal in the other nine patients, in whom the defect must have been mediated by some other mechanism. PMID:2160509
Growth and lactic acid production ofLactobacillus delbreuckii were compared using glucose and lactose as carbon sources. A continuous-flow stirred-tank fermenter was coupled with a cross-flow\\u000a filtration unit to permit operation at high-cell concentrations. At steady state, yeast extract requirements for lactic-acid\\u000a production were lower when glucose was used as a substrate than with lactose fermentation. Once steady state was obtained,
Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817
Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil
The nucleotide sequences of the Lactobacillus helveticus lactose utilization genes were determined, and these genes were located and oriented relative to one another. The lacLM genes (encoding the -galactosidase protein) were in a divergent orientation compared to lacR (regulatory gene) and lacS (lactose transporter). Downstream from lacM was an open reading frame (galE) encoding a UDP-galactose 4 epimerase, and the
Maria Grazia Fortina; Giovanni Ricci; Diego Mora; Simone Guglielmetti; Pier Luigi Manachini
We prepared glycoconjugates (LacCYSF) by the homogeneous chemical modification of solubilized silk fibroin (SF) with lactose bearing the galactose residue using cyanuric chloride (CY) as a coupling spacer and examined the usefulness of their application as a scaffold for hepatocyte attachment. The covalent immobilization of lactose into SF was assessed by several criteria including 1H-NMR measurements and reactions with lectins
In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.
High performance liquid chromatog- raphy was used to determine the formation of oligosaccharides during 3-galactosidase action on lactose. Lactose solutions (5 and 20%) in .025 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.60) were inoculated with 3-galactosidase at 1 and 2 \\/lmol ortho- nitrophenol units\\/ml from two different microbial sources and incubated at 4°C for 24 h and 37°C for 4 h.
In the present study the heat-induced partially deproteinated (0.10.2% w\\/v of residual protein after deproteination step) paneer whey (that resembles cottage cheese whey), originated from buffalo milk (containing 3.854.95% w\\/v of lactose) was tried for possible rapid lactose recovery, using anti-solvent (ethanol). Optimization of various process parameters such as effective ethanol concentration (6585% v\\/v), pH, temperature, seeding, etc. was carried
Summary Productivity of the fermentation of lactose to ethanol byKluyveromyces fragilis has been significantly improved by coupling a cross-flow membrane module to the primary fermentor in a semi-closed loop configuration. At a cell concentration of 90g\\/L in the bioreactor and inlet lactose concentration of 150g\\/L, productivity was 240gETOH\\/L\\/hr at dilution rate of 6 hr-1. This was 80 times better than
A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.
Study of the lactose and galactose transport systems in Kluyveromyces lactis has shown that lactose uptake is by active transport. The transport system is under monogenic control and is inducible. Galactose uptake is also by active transport but the system is controlled by two genes which, in the four strains we studied, are present only in K. lactis CBS 2359. Galactose uptake in the other K. lactis strains is by a simple diffusion process. PMID:3655722
A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose-phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of [14C]lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM. We conclude from our data that phosphorylation of glucose by S. lactis 133 can be mediated by only two mechanisms: (i) via ATP-dependent glucokinase, and (ii) by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose-PTS system. PMID:3920203
The release of lactose (hydrophilic) from polymer tablets made with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) have been studied and compared to the release of ibuprofen, a hydrophobic active substance. Lactose is one of the most used excipients for tablets, but lactose release has not been widely studied. One reason could be a lack of good analytical tools. A novel biosensor with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was used to detect the lactose release, which has a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) layer that increases the response. A sample treatment using polyethylenimine (PEI) was developed to eliminate possible denaturants. The developed methodology provided a good approach to detect and quantify the released lactose. The release was studied with or without the presence of a model amphiphilic substance, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in the release medium. Ibuprofen showed very different release rates in the different media, which was attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the drug, the HMPAA and the SDS in the release medium. The release of hydrophilic lactose, which did not associate to any of the other components, was rapid and showed only minor differences. The new methodology provides a useful tool to further evaluate tablet formulations by a relatively simple set of experiments. PMID:24726632
When Streptococcus mutans GS5 was grown in equimolar (5 mM) amounts of glucose and lactose, a classical diauxic growth curve was obtained. Glucose was taken up during the first growth phase, followed by a 60-min lag, and then lactose was transported. Synthesis of lactose phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzymes was repressed until the complete exhaustion of glucose, indicative of an inducer exclusion mechanism of repression. The enzyme phospho-beta-galactosidase, however, was found in small amounts even in the presence of glucose. Repression was not observed when GS5 was grown in equimolar amounts of fructose and lactose. Although fructose was taken up preferentially, synthesis of the lactose PTS occurred from the onset of growth in these sugars. It is proposed that a component of the glucose PTS may be a regulatory factor in lactose transport. Glucose PTS- mutants did not display diauxic growth in glucoselactose mixtures and, in fact, transported the disaccharide preferentially.
The real (?') and imaginary (??) components of the complex permittivity of anhydrous lactose and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under different bulk densities, moisture contents (MCs), and times of hydration (for anhydrous lactose) were measured nondestructively using a microwave resonator sensor operating in the range of 700-800 MHz. Measurements of sensor resonant frequency and conductance allow, through calibration, determination of the complex dielectric properties ?' (relative permittivity) and ?? (relative dielectric loss) of the test material. Characteristic graphs of ?? versus ?' - 1 curve for each powder were generated as a function of bulk density and MC. Such data can be used to develop empirical models for the simultaneous in situ measurement of the bulk density and MC of the powders. Unlike MCC, anhydrous lactose is converted to its hydrate form in the presence of moisture, which causes a reduction in the amount of physisorbed and "free" water and a subsequent change in the dielectric properties. For powders such as anhydrous lactose that can form a crystal hydrate in the presence of moisture, a combination of techniques such as vibrational spectroscopy together with microwave resonator measurements are appropriate to characterize, in situ, the physical and chemical properties of the powder. PMID:21328582
Sung, Pei-Fang; Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Angonese, Kristen; Dunn, Don; King, Ray J; Machbitz, Rachel; Christianson, Andrew; Chappell, William J; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T
Intolerance of gluten, resposible for Coeliac disease, is essentially shown by an auto-immune enteropathy, even if the cutaneous manifestation (herpetiform dermatitis) and perhaps certain neurological signs (cerebral syndrome, peripheral neuropathy) may be independent as well as associated with the intestinal illness. This affection is of immunological nature, occuring in a genetic field that predisposes to the illness (familial form: concordance of 70% in homozygote twins; 90% of patients show an HLA molecule of type DQ2, DQ8 in almost all the other cases. The exogenous factor is the gluten content contained in wheat, rye and barley, more precisely by the intermediary "the prolamines" which are the "reactive" element that induces a the same time an inflammatory reaction of type TH11 locally (expressed by the histological aspect of a duodenal biopsy evolving as villous atrophy) and a humoral response with production of anti-gliadine and anti-transglutaminase antibodies (the role of the latter enzyme is intervention in the local transformation of antigens to make them antigenic). It is an illness of adults as well as children and this point must now be emphasized. Recent epidemiological studies insist on a high prevalence (1/300 in Europe). Clinical expression, at the start very polymorphic and so misleading, before the appearance of the more classical signs of malabsorption and development, always feared, towards a lymphoma. These signs are haematological (anemia of various types, hyper platelets by hyposplenism, haemorrhagic signs) cutaneous (herpetiform dermatitis, cutaneous vasculitis) mucosal (aphtose), hepatic (cytolysis), neurophysical (fatigue, troubles of behaviour, cerebral syndrome, neuropathy) and osteo-articulitis (osteopenia, arthralgias, diffuse pains). The association of certain auto-immune illnesses must be emphasized (diabetes, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Gougerot disease, primitive biliary cirrhosis). To think early of the possibility of intolerance to gluten, is to give the means of a very easy diagnosis (measurement of anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium and anti-transglutaminase, and secondarily duodenal biopsy if necessary), and it is early elimination of gluten food which will make the various clinical manifestations disappear and so prevent the risk of evolution to a tumoral pathology. PMID:15137480
Dehydration with decreased blood volume due to a microgravity environment is believed to play a decisive role in the etiology of orthostatic intolerance. Increase of body fluid content before landing, especially in the intravascular space, may counteract ...
The purpose of this literature review is to develop a thorough understanding of the research on food intolerance and its relationship to irritable bowel syndrome. Knowledge of the connection between the two conditions will assist allied healthcare professionals in working with patients to better manage their symptoms. Reduced healthcare costs may also result if patients are able to identify problematic foods and experience symptom improvement with diet changes. The review consists of an overview of food intolerance including prevalence, specific foods implicated including an in-depth review of research on bulk sweeteners, as well as methods of diagnosis. In addition, prevalence, specific foods associated with food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients such as carbohydrates and lipids, nutritional consequences of food intolerance, and possible food-related methods of treatment including increased fiber intake are discussed. Finally, suggestions for future research and possible directions allied healthcare professionals can start with in assisting patients are provided. PMID:23899486
Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791
The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn: 1.20--1.35). The Mark-Houwink equation was obtained as [eta] = 2.15 x 10-4Mv0.73. Hydrogels produced in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide swelled as much as 21-fold in deionized water. Copolymerization of styrene with lactose-O-(vinylbenzyl)oxime in dimethylsulfoxide-toluene (1:1, v/v) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator are discussed in Chapter 5. The resulting hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers were characterized by viscometry, TGA, DSC, GPC, and solubility tests in solvents of varied polarities. Chapter 6 documents the preparation of polystyrene beads with different length of oligo(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers. Swelling in different solvents, solvent accessibility, and reagent diffusion of these beads with different crosslinking density were studied and the results indicated that the PEG-crosslinked polymers showed slightly better solvent accessibility in polar solvents than the analogous DVB-crosslinked networks.
This article reports on the stereochemical aspects of the chemical stability of lactose solutions stored between 25 and 60 °C. The lactose used for the preparation of the aqueous solutions was ?-lactose monohydrate with an anomer purity of 96% ? and 4% ? based on the supplied certificate of analysis (using a GC analytical protocol), which was further confirmed here by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Aliquots of lactose solutions were collected at different time points after the solutions were prepared and freeze-dried to remove water and halt epimerization for subsequent analysis by NMR. Epimerization was also monitored by polarimetry and infrared spectroscopy using a specially adapted Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) method. Hydrolysis was analyzed by ion chromatography. The three different analytical approaches unambiguously showed that the epimerization of lactose in aqueous solution follows first order reversible kinetics between 25 to 60 °C. The overall rate constant was 4.4 × 10(-4) s(-1) ± 0.9 (± standard deviation (SD)) at 25 °C. The forward rate constant was 1.6 times greater than the reverse rate constant, leading to an equilibrium constant of 1.6 ± 0.1 (±SD) at 25 °C. The rate of epimerization for lactose increased with temperature and an Arrhenius plot yielded an activation energy of +52.3 kJ/mol supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of lactose epimerization involves the formation of extremely short-lived intermediate structures. The main mechanism affecting lactose stability is epimerization, as no permanent hydrolysis or chemical degradation was observed. When preparing aqueous solutions of lactose, immediate storage in an ice bath at 0 °C will allow approximately 3 min (180 s) of analysis time before the anomeric ratio alters significantly (greater than 1%) from the solid state composition of the starting material. In contrast a controlled anomeric composition (?38% ? and ?62% ?) will be achieved if an aqueous solution is left to equilibrate for over 4 h at 25 °C, while increasing the temperature up to 60 °C rapidly reduces the required equilibration time. PMID:24815988
Jawad, Rim; Drake, Alex F; Elleman, Carole; Martin, Gary P; Warren, Frederick J; Perston, Benjamin B; Ellis, Peter R; Hassoun, Mireille A; Royall, Paul G
BackgroundRecent studies indicate that the coexistence of hypertension and glucose intolerance leads to impairment in saline volume-induced diuresis and natriuresis. Furthermore, taurine and enalapril affect renal function and blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that therapy combining taurine and enalapril would confer greater antihypertensive activity and responsiveness to saline volume loading in the hypertensive glucose-intolerant (HGI) rat than
Mahmood S. Mozaffari; Noriyuki Miyata; Stephen W. Schaffer
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the crystalline metastasis of lactose, which is a main component baby milk powder, and the hardness of baby milk powder compressed by humidification followed by drying. Because baby milk powder is manufactured using a spray dryer, lactose in compressed baby milk powder exists in an amorphous (solid dispersion) form. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this amorphous lactose metastasized to ?-form crystalline lactose, and thereafter metastasized to the ?-form during the humidification-drying process. As a result of this crystalline metastasis, the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder increased, and then decreased. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed bridging structures between the particles increased and then decreased during the humidification-drying process. This showed that bridging structures between the particles produced by crystalline metastasis of lactose as a result of the humidification-drying process, which leads to an increase in the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder. These results show that the necessary degree of hardness of the porous compressed baby milk powder (necessary for packaging and transportation) resulted from the humidification-drying process. PMID:23123724
Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese-manufacturing industries, and the utilization of whey is a challenging problem either to use it or dispose it, because only few microorganisms can metabolize the whey lactose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by ?-galactosidase is the approach for biotechnological application. Kluyveromyces marxianus cells were permeabilized with non-toxic, biodegradable, anionic detergent N-lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) for the enzyme activity. The permeabilization process parameters (N-LS concentration, solvent volume, temperature and incubation time) were optimized. The maximum ?-galactosidase activity of 1,220 IU/g dry weight was obtained using permeabilized cells under optimized conditions. Moreover, viability of the permeabilized cells was also evaluated, which showed that cells were alive; however, viability was reduced by two log cycles. The permeabilized cells were evaluated for whey lactose hydrolysis. The maximum lactose hydrolysis of 91% was observed with 600 mg (dry cell weight/100 mL) in whey powder (5% w/v) solution at 180-min incubation, pH 6.5 and 30 °C. Further, the hydrolyzed whey was evaluated for amelioration of growth of non-lactose-consuming yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae was able to grow in hydrolyzed whey simultaneously with K. marxianus. The study confirmed that N-LS could be used to permeabilize K. marxianus cells to make available the enzyme activity. PMID:24500798
Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Bezawada, Jyothi; Yan, Song; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y
A starter strain, Lactobacillus casei C257, was found to carry a lactose plasmid, pLY101. Restriction mapping showed that pLY101 DNA was 68.2 kilobases long. Since a non-lactose-utilizing variant of C257, MSK248, lost phospho-?-galactosidase (P-?-gal) activity and pLY101 DNA had a sequence(s) homologous to the streptococcal fragment including a P-?-gal gene, pLY101 is likely to encode a P-?-gal gene required for lactose metabolism in C257. MSK248 grew in galactose medium at a rate identical to that of C257 and retained phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system activity for lactose similar to that of C257. Therefore, the C257 chromosome appears to encode a complete set of genes for the lactose-phosphotransferase system and the predominant galactose metabolic pathway in C257. pLY101 DNA had a sequence homologous to a lactobacillus insertion sequence, ISL1, which mapped more than 12 kilobases from the sequence homologous to the streptococcal P-?-gal fragment. Images
The ?-galactosidase activity of 15 Kluyveromyces strains isolated from cheese belonging to Kluyveromyces lactis and Kluyveromyces marxianus species was tested for the production of oligosaccharides derived from lactose (GOS) and lactulose (OsLu). All Kluyveromyces crude cell extracts (CEEs) produced GOS, such as 6-galactobiose and 3'-, 4'-, and 6'-galactosyl-lactose. At 4 h of reaction, the main trisaccharide formed was 6'-galactosyl-lactose (20 g/100 g of total carbohydrates). The formation of OsLu was also observed by all CEEs tested, with 6-galactobiose, 6'-galactosyl-lactulose, and 1-galactosyl-lactulose being found in all of the reaction mixtures. The synthesis of trisaccharides predominated over other oligosaccharides. K. marxianus strain O3 produced the highest yields of GOS and OsLu after 4 h of reaction, reaching 42 g/100 g of total carbohydrates (corresponding to 80% lactose hydrolysis) and 45 g/100 g of total carbohydrates (corresponding to 87% lactulose hydrolysis), respectively. Therefore, the present study contributes to a better insight into dairy Kluyveromyces ?-galactosidases and shows the feasibility of these enzymes to transglycosylate lactose and lactulose, producing high yields of prebiotic oligosaccharides. PMID:22559148
Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia obovata, has various pharmacological effects, including protection against cerebral ischemia. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of honokiol against cerebral ischemia. We recently reported that cerebral ischemic neuronal damage could be triggered by glucose intolerance that develops after the onset of ischemic stress (i.e., post-ischemic glucose intolerance). In addition, suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance significantly ameliorated ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we investigated the effects of honokiol on the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage. Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. The development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage on day 3 after MCAO were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal administration of honokiol (10 mg/kg) compared with the vehicle-treated group. Honokiol did not affect serum insulin or adiponectin levels. However, honokiol significantly decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased the expression of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on day 1 after MCAO, compared with the vehicle-treated MCAO group. The results of this study suggest that honokiol could prevent post-ischemic glucose intolerance in an AMPK-dependent manner, which may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of honokiol against cerebral ischemia. PMID:22261858
Objectives: We and others showed that migraineurs are at increased risk of subclinical and clinical ischemic brain lesions. Migraineurs also have a higher prevalence of frequent syncope and orthostatic intolerance, symptoms that are associated with transient reductions in cerebral blood flow. In this study, we assessed whether these autonomic symptoms may contribute to the increased risk of brain lesions in migraine. Methods: Migraineurs (n = 291) and controls (n = 140) from the population-based, cross-sectional CAMERA (Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiologic Risk Analysis) cohort (aged 3060 years, and free of other neurologic symptoms) underwent 1) brain MRI scan, and 2) structured telephone interview including questions on frequent syncope (?5/lifetime) and orthostatic intolerance. Results: Frequent syncope (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.35.5) and orthostatic intolerance (OR = 2.0 [1.13.6]) were independent risk factors for high load of deep white matter lesions. Effects were strongest in women and similar in migraineurs and controls. Migraine diagnosis did not mediate or moderate these associations. Individuals with orthostatic intolerance had higher prevalence of high periventricular white matter lesion load (OR = 1.9 [1.13.5]). Syncope and orthostatic intolerance were not related to subclinical infarcts or infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Frequent syncope, orthostatic intolerance, and migraine independently increase the risk of white matter lesions, particularly in females.
