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1

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Buy IFFGD Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Lactose Intolerance Lactose is a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Lactose intolerance is a condition where symptoms occur after digesting ...

2

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... absorbed into the bloodstream and turned into energy — fuel for our bodies. People with lactose intolerance do ... who are lactose intolerant come up with eating alternatives and develop a well-balanced diet that provides ...

3

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... links Share this: Page Content What is lactose intolerance? People who are lactose intolerant have trouble digesting lactose, the natural sugar found in milk and milk products. They have this condition because their bodies do not make enough lactase. Lactase is an enzyme made in the small ...

4

Lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

Persons with lactose intolerance are unable to digest significant amounts of lactose because of a genetically inadequate amount of the enzyme lactase. Common symptoms include abdominal pain and bloating, excessive flatus, and watery stool following the ingestion of foods containing lactose. Lactase deficiency is present in up to 15 percent of persons of northern European descent, up to 80 percent of blacks and Latinos, and up to 100 percent of American Indians and Asians. A sizable number of adults believe they are lactose intolerant but do not actually have impaired lactose digestion, and some persons with lactase deficiency can tolerate moderate amounts of ingested lactose. A diagnosis of lactose intolerance can usually be made with a careful history supported by dietary manipulation. If necessary, diagnosis can be confirmed by using a breath hydrogen or lactose tolerance test. Treatment consists primarily of avoiding lactose-containing foods. Lactase enzyme supplements may be helpful. The degree of lactose malabsorption varies greatly among patients with lactose intolerance, but most of them can ingest up to 12 oz of milk daily without symptoms. Lactose-intolerant patients must ensure adequate calcium intake. PMID:12018807

Swagerty, Daniel L; Walling, Anne D; Klein, Robert M

2002-05-01

5

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... to absorb and turn into energy. People with lactose intolerance do not make enough lactase in their small intestine. Without lactase, the body ... while you're young. People can also develop lactose intolerance for other ... lactase. For example, people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) , ...

6

Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

Lactase deficiency; Milk intolerance; Disaccharidase deficiency; Dairy product intolerance ... make the lactase enzyme so they can digest milk, including breast milk. Babies born too early (premature) ...

7

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

8

Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Calcium and Your Child Digestive System Milk Allergy in Infants About Recipes for Kids ... Teens With Lactose Intolerance Milk Allergy Lactose Intolerance Digestive System Calcium Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to ...

9

What Causes Lactose Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... describe why a person may not have enough lactase 1 : Primary lactose intolerance . This type develops in people who were once ... such as from severe illness or disease. Congenital lactose intolerance . Infants born with this rare type make no lactase at all. It is not uncommon for secondary ...

10

How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... following tests also can help diagnose lactose intolerance: Hydrogen breath test. For this test, a person drinks ... beverage that has lactose in it. Then, the hydrogen level in the breath is measured at set ...

11

Lactose intolerance in Thai adults.  

PubMed

Lactose intolerance is common in Thai adults who ingest cow's milk but its incidence has not been clearly defined The authors evaluated 45 volunteers (15 males, 35 females), aged 21-31 yrs old, who drank one 240-ml box of milk daily. A Lactose tolerance test was performed using a breath-hydrogen test (BHT) after oral intake of 25 g of lactose dissolved in 250 ml of water The presence of gastrointestinal symptoms of lactose intolerance, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhea, were recorded Twenty-one subjects (47%) were categorized as lactose malabsorbers and intolerant, two subjects (4%) were malabsorbers but tolerant, and 22 of 45 (49%) were absorbers and tolerant. The incidence of lactose malabsorption was, thus, 51%; symptoms of intolerance were found in 21 of the 23 malabsorbers, making the incidence of lactose intolerance 47%. In the lactose malabsorbant and intolerant group, the more breath-hydrogen (H) the more symptoms observed All subjects who had a negative breath-H2 test had no symptoms. The breath-H2 test should be used as a standard method to evaluate lactose absorption and lactose tolerance. The incidence of lactose intolerance has decreased from the past and the symptoms are not so severe that the people limit the consumption of milk since it is a major source of food containing good quality of protein and calcium. PMID:15822548

Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Chantaratin, Sasitorn; Wongarn, Renu

2004-12-01

12

How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactose intolerance managed? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content No treatment can change the body's ability to make lactase. 1 But most people who have problems digesting ...

13

Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding lactose intolerance? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

14

Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... without having symptoms. Are there different “types” of lactose intolerance? Yes. Some people are born without the ability to make the enzyme lactase. People with this type of lactose intolerance have ...

15

Lactose intolerance and other disaccharidase deficiency.  

PubMed

Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ? 50 kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24596060

Tomar, Balvir S

2014-09-01

16

Milk for Kids with Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Lactose Intolerance is… A food sensitivity, not a milk allergy or sickness! It happens when the body does not make enough lactase. Lactase is a body enzyme that handles lactose, ...

17

Lactose intolerance: from diagnosis to correct management.  

PubMed

This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactose intolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactose intolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactose intolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy. PMID:24443063

Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

2013-01-01

18

Lactose Intolerance: Information for Health Care Providers  

E-print Network

Lactose Intolerance: Information for Health Care are at or above their adequate intake of calcium.1 And adolescents who may be lactose intolerant are even less of their adult bone mass is established. As a health care provider, you can help your patients get the calcium

Rau, Don C.

19

Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors.  

PubMed

Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management. PMID:22826639

Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair José

2012-01-01

20

Lactose intolerance in systemic nickel allergy syndrome.  

PubMed

Some patients affected by nickel-contact allergy present digestive symptoms in addition to systemic cutaneous manifestations, falling under the condition known as systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). A nickel-related pro-inflammatory status has been documented at intestinal mucosal level. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance in patients affected by SNAS compared to a healthy population. Consecutive patients affected by SNAS referring to our departments were enrolled. The control population consisted of healthy subjects without gastrointestinal symptoms. All subjects enrolled underwent lactose breath test under standard conditions. One hundred and seventy-eight SNAS patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled. Positivity of lactose breath test occurred in 74.7% of the SNAS group compared to 6.6% of the control group. Lactose intolerance is highly prevalent in our series of patients affected by SNAS. Based on our preliminary results, we can hypothesize that in SNAS patients, the nickel-induced pro-inflammatory status could temporarily impair the brush border enzymatic functions, resulting in hypolactasia. Further trials evaluating the effect of a nickel-low diet regimen on lactase activity, histological features and immunological pattern are needed. PMID:21658331

Cazzato, I A; Vadrucci, E; Cammarota, G; Minelli, M; Gasbarrini, A

2011-01-01

21

Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

2013-06-01

22

Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

2013-01-01

23

Systemic lactose intolerance: a new perspective on an old problem.  

PubMed

Intolerance to certain foods can cause a range of gut and systemic symptoms. The possibility that these can be caused by lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose added to many foods and drinks inadequately labelled, confusing diagnosis based on dietary removal of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. This, with a 48 hour record of gut and systemic symptoms and a six hour breath hydrogen test, provides a new approach to the clinical management of lactose intolerance. The key is the prolonged effect of dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labelled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the wide range of systemic symptoms caused by lactose intolerance. This has important implications for the management of irritable bowel syndrome, and for doctors of many specialties. PMID:15749792

Matthews, S B; Waud, J P; Roberts, A G; Campbell, A K

2005-03-01

24

75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...products. Lactose intolerance is caused...the enzyme lactase, which is...products by lactase nonpersisters...symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused...attributable to lactose intolerance is difficult...and manage lactase...

2010-01-15

25

Lactose intolerance: a self-fulfilling prophecy leading to osteoporosis?  

PubMed

Symptoms of lactose intolerance are unlikely to occur under usual dietary conditions. Yet, self-described "lactose-intolerant" individuals often restrict dairy and calcium intake. A new study suggests that such individuals have reduced peak bone mass and increased incidence of osteopenia, and are at greater risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. PMID:12903833

Savaiano, Dennis

2003-06-01

26

Visceral hypersensitivity and intolerance symptoms in lactose malabsorption.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption is not always associated with intolerance symptoms. The factors responsible for symptom onset are not yet completely known. As differences in visceral sensitivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of functional symptoms, we evaluated whether an alteration of visceral sensitivity is present in subjects with lactose intolerance. Thirty subjects, recruited regardless of whether they were aware of their capacity to absorb lactose, underwent an evaluation of intestinal hydrogen production capacity by lactulose breath test, followed by an evaluation of lactose absorption by hydrogen breath test after lactose administration and subsequently an evaluation of recto-sigmoid sensitivity threshold during fasting and after lactulose administration, to ascertain whether fermentation modifies intestinal sensitivity. The role of differences in gastrointestinal transit was excluded by gastric emptying and mouth-to-caecum transit time by (13)C-octanoic and lactulose breath tests. Lactulose administration induced a significant reduction of discomfort threshold in subjects with lactose intolerance but not in malabsorbers without intolerance symptoms or in subjects with normal lactose absorption. Perception threshold showed no changes after lactulose administration. Severity of symptoms in intolerant subjects was significantly correlated with the reduction of discomfort thresholds. Visceral hypersensitivity should be considered in the induction of intolerance symptoms in subjects with lactose malabsorption. PMID:17973635

Di Stefano, M; Miceli, E; Mazzocchi, S; Tana, P; Moroni, F; Corazza, G R

2007-11-01

27

Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa…

Smart, Jimmy L.

2008-01-01

28

[Lactose intolerance: changing paradigms due to molecular biology].  

PubMed

In most mammals, lactase activity declines on the intestinal wall after weaning, characterizing primary hypolactasia that provokes symptoms of lactose intolerance. The intensity of symptoms of distention, flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhea varies, according to the amount of ingested lactose, and increases with age. Hypolactasia is genetically determined; nonetheless, a mutation occurred that had made a part of mankind tolerate milk in adulthood. Diagnosis is made by a tolerance test, using the lactose challenge. With the discovery made by the Finns of polymorphism associated with lactase persistence, mainly, in Northern Europe, the genetic test was incorporated as a more comfortable diagnostic tool for the intolerant. In Brazil, 43% of Caucasian and Mulatto groups have lactase persistence allele, with hipolactasia more frequently found among Blacks and Japanese. However, in clinical practice people with hypolactasia may be advised to consume certain dairy products and food containing lactose without developing intolerance symptoms, whereas others will need a lactose restriction diet. PMID:20499001

Mattar, Rejane; Mazo, Daniel Ferraz de Campos

2010-01-01

29

Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.  

PubMed

Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ?19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p < 0.001). A greater proportion used supplements containing calcium (52% vs. 37%, p < 0.001) and vitamin D (58% vs. 46%, p < 0.001), but calcium intakes from the combination of milk products, alternatives, and supplements were lower (739 ± 30 mg·day(-1) vs. 893 ± 13 mg·day(-1), p < 0.0001). Variation in self-reported lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised. PMID:23855270

Barr, Susan I

2013-08-01

30

Clinical implications of lactose malabsorption versus lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

The majority of the world's adult population and an estimated 80 million Americans are hypolactasic and hence malabsorb ingested lactose. Although lactose malabsorption is easily identified, less readily assessed is the clinically important question of how often does this malabsorption induce symptoms. This review summarizes: (1) knowledge concerning the etiology and diagnosis of hypolactasia and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of lactose malabsorption and (2) the results of well-controlled trials of the symptomatic response of lactose malabsorbers to varying dosages of lactose and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions to alleviate these symptoms. We conclude that the clinical significance of lactose malabsorption has been overestimated by both the lay public and physicians in that commonly ingested doses of lactose (ie, the quantity in a cup of milk) usually do not cause perceptible symptoms when ingested with a meal. Symptoms occur when the lactose dosage exceeds that in a cup of milk or when lactose is ingested without other nutrients. Simple dietary instruction, rather than the use of commercial products to reduce lactose intake, is recommended for the vast majority of lactose-malabsorbing subjects. PMID:23632346

Levitt, Michael; Wilt, Timothy; Shaukat, Aasma

2013-07-01

31

Lactose intolerance. Pinpointing the source of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms.  

PubMed

Lactose intolerance is a common condition that can cause nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. A reliable diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of the patient's history. The breath hydrogen test is simple, noninvasive, accurate, and inexpensive and is the diagnostic method of choice. In addition to traditional dietary restriction of lactose, treatment may consist of alterations in dietary fat content or caloric density to reduce symptoms and use of dairy products or additives that provide lactase activity. PMID:2038590

Montes, R G; Perman, J A

1991-06-01

32

Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance12  

PubMed Central

Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

Heaney, Robert P.

2013-01-01

33

Genetic variation and lactose intolerance: detection methods and clinical implications.  

PubMed

The maturational decline in lactase activity renders most of the world's adult human population intolerant of excessive consumption of milk and other dairy products. In conditions of primary or secondary lactase deficiency, the lactose sugars in milk pass through the gastrointestinal tract undigested or are partially digested by enzymes produced by intestinal bacterial flora to yield short chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane. The undigested lactose molecules and products of bacterial digestion can result in symptoms of lactose intolerance, diarrhea, gas bloat, flatulence, and abdominal pain. Diagnosis of lactose intolerance is often made on clinical grounds and response to an empiric trail of dietary lactose avoidance. Biochemical methods for assessing lactose malabsorption in the form of the lactose breath hydrogen test and direct lactase enzyme activity performed on small intestinal tissue biopsy samples may also be utilized. In some adults, however, high levels of lactase activity persist into adulthood. This hereditary persistence of lactase is common primarily in people of northern European descent and is attributed to inheritance of an autosomal-dominant mutation that prevents the maturational decline in lactase expression. Recent reports have identified genetic polymorphisms that are closely associated with lactase persistence and nonpersistence phenotypes. The identification of genetic variants associated with lactase persistence or nonpersistence allows for molecular detection of the genetic predisposition towards adult-onset hypolactasia by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The role for such genetic detection in clinical practice seems limited to ruling out adult-onset hypolactasia as a cause of intolerance symptoms but remains to be fully defined. Attention should be paid to appropriate interpretation of genetic detection in order to avoid potentially harmful reduction in dairy intake or misdiagnosis of secondary lactase deficiency. PMID:15287817

Sibley, Eric

2004-01-01

34

The role of colonic microbiota in lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

In a previous study we observed a clear difference in lactose intolerance symptoms after a 25-g lactose load in two groups of persons with lactase nonpersistence and similar small intestinal lactase activity. From this observation we hypothesized a colon resistance factor. To identify this factor, the microbial composition of fecal samples of the two lactose intolerant groups (one with mild symptoms, n = 16, and one with diarrhea-predominant symptoms, n = 11) was compared using the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. Large interindividual differences were found in the numbers of total bacteria and main groups of bacteria (CV: 0.65 and 0.64-0.82 respectively). The bacterial numbers were not significantly different between the two groups. A significant negative correlation, however, was found between the individual symptom scores of the intolerant persons and the numbers of total hybridizable bacteria (r(s) = -0.42, P = 0.03). The results suggest that an increased number of bacteria might contribute--by means of a higher fermentative capacity--to the reduction of lactose intolerance symptoms. PMID:14992439

Zhong, Yan; Priebe, Marion G; Vonk, Roel J; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Antoine, Jean-Michel; He, Tao; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Welling, Gjalt W

2004-01-01

35

Overcoming the barrier of lactose intolerance to reduce health disparities.  

PubMed Central

Federal health goals for the public have focused on reducing health disparities that exist between whites and various racial and ethnic groups. Many of the chronic diseases for which African Americans are at greater risk- hypertension, stroke, colon cancer, and obesity-may be exacerbated by a low intake of calcium and/or other dairy-related nutrients. For example, a low intake of dairy food nutrients, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, may contribute to the high risk of hypertension seen in African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that a low-fat diet rich in fruits and vegetables (8 to 10 servings) and low-fat dairy foods (3 servings) significantly reduced blood pressure-and was twice as effective in African-American participants. Calcium and dairy food consumption is particularly low among African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Average intakes are near the threshold of 600 to 700 mg/day, below which bone loss and hypertension can result. Although lactose intolerance may be partly to blame for the low calcium intakes due to reduced dairy food consumption by minority populations, culturally determined food preferences and dietary practices learned early in life also play a role. The high incidence figures for primary lactose maldigestion among minority groups grossly overestimates the number who will experience intolerance symptoms after drinking a glass of milk with a meal. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that by using a few simple dietary strategies, those who maldigest lactose (have low levels of the lactase enzyme) can easily tolerate a dairy-rich diet that meets calcium intake recommendations. Physicians and other health professionals can help their minority patients and the general public understand how to improve calcium nutrition by overcoming the surmountable barrier of lactose intolerance. At the same time they will be helping to reduce the incidence of calcium-related chronic diseases for which minority populations are at high risk. PMID:11853047

Jarvis, Judith K.; Miller, Gregory D.

2002-01-01

36

Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

"Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

2014-01-01

37

Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Lactose intolerance” is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5–10%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's –SH, –NH, and –OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's –NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, Km and Vmax, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Hassan, Mohamed E.

2014-01-01

38

Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: What should be the best clinical management?  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption (LM) is the incomplete hydrolysis of lactose due to lactase deficiency, which may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other intestinal diseases. Primary adult-type hypolactasia is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from the physiological decline of lactase activity. Different methods have been used to diagnose LM. Lactose breath test represents the most reliable technique. A recent consensus conference has proposed the more physiological dosage of 25 g of lactose and a standardized procedure for breath testing. Recently a new genetic test, based on C/T13910 polymorphism, has been proposed for the diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia, complementing the role of breath testing. LM represents a well-known cause of abdominal symptoms although only some lactose malabsorbers are also intolerants. Diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward. Many non-malabsorber subjects diagnose themselves as being lactose intolerant. Blind lactose challenge studies should be recommended to obtain objective results. Besides several studies indicate that subjects with lactose intolerance can ingest up to 15 g of lactose with no or minor symptoms. Therefore a therapeutic strategy consists of a lactose restricted diet avoiding the nutritional disadvantages of reduced calcium and vitamin intake.Various pharmacological options are also available. Unfortunately there is insufficient evidence that these therapies are effective. Further double-blind studies are needed to demonstrate treatment effectiveness in lactose intolerance. PMID:22966480

Usai-Satta, Paolo; Scarpa, Mariella; Oppia, Francesco; Cabras, Francesco

2012-06-01

39

Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

40

HRQoL questionnaire evaluation in lactose intolerant patients with adverse reactions to foods.  

PubMed

The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy tests to identify the offending foods, including "in vivo" and "in vitro" allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy and may indicate a lactose intolerance, which is a recurrent condition affecting about 50% of adults. The aims of our study were the following: (1) What is the real incidence of the food hypersensitivity and the primary lactose intolerance in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, initially referred to allergy or food intolerance? (2) Does lactose intolerance affect the quality of life and compliance to the therapy program? We investigated 262 consecutive patients, 72 men and 190 women. An accurate and detailed history and clinical examination were completed to investigate the offending foods. The evaluation in each patient included: allergy tests, lactose H2 breath test (LHBT) and the HRQoL questionnaire. Five years after the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, a questionnaire on the persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion and the diet compliance was distributed. Our results demonstrate an high prevalence of lactose intolerance, more frequent in women; in these patients, bloating and diarrhea are the most reported symptoms. We observe only a significant positive correlation between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and LHBT+ patients, but not an augmented prevalence of food allergy and a negative impact on the HRQoL questionnaire of lactose intolerance. PMID:21614464

Erminia, Ridolo; Ilaria, Baiardini; Tiziana, Meschi; Silvia, Peveri; Antonio, Nouvenne; Pierpaolo, Dall'Aglio; Loris, Borghi

2013-09-01

41

What is lactose tolerance / intolerance?, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

2008-10-06

42

Lactose intolerance and African Americans: implications for the consumption of appropriate intake levels of key nutrients.  

PubMed

Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs. PMID:19899495

2009-10-01

43

Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans.  

PubMed

The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28 Chinese subjects had undergone 1 glucose (placebo) and 2 lactose challenges, consistent lactose tolerant (n = 7) and intolerant (n = 5) subjects with no complaints after glucose administration were classified on the basis of the 6-h symptom scores. Before the challenges, fecal samples were collected for in vitro incubation with lactose. The incubation was carried out in a static system under anaerobic conditions for 5 h during which samples were taken for measurement of short-chain fatty acids, lactate, lactose, glucose, and galactose. Fecal bacterial composition was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The tolerant and intolerant groups did not differ in the rate or degree of hydrolysis of lactose or production of glucose and galactose. The intolerant group produced d- and l-lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate significantly faster than the tolerant group. In the intolerant group, the amounts of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and l-lactate produced were higher than those in the tolerant group. Fecal bacterial composition did not differ between the 2 groups. The results indicate that the degree and rate of lactose hydrolysis in the colon do not play a role in lactose intolerance. However, after lactose is hydrolyzed, a faster and higher production of microbial intermediate and end metabolites may be related to the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:16365059

He, Tao; Priebe, Marion G; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Stellaard, Frans; Sun, Xiaohong; Welling, Gjalt W; Vonk, Roel J

2006-01-01

44

Hypolactasia: a common enzyme deficiency leading to lactose malabsorption and intolerance.  

PubMed

Adult?type hypolactasia (lactase nonpersistence or lactase deficiency) is the most common enzyme deficiency leading to lactose intolerance and primary lactose malabsorption. Clinical presentation of the condition includes symptoms resulting from bacterial fermentation of undigested lactose in the colon, which gives rise to gas bloat, increased motility, and loose stools. Diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical symptoms, biochemical, functional, histochemical and genetic tests. Treatment includes dietary restrictions, namely, use of low?lactose milk, in which lactose has been prehydrolyzed, or non?lactose milk. PMID:23222197

Lember, Margus

2012-01-01

45

How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... African Americans Asian Americans Hispanic Americans Native Americans Lactose intolerance is uncommon in young children because most infants are born with enough lactase. But for many people, the amount of lactase ...

46

Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6–8 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35–0.61. P < 0.0001), but not with malabsorption. Non-GI symptoms occurred more commonly in patients with intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. PMID:23574302

Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

2013-01-01

47

Abdominal Pain Associated with Lactose Ingestion in Children with Lactose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causal relationship between lactose ingestion and gastrointestinal symptoms is questionable. The aim of this study was to assess symptoms associated with milk ingestion in children with lactose maldigestion. Thirty children (11 males) age 3 to 17 years with lactose maldigestion were studied. In a double-blind, crossover design, subjects ingested 240 m L daily of either lactose-hydrolyzed or lactose-containing milk

David A. Gremse; A. Scott Greer; Jonathan Vacik; Jack A. Dipalma

2003-01-01

48

Effect of Raw Milk on Lactose Intolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This pilot study aimed to determine whether raw milk reduces lactose malabsorption and/or lactose intolerance symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. METHODS We performed a crossover trial involving 16 adults with self-reported lactose intolerance and lactose malabsorption confirmed by hydrogen (H2) breath testing. Participants underwent 3, 8-day milk phases (raw vs 2 controls: pasteurized, soy) in randomized order separated by 1-week washout periods. On days 1 and 8 of each phase, milk consumption was 473 mL (16 oz); on days 2 to 7, milk dosage increased daily by 118 mL (4 oz), beginning with 118 mL (4 oz) on day 2 and reaching 710 mL (24 oz) on day 7. Outcomes were area under the breath H2 curve (AUC ?H2) and self-reported symptom severity (visual analog scales: flatulence/gas, audible bowel sounds, abdominal cramping, diarrhea). RESULTS AUC ?H2 (mean ± standard error of the mean) was higher for raw vs pasteurized on day 1 (113 ± 21 vs 71 ± 12 ppm·min·10?2, respectively, P = .01) but not day 8 (72 ± 14 vs 74 ± 15 ppm·min·10?2, respectively, P = .9). Symptom severities were not different for raw vs pasteurized on day 7 with the highest dosage (P >.7). AUC ?H2 and symptom severities were higher for both dairy milks compared with soy milk. CONCLUSIONS Raw milk failed to reduce lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance symptoms compared with pasteurized milk among adults positive for lactose malabsorption. These results do not support widespread anecdotal claims that raw milk reduces the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24615309

Mummah, Sarah; Oelrich, Beibei; Hope, Jessica; Vu, Quyen; Gardner, Christopher D.