Thijs, Roland D.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Launer, Lenore J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; van Dijk, J. Gert
Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative casecontrol study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ?14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 23 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance contrary to various specific phobias is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.
Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas
Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-?-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139
Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier
Lactosucrose (4(G)-beta-D-galactosylsucrose) is an oligosaccharide consisting of galactose, glucose, and fructose. In this study, we prepared lactosucrose from lactose and sucrose using a levansucrase derived from Zymomonas mobilis. Optimum conditions for lactosucrose formation were 23 degrees C, pH 7.0, 18.0% (w/v) lactose monohydrate, and 18% (w/v) sucrose as substrates, and 1 unit of enzyme/ml of reaction mixture. Under these conditions, the lactosucrose conversion efficiency was 28.5%. The product was purified and confirmed to be O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->2)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, or lactosucrose. A mixed-enzyme system containing a levansucrase and a glucose oxidase was applied in order to increase the efficiency of lactose and sucrose conversion to lactosucrose, which rose to 43.2% as s result. PMID:19884774
Kluyveromyces fragilis (CBS 397) is a nonhalophilic yeast which is capable of lactose utilization from whey permeate and high glycerol production under anaerobic growth conditions. However, the optimum yields of glycerol (11.6 mg/ml of whey permeate medium) obtained in this study occurred only in the presence of 1% Na2SO3 as a steering agent. The use of other concentrations of Na2SO3, as well as 5% NaCl and 1% ascorbic acid, had no or detrimental effects on cell growth, lactose utilization, and glycerol production. Glycerol yields were greater in cultures grown from a light inoculum of K. fragilis than in cultures in which a resuspended mass of cells was introduced into the medium. The results of this study suggest that this strain of K. fragilis may be useful commercially in the utilization of cheese whey lactose and the concomitant production of glycerol.
Jenq, Wheamei; Speckman, Ray A.; Crang, Richard E.; Steinberg, Marvin P.
Physical mixtures were prepared containing indomethacin and beta-lactose and alpha-lactose-based excipients (Ludipress and Cellactose). The mixtures were compacted with the aid of ultrasound, obtaining tablets, which were milled and sieved. Granules thus obtained were examined by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The intense yellow color of the granules and the absence of indomethacin peak in thermograms suggest important modifications of indomethacin physical state; the drug thus modified appears to be spread on the excipient particle surface as a thin film, giving a lustrous appearance. No influence of ultrasound was observed on phase transition concerning lactose; only loss of water was important under high energy ultrasound. Dissolution profiles suggest an increased release of the drug from the systems treated with ultrasound at high energy, with respect to a traditional compaction; while no difference could be evidenced among the three excipients that, however, appear all suitable for this ultrasound-aided direct compression process. PMID:15653132
Cavallari, Cristina; Albertini, Beatrice; Rodriguez, Lorenzo; Rabasco, Antonio M; Fini, Adamo
The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.
Lactose repressor protein, regulator of lac enzyme expression in Escherichia coli, maintains its structure and function at extremely low protein concentrations (<10(-)12 M). To examine the unfolding and dissociation of this tetrameric protein, structural transitions in the presence of varying concentrations of urea were monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, and functional activities. The spectroscopic data demonstrated a single cooperative transition with no evidence of folded dimeric or monomeric species of this protein. These spectroscopic transitions were reversible provided a long incubation step was employed in the refolding reaction at approximately 3 M urea. The refolded repressor protein possessed the same functional and structural properties as wild-type repressor protein. The absence of concentration dependence expected for tetramer dissociation to unfolded monomer (M4 <--> 4U) in the spectral transitions indicates that the disruption of the monomer-monomer interface and monomer unfolding are a concerted reaction (M4 <--> U4) that may occur prior to the dissociation of the dimer-dimer interface. Thus, we propose that the unfolded monomers remain associated at the C-terminus by the 4-helical coiled-coil structure that forms the dimer-dimer interface and that this intermediate is the end point detected in the spectral transitions. Efforts to confirm the existence of this species by ultracentrifugation were inhibited by the aggregation of this intermediate. Based upon these observations, the wild-type fluorescence and CD data were fit to a model, M4 <--> U4, which resulted in an overall DeltaG degrees for unfolding of 40 kcal/mol. Using a mutant protein, K84L, in which the monomer-monomer interface is stabilized, sedimentation equilibrium results demonstrated that the dimer-dimer interface of lac repressor could persist at higher levels of urea than the monomer-monomer interface. The tetramer-dimer transition monitored using this mutant repressor yields a DeltaG degrees of 20.4 kcal/mol. Using this free energy value for the dissociation process of U4 <--> 4U, an overall free energy change of approximately 60 kcal/mol was calculated for dissociation of all interfaces and unfolding of the tetrameric lac repressor, reflecting the exceptional stability of this protein. PMID:10350470
Thirty-four lactose-utilizing strains of E. coli were selected from a lac Z deletion strain. In 31 of these, the synthesis of the newly evolved lactase is regulated by lactose. The lactase activity in all the strains is indistinguishable from the ebg+ activity identified by Campbell, Lengyel and Langridge (1973).
Mutual diffusion coefficients for calcium chloride (0.100moldm(-3)) in aqueous solutions containing lactose at various concentrations (from 0.005 to 0.200moldm(-3)) have been measured at 37°C (physiological temperature), by using a conductimetric cell coupled to an automatic system to follow the diffusion. This cell uses an open-ended capillary method based on the measurement of the electrical resistance of a solution placed inside the capillaries at recorded times. The analysis of the CaCl2 diffusion coefficient values obtained suggests the presence of some CaCl2/lactose aggregates in the media, which are influenced by the temperature. PMID:24912727
Verissimo, Luis M P; Ribeiro, Vânia C M; Ribeiro, Ana C F; Melia Rodrigo, M; Esteso, Miguel A
We report the first use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the hydration and crystallization of an amorphous molecular solid at high humidity. Lactose in its amorphous and monohydrate forms exhibits different terahertz spectra due to the lack of long range order in the amorphous material. This difference allowed the transformation of amorphous lactose to its monohydrate form at high humidity to be studied in real time. Spectral fitting of frequency-domain data allowed kinetic data to be obtained and the crystallization was found to obey Avrami kinetics. Bulk changes during the crystallization could also be observed in the time-domain.
McIntosh, Alexander I.; Yang, Bin; Goldup, Stephen M.; Watkinson, Michael; Donnan, Robert S.
6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.
Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi
The authors have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene in the context of efficacy and toxicity of azathioprine (AZA) to determine possible genotype-phenotype correlations between TPMT allelic variants and response to AZA treatment in 76 Italian patients with myasthenia gravis. They confirm known intronic and exonic TPMT polymorphisms that do not correlate with AZA responses and demonstrate a novel intronic polymorphism in a patient intolerant to AZA. Most importantly, they show that of the 22 AZA-intolerant patients, all 5 who carried mutations of the intolerance-linked haplotype TPMT*3A also carried the intronic T140+114A (rs3931660), all 3 mutations being part of a new haplotype designated TMPT*3E. TPMT*3E was not observed in unresponsive or responsive patients. The association of TPMT*3E with AZA intolerance and its frequency must be ascertained in larger, ethnically different cohorts. Nevertheless, in view of the highly significant association (Psim = 0.0026) between TPMT*3E and AZA intolerance in the study, this new haplotype should be taken into consideration in pharmacogenetic profiling for AZA. PMID:23400745
Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-13Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-13Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-13C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by 13C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway involved in energy recruitment from these two sugars. On the basis of our experimental results, a model of sugar metabolism in B. animalis subsp. lactis is proposed.
In this research it was attempted to overexpress the acidic subunit, from the 11S amaranth seed globulin termed amarantin, modified with antihypertensive peptides in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) by manipulating some factors in batch fermenter such as growth medium composition, inducer (isopropyl ?-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG] or lactose), air flow, cultivation temperature, agitation speed and induction time. The possibility of using several minimal media and lactose as inducer to increase yields of the recombinant protein was investigated. Previous fermentations at flask level showed that two minimal culture media (A6 and A7) and 0.5% (w/v) lactose presented high yields of the engineered protein expression. Thus, the latter two media were tested at fermenter level, the lactose inducer, and different environmental conditions. Factors with significant effects were identified by Plackett-Burman design with center points and were adjusted at the level suggested and the yields of the recombinant protein were increased from 303.2 to 1,531 mg L(-1) in A6 and from 363.4 to 1,681 mg L(-1) in A7. Unlike some patents where the highest productivity was achieved at 24 h or afterwards, in this research the best productivity of the recombinant acidic subunit was attained at 4 and 6 h of induction using both media, respectively. PMID:23294401
BACKGROUND: It has recently been suggested that primary lactase deficiency might have been selected for by malaria, as has been previously shown to occur for thalasaemia and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. AIMS: To test this hypothesis, the prevalence of primary lactase deficiency in G6PD deficient subjects and in controls from the area of Sassari (Northern Sardinia) was determined, which in the past was characterised by an intermediate malarial endemicity. SUBJECTS: 70 adult subjects with G6PD deficiency, 34 of whom had a past history of favism, and 50 age matched control subjects. METHODS: The capacity to absorb lactose was assessed by measuring breath hydrogen production after oral administration of lactose (50 g) by a gas chromatographic method. RESULTS: Twenty per cent of G6PD deficient subjects with a positive history of favism and 22% of G6PD deficient subjects without a positive history of favism were lactose absorbers compared with 14% lactose absorbers in the control group. The differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the prevalence of primary lactase deficiency in the area of Sassari is relatively high, but comparable to that seen in the adult population from another area of southern Italy (Naples) where malaria was less endemic.
Meloni, T; Colombo, C; Ogana, A; Mannazzu, M C; Meloni, G F
In the present study, the aim was to investigate the effect of ultrasonication on the kinetics of hydrolysis of lactose recovered from whey. The effects of the duty cycle, acoustic power of sonifier, reaction volume, and the hydrolysis products on hydrolysis degree as well as on enzyme stability were studied. The hydrolysis reactions were carried out in 25 mM phosphate buffer
A total of 308 healthy Italian adults ( I 92 females, I I 6 males; mean age 29.2 yr) were examined using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. Two geographical groups were formed according to the birth places of the probands' grandparents: 208 subjects from northern Italy (mainly from the regions of Piemonte, Lombardia,
G Roberto Burgio; Gebhard Flatz; Cristiana Barbera; Rosario Patan; Attilio Boner; Cinzia Cajozzo; Sibylle D Flaiz
Lactose and all of the major sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose) present in cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli containing plasmid-borne genes encoding the enzymes for the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis. Environmental tolerances, plasmid stability, expression of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase, substrate range, and ethanol production (from glucose, lactose, and xylose) were compared among eight American Type Culture Collection strains. E. coli ATCC 9637(pLOI297), ATCC 11303(pLOI297), and ATCC 15224(pLOI297) were selected for further development on the basis of environmental hardiness and ethanol production. Volumetric ethanol productivities per hour in batch culture were 1.4 g/liter for glucose (12%), 1.3 g/liter for lactose (12%), and 0.64 g/liter for xylose (8%). Ethanol productivities per hour ranged from 2.1 g/g of cell dry weight with 12% glucose to 1.3 g/g of cell dry weight with 8% xylose. The ethanol yield per gram of xylose was higher for recombinant E. coli than commonly reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glucose. Glucose (12%), lactose (12%), and xylose (8%) were converted to (by volume) 7.2% ethanol, 6.5% ethanol, and 5.2% ethanol, respectively.
Alterthum, F. (Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))
Six of seven lactose-fermenting (lac(+) Salmonella strains obtained from clinical sources were found to be capable of transferring the lac(+) property by conjugation to Salmonella typhosa WR4204. All of the six S. typhosa strains which received the lac(+)...
S. B. Easterling E. M. Johnson J. A. Wohlhieter L. S. Baron
In the present study, commercially available whey was used as a lactose source, and immobilized ?-galactosidase and glucose isomerase were used to synthesize lactulose from whey lactose in the absence of fructose. Optimal reaction conditions, such as lactose concentration, temperature, ionic strength of the buffer, and ratio of immobilized enzymes, were determined to improve lactulose synthesis using immobilized enzymes. Lactulose synthesis using immobilized enzymes improved markedly after optimizing the reaction conditions. When the lactulose synthesis was carried out at 53.5°C using 20% (w/v) whey lactose, 12U/ml of immobilized ?-galactosidase and 60U/ml of immobilized glucose isomerase in 100mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, the lactulose concentration and specific productivity were 7.68g/l and 0.32mg/Uh, respectively. Additionally, when the immobilized enzymes were reused for lactulose synthesis, their catalytic activity was 57.1% after 7 repeated uses. PMID:23353997
Song, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Hee-Uk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung-Wook
Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.
The synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) by ?-galactosidase immobilized in both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) lenses and sol-gel carriers was studied and compared with the performance of the free enzyme. PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase retained 95 % of the initial activity after seven repeated uses and retained 51 % of the initial activity after 3 months of storage, while sol-gel-immobilized ?-galactosidase only retained 39 % of the initial activity under storage. Lactose conversion takes place at a higher rate in the PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, while the lowest rate of lactose conversion was noticed with immobilized ?-galactosidase in sol-gel. Continuous production of GOS from either lactose or whey, with PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, was performed in a packed-bed reactor. A maximum GOS production of 30 % of total sugars was attained for a 40-% lactose feed solution with a feed rate of 10.8 ml/h, at pH 4.5 and 40 °C, corresponding to a productivity of 117 g/l?h. The maximum GOS productivity of 344 g/l?h was obtained at a flow rate of 28.7 ml/h. 3-OS and 4-OS were the major types of GOS formed. Conversion of whey in continuous mode resulted in GOS production of 15 % of total sugars and formation of 45 % 3-OS, 40 % 4-OS, and 15 % 5-OS. PMID:22941309
Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Fernandes, Pedro; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Fonseca, Luis
Spray dried (15% amorphous) lactose absorbs moisture when exposed to humidity. At 57% relative humidity (RH), the moisture uptake was 1.5%. It is suggested that the moisture is preferentially taken up in the amorphous regions, thereby increasing the actual moisture content in the amorphous parts up to 10%. The moisture uptake reduced the glass transition temperature below the operating temperature
The atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe technique was investigated as a method for the characterisation of adhesional properties of pharmaceutical powder surfaces. Lactose carriers used in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were chosen for investigation since adhesion between the carrier surface and drug particles has been proposed to affect the dispersion of drug particles. Individual adhesion forces were determined
Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.
Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.
Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented. PMID:11200979
The effect of 3 h standing, followed by a period of head-up tilt (HUT) on physiological response (orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate), as well as on plasma vasopressin (PVP) and renin activity (PRA) were studied in 13 dehydrated (to 2.4 pct loss of body weight) subjects. Seven subjects showed signs of orthostatic intolerance (INT), manifested by sweating, pallor, nausea and dizziness. Prior to these symptoms, the INT subjects exhibited lower systolic (SP) and pulse (PP) pressures, and an elevated PRA, compared to the tolerant (TOL) subjects. HUT has aggravated increases of RPA in the INT subjects and caused an increase, higher than in TOL subjects, in PVP, while rehydration has greatly attenuated the PVP response to the HUT and decreased the PRA response. It is concluded that dehydration, together with measurements of SP, PP and PRA, may serve as a means of predicting orthostatic intolerance and may provide a physiological model for studying the causes of intolerance.
Harrison, M. H.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L.; Greenleaf, J. E.
The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 ?g/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 ?Ci of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 ?g/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 ?g/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 ?g/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 ?g/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk. PMID:24290678
Lumor, Stephen E; Deen, Bronwyn D; Ronningen, Ian; Smith, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Neal R; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P
African trypanosomosis is a potentially fatal disease that is caused by extracellular parasitic protists known as African trypanosomes. These parasites inhabit the blood stream of their mammalian hosts and produce a number of pathological features, amongst which is anemia. Etiology of the anemia has been partly attributed to an autoimmunity-like mediated erythrophagocytosis of de-sialylated red blood cells (dsRBCs) by macrophages. Lactose infusion to infected animals has proven effective at delaying progression of the anemia. However, the mechanism of this anemia prevention is yet to be well characterized. Here, the hypothesis of a likely induced further modification of the dsRBCs was investigated. RBC membrane galactose (RBC m-GAL) and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured during the course of experimental trypanosomosis in mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense (stb 212). Intriguingly, while the membrane galactose on the RBCs of infected and lactose-treated mice (group D) decreased as a function of parasitemia, that of the lactose-untreated infected group (group C) remained relatively constant, as was recorded for the uninfected lactose-treated control (group B) animals. At the peak of infection, the respective cumulative percent decrease in PCV and membrane galactose were 30 and 185 for group D, and 84 and 13 for group C. From this observed inverse relationship between RBCs membrane galactose and PCV, it is logical to rationalize that the delay of anemia progression during trypanosomosis produced by lactose might have resulted from an induction of galactose depletion from dsRBCs, thereby preventing their recognition by the macrophages. PMID:24238624
Balogun, E O; Balogun, J B; Yusuf, S; Inuwa, H M; Ndams, I S; Sheridan, P; Inaoka, D K; Shiba, T; Harada, S; Kita, K; Esievo, K A N; Nok, A J
... autonomic neuropathy) Side effect of medications Lactoseintolerance Gluten sensitivity (celiac sprue) Crohn's disease Diverticulitis (infection of ... medical disorders that can cause flatulence include: Gallstones Gluten sensitivity (celiac sprue) Food intolerance (especially lactoseintolerance) ...
Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.
Lopez-Lopez, Maria; Pelegrin-Sanchez, Jose Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Garcia-Ayuso, Diego
A strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus was grown in batch culture in lactose-based media at varying initial lactose concentrations (1060 g L?1) at 30°C, pH 5.0, dissolved oxygen concentrations greater than 20%. Increasing the concentration of mineral salts three-fold at 40 g L?1 and 60 g L?1 initial lactose concentration showed only a small increase in the yield of biomass, from 0.38 g g?1 to 0.41 g g?1, indicating that the initial
Tredwell Lukondeh; Nicholas J. Ashbolt; Peter L. Rogers
One of the sensory complications of traumatic peripheral nerve injury is thermal intolerance, which manifests in humans mainly as cold intolerance. It has a major effect on the quality of life, and adequate therapy is not yet available. In order to better understand the pathophysiological background of thermal intolerance, we focus first on the various transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved in temperature sensation, including their presence in peripheral nerves and in keratinocytes. Second, the role of thermo-sensitive TRP channels in cold and heat intolerance is described showing three different mechanisms that contribute to thermal intolerance in the skin: (a) an increased expression of TRP channels on nerve fibres and on keratinocytes, (b) a lower activation threshold of TRP channels and (c) the sprouting of non-injured nerve fibres. Finally, the data that are available on the effects of TRP channel agonists and antagonists and their clinical use are discussed. In conclusion, TRP channels play a major role in temperature sensation and in cold and heat intolerance. Unfortunately, the available pharmaceutical agents that successfully target TRP channels and counteract thermal intolerance are still very limited. Yet, our focus should remain on TRP channels since it is difficult to imagine a reliable treatment for thermal intolerance that will not involve TRP channels. PMID:24439213
Kambiz, S; Duraku, L S; Holstege, J C; Hovius, S E R; Ruigrok, T J H; Walbeehm, E T
During the summer of 1981, 3,887 sucrose-negative vibrios were isolated from seawater, sediment, plankton, and animal samples taken from 80 sites from Miami, Fla., to Portland, Maine. Of these, 4.2% were able to ferment lactose. The lactose-positive strains isolated from the various samples correlated positively with pH and turbidity of the water, vibrios in the sediment and oysters, and total bacterial counts in oysters. Negative correlations were obtained for water salinity. Numerical taxonomy was performed on 95 of the lactose-fermenting environmental isolates and 23 reference strains. Five clusters resulted, with the major cluster containing 33 of the environmental isolates and all of the Vibrio vulnificus reference strains. The 33 isolates, which produced an acid reaction in lactose broth within hours of initial inoculation, represented 20% of all lactose-fermenting vibrios studied. These isolates were nearly identical phenotypically to clinical strains of V. vulnificus studied by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and by our laboratory, and their identification was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. V. vulnificus was isolated from all sample types and from Miami to Cape Cod, Mass., and comparison of the environmental parameters of the eight subsites yielding this species with those of all 80 subsites revealed no significant differences. The majority of the isolates were obtained from animals, with clams providing most (84%) of these. On injection into mice, 82% of the V. vulnificus isolates resulted in death. Members of the remaining four clusters contained strains which differed from V. vulnificus in such phenotypic traits as luminescence and in urease or H2S production. None of the other reference cultures, including nine other Vibrio species, were contained in the remaining clusters, and these isolates could not be identified. Most of these were also lethal for mice. Phenotypic differences, potential pathogenicity, and geographic distribution of the five clusters were examined. It is concluded that V. vulnificus is a ubiquitous organism, both geographically and in a variety of environmental sources, although it occurs in relatively low numbers. The public health significance of this organism and of the other unidentified lactose-fermenting Vibrio species is discussed.
Oliver, James D.; Warner, Robert A.; Cleland, David R.
The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld
BackgroundChronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of $30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses. Methods
Giris Jacob; John R. Shannon; Fernando Costa; Raffaello Furlan; Italo Biaggioni; Rogelio Mosqueda-Garcia; Rose Marie Robertson; David Robertson
Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.
Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David
The present study examined the value of a measure of catastrophizing as a predictor of activity intolerance in response to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). A sample of 50 (17 men, 33 women) sedentary undergraduates participated in an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle soreness and were asked to return 2 days later to perform the same physical maneuvres. Participants
Michael J. L Sullivan; Wendy M Rodgers; Philip M Wilson; Gordon J Bell; Terra C Murray; Shawn N Fraser
Treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs is known to increase the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes. However, the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Since central adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating nutrient homeostasis, the present study was performed to examine the involvement of central AMPK in the glucose intolerance induced by olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, in mice. Acute intraperitoneal treatment with olanzapine dose-dependently increased blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test. Intracerebroventricular administration of olanzapine also increased blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test. The glucose intolerance induced by both intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular treatment with olanzapine was significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the AMPK activator AICAR increased blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test, and this increase was inhibited by compound C. Moreover, the hypothalamic level of phosphorylated AMPK after glucose injection was significantly increased by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with olanzapine. Olanzapine did not affect plasma glucagon and insulin levels. Our results indicate that acute treatment with olanzapine causes glucose intolerance through the activation of hypothalamic AMPK. The present study suggests that the inhibition of central AMPK activity may have a therapeutic effect on the metabolic disturbance induced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23973646
Bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D2 receptor agonist, suppresses lipogenesis and improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Recent evidence suggests that bromocriptine may produce these effects by altering central nervous system (CNS) regulation of metabolism. To determine whether or not the CNS plays a critical role in these bromocriptine-mediated effects on peripheral metabolism, we compared the metabolic responses to bromocriptine when
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess maternal-fetal outcomes in patients with increasing carbohydrate intolerance not meeting the current criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes.STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective analytic cohort study in which nondiabetic women aged ?24 years, receiving prenatal care in three Toronto teaching hospitals, were eligible for enrollment. A glucose challenge test and an oral glucose
Mathew Sermer; C. David Naylor; Douglas J. Gare; Anne B. Kenshole; J. W. K. Ritchie; Dan Farine; Howard R. Cohen; Karen McArthur; Stephen Holzapfel; Anne Biringer; Erluo Chen
Contributes to scholarship on the rhetoric of conversion and conversion narratives by examining the narratives of Italian women who have turned state's evidence against the Mafia. Finds that the "topoi" of intolerance, forgiveness, and promise are used to describe the process of conversion, translate private experiences into public testimonies,
Political tolerance is a democratic value that has often been studied by those interested in the relationship between mass public opinion and democracy. Yet most research efforts have been mounted in relatively democratic regimes. Little is known about political tolerance in relatively totalitarian regimes. The authors' purpose in this article is to explore intolerance within the mass public of the
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous renal artery embolisation of non-functioning renal allografts in patients with graft intolerance syndrome (GIS). Transcatheter artery embolisation was performed in 30 kidney transplant recipients with GIS. The duration of graft function had been 60ᇁ months. Infectious disease was ruled out in all patients. Embolisation consisted of
Federico Cofan; Maria-Isabel Real; Jordi Vilardell; Xavier Montanya; Jordi Blasco; Pilar Martin; Federico Oppenheimer; Rafael Gutierrez; Roberto Talbot-Wright; Juan Alcover
In summary, supplemental Cr has been shown to have beneficial effects on people with glucose intolerance, diabetes, obesity and neuropathy. The majority of the well controlled studies involving Cr and body composition also show beneficial effects of Cr on lean body mass. However, these conditions are due to a number of other causes that may be unrelated to Cr, therefore
Richard A. Anderson; William Cefalu; Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy; Gilbert R. Kaats
Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. ?-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo ?-cell insulin secretion and decreased ?-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow-fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to ?-cell dysfunction. PMID:24009256
Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Salmon, Adam B; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Li, Mengyao; Balas, Bogdan; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Giaccari, Andrea; Reddick, Robert L; Reyna, Sara M; Weir, Gordon; Defronzo, Ralph A; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas
Brewer's Spent Grains (BSG) and Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR) were used as supports for kefir cells immobilization and the role of lactose uptake rate by kefir in the positive activity of produced biocatalysts during whey fermentation was investigated. Lactose uptake rate by the immobilized cells was recorded using (14)C-labelled lactose and the effect of various conditions (pH, temperature and kind of support) on it and consequently on fermentation time and ethanol production was examined. The results showed that lactose uptake rate was correlated to fermentation rate and increased as temperature was increased up to 30°C at pH 5.5. The same results have been recently noticed by using biocatalysts with Delignified Cellulosic Materials (DCM) and Gluten Pellets (GP), but fermentation time of about 7h by kefir immobilized on DCM and BSG resulted to two fold lower than that on GP and MSR. The highest alcohol concentration was observed by MSR. PMID:23385156
Soupioni, Magdalini; Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A
The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90 l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines %?4.5 ?m and %?15 ?m. These data suggest that, for an adhesive API, the proportion of fine particles below %?4.5 ?m and %?15 ?m could be used in rational dry powder inhaler formulation design. PMID:24831088
Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert
At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.
Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd
Nucleation is a determinant of the final crystal size distribution produced during a crystallization process. Other studies in the literature have shown that mixing influences alpha lactose monohydrate nucleation. To investigate this in more detail, three different sized Venturi orifices were used to provide a point of passive mixing for supersaturated lactose solutions. This system allowed the study of different factors associated with characterising the mixing process, including cavitation, power input, Reynolds number and vortex formation. A strong relationship was found between the number of vortices created in the system and the nucleation rate. It is speculated that the vortices decrease the distance required for diffusion of molecules in the system, increasing the rate at which they can come together to form a stable nuclei.
McLeod, J. S.; Paterson, A. H. J.; Bronlund, J. E.; Jones, J. R.
The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 °C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of ?-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.
In this study, lactulose synthesis from whey lactose was investigated in batch and continuous systems using immobilized ?-galactosidase. In the batch system, the optimal concentration of fructose for lactulose synthesis was 20%, and the effect of galactose, glucose and fructose on ?-galactosidase activity was determined for hydrolysis of whey lactose and the transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis. Galactose and fructose were competitive inhibitors, and glucose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of galactose and glucose were stronger in the transgalactosylation reaction than they were in the hydrolysis reaction. In addition, when immobilized ?-galactosidase was reused for lactulose synthesis, its catalytic activity was retained to the extent of 52.9% after 10 reuses. Lactulose was synthesized continuously in a packed-bed reactor. We synthesized 19.1g/l lactulose during the continuous flow reaction at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. PMID:23122115
Song, Yoon Seok; Lee, Hee Uk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook
Fast lactose fermenting Leuconostoc species and subspecies were isolated from raw milk. Samples were obtained from dairy farms of the surroundings of Buenos Aires city. A lactose, non selective, isolation medium was employed (YCL). Differentiation of leuconostocs from Lactobacillus viridescens and L. confusus was avoided on account of the use of this medium. 801 typical colonies of lactic acid bacteria were selected from YCL agar; 710 of them were identified as lactic acid bacteria from which 114 strains belonged to the genus Leuconostoc. These last strains were then tested for species and subspecies differentiation by dextran production and sugar fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and L. lactis were identified. Four strains identified as Leuconostoc spp do not belong to any known species. PMID:2287717
González, F C; Mans de Marión, M C; Raffellini, S; Sanahuja, M C; Fantuzzi, L
Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15?kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259?T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370
Post space flight orthostatic intolerance among Space Shuttle crew members following exposure to extended periods of microgravity has been of significant concern to the safety of the shuttle program. Following the Challenger accident, flight crews were required to wear launch and entry suits (LES). It was noted that overall, there appeared to be a higher degree of orthostatic intolerance among the post-Challenger crews (approaching 30%). It was hypothesized that the increased heat load incurred when wearing the LES, contributed to an increased degree of orthostatic intolerance, possibly mediated through increased peripheral vasodilatation triggered by the heat load. The use of liquid cooling garments (LCG) beneath the launch and entry suits was gradually implemented among flight crews in an attempt to decrease heat load, increase crew comfort, and hopefully improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and landing. The hypothesis that the use of the LCG during reentry and landing would decrease the degree of orthostasis has not been previously tested. Operational stand-tests were performed pre and post flight to assess crewmember's cardiovascular system's ability to respond to gravitational stress. Stand test and debrief information were collected and databased for 27 space shuttle missions. 63 crewpersons wearing the LCG, and 70 crewpersons not wearing the LCG were entered into the database for analysis. Of 17 crewmembers who exhibited pre-syncopal symptoms at the R+O analysis, 15 were not wearing the LCG. This corresponds to a 21% rate of postflight orthostatic intolerance among those without the LCG, and a 3% rate for those wearing LCG. There were differences in these individual's average post-flight maximal systolic blood pressure, and lower minimal Systolic Blood pressures in those without LCG. Though other factors, such as type of fluid loading, and exercise have improved concurrently with LCG introduction, from this data analysis, it appears that LCG usage provided a significant degree of protection from post-flight orthostatic intolerance.