2014-01-01

49

What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... digestion and nutrient absorption take place—produces an enzyme called lactase. Lactase breaks down lactose into two ... the small intestine produces little or no lactase enzyme from birth. Genes inherited from parents cause this ...

50

Amino acid uptake from a probiotic milk in lactose intolerant subjects.  

PubMed

This trial was designed to assess the effect of live probiotic consumption on leucine assimilation from fresh and pasteurised yoghurt in volunteers with different lactose digestibility. Thirty-three volunteers (mean age 32, s.d. 7 years) participated in this parallel single-blind study (16 of them with moderate lactose intolerance). Breath samples were taken before and at 15 min intervals over 3-h after the ingestion of fresh and pasteurised yoghurt extrinsically labelled with (1-(13)C)leucine. The 13C enrichment in breath was measured by isotopic rate mass spectrometry and mathematically converted to a percentage of assimilated leucine (100-%13C-dose in breath) and the assimilation kinetic constant (min(-1)). The 13C-leucine assimilation was statistically higher after the fresh yoghurt intake than after the pasteurised product intake (P=0.032) while the kinetic constant of assimilation was slower in intolerance status (P=0.014) although a product-related effect (P=0.445) was not found. In conclusion, fresh yoghurt intake resulted in higher short-term leucine assimilation, while lactose intolerance appears to negatively affect the assimilation rate of leucine from dairy products. These findings offer new insight on acute in vivo amino acid assimilation in the presence of probiotics and moderate lactose intolerance. PMID:17922944

Parra, Dolores; Martínez, J Alfredo

2007-10-01

51

Effect of Raw Milk on Lactose Intolerance Symptoms A Randomized Controlled Trial  

E-print Network

Lactose intolerant individuals have diminished levels of lactase, an enzyme needed to digest lactose. After consuming lactose-containing food products (dairy), a lactose intolerant individual will often experience one or more unpleasant gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, flatulence, or abdominal pain. Most commercially available dairy milk is processed by pasteurization. In contrast, “raw milk ” does not undergo such processing. Some individuals who believe they are lactose intolerant have reported experiencing fewer symptoms after drinking raw milk relative to pasteurized milk. The purpose of this controlled study is to determine whether there is objective validity to these anecdotal claims. Methods The primary initial inclusion criterion for this study was self-reported lactose intolerance with symptoms of medium severity. Participants included in this study were positive for lactose maldigestion by hydrogen breath test (HBT), which was defined as ?25 ppm increase in H2 from baseline over a three-hour testing period in response to consuming a standardized dose of 25 g lactose in solution after a ? 12 hour fast. The on-study protocol included three 8-day milk phases (raw milk, pasteurized milk, and soy milk) in random order, and each was separated by a washout phase of 1 week. On days 1 and 8 of each milk phase, participants drank 16 oz of milk (the equivalent of 25 grams of lactose). On these days, an HBT was conducted over 4 hours at 20-minute intervals, and symptom logs were completed over the same 4 hours at 1-hour intervals. Additionally, on days 2-7, symptom logs were completed based on the most severe symptoms of the day. Milk was consumed on days 2-7 at progressively increasing volumes (Figure 1). HBT’s were not conducted on these days. Day (#) 2 3 4 5 6 7 Milk Consumption (oz) 4 8 12 16 20 24 Figure 1 (above). Study design: milk consumption for each milk phase on days 2-7 of the 8-day protocol The study was a randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover trial.

Quyen Vu; Sarah Mummah; Mentor Dr. Christopher Gardner

52

Severe lactose intolerance in a patient with coronary artery disease and ischemic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A 72-year-old man with severe lactose intolerance was admitted for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram revealed occlusion of the distal third of the first diagonal artery and several non-significant lesions. The pre-discharge echocardiogram revealed moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy, rosuvastatin, perindopril and carvedilol, he was repeatedly readmitted in the following days for abdominal pain/bloating, diarrhea and nausea despite avoiding food products containing lactose. To date, there has been no comprehensive study on the relationship between lactose intolerance and coronary disease, nor has its impact on therapeutics been appropriately addressed. Intolerance to lactose-containing prescription medicines is an extremely rare phenomenon and few strategies are available to overcome this condition, as it has received little attention from the scientific community. Commercial forms of the lactase enzyme and probiotics can limit symptom severity, but different routes of administration, different brands of the same medicine or completely different medicines may be necessary. Some measures were proposed to our patient and, soon afterwards, he was completely asymptomatic in both gastrointestinal and cardiovascular terms. PMID:23158961

Craveiro Barra, Sérgio Nuno; Gomes, Pedro; Leitão Marques, António

2012-12-01

53

The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

1) Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk. At some point in prehistory, a genetic mutation occurred and lactase activity persisted in a majority of the adult population of Northern and Central Europe. 2) Persistence of intestinal lactase, the uncommon trait worldwide, is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal-dominant characteristic. Both types of progeny are almost equally common when one parent is a lactose maldigester and the other a lactose digester. 3) The incidence of lactose maldigestion is usually determined in adults by the administration in the fasting state of a 50-g dose of lactose in water, the equivalent of that in 1 L of milk. Measurement is made of either the subsequent rise in blood glucose or the appearance of additional hydrogen in the breath. It is also sometimes identified by measuring lactase activity directly in a biopsy sample from the jejunum. For children the test dose is reduced according to weight. Depending on the severity of the lactase deficiency and other factors, the test dose may result in abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhea. 4) The frequency of lactose maldigestion varies widely among populations but is high in nearly all but those of European origin. In North American adults lactose maldigestion is found in approximately 79% of Native Americans, 75% of blacks, 51% of Hispanics, and 21% of Caucasians. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America prevalence rates range from 15-100% depending on the population studied. 5) Whenever the lactose ingested exceeds the capacity of the intestinal lactase to split it into the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly, it passes undigested to the large intestine. There it is fermented by the colonic flora, with short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen gas as major products. The gas produced can cause abdominal distention and pain and diarrhea may also result from the fermentation products. 6) Among individuals with incomplete lactose digestion, there is considerable variation in awareness of lactose intolerance and in the quantity of lactose that can be ingested without symptoms. A positive standard lactose test is not a reliable predictor of the ability of an individual to consume moderate amounts of milk and milk products without symptoms. In usual situations the quantity of lactose ingested at any one time is much less than in the lactose-tolerance test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3140651

Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E B

1988-10-01

54

Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

2013-01-01

55

Symposium: Calcium-Related Chronic Diseases in Ethnic Minorities: Can Dairy Consumption Reduce Health Disparities? Lactose Intolerance Symptoms Assessed by Meta-Analysis: A Grain of Truth That Leads to Exaggeration1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the lactose intolerance symptoms of lactose maldigesters after consuming lactose (as milk, lactose dissolved in water, milk products, or commercial product) with responses after a placebo under masked conditions. An English language MEDLINE search was conducted using the medical subject heading of ''lactose intolerance'' from 1966 to January 2002. From an initial 1,553 citations,

Dennis A. Savaiano; Carol J. Boushey; George P. McCabe

56

Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ?85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

2013-01-01

57

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose intolerance Lactose is ... not considered a food allergy. back to top Food poisoning Some of the symptoms of food allergy, such ...

58

A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated ?- and ?-galactosidase  

PubMed Central

Aim Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of ?- and ?-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc). This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated ?- plus ?-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1) uncontrolled diet, 2) diet devoid of offending foods, and 3) uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated ?- and ?-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®). Results Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation) significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. PMID:25733920

Di Pierro, Francesco; Bertuccioli, Alexander; Marini, Eleonora; Ivaldi, Leandro

2015-01-01

59

Does lactose intolerance predispose to low bone density? A population-based study of perimenopausal Finnish women.  

PubMed

The relationship of lactase malabsorption to osteoporosis is unclear. We examined the relationship of self-reported lactose intolerance (LI) to bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal Finnish women. A random population sample of 2025 women aged 48-59, who underwent spinal and femoral BMD measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry in Kuopio, Finland during 1989-1991 formed the study population. Out of these women, 162 women reported LI. The mean dairy calcium intake was 558 mg/day in women with LI and 828 mg/day in other women (p < 0.0001). The mean spinal BMDs were 1.097 and 1.129 g/cm2 (-2.8%) (p = 0.016) and the mean femoral BMDs were 0.906 and 0.932 g/cm2 (-2.8%) (p = 0.012) for the LI and other women, respectively. After adjusting for weight, age, years since menopause, and the history of hormone replacement therapy, these differences changed to -2.7% (p = 0.016) for the spinal and -2.4% (p = 0.012) for the femoral BMD, respectively. Dairy calcium intake was an independent determinant of femoral BMD. The addition of calcium intake variables into the multivariate model did not affect the spinal BMD difference, but weakened the femoral BMD difference to -1.9% (p = 0.075). Our results suggest that LI slightly reduces perimenopausal BMD, possibly through reduced calcium intake. PMID:8830983

Honkanen, R; Pulkkinen, P; Järvinen, R; Kröger, H; Lindstedt, K; Tuppurainen, M; Uusitupa, M

1996-07-01

60

Effects of Exogenous Lactase Administration on Hydrogen Breath Excretion and Intestinal Symptoms in Patients Presenting Lactose Malabsorption and Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A), while mean peak H2 levels (74.95?ppm versus 7.85), P < 0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B) were still positive, with the H2 level 20?ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7?ppm versus 66.64), P < 0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C) they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60?ppm). All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability. PMID:24967391

Ibba, Ivan; Gilli, Agnese; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo

2014-01-01

61

Lactose intolerance genetic testing: is it useful as routine screening? Results on 1426 south-central Italy patients.  

PubMed

Adult-type hypolactasia is a widespread condition throughout the world, causing lactose malabsorption. Several studies suggested that the identification of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations, located upstream the gene encoding the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of hypolactasia. We evaluated the frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 variants in a central-south Italian population and the usefulness of lactase deficiency genetic testing in the clinic practice. The genomic DNA of 1426 patients and 1000 healthy controls from central-south Italy was isolated from peripheral whole blood and genotyped for the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and sequencing. The frequencies of genotypes in the 1426 patients analysed were as follows: 1077 CC/GG (75.5%), 287 CT/GA (20.1%), 24 TT/AA (1.7%), 38 CC/GA (2.7%). Only 64 out of 1426 (4.5%) performed also L-BHT test, 29 of which were negative for L-BHT also in presence of different genotypes. Among the 35 individuals with L-BHT positive, 34 were CC/GG and only one CT/GA. Although lactose genetic test is a good predictor of persistence/non-persistence lactase in specific population, its use in the central-south Italy population should be limited given the high prevalence of the CCGG diplotype in normal individuals. PMID:25281930

Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Guarino, Donatella; Annicchiarico, Eleonora Brigida; Lisci, Rosalia; Penitente, Romina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

2015-01-15

62

[Nutrition and bone health. Lactose and bone].  

PubMed

Lactose, a disaccharide in milk or dairy products, is known to promote calcium absorption. The enzyme lactase is needed to digest lactose. Although lactase is secreted normally in childhood, the secretion is decreased with growth, and the activity becomes lower in adulthood. When the activity of lactase is low, lactose passes intact the small intestine and reaches the large intestine, could cause unpleasantness such as diarrhea and stomach ache. This is called lactose intolerance. In this paper, we discuss promotion of calcium absorption by lactose, lactose intolerance, and bone health. PMID:20190373

Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Yamaura, Tomoko

2010-03-01

63

Diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or lactose intolerance in babies who cry a lot in the first few months overlooks feeding problems.  

PubMed

This paper explores two areas in which the translation of research into practice may be improved in the management of cry-fuss behaviours in the first few months of life. Firstly, babies who cry excessively are often prescribed proton pump inhibitors, despite evidence that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is very rarely a cause. The inaccuracy of commonly used explanatory mechanisms, the side-effects of acid-suppressive medications, and the failure to identify treatable problems, including feeding difficulty when the diagnosis of 'reflux' is applied, are discussed. Secondly, crying breastfed babies are still prescribed lactase or lactose-free formula, despite evidence that the problem of functional lactose overload is one of breastfeeding management. The mechanisms and management of functional lactose overload are discussed. These two problems of research translation need to be addressed because failure to identify and manage other causes of cry-fuss problems, including feeding difficulty, may have adverse outcomes for a small but significant minority of families. PMID:23495859

Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

2013-04-01

64

Lactose and lactase--who is lactose intolerant and why?  

PubMed

Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is expressed only in the small intestine and is confined to absorptive enterocytes on the villi with a tightly controlled pattern of expression along the proximal to distal and crypt-villus axes of the intestine. LPH expression is regulated mainly at the level of lactase (LCT) gene transcription that directs 2 phenotypes: a decline in LCT activity (LCT nonpersistence) in mid-childhood in the majority of the world's population, and maintenance of the lactase levels found in infancy (LCT persistence) in people of northern European extraction and scattered populations elsewhere. The molecular mechanisms that regulate these phenotypes are not completely understood. A population genetic association of lactase persistence with 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the distal 5'-flanking region of LCT (-13.9T and -22A) has been confirmed in northern Europeans, but this fails to explain lactase persistence found in some African groups. Any hypothesis for the control of lactase expression must reconcile the presence of high levels of activity in early life in all humans and the characteristic loss of activity found subsequently in many but not all people. PMID:18185074

Montgomery, Robert K; Krasinski, Stephen D; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Grand, Richard J

2007-12-01

65

Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.  

PubMed

Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated. PMID:24695892

Savaiano, Dennis A

2014-05-01

66

Relative efficiency of yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, hydrolyzed-lactose milk, and a commercial lactase tablet in alleviating lactose maldigestio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of commercially available plain yogurt (Y), sweet acidophilus milk(SAM), hydrolyzed-lactose milk(HLM), alactase tablet(LT), and whole milk (WM) was evaluated in 10 lactose-intolerant black subjects. In a 5 X 5 Latin square design, hourly breath hydrogen excretion (BHE) was measured for 5 h after the subjects consumed the above products (18 g lactose in each except HLM, which

Charles I Onwulata; D Ramkishan Rao; Prasad Vankineni

67

INFLUENCE OF CHANGES IN LACTASE ACTIVITY AND SMALL-INTESTINAL MUCOSAL GROWTH ON LACTOSE DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION IN PRETERM INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feeding intolerance (i.e., achieving and maintaining full enteral feedings) is a significant problem in preterm infants. A relation exists between feeding intolerance and incomplete lactose digestion. We sought to identify the factors relating to lactose digestion and absorption, lactase activity, a...

68

Allergies and Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... and Intolerance The way in which celiac disease, gluten intolerance and wheat allergy are defined means a great deal to ... celiac disease may provide an incorrect diagnosis of gluten intolerance or wheat allergy. Understanding the differences between these conditions can ...

69

Maximum permissive dosage of lactose and lactitol for transitory diarrhea, and utilizable capacity for lactose in Japanese female adults.  

PubMed

This study aims to estimate the tolerable lactose intake which can be utilized in the digestion by lactase and in the fermentation by intestinal microbes in Japanese female adults. The first, the maximum permissive dosage of lactose not to induce transitory diarrhea was estimated based on the oral ingestion of lactose at several dose levels in all the subjects, and compared with that of lactitol which is not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes. A second lactose tolerance test involving 10 g and 30 g of lactose was carried out in 10 subjects showing resistance to diarrhea, and serum glucose and insulin levels and the amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath were measured for comparison with those of glucose and lactitol. Subjects were 43 Japanese female adults (average: age 20.5+/-2.1 y, weight 51.3+/-5.1 kg) who had not been diagnosed as having either hypolactasia or being lactose intolerant. Serum glucose and insulin levels were scarcely elevated following the ingestion of both 10 g and 30 g of lactose, while the amount of hydrogen excreted in the breath was greatly increased following the ingestion of 30 g of lactose, but these levels were less following the ingestion of 10 g of lactose. In contrast, the ingestion of 15 g of glucose significantly increased blood glucose and insulin levels, while no hydrogen was detected in the breath. The maximum permissive dosage of lactose not to induce transitory diarrhea was 0.72 g/kg of body weight and that of lactitol was 0.36 g/kg of body weight in Japanese adults. The digestive capacity of lactase is less than 10 g of lactose by single ingestion, while intestinal microflora are able to ferment approximately 20-30 g of lactose. In addition, the ingestion of more than 10 g of lactose might be contributed as prebiotics. PMID:16022189

Oku, Tsuneyuki; Nakamura, Sadako; Ichinose, Makoto

2005-04-01

70

The diagnosis and management of patients with lactose-intolerance.  

PubMed

Approximately 70% of the world's population is lactase deficient. This article reviews the evolutionary history of lactase deficiency, recent recommendations to establish screening, and clinical practice guidelines for increased diagnosis of this important, yet often misunderstood condition of malabsorption. PMID:23778177

Carter, Sherry L; Attel, Susan

2013-07-10

71

Lactose causes heart arrhythmia in the water flea Daphnia pulex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cladoceran Daphnia pulex is well established as a model for ecotoxicology. Here, we show that D. pulex is also useful for investigating the effects of toxins on the heart in situ and the toxic effects in lactose intolerance. The mean heart rate at 10 °C was 195.9±27.0 beats\\/min (n=276, range 89.2–249.2, >80% 170–230 beats\\/min). D. pulex heart responded to

Anthony K. Campbell; Kenneth T. Wann; Stephanie B. Matthews

2004-01-01

72

Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs  

PubMed Central

Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

2014-01-01

73

Streamlined analysis of lactose-free dairy products.  

PubMed

Functional food for lactose-intolerant consumers and its global prevalence has created a large market for commercially available lactose-free food products. The simplest approach for detection and quantitation of lactose in lactose-free dairy products was developed. A one-step sample preparation was employed and the resulting 10% sample solution was directly subjected to the chromatographic system. LODs down to 0.04 mg/L were obtained for dairy products by application volumes up to 250 ?L on a rectangular start zone, which is the lowest LOD reported in matrix so far. The highly matrix-robust, streamlined approach was demonstrated for a broad range of dairy products, even with high fat and protein contents. The mean recovery rate for 11 types of dairy products spiked at the strictest lactose content discussed (0.01%) was 90.5±10.5% (n=11). The mean repeatability for 11 dairy products spiked at the 0.01% level was 1.3±1.0% (n=11). It is the simplest approach with regard to sample preparation at low running costs (0.3 Euro or 0.4 USD/analysis) and fast analysis time (3 min/analysis). It enabled an efficient product screening, and at the same time, the quantitation of lactose in relevant samples. This streamlined analysis is highly attractive to the field of food safety and quality control of lactose-free dairy products, for which a limit value for lactose is expected soon in the EU. This methodological concept can be transferred to other challenging fields. PMID:24360255

Morlock, Gertrud E; Morlock, Lauritz P; Lemo, Carot

2014-01-10

74

Intolerance, Prejudice and Discrimination  

E-print Network

Intolerance, Prejudice and Discrimination A European Report Forum Berlin Andreas Zick, Beate Küpper .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1 Multicultural Europe between Tolerance and Prejudice: General Observations and Project Design 15 1.1 Outsiders in Europe ­ the Targets of Prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Moeller, Ralf

75

Hereditary fructose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

Fructosemia; Fructose intolerance; Fructose aldolase B-deficiency; Fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate aldolase deficiency ... B. This substance is needed to break down fructose. If a person without this substance eats fructose ...

76

Preparation of lactose-free pasteurized milk with a recombinant thermostable ?-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus  

PubMed Central

Background Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Results A thermostable ?-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this ?-glucosidase activity was 100°C and pH 6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. Conclusions The thermostablity of this recombinant ?-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization. PMID:24053641

2013-01-01

77

Amperometric detection of lactose using ?-galactosidase immobilized in layer-by-layer films.  

PubMed

A direct, low-cost method to determine the concentration of lactose is an important goal with possible impact in various types of industry. In this study, a biosensor is reported that exploits the specific interaction between lactose and the enzyme ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) normally employed to process lactose into glucose and galactose for lactose-intolerant people. The biosensor was made with ?-Gal immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films with the polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(vinyl sufonate) (PVS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a layer of Prussian Blue (PB). With an ITO/PB/(PEI/PVS)1(PEI/?-Gal)30 architecture, lactose could be determined with an amperometric method with sensitivity of 0.31 ?A mmol(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.13 mmol L(-1), which is sufficient for detecting lactose in milk and for clinical exams. Detection occurred via a cascade reaction involving glucose oxidase titrated as electrolytic solution in the electrochemical cell, while PB allowed for operation at 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode, thus avoiding effects from interfering species. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy data for the interface between the LbL film and a buffer containing lactose indicated that ?-Gal lost order, which is the first demonstration of structural effects induced by the molecular recognition interaction with lactose. PMID:24991705

Campos, Paula P; Moraes, Marli L; Volpati, Diogo; Miranda, Paulo B; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Ferreira, Marystela

2014-07-23

78

High lactose tolerance in North Europeans: a result of migration, not in situ milk consumption.  

PubMed

The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, which must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose before the sugars can be digested. While 65% or more of the total human population are lactose intolerant, in some human populations lactase activity commonly persists into adulthood. Lactose tolerance is exceptionally widespread in Northern European countries such as Sweden and Finland, with tolerance levels of 74% and 82%, respectively. Theoretically, this may result either from a strong local selection pressure for lactose tolerance, or from immigration of lactose tolerant people to Northern Europe. We provide several lines of archaeological and historical evidence suggesting that the high lactose tolerance in North Europeans cannot be explained by selection from in situ milk consumption. First, fresh cow milk has not belonged to the traditional diet of Swedes or Finns until recent times. Second, not enough milk has been available for adult consumption. Cattle herding has been neither widespread nor productive enough in Northern Europe to have provided constant access to fresh milk. We suggest that the high prevalence of lactose tolerance in Finland in particular may be explained by immigration of people representing so-called Corded Ware Culture, an early culture representing agricultural development in Europe. PMID:22643754

Vuorisalo, Timo; Arjamaa, Olli; Vasemägi, Anti; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Tourunen, Auli; Saloniemi, Irma

2012-01-01

79

Sorbitol intolerance in adults.  

PubMed

Sorbitol is a commonly used sugar substitute in "sugar-free" food products. Although sorbitol intolerance manifested by abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea has been observed in children, it has not been well documented in adults. Forty-two healthy adults (23 whites, 19 nonwhites) participated in this study. After ingestion of 10 g of sorbitol solution, end expiratory breath samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h and analyzed for H2 concentration. Clinical sorbitol intolerance was detected in 43% of the whites and 55% of the nonwhites, the difference not being statistically significant. However, severe clinical sorbitol intolerance was significantly more prevalent in nonwhites (32%) as compared to whites (4%). There was a good correlation between the severity of symptoms and the amount of hydrogen exhaled. Dietetic foods, many of them containing sorbitol, are very popular with diabetics and "weight watchers." Based on our observations, we believe that a large number of adults could be suffering from sorbitol-induced nonspecific abdominal symptoms and diarrhea. These symptoms could lead to an extensive diagnostic work-up and lifelong diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:4036946

Jain, N K; Rosenberg, D B; Ulahannan, M J; Glasser, M J; Pitchumoni, C S

1985-09-01

80

Lactose malabsorption and colonic fermentations alter host metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption is associated with rapid production of high levels of osmotic compounds, such as organic acids and SCFA in the colon, suspected to contribute to the onset of lactose intolerance. Adult rats are lactase deficient and the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the metabolic consequences of acute lactose ingestion, including host-microbiota interactions. Rats received diets of 25% sucrose (S25 control group) or 25% lactose (L25 experimental group). SCFA and lactic acid were quantified in intestinal contents and portal blood. Expression of SCFA transporter genes was quantified in the colonic mucosa. Carbohydrate oxidation (Cox) and lipid oxidation (Lox) were computed by indirect calorimetry. Measurements were performed over a maximum of 13 h. Time, diet and time × diet variables had significant effects on SCFA concentration in the caecum (P<0·001, P=0·004 and P=0·007, respectively) and the portal blood (P<0·001, P=0·04 and P<0·001, respectively). Concomitantly, expression of sodium monocarboxylate significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the L25 group (P=0·003 at t = 6 h and P<0·05 at t = 8 h). During 5 h after the meal, the L25 group's changes in metabolic parameters (Cox, Lox) were significantly lower than those of the S25 group (P=0·02). However, after 5 h, L25 Cox became greater than S25 (P=0·004). Thus, enhanced production and absorption of SCFA support the metabolic changes observed in calorimetry. These results underline the consequences of acute lactose malabsorption and measured compensations occurring in the host's metabolism, presumably through the microbiota fermentations and microbiota-host interactions. PMID:23321004

Alexandre, Virginie; Even, Patrick C; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Blachier, François; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Davila, Anne-Marie

2013-08-01

81

Lactose causes heart arrhythmia in the water flea Daphnia pulex.  

PubMed

The cladoceran Daphnia pulex is well established as a model for ecotoxicology. Here, we show that D. pulex is also useful for investigating the effects of toxins on the heart in situ and the toxic effects in lactose intolerance. The mean heart rate at 10 degrees C was 195.9+/-27.0 beats/min (n=276, range 89.2-249.2, >80% 170-230 beats/min). D. pulex heart responded to caffeine, isoproteronol, adrenaline, propranolol and carbachol in the bathing medium. Lactose (50-200 mM) inhibited the heart rate by 30-100% (K(1/2)=60 mM) and generated severe arrhythmia within 60 min. These effects were fully reversible by 3-4 h. Sucrose (100-200 mM) also inhibited the heart rate, but glucose (100-200 mM) and galactose (100-200 mM) had no effect, suggesting that the inhibition by lactose or sucrose was not simply an osmotic effect. The potent antibiotic ampicillin did not prevent the lactose inhibition, and two diols known to be generated by bacteria under anaerobic conditions were also without effect. The lack of effect of l-ribose (2 mM), a potent inhibitor of beta-galactosidase, supported the hypothesis that lactose and other disaccharides may affect directly ion channels in the heart. The results show that D. pulex is a novel model system for studying effects of agonists and toxins on cell signalling and ion channels in situ. PMID:15465669

Campbell, Anthony K; Wann, Kenneth T; Matthews, Stephanie B

2004-10-01

82

Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10-13 year-old female adolescents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...

83

Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances  

MedlinePLUS

... undigested lactose leads to the formation of various gases, including hydrogen, by bacteria in the colon. The ... occurring bacteria and generates carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases, which can cause bloating, abdominal pain, heartburn, diarrhea ...

84

Hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed Central

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images PMID:9610797

Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

1998-01-01

85

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet the following specifications:...

2010-04-01

86

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet the following specifications:...

2013-04-01

87

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet the following specifications:...

2012-04-01

88

Lactose and lactose derivatives as bioactive ingredients in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose is a unique disaccharide, which occurs exclusively in the milk of mammals. It has wide applications as a food ingredient and in pharmaceutical preparations. Discouragement of milk consumption, because of the existence of lactase deficiency in the majority of the world population, is unjustified, because even in the complete absence of this enzyme, nutritionally significant volumes of milk, corresponding

Gertjan Schaafsma

2008-01-01

89

Oxidation of lactose with bromine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of lactose by bromine in an aqueous buffered solution was conducted as a model experiment to examine the glycosidic linkage cleavage occurring during the oxidation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The resulting oxidation products, after reduction with sodium borodeuteride, were characterized by GLC–MS analyses of the per-O-methyl or per-O-Me3Si derivatives. Most of the products were carboxylic acids, of which lactobionic

Byung Y. Yang; Rex Montgomery

2005-01-01

90

Pharmaceutical design of a new lactose-free coprocessed excipient: application of hydrochlorothiazide as a low solubility drug model.  

PubMed

Most co-processed excipients used in direct-compression tablets contain lactose, which prevents lactose-intolerant patients from taking such tablets. Therefore, a novel lactose-free co-processed excipient for direct compression tablets has been prepared. Microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate dehydrate were used as primary excipients which underwent a wet granulation process and factorial experiment in order to ascertain the best prototype. Finally, the best two prototypes were added to hydrochlorothiazide, which has chosen as the model drug because of its low solubility. An extensive characterization of the new excipient as well as the drug loaded tablets is reported. Our results show adequate parameters (rheological and compression behavior, uniformity of weight, disintegration, friability, crushing force and cohesion index). Moreover, the biopharmaceutical profile was evaluated; the tablets exhibits a Weibull kinetic function and fast drug release. PMID:22607083

Viscasillas Clerch, Anna; Fernandez Campos, Francisco; Del Pozo, Alfonso; Calpena Campmany, Ana Cristina

2013-07-01

91

Influence of lactose and lactate on growth and ?-galactosidase activity of potential probiotic Propionibacterium acidipropionici.  

PubMed

Dairy propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest for their role as starters in cheese technology and as well as their functions as probiotics. Previous studies have demonstrated that Propionibacterium acidipropionici metabolize lactose by a ?-galactosidase that resists the gastrointestinal transit and the manufacture of a Swiss-type cheese, so that could be considered for their inclusion in a probiotic product assigned to intolerant individuals. In the present work we studied the effect of the sequential addition of lactose and lactate as first or second energy sources on the growth and ?-galactosidase activity of P. acidipropionici Q4. The highest ?-galactosidase activity was observed in a medium containing only lactate whereas higher final biomass was obtained in a medium with lactose. When lactate was used by this strain as a second energy source, a marked increase of the intracellular pyruvate level was observed, followed by lactate consumption and increase of specific ?-galactosidase activity whereas lactose consumption became negligible. On the contrary, when lactose was provided as second energy source, lactic acid stopped to be metabolized, a decrease of the intracellular pyruvate concentration was observed and ?-galactosidase activity sharply returned to a value that resembled the observed during the growth on lactose alone. Results suggest that the relative concentration of each substrate in the culture medium and the intracellular pyruvate level were decisive for both the choice of the energetic substrate and the ?-galactosidase activity in propionibacteria. This information should be useful to decide the most appropriate vehicle to deliver propionibacteria to the host in order to obtain the highest ?-galactosidase activity. PMID:22202442

Zárate, Gabriela; Chaia, Adriana Pérez

2012-02-01

92

Bistability of the lac Operon During Growth of Escherichia coli on Lactose and Lactose + Glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lac operon of Escherichia coli can exhibit bistability. Early studies showed that bistability occurs during growth on TMG\\/succinate and lactose + glucose,\\u000a but not during growth on lactose. More recently, studies with lacGFP-transfected cells show bistability during growth on TMG\\/succinate,\\u000a but not during growth on lactose and lactose + glucose. In the literature, these results are invariably attributed to

Atul Narang; Sergei S. Pilyugin

2008-01-01

93

Bistability of the lac operon during growth of Escherichia coli on lactose and lactose + glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lac operon of Escherichia coli exhibits bistability. Early studies showed that bistability occurs during growth on TMG\\/succinate and lactose + glucose, but not during growth on lactose. More recent studies with lacGFP-transfected cells show bistability with TMG\\/succinate, but not with lactose and lactose + glucose. In the literature, these results are attributed to variations of the positive feedback generated

A. Narang S. S. Pilyugin

2007-01-01

94

Molecular Structure of Beta-Lactose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discovered in 1619 by Bartoletti, lactose came from the Latin word Lac which means milk. Found in the milk of most mammals, Lactose is exclusive to the animal kingdom. Lactose is commonly used in pharmaceuticals because of its low toxicity, acceptable taste and its low reactivity. It is also used in cooking as a natural coloring. Lactose has been around for millions of years and has been aiding mammals in populating the earth. Also, it is employed as a nutrient in preparing modified milk and food for infants and convalescents.

2002-08-13

95

[Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].  

PubMed

The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

Leiß, O

2014-11-01

96

Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.  

PubMed

In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry. PMID:24517206

Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

2014-03-01

97

Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.  

PubMed

The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using ?-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 ?m and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity. PMID:25022681

Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

2014-09-01

98

Aspirin Intolerance in Patients with Chronic Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin intolerance in patients with chronic sinusitis is often a cause of early recurrence of symptoms after surgical treatment. This study assesses 84 patients who were tested for acetylsalicylic acid intolerance after presenting with symptoms like chronic rhinosinusitis, sometimes bronchial asthma, coexisting allergies or a history of aspirin sensitivity. Nasal polyposis was found in a majority of cases, often recurrent

Jan Gosepath; Frank Hoffmann; Dirk Schäfer; Ronald G. Amedee; Wolf J. Mann

1999-01-01

99

Hypoxia Causes Glucose Intolerance in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxic respiratory diseases are frequently accompanied by glucose intolerance. We examined whether hypoxia is a cause of glucose intolerance in healthy subjects. In a double-blind within-subject crossover design, hypoxic versus normoxic conditions were induced in 14 healthy men for 30 minutes by decreasing oxygen saturation to 75% (versus 96% in control subjects) under the conditions of a euglycemic clamp. The

Kerstin M. Oltmanns; Hartmut Gehring; Sebastian Rudolf; Bernd Schultes; Stefanie Rook; Ulrich Schweiger; Jan Born; Horst L. Fehm; Achim Peters

2004-01-01

100

Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

Williams, Amanda S.

2013-01-01

101

Lactose Utilization and Hydrolysis in Saccharomyces fragilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sodium azide, 2,4-dinitrophenol and iodoacetate did not inhibit hydrolysis of lactose by cell-free preparations of Sacchuromyces fragilis ,8-galactosidase, but with intact organisms fermentation and hydrolysis were inhibited to a similar extent. This suggests that these inhibitors may interfere with the transport of lactose into the cell. Galactose fermentation was inhibited by sodium azide and dinitrophenol to a much greater

R. DAVIES

1964-01-01

102

Oxidation of lactose with bromine.  

PubMed

Oxidation of lactose by bromine in an aqueous buffered solution was conducted as a model experiment to examine the glycosidic linkage cleavage occurring during the oxidation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The resulting oxidation products, after reduction with sodium borodeuteride, were characterized by GLC-MS analyses of the per-O-methyl or per-O-Me3Si derivatives. Most of the products were carboxylic acids, of which lactobionic acid was major. Minor products, identified after partial fractionation on a BioGel P-2 column, comprised oxalic acid; glyceric acid; threonic and erythronic acids; tartaric acid; lyxonic, arabinonic, and xylonic acids; galactonic and gluconic acids; galactosylerythronic acid; galactosylarabinonic acid; galactosylarabinaric acid; galacturonosylarabinonic acid; and galactosylglucaric acid. No keto acids were identified. Galactose was detected as 1-deuteriogalactitol, the presence of which, together with the C6 aldonic acids, supported a galactosidic bond cleavage. Galactosylarabinonic acid was the major constituent (7.5%) among minors, and others constituted 0.2-3.7% of the principal lactobionic acid. These products together comprised 29% of the lactobionic acid, more than half (17%) of which were accounted for by the galactosidic linkage cleavage, supporting the significant decrease in molecular weight seen earlier in the bromine-oxidized polysaccharides by glycosidic cleavage. PMID:16202397

Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

2005-12-12

103

Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

Luty, Wei

2009-01-01

104

Mechanisms of post-flight orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post-flight orthostatic intolerance is a dramatic physiological consequence of human adaptation to microgravity made inappropriate by a sudden return to 1-G. The immediate mechanism is almost always a failure to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, specifically perfusion of the central nervous system, but vestibular dysfunction may occasionally be the primary cause. Orthostatic intolerance is present in a wide range of clinical disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The intolerance that is produced by spaceflight and 1-G analogs (bed rest, head-down tilt at a moderate angle, water immersion) is different from its clinical counterparts by being only transiently present in subjects who otherwise have normal cardiovascular and regulatory systems. However, the same set of basic pathophysiological elements should be considered in the analysis of any form of orthostatic intolerance.

Blomqvist, C. G.; Buckey, J. C.; Gaffney, F. A.; Lane, L. D.; Levine, B. D.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

1994-01-01

105

Ultrasound Assisted Engineering of Lactose Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To engineer lactose crystals of desired size, shape, surface and particle size distribution (PSD) as a carrier for dry powder\\u000a inhalers (DPI) by ultrasound assisted in-situ seeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Lactose crystals were obtained from solution by ultrasound assisted in-situ seeding, followed by growth in viscous glycerin solution. The crystals were characterized for physical properties and 63–90 ?m\\u000a size fractions of different batches were

Ravindra S. Dhumal; Shailesh V. Biradar; Anant R. Paradkar; Peter York

2008-01-01

106

Lactose: Crystallization, hydrolysis and value-added derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose, the most abundant component of milk of most mammals, has been thoroughly studied for its physico-chemical properties, crystallization behavior and importance as a fermentation medium. Studies of various approaches to lactose modifications to increase its value as a food ingredient or nutraceutical component are more recent and presently predominate the research interest concerning lactose. This review, while summarizing briefly

Michael G. Gänzle; Gottfried Haase; Paul Jelen

2008-01-01

107

Dynamics of glucose-lactose diauxic growth in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mathematical model of glucose-lactose diauxic growth in Escherichia coli including both the postive and negative regulation mechanisms of the lactose operon as well as the inducer exclusion. To validate this model, we first calculated the time evolution of beta-galactosidase for only the lactose nutrient and compared the numerical results with experimental data. Second, we compared the calculated

Zhao Luand; Michael A Lee

2007-01-01

108

Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies  

E-print Network

Review Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies and physiological -- Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and an important osmotic regulator of lacta- tion suffers from lactase deficiency. A reduction in milk lactose content could be beneficial for nutritional

Boyer, Edmond

109

The lactose synthetase particles of lactating bovine mammary gland. Preparation of particles with intact lactose synthetase.  

PubMed

1. The particulate form of lactating bovine mammary lactose synthetase activity is shown to be more highly organized than previously reported. 2. A novel method of shattering frozen mammary tissue with effective cell disruption is described. 3. The apparent subcellular distribution of lactose synthetase was shown to reflect the method of homogenization. 4. After mild homogenization particles associated with a high content of intact lactose synthetase activity sedimented in the lysosome size range between 5x10(4) and 3x10(5)g-min. 5. Lactose synthetase was dissociated and solubilized by VirTis homogenization and ultrasonic treatment. The activities and behaviour of UDP-galactose hydrolase, succinate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase and phosphodiesterase I were compared. 6. Inhibition of UDP-galactose hydrolase by UTP and alpha-lactalbumin was observed. PMID:4300506

Coffey, R G; Reithel, F J

1968-09-01

110

Effects of lactose and mode of sterilization of a lactose diet on mineral metabolism in germ-free  

E-print Network

Effects of lactose and mode of sterilization of a lactose diet on mineral metabolism in germ Recherches de Nutrition, INRA 78350 Jouy en Josas, France. Summary. Mineral balances of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Zn). Lactose, when added to the diet, caused very variable modifications of the mineral metabo- lism, depending

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Lactose Permease H+-Lactose Symporter: Mechanical Switch or Brownian Ratchet?  

PubMed Central

Lactose permease structure is deemed consistent with a mechanical switch device for H+-coupled symport. Because the crystallography-assigned docking position of thiodigalactoside (TDG) does not make close contact with several amino acids essential for symport; the switch model requires allosteric interactions between the proton and sugar binding sites. The docking program, Autodock 3 reveals other lactose-docking sites. An alternative cotransport mechanism is proposed where His-322 imidazolium, positioned in the central pore equidistant (5–7 Å) between six charged amino acids, Arg-302 and Lys-319 opposing Glu-269, Glu-325, Asp-237, and Asp-240, transfers a proton transiently to an H-bonded lactose hydroxyl group. Protonated lactose and its dissociation product H3O+ are repelled by reprotonated His-322 and drift in the electrostatic field toward the cytosol. This Brownian ratchet model, unlike the conventional carrier model, accounts for diminished symport by H322N mutant; how H322 mutants become uniporters; why exchanging Lys-319 with Asp-240 paradoxically inactivates symport; how some multiple mutants become revertant transporters; the raised export rate and affinity toward lactose of uncoupled mutants; the altered specificity toward lactose, melibiose, and galactose of some mutants, and the proton dissociation rate of H322 being 100-fold faster than the symport turnover rate. PMID:17325012

Naftalin, Richard J.; Green, Nicholas; Cunningham, Philip

2007-01-01

112

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation  

PubMed Central

Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity. PMID:21326922

Guimarães, Pedro MR; Oliveira, Carla

2010-01-01

113

Yeasts that utilize lactose in sweet whey  

SciTech Connect

Since processing costs are usually higher for whey than for other available food or feed nutrients, only about one-third of whey produced in the US is used by food and feed industries. As a result whey disposal costs are a problem. Further; when whey is disposed of through municipal sewerage systems, the lactose present is changed by bacteria to lactic acid which tends to act as a preservative and retards further oxidation of whey constituents. This article describes a method of utilizing lactose-fermenting yeasts to produce large quantities of yeast cells, single-cell protein. Kluveromyces fragilis was found to be the most effective yeast species and the yeast cells produced could be used as a natural food or feed additive. Results of this study determined that certain methods and yeast strains could reduce whey-related pollution and thus help reduce costs of whey disposal.

Gholson, J.H.; Gough, R.H.

1980-01-01

114

Senegal: growing intolerance towards gay men.  

PubMed

The arrest and conviction of nine gay men in Senegal in January 2009 is part of a disturbing pattern. A largely Muslim country, Senegal has become increasing intolerant of homosexuality in recent years, despite having a reputation for liberalism and openness. PMID:19610208

2009-05-01

115

Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter  

SciTech Connect

Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (United States))

1991-04-01

116

Lactose enhances cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.  

PubMed

Acremonium cellulolyticus is a fungus that produces cellulase and has been exploited by enzyme industry. To promote cellulase production by A. cellulolyticus strain C-1, we evaluated the effects of the saccharides: Solka Floc (cellulose), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), pullulan, lactose, trehalose, sophorose, cellobiose, galactose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, and mixtures as carbon sources for cellulase production. Solka Floc with SSPS enhanced cellulase production. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase synthesis in this fungus, and the synergistic effects between lactose and Solka Floc was observed. Various enzyme activities and the protein composition of crude enzyme produced by cultures with or without addition of lactose were analyzed. The results showed that lactose addition greatly improves the production of various proteins with cellulase activity by A. cellulolyticus. To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of cellulases by lactose in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:18804052

Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

2008-08-01

117

Production of a lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixture by using selective enzymatic oxidation of lactose into lactobionic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a novel and efficient way of producing lactose-derived galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that do not contain remaining lactose and monosaccharides. The initial sugar mixture was obtained by enzymatic transformation at 70°C of a lactose solution of 270 g\\/liter using recombinant ?-glycosidase from the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. At the optimum reaction time for kinetically controlled transgalactosylation, it contained 46% monosaccharides, 13%

Barbara Splechtna; Inge Petzelbauer; Ursula Baminger; Dietmar Haltrich; Klaus D Kulbe; Bernd Nidetzky

2001-01-01

118

Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

2000-01-01

119

Fanconi syndrome with lysinuric protein intolerance  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 9-year-old child with lysinuric protein intolerance and Fanconi syndrome. She was referred to our hospital with a persistent metabolic acidosis and polyuria. Renal investigations revealed all laboratory signs of Fanconi syndrome, with glucosuria, generalized aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and severe hypercalciuria. The diagnosis of Fanconi syndrome was confirmed by a renal biopsy that showed extensive lesions of proximal tubular epithelial cells with vacuolation of these cells and a sloughing of the brush border.

Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio

2014-01-01

120

Management of the Patient with Statin Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current guidelines recommend statins as first-line therapy for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and preventing\\u000a cardiovascular events. Patients taking statins frequently experience adverse effects during therapy. The first step is to\\u000a determine whether the adverse effects are indeed related to statin therapy by statin dechallenge and rechallenge. Strategies\\u000a for managing statin intolerance include changing statins, intermittent dosing, intensification of lifestyle

Byron F. Vandenberg; Jennifer Robinson

2010-01-01

121

Statin intolerance: now a solved problem.  

PubMed

Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients. PMID:22120862

Sikka, P; Kapoor, S; Bindra, V K; Sharma, M; Vishwakarma, P; Saxena, K K

2011-01-01

122

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

123

The Effect of Lactose Derivatives on Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine strains of lactic acid bacteria were studied for growth and fermentation end products on lactulose, lactitol, and lactobionic acid. In addition, human fecal and biopsy isolates were screened for new potential by probiotic strains utilizing lactose derivatives, and one new isolate of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was enriched. The utilization of lactose derivatives and the effect on the fermentation end products

P. Kontula; M.-L. Suihko; A. Von Wright; T. Mattila-Sandholm

1999-01-01

124

Systems analysis of lactose metabolism in Trichoderma reesei identifies a lactose permease that is essential for cellulase induction.  

PubMed

Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

2013-01-01

125

CALCIUM AND ZINC ABSORPTION FROM LACTOSE-CONTAINING AND LACTOSE-FREE INFANT FORMULAS 1-4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Calcium absorption is enhanced by the presence of lactose, but the quantitative significance of this effect in infant formulas is uncertain. It is also not known whether lactose affects zinc absorption. Objective: We measured the absorption of calcium and zinc from infant formulas by ...

126

Concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads immobilized beta galactosidase as a therapeutic agent for lactose intolerant patients.  

PubMed

A novel therapeutic agent in the form of beta galactosidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads has been developed. Immobilized beta galactosidase exhibited significantly very high stability against conditions of digestive system such as pH, salivary amylase, pepsin and trypsin. Soluble and immobilized beta galactosidase exhibited same pH-optima. However, the immobilized enzyme retained greater fraction of catalytic activity at higher and lower pH to pH-optima as compared to soluble enzyme. Immobilized enzyme preparation was quite stable under conditions present in mouth, stomach and intestine. Immobilized beta galactosidase retained 65% activity even after its sixth repeated use. PMID:18439774

Haider, Toshiba; Husain, Qayyum

2008-07-01

127

A current approach to statin intolerance.  

PubMed

Statins are the first-line pharmacotherapy for cholesterol reduction. Use of these drugs in large randomized clinical trials has consistently shown significant reductions in major vascular events, including death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary revascularization. The updated guidelines for the treatment of high blood cholesterol from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), will lead to an increase in the number of patients taking statins. Hence, the number of cases of statin intolerance may subsequently increase, emphasizing the need to understand and treat this important problem. PMID:24727470

Tompkins, R; Schwartzbard, A; Gianos, E; Fisher, E; Weintraub, H

2014-07-01

128

[Isolation and characterization of lactose-fermenting yeasts Candida kefyr].  

PubMed

The search for lactose-fermenting yeast strains has been conducted among 162 strains isolated from various plants and 28 yeast strains isolated from cheese. Four yeast strains have been shown to ferment lactose. They have been identified as Candida kefyr. Specific beta-galactosidase activity of the studied strains grown on lactose-containing medium was 1501-2113 U/g cell. The ethanol production by strains C. kefyr C24 and C30 was significantly inhibited by the increase in substrate concentration (100 g/l). PMID:24437197

Ianieva, O D; Voronina, H O; Pidhors'ky?, V S

2013-01-01

129

Chemical Intolerance in Primary Care Settings: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the Dartmouth–Northern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P <.001). Controlling for demographics, patients with chemical intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with non–chemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication intolerances in chemical intolerance, primary care clinicians could use the QEESI to identify patients for appropriate triage to comprehensive nonpharmacologic care. PMID:22778124

Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.

2012-01-01

130

[Histamine intolerance--possible dermatologic sequences].  