Lactococcus lactis MG5267 is a plasmid-free strain in which the lactose operon is integrated in the bacterial chromosome. The chromosomal lacG gene which encodes phospho-?-galactosidase was inactivated by a double cross-over integration event. Unexpectedly, the resultant mutant was shown to retain a Lac-positive phenotype. The lysin gene from Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage LM-4 was subsequently integrated into the chromosome of this
John Payne; Caroline A MacCormick; Hugh G Griffin; Michael J Gasson
Exposure of Escherichia coli ML 308-225 membrane vesicles to the histidine-specific reagent diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) led to concentration- and time-dependent inactivation of active lactose transport, and the sensitivity of the system to inactivation was enhanced when an electrochemical proton gradient (Delta muH+, interior negative and alkaline) was generated across the vesicle membrane. Although beta -D-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta -D-galactopyranoside blocked DEPC inactivation, binding
IN recent years it has been shown that reductones, furfurals and other related substances formed in heated milk are sugar fission products1,2. The mechanism by which lactose is degraded to these products has interested food chemists, but nothing is known of the transformation of carbohydrates in heated milk, in spite of considerable attention paid to them in normal cow's milk3-5.
A new type oxidation at C3 in the glycosyl group of reducing disaccharides and bionic acids has been described by Bernaerts and De Ley (1958, 1960, 1961). A method to purify the enzyme which catalyses the oxydation of lactose to 4-0-\\/3-3-keto-o-galactoside-o-glucose, has been partially worked out and is the object of the present communication. This enzyme is most probably localized
Summary A series of plasmids encoding ß-galactosidase\\/galactokinase fusion proteins with connecting linkers of different lengths and properties separating the enzyme moieties were made.E. coli cells harbouring the genes for these bifunctional enzymes were grown on minimal media with lactose as carbon source in order to asses possible metabolic effects. Differences in growth rates were observed when the cells contained a
Helén Carlsson; Peter Ljungcrantz; Leif Bülow; Klaus Mosbach
The global proteomic response of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei strain GCRL163 under carbohydrate depletion was investigated to understand aspects of its survival following cessation of fermentation. The proteome of L. casei GCRL163 was analyzed quantitatively after growth in modified MRS (with and without Tween 80) with different levels of lactose (0% lactose, starvation; 0.2% lactose, growth limiting; 1% lactose, non-growth-limited control) using gel-free proteomics. Results revealed that carbohydrate starvation lead to suppression of lactose and galactose catabolic pathways as well as pathways for nucleotide and protein synthesis. Enzymes of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, amino acid synthesis, and pyruvate and citrate metabolism become more abundant as well as other carbohydrate catabolic pathways, suggesting increased optimization of intermediary metabolism and scavenging. Tween 80 did not affect growth yield; however, proteins related to fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the presence of Tween 80. The data suggest that L. casei adeptly switches to a scavenging mode, using both citrate and Tween 80, and efficiently adjusts energetic requirements when carbohydrate starved and thus can sustain survival for weeks to months. Explaining the adaptation of L. casei during lactose starvation will assist efforts to maintain viability of L. casei and extend its utility as a beneficial dietary adjunct and fermentation processing aid. PMID:24066708
Al-Naseri, Ali; Bowman, John P; Wilson, Richard; Nilsson, Rolf E; Britz, Margaret L
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of parallel beam X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and a new method for whole pattern fitting to the quantification of the residual amount of amorphous content in a pharmaceutical solid using lactose as a model system. Lactose monohydrate, prepared by slurry conversion of anhydrous lactose, was mixed with different amounts of amorphous lactose produced by lyophilization. X-ray powder diffractograms of each mixture were recorded and analyzed by whole pattern fitting using Percentage Crystallinity Determination Software from Kratos Analytical Inc. The polycapillary X-ray optic, which provides a parallel beam of X-radiation, has advantages over Bragg-Brentano Optics with respect to sample height artifacts. Significant shifts in peak position with changes in sample height of lactose monohydrate were observed using Bragg-Brentano Optics while no change was detected for the polycapillary X-ray optic. A technique to normalize all diffractograms to have the same total integrated intensity was necessary to eliminate tube fluctuation effects. After normalization, the amorphous content of lactose in the range of 1-10% was reproducibly predicted (small standard deviation between samplings) using whole pattern fitting. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.37% amorphous content. The results indicated that parallel beam XRPD and whole pattern fitting can provide accurate analysis of relatively small amounts of amorphous content in pharmaceuticals compared to typical XRPD analysis. PMID:11451643
Few prospective studies of the relationship between intake of dairy foods, calcium, vitamin D, and lactose and ovarian cancer have been conducted, and results have been largely inconsistent. Two recent studies found significant increased risk with frequent dairy consumption and perhaps with high intakes of calcium or lactose. The authors investigated the association between these foods and nutrients and ovarian cancer risk among 31,925 subjects in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project follow-up cohort. Multivariable (MV) relative risks (RRs) adjusted for age, parity, and other factors were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Over an average follow-up of 8.3 yr, 146 incident ovarian cancer cases were confirmed. Higher intakes of total dairy food (comparing four or more servings per day vs. less than one serving per day) were associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of ovarian cancer, although the trend was not significant (MV RR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20-0.89; P for trend = 0.07). Comparing extreme quartiles, we observed a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between high dietary calcium intake and ovarian cancer (RR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.43, 1.04; P for trend = 0.08). No statistically significant relations were found for consumption of specific dairy foods, lactose, or vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk. The possibility of a decreased risk of ovarian cancer for dietary calcium merits further evaluation. PMID:17176214
Koralek, Daniel O; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Leitzmann, Michael F; Sturgeon, Susan R; Lacey, James V; Schairer, Catherine; Schatzkin, Arthur
The synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) catalyzed by a novel commercial preparation of ?-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans (Biolactase) was studied, and the products were characterized by MS and NMR. Using 400 g/L lactose and 1.5 enzyme units per milliliter, the maximum GOS yield, measured by HPAEC-PAD analysis, was 165 g/L (41% w/w of total carbohydrates in the mixture). The major transgalactosylation products were the trisaccharide Gal-?(1?4)-Gal-?(1?4)-Glc and the tetrasaccharide Gal-?(1?4)-Gal-?(1?4)-Gal-?(1?4)-Glc. The GOS yield increased to 198 g/L (49.4% w/w of total carbohydrates) using a higher enzyme concentration (15 U/mL), which minimized the enzyme inactivation under reaction conditions. Using skim milk (with a lactose concentration of 46 g/L), the enzyme also displayed transgalactosylation activity: maximum GOS yield accounted for 15.4% (7.1 g/L), which was obtained at 50% lactose conversion. PMID:22676418
Rodriguez-Colinas, Barbara; Poveda, Ana; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus; Ballesteros, Antonio O; Plou, Francisco J
The elastic modulus of pharmaceutical materials affects a number of pharmaceutical processes and subsequently formulation performance and is currently assessed by bulk methods, such as beam bending of compacts. Here we demonstrate the accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of alpha monohydrate lactose from the dominant (011) face of single crystals using atomic force microscopy (AFM) as 3.45+/-0.90GPa. The criteria to ensure this data is recorded within the elastic limit and can be modelled using Hertzian theory are established. We compare and contrast this AFM method to a permanent indentation technique based upon a much larger Berkovich pyramidal indenter on a lactose compact and the wider literature. Finally the AFM was utilized to study the elastic response of amorphous lactose, demonstrating that the physical state of the amorphous material changes under repeated loading and behaves in a more crystalline manner under repeated force measurements, suggesting a pressure induced phase transition. The AFM based approach demonstrated has the significant advantages of requiring minimal sample, no need for producing a compact, being non-destructive in that no permanent indent is required and providing a technique capable of detecting variations in material properties across a single particle or a number of particles. PMID:17074456
The Major Facilitator Superfamily lactose transport protein (LacS) undergoes reversible self-association in the detergent-solubilized state, and is present in the membrane as a dimer. We determined the functional unit for proton motive force (?p)-driven lactose uptake and lactose/methyl-?-d-galactopyranoside equilibrium exchange in a proteoliposomal system in which a single cysteine mutant, LacS-C67, defective in ?p-driven uptake, was co-reconstituted with fully functional cysteine-less protein, LacS-cl. From the quadratic relationship between the uptake activity and the ratio of LacS-C67/LacS-cl, we conclude that the dimeric state of LacS is required for ?p-driven uptake. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) treatment of proteoliposomes abolished the LacS-C67 exchange activity but left the LacS-cl unaffected. After NEM treatment, the exchange activity decreased linearly with increasing ratios of LacS-C67/LacS-cl, suggesting that the monomeric state of LacS is sufficient for this mode of transport. We propose that the two subunits of LacS are functionally coupled in the step associated with conformational reorientation of the empty binding site, a step unique for ?p-driven uptake.
Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Heuberger, Esther H.M.L.; Poolman, Bert
The addition of gelatine (G), lactose (L), pullulan (P), and their mixtures at equal ratios (gelatine + lactose [GL] and gelatin + pullulan [GP]) to whole egg prior to drying was studied. Their effects on the functional properties (emulsion and gelling ability, water holding capacity of gel, foaming, color) and soluble protein content of spray dried egg powder during the 6 mo of storage at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity were investigated. It was demonstrated that the emulsion and foaming stability, water holding capacity of gel, and color change were significantly affected by the storage time, whereas storage time did not affect the strength of gel texture prepared by egg powders. Gelatine and pullulan improved the foaming stability and water holding capacity. Lactose caused a decrease in emulsion and foaming stability values. The maximum color change was observed for the plain egg powder, showing that mixing whole egg with carbohydrate- and/or protein-based additives before the drying process preserved the color of egg powder. Adding carbohydrate and/or protein caused significant changes in functional properties of egg powder. PMID:22416722
Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactosedrug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose\\u000a during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present\\u000a study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol\\/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be\\u000a employed as a method of altering the FPF of
Waseem Kaialy; Gary P. Martin; Martyn D. Ticehurst; Paul Royall; Mohammad A. Mohammad; John Murphy; Ali Nokhodchi
Twenty strains of Streptococcus bovis grew more slowly on lactose (1.21?±?0.12?h?1) than on glucose (1.67?±?0.12 h?1), and repeated transfers or prolonged growth in continuous culture (more than 200 generations each) did not enhance the growth\\u000a rate on lactose. Lactose transport activity was poorly correlated with growth rate, and slow growth could not be explained\\u000a by the ATP production rate (catabolic
Approximately half of patients with heart failure (HF) have a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and with the changing age and comorbidity characteristics in the adult population, this number is growing rapidly. The defining symptom of HFpEF is exercise intolerance, but the specific mechanisms causing this common symptom remain debated and inadequately understood. Although diastolic dysfunction was previously considered to be the sole contributor to exercise limitation, recent studies have identified the importance of ventricular systolic, chronotropic, vascular, endothelial and peripheral factors that all contribute in a complex and highly integrated fashion to produce the signs and symptoms of HF. This review will explore the mechanisms underlying objective and subjective exercise intolerance in patients with HFpEF. PMID:24305634
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and other NSAIDs are responsible for many adverse effects. Among them, pseudo-allergic reactions (urticaria/angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) affect up to 9% of the population and up to 30% of asthmatic patients. The mechanisms provoking these reactions have not been fully elucidated, but it appears that inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) plays a central role. The anti-inflammatory action of nimesulide differs from that of other NSAIDs, possibly because of its chemical structure. In particular, nimesulide is selective for COX-2 and displays additional properties in terms of its effects on inflammatory mediator synthesis and release. For these reasons, nimesulide is generally well tolerated by NSAID-intolerant patients and patients with NSAID-induced asthma. The good tolerability of nimesulide as an alternative drug for use in patients with NSAID intolerance has been demonstrated in a large number of clinical studies. PMID:8852524
Senna, G E; Passalacqua, G; Andri, G; Dama, A R; Albano, M; Fregonese, L; Andri, L
We compared the microbiological and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance who restrict their dietary sugar intake with that of control subjects who do not. The two groups showed no significant differences in chemical composition of plaque: the mean protein, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate contents were similar. Dental plaque from both groups contained similar numbers of total colony-forming units per microgram of plaque protein, and Streptococcus sanguis, an indigenous nonpathogen, was isolated with equal frequency from plaque samples of both groups. However, potentially odontopathic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were isolated three to four times more frequently from plaque samples of control subjects than from plaque samples of subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance. Clearly, diet (sucrose in particular) influences the colonization and multiplication of specific cariogenic organisms in dental plaque.
BACKGROUND: Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) occurs in the lower and upper airways through excessive production of leukotrienes upon administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). One of the three symptoms of AIA is nasal polyposis, a chronic inflammatory disease that is related to the function of calcium ion in recruitment of immune cells during airway inflammation. It has been implicated that bronchodilation
Jin Sol Lee; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Joon Seol Bae; Jason Yongha Kim; Tae Joon Park; Charisse Flerida Pasaje; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Soo-Taek Uh; Jong-Sook Park; An-Soo Jang; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S Choi; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin
Background: Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute bronchoconstriction following the ingestion of aspirin. Solute carrier family 22, member 2 (SLC22A2), also known as organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), is predominantly expressed in the luminal membrane of airway epithelial cells and has been shown to mediate the transport of prostaglandins on the cyclooxygenase pathway which is regulated
Tae-Joon Park; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Joon-Seol Bae; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Ji-Yong Chun; Jin-Sol Lee; Jason Yongha Kim; Charisse Flerida Pasaje; Sang Heon Cho; Soo-Taek Uh; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S. Choi; In Song Koh; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin
Objective: To investigate associations between sleep disturbances and chemical odor intolerance (COI), which is the subjective report of feeling ill from common odors, such as carpet glue or pesticides.Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of government employees and their family members (n=140; 61% women, mean age=46.3 years) derived from a stratified cluster population living in Pima County, Tucson, AZ. Subjects completed
Carol M Baldwin; Iris R Bell; Stefano Guerra; Stuart F Quan
? Abstract Patients with nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drug (NSAID) intolerance usually have cutanous-mucosal or\\/and respiratory symptoms. We report the case of a patient who developed several episodes of left-eye conjunctivitis, manifested as conjunctival chemosis, with no other symptoms, after taking metamizole and other unidentifi ed NSAIDs. We performed both a single blind placebo-controlled oral challenge test and conjunctival challenge test
V Fuentes; C de Frutos; M de Barrio; R Barranco; T Herrero; P Tornero
Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolithocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolithocular reflexes. None of the astronauts who were centrifuged had orthostatic intolerance when
Steven T. Moore; André Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Horacio Kaufmann; Theodore Raphan; Bernard Cohen
BackgroundObservations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Methods and ResultsWe studied the effect of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on cardiovascular responses to cold pressor testing, handgrip testing, and a graded head-up tilt test (HUT) in
Christoph Schroeder; Jens Tank; Michael Boschmann; Andre Diedrich; Arya M. Sharma; Italo Biaggioni; Friedrich C. Luft; Jens Jordan
Fifty-four infants with the malabsorption syndrome and cow's milk intolerence seen during 1962-1971 were investigated. All had diarrhoea and failed to thrive. Most had vomiting and about 20% had atopic eczema and recurrent respiratory infections. Laboratory investigations revealed malabsorption, raised serum IgA, and precipitins to cow's milk. Biopsies showed that the jejunal mucosa was damaged, and in about half the cases was flat. The patient did well on human milk but reacted clinically to cow's milk challenge, either in a few hours or gradually during 3-4 weeks. Some patients showed first a quick, but later a slow, reaction. Clinical symptoms of cow's milk intolerance disappeared at the age of about one year. At that time 81% had normal faecal fat, but only 29% had a normal proximal jejunal mucosa. Many of the patients developed intolerances to other food proteins, such as soya and wheat, if these were given during the sensitive period. Forty-two patients have been followed up for 2 years on a normal gluten-containing diet. Of these, 37 have a normal or nearly normal jejunal mucosa and 5 (12%) have subtotal villous atrophy indicative of coeliac disease. It is concluded that the malabsorption syndrome with cow's milk intolerance is a clear-cut clinical entity. However, the symptomatology, results of laboratory tests, and jejunal biopsy findings closely resemble those of other entities where damage to the intestinal mucosa causes a malabsorption snydrome. Follow-up studies showed that the disease is transient, but about 10% of the patients have coeliac disease, regarded in such cases as the primary disorder.