PubMed

Although histamine intolerance (HIT) is not very frequently encountered, it can have serious consequences. Food intolerance is a non allergic hypersensitivity to food that does not include the immune system even though the symptoms are similar to those of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. HIT apparently develops as a result of an impaired diamine oxidase (DAO) activity due to gastrointestinal disease or through DAO inhibition, as well as through a genetic predisposition which was proven in a number of patients. The intake of histamine-rich foods as well as alcohol or drugs which cause either the release of histamine or the blocking of DAO can lead to various disorders in many organs (gastrointestinal system, skin, lungs, cardiovascular system and brain), depending on the expression of histamine receptors. Dermatologic sequels can be rashes, itch, urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, eczema and even acne, rosacea, psoriasis, and other. Recognizing the symptoms due to HIT is especially important in treating such patients. The significance of HIT in patients with atopic dermatitis in whom the benefit of a low histamine diet has been proven is becoming increasingly understood recently. Because of the possibility of symptoms affecting numerous organs, a detailed history of symptoms following the intake of histamine-rich foods or drugs that interfere with histamine metabolism is essential for making the diagnosis of HIT. Considering that such symptoms can be the result of multiple factors, the existence of HIT is usually underestimated, but considerable expectations are being made from future studies. PMID:23814966

Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Seserko, Ana; Duvanci?, Tomislav; Situm, Mirna; Mihi?, Josip

2012-12-01

131

Intolerance and tolerance in the Jewish tradition and contemporary Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the author relates Jewish cultural resources to the structuring of intolerance and tolerance in the Jewish tradition. The role of collectivist and primordial orientations are highlighted not only in the definition of intolerance but in the construction of patterns of tolerance as well. Because of the decisive role of these orientations, the distinction between public and private

Shlomo Fischer

2003-01-01

132

Lactose Engineering for Better Performance in Dry Powder Inhalers  

PubMed Central

Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is generally formulated as a powder mixture of coarse carrier particles and micronized drug with aerodynamic diameters of 1-5 ?m. Carrier particles are used to improve drug particle flowability, thus improving dosing accuracy, minimizing the dose variability compared with drug alone and making them easier to handle during manufacturing operations. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in DPIs formulations and nowadays various inhalation grades of lactose with different physico-chemical properties are available on the market. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to review evolution of lactose as a carrier in inhalable formulations, their production and the impact of its physico-chemical properties on drug dispersion. This review offers a perspective on the current reported studies to modify lactose for better performance in DPIs. PMID:24312791

Rahimpour, Yahya; Hamishehkar, Hamed

2012-01-01

133

Nutrition, population growth and disease: a short history of lactose.  

PubMed

Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. PMID:23574334

Brüssow, Harald

2013-08-01

134

The influence of lactose pseudopolymorphic form on salbutamol sulfate-lactose interactions in DPI formulations.  

PubMed

A series of 63- to 90-microm sieve-fractioned lactose pseudopolymorphs were investigated in terms of carrier functionality for dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Stable alpha-anhydrous, alpha-monohydrate, and beta-anhydrous were chosen as model pseudopolymorphs. In addition, the beta-anhydrous was further purified to remove residual alpha-monohydrate content (beta-treated). The carriers were investigated in terms of morphology, particle size, crystallinity, and surface energy using inverse gas chromatography. Furthermore, the lactose samples carrier performance was evaluated by studying the aerosolization efficiency of the model drug, micronized salbutamol sulfate, from drug-carrier blends using a next generation impactor (NGI). In general, the aerosol performance of drug from carrier followed the rank order alpha-monohydrate > beta-anhydrous > beta-treated > alpha-anhydrous. Significant difference in carrier size was observed, specifically with relation to the amount of fines (where a rank order of beta-treated > beta-anhydrous > alpha-monohydrate > alpha-anhydrous. No direct relationship between fine content and particle morphology was observed. In comparison, an inverse relationship between surface energy and aerosolization efficiency was found, where a plot of fine particle fraction (aerodynamic diameter < 4.46 microm) against total surface energy resulted in R(2) = .977. Such observations are most likely due to increased particle carrier adhesion and reduced drug liberation during the aerosolization process, indicating surface chemistry (in this case due to the existence of different pseudopolymorphs) to play a dominating role in DPI systems. PMID:18800259

Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Thielmann, Frank; Acharya, Manaswini

2008-09-01

135

Prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and behavioural symptoms occurring before (anticipatory/associative) and after methotrexate (MTX) administration, termed MTX intolerance, in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS), previously validated in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients, was used to determine MTX intolerance prevalence in 291 RA/PsA patients. The MISS consisted of four domains: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and behavioural symptoms, occurring upon, prior to (anticipatory) and when thinking of MTX (associative). MTX intolerance was defined as ?6 on the MISS with ?1 point on anticipatory and/or associative and/or behavioural items. Results A total of 123 patients (42.3%) experienced at least one gastrointestinal adverse effect. The prevalence of MTX intolerance was 11%. MTX intolerance prevalence was higher in patients on parenteral (20.6%) than on oral MTX (6.2%) (p?intolerance, in order to intervene timely and avoid discontinuation of an effective treatment. PMID:24345416

2013-01-01

136

Exercise Intolerance in Individuals With Postconcussion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Little is known about exercise intolerance or the utility of an exercise evaluation in patients with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Objective: To assess exercise intolerance in male and female patients with PCS. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included a convenience sample of 34 patients with PCS (17 males, 17 females; age = 25.9 ± 10.9 years) and 22 uninjured individuals on whom we gathered historical deidentified laboratory data (control group; 11 males, 11 females; age = 23.3 ± 6.2 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Self-reported symptoms, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs), and the Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured before, during each minute of, and immediately after a graded treadmill exercise test (Balke protocol). Exercise was stopped when participants could no longer maintain the effort or reported the onset of or increase in PCS symptoms. Results: Exercise test duration (8.5 ± 4.4 minutes versus 17.9 ± 3.6 minutes; t51 = 1.8, P < .001), heart rate (142.8 ± 24.1 versus 175.2 ± 17.4; t54 = ?5.5, P < .001), and systolic BP (142.1 ± 18.3 mm Hg versus 155.5 ± 24.5 mm Hg; t53 = 2.3, P = .02) were lower, and diastolic BP (78.4 ± 10.2 mm Hg versus 73.5 ± 11.7 mm Hg; t53 = 2.2, P = .03) was higher at test cessation in the PCS than control group. Cox regression showed the odds of a shorter exercise duration were nearly 8 times greater in the PCS than control group (hazard ratio = 7.93; 95% confidence interval = 3.39, 18.56). In the general linear models that adjusted for differences in test duration, rating of perceived exertion was the only physiologic measure to show an overall difference between groups, with the control group reporting higher ratings than the PCS group (t53 = ?6.0, P < .001). Within the PCS group, systolic BP was the only measure to show a sex effect, with males showing higher pressure readings than females throughout the exercise tests (t31 = 2.8, P = .009). Conclusions: Patients with PCS had a symptom-limited response to exercise, and the treadmill test was a potentially useful tool to monitor the recovery from PCS. PMID:23952041

Kozlowski, Karl F.; Graham, James; Leddy, John J.; Devinney-Boymel, Lee; Willer, Barry S.

2013-01-01

137

Lactose particle engineering: Influence of ultrasound and anti-solvent on crystal habit and particle size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on ultrasound-assisted anti-solvent crystallization of lactose, expanding on previous studies and presenting, for the first time, the results of large scale implementation of sonocrystallization for lactose. The results further clarify the interplay between solution chemistry - namely the role of ?-lactose - and crystallization, representing a step forward in the fine tuning of lactose properties for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications. Batches manufactured at laboratory and pilot scales were extensively characterised, including an approach for the quantification of ?-lactose in ?-lactose based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), which is described here.

Kougoulos, E.; Marziano, I.; Miller, P. R.

2010-11-01

138

Lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide adulteration in milk.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect semicarbazide and lactose semicarbazone in milk was developed as part of a programme to set up methods for detecting the economically motivated adulteration of raw milk with nitrogen-containing compounds. The detection of semicarbazide was hampered by that fact that this compound tended to give broad, poor intensity peaks in the hydrophobic interaction chromatographic method employed. When spiked into milk at levels of 20-200 ppm, semicarbazide either partially or completely reacted with the matrix, which both increased the limit of detection of the method and made the setting of a threshold by using low level spikes almost impossible. Thus using lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide addition to milk was investigated. Lactose semicarbazone was detected in semicarbazide-spiked milk, and its identity was confirmed by fragmentation analysis and comparison with the synthesised compound. The level of lactose semicarbazone correlated with the amount of semicarbazide added to the milk, and the acidic conditions employed in the extraction method appeared to enhance the sensitivity of detection by driving the semicarbazone-forming reaction towards completion. Thus lactose semicarbazone can be used as a marker for the addition of semicarbazide to milk; however, both compounds should be monitored during surveys looking for the semicarbazide adulteration of milk. PMID:23683401

Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

2013-06-21

139

[Hyponatremia : The water-intolerant patient].  

PubMed

Hyponatremia due to intolerance to water is a frequent clinical condition and associated with increased mortality. Besides the well known neurological symptoms, gait disturbances, falls, fractures and osteoporosis have also been described recently in patients with chronic hyponatremia. Acute hyponatremia is a more dramatic situation and needs rapid action when severe neurological symptoms are present. Hypertonic saline is recommended to treat this condition until relief of severe symptoms. The causes of hyponatremia have to be carefully examined. Especially diuretics, antidepressants and endocrine causes, e.g. hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism and hypoaldosteronism should be excluded by examination of the patient history, clinical examination and by laboratory tests. Patients should be classified as being euvolemic, hypovolemic or hypervolemic. Whereas acute hyponatremia with severe symptom should be treated with hypertonic saline, euvolemic hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) with mild and moderate symptoms can now be treated with tolvaptan, a selective V(2)-vasopressin antagonist. Oral tolvaptan has been shown to be an effective and potent aquaretic to treat hyponatremia caused by SIADH as evidenced by a simultaneous increase in serum sodium and a decrease in urine osmolality. The condition of patients with mild or moderate hyponatremia is also improved. Side effects associated with tolvaptan include increased thirst, dry mouth, polyuria and hypernatremia. Rapid increases in serum sodium should be avoided by close monitoring in a hospital setting. PMID:22911166

Hensen, J

2012-09-01

140

Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

2000-01-01

141

Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the ?/( ?+ ?) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is ?-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the ?/ ? mixed phase with smaller amounts of ?-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the ?/ ? mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as ?-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 ?=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, ?-lactose monohydrate and ?-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

2006-10-01

142

The intracellular galactoglycome in Trichoderma reesei during growth on lactose.  

PubMed

Lactose (1,4-0-?-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose) is used as a soluble carbon source for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases for-among other purposes-use in biofuel and biorefinery industries. The mechanism how lactose induces cellulase formation in T. reesei is enigmatic, however. Previous results from our laboratory raised the hypothesis that intermediates from the two galactose catabolic pathway may give rise to the accumulation of intracellular oligogalactosides that could act as inducer. Here we have therefore used high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry to study the intracellular galactoglycome of T. reesei during growth on lactose, in T. reesei mutants impaired in galactose catabolism, and in strains with different cellulase productivities. Lactose, allo-lactose, and lactulose were detected in the highest amounts in all strains, and two trisaccharides (Gal-?-1,6-Gal-?-1,4-Glc/Fru and Gal-?-1,4-Gal-?-1,4-Glc/Fru) also accumulated to significant levels. Glucose and galactose, as well as four further oligosaccharides (Gal-?-1,3/1,4/1,6-Gal; Gal-?-1,2-Glc) were only detected in minor amounts. In addition, one unknown disaccharide (Hex-?-1,1-Hex) and four trisaccharides were also detected. The accumulation of the unknown hexose disaccharide was shown to correlate with cellulase formation in the improved mutant strains as well as the galactose pathway mutants, and Gal-?-1,4-Gal-?-1,4-Glc/Fru and two other unknown hexose trisaccharides correlated with cellulase production only in the pathway mutants, suggesting that these compounds could be involved in cellulase induction by lactose. The nature of these oligosaccharides, however, suggests their formation by transglycosylation rather than by glycosyltransferases. Based on our results, the obligate nature of both galactose catabolic pathways for this induction must have another biochemical basis than providing substrates for inducer formation. PMID:23299458

Karaffa, Levente; Coulier, Leon; Fekete, Erzsébet; Overkamp, Karin M; Druzhinina, Irina S; Mikus, Marianna; Seiboth, Bernhard; Novák, Levente; Punt, Peter J; Kubicek, Christian P

2013-06-01

143

Occurrence of an unusual lactose sulfate in dog milk.  

PubMed

The milk of a beagle dog (Canis familiaris) was extracted and fractionated to yield, inter alia, beta-D-Galp3S-(1-->4)-D-Glc (lactose 3'-sulfate), which does not appear to have previously been isolated from milk or other natural sources. The structure was established by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By contrast with the milk of some closely related Carnivora, the major constituent of the dog milk was lactose, with minor amounts of 2'-fucosyllactose and sialyl oligosaccharides. PMID:10515052

Bubb, W A; Urashima, T; Kohso, K; Nakamura, T; Arai, I; Saito, T

1999-05-31

144

Beta-galactosidase and lactose fermentation in the identification of enterobacteria including salmonellae  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fourteen strains of non-lactose fermenters and 127 lactose fermenters on MacConkey's agar have been compared in the 5% and 1% lactose tests and in ?-galactosidase production, using ortho-nitro-phenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (O.N.P.G.) as a test substance. The superiority of the O.N.P.G. test in the number of positive results and its rapidity is shown. In general, late or non-lactose fermenting strains

S. P. Lapage; M. S. Jayaraman

1964-01-01

145

Enzymatically oxidized lactose and derivatives thereof as potential protein cross-linkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme galactose oxidase [EC 1.1.3.9] was applied to convert lactose, lactylamine and lactobionic acid into their corresponding 6?-aldehyde compounds. The potential protein cross-linking ability of these oxidized lactose and derivatives thereof was investigated using n-butylamine as the model compound. First, oxidized lactose gave double Maillard reaction products that were stable under mild alkaline conditions. Second, reductive amination of lactose

Arjan van Wijk; Arjan Siebum; Rob Schoevaart; Tom Kieboom

2006-01-01

146

Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent  

E-print Network

NOTE Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone.V.P., Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti Introduction Lactose is produced from whey, a waste stream from the manufacture of paneer/ cheese in dairy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Distinct element simulation of impact breakage of lactose agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechanical behavior of particulate solids are restricted by the limited quantitative information about what actually happens inside particulate assemblies. This paper presents computer simulation results of the breakage of lactose agglomerates due to impact on a target plate using distinct element analysis. The agglomerates of interest here are generally weak and easy to

Z. Ning; R. Boerefijn; M. Ghadiri; C. Thornton

1997-01-01

148

Lactose-inducible system for metabolic engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii.  

PubMed

The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

Banerjee, Areen; Leang, Ching; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

2014-04-01

149

Lactose-Inducible System for Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii  

PubMed Central

The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

2014-01-01

150

Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

1998-01-01

151

Production of lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures: comparison of two cellobiose dehydrogenases for the selective oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galacto-oligosaccharides, complex mixtures of various sugars, are produced by transgalactosylation from lactose using ?-galactosidase and are of great interest for food and feed applications because of their prebiotic properties. Most galacto-oligosaccharide preparations currently available in the market contain a significant amount of monosaccharides and lactose. The mixture of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) in this study produced from lactose using recombinant ?-galactosidase from

Thomas Maischberger; Thu-Ha Nguyen; Prakit Sukyai; Roman Kittl; Sergio Riva; Roland Ludwig; Dietmar Haltrich

2008-01-01

152

Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy: an important contributing cause of secondary sugar intolerance in young infants with acute infective enteritis.  

PubMed Central

The effect of cows' milk protein (CMP) on the mucosal disaccharidases was investigated in 23 infants with acute infective enteritis. Jejunal biopsies performed before and after cows' milk provocation were subjected to histological examination and to mucosal disaccharidase enzyme (lactase, sucrase, and maltase) analyses. After milk challenge, changes in mucosal histology were observed in 18 infants, in 17 of them the levels of all 3 mucosal disaccharidases were much reduced. 10 of these infants developed diarrhoea and, in 6, the stools were positive for reducing sugar. It is concluded that CMP has a deleterious effect on the jejunal mucosa of young infants recovering from infective enteritis, so that in the management of young infants with sugar intolerance secondary to infective enteritis, CMP and lactose should be excluded from the diet. PMID:570376

Iyngkaran, N; Davis, K; Robinson, M J; Boey, C G; Sumithran, E; Yadav, M; Lam, S K; Puthucheary, S D

1979-01-01

153

Food Allergy and Intolerance: Diagnoses and Nutritional Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Adverse food reactions (hypersensitivity) can be either immune mediated (food allergy) or nonimmune mediated (intolerance).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nonimmune mediated reactions (intolerance) are classified as enzymatic, pharmacologic, or undefined food intolerance; together\\u000a they account for the majority of food hypersensitivity reactions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Diagnosis of food allergy is based on medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests; the oral food challenge\\u000a is

Kathy Roberts

154

Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation  

PubMed Central

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72. PMID:23319908

Berner, Jon

2013-01-01

155

Towards an ontological theory of substance intolerance and hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

A proper ontological treatment of intolerance--including hypersensitivity--to various substances is critical to patient care and research. However, existing methods and standards for documenting these conditions have flaws that inhibit these goals, especially translational research that bridges the two activities. In response, I outline a realist approach to the ontology of substance intolerance, including hypersensitivity conditions. I defend a view of these conditions as a subtype of disease. Specifically, a substance intolerance is a disease whose pathological process(es) are realized upon exposure to a quantity of substance of a particular type, and this quantity would normally not cause the realization of the pathological process(es). To develop this theory, it was necessary to build pieces of a theory of pathological processes. Overall, however, the framework of the Ontology for General Medical Science (which uses Basic Formal Ontology as its uppermost level) was a more-than-adequate foundation on which to build the theory. PMID:20152933

Hogan, William R

2011-02-01

156

Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation.  

PubMed

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. PMID:23319908

Berner, Jon

2013-01-15

157

Analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity of oligosaccharides derived from lactose.  

PubMed

The increasing interest for prebiotic carbohydrates as functional food ingredients has promoted the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides and new lactose derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the chromatographic analysis, structural characterization, and bioactivity studies of lactose-derived oligosaccharides. The most common chromatographic techniques used for the separation and structural characterization of this type of oligosaccharides, including GC and HPLC in different operational modes, coupled to various detectors are discussed. Insights on oligosaccharide MS fragmentation patterns, using different ionization sources and mass analyzers, as well as data on structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy are also described. Finally, this article deals with the bioactive effects of galacto oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, which support their consumption to provide significant health benefits. PMID:24446419

Moreno, F Javier; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín

2014-06-01

158

Lactose Hydrolysis by ?-Galactosidase Covalently Immobilized to Thermally Stable Biopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose has been hydrolyzed using covalently immobilized ?-galactosidase on thermally stable carrageenan coated with chitosan\\u000a (hydrogel). The hydrogel’s mode of interaction was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning\\u000a calorimetry (DSC), and Schiff’s base formation. The DSC thermogram proved the formation of a strong polyelectrolyte complex\\u000a between carrageenan and chitosan followed by glutaraldehyde as they formed one single peak.

Magdy M. M. Elnashar; Mohamed A. Yassin

2009-01-01

159

Effects of paraffin coatings on the shearing properties of lactose.  

PubMed

An annular shear cell has been employed to measure the shearing properties of lactose powder coated with up to 10(-4) mol g-1 of powder of a series of paraffin hydrocarbons. The angle of internal friction, delta, of the coated powders was independent of their packing density. The shearing properties of the powders depended on the concentration, the viscosity and thickness of the coating material. PMID:6126556

Irono, C I; Pilpel, N

1982-08-01

160

Occurrence of an unusual lactose sulfate in dog milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The milk of a beagle dog (Canis familiaris) was extracted and fractionated to yield, inter alia, ?-d-Galp3S-(1?4)-d-Glc (lactose 3?-sulfate), which does not appear to have previously been isolated from milk or other natural sources. The structure was established by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By contrast with the milk of some closely related Carnivora, the major constituent of the

William A Bubb; Tadasu Urashima; Kuniaki Kohso; Tadashi Nakamura; Ikichi Arai; Tadao Saito

1999-01-01

161

Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

2009-01-01

162

Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, “ambiguity aversion” and “ambiguity intolerance,” are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, “ambiguity aversion” represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, “ambiguity intolerance” describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

2015-01-01

163

Sox9-Haploinsufficiency Causes Glucose Intolerance in Claire L. Dubois.  

E-print Network

) investigate whether reduced Sox9 gene dosage leads to impaired glucose homeostasis in adult mice. Employing during adulthood are necessary for normal glucose homeostasis. During development, endocrine and exocrineSox9-Haploinsufficiency Causes Glucose Intolerance in Mice Claire L. Dubois. , Hung Ping Shih

Sander, Maike

164

Tolerance of Intolerance: Values and Virtues at Stake in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the…

Orlenius, Kennert

2008-01-01

165

Production of lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures: comparison of two cellobiose dehydrogenases for the selective oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid.  

PubMed

Galacto-oligosaccharides, complex mixtures of various sugars, are produced by transgalactosylation from lactose using beta-galactosidase and are of great interest for food and feed applications because of their prebiotic properties. Most galacto-oligosaccharide preparations currently available in the market contain a significant amount of monosaccharides and lactose. The mixture of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) in this study produced from lactose using recombinant beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri contains 48% monosaccharides, 26.5% lactose and 25.5% GalOS. To remove efficiently both monosaccharides and lactose from this GalOS mixture containing significant amounts of prebiotic non-lactose disaccharides, a biocatalytic approach coupled with subsequent chromatographic steps was used. Lactose was first oxidised to lactobionic acid using fungal cellobiose dehydrogenases, and then lactobionic acid and monosaccharides were removed by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Two different cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH), originating from Sclerotium rolfsii and Myriococcum thermophilum, were compared with respect to their applicability for this process. CDH from S. rolfsii showed higher specificity for the substrate lactose, and only few other components of the GalOS mixture were oxidised during prolonged incubation. Since these sugars were only converted once lactose oxidation was almost complete, careful control of the CDH-catalysed reaction will significantly reduce the undesired oxidation, and hence subsequent removal, of any GalOS components. Removal of ions and monosaccharides by the chromatographic steps gave an essentially pure GalOS product, containing less than 0.3% lactose and monosaccharides, in a yield of 60.3%. PMID:18353295

Maischberger, Thomas; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Sukyai, Prakit; Kittl, Roman; Riva, Sergio; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar

2008-08-11

166

Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cetevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding the {beta}-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lactose concentrations, total lactose consumption was observed with a conversion yield of ethanol close to the expected theoretical value. For the continuously operating bioreactor, an ethanol productivity of 11 g L{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} (corresponding to a feed lactose concentration of 50 g L{sup {minus}1} and a dilution rate of 0.55 h{sup {minus}1}) was obtained, which is 7 times larger than the continuous conventional systems. The system stability was confirmed by keeping it in operation for 6 months.

Domingues, L.; Dantas, M.M.; Lima, N.; Teixeira, J.A. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Centro do Engeharia Biologica-IBQF] [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Centro do Engeharia Biologica-IBQF

1999-09-20

167

Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis lactose genes and regulation of their expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important trait of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis , that is used in industrial dairy fermentations, is the conversion of lactose into lactic acid. The enzymatic steps involved in the breakdown of lactose, that is transported into the cell via a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent lactose phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS lac<\\/SUP>), have been well established (Fig. 1). However, except for the molecular

Rooijen van R. J

1993-01-01

168

Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas,

ERIC C. BEYER; SAMUEL H. BARONDES

1982-01-01

169

Lactose Malabsorption Is Associated with Early Signs of Mental Depression in Females (A Preliminary Report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose malabsorption is characterized by adeficiency of mucosal lactase. As a consequence, lactosereaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria toshort-chain fatty acids, CO2, andH2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms ofirritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can beseen in about 50% of lactose malabsorbers. Having madethe observation that females with lactose malabsorption not only showed

M. Ledochowski; B. Sperner-Unterweger; D. Fuchs

1998-01-01

170

Lactose oxidation over palladium catalysts supported on active carbons and on carbon nanofibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-phase lactose oxidation was investigated over supported Pd\\/C and Pd-carbon nanofibre catalysts, which were characterized\\u000a by several methods. A complex relationship between catalyst activity and catalyst acidity was established, i.e. optimum catalyst\\u000a acidity resulted in the highest activity in lactose oxidation. In-situ catalyst potential measurements during lactose oxidation\\u000a gave information about the extent of accumulation of oxygen on the metal

Anton V. Tokarev; Elena V. Murzina; Kari Eränen; Heidi Markus; Arie J. Plomp; Johannes H. Bitter; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2009-01-01

171

Enzymatically oxidized lactose and derivatives thereof as potential protein cross-linkers.  