Kuitunen, P; Visakorpi, J K; Savilahti, E; Pelkonen, P
Background\\/Aims: This report summarizes the data gathered in four prospective studies of intravenous iron sucrose therapy administered to iron-deficient hemodialysis patients with a history of intolerance to other parenteral iron preparations. Methods: A total of 130 iron dextran- and\\/or sodium ferric gluconate-sensitive patients received intravenous iron sucrose therapy to correct iron deficiency, and\\/or maintain body iron stores. A history of
Chaim Charytan; Michael H. Schwenk; Mourhege M. Al-Saloum; Bruce S. Spinowitz
The association between weight history and glucose intolerance was examined in a cross-sectional study consisting of 3,128 Swedish men aged 35-56 years, 52 percent of whom had a family background of diabetes mellitus. Oral glucose tolerance testing detected 55 cases of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and 172 cases of impaired glucose tolerance. Among men with no family history of diabetes,
Sofia Carisson; Per-Gunnar Persson; Michael Alvarsson; Suad Efendic; Anders Norman; Leif Svanstrom; Claes-Goran Ostenson; Valdemar Grill
Objectives To determine the mechanisms responsible for reduced aerobic capacity (peak VO2) in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Background HFPEF is the predominant form of HF in older persons. Exercise intolerance is the primary symptom among patients with HFPEF and a major determinant of reduced quality of life. In contrast to patients with HF and reduced EF, the mechanism of exercise intolerance in HFPEF is less well understood. Methods Left ventricular volumes (2D echocardiography), cardiac output (CO), VO2 and calculated arterial-venous oxygen content difference (A-VO2 Diff) were measured at rest and during incremental, exhaustive upright cycle exercise in 48 HFPEF patients (age 69±6 years) and 25 healthy age-matched controls (HC). Results In HFPEF compared to HC, VO2 was reduced at peak exercise (mean±SE: 14.3±0.5 vs. 20.4±0.6 mL·kg min?1; p<0.0001) and was associated with a reduced peak CO (6.3±0.2 vs. 7.6±0.2 L·min?1, p<0.0001) and A-VO2 Diff (17±0.4 vs. 19±0.4 ml·dl?1, p<0.0007). The strongest independent predictor of peak VO2 was the change in A-VO2 Diff from rest to peak exercise (A-VO2 Diff reserve) for both HFPEF (partial correlant 0.58, standardized ? coefficient 0.66; p=0.0002) and HC (partial correlant 0.61, standardized ? coefficient 0.41; p=0.005) Conclusions Both reduced CO and A-VO2 Diff contribute significantly to the severe exercise intolerance in elderly HFPEF patients. The finding that A-VO2 Diff reserve is an independent predictor of peak exercise VO2 suggests that peripheral, non-cardiac factors are important contributors to exercise intolerance in these patients.
Haykowsky, Mark J.; Brubaker, Peter H.; John, Jerry M.; Stewart, Kathryn P.; Morgan, Timothy M.; Kitzman, Dalane W.
Metabolic syndrome has the unique concept that the common occurrence of individual disease components increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, some studies suggest that the burden of different CAD risk factors is not equal, and focusing on the whole set of risk factors might neglect the impact of individual factors that could be useful targets for prophylactic therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glucose intolerance on CAD using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Ninety-eight consecutive patients with at least one traditional CAD risk factor who visited a municipal hospital were enrolled in this study. The risk factors were impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose > or = 110 mg/dl or patients with diabetes), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, < 40 mg/dl for men and < or = 50 mg/dl for women), hypertriglycemia (triglyceride > or = 150 mg/dl), hypertension (blood pressure > or = 130/85 mmHg), and obesity (body mass index, > 25 kg/m(2) for men and > 23 kg/m(2) for women). CAD was determined by the presence of either stenoses, non-calcified plaques or calcified lesions. The following risk factors were significantly related in univariate logistic models: glucose intolerance and coronary calcified lesions (p = 0.001), and hypertriglycemia and non-calcified plaque lesions (p = 0.048). Multivariate models showed that glucose intolerance was significantly associated with calcified lesions, even after adjustment for gender, age, low HDL-C, hypertriglycemia, hypertension, and obesity (p = 0.018). Our results suggest that glucose intolerance might be closely related to the presence of coronary calcified lesions among traditional CAD risk factors. PMID:17548955
To define cardiovascular and heart rate variability (HRV) changes following head-up tilt (HUT) in children\\/adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in comparison to age- and gender-matched controls. Twenty-six children\\/adolescents with CFS (11-19 y) and controls underwent 70-degree HUT for a maximum of 30 min, but returned to horizontal earlier at the participant's request with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) that
BARBARA C. GALLAND; PAMELA M. JACKSON; RACHEL M. SAYERS; BARRY J. TAYLOR
Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None of the astronauts who were centrifuged had orthostatic intolerance when tested with head-up passive tilt after flight. Thus, centrifugation may also have helped maintain post-flight hemodynamic responses to orthostasis by preserving the gain of the otolith-sympathetic reflex. A comparison with two fellow Neurolab orbiter crewmembers not exposed to artificial gravity provided some support for this hypothesis. One of the two had hemodynamic changes in response to post-flight tilt similar to orthostatically intolerant subjects from previous missions. More data is necessary to evaluate this hypothesis, but if it were proven correct, in-flight short-radius centrifugation may help counteract orthostatic intolerance after space flight. PMID:15835033
Moore, Steven T; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is a tetrad of nasal polyps, chronic hypertrophic eosinophilic sinusitis, asthma, and sensitivity to aspirin. Unawareness of this clinical condition by patients and physicians may have grave consequences because of its association with near-fatal asthma. The pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma is not related with an immunoglobin E mechanism, but with an abnormal metabolism of the lipoxygenase (LO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways. At present, a diagnosis of aspirin sensitivity can be established only by provocative aspirin challenge, which represents a health risk for the patient. This circumstance has encouraged the search for aspirin intolerance-specific biomarkers. Major attempts have focused on mediators related with inflammation and eicosanoid regulation. The use of modern laboratory techniques including high-throughput methods has facilitated the detection of dozens of biological metabolites associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma disease. Not surprisingly, the majority of these is implicated in the LO and COX pathways. However, substantial amounts of data reveal the participation of many genes deriving from different ontologies. Biomarkers may represent a powerful, noninvasive tool in the diagnosis of aspirin sensitivity; moreover, they could provide a new way to classify asthma phenotypes. PMID:23184151
Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in cardiovascular deconditioning which is marked by orthostatic intolerance in the returning astronauts and recovering bed-ridden patients. Recent studies conducted in our laboratories at University of California, Irvine have revealed marked elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the kidney, heart, brain, and systemic arteries coupled with significant reduction of NO production in the cerebral arteries of microgravity-adapted animals. We have further demonstrated that the observed alteration of NO metabolism is primarily responsible for the associated cardiovascular deconditioning. Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently complicated by orthostatic intolerance that is due to the combined effects of the disruption of efferent sympathetic pathway and cardiovascular deconditioning occasioned by prolonged confinement to bed. In this presentation, I will review the nature of altered NO metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. The possible relevance of the new findings to orthostatic intolerance in patients with acute SCI and its potential therapeutic implications will be discussed.
Vaziri, N. D.; Purdy, R. E. (Principal Investigator)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently revealed to exist in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Here, following our observation showing that a partial loss of hypothalamic NSCs caused weight gain and glucose intolerance, we studied if NSCs-based cell therapy could be developed to control these disorders. While hypothalamus-implanted NSCs failed to survive in mice with obesity, NF-?B inhibition induced survival and neurogenesis of these cells, leading to effects in counteracting obesity and glucose intolerance. To generate an alternative cell source, we revealed that iPS-derived NSCs were converted into htNSCs by neuropeptide treatment. Of note, obesity condition potentiated the transfer of carotid artery-injected NSCs into the hypothalamus. These iPS-derived cells when engineered with NF-?B inhibition were also effective in reducing obesity and glucose intolerance, and neurogenesis towards POMCergic and GABAergic lineages was accountable. In conclusion, building NSCs in the hypothalamus represents a strategy for controlling obesity and glucose disorders.
Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age.
Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness should be treated promptly given its adverse impact on morbidity and mortality. The technical difficulty of postpyloric feeding tube placement and the morbidities associated with parenteral nutrition prevent these approaches being considered as first-line nutrition. Prokinetic agents are currently the mainstay of therapy for feed intolerance in the critically ill. Current information is limited but suggests that erythromycin or metoclopramide (alone or in combination) are effective in the management of feed intolerance in the critically ill and not associated with significant cardiac, haemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. However, diarrhoea is a very common gastrointestinal side effect, and can occur in up to 49% of patients who receive both erythromycin and metoclopramide. Fortunately, the diarrhoea associated with prokinetic treatments has not been linked to Clostridium difficile infection and settles soon after the drugs are ceased. Therefore, prolonged or prophylactic use of prokinetics should be avoided. If diarrhoea occurs, the drugs should be stopped immediately. To minimize avoidable adverse effects the ongoing need for prokinetic drugs in these patient should be reviewed daily.
Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provided in tests for malabsorption, which is thought to be a key cause of intolerance, often exceeds the normal physiological absorption capacity for this sugar. To help health professionals accurately identify and treat this condition, this article reviews clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance (i.e., malabsorption that manifests with symptoms) relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake. Because simultaneous consumption of glucose attenuates fructose malabsorption, information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided.
PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.
Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently revealed to exist in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Here, following our observation showing that a partial loss of hypothalamic NSCs caused weight gain and glucose intolerance, we studied if NSCs-based cell therapy could be developed to control these disorders. While hypothalamus-implanted NSCs failed to survive in mice with obesity, NF-?B inhibition induced survival and neurogenesis of these cells, leading to effects in counteracting obesity and glucose intolerance. To generate an alternative cell source, we revealed that iPS-derived NSCs were converted into htNSCs by neuropeptide treatment. Of note, obesity condition potentiated the transfer of carotid artery-injected NSCs into the hypothalamus. These iPS-derived cells when engineered with NF-?B inhibition were also effective in reducing obesity and glucose intolerance, and neurogenesis towards POMCergic and GABAergic lineages was accountable. In conclusion, building NSCs in the hypothalamus represents a strategy for controlling obesity and glucose disorders. PMID:24749061
Cheese whey, the main dairy by-product, is increasingly recognized as a source of many bioactive valuable compounds. Nevertheless, the most abundant component in whey is lactose (ca. 5% w/v), which represents a significant environmental problem. Due to the large lactose surplus generated, its conversion to bio-ethanol has long been considered as a possible solution for whey bioremediation. In this review, fermentation of lactose to ethanol is discussed, focusing on wild lactose-fermenting yeasts, particularly Kluyveromyces marxianus, and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The early efforts in the screening and characterization of the fermentation properties of wild lactose-consuming yeasts are reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is given on the latter advances in engineering S. cerevisiae strains for efficient whey-to-ethanol bioprocesses. Examples of industrial implementation are briefly discussed, illustrating the viability of whey-to-ethanol systems. Current developments on strain engineering together with the growing market for biofuels will likely boost the industrial interest in such processes. PMID:20153415
Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília
Background The effect of dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose maldigestion is not known. Objective To investigate the effect of dairy and nondairy dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose digesters and maldigesters during moderate energy restriction. Design A randomized cross-over trial comparing the effect of 500 mg vs. 1500 mg dairy and nondairy calcium on fecal fat excretion in 34 healthy adults during moderate (? 30%) energy restriction diet-induced weight loss for 12 weeks. The participants were classified as lactose digester or maldigester on the basis of breath hydrogen test. Measurements Anthropometric parameters and body composition, resting energy expenditure, energy and nutrient intake, fecal fat, physical activity, blood pressure, blood and urine sampling for pertinent measurements. Results Fecal fat loss expressed as percent of fat intake was significantly higher with 1500 mg (high-Ca) compared to 500 mg (low-Ca) calcium intake per day (mean: 3.0%; the 95% CI: 2.3 to 3.7%; P <0.001) independent of calcium source and lactose digestion status. Conclusions During moderate energy restriction induced weight loss a high-Ca diet causes an increase in fecal fat excretion independent of calcium source. Calcium intake related fecal fat loss is also independent of the ability to digest lactose and it is not diminished over time.
Buchowski, Maciej S.; Aslam, Muhammad; Dossett, Cynthia; Dorminy, Cindy; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari
In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using ?-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.
Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.
Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.
The results are given of the ortho-nitrophenol test for beta-galactosidase production (ONPG test) on 588 strains of 123 aerobic species of bacteria, representing 30 genera. Apart from some strains of Erwinia herbicola (synonym Chromobacterium typhiflavum) and of Yersinia spp, these strains were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae, in which family the ONPG test is widely used and well documented. The strains were also tested for acid production from 1, 5, and 10% lactose and the findings are discussed in relation to the ONPG test.