PubMed

The enzyme galactose oxidase [EC 1.1.3.9] was applied to convert lactose, lactylamine and lactobionic acid into their corresponding 6'-aldehyde compounds. The potential protein cross-linking ability of these oxidized lactose and derivatives thereof was investigated using n-butylamine as the model compound. First, oxidized lactose gave double Maillard reaction products that were stable under mild alkaline conditions. Second, reductive amination of lactose followed by enzymatic oxidation gave cross-links that were stable under both neutral and alkaline conditions. Third, stable cross-links were obtained through enzymatic oxidation and amidation of lactobionic acid. PMID:17056020

van Wijk, Arjan; Siebum, Arjan; Schoevaart, Rob; Kieboom, Tom

2006-12-29

172

Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic states that lead to orthostatic intolerance.

Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.

2000-01-01

173

Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

1991-01-01

174

Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

2014-09-01

175

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium  

E-print Network

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

High stability of immobilized ?-D-galactosidase for lactose hydrolysis and galactooligosaccharides synthesis.  

PubMed

?-D-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan and used in a packed-bed reactor for the continuous hydrolysis of lactose and the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The biocatalyst was tested for its optima pH and temperature, thermal stability in the presence of substrate and products, and operational stability. Immobilization increased the range of operational pH and temperature, and the enzyme thermal stability was sharply increased in the presence of lactose. Almost complete lactose hydrolysis was achieved for both milk whey and lactose solution at 37 °C at flow rates up to 2.6 mL min(-1). Maximal GOS concentration of 26 g L(-1) was obtained at a flow rate of 3.1 mL min(-1), with a productivity of 186 g L(-1) h(-1). Steady-state operation for 15 days showed the reactor stability concerning lactose hydrolysis. PMID:23618294

Klein, Manuela P; Fallavena, Lucas P; Schöffer, Jéssie da N; Ayub, Marco A Z; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ninow, Jorge L; Hertz, Plinho F

2013-06-01

177

Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

1991-01-01

178

Hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension and socioeconomic position in eastern Nepal.  

PubMed

Abstract. The present study was undertaken to evaluate differences between urban and rural Nepali populations in terms of hyperglycemia, socioeconomic position (SEP) and hypertension, through a community based survey in Sunsari District, eastern Nepal. Blood glucose levels were measured in participants (N = 2,006) S30 years old from urban and rural communities and were classified according to WHO criteria (1998) into normoglycemia (NGY), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hyperglycemia (HGY). SEP was assessed by structured health interview along with anthropometric measurements and behavioral variables. Hypertension was classified per Joint National Committee (JNC-VII) criteria. Ten point three percent and 11.9% of subjects in this survey (13.3% urban and 11.0% rural) gave a family history and personal history of diabetes mellitus, respectively. Of urban participants (n = 736) with no history of diabetes 70 (9.5%) had HGY and 143 (19.4%) had glucose intolerance (IFG and IGT). Of rural participants (n = 1,270) 114 (9.0%) had HGY and 176 (13.9%) had glucose intolerance. There was an increasing trend in numbers of cases of hyperglycemia and intolerance with increasing age (chi2 198.2, p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (chi2 35.1, p < 0.001), SEP (chi2 48.5, p < 0.001) and hypertension (chi2 130.6, p < 0.001). Rural participants had a lower odds ratio [0.706; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.455-1.096] of having hyperglycemia than urban participants. Individuals with medium and higher SEP had a lower odds ratio (0.878; CI 0.543-1.868) and higher odds ratio (1.405; CI 0.798-2.474), respectively, compared to individuals with lower SEP of having HGY. Both urban and rural populations are at risk for hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. Individuals having a medium SEP had lower risk of diabetes mellitus than individuals from lower and higher SEP. PMID:21323183

Mehta, K D; Karki, P; Lamsal, M; Paudel, I S; Majhi, S; Das, B K L; Sharma, S; Jha, N; Baral, N

2011-01-01

179

The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.  

PubMed

The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. PMID:25466047

Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

2015-04-15

180

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

2014-10-01

181

Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.  

PubMed

Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed. PMID:23849047

Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel

2014-01-01

182

A comparison of intolerance of uncertainty in analogue obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance of uncertainty has been defined as the unwillingness to tolerate the possibility that negative events may occur in the future, no matter how low the probability [Personality Individual Differences 17 (1994), 791–802]. Previous research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be more specific to worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than to other anxiety disorders [e.g., Dugas, M. J.,

Robert M. Holaway; Richard G. Heimberg; Meredith E. Coles

2006-01-01

183

Studies on Intolerance in American Life. Program in American History and Civilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrative selected for this unit on intolerance illustrates the perennial and universal methods for scapegoating. The general teaching objectives are to lead the students: 1) to feelings of tolerance toward individuals and groups who are different; 2) to investigate intolerance in terms of some of its causes: fear, deprivation, threatened…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs.

184

Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic

David Robertson; John R. Shannon; Italo Biaggioni; Andrew C. Ertl; André Diedrich; Robert Carson; Raffaello Furlan; Giris Jacob; Jens Jordan

2000-01-01

185

Effect of macronutrient intake on the development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dietary intake influences glucose tolerance status, yet the relation between macronutrient intake and the development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy has not been adequately ex- amined. Objective: We examined the relation between macronutrient intake early in pregnancy and the development of glucose intolerance. Design: Data are from 1698 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study. Dietary intake during

Tina M Saldana; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Linda S Adair

186

Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

187

Correlation between lactose absorption and the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT) gene in adult-type hypolactasia.  

PubMed

The C/T-13910 mutation is the major factor responsible for the persistence of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT) gene expression. Mutation G/A-22018 appears to be only in co-segregation with C/T-13910. The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of these two mutations in Brazilian individuals with and without lactose malabsorption diagnosed by the hydrogen breath test (HBT). Ten milk-tolerant and 10 milk-intolerant individuals underwent the HBT after oral ingestion of 50 g lactose (equivalent to 1 L of milk). Analyses for C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations were performed using a PCR-based method. Primers were designed for this study based on the GenBank sequence. The CT/GA, CT/AA, and TT/AA genotypes (lactase persistence) were found in 10 individuals with negative HBT. The CC/GG genotype (lactase non-persistence) was found in 10 individuals, 9 of them with positive HBT results. There was a significant agreement between the presence of mutations in the LCT gene promoter and HBT results (kappa = -0.9, P < 0.001). The CT/AA genotype has not been described previously and seems to be related to lactase persistence. The present study showed a significant agreement between the occurrence of mutations G/A-22018 and C/T-13910 and lactose absorption in Brazilian subjects, suggesting that the molecular test used here could be proposed for the laboratory diagnosis of adult-type primary hypolactasia. PMID:17934640

Bulhões, A C; Goldani, H A S; Oliveira, F S; Matte, U S; Mazzuca, R B; Silveira, T R

2007-11-01

188

Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

1983-06-01

189

Defined bacterial culture development for methane generation from lactose. [Streptococcus lactis; Clostridium formicoaceticum; Methanococcus mazei  

SciTech Connect

The defined microbial cultures for methane generation from lactose were investigated. A mixed culture consisting of homolactic (Streptococcus lactis), homoacetic (Clostridium formicoaceticum), and acetate-utilizing methanogenic (Methanococcus mazei) bacteria was used to convert lactose and whey permeate to methane at mesophilic temperatures (35-37/sup 0/C) and a pH around 7.0. Lactose was first converted to lactic acid by S. lactis, then to acetic acid by C. formicoaceticum, and finally to methane and CO/sub 2/ by M. mazei. About 5.3 mol methane were obtained from each mole of lactose consumed, and the conversion of acetate to methane was the rate-limiting step for this mixed-culture fermentation.

Yang, S.T.; Tang, I.C.; Okos, M.R.

1988-06-20

190

At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.  

PubMed

Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817

Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

2013-04-01

191

Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35yr) and children (5-13yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. PMID:25529422

Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

2015-03-01

192

Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities  

SciTech Connect

A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

1985-04-01

193

Population Dynamics of a Lac(-) Strain of Escherichia Coli during Selection for Lactose Utilization  

PubMed Central

During selection for lactose utilization, Lac(+) revertants of FC40, a Lac(-) strain of Escherichia coli, appear at a high rate. Yet, no Lac(+) revertants appear in the absence of lactose, or in its presence if the cells have another, unfulfilled requirement for growth. This study investigates more fully the population dynamics of FC40 when incubated in the absence of a carbon source or when undergoing selection for lactose utilization. In the absence of a carbon source, the viable cell numbers do not change over 6 days. When incubated in liquid lactose medium, Lac(-) cells do not undergo any measurable increase in numbers or in turbidity for at least 2 days. When FC40 is plated on lactose minimum medium in the presence of scavenger cells, the upper limit to the amount of growth of Lac(-) cells during 5 days is one doubling, and there is no evidence for turnover (i.e., a balance between growth and death). The presence of a minority population that could form microcolonies was not detected. The implications of these results, plus the fact that the appearance of Lac(+) revertants during lactose selection is nearly constant with time, are discussed in reference to several models that have been postulated to account for adaptive mutations. PMID:7828809

Foster, P. L.

1994-01-01

194

Hypersensitivity Reaction After Inhalation of a Lactose-Containing Dry Powder Inhaler  

PubMed Central

Milk protein allergy–induced reactions from lactose-containing dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have not been widely described in the literature. Lactose is a common inactive ingredient in many pharmaceutical products that is used to enhance the stability of active substances in medicinal products, including asthma medications. Contamination of lactose with milk proteins has been identified in reports of inhaled corticosteroid product lot testing. Serious respiratory sequelae may follow after the inhalation of a DPI corticosteroid in a patient with milk protein allergy because DPIs that contain lactose may be contaminated with milk proteins. Lactose-containing DPIs are contraindicated in patients with milk protein allergy. Although manufacturers identify this contraindication in product package inserts, some drug references may not include this information and health care professionals may lack awareness. Clinicians should consider reviewing multiple medication resources for warnings and contraindications of medications to prevent complications. We describe a refractory asthma exacerbation secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction following administration of a lactose-containing DPI corticosteroid and long-acting ?2 agonist combination in a child with a milk protein allergy. PMID:25309152

Motheral, Lesley

2014-01-01

195

A novel combined thermometric and amperometric biosensor for lactose determination based on immobilised cellobiose dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A novel method for lactose determination in milk is proposed. It is based on oxidation of lactose by cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, immobilised in an enzyme reactor. The reactor was prepared by cross-linking CDH onto aminopropyl-silanised controlled pore glass (CPG) beads using glutaraldehyde. The combined biosensor worked in flow injection analysis (FIA) mode and was developed for simultaneous monitoring of the thermometric signal associated with the enzymatic oxidation of lactose using p-benzoquinone as electron acceptor and the electrochemically generated current associated with the oxidation of the hydroquinone formed. A highly reproducible linear response for lactose was obtained between 0.05 mM and 30 mM. For a set of more than 500 samples an R.S.D. of less than 10% was achieved. The assay time was ca. 2 min per sample. The sensor was applied for the determination of lactose in dairy milk samples (milk with a fat content of 1.5% or 3% and also "lactose free" milk). No sample preparation except dilution with buffer was needed. The proposed method is rapid, suitable for repeated use and allows the possibility to compare results from two different detection methods, thus providing a built-in quality assurance. Some differences in the response observed between the methods indicate that the dual approach can be useful in mechanistic studies of redox enzymes. In addition, a dual system opens up interesting possibilities for studies of enzyme properties and mechanisms. PMID:22078845

Yakovleva, Maria; Buzas, Orsolya; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Larsson, Per-Olof; Gorton, Lo; Danielsson, Bengt

2012-01-15

196

Quantifying the release of lactose from polymer matrix tablets with an amperometric biosensor utilizing cellobiose dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The release of lactose (hydrophilic) from polymer tablets made with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) have been studied and compared to the release of ibuprofen, a hydrophobic active substance. Lactose is one of the most used excipients for tablets, but lactose release has not been widely studied. One reason could be a lack of good analytical tools. A novel biosensor with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was used to detect the lactose release, which has a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) layer that increases the response. A sample treatment using polyethylenimine (PEI) was developed to eliminate possible denaturants. The developed methodology provided a good approach to detect and quantify the released lactose. The release was studied with or without the presence of a model amphiphilic substance, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in the release medium. Ibuprofen showed very different release rates in the different media, which was attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the drug, the HMPAA and the SDS in the release medium. The release of hydrophilic lactose, which did not associate to any of the other components, was rapid and showed only minor differences. The new methodology provides a useful tool to further evaluate tablet formulations by a relatively simple set of experiments. PMID:24726632

Knöös, Patrik; Schulz, Christopher; Piculell, Lennart; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo; Wahlgren, Marie

2014-07-01

197

Selection of Galactose-Fermenting Streptococcus thermophilus in Lactose-Limited Chemostat Cultures  

PubMed Central

Stock cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus are essentially galactose negative (Gal?). Although both galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase and uridine-5-diphospho-glucose 4-epimerase are present, suggesting that the genes for the Leloir pathway exist, cells cannot induce high levels of galactokinase. Therefore, galactose is largely excreted when cultures are grown on lactose, and most strains cannot be readily adapted to grow on free galactose. Gal? cultures were grown in a chemostat under lactose limitation in which high concentrations of residual galactose were present. Under this selection pressure, Gal+ organisms eventually took over the culture with all four strains examined. Gal+ cells had induced galactokinase, and three of the four strains grew on free galactose with doubling times of 40 to 50 min. When Gal+ organisms were grown on lactose in batch culture, the galactose moiety was only partially utilized while lactose was still present. As lactose was exhausted, and catabolite repression was lifted, the Leloir pathway enzymes (especially galactokinase) were induced and the residual galactose fermented. Neither phospho-?-galactosidase activity nor the enzymes of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were detected in S. thermophilus. In contrast to Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis, fermentation was homolactic with galactose in batch cultures and with lactose limitation in the chemostat. When mixed Gal+-Gal? cultures were repeatedly transferred in milk, the Gal? cells became the dominant cell type. The Gal? phenotype of stock cultures probably reflects their prolonged maintenance in milk. PMID:16346586

Thomas, Terence D.; Crow, Vaughan L.

1984-01-01

198

High iron level in early pregnancy increased glucose intolerance.  

PubMed

High iron stores in pregnancy are essential in preventing negative outcomes for both infants and mothers; however the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) might also be increased. We intend to study the relationship between increased iron stores in early pregnancy and the risk of glucose intolerance and GDM. This prospective, observational, single-hospital study involved 104 non-anemic pregnant women, divided into 4 groups based on the quartile values for ferritin at the first trimester of pregnancy. All participants were screened for GDM with 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks' gestation. We observed that ferritin levels at early pregnancy were significantly correlated to glucose level after OGTT at 1-h and 2-h (rho=0.21, p<0.05; rho=0.43, p<0.001 respectively). Furthermore, in the higher quartile for ferritin (>38.8?g/L) glycemia at 2-h OGTT was significantly higher than in the others quartiles (p=0.002). In multivariate regression analysis, serum ferritin was a significant determinant of glycemia at 2-h OGTT. Although we did not find a significant association in the incidence of GDM in women with higher serum ferritin levels, probably in reason to the limit power of our study, our data demonstrated that the role of iron excess is tightly involved in the pathogenesis of glucose intolerance. We report for the first time that high ferritin values in early pregnancy are predictors of impaired glucose tolerance in non-anemic women. Individual iron supplementation should be evaluated in order to minimize glucose impairment risk in women with high risk of diabetes. PMID:25441227

Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Osman, Mireille; Al-Hajje, Amal; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

2015-04-01

199

Kinetics of lactose and rhamnose oxidation over supported metal catalysts.  

PubMed

Several mono- and bimetallic Pd, Pt, Rh and Ru supported on alumina and active carbon catalysts were characterized by CO chemisorption, nitrogen adsorption, XPS and XRD and acidity titrations were performed for active carbon supported catalysts. These catalysts were tested in oxidation of two sugars, namely lactose and rhamnose, at 60 °C and at 70 °C under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 8) with molecular oxygen. The results revealed that there is an optimum metal particle size in a range of 3-10 nm giving the highest initial TOFs for both oxidations. Furthermore, the catalytic activities and conversions were related to other catalyst properties, such as the type and amount of promoters and the presence of different phases. In situ catalyst potential measurements revealed that there is an inverse correlation between the increase of catalyst potential as a function of sugar conversion and the catalyst activity after prolonged reaction times. This method is a valuable tool for in situ characterization of catalysts correlating well with their activities. PMID:21475770

Mäki-Arvela, Päivi; Tokarev, Anton V; Murzina, Elena V; Campo, Betiana; Heikkilä, Teemu; Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Wolf, Dorit; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

2011-05-28

200

Role of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose phosphotransferase system of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the regulation of lactose uptake.  

PubMed Central

When Streptococcus mutans GS5 was grown in equimolar (5 mM) amounts of glucose and lactose, a classical diauxic growth curve was obtained. Glucose was taken up during the first growth phase, followed by a 60-min lag, and then lactose was transported. Synthesis of lactose phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzymes was repressed until the complete exhaustion of glucose, indicative of an inducer exclusion mechanism of repression. The enzyme phospho-beta-galactosidase, however, was found in small amounts even in the presence of glucose. Repression was not observed when GS5 was grown in equimolar amounts of fructose and lactose. Although fructose was taken up preferentially, synthesis of the lactose PTS occurred from the onset of growth in these sugars. It is proposed that a component of the glucose PTS may be a regulatory factor in lactose transport. Glucose PTS- mutants did not display diauxic growth in glucoselactose mixtures and, in fact, transported the disaccharide preferentially. PMID:6420344

Liberman, E S; Bleiweis, A S

1984-01-01

201

The Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Dynamic Vapor Sorption to Quantify Low Amorphous Contents of Crystalline Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To explore the use of a combined near infrared spectroscopy and gravimetric sorption apparatus in providing an accurate quantification of amorphous contents of predominantly crystalline lactose.

Sarah E. Hogan; Graham Buckton

2001-01-01

202

Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn: 1.20--1.35). The Mark-Houwink equation was obtained as [eta] = 2.15 x 10-4Mv0.73. Hydrogels produced in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide swelled as much as 21-fold in deionized water. Copolymerization of styrene with lactose-O-(vinylbenzyl)oxime in dimethylsulfoxide-toluene (1:1, v/v) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator are discussed in Chapter 5. The resulting hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers were characterized by viscometry, TGA, DSC, GPC, and solubility tests in solvents of varied polarities. Chapter 6 documents the preparation of polystyrene beads with different length of oligo(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers. Swelling in different solvents, solvent accessibility, and reagent diffusion of these beads with different crosslinking density were studied and the results indicated that the PEG-crosslinked polymers showed slightly better solvent accessibility in polar solvents than the analogous DVB-crosslinked networks.

Zhou, Wenjing

203

Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?  

PubMed Central

Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

Gibson, Peter R.

2012-01-01

204

Quantitation of ?-Lactalbumin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Adjuvant Lactose  

PubMed Central

Lactose is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient, sometimes irreplaceable. Traces of residual proteins left during production of lactose are potential allergen to body. The present paper describes a sensitive and specific LC-MS method for the determination of ?-lactalbumin (?-La) in lactose samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH300 C18 column (2.1 × 150?mm, 1.7??m) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile containing 0.1% TFA (80?:?20, v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of m/z 2364 for ?-La. The calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 10?µg/mL. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 7.6% and the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 104.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.15?µg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05?µg/mL. This method was then successfully applied to investigate 6 different lactose samples. The application can provide technical preparation for the development of specification of lactose. PMID:25548567

Yan, Rui; Qu, Longmei; Luo, Nan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Chen, Lijiang

2014-01-01

205

Drying and denaturation characteristics of whey protein isolate in the presence of lactose and trehalose.  

PubMed

The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65°C and 80°C) for 500s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65°C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80°C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose. PMID:25660851

Haque, M Amdadul; Chen, Jie; Aldred, Peter; Adhikari, Benu

2015-06-15

206

Unusual organization for lactose and galactose gene clusters in Lactobacillus helveticus.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of the Lactobacillus helveticus lactose utilization genes were determined, and these genes were located and oriented relative to one another. The lacLM genes (encoding the beta-galactosidase protein) were in a divergent orientation compared to lacR (regulatory gene) and lacS (lactose transporter). Downstream from lacM was an open reading frame (galE) encoding a UDP-galactose 4 epimerase, and the open reading frame had the same orientation as lacM. The lacR gene was separated from the downstream lacS gene by 2.0 kb of DNA containing several open reading frames that were derived from fragmentation of another permease gene (lacS'). Northern blot analysis revealed that lacL, lacM, and galE made up an operon that was transcribed in the presence of lactose from an upstream lacL promoter. The inducible genes lacL and lacM were regulated at the transcriptional level by the LacR repressor. In the presence of glucose and galactose galE was transcribed from its promoter, suggesting that the corresponding enzyme can be expressed constitutively. Lactose transport was inducible by addition of lactose to the growth medium. PMID:12788721

Fortina, Maria Grazia; Ricci, Giovanni; Mora, Diego; Guglielmetti, Simone; Manachini, Pier Luigi

2003-06-01

207

Mechanisms of microgravity induced orthostatic intolerance: implications for effective countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with reduced circulating blood volume, although cardiac atrophy might also contribute. Space flight and ground based experiments have demonstrated that an inability to provide adequate peripheral vasoconstriction in astronauts that become presyncopal may be associated with several mechanisms including reduced sympathetic nerve activity, arterial smooth muscle atrophy and/or hyporeactivity, hypersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors, etc. In addition, an inability to provide adequate tachycardia in presyncopal subjects may be associated with reduced carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Based on the current knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular mechanisms that are altered during exposure to microgravity, a major focus of future research should be directed to the systematic evaluation of potential countermeasures that specifically target and restore the function of these mechanisms. Based on a preliminary systematic evaluation presented in this review, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, G-suit inflation, artificial gravity, and specific pharmacological interventions, alone or in combination, have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

Convertino, Victor A.

2002-01-01

208

Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ills  

PubMed Central

Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and thus requires promptly and effective treatment. Prokinetic agents are currently considered as the first-line therapy given issues relating to parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric placement. Currently, the agents of choice are erythromycin and metoclopramide, either alone or in combination, which are highly effective with relatively low incidence of cardiac, hemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. Diarrhea, however, can occur in up to 49% of patients who are treated with the dual prokinetic therapy, which is not associated with Clostridium difficile infection and settled soon after the cessation of the drugs. Hence, the use of prokinetic therapy over a long period or for prophylactic purpose must be avoided, and the indication for ongoing use of the drug(s) must be reviewed frequently. Second line therapy, such as total parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric feeding, must be considered once adverse effects relating the prokinetic therapy develop. PMID:25133043

Nguyen, Nam Q

2014-01-01

209

How to prevent intolerant agents from high segregation?  

E-print Network

In the framework of Agent-Based Complex Systems we examine dynamics that lead individuals towards spatial segregation. Such systems are constituted of numerous entities, among which local interactions create global patterns which cannot be easily related to the properties of the constituent entities. In the 70’s, Thomas C. Schelling showed that an important spatial segregation phenomenon may emerge at the global level, if it is based upon local preferences. Moreover, segregation may occur, even if it does not correspond to agent preferences. In real life preferences regarding segregation are influenced by individual contexts as well as social norms; in this paper we will propose a model which describes the dynamic evolution of individuals tolerance. We will introduce heterogeneity in agents ’ preferences and allow them to evolve over time. We will show that it is possible to dynamically get a distribution of tolerance over the agents with a low average and in the same time to deeply limit global aggregation. As the Schelling’s model showed that individual tolerance can nevertheless induce global aggregation, this paper takes the opposite view showing that intolerant agents can avoid segregation in some extent.