The stable anhydrous form of alpha-lactose has been obtained by the dehydration of alpha-lactose monohydrate in methanol. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern was recorded at room temperature with a laboratory diffractometer equipped with an INEL curved sensitive detector CPS120. The starting structural model of this form was found by a Monte-Carlo simulated annealing method. The structure was obtained through Rietveld refinements and the minimization of crystalline energy for the localization of the H atoms of the hydroxyl groups. Soft restraints were applied to bond lengths and angles. Networks of O-H...O hydrogen bonds account for the crystalline cohesion. A comparison is made between the hydrogen-bond networks of this form and those of the monohydrate and hygroscopic anhydrous forms of alpha-lactose. PMID:15772451
The kinetics of Maillard reaction in lactose-hydrolysed skim milk powder and related systems containing carbohydrate mixtures were analysed. The effect of the increase of water activity and temperature during storage of the commercial product was also evaluated. In systems with two and three carbohydrates, a marked decrease of the reaction rate was observed when monosaccharides were partially replaced by lactose, notwithstanding the fact that the former still remained in a higher proportion than lysine. The rate of available lysine loss in lactose-hydrolysed milk was mostly affected by the presence of galactose. The reaction rate constants at aw 0.52 and at 37 and 50 °C were higher than at aw 0.33. However, no significant differences were observed at 60 °C. Temperature is the most important factor to be controlled in order to minimise nutritional deterioration during storage. PMID:23993550
Naranjo, Gabriela B; Pereyra Gonzales, Adriana S; Leiva, Graciela E; Malec, Laura S
Indentation hardness of tablet surfaces has been used to determine the consolidation mechanisms of the lactose-based excipients Fast Flo Lactose, Ludipress, Cellactose and Tablettose. The Leuenberger equation has been modified to obtain values of compressibility and compactability by using a value of compactability obtained from a tablet at maximum applied force and by substituting deformation resistance by relative deformation resistance. Also, parameters obtained from plots of the Heckel tablet-indie and ejected-tablet methods were calculated in order to establish the comparative consolidation mechanisms in the lactose-based excipients under study. The possibility of using the absolute value of the difference between upper and lower surface hardnesses of the tablets made on an eccentric press is suggested as an alternative method to determine the comparative consolidation mechanisms of different substances. PMID:8027923
Monedero Perales, M D; Muñoz-Ruiz, A; Velasco Antequera, M V; Jiménez-Castellanos Ballesteros, M R
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) were synthesized from lactose by immobilized and free beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (Lactozym 3000 L HP-G) using either focused microwave irradiation or conventional heating. Immobilization of the beta-galactosidase on to Duolite A-568 increased the synthesis of GOS. GOS selectivity (GOS synthesis/lactose hydrolysis ratio) increased when the water activity of the media was reduced, notably with a high initial lactose concentration but also by using co-solvents in the media. The advantage of microwave heating on GOS formation was also examined. Addition of solvent and carrying out the reaction under microwave irradiation resulted an increase in the production of GOS. The selectivity for GOS synthesis can be increased by 217-fold under microwave irradiation, using immobilized beta-glucosidase and with added co-solvents such as hexanol. PMID:12882156
Maugard, Thierry; Gaunt, Damian; Legoy, Marie Dominique; Besson, Thierry
We conducted two experiments to evaluate the interactions among lactose and protein sources in diets for segregated early-weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 360 barrows (initially 5.3 kg and 19 +/- 2 d of age) were fed diets containing crystalline lactose (0, 20, and 40%), spray-dried animal plasma (0 and 7.5%), and soybean meal (0 and 20%) in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. We used a blend of select menhaden fish meal and casein to replace the lysine provided by soybean meal or animal plasma. Diets contained 1.7% total lysine and were fed from d 0 to 14 after weaning. Pigs were fed a common diet from d 14 to 34. From d 0 to 14 after weaning, ADG and ADFI increased with increasing dietary lactose when the diet contained soybean meal but decreased when soybean meal was not in the diet (lactose x soybean meal, P < .05 and .10, respectively). Pigs fed animal plasma had increased (P < .05) ADG and ADFI from d 0 to 14 but decreased (P < .05) ADG from d 14 to 34. In Exp. 2, 324 barrows (initially 3.7 kg and 10 +/- 2 d of age) were fed diets from d 0 to 10 similar to those used in Exp. 1 with the exception that extruded soy protein concentrate replaced the lysine provided by soybean meal or animal plasma. From d 0 to 10 after weaning, increasing lactose improved (linear, P < .05) ADG and ADFI, and pigs fed animal plasma had higher ADFI (P < .05). In conclusion, soybean meal had no negative effect on ADG; however, animal plasma and lactose increased ADG and ADFI for pigs weaned between 10 and 19 d of age. PMID:9419995
Nessmith, W B; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Bergström, J R; Dritz, S S; Richert, B T
By crossing different Kluyveromyces lactis strains, the role of genes LAC1, LAC2 and of gene C were analyzed. These genes are involved in the biosynthesis of enzymes for the metabolism of lactose and galactose. They control the biosynthesis of the lactose and galactose transport, of beta-galactosidase and of the three enzymes of the Leloir pathway. The presence of at least one of the LAC gene is required for the biosynthesis to occur. The gene C seems to code for a negative factor which blocks the expression of the LAC1 and LAC2 genes in the absence of an inducer. PMID:3115053
Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. ?-gal I-V of ?-galactosidase. ?-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. ?-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-?-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of ?-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry. PMID:21855568
Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Joshi, Amit; Bhatia, Sonu
Children aged 4-23 months with persistent diarrhoea received a low lactose diet, multivitamins, minerals and antibiotics for infection. Sixty-one (57 per cent) children improved with low lactose diet while 46 (43 per cent) failed. Children who failed were younger (8.9 +/- 3.5 vs. 11.3 +/- 4.4 months), had higher initial purging rate (146 +/- 102 vs. 109 +/- 102 g/kg/day) and consumed more ORS (138 +/- 77 vs. 95 +/- 79 g/kg/day). A higher proportion of children in the failure group needed unscheduled intravenous fluid (48 vs. 20 per cent) and lost body weight (24 vs. 0 per cent). Single and multiple stool pathogen were isolated from 44 and 45 per cent cases, respectively. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (66 per cent) was the most common pathogen isolated. Half of all pathogens including Campylobacter, rotavirus, cholera and non-typhoidal Salmonella were nosocomially acquired. Sixty four per cent of children had extraintestinal infections including acute lower respiratory infection (50 per cent), urinary tract infection (29 per cent) and septicaemia (11 per cent). The presence of extraintestinal infections were significantly associated with failure. Overall, 91 per cent of children had either intestinal and/or extraintestinal infections. PMID:12164597
Ashraf, by H; Ahmed, S; Fuchs, G J; Mahalanabis, D
1. The rate of lactose synthesis per g of mammary tissue, measured in vivo by a radioisotopic technique, rose 13-fold between parturition and day 16 of lactation in the rat, but was unaffected by wide variation in litter size. 2. The increase reflected a greater tissue content of galactosyltransferase (EC 22.214.171.124), and was augmented by a rise in the total weight of mammary tissue. Superimposed on this were unpredictable changes in the functional efficiency of the enzyme. 3. Lactose synthesis in 14-day-lactating rats, permitted only 76% of the food intake of paired control rats over the previous 3 weeks, showed a pronounced diurnal variation at an overall rate markedly below that in control rats. 4. Such nutritional deficiency did not affect the tissue content of galactosyltransferase, but impaired its functional efficiency in a manner reversed by renewed feeding or by the preparation and incubation of acini in vitro. 5. Plasma insulin concentrations decreased at parturition and with increasing litter size, and remained relatively unchanged during lactation and malnutrition.
Amino acid alterations were designed at the C terminus of the hinge segment (amino acids approximately 51-59) that links two functional domains within lactose repressor protein (LacI). Gly was introduced between Gly(58) and Lys(59) to generate Gly(58+1); Gln(60) was changed to Gly or Pro, and up to three additional glycines were inserted following Gln(60) --> Gly. All mutant proteins exhibited purification behavior, CD spectra, assembly state, and inducer binding properties similar to wild-type LacI and only small differences in trypsin proteolysis patterns. In contrast, significant differences were observed in DNA binding properties. Gly(58+1) exhibited a decrease of approximately 100-fold in affinity for O(1) operator, and sequential Gly insertion C-terminal to Gln(60) --> Gly resulted in progressively decreased affinity for O(1) operator, approaching nonspecific levels for insertion of >/=2 glycines. Where sufficient affinity for O(1) operator existed, decreased binding to O(1) in the presence of inducer indicated no disruption in the allosteric response for these proteins. Collectively, these results indicate that flexibility and/or spacing between the core and N-terminal domains did not significantly affect folding or assembly, but these alterations in the hinge domain profoundly altered affinity of the lactose repressor protein for its wild-type target sequence. PMID:10521477
The budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis has diverged from the Saccharomyces lineage before the whole-genome duplication and its genome sequence reveals lower redundancy of many genes. Moreover, it shows lower preference for fermentative carbon metabolism and a broader substrate spectrum making it a particularly rewarding system for comparative and evolutionary studies of carbon-regulated genetic networks. The lactose/galactose regulon of K. lactis, which is regulated by the prototypic transcription activator Gal4 exemplifies important aspects of network evolution when compared with the model GAL regulon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Differences in physiology relate to different subcellular compartmentation of regulatory components and, importantly, to quantitative differences in protein-protein interactions rather than major differences in network architecture. Here, we introduce genetic and biochemical tools to study K. lactis in general and the lactose/galactose regulon in particular. We present methods to quantify relevant protein-protein interactions in that network and to visualize such differences in simple plate assays allowing for genetic approaches in further studies. PMID:21468994
The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146
This study was aimed to analyze the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene sequence in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children severely intolerant to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and to investigate the causes resulting in tolerance difference to 6-MP in ALL children so as to provide evidence for safe and rational use of 6-MP. The adverse reactions of drug was evaluated in ALL children treated with BCH-2003-ALL chemotherapeutic protocol during 2004-10-1 to 2007-9-30 according to NCI-CTC V2.0. The TPMT gene sequences of ALL children with 3-4 grade of severe toxicity during the maintenance therapy were analyzed by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. To assure the accuracy of sequencing, the 738 bp fragment of coding region in TPMT gene (NM_000367) was divided into 3 subfragments and bidirectionally sequenced. The results indicated that among 133 ALL children, 61 were severely intolerant to 6-MP. The direct DNA sequencing showed that among 59 patients (excluding 2 cases without RNA samples), the simple myelotoxicity was found in 37 cases, hepato-myelotoxicity was observed in 9 cases, hepatotoxicity along appeared in 12 cases, 1 case showed skin rash. Out of 59 ALL children, the C474T mutation was found in 57 cases, with mutation rate 96.6%, including 21 cases with heterozygous mutation and 36 cases with homozygosis mutation. The TPMT gene sequencing of 10 cases tolerant to 6-MP indicated that C474T mutation was detected in 8 cases which was homozygous mutation. It is concluded that the C474T mutation in 738 bp fragment of coding region in TPMT gene is very frequent, but it is not related with tolerance to 6-MP, suggesting that severe intolerance to 6-MP in ALL children may be not related with the mutation of coding region in TPMT gene. PMID:22931646
Background Gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption following fructose ingestion (fructose intolerance) are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is hypothesized to be related an abnormality of intestinal fructose transporter proteins. Objective To assess the expression of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins, glucose transport protein 5 (GLUT5) and 2 (GLUT2), in FGID. Methods The expression of GLUT5 and GLUT2 protein and mRNA in small intestinal biopsy tissue was investigated using real-time reverse-transcription PCR and Western immunoblotting in 11 adults with FGID and fructose intolerance ascertained by breath testing and in 15 controls. Results Median expression levels of GLUT5 mRNA normalized to beta-actin were 0.18 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.130.21) in patients and 0.17 (IQR 0.120.19) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective levels of GLUT2 mRNA were 0.26 (IQR 0.200.31) and 0.26 (IQR 0.190.31) (p?>?0.05). Median expression levels of GLUT5 protein normalized to alpha-tubulin were 0.95 (IQR 0.521.68) in patients and 0.95 (IQR 0.591.15) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective protein expression levels for GLUT2 were 1.56 (IQR 1.062.14) and 1.35 (IQR 0.961.79) (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Human fructose intolerance may not be associated with marked changes in GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression. Replication of these results in a larger subject group, including measures of transporter activation and membrane and subcellular localization, is warranted.
Li, Xinhua; Ho, Sherry SY; Leong, Sai Mun; Wong, Reuben K; Koay, Evelyn SC; Ferraris, Ronaldo P
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.
Meck, J. V.; Reyes, C. J.; Perez, S. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ziegler, M. G.
We evaluated the efficacy of Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSR) as an adjunctive management modality for patients with drug resistant or intolerant cavernous sinus invasive prolactinomas. Twenty-two patients with cavernous sinus invasive prolactinoma underwent GKSR between 1994 and 2009. Thirteen patients were dopamine agonist (DA) resistant. Six patients were intolerant to DA. Three patients chose GKSR as their initial treatment modality in hopes they might avoid life long suppression medication. The median tumor volume was 3.0 cm3 (range 0.311.6). The marginal tumor dose (median= 15 Gy, range 1225 Gy) prescribed was based on the dose delivered to the optic apparatus. The median follow-up interval was 36 months (range, 12185). Endocrine normalization was defined as a normal serum prolactin level off DA (cure) or on DA. Endocrine improvement was defined asa decreased but still elevated serum prolactin level. Endocrine deterioration was defined as an increased serum prolactin level. Endocrine normalization was achieved in six(27.3%) patients. Twelve (54.5%) patients had endocrine improvement. Four patients (18.2%) developed delayed increased prolactin. Imaging-defined local tumor control was achieved in 19 (86.4%) patients, 12 of whom had tumor regression. Three patients had a delayed tumor progression and required additional management. One patient developed a new pituitary axis deficiency after GKSR. Invasive prolactinomas continue to pose management challenges. GKSR is a non invasive adjunctive option that may reduce prolactin levels in patients who are resistant to or intolerant of suppression medication. In a minority of cases, patients may no longer require long term suppression therapy. PMID:22302560
Liu, Xiaomin; Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Park, Kyung-Jae; Iyer, Aditya; Shin, Samuel; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade
Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1) could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2) modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3) also modified TNF-?, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C) and stressed (CS) rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F) and stressed (FS) rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-? and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration. Conclusions Footshock-stress promotes glucose intolerance associated to corticosterone serum level and epididymal white adipose tissue IL-6 concentration increase. The fish oil consumption by stressed rats normalized the stress responses. These results suggested that fish oil intake could be useful to minimize or prevent the development of diseases associated to the stress.
Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.
Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)
The paper presents the course of pregnancy delivery and early postpartum period in a 23-year-old woman with lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI). The pregnancy was uneventful and resulted in a caesarean birth to a healthy baby at 37 weeks gestation. Nevertheless, the course of pregnancy in women with LPI is associated with a significantly increased risk of serious complications, including acute hyperammonemia, preeclampsia and postpartum bleeding, as well as fetus intrauterine growth retardation. In many cases, intensive metabolic monitoring and a proper diet with protein limitation and appropriate amino acids supplementation may significantly reduce the risk for both the mother and the newborn. PMID:24032281
Aspartame is a food additive marketed under the brand name Nutrasweet. Aspartame is a white, odorless, crystalline powder and consists of two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. It is 180 times as sweet as sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first allowed its use in dry foods in July 1981 and then approved its use in carbonated beverages in July 1983. It has subsequently been approved for use in a number of materials including multivitamins, fruit juices, stick-type confections, breath mints, and iced tea. The FDA requires the statement "phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine" on labels of food products containing aspartame because individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. Aspartame is judged to be free of long-term cancer risks. Aspartame is not stable under certain conditions including baking and cooking, and prolonged exposure to acid conditions. In such situations it loses its sweetness. Products formed from aspartame include its component amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid), methanol, and diketopiperazine (DKP). Animal studies show DKP to be nontoxic. Methanol occurs in small amounts and does not exceed that formed during consumption of many foods including fresh fruits and vegetables. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors aspartame's safety in part through reports of adverse reactions. After aspartame was approved for use in carbonated beverages, the FDA received an increased number of reports concerning adverse reactions related to aspartame. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reviewed these reports, which included complaints of neurologic, gastrointestinal, andallergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3061324
The literature concerning the influence of lactose on the utilization of calcium and phosphorus is full of contradictions which as yet have not been explained. Some of these studies have been made as part of an investigation of metabolism as affected by the parathyroid glands, others in relation to growth, and still others in connection with the effect of diet
In the present study we evaluated lactose malabsorption (LM) after ingestion of three dairy products in 53 healthy institutionalized elderly people. A preliminary screening with milk (250 ml, 11 g lactose) was carried out to select the LM subjects using the H2 breath test. The effect of consuming an equivalent amount of lactose contained in yogurt and fermented-then-pasteurized milk (FPM) was then assessed in LM subjects. Results indicated that 36% of the elderly population studied was considered as LM and that breath H2 excretion was significantly higher after ingestion of milk than after ingestion of yogurt. This beneficial effect was partially eliminated when FPM was tested. Moreover, breath H2 excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) 3 hours after ingestion of FPM compared to the normal yogurt. These results demonstrate a high prevalence of LM in the elderly and confirm the positive effect of yogurt on lactose absorption, whereas pasteurized yogurt did not cause the same effect. PMID:1578093
Varela-Moreiras, G; Antoine, J M; Ruiz-Roso, B; Varela, G
A kinetic model of manganiferous ore dissolution varying sulphuric acid and lactose as reducing agent was developed here. The Shrinking Core Model (SCM) was modified to take into account both the variable reagent concentrations and the reaction rate change with respect to the manganese dioxide conversion: this last aspect is due to several oxidation reactions of the carbohydrates in a
Forty weaned male infants were studied during their first year of life, all hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the Gastroenterology and Metabolism Unit of the Hospital "Umberto I", São Paulo, SP, Brazil. We evaluated and quantified water fecal losses, employing the metabolic bed technique, relating the feeding formula employed with the different causal enteropathogenic agents. 67.5% of the studied infants were under six months and 40% under three months of age. Two groups were randomly assembled to receive, lactose or lactose free feeding formulae. Twenty one patients received a lactose-containing formula (Ninho 10%) and the other 19 children were fed caseine (Portagen) formulae. According to coproculture results and identification of enteropathogenic agents, we divided the studied infants relating feeding formula with the presence or absence of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC): I-13 with positive coproculture for EPEC and diets which included lactose--(L/EPEC+); II--eight with negative coproculture for EPEC and diets which included lactose--(L/EPEC-); III--seven with positive coproculture for EPEC and lactose free diets--(G/EPEC+); IV--12 with negative coproculture for EPEC and lactose free diets. (G/EPEC-). The most frequently isolated agent at coproculture was EPEC, in 20 of the cases (50%), followed by Campylobacter (7.5%). It was also possible to observe that the frequencies of EIEC, Salmonella and Rotavirus were all equal (2.5%). Mixed infections occurred only between EPEC and EIEC, registering a frequency of 5%. The EIEC samples, associated to EPEC 0111 were serotyped as 0 28 ac: H- and 0 152:H-. The use of metabolic bed made the evaluation of fecal volumes possible by a simple and quick technique, thus allowing a closer clinical monitoring, as well as a more reliable evaluation of the patients hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Average acceptance volumes of the formulae--either with or without lactose--were always below the amount recommended by FAO/WHO (100 kcal/day) which shows the impact of acute diarrhea on the decrease of food intake. The average volumes of watery fecal losses found among any of the studied subgroups may be considered quite relevant when compared to standard values. Especially within the L/EPEC+ group fecal losses, both on the first day (83.56 ml/kg/day) and, mainly, on the second (119.44 ml/kg/day) reached exceedingly high levels indicating a disastrous association between the presence of EPEC in the small intestine and lactose offer in the diet. Thus, the results show that there exists a positive and significant association between poor lactose absorption and the presence of EPEC in the feces. WHO's recommendation proposing the use of diluted cow milk, in universal and indiscriminate administration, in the two first days of the disease, may represent a risk factor, not only for malnutrition, but also for the survival rates of children with severe diarrhea, especially those under six months of age and hospitalized with EPEC enteroinfection. PMID:9611297
Palma, D; Oliva, C A; Taddei, J A; Fagundes-Neto, U
India is experiencing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2,218 young adults (aged 26-32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in South India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969-1973 in Vellore and nearby villages. Family history, socio-economic status, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed for diagnosis (WHO recommendations). Insulin resistance and secretion were derived from plasma insulin concentrations. Median BMI was 20.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 DM and IGT was higher in urban than in rural subjects (3.7% vs 2.1%, p=0.02; 18.9% vs 14.3%, p=0.002 respectively), while prevalence of IFG was similar in urban and rural populations (3.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.04). Type 2 DM, IGT, IFG or higher insulin resistance and increment were associated with higher socio-economic status (more household possessions) and higher percentage body fat, body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Insulin increment was lower in men with higher alcohol consumption. Our data suggest high levels of glucose intolerance in young rural and urban adults highlighting an urgent need for preventive action to avert a public health catastrophe in India.