Salma Mesmoudi

210

Leukocyte interferon-? and ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients intolerant to pegylated-interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients intolerant to pegylated interferons (peg-IFNs) are lacking. Thus, such patients\\u000a remain at high risk of developing an advanced and decompensated liver disease. Leukocyte IFN-? (Le-IFN-?) seems to possess\\u000a a safer profile than other natural and recombinant ?-interferons, but no information is available for peg-IFN intolerant patients.\\u000a Accordingly, we evaluated the safety and efficacy

Luigi E. Adinolfi; Emanuele Durante-Mangoni; Marta Salzillo; Aldo Marrone; Marie-Francoise Tripodi; Luciano Restivo; Antonietta Merola; Rosa Zampino; Giuseppe Ruggiero

2009-01-01

211

Syncope and orthostatic intolerance increase risk of brain lesions in migraineurs and controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We and others showed that migraineurs are at increased risk of subclinical and clinical ischemic brain lesions. Migraineurs also have a higher prevalence of frequent syncope and orthostatic intolerance, symptoms that are associated with transient reductions in cerebral blood flow. In this study, we assessed whether these autonomic symptoms may contribute to the increased risk of brain lesions in migraine. Methods: Migraineurs (n = 291) and controls (n = 140) from the population-based, cross-sectional CAMERA (Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiologic Risk Analysis) cohort (aged 30–60 years, and free of other neurologic symptoms) underwent 1) brain MRI scan, and 2) structured telephone interview including questions on frequent syncope (?5/lifetime) and orthostatic intolerance. Results: Frequent syncope (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.3–5.5) and orthostatic intolerance (OR = 2.0 [1.1–3.6]) were independent risk factors for high load of deep white matter lesions. Effects were strongest in women and similar in migraineurs and controls. Migraine diagnosis did not mediate or moderate these associations. Individuals with orthostatic intolerance had higher prevalence of high periventricular white matter lesion load (OR = 1.9 [1.1–3.5]). Syncope and orthostatic intolerance were not related to subclinical infarcts or infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Frequent syncope, orthostatic intolerance, and migraine independently increase the risk of white matter lesions, particularly in females. PMID:23616159

Thijs, Roland D.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Launer, Lenore J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; van Dijk, J. Gert

2013-01-01

212

Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ?14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2–3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns. PMID:24392279

Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

2013-01-01

213

Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

2011-01-01

214

An examination of distress intolerance in undergraduate students high in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance. PMID:25299853

MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M

2015-01-01

215

Antifouling properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers.  

PubMed

The antifouling (AF) properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), using four different proteins, zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza and cells of the diatom Navicula incerta, were investigated. The SAM-forming alkylthiols, which contained 1, 2 or 3 lactose units, showed significant variation in AF properties, with no differences in wettability. Non-specific adsorption of albumin and pepsin was low on all surfaces. Adsorption of lysozyme and fibrinogen decreased with increasing number of lactose units in the SAM, in agreement with the generally observed phenomenon that thicker hydrated layers provide higher barriers to protein adsorption. Settlement of spores of U. linza followed an opposite trend, being greater on the bulkier, more hydrated SAMs. These SAMs are more ordered for the larger saccharide units, and it is therefore hypothesized that the degree of order, and differences in crystallinity or stiffness between the surfaces, is an important parameter regulating spore settlement on these surfaces. PMID:25629533

Nugraha, Roni; Finlay, John A; Hill, Sophie; Fyrner, Timmy; Yandi, Wetra; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Ederth, Thomas

2015-01-01

216

Amino acid substitution in the lactose carrier protein with the use of amber suppressors.  

PubMed Central

Five lacY mutants with amber stop codons at known positions were each placed into 12 different suppressor strains. The 60 amino acid substitutions obtained in this manner were tested for growth on lactose-minimal medium plates and for transport of lactose, melibiose, and thiomethylgalactoside. Most of the amino acid substitutions in the regions of the putative loops (between transmembrane alpha helices) resulted in a reasonable growth rate on lactose with moderate-to-good transport activity. In one strain (glycine substituted for Trp-10), abnormal sugar recognition was found. The substitution of proline for Trp-33 (in the region of the first alpha helix) showed no activity, while four additional substitutions (lysine, leucine, cysteine, and glutamic acid) showed low activity. Altered sugar specificity was observed when Trp-33 was replaced by serine, glutamine, tyrosine, alanine, histidine, or phenylalanine. It is concluded that Trp-33 may be involved directly or indirectly in sugar recognition. PMID:1644770

Huang, A M; Lee, J I; King, S C; Wilson, T H

1992-01-01

217

Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases.  

PubMed

Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-?-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

2014-07-01

218

Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases  

PubMed Central

Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-?-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

2014-01-01

219

Inhalable Lactose-Based Dry Powder Formulations of Low Molecular Weight Heparin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Currently low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is administered as subcutaneous injection. This study sought to investigate the feasibility of LMWH as an inhalable dry powder (DPI) formulation and evaluate the interaction of the drug with lactose when used as a carrier. The study also compares the extent of pulmonary absorption of LMWH administered as a dry powder with that administered as an aerosolized aqueous solution. Methods The formulations were prepared by mixing LMWH in an aqueous solution of lactose followed by lyophilization of the resulting solution. The lyophilized preparation was then ground and sieved. Physical characterization of the formulations was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, and determination of aerodynamic diameter. For in vivo studies, formulations were administered to anesthetized rats, and drug absorption was monitored by measuring plasma antifactor Xa activity. Results and Conclusions In the FTIR scan, all characteristic peaks of lactose and LMWH were observed, suggesting that there was no strong interaction between lactose and LMWH. Although the aerodynamic diameter of the formulation (DPI-2) that was sieved through 170- and 230-mesh screens was similar to that of the formulation (DPI-1) sieved through 120- and 170-mesh screens, the particle sizes of the two formulations were significantly different. Dry powder formulations of LMWH were better absorbed compared to an inhalable solution of LMWH. One of the dry powder formulations (DPI-2) produced an almost 1.5-fold increase in the relative bioavailability (41.6%) compared to the liquid formulation of LMWH (32.5%). Overall, the data presented here suggest that lactose does not adversely affect the physical-chemical characteristics of the drug, and that lactose can be used as a carrier for pulmonary delivery of LMWH. PMID:19778265

Bai, Shuhua; Gupta, Vivek

2010-01-01

220

Lactose Induction Increases Production of Recombinant Keratinocyte Growth Factor2 in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 (rhKGF-2) has previously been expressed in Escherichia coli using isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), a non-metabolizable and expensive compound, as the inducer. In order to determine whether IPTG\\u000a could be replaced with the cheap and natural lactose to induce rhKGF-2 expression, we examined the expression of rhKGF-2 in\\u000a flask culture and 30-l fermentation using lactose as the inducer.

Haishan TianLu; Lu Tang; Yi Wang; Xiaojie Wang; Lili Guan; Jian Zhang; Xiaoping Wu; Xiaokun Li

2011-01-01

221

Formation of lactose-mannitol molecular alloys by solid state vitrification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the possibility to form glassy molecular alloys (?-lactose) 1- x(mannitol) x for x<0.5 by co-milling two crystalline powders of pure ?-lactose and pure mannitol ?. The results have been established by differential scanning calorimetry and by powder X-ray diffraction. The concentration dependence of the glass transition temperature is found to obey the Gordon Taylor rule expected for regular solutions. It is also shown that the milling of pure mannitol ? ( x=1) leads to a polymorphic transformation towards the metastable form ? of mannitol.

Willart, J. F.; Descamps, N.; Caron, V.; Capet, F.; Danède, F.; Descamps, M.

2006-04-01

222

A simple access to lactose-derived building blocks required in glycoconjugate synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose was readily transformed into thexyldimethylsilyl (3,4-O-isopropylidene- ?-d-galactopyranosyl)-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranoside (5); this compound served as intermediate for the generation of partially O-protected lactose building blocks required in oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis. Thus, from 5 via per-O-benzoylation, desilylation, trichloroacetimidate formation, glycosylation of the Lemieux spacer, and acid-catalyzed de- O-isopropylidenation methoxycarbonyloctyl (2.6-di-O-benzoyl-?- d-galactopyranosyl)-(1 ? 4)-2.3.6-tri-O-benzoyl-?-d- glucopyranoside (12) was obtained. Regioselective benzoylation of

Luigi Lay; Rainer Windmüller; Stefan Reinhardt; Richard R. Schmidt

1997-01-01

223

Investigation of Electrostatic Behavior of a Lactose Carrier for Dry Powder Inhalers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aims to elucidate the electrostatic behavior of a model lactose carrier used in dry powder inhaler formulations\\u000a by examining the effects of ambient relative humidity (RH), aerosolization air flow rate, repeated inhaler use, gelatin capsule\\u000a and tapping on the specific charge (nC\\/g) of bulk and aerosolized lactose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Static and dynamic electrostatic charge measurements were performed using

Keat Theng Chow; Kewu Zhu; Reginald B. H. Tan; Paul W. S. Heng

2008-01-01

224

Lactose malabsorption in Bangladeshi village children: relation with age, history of recent diarrhea, nutritional status, and breast feeding13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of lactose mahabsorption (LM) among Bangladeshi village chil- dren has been determined using the recently developed breath hydrogen test. Initial hospital-based comparison studies showed general agreement between the breath hydrogen test and a modified lactose tolerance test. Two hundred thirty-four children, stratified by age, nutritional status, and history of recent diarrhea then participated in the field study. LM

Kenneth H. Brown; Lynn Parry; Giashuddin Ahmed

225

Dietary manipulation of postprandial colonic lactose fermentation: II. Addition of exogenous, microbial beta-galactosidases at mealtime13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and efficacy of adding microbial beta-galactosidase enzymes directly to milk at the time of consumption was explored in adult lactose-malabsorbers. The hydrogen breath test, and on one occasion, the rise in blood glucose, were used as indices of the completeness of intraintestinal hydrolysis and absorption of milk lactose. When added to 360 ml of cow milk containing 18

Noel W Solomons; Aura-Marina Guerrero; Benjamin Torun

226

On some mechanistic aspects of the electrochemical oxidation of lactose at platinum and gold electrodes in alkaline medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrocatalytic oxidation of lactose was performed in alkaline medium at both platinum and gold electrodes. Electrolysis carried out on Au electrodes showed that the conversion yield decreases when the initial concentration of lactose increases. This does not affect the selectivity in the production of lactobionic acid which is evaluated to be nearly 100%. The kinetic study on lead modified

H. Druliolle; K. B. Kokoh; F. Hahn; C. Lamy; B. Beden

1997-01-01

227

Utility of Corrected QT Interval in Orthostatic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.8±33.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.5±30.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.3±6.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.3±0.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.7±28.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.5±9.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.8±0.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=??0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=??0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH. PMID:25180969

Kim, Jung Bin; Hong, Soonwoong; Park, Jin-Woo; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Byung-Jo

2014-01-01

228

Utility of corrected QT interval in orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.8±33.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.5±30.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.3±6.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.3±0.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.7±28.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.5±9.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.8±0.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=?-0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=?-0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH. PMID:25180969

Kim, Jung Bin; Hong, Soonwoong; Park, Jin-Woo; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Byung-Jo

2014-01-01

229

Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight.  

PubMed

The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2). PMID:11033215

Serrador, J M; Shoemaker, J K; Brown, T E; Kassam, M S; Bondar, R L; Schlegel, T T

2000-09-01

230

Visual height intolerance and acrophobia: clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the general population lifetime and point prevalence of visual height intolerance and acrophobia, to define their clinical characteristics, and to determine their anxious and depressive comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted within a German population-based cross-sectional telephone survey. A representative sample of 2,012 individuals aged 14 and above was selected. Defined neurological conditions (migraine, Menière's disease, motion sickness), symptom pattern, age of first manifestation, precipitating height stimuli, course of illness, psychosocial impairment, and comorbidity patterns (anxiety conditions, depressive disorders according to DSM-IV-TR) for vHI and acrophobia were assessed. The lifetime prevalence of vHI was 28.5 % (women 32.4 %, men 24.5 %). Initial attacks occurred predominantly (36 %) in the second decade. A rapid generalization to other height stimuli and a chronic course of illness with at least moderate impairment were observed. A total of 22.5 % of individuals with vHI experienced the intensity of panic attacks. The lifetime prevalence of acrophobia was 6.4 % (women 8.6 %, men 4.1 %), and point prevalence was 2.0 % (women 2.8 %; men 1.1 %). VHI and even more acrophobia were associated with high rates of comorbid anxious and depressive conditions. Migraine was both a significant predictor of later acrophobia and a significant consequence of previous acrophobia. VHI affects nearly a third of the general population; in more than 20 % of these persons, vHI occasionally develops into panic attacks and in 6.4 %, it escalates to acrophobia. Symptoms and degree of social impairment form a continuum of mild to seriously distressing conditions in susceptible subjects. PMID:25262317

Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Fitz, Werner; Brandt, Thomas

2014-09-28

231

Diagnostic and Public Health Dilemma of Lactose-Fermenting Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium in Cattle in the Northeastern United States  

PubMed Central

The presence of lactose-fermenting Salmonella strains in clinical case materials presented to microbiology laboratories presents problems in detection and identification. Failure to detect these strains also presents a public health problem. The laboratory methods used in detecting lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from six outbreaks of salmonellosis in veal calves are described. Each outbreak was caused by a multiply-resistant and lactose-fermenting strain of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. The use of Levine eosin-methylene blue agar in combination with screening of suspect colonies for C8 esterase enzyme and inoculation of colonies into sulfide-indole-motility medium for hydrogen sulfide production was particularly effective for their detection. A hypothesis for the creation of lactose-fermenting salmonellae in the environment is presented. It is proposed that the environment and husbandry practices of veal-raising barns provide a unique niche in which lactose-fermenting salmonellae may arise. PMID:10699026

McDonough, Patrick L.; Shin, Sang J.; Lein, Donald H.

2000-01-01

232

The Changes in Dispersion of Salmeterol Xinafoate-Lactose Mixtures During Storage at Different Relative Humidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aims were to investigate in vitro dispersion changes of salmeterol xinafoate (SX)-lactose powders for inhalation during 18 months storage at 33%, 55% and 75% RH by a twin stage impinger and a next generation impactor. Agglomerate strength, surface energy, particle size changes were determined by an aerosizer, an inverse gas chromatograph, and a Mastersizer 2000\\/Spraytec, respectively. The FPF

I Larson; P Young; P Stewart

233

Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

2012-01-01

234

NIR analysis of cellulose and lactose—Application to ecstasy tablet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose and lactose are the most frequently used excipients in illicit ecstasy production. The aim of this project was to use near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the different chemical forms of these two substances, as well as for the differentiation of their origin (producer). It was possible to distinguish between the different chemical forms of both

Ines Baer; Robert Gurny; Pierre Margot

2007-01-01

235

Comparison of properties of tablets and energy profile of compaction of two spray-dried lactoses.  

PubMed

The paper compared two spray-dried lactoses Flowlac 100 and SuperTab 14SD from the standpoint of tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets, the effect of an addition of the lubricant magnesium stearate and silicified microcrystalline cellulose on these properties, and also from the standpoint of the energy profile of compression. The comparison of the values was performed at the compression force of 15 kN. The strength of tablets was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increase in the concentration of magnesium stearate did not decrease tablet strength. Prosolv SMCC 90 increased the strength of tablets and made it equal for both lactoses, but it also increased the sensitivity to the added lubricant. The disintegration time of tablets was shorter in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increased concentration of magnesium stearate prolonged it, and an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 shortened it and made it equal for both lactoses. From the energy standpoint, the maximal energy was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 increased it and again made it equal for both lactoses. The differences in the values of the maximal energy were primarily due to the values of the energy for friction and the energy accumulated by the tablet after compression, and there was no marked difference in the values of the energy of decompression. SuperTab 14SD showed a higher plasticity than Flowlac 100. PMID:23610968

Muzíková, Jitka; Sináglová, Pavla

2013-01-01

236

Enhanced production of pullulan from lactose by adaptation and by mixed culture techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

By multiple transfer technique, an adapted strain of Aureobasidium pullulans yielded a polysaccharide concentration of 10,5 g\\/L. By mixed culturing with Ceratocystis ulmi, the polysaccharide concentration was increased to 15,5 g\\/L in lactose medium.

Anh LeDuy; Jean-Jacques Yarmoff; Abdelmoumen Chagraoui

1983-01-01

237

Lactose-mediated carbon catabolite repression of putrescine production in dairy Lactococcus lactis is strain dependent.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species most widely used as a primary starter in the dairy industry. However, several strains of L. lactis produce the biogenic amine putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. We previously reported the putrescine biosynthesis pathway in L. lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 to be regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose but not lactose (Linares et al., 2013). The present study shows that both these sugars repress putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis subsp. lactis T3/33, a strain isolated from a Spanish artisanal cheese. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both glucose and lactose repressed the transcriptional activity of the aguBDAC catabolic genes of the AGDI route. Finally, a screening performed in putrescine-producing dairy L. lactis strains determined that putrescine biosynthesis was repressed by lactose in all the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains tested, but in only one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Given the obvious importance of the lactose-repression in cheese putrescine accumulation, it is advisable to consider the diversity of L. lactis in this sense and characterize consequently the starter cultures to select the safest strains. PMID:25791004

Del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, Maria; Martín, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

2015-06-01

238

Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate value of three carbohydrate sources incorporated into a dry pelleted milk replacer for piglets weaned were replaced by an association of soluble fish protein concentrate (SFPC 80) and the carbohydrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Enhanced fructose, glucose and lactose transport promoted by a lipophilic 2-(aminomethyl)-phenylboronic acid  

E-print Network

Enhanced fructose, glucose and lactose transport promoted by a lipophilic 2-(aminomethyl recorded fructose flux promoted by a monoboronic acid under near-neutral conditions, and one of the highest fructose/glucose transport selectivities (12.9). The application of a pH gradient across the membrane

Smith, Bradley D.

240

Effects of carboxymethylcellulose and guar gum on ice crystal propagation in a sucrose-lactose solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and guar gum on ice crystal formation have been studied using a sucrose\\/lactose solution simulating the colloid-free phase of an ice cream mix. Freezing profiles, obtained over short time intervals, showed that the addition of guar gum markedly retarded ice crystal propagation in the sugar solution, whereas addition of CMC showed no effect. The influence

S. T. Wang; S. A. Barringer; P. M. T. Hansen

1998-01-01

241

Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel  

PubMed Central

Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term ‘statin intolerance’. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10–15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented.

Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P.; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H.; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Greenfield, Robert S.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D.; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R.; Ray, Kausik K.; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.

2015-01-01

242

Statin intolerance - an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.  

PubMed

Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10-15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25861286

Banach, Maciej; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat V; Greenfield, Robert S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R; Ray, Kausik K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

2015-03-16

243

Genic Intolerance to Functional Variation and the Interpretation of Personal Genomes  

PubMed Central

A central challenge in interpreting personal genomes is determining which mutations most likely influence disease. Although progress has been made in scoring the functional impact of individual mutations, the characteristics of the genes in which those mutations are found remain largely unexplored. For example, genes known to carry few common functional variants in healthy individuals may be judged more likely to cause certain kinds of disease than genes known to carry many such variants. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop a quantitative assessment of how well genes tolerate functional genetic variation on a genome-wide scale. Here we describe an effort that uses sequence data from 6503 whole exome sequences made available by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Specifically, we develop an intolerance scoring system that assesses whether genes have relatively more or less functional genetic variation than expected based on the apparently neutral variation found in the gene. To illustrate the utility of this intolerance score, we show that genes responsible for Mendelian diseases are significantly more intolerant to functional genetic variation than genes that do not cause any known disease, but with striking variation in intolerance among genes causing different classes of genetic disease. We conclude by showing that use of an intolerance ranking system can aid in interpreting personal genomes and identifying pathogenic mutations. PMID:23990802

Petrovski, Slavé; Wang, Quanli; Heinzen, Erin L.; Allen, Andrew S.; Goldstein, David B.

2013-01-01

244

Assessment of the inhibition of ricin toxicity by lactose in milk.  

PubMed

The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 ?g/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 ?Ci of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 ?g/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 ?g/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 ?g/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 ?g/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk. PMID:24290678

Lumor, Stephen E; Deen, Bronwyn D; Ronningen, Ian; Smith, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Neal R; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

2013-12-01

245

Blood pressure and plasma renin activity as predictors of orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of 3 h standing, followed by a period of head-up tilt (HUT) on physiological response (orthostatic tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate), as well as on plasma vasopressin (PVP) and renin activity (PRA) were studied in 13 dehydrated (to 2.4 pct loss of body weight) subjects. Seven subjects showed signs of orthostatic intolerance (INT), manifested by sweating, pallor, nausea and dizziness. Prior to these symptoms, the INT subjects exhibited lower systolic (SP) and pulse (PP) pressures, and an elevated PRA, compared to the tolerant (TOL) subjects. HUT has aggravated increases of RPA in the INT subjects and caused an increase, higher than in TOL subjects, in PVP, while rehydration has greatly attenuated the PVP response to the HUT and decreased the PRA response. It is concluded that dehydration, together with measurements of SP, PP and PRA, may serve as a means of predicting orthostatic intolerance and may provide a physiological model for studying the causes of intolerance.

Harrison, M. H.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1985-01-01

246

Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms. PMID:25166918

Nordin, Steven; Neely, Gregory; Olsson, David; Sandström, Monica

2014-01-01

247

Orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome: genetic and environment pathophysiologies. Neurolab Autonomic Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance is a common problem for inbound space travelers. There is usually tachycardia on standing but blood pressure may be normal, low or, rarely, elevated. This condition is analogous to the orthostatic intolerance that occurs on Earth in individuals with orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, mitral valve prolapse, and light-headedness. Our studies during the Neurolab mission indicated that sympathetic nerve traffic is raised in microgravity and that plasma norepinephrine is higher than baseline supine levels but lower than baseline upright levels. A subgroup of patients with familial orthostatic intolerance differ from inbound space travelers in that they have an alanine-to-to-proline mutation at amino acid position 457 in their norepinephrine transporter gene. This leads to poor clearance of norepinephrine from synapses, with consequent raised heart rate. Clinical features of these syndromes are presented.

Robertson, D.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A. C.; Diedrich, A.; Carson, R.; Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.

2000-01-01

248

Extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.  

PubMed

Penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. We investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain NRRL 1951 with the high producing strain AS-P-78. Both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. In silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that P. chrysogenum features at least five putative ?-galactosidase (bGal)-encoding genes at the annotated loci Pc22g14540, Pc12g11750, Pc16g12750, Pc14g01510 and Pc06g00600. The first two proteins appear to be orthologs of two Aspergillus nidulans family 2 intracellular glycosyl hydrolases expressed on lactose. The latter three P. chrysogenum proteins appear to be distinct paralogs of the extracellular bGal from A. niger, LacA, a family 35 glycosyl hydrolase. The P. chrysogenum genome also specifies two putative lactose transporter genes at the annotated loci Pc16g06850 and Pc13g08630. These are orthologs of paralogs of the gene encoding the high-affinity lactose permease (lacpA) in A. nidulans for which P. chrysogenum appears to lack the ortholog. Transcript analysis of Pc22g14540 showed that it was expressed exclusively on lactose, whereas Pc12g11750 was weakly expressed on all carbon sources tested, including D-glucose. Pc16g12750 was co-expressed with the two putative intracellular bGal genes on lactose and also responded on L-arabinose. The Pc13g08630 transcript was formed exclusively on lactose. The data strongly suggest that P. chrysogenum exhibits a dual assimilation strategy for lactose, simultaneously employing extracellular and intracellular hydrolysis, without any correlation to the penicillin-producing potential of the studied strains. PMID:24690910

Jónás, Ágota; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Sándor, Erzsébet; Jäger, Szilvia; Molnár, Ákos P; Szentirmai, Attila; Karaffa, Levente

2014-07-01

249

Contact lens intolerance: refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy  

PubMed Central

Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.

López-López, María; Pelegrín-Sánchez, José Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; García-Ayuso, Diego

2011-01-01

250

Membrane fractionation processes for removing 90% to 95% of the lactose and sodium from skim milk and for preparing lactose and sodium-reduced skim milk.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale microfiltration (MF), microfiltration-diafiltration (MDF), ultrafiltration (UF), ultrafiltration-diafiltration (UDF), and nanofilration (NF) membrane fractionation processes were designed and evaluated for removing 90% to 95% of the lactose and sodium from skim milk. The study was designed to evaluate several membrane fractionation schemes as a function of: (1) membrane types with and without diafiltration; (2) fractionation process temperatures ranging from 17 to 45 degrees C; (3) sources of commercial drinking water used as diafiltrant; and (4) final mass concentration ratios (MCR) ranging from about 2 to 5. MF and MDF membranes provided highest flux values, but were unsatisfactory because they failed to retain all of the whey proteins. UDF fractionation processes removed more than 90% to 95% of the lactose and sodium from skim milk. NF permeate prepared from UDF cumulative permeate contained sodium and other mineral concentrations that would make them unsuitable for use as a diafiltrant for UDF applications. A method was devised for preparing simulated milk permeate (SMP) formulated with calcium, magnesium, and potassium hydroxides, and phosphoric and citric acids for use as UDF diafiltrant or for preparing lactose and sodium reduced skim milk (L-RSM). MF retentates with MCR values of 4.7 to 5.0 exhibited extremely poor frozen storage stabilities of less than 1 wk at -20 degrees C, whereas MCR 1.77 to 2.95 MDF and UDF retentates and skim milk control exhibited frozen storage stabilities of more than 16 wk. L-RSM exhibited a whiter appearance and a lower viscosity than skim milk, lacked natural milk flavor, and exhibited a metallic off-flavor. PMID:19021794

Morr, C V; Brandon, S C

2008-11-01

251

Insulin improves ?-cell function in glucose-intolerant rat models induced by feeding a high-fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin therapy has been shown to contribute to extended glycemia remission in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the effects of insulin treatment on pancreatic lipid content, and ?-cell apoptosis and proliferation in glucose-intolerant rats to explore the protective role of insulin on ?-cell function. A rat glucose-intolerant model was induced by streptozotocin and a

Hui-qing Li; Bao-ping Wang; Xiu-Ling Deng; Jiao-yue Zhang; Yong-bo Wang; Juan Zheng; Wen-fang Xia; Tian-shu Zeng; Lu-lu Chen

2011-01-01

252

Prevalence and characteristics of lactose non-fermenting Escherichia coli in urinary isolates.  

PubMed

Recently, serotype O75 was found to be prominent among the non-ST131 ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, and they were all lactose non-fermenters. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of lactose non-fermenters in urinary isolates of E. coli. A total of 167 E. coli isolates was collected. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined by VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, France). The lactose non-fermenters underwent PCR-based O typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, phylogenetic grouping. For ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, the resistance mechanisms were investigated. Thirty-three (19.7%) isolates were lactose non-fermenters and the ciprofloxacin resistance rate was significantly higher than in lactose fermenters (66.7% vs. 31.6%, P = 0.0002). According to the serotype, O75 was the most common (42.4%, 14/33) and was followed by O16 (5/33), O2 (4/33), O25b (3/33), O15 (1/33), O6 (1/33), O1 (1/33). All the O75 isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant and belonged to ST1193. By MLST, they were resolved into 11 STs. ST1193 was the most common (14/33) and was followed by ST131 (8/33). Interestingly, 8 isolates of ST131 were divided into three O types [O16 (4 isolates), O25b (3), and non-typeable (1)]. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate was high in isolates of O75-ST1193 and O25b-ST131 but low in O16-ST131 and O2-ST95. All the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates showed identical triple mutations in gyrA and parC but the serotype O25b isolates had an additional mutation in parC (E84V). Only one isolate harbored aac(6')-Ib-cr variant and no qnr gene was detected. Continuous monitoring of the prevalence and clonal composition of the lactose non-fermenters is needed. PMID:25193040

Chang, Jiyoung; Yu, Jinkyung; Lee, Hyeyoung; Ryu, Hyejin; Park, Kanggyun; Park, Yeon-Joon

2014-11-01

253

Spectroscopic and structural studies on lactose species in aqueous solution combining the HATR and Raman spectra with SCRF calculations.  

PubMed

In this work, the ? and ? isomers, the ?-lactose monohydrate and dihydrate and the dimeric species of lactose were studied from the spectroscopic point of view in gas and aqueous solution phases combining the infrared, Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance (HATR) and Raman spectra with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Aqueous saturated solutions of ?-lactose monohydrate and solutions at different molar concentrations of ?-lactose monohydrate in water were completely characterized by infrared, HATR and Raman spectroscopies. For all the species in solution, the solvent effects were studied using the solvation polarizable continuum (PCM) and solvation (SM) models and, then, their corresponding solvation energies were predicted. The vibrational spectra of those species in aqueous solution were completely assigned by employing the Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology and the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations. The stabilities of all those species were studied by using the natural bond orbital (NBO), and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations. PMID:25704196

Márquez, María Jimena; Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Davies, Lilian; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

2015-04-30

254

Batch and continuous synthesis of lactulose from whey lactose by immobilized ?-galactosidase.  

PubMed

In this study, lactulose synthesis from whey lactose was investigated in batch and continuous systems using immobilized ?-galactosidase. In the batch system, the optimal concentration of fructose for lactulose synthesis was 20%, and the effect of galactose, glucose and fructose on ?-galactosidase activity was determined for hydrolysis of whey lactose and the transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis. Galactose and fructose were competitive inhibitors, and glucose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of galactose and glucose were stronger in the transgalactosylation reaction than they were in the hydrolysis reaction. In addition, when immobilized ?-galactosidase was reused for lactulose synthesis, its catalytic activity was retained to the extent of 52.9% after 10 reuses. Lactulose was synthesized continuously in a packed-bed reactor. We synthesized 19.1g/l lactulose during the continuous flow reaction at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. PMID:23122115

Song, Yoon Seok; Lee, Hee Uk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

2013-01-15

255

Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

1998-06-01

256

Bilateral aplasia of the radius with abnormal hooking of the claviculae and sucrose-maltose intolerance.  

PubMed

A girl with bilateral radial aplasia, severe deformity of both hands, club foot deformity and mild anemia is described. Especially remarkable is the edging of the lateral part of the claviculae. At the same time the infant is suffering from a sucrose-maltose intolerance. PMID:7275676

Van Goethem, H; Van Goethem, C

1981-07-01

257

Computer simulation studies in fluid and calcium regulation and orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems analysis approach to physiological research uses mathematical models and computer simulation. Major areas of concern during prolonged space flight discussed include fluid and blood volume regulation; cardiovascular response during shuttle reentry; countermeasures for orthostatic intolerance; and calcium regulation and bone atrophy. Potential contributions of physiologic math models to future flight experiments are examined.

1985-01-01

258

Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

1993-01-01

259

Discrepancies between reported food intolerance and sensitization test findings in irritable bowel syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with clinical signs typical of “intestinal” food allergies or intolerance. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of IBS patients suspected of suffering from adverse reactions to food.METHODS: The study involved 128 consecutive IBS patients divided into four groups according to their main symptom on presentation

Raffaella Dainese; Ermenegildo A Galliani; Franca De Lazzari; Vincenza Di Leo; Remo Naccarato

1999-01-01

260

Intolerance of uncertainty: Exploring its dimensionality and associations with need for cognitive closure, psychopathology, and personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimensionality and correlates of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) were examined in a sample of 239 university students. In addition to completing the IUS, participants completed measures of worrying, anxious arousal, anhedonic depression, the big five personality dimensions, and the Need for Closure Scale. A factor analysis of the IUS suggested that it includes the following dimensions: (a)

Howard Berenbaum; Keith Bredemeier; Renee J. Thompson

2008-01-01

261

Autogenic-Feedback Training: A Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance in Aerospace Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.; Stevenson, J.; Maloney, S.; Knapp, J.

1994-01-01

262

Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of Ambiguity in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld…

Harrington, David M.; And Others

263

Exercise protects against glucose intolerance in individuals with a small body size at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Small body size at birth is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether regular exercise is related to lower rates of glucose intolerance in individuals with a small body size at birth and whether birth size affects exercise habits in adulthood.Methods. Five hundred subjects aged 65–75 years with data on birth measurements underwent an oral glucose

Johan G Eriksson; Hilkka Ylihärsilä; Tom Forsén; Clive Osmond; David J. P Barker

2004-01-01

264

Does Homeschooling or Private Schooling Promote Political Intolerance? Evidence from a Christian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political tolerance is the willingness to extend civil liberties to people who hold views with which one disagrees. Some have claimed that private schooling and homeschooling are institutions that propagate political intolerance by fostering separatism and an unwillingness to consider alternative viewpoints. I empirically test this claim by…

Cheng, Albert

2014-01-01

265

Student Engagement for College Students with the Hidden Disability of Orthostatic Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described the factors that contribute to engagement patterns of college students with the hidden health-related disability of orthostatic intolerance. Specifically, it used a qualitative methodology and collective-case study design to explore the categories of campus physical, institutional, academic and social engagement from a student…

Karabin, Beverly Lynn

2010-01-01

266

Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant

Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.

2013-01-01

267

Comparison of Fecal Coliform Agar and Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar for Fecal Coliform Enumeration in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 1°C and transfer to 44 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such

A. Leclercq; C. Wanegue; P. Baylac

2002-01-01

268

Defining the critical material attributes of lactose monohydrate in carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations using artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90 l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines %?

Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

2014-08-01

269

Effective in vivo hydrolysis of milk lactose by beta-galactosidases in the presence of solid foods13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy with exogenous, food-grade, microbial enzymes at mealtime to effect intragastrointestinal hydrolysis of the lactose from 360 ml of cow's milk consumed with a solid food meal (breakfast cereals) was investigated in adult Guatemalan lactose-malabsorbers using a hydrogen breath-analysis procedure to quantify the completeness of postprandial carbohydrate absorption. Adding 2 g of a commercial preparation

Noel W Solomons; Aura-Marina Guerrero; Benjamin Torun

270

From renewable raw materials to high value-added fine chemicals—Catalytic hydrogenation and oxidation of d-lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics and reaction mechanism of catalytic hydrogenation and oxidation of d-lactose were studied in three-phase laboratory reactors. Catalyst screening results and influence of temperature, pressure, catalyst loading and pH are reported as d-lactose was either catalytically hydrogenated to lactitol or oxidized to lactobionic acid. The product yield was significantly influenced by reaction conditions and catalyst choice. Additionally, during oxidation and

Jyrki Kuusisto; Anton V. Tokarev; Elena V. Murzina; Mattias U. Roslund; Jyri-Pekka Mikkola; Dmitry Yu. Murzin; Tapio Salmi

2007-01-01

271

Quantification of lactobionic acid and sorbitol from enzymatic reaction of fructose and lactose by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental conditions for complete separation and quantification of mixtures containing lactobionic acid, sorbitol, lactose and fructose are discussed for the first time. These mixtures appear in the enzymatic bioconversion of fructose and lactose catalyzed by glucose–fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and glucono-?-lactonase (GL) enzymes of Zymomonas mobilis cells. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation was carried out in a strong cation ion

Israel Pedruzzi; Eloane Malvessi; Vera G. Mata; Eduardo A. B. Silva; Mauricio M. Silveira; A. E. Rodrigues

2007-01-01

272

Biphasic aqueous media containing polyethylene glycol for the enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides from lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) as media for the synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) from lactose has been studied to determine the effects of changes in the phase compositions on the yield and selectivity of this reaction. Transglycosylation was accomplished using a commercial enzyme preparation (Pectinex Ultra-SP) in biphasic media containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Factors such as the molecular

M. Isabel del-Val; Cristina Otero

2003-01-01

273

Selection of resins, equilibrium and sorption kinetics of lactobionic acid, fructose, lactose and sorbitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of quaternary mixtures of lactobionic acid, lactose, sorbitol and fructose using a gel-type ion-exchange resin loaded with H+, K+ and Ca2+ ions has been investigated. This separation is relevant in order to improve the productivity of lactobionic acid obtained from the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by Glucose–fructose oxidoreductase and glucono-?-lactonase enzymes. Measurement of the single-component equilibrium isotherms for all

I. Pedruzzi; E. A. Borges da Silva; A. E. Rodrigues

2008-01-01

274

Influence of surface acidity in lactose oxidation over supported Pd catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose oxidation to lactobionic acid was investigated over palladium forms of Beta and MCM-22 zeolites. Different support acidity and the method of palladium introduction were applied. It was observed that the catalyst preparation methods, as well as acidity, influence the activity and selectivity. Pd-H-MCM-22 zeolites were more active, than palladium on conventional supports, for instance silica and alumina, or beta

Anton V. Tokarev; Elena V. Murzina; Prem K. Seelam; Narendra Kumar; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2008-01-01

275

The effect of palladium dispersion and promoters on lactose oxidation kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose oxidation was investigated at 70 °C and at pH 8 using oxygen as an oxidant over a comprehensive set of commercially\\u000a available mono- and multi-metallic as well as promoted Pd catalysts with active carbon, alumina and calcium carbonate as catalyst\\u000a supports. An optimum cluster size of 6–10 nm resulted in the highest initial turnover frequencies. High conversion levels\\u000a above 90% were

Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Elena V. Murzina; Betiana Campo; Teemu Heikkilä; Anne-Riikka Leino; Krisztian Kordas; Dorit Wolf; Anton V. Tokarev; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2010-01-01

276

Time-Dependent Sensitization of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure over Multiple Laboratory Sessions in Elderly Individuals with Chemical Odor Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that low-level chemical odor intolerance (i.e., “cacosmia”) is a manifestation of heightened sensitizability to environmental stimuli. We examined supine heart rate and blood pressure of elderly individuals, who were classified as either having a higher degree of chemical odor intolerance (n = 12) or a lower degree of chemical odor intolerance (n =

Iris R. Bell; Gary E. Schwartz; Richard R. Bootzin; James K. Wyatt

1997-01-01

277

Co-induction of beta-galactosidase and the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed Central

The addition of lactose, galactose, or isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) to glucose-grown cells of Streptococcus salivarius 25975 resulted in the co-induction of both the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (lactose-PTS) and beta-galactosidase, with the latter the predominant metabolic system. With various strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis 10556, on the other hand, the lactose-PTS was the major metabolic pathway with beta-galactosidase induced either to low or negligible levels. In all cases, induction of the lactose-PTS resulted in the concomitant induction of 6-P-beta-galactosidase. The induction by lactose of both the lactose-PTS and beta-galactosidase in all strains was repressed by glucose and other catabolites, notably, fructose. Induction of beta-galactosidase in S. salivarius 25975 by IPTG was, however, relatively resistant to glucose repression. Induction experiments with IPTG and lactose suggested that a cellular metabolite of lactose metabolism was a repressor of enzyme activity. Exogenous cAMP was shown to reverse the transient repression by glucose of beta-galactosidase induction in cells of S. salivarius 25975 receiving lactose, provided the cells were grown with small amounts of toluene to overcome the permeability barrier to this nucleotide, cAMP, was however, unable to overcome the permanent repression of beta-galactosidase activity to a significant extent under these conditions. PMID:214423

Hamilton, I R; Lo, G C

1978-01-01

278

Improving functionality of whole egg powder by the addition of gelatine, lactose, and pullulan.  

PubMed

The addition of gelatine (G), lactose (L), pullulan (P), and their mixtures at equal ratios (gelatine + lactose [GL] and gelatin + pullulan [GP]) to whole egg prior to drying was studied. Their effects on the functional properties (emulsion and gelling ability, water holding capacity of gel, foaming, color) and soluble protein content of spray dried egg powder during the 6 mo of storage at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity were investigated. It was demonstrated that the emulsion and foaming stability, water holding capacity of gel, and color change were significantly affected by the storage time, whereas storage time did not affect the strength of gel texture prepared by egg powders. Gelatine and pullulan improved the foaming stability and water holding capacity. Lactose caused a decrease in emulsion and foaming stability values. The maximum color change was observed for the plain egg powder, showing that mixing whole egg with carbohydrate- and/or protein-based additives before the drying process preserved the color of egg powder. Adding carbohydrate and/or protein caused significant changes in functional properties of egg powder. PMID:22416722

Koç, Mehmet; Koç, Banu; Susyal, Gonca; Yilmazer, Melike Sakin; Ba?datl?o?lu, Neriman; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

2011-01-01

279

Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues  

SciTech Connect

Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

Beyer, E.C. (University of California San Diego, La Jolla); Barondes, S.H.

1982-01-01

280

A combined modelling and experimental study of the surface energetics of alpha-lactose monohydrate.  

PubMed

The surface energy of alpha-lactose monohydrate measured by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is reported along with a dynamic molecular modelling study of the interaction of the various molecular probes with different surfaces of alpha-lactose monohydrate. The IGC results show that alpha-lactose monohydrate is acidic in nature. Using quantitative calculations of the energy of adsorption, the acidic nature of the surface is confirmed and the calculated values agree closely with the experimentally measured values. Along with the acidic nature, dynamic molecular modelling also reveals that the presence of a channel and water molecules on a surface affects the surface energetics of that face. The presence of water on the surface can decrease or increase the surface energy by either blocking or attracting a probe molecule, respectively. This property of water depends on its position and association with other functional groups present on the surface. The effect of a channel or cavity on the surface energy is shown to depend on its size, which determines whether the functional groups in the channel are assessable by probe molecules or not. Overall molecular modelling explains, at the molecular level, the effect of different factors affecting the surface energy of individual faces of the crystal. PMID:19670294

Saxena, A; Kendrick, J; Grimsey, I M; Roberts, R; York, P

2010-02-01

281

Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2012-08-01

282

Hybrid immobilization of galactosyl lactose and cellobiose on a gold substrate to modulate biological responses.  

PubMed

Bioactive O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-glucopyranose (4'-galactosyl lactose) was site-selectively modified at a reducing end with thiosemicarbazide (TSC). As-synthesized 4'-galactosyl lactose-TSC was immobilized on a gold substrate with cellobiose-TSC as a spacer through spontaneous self-assembly chemisorption via SAu bonding. Quartz crystal microbalance analysis suggested the successful formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4'-galactosyl lactose-TSC and/or cellobiose-TSC. Galactose-binding lectin exhibited the highest affinity for hybrid SAMs with an equimolar ratio of the two oligosaccharide-TSCs, while glucose-binding lectin showed decreasing adsorption with a decrease in cellobiose-TSC ratios. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which recognize galactose residues, efficiently adhered to the hybrid SAMs. Higher enzymatic deethoxylation of ethoxyresorufin via cytochrome P450 appeared on hybrid SAMs. These results suggested that clustering of the bioactive sugars was involved in the cellular responses, possibly via biological carbohydrate-protein interactions. This approach to designing carbohydrate-based scaffolds should provide a basis for the functional development of glyco-decorated biointerfaces for cell culture applications. PMID:23218308

Kitaoka, Takuya; Yoshiyama, Chiharu; Uemura, Fumi

2013-01-30

283

Oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid by a Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase: kinetics and operational stability.  

PubMed

Oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid by a Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was studied. The K(m)-value for lactose, obtained by a traditional enzymatic assay, was 0.066 mM at pH 6.4 and 38 degrees C. The effect of oxygen on the enzymatic rate of reaction as well as the operational stability of the enzyme was studied by performing reactions at constant pH and temperature in a stirred tank reactor. Catalase was included in all reactions to avoid inhibition and deactivation of the oxidase by hydrogen peroxide. At pH 6.4 and 38 degrees C, K(m) for oxygen was 0.97 mM, while the catalytical rate constant, k(cat), was 94 s(-1). Furthermore, we found that the operational stability of the oxidase was dependent on the type of base used for neutralization of the acid produced. Thus, when 2 M NaOH was used for neutralization of a reaction medium containing 50 mM phosphate buffer, significant deactivation of the oxidase was observed. Also, we found that the oxidase was protected against deactivation by base at high lactose concentrations. A simple model is proposed to explain the obtained results. PMID:17154316

Nordkvist, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Munk; Villadsen, John

2007-07-01

284

A simple access to lactose-derived building blocks required in glycoconjugate synthesis.  

PubMed

Lactose was readily transformed into thexyldimethylsilyl (3,4-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-beta- D-glucopyranoside (5); this compound served as intermediate for the generation of partially O-protected lactose building blocks required in oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis. Thus, from 5 via per-O-benzoylation, desilylation, trichloroacetimidate formation, glycosylation of the Lemieux spacer, and acid-catalyzed de-O-isopropylidenation methoxycarbonyloctyl (2,6-di-O-benzoyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)- (1-->4)-2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12) was obtained. Regioselective benzoylation of 5 with benzoyl cyanide under various conditions afforded 3-O- (13), 2,3,2'-O- (14), 3,2'-O- (16), and 2,2'-O-unprotected (17) lactoside, respectively. De-O-isopropylidenation of 16 gave thexyldimethylsilyl (6-O-benzoyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-2, 6-di-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), an important 2',3',4'-O-unprotected lactose derivative. Fucosylation of 13 and then de-O-isopropylidenation afforded thexyldimethylsilyl 2,6-di-O-benzoyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-[(3,4-di-O-acetyl-2-O- benzoyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)]-2,6-di-O-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside (21), an important fucosyllactose building block. PMID:9345752

Lay, L; Windmüller, R; Reinhardt, S; Schmidt, R R

1997-08-25

285

The Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post space flight orthostatic intolerance among Space Shuttle crew members following exposure to extended periods of microgravity has been of significant concern to the safety of the shuttle program. Following the Challenger accident, flight crews were required to wear launch and entry suits (LES). It was noted that overall, there appeared to be a higher degree of orthostatic intolerance among the post-Challenger crews (approaching 30%). It was hypothesized that the increased heat load incurred when wearing the LES, contributed to an increased degree of orthostatic intolerance, possibly mediated through increased peripheral vasodilatation triggered by the heat load. The use of liquid cooling garments (LCG) beneath the launch and entry suits was gradually implemented among flight crews in an attempt to decrease heat load, increase crew comfort, and hopefully improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and landing. The hypothesis that the use of the LCG during reentry and landing would decrease the degree of orthostasis has not been previously tested. Operational stand-tests were performed pre and post flight to assess crewmember's cardiovascular system's ability to respond to gravitational stress. Stand test and debrief information were collected and databased for 27 space shuttle missions. 63 crewpersons wearing the LCG, and 70 crewpersons not wearing the LCG were entered into the database for analysis. Of 17 crewmembers who exhibited pre-syncopal symptoms at the R+O analysis, 15 were not wearing the LCG. This corresponds to a 21% rate of postflight orthostatic intolerance among those without the LCG, and a 3% rate for those wearing LCG. There were differences in these individual's average post-flight maximal systolic blood pressure, and lower minimal Systolic Blood pressures in those without LCG. Though other factors, such as type of fluid loading, and exercise have improved concurrently with LCG introduction, from this data analysis, it appears that LCG usage provided a significant degree of protection from post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

Billica, Roger; Kraft, Daniel

1997-01-01

286

Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability.  

PubMed

Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15?kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259?T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370

Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

2014-07-01

287

Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose  

PubMed Central

Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

2013-01-01

288

Abscisic Acid and Ethylene Increase in Heterodera avenae-infected Tolerant or Intolerant Oat Cultivars.  