Microgravity imposes adaptive changes in the human body. This review focuses on the changes in baroreflex function produced by actual spaceflight, or by experimental models that simulate microgravity, e.g., bed rest. We will analyze separately studies involving baroreflexes arising from carotid sinus and aortic arch afferents ("high-pressure baroreceptors"), and cardiopulmonary afferents ("low-pressure receptors"). Studies from unrelated laboratories using different techniques have concluded that actual or simulated exposure to microgravity reduces baroreflex function arising from carotid sinus afferents ("carotic-cardiac baroreflex"). The techniques used to study the carotid-cardiac baroreflex, using neck suction and compression to simulate changes in blood pressure, have been extensively validated. In contrast, it is more difficult to selectively study aortic arch or cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. Nonetheless, studies that have examined these baroreceptors suggest that microgravity produces the opposite effect, ie, an increase in the gain of aortic arch and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. Furthermore, most studies have focus on instantaneous changes in heart rate, which almost exclusively examines the vagal limb of the baroreflex. In comparison, there is limited information about the effect of microgravity on sympathetic function. A substantial proportion of subjects exposed to microgravity develop transient orthostatic intolerance. It has been proposed that alterations in baroreflex function play a role in the orthostatic intolerance induced by microgravity. The evidence in favor and against this hypothesis is reviewed.
Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)
The Proceedings of a Canadian Working Group Consensus Conference, first published in 2011, provided a summary of statin-associated adverse effects and intolerance and management suggestions. In this update, new clinical studies identified since then that provide further insight into effects on muscle, cognition, cataracts, diabetes, kidney disease, and cancer are discussed. Of these, the arenas of greatest controversy pertain to purported effects on cognition and the emergence of diabetes during long-term therapy. Regarding cognition, the available evidence is not strongly supportive of a major adverse effect of statins. In contrast, the linkage between statin therapy and incident diabetes is more firm. However, this risk is more strongly associated with traditional risk factors for new-onset diabetes than with statin itself and any possible negative effect of new-onset diabetes during statin treatment is far outweighed by the cardiovascular risk reduction benefits. Additional studies are also discussed, which support the principle that systematic statin rechallenge, and lower or intermittent statin dosing strategies are the main methods for dealing with suspected statin intolerance at this time. PMID:24267801
Mancini, G B John; Tashakkor, A Yashar; Baker, Steven; Bergeron, Jean; Fitchett, David; Frohlich, Jiri; Genest, Jacques; Gupta, Milan; Hegele, Robert A; Ng, Dominic S; Pearson, Glen J; Pope, Janet
Orthostatic intolerance is the development of disabling symptoms upon assuming an upright posture that are relieved partially by resuming the supine position. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an orthostatic intolerance syndrome characterized by palpitations because of excessive orthostatic sinus tachycardia, lightheadedness, tremor, and near-syncope. Patients usually undergo extensive medical, cardiac, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric evaluation, which usually fails to identify a specific abnormality. The authors investigated the autonomic and hemodynamic profile of patients with POTS and the effectiveness of bisoprolol and fludrocortisone. The authors evaluated 11 female patients with POTS before and after medical treatment with a cardioselective bisoprolol beta-blocker or fludrocortisone, or both, and 11 age-matched control patients. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure was assessed by fast Fourier transform, and spontaneous baroreceptor gain was assessed by use of the temporal sequences slope and alpha index. Modelflow was used to quantify hemodynamics. Symptoms in all patients improved greatly after medication. The autonomic and hemodynamic impairment observed in patients with POTS, particularly after orthostatic stress, is treated effectively with bisoprolol or fludrocortisone or both. These results need further confirmation in a controlled double-blind study. Proper medical treatment improves dramatically the clinical and autonomic-hemodynamic disturbances observed in patients with POTS. The data support the hypothesis that POTS is the result of a hyperadrenergic activation or hypovolemia during orthostasis. PMID:11198485
Freitas, J; Santos, R; Azevedo, E; Costa, O; Carvalho, M; de Freitas, A F
In a double blind study, 40 infants with cows' milk intolerance of various causes were randomised to receive a nutritionally complete formula in which nitrogen was supplied either as whey hydrolysate or amino acids. The median age of infants was 10 weeks (range 36 weeks' gestation to 108 weeks' postnatal age). After a median follow up period of 25 weeks there was no significant difference in dietary intake between the formulas. Twenty four weeks after entry, weight and weight for length improved equally on both formulas. Plasma albumin improved significantly on the hydrolysed whey formula but not in the amino acid group. Both milks were palatable and normal intakes of formula were maintained. Biochemical and haematological indices remained within normal limits. There was no difference in stool frequency and vomiting between the two formulas. Two infants developed a probable allergic colitis while receiving hydrolysed whey. Amino acid formula may have a role in the management of atopic infants with severe cows' milk intolerance who have already reacted to whey or casein hydrolysate formula.
The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance following short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence following long-duration spaceflight is unknown. We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after their long-duration (129 - 190 days) spaceflights and compared these data to those obtained during stand tests before and after their previous short-duration missions and also to tilt test data from 20 different short-duration (8 - 16 days) flight astronauts. Five of these six became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights: only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. Five of the twenty astronauts who flew on other short-duration flights, became presyncopal during upright tilt on landing day. Long-duration presyncopal subjects had lower stroke volumes, lower cardiac outputs and higher peripheral vascular resistance than short-duration presyncopal subjects, but their heart rate responses were not different. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after a long but not short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably related to altered autonomic function.
Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Reyes, Carlos; Perez, Sondra A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)
To investigate the delivery of DNA into cells, lactose-poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted poly-L-lysine (Lac-PEG-PLL) polymers were synthesized as polymeric gene carriers. The new synthetic carriers, varying the substitution ratio of lactose-poly(ethylene glycol) (lactose-PEG), were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography. Electrophoretic mobility assay confirmed that the new gene carrier makes a complex with plasmid DNA. The attached poly(ethylene glycol) gives better solubility properties to gene/carrier complex. Transfection experiments showed that Lac-PEG-PLL efficiently delivers DNA to a hepatoma cell line in vitro; the best efficiency was achieved at a 1:3 weight ratio of DNA to carrier. As the lactose-PEG substitution content increased up to 30%, the transfection efficiency increased, which demonstrates that the lactose serves as a targeting moiety. No considerable cytotoxicity was observed due to Lac-PEG-PLL or its complex with DNA within the concentration range for this experiment. The use of chloroquine increased transfection efficiency that indicates the involvement of hydrolytic degradation of the system in lysosome. It is likely that plasmid DNA/Lac-PEG-PLL complexes enter the cells through a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. These results show that Lac-PEG-PLL can form a complex with plasmid DNA and serve as an efficient gene delivery carrier with lower cytotoxicity compared to that of poly-L-lysine. Therefore, it is expected that our Lac-PEG-PLL carrier can be used as an in vivo gene delivery vector. PMID:9815164
Kluyveromyces fragilis was more suitable than Candida pseudotropicalis or K. lactis for production of EtOH from whey. Direct-acid-set cottage cheese whey and the supernatant fluid resulting from heat treatment of the whey at 95 degrees for 20 min showed similar rates of fermentation when inoculated with K. fragilis. Inoculation rates of 10, 12 and 14 mL of active K. fragilis culture/100 mL of media were not different in rate of EtOH production. Samples incubated with K. fragilis at 35, 37, 40 and 42 degrees showed more rapid reduction in specific gravity than samples incubated at room temperature or 30 degrees. Lactose conversion in whey was 83% complete and in whey supernatant fluid, 77%.
The structure of lactose permease from Escherichia coli in its lipid environment was studied by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The protein exhibits an ?-helical content of about 65% and about 25% ?-sheet. Unusually fast hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange to 9095% completion suggests a structure that is highly accessible to the aqueous phase. An average tilt angle of 33° for the helices was found with respect to the bilayer normal at a lipid-to-protein ratio of ?800:1 (mol/mol), and the permease exhibits optimal activity under these conditions. However, upon decreasing the lipid-to-protein ratio, activity decreases continuously in a manner that correlates with the decrease in the lipid order parameter and the increase in the average helical tilt angle. Taken together, the data indicate that the structure and function of the permease are strongly dependent on the order and integrity of the lipid bilayer.
le Coutre, Johannes; Narasimhan, L. R.; Patel, C. Kumar N.; Kaback, H. Ronald
Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to characterize the thermodynamics of ligand binding to wild-type lactose permease (LacY) and a mutant (C154G) that strongly favors an inward facing conformation. The affinity of wild-type or mutant LacY for ligand and the change in free energy (?G) upon binding are similar. However, with the wild type, the change in free energy upon binding is due primarily to an increase in the entropic free energy component (T?S), whereas in marked contrast, an increase in enthalpy (?H) is responsible for ?G in the mutant. Thus, wild-type LacY behaves as if there are multiple ligand-bound conformational states, whereas the mutant is severely restricted. The findings also indicate that the structure of the mutant represents a conformational intermediate in the overall transport cycle.
Nie, Yiling; Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H. Ronald
A new definition of the activity of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation is proposed which relates to drug detachment during dispersion. The new definition is expected to improve the understanding of 'carrier surface site activity', which stimulates the unambiguous communication about this subject and may aid in the rational design and interpretation of future formulation studies. In contrast to the currently prevailing view on carrier surface site activity, it follows from the newly proposed definition that carrier surface site activity depends on more variables than just the physicochemical properties of the carrier surface. Because the term 'active sites' is ambiguous, it is recommended to use the term 'highly active sites' instead to denote carrier surface sites with a relatively high activity. PMID:24613490
Grasmeijer, Floris; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H
Enzymatic glyco-modification of transparent cellulose films with lactose was achieved by nonaqueous biocatalysis, and rat hepatocyte attachment behavior to the lactose-modified cellulose films was investigated. Regenerated cellulose films were incubated with lactose using a surfactant-enveloped cellulase in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent at 37 degrees C for 24 h, and lactose molecules were successfully introduced to the cellulose films. The initial cell adhesion on the lactose-modified cellulose films was superior to the original cellulose film. In the absence of serum, hepatocytes were significantly attached only on the lactose-modified cellulose films. This process was markedly suppressed by the addition of free lactose as an inhibitor. These results suggest that such cell adhesion proceeded through a direct interaction between galactose residues on the cellulose films and asialoglycoprotein receptors on the rat liver cell surface. This novel approach for surface glyco-modification of a cellulose matrix and its biofunctional properties are expected to provide potential application as a bioactive scaffold for cell culture engineering. PMID:19317400
The major modifications induced by thermal treatment of whey proteins ?-lactalbumin (?-La) and ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) in a model system mimicking lactose-free milk (L(-) sugar mix) were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The analysis of the intact ?-La revealed species with up to 7 and 14 adducts from lactose and sugar mix, respectively, whereas for ?-Lg 3 and up to 5 sugar moieties were observed in the case of lactose and sugar mix experiments, respectively. A partial enzymatic hydrolysis with endoproteinase AspN prior to mass spectrometric analysis allowed the detection of further modifications and their localization in the amino acid sequence. Using ?-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as MALDI matrix, it could be shown that heating ?-La and ?-Lg with glucose or galactose led to the modification of lysine residues that are not glycated by lactose. The higher glycation degree of whey proteins in a lactose-free milk system relative to normal milk with lactose reflects the higher reactivity of monosaccharides compared to the parent disaccharide. Finally, the analysis of the whey extract of a commercial lactose-free milk sample revealed that the two whey proteins were present as three main forms (native, single, and double hexose adducts). PMID:21319853
Persistence or non-persistence of lactase expression into adult life is a polymorphic trait that has been attributed to a single nucleotide polymorphism (C-13910T) in an enhancer element 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT). The -13910*T allele occurs at very high frequency in northern Europeans as part of a very long haplotype (known as A), and promotes binding of the transcription factor Oct-1. However, -13910*T is at very low frequency in many African milk drinking pastoralist groups where lactase persistence phenotype has been reported at high frequency. We report here for the first time, a cohort study of lactose digester and non-digester Sudanese volunteers and show there is no association of -13910*T or the A haplotype with lactase persistence. We support this finding with new genotype/phenotype frequency comparisons in pastoralist groups of eastern African and Middle Eastern origin. Resequencing revealed three new SNPs in close proximity to -13910*T, two of which are within the Oct-1 binding site. The most frequent of these (-13915*G) is associated with lactose tolerance in the cohort study, providing evidence for a cis-acting effect. Despite its location, -13915*G abolishes, rather than enhances Oct-1 binding, indicating that this particular interaction is unlikely to be involved in lactase persistence. This study reveals the complexity of this phenotypic polymorphism and highlights the limitations of C-13910T as a diagnostic test for lactase persistence status, at least for people with non-European ancestry. PMID:17120047
Ingram, Catherine J E; Elamin, Mohamed F; Mulcare, Charlotte A; Weale, Michael E; Tarekegn, Ayele; Raga, Tamiru Oljira; Bekele, Endashaw; Elamin, Farouk M; Thomas, Mark G; Bradman, Neil; Swallow, Dallas M
... inability to digest wheat (CELIAC DISEASE) or milk (LACTOSEINTOLERANCE) can cause these symptoms. Eliminate foods that make ... be an appropriate substitute for infants who have lactoseintolerance. No 4. Does your child seem to have ...
Background May patients with congestive heart failure do not receive the benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors because of intolerance. We sought to determine the tolerability of an angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan cilexetil, among patients considered intolerant of ACE inhibitors.Methods Patients with CHF, left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35%, and history of discontinuing an ACE inhibitor because of
Christopher B. Granger; Georg Ertl; Jerzy Kuch; Aldo P. Maggioni; John McMurray; Jean-Lucien Rouleau; Lynn Warner Stevenson; Karl Swedberg; James Young; Salim Yusuf; Robert M. Califf; Bradley A. Bart; Peter Held; Eric L. Michelson; Mary Ann Sellers; Gunilla Ohlin; Rodney Sparapani; Marc A. Pfeffer
Prejudice and discrimination against lesbian, gay and bisexual students, faculty, and staff on college campuses is an important issue that demands attention. Intolerance for the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community is often intensified by a lack of knowledge and understanding between heterosexuals and the LGB community, a problem that could
Objective: At present, the haemodynamic diagnosis of orthostatic intolerance is based mainly on the head-up tilt table test, which is sometimes risky for patients. Thus, it is important to find objective and safe methods to differentiate haemodynamic patterns of orthostatic intolerance cases. Methods: In all, 629 children with orthostatic intolerance, either vasovagal syncope or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, were included in the multi-centre clinical study. We analysed the association between the clinical manifestation and haemodynamic patterns of the patients. Results: Syncope after motion with a prodrome of chest distress or palpitations and the concomitant symptom(s) after a syncopal attack, with debilitation, dizziness or headache, were the most important variables in predicting the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.5%. Conclusion: Complaint of syncope after motion with prodromal chest distress or palpitation and the concomitant symptom after a syncopal attack, with subsequent debilitation, dizziness or headache, were the most important variables in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope in children with orthostatic intolerance. PMID:23866994
An effort to develop a measure of ethical sensitivity to acts of racial and gender intolerance that occur in school settings is described. The rationale and theory on which the instrument is based is derived from the work of J. Rest (1983) that outlines four psychological components of morality: (1) ethical sensitivity; (2) moral judgment; (3)
Brabeck, Mary M.; McCubbin, Laurie; Rogers, Lauren A.; Ting, Kathleen; Warner, Chris; Sirin, Selcuk; Weaver, Monica
Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic Orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using in operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 450 head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight Orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.
Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.
Background In Bahrain and other populations of the Arabian Peninsula, glucose intolerance is associated with raised plasma total cholesterol, postmenopausal status and low educational status. These associations are not generally seen in other populations with high diabetes prevalence. A study was undertaken in order to determine if hypertension in Bahrainis is associated with the same factors as those related to
Faisal Al-Mahroos; Khaldoon Al-Roomi; Paul M McKeigue
Background: Many infants with cow's milk protein intolerance have adverse reactions to soy, casein and whey hydrolysate formula and to other foods. The recent development of Neocate, a hypoallergenic, nutritionally complete infant formula composed of individual amino acids and other nutrients, has enabled these infants to be stabilized. Objective: We observed the effect of food challenges in infants with reported
David J. Hill; Donald J. S. Cameron; Dorothy E. M. Francis; Agnes M. Gonzalez-Andaya; Clifford S. Hosking
Modern anxiety disorder models implicitly include intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a critical component for the development and maintenance of these pervasive social and economic concerns. IU represents, at its core, fear of the unknown - a long-recognized, deep-seated fear identified in normative and pathological samples. Indeed, the intrinsic nature of IU can be argued as evolutionarily supported, a notion buttressed by initial biophysiological evidence from uncertainty-related research. Originally thought to be specific to generalized anxiety disorder, recent research has clearly demonstrated that IU is a broad transdiagnostic dispositional risk factor for the development and maintenance of clinically significant anxiety. The available evidence suggests that theorists, researchers and clinicians may benefit from explicitly incorporating IU into models, research designs, case conceptualizations and as a treatment target. PMID:23002938
Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a medically unexplained disorder characterised by a wide variety of unspecific symptoms in different organ systems and attributed to nontoxic concentrations of chemicals and other environmental factors that are tolerated by the majority of individuals. Both exposure to chemicals and behavioural conditioning are considered as possible contributors to the development of IEI. However, owing to the heterogeneity of the condition, it is difficult to separate the toxicological, physiological and psychological aspects of IEI. Here, we review the evidence for postulated toxicologically mediated mechanisms for IEI. Available data do not support either a classical receptor-mediated or an idiosyncratic toxicological mechanism. Furthermore, if there were convincing evidence for a psychological cause for many patients with IEI, then this would suggest that the priority for the future is the development of psychological treatments for IEI. Finally, we advocate genome wide screening of IEI patients to elucidate genotypic features of the condition. PMID:23060407
Objective:Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by macrophage infiltration into affected tissues. Because intestinal macrophages are derived from recruitment and in situ differentiation of blood monocytes in the gut mucosa, we hypothesized that increased recruitment of monocytes to the intestine during NEC reduces the blood monocyte concentration and that this fall in blood monocytes can be a useful biomarker for NEC.Study Design:We reviewed medical records of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated for NEC and compared them with a matched control group comprised of infants with feeding intolerance but no signs of NEC. Clinical characteristics and absolute monocyte counts (AMCs) were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of AMC values was tested using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC).Result:We compared 69 cases and 257 controls (median 27 weeks, range 26 to 29 in both the groups). In stage II NEC, AMCs decreased from median 1.7 × 10(9)?l(-1) (interquartile range (IQR) 0.98 to 2.4) to 0.8 (IQR 0.62 to 2.1); P<0.05. In stage III NEC, monocyte counts decreased from median 2.1 × 10(9)?l(-1) (IQR 0.1.5 to 3.2) to 0.8 (IQR 0.6 to 1.9); P<0.05. There was no change in AMCs in control infants. ROC of AMC values showed a diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76. In a given infant with feeding intolerance, a drop in AMCs of >20% indicated NEC with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.81) and specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.77).Conclusion:We have identified a fall in blood monocyte concentration as a novel biomarker for NEC in VLBW infants. PMID:24674979
Remon, J; Kampanatkosol, R; Kaul, R R; Muraskas, J K; Christensen, R D; Maheshwari, A
mTOR inhibition with rapamycin induces a diabetes-like syndrome characterized by severe glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which is due to increased hepatic glucose production as well as reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake and adipose tissue PPAR? activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological PPAR? activation attenuates the diabetes-like syndrome associated with chronic mTOR inhibition. Rats treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in combination or not with the PPAR? ligand rosiglitazone (15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 15 days were evaluated for insulin secretion, glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake, and insulin signaling. Rosiglitazone corrected fasting hyperglycemia, attenuated the glucose and insulin intolerances, and abolished the increase in fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels induced by rapamycin. Surprisingly, rosiglitazone markedly increased the plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to refeeding in rapamycin-treated rats. Furthermore, rosiglitazone partially attenuated rapamycin-induced gluconeogenesis, as evidenced by the improved pyruvate tolerance and reduced mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Rosiglitazone also restored insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and its incorporation into glycogen in skeletal muscle of rapamycin-treated rats, which was associated with normalization of Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. However, the rapamycin-mediated impairments of adipose tissue glucose uptake and incorporation into triacylglycerol were unaffected by rosiglitazone. Our findings indicate that PPAR? activation ameliorates some of the disturbances in glucose homeostasis and insulin action associated with chronic rapamycin treatment by reducing gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion and restoring muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake. PMID:24619883
The defining characteristic of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an exercise intolerance that is inextricably linked to structural and functional aberrations in the O2 transport pathway. CHF reduces muscle O2 supply while simultaneously increasing O2 demands. CHF severity varies from moderate to severe and is assessed commonly in terms of the maximum O2 uptake, which relates closely to patient morbidity and mortality in CHF and forms the basis for Weber and colleagues' (167) classifications of heart failure, speed of the O2 uptake kinetics following exercise onset and during recovery, and the capacity to perform submaximal exercise. As the heart fails, cardiovascular regulation shifts from controlling cardiac output as a means for supplying the oxidative energetic needs of exercising skeletal muscle and other organs to preventing catastrophic swings in blood pressure. This shift is mediated by a complex array of events that include altered reflex and humoral control of the circulation, required to prevent the skeletal muscle sleeping giant from outstripping the pathologically limited cardiac output and secondarily impacts lung (and respiratory muscle), vascular, and locomotory muscle function. Recently, interest has also focused on the dysregulation of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? as well as reactive oxygen species as mediators of systemic and muscle dysfunction. This brief review focuses on skeletal muscle to address the mechanistic bases for the reduced maximum O2 uptake, slowed O2 uptake kinetics, and exercise intolerance in CHF. Experimental evidence in humans and animal models of CHF unveils the microvascular cause(s) and consequences of the O2 supply (decreased)/O2 demand (increased) imbalance emblematic of CHF. Therapeutic strategies to improve muscle microvascular and oxidative function (e.g., exercise training and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant strategies, in particular) and hence patient exercise tolerance and quality of life are presented within their appropriate context of the O2 transport pathway.
Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Musch, Timothy I.
Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can experience exercise intolerance due to insufficient carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. Six patients aged 17-36-years were studied. We determined VO 2peak (peak oxygen consumption), the response to forearm exercise, and the metabolic and cardiovascular responses to cycle exercise at 70% of VO 2peak with either a saline or a glucose infusion. VO 2peak was below normal. Glucose improved the work capacity by lowering the heart rate, and increasing the peak work rate by 30% (108 W with glucose vs. 83 W with placebo, p=0.018). The block in muscle glycogenolytic capacity, combined with the liver involvement caused exercise intolerance with dynamic skeletal muscle symptoms (excessive fatigue and muscle pain), and hypoglycemia in 4 subjects. In this study we combined anaerobic and aerobic exercise to systematically study skeletal muscle metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with GSD IIIa. Exercise capacity was significantly reduced, and our results indicate that this was due to a block in muscle glycogenolytic capacity. Our findings suggest that the general classification of GSD III as a glycogenosis characterized by fixed symptoms related to muscle wasting should be modified to include dynamic exercise-related symptoms of muscle fatigue. A proportion of the skeletal muscle symptoms in GSD IIIa, i.e. weakness and fatigue, may be related to insufficient energy production in muscle. PMID:23507172
BACKGROUND: Observations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effect of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on cardiovascular responses to cold pressor testing, handgrip testing, and a graded head-up tilt test (HUT) in 18 healthy subjects. In a subset, we determined isoproterenol and phenylephrine sensitivities. Subjects ingested 8 mg reboxetine or placebo 12 hours and 1 hour before testing. In the supine position, heart rate was 65+/-2 bpm with placebo and 71+/-3 bpm with reboxetine. At 75 degrees HUT, heart rate was 84+/-3 and 119+/-4 bpm with placebo and with reboxetine (P<0.0001). Mean arterial pressure was 85+/-2 with placebo and 91+/-2 mm Hg with reboxetine while supine (P<0.01) and 88+/-2 mm Hg and 90+/-3 mm Hg at 75 degrees HUT. Blood pressure responses to cold pressor and handgrip testing were attenuated with reboxetine. Reboxetine increased the sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of isoproterenol and the pressor effect of phenylephrine. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 9 subjects on placebo and in 1 subject on reboxetine. CONCLUSIONS: Selective NET blockade creates a phenotype that resembles idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. This observation supports the hypothesis that disordered norepinephrine uptake mechanisms can contribute to human cardiovascular disease. Our study also suggests that NET inhibition might be useful in preventing vasovagal reactions.
Schroeder, Christoph; Tank, Jens; Boschmann, Michael; Diedrich, Andre; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)
Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (5783 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p = 0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p = 0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p = 0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p = 0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.
Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Watson, G. Stennis; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne
Purpose To report the results and effectiveness of anterior stromal puncture for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients with subepithelial fibrotic nodules. Methods Nine eyes of nine keratoconus patients who were rigid gas-permeable contact lenses (RGP)-intolerant due to subepithelial nodular scars were included in this study. The nine patients were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and December 2008. After confirming nodular elevation from slit-lamp biomicroscopy, the area where the epithelium of nodular scars had sloughed was punctured by anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle attached to a 1-ml syringe under slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The RGPs of all patients were refitted around 4 weeks after the puncture. Results Five of the nine patients were male, and the average patient age was 29.6 years (SD?±?5.22 years). Mean follow-up time was 13.7 months (SD?±?4.8 months), and the epithelial defect healed in 1.4 days on average. After the puncture, four of nine patients presented with a recurrent erosion of the nodule during follow-up and needed a second puncture. All the patients showed good contact lens tolerance and satisfactory contact lens fit. No complications such as corneal perforation or keratitis developed. Conclusions Anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle can be a successful and effective method to induce corneal epithelium and Bowmans layer reattachment. It can be used as an outpatient procedure to improve RGP tolerance in patients with keratoconus with elevated subepithelial nodules.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy to conduct rapid non-destructive quantitative research in milk powder without additional separation steps. The experiments conducted in both FT-IR and 2D FT-IR spectra suggest that characteristic spectroscopic features of milk powder containing different carbohydrate can be detected, and then determine the type of carbohydrate. To predict the approximate content of lactose while the carbohydrate is lactose, different amount of crystallized lactose has been added to the reference milk powder. The correlation coefficient could be used to determine the content of crystallized lactose in milk powder. The method provides a rapid and convenient means for assessing the quality of milk powder.
Bifidogenic effect and stimulation of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by fractions of oligosaccharides with a DP> or =3 and Gal beta(1-6) linkages synthesised from lactose or lactulose by Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Lactozym 3000 L HP G were evaluated in human faecal slurries. Results were compared with those obtained for the commercial oligosaccharide mixture Vivinal-GOS. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) fractions stimulated slightly higher bifidobacteria growth than lactose, lactulose and Vivinal-GOS. GOS fractions promoted the production of total SCFA and acetic acid in a similar way to Vivinal-GOS and more than glucose, lactose and lactulose. In conclusion, oligosaccharides derived from lactose and lactulose may represent a suitable alternative to lactulose for the design of new functional food ingredients. PMID:19450367
Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Fernández, María; Salazar, Nuria; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G
Purpose. To examine the ß-galactoside and ß-lactoside binding capacity of three human colon-adenocarcinoma cell lines and their sugar specificity, using N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates of galactosamine, lactose, and triantennary galactose.
Ayelet David; Pavla Kopecková; Jindrich Kopecek; Abraham Rubinstein
BACKGROUNDNasal provocation tests with lysine-aspirin have recently been introduced for assessment of aspirin intolerant asthma. A study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of acoustic rhinometry, a new non-invasive technique, in the diagnosis of aspirin intolerant asthma/rhinitis.?METHODSFifteen patients with aspirin intolerant asthma/rhinitis (nine women, mean (SD) age 54.7 (14) years), eight patients with aspirin tolerant asthma/rhinitis (three women, mean (SD) age 52.6(7.8) years), and eight healthy subjects (two women, mean (SD) age 32.5 (9.7) years) were studied. All subjects were challenged with saline (0.9% NaCl) and 25 mg lysine acetylsalicylic acid (L-ASA) instilled into each nostril of the nose on two separate days. The clinical response was evaluated based on nasal symptoms (sneezes, itching, secretion and blockage). The nasal response was measured by acoustic rhinometry. Symptoms and rhinometry curves were recorded at 10 minute intervals for three hours, one hour before challenge and two hours after challenge.?RESULTSL-ASA challenge induced a significant increase in symptoms in patients with aspirin intolerant asthma/rhinitis. No differences in the clinical response were detected in those with aspirin tolerant asthma/rhinitis or healthy subjects. L-ASA challenge induced a significant decrease in nasal volume measured by acoustic rhinometry in aspirin intolerant patients. No differences were detected between the challenges in aspirin tolerant patients. If a 25% decrease in nasal volume is taken as the cut off point, the specificity of the test was 94% and the sensitivity reached 73%. The nasal challenge was well tolerated by all subjects.?CONCLUSIONAcoustic rhinometry may be used to study the nasal response to L-ASA. Nasal challenge with L-ASA is safe and can be used as a diagnostic test even in asthmatic patients with severe bronchial obstruction.??
Introduction Intolerance of discomfort associated with recent smoking cessation has been studied with only one smoking-specific questionnaire. The present study investigates the extent to which the previously validated Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) scales share variance with (a) laboratory measures of distress tolerance (Paced Serial Addition Task and a breath-holding task) that have themselves been validated against smoking history, (b) the cold pressor task (not previously validated for smoking), and (c) an anxiety sensitivity questionnaire previously used for a similar purpose. The study then tests the hypothesis that the IDQ-S scales will have a higher correlation with smoking rate and dependence and with number and length of past smoking cessation attempts than will anxiety sensitivity or behavioral distress tolerance tasks since those measures are not smoking-specific. Methods Sixty daily smokers recruited from the community completed the measures. Results The behavioral tasks and anxiety sensitivity shared little common variance. Anxiety sensitivity correlated more highly with IDQ-S than did the behavioral tasks but only 27% of variance was shared with the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance; no distress tolerance measure correlated significantly with the IDQ-S Lack of Cognitive Coping scale. Only the IDQ-S scales correlated significantly with nicotine dependence, rate and past cessation: Withdrawal Intolerance with nicotine dependence and rate, and Lack of Cognitive Coping with fewer quit attempts. Conclusions The smoking-specific measure of intolerance for discomfort may be more useful in smoking research than the less specific measures of distress tolerance.
Sirota, Alan D.; Rohsenow, Damaris; Dolan, Sara L.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Kahler, Christopher W.