PubMed

The relationship between root stunting caused by the cereal cyst nematode and levels of two root growth inhibiting hormones, abscisic acid and ethylene, was investigated in aseptically cultured root segments and in intact roots of two oat cultivars differing in tolerance to the nematode. Cultured root segments of oat cultivars New Zealand Cape (tolerant) and Sual (intolerant) were inoculated with sterilized Heterodera avenae second-stage juveniles. Suppressed growth of root axes and emerged laterals following nematode penetration corresponded to an increase in abscisic acid and ethylene in roots of both intolerant and tolerant cultivars. When the experiment was repeated on intact root systems, nematodes retarded root growth of Sual more than New Zealand Cape despite an increase in ABA and ethylene in both cultivars. Abscisic acid and (or) ethylene may be involved in growth inhibition of H. avenae-infected roots but appear to play no direct role in determining tolerance. PMID:19283149

Volkmar, K M

1991-10-01

289

EvoTol: a protein-sequence based evolutionary intolerance framework for disease-gene prioritization  

PubMed Central

Methods to interpret personal genome sequences are increasingly required. Here, we report a novel framework (EvoTol) to identify disease-causing genes using patient sequence data from within protein coding-regions. EvoTol quantifies a gene's intolerance to mutation using evolutionary conservation of protein sequences and can incorporate tissue-specific gene expression data. We apply this framework to the analysis of whole-exome sequence data in epilepsy and congenital heart disease, and demonstrate EvoTol's ability to identify known disease-causing genes is unmatched by competing methods. Application of EvoTol to the human interactome revealed networks enriched for genes intolerant to protein sequence variation, informing novel polygenic contributions to human disease. PMID:25550428

Rackham, Owen J. L.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Petretto, Enrico

2015-01-01

290

Developing scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU): A new perspective on transdiagnostic.  

PubMed

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a construct of growing prominence in literature on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Existing measures of IU do not define the uncertainty that respondents perceive as distressing. To address this limitation, we developed eight scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU) relating to various anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. We used exploratory factor analysis and item characteristic curves in two large undergraduate samples (Ns=627 and 628) to derive eight three-item DSIU scales (24 items total) that exhibited excellent psychometric properties. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structures of the scales and the transdiagnostic nature of IU. Each scale predicted unique variance in its respective symptom measure beyond a traditional measure of IU. DSIU represents a theoretically proximal and causal intermediary between known vulnerability factors and disorder symptomatology. The DSIU scales can be used to advance theories of psychopathology and inform case conceptualization and treatment planning. PMID:25728016

Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; McEvoy, Peter M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Brandt, Charles P; Boelen, Paul A; Mahoney, Alison E J; Deacon, Brett J; Asmundson, Gordon J G

2015-04-01

291

Nimesulide in the treatment of patients intolerant of aspirin and other NSAIDs.  

PubMed

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and other NSAIDs are responsible for many adverse effects. Among them, pseudo-allergic reactions (urticaria/angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) affect up to 9% of the population and up to 30% of asthmatic patients. The mechanisms provoking these reactions have not been fully elucidated, but it appears that inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) plays a central role. The anti-inflammatory action of nimesulide differs from that of other NSAIDs, possibly because of its chemical structure. In particular, nimesulide is selective for COX-2 and displays additional properties in terms of its effects on inflammatory mediator synthesis and release. For these reasons, nimesulide is generally well tolerated by NSAID-intolerant patients and patients with NSAID-induced asthma. The good tolerability of nimesulide as an alternative drug for use in patients with NSAID intolerance has been demonstrated in a large number of clinical studies. PMID:8852524

Senna, G E; Passalacqua, G; Andri, G; Dama, A R; Albano, M; Fregonese, L; Andri, L

1996-02-01

292

The diagnosis and management of cow milk protein intolerance in the primary care setting.  

PubMed

Cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI) affects 3% of infants under the age of 12 months and is often misdiagnosed as GERD or colic, risking dangerous exposure to antigens. Most infants out grow CMPI by 12 months; however, those with IgE-mediated reactions usually continue to be intolerant to cow's milk proteins and also develop other allergens including environmental allergens that cause asthmatic symptoms. Clinical manifestations of CMPI include diarrhea, bloody stools, vomiting, feeding refusal, eczema, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, allergic rhinitis, coughing, wheezing, failure to thrive, and anaphylaxis. The research and literature showed that CMPI is easily missed in the primary care setting and needs to be considered as a cause of infant distress and clinical symptoms. This article focuses on correctly diagnosing CMPI and managing it in the primary care setting. PMID:16411542

Ewing, Whitney Merrill; Allen, Patricia Jackson

2005-01-01

293

Effects of mild processing pressures on the performance of dry powder inhaler formulations for inhalation therapy. 1: Budesonide and lactose.  

PubMed

Batch-to-batch variability, whereby distinct batches of dry powder inhaler formulations, though manufactured with identical components and specifications, may exhibit significant variations in aerosol performance, is a major obstacle to consistent and reproducible drug delivery for inhalation therapy. This variability may arise from processing or manufacturing effects that have yet to be investigated. This study focused on the potential effects of mild compression forces experienced during powder manufacture and transport (such as during the filling of, or storage in, a hopper) on the flowability and aerosol performance of a lactose-based dry powder inhaler formulation. Different grades of inhalation lactose were subjected to typical compression forces by either placing a weight of known mass on the sample or by using a Texture Analyzer to apply a constant force while measuring the distance of compaction. Powder flowability was evaluated with a rotating drum apparatus by imaging the avalanching of the powder over time. The average avalanche angle and avalanche time were used to determine the flowability of each sample, both before and after compression treatment. Aerosol performance of treated and untreated lactose/budesonide blends (2% (w/w)) was assessed in dispersion studies using a next generation impactor. At compression forces in excess of 5 kPa, the flowability of milled lactose was decreased relative to the untreated sample. Compression of lactose prior to blending caused a decrease in in vitro aerosol dispersion performance. However, dispersion performance was unchanged when compression occurred subsequent to drug blending. In contrast, inhalation grade sieved lactose, differing from the milled grade with a lower concentration of lactose fines (<10 ?m) and larger overall particle sizes, exhibited no statistical differences in either flowability or dispersion performance across all experimental treatments. Thus, the compression of the lactose fines onto the surfaces of the larger lactose particles due to mild processing pressures is hypothesized to be the cause of these observed performance variations. It was shown that simulations of storage and transport in an industrial scale hopper can induce significant variations in formulation performance, and it is speculated that this could be a source of batch-to-batch variations. PMID:21182942

Marek, Steve R; Donovan, Martin J; Smyth, Hugh D C

2011-05-01

294

Oral administration of branched chain amino acids improves virus-induced glucose intolerance in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the therapeutic effect of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on mice with glucose intolerance induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Male DBA\\/2 mice were divided into three groups: treated with BCAA, (such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine), untreated, and control. BCAA-treated and -untreated groups were inoculated intraperitoneally with the NDK25 variant of EMCV at 200 plaque-forming units per mouse.

Toshihiro Utsugi; Akihiro Yoshida; Tsugiyasu Kanda; Isao Kobayashi; Masahiko Kurabayashi; Shoichi Tomono; Shoji Kawazu; Yutaka Tajima; Ryozo Nagai

2000-01-01

295

Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels in Obese Children and Adolescents with Glucose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is known to be involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Aims: To study the relationships between the degree of adiposity, insulin resistance indices, plasma lipids, inflammatory parameters, glucose intolerance (GI) status and plasma RBP4 levels in obese children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: Prospective study comprising 199 obese patients (95 boys) aged 8–16 years (11.8 ±

D. Yeste; J. Vendrell; R. Tomasini; L. L. Gallart; M. Clemente; I. Simón; M. Albisu; M. Gussinyé; L. Audi; A. Carrascosa

2010-01-01

296

Vascular perturbations in the chronic orthostatic intolerance of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

position associated with an increase in heart rate of .30 beats\\/min from the supine to upright position or to a heart rate .120 beats\\/min within 10 min of head-up tilt (HUT). We reported the first pediatric cases of POTS. Data from our patients showed that POTS phys- iology underlies chronic orthostatic intolerance in the large majority of adolescents with the

JULIAN M. STEWART; AMY WELDON

2000-01-01

297

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats?  

PubMed Central

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?2-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2> 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. PMID:24103449

Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

2015-01-01

298

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2013-12-15

299

Structural and functional analysis of aldolase B mutants related to hereditary fructose intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a recessively inherited disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by impaired function of human liver aldolase (B isoform). 25 enzyme-impairing mutations have been identified in the aldolase B gene. We have studied the HFI-related mutant recombinant proteins W147R, A149P, A174D, L256P, N334K and ?6ex6 in relation to aldolase B function and structure using kinetic assays and

Gabriella Esposito; Luigi Vitagliano; Rita Santamaria; Antonietta Viola; Adriana Zagari; Francesco Salvatore

2002-01-01

300

Muscle Histidine-Containing Dipeptides Are Elevated by Glucose Intolerance in Both Rodents and Men  

PubMed Central

Objective Muscle carnosine and its methylated form anserine are histidine-containing dipeptides. Both dipeptides have the ability to quench reactive carbonyl species and previous studies have shown that endogenous tissue levels are decreased in chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Design and Methods Rodent study: Skeletal muscles of rats and mice were collected from 4 different diet-intervention studies, aiming to induce various degrees of glucose intolerance: 45% high-fat feeding (male rats), 60% high-fat feeding (male rats), cafeteria feeding (male rats), 70% high-fat feeding (female mice). Body weight, glucose-tolerance and muscle histidine-containing dipeptides were assessed. Human study: Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis in 35 males (9 lean, 8 obese, 9 prediabetic and 9 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients) and muscle carnosine and gene expression of muscle fiber type markers were measured. Results Diet interventions in rodents (cafeteria and 70% high-fat feeding) induced increases in body weight, glucose intolerance and levels of histidine-containing dipeptides in muscle. In humans, obese, prediabetic and diabetic men had increased muscle carnosine content compared to the lean (+21% (p>0.1), +30% (p<0.05) and +39% (p<0.05), respectively). The gene expression of fast-oxidative type 2A myosin heavy chain was increased in the prediabetic (1.8-fold, p<0.05) and tended to increase in the diabetic men (1.6-fold, p = 0.07), compared to healthy lean subjects. Conclusion Muscle histidine-containing dipeptides increases with progressive glucose intolerance, in male individuals (cross-sectional). In addition, high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance was associated with increased muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in female mice (interventional). Increased muscle carnosine content might reflect fiber type composition and/or act as a compensatory mechanism aimed at preventing cell damage in states of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:25803044

Stegen, Sanne; Everaert, Inge; Deldicque, Louise; Vallova, Silvia; de Courten, Barbora; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef; Derave, Wim

2015-01-01

301

Dynamics of eicosanoids in peripheral blood cells during bronchial provocation in aspirin-intolerant asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of eicosanoids in peripheral blood cells during bronchial provocation in aspirin- intolerant asthmatics. D. Schafer, M. Schmid, U.C. Gode, H-W. Baenkler. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms of bronchoconstriction in aspirin-intol- erant asthmatics (AIAs) are still unknown, but the hypothesis of an altered metabolism of arachidonic acid is generally accepted. So far, no in vitro test for

D. Schafer; M. Schmid; U. C. God; H. W. Baenkler

302

Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension. There is a predilection for younger rather than older adults and for women more than men. Its cause is unknown; partial sympathetic denervation or hypovolemia has been proposed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma renin activity, perhaps from defects in sympathetic innervation of the kidney, could underlie a hypovolemia, giving rise to these clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had orthostatic intolerance, together with a raised upright plasma norepinephrine (> or = 600 pg/mL). Patients underwent a battery of autonomic tests and biochemical determinations. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the blood volume and plasma renin activity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). The tachycardic response to upright posture correlated with the severity of the hypovolemia. There was also a correlation between the plasma renin activity measured in these patients and their concomitant plasma aldosterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance.

Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Ertl, A. C.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

1997-01-01

303

Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using ?-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-09-01

304

Age and continuous lactose challenge modify lactase protein expression and enzyme activity in gut epithelium in the rat.  

PubMed

The activity of lactase enzyme declines after weaning. This study was to investigate changes in the lactase expression in the whole gastrointestinal tract during the development and the possibility that this and activity can be induced by lactose. Expression of lactase protein in the gut of 1-12-weeks old rats was studied by immunocytochemistry. Possible induction was evaluated by immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques in 8-week-old rats after lactose challenge for seven days. Lactase immunoreactivity was detected only in the small intestine and it decreased 20% during the week after weaning. A steady level of 40% lower than in the sucklings was found in the adult rats. In the lactose-challenged rats the optical density of immunoreactivity increased by about 30% in those that consumed the highest concentration of lactose. In the proximal jejunum, elevation of the enzymatic activity was three-fold. In the rat lactase protein expression decreased rapidly after weaning and expression and activity were induced by lactose-rich diet, most notably in the proximal jejunum. PMID:9444619

Peuhkuri, K; Hukkanen, M; Beale, R; Polak, J M; Vapaatalo, H; Korpela, R

1997-12-01

305

Intracellular ?-Glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b Are Essential for Cellulase Induction on Lactose in Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

Lactose (1,4-O-?-d-galacto-pyranosyl-d-glucose) induces cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei and is in fact one of the most important soluble carbon sources used to produce cellulases on an industrial level. The mechanism underlying the induction is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cellular functions of the intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b in the induction of cellulase genes by lactose in T. reesei. We demonstrated that while CEL1a and CEL1b were functionally equivalent in mediating the induction, the simultaneous absence of these intracellular ?-glucosidases abolished cbh1 gene expression on lactose. d-Galactose restored the efficient cellulase gene induction in the ?cel1a strain independently of its reductive metabolism, but not in the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain. A further comparison of the transcriptional responses of the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain complemented with wild-type CEL1a or a catalytically inactive CEL1a version and the ?cel1a strain constitutively expressing CEL1a or the Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase LAC4 showed that both the CEL1a protein and its glycoside hydrolytic activity were indispensable for cellulase induction by lactose. We also present evidence that intracellular ?-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. PMID:24879125

Xu, Jintao; Zhao, Guolei; Kou, Yanbo; Zhang, Weixin; Zhou, Qingxin; Chen, Guanjun

2014-01-01

306

Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the 3H-free- cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic signaling. PMID:22522760

Bertato, Marina P; Oliveira, Carolina P; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L; Lerario, Antonio C; Maranhão, Raul C

2012-01-01

307

Chronic stress aggravates glucose intolerance in leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice.  

PubMed

Genetic predisposition and environmental challenges interact to determine individual vulnerability to obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously established a mouse model of chronic subordination stress-induced hyperphagia, obesity, metabolic like-syndrome and insulin resistance in the presence of a high-fat diet. However, it remains to be established if social stress could also aggravate glucose intolerance in subjects genetically predisposed to develop obesity and type 2 diabetes. To answer this question, we subjected genetically obese mice due to deficiency of the leptin receptor (db/db strain) to chronic subordination stress. Over five weeks, subordination stress in db/db mice led to persistent hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and exacerbated glucose intolerance altogether suggestive of an aggravated disorder when compared to controls. On the contrary, body weight and fat mass were similarly affected in stressed and control mice likely due to the hyperactivity shown by subordinate mice. Stressed db/db mice also showed increased plasma inflammatory markers. Altogether our results suggest that chronic stress can aggravate glucose intolerance but not obesity in genetically predisposed subjects on the basis of a disrupted leptin circuitry. PMID:25791744

Razzoli, Maria; McCallum, Jacob; Gurney, Allison; Engeland, William C; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

2015-05-01

308

Control of obesity and glucose intolerance via building neural stem cells in the hypothalamus?  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently revealed to exist in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Here, following our observation showing that a partial loss of hypothalamic NSCs caused weight gain and glucose intolerance, we studied if NSCs-based cell therapy could be developed to control these disorders. While hypothalamus-implanted NSCs failed to survive in mice with obesity, NF-?B inhibition induced survival and neurogenesis of these cells, leading to effects in counteracting obesity and glucose intolerance. To generate an alternative cell source, we revealed that iPS-derived NSCs were converted into htNSCs by neuropeptide treatment. Of note, obesity condition potentiated the transfer of carotid artery-injected NSCs into the hypothalamus. These iPS-derived cells when engineered with NF-?B inhibition were also effective in reducing obesity and glucose intolerance, and neurogenesis towards POMCergic and GABAergic lineages was accountable. In conclusion, building NSCs in the hypothalamus represents a strategy for controlling obesity and glucose disorders. PMID:24749061

Li, Juxue; Tang, Yizhe; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Yan, Jingqi; Cai, Dongsheng

2014-01-01

309

Contributions of MSNA and stroke volume to orthostatic intolerance following bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined whether the altered orthostatic tolerance following 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) was related to inadequate sympathetic outflow or to excessive reductions in cardiac output during a 10- to 15-min head-up tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography), and stroke volume blood velocity (SVV, Doppler ultrasound) were assessed during supine 30 degrees (5 min) and 60 degrees (5-10 min) HUT positions in 15 individuals who successfully completed the pre-HDBR test without evidence of orthostatic intolerance. Subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT, n = 9) or intolerant (OI, n = 6) following the post-HDBR test. MSNA, BP, and SVV during supine and HUT postures were not altered in the OT group. Hypotension during 60 degrees HUT in the post-bed rest test for the OI group (P < 0.05) was associated with a blunted increase in MSNA (P < 0.05). SVV was reduced following HDBR in the OI group (main effect of HDBR, P < 0.02). The data support the hypothesis that bed rest-induced orthostatic intolerance is related to an inadequate increase in sympathetic discharge that cannot compensate for a greater postural reduction in stroke volume.

Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

1999-01-01

310

Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.

Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

1999-01-01

311

Herbal constituent sequoyitol improves hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by targeting hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ?-cells  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases rapidly; however, treatments are limited. Various herbal extracts have been reported to reduce blood glucose in animals with either genetic or dietary type 2 diabetes; however, plant extracts are extremely complex, and leading compounds remain largely unknown. Here we show that 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol (also called sequoyitol), a herbal constituent, exerts antidiabetic effects in mice. Sequoyitol was chronically administrated into ob/ob mice either orally or subcutaneously. Both oral and subcutaneous administrations of sequoyitol decreased blood glucose, improved glucose intolerance, and enhanced insulin signaling in ob/ob mice. Sequoyitol directly enhanced insulin signaling, including phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt, in both HepG2 cells (derived from human hepatocytes) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In agreement, sequoyitol increased the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production in primary hepatocytes and to stimulate glucose uptake into primary adipocytes. Furthermore, sequoyitol improved insulin signaling in INS-1 cells (a rat ?-cell line) and protected INS-1 cells from streptozotocin- or H2O2-induced injury. In mice with streptozotocin-induced ?-cell deficiency, sequoyitol treatments increased plasma insulin levels and decreased hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. These results indicate that sequoyitol, a natural, water-soluble small molecule, ameliorates hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by increasing both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Sequoyitol appears to directly target hepatocytes, adipocytes, and ?-cells. Therefore, sequoyitol may serve as a new oral diabetes medication. PMID:22297305

Shen, Hong; Shao, Mengle; Cho, Kae Won; Wang, Suqing; Chen, Zheng; Sheng, Liang; Wang, Ting; Liu, Yong

2012-01-01

312

Nitric oxide in microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance: relevance to spinal cord injury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in cardiovascular deconditioning which is marked by orthostatic intolerance in the returning astronauts and recovering bed-ridden patients. Recent studies conducted in our laboratories at University of California, Irvine have revealed marked elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the kidney, heart, brain, and systemic arteries coupled with significant reduction of NO production in the cerebral arteries of microgravity-adapted animals. We have further demonstrated that the observed alteration of NO metabolism is primarily responsible for the associated cardiovascular deconditioning. Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently complicated by orthostatic intolerance that is due to the combined effects of the disruption of efferent sympathetic pathway and cardiovascular deconditioning occasioned by prolonged confinement to bed. In this presentation, I will review the nature of altered NO metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. The possible relevance of the new findings to orthostatic intolerance in patients with acute SCI and its potential therapeutic implications will be discussed.

Vaziri, N. D.; Purdy, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

313

Formation of budesonide/?-lactose glass solutions by ball-milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to obtain amorphous budesonide stabilised by blending with an excipient characterised by a higher glass transition temperature, namely ?-lactose, has been studied. We carried out the mixing of the two compounds at room temperature by ball-milling. The four obtained blends (containing, respectively, 10, 30, 50 and 70% w of budesonide) are X-ray amorphous and exhibit a single glass transition located between the ones of pure milled crystalline compounds. This revealed that the two amorphous phases are miscible whatever the composition and sufficiently mixed to relax as a whole. Ball-milling thus appears as a powerful tool to form amorphous molecular alloys with enhanced stability properties.

Dudognon, E.; Willart, J. F.; Caron, V.; Capet, F.; Larsson, T.; Descamps, M.

2006-04-01

314

Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells  

SciTech Connect

Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. (Univ. di Milano (Italy))

1993-07-01

315

High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

2014-01-01

316

Lactose inhibits regulatory T-cell-mediated suppression of effector T-cell interferon-? and IL-17 production.  

PubMed

Our interest in lactose as an immunomodulatory molecule results from studies showing that lactose binds to galectin-9, which has been shown to have various regulatory functions in the immune system including regulation of T-cell responses. Impaired regulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 type immune responses and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in many human immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lactose on immune regulation using co-cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived Treg and effector T cells (Teff) obtained from twenty healthy adults. Treg, i.e. CD4+CD25+CD127-, were isolated from PBMC by immunomagnetic separation. The fraction of CD4+CD127- cells that was depleted of CD25+ cells was used as Teff. Treg and Teff at a ratio 1:5 were activated and the effects of lactose on the secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-17 were analysed using ELISA for protein and quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA. Treg down-regulated the secretion of both IFN-? (8.8-3.9 ng/ml, n 20, P= 0.003) and IL-17 (0.83-0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.04) in co-cultures, while in the presence of lactose the levels of secreted IFN-? and IL-17 remained high and no down-regulation was observed (16.4 v. 3.99 ng/ml, n 20, P< 0.0001, and 0.74 v. 0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.005, respectively). We showed that lactose inhibits human Treg-mediated suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in vitro. PMID:25331548

Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno

2014-12-14

317

The impact of material attributes and process parameters on the micronisation of lactose monohydrate.  

PubMed

Dry powder inhalers (DPIs), which are important medicines for drug delivery to the lungs, require drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-6 ?m for optimal lung deposition. Drugs administered by the oral route also derive benefit from particles in this size range owing to their large surface area to volume ratio, which provides potential for rapid dissolution. Micronisation used in the production of particles, however often leads to heterogeneous product containing mechanically activated surfaces with amorphous content. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of particle properties of three grades of lactose monohydrate, with sizes above and below the brittle-ductile transition (dcrit) and their interaction with process variables on the quality of micronised material. Following an experimental design, the impact of three factors (grinding pressure, injector pressure and feed rate) on the particulate attributes of micronised powders produced from the different size grades was assessed. Processing conditions were shown to be important determinants of powder properties only for the coarsest starting material. Ultrafine material was achieved by processing finer grade feed stock below dcrit. However the resultant product was more crystalline and transformed on heating to the anhydrous state with markedly reduced onset temperature with lower energy surfaces than powders produced from larger sized starting material. Thus the propensity for micronisation of lactose monohydrate can be altered through control of starting materials and optimal settings for process variables. PMID:21295125

Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P; Shao, Q

2011-04-15

318

Kinetics of lactose hydrolysis by beta-galactosidase of Kluyveromyces lactis immobilized on cotton fabric.  

PubMed

A mathematic model for describing the Michaelis-Menten-type reaction kinetics with product competitive inhibition and side-reaction is proposed. A multiresponse nonlinear simulation program was employed to determine the coefficients of a four-parameter rate expression. The rate expression was compared with the conventional Michaelis-Menten reaction rate models with and without product inhibition. Experimental data were obtained using beta-galactosidase of Kluyveromyces lactis immobilized on cotton fabric in a batch system at a temperature of 37 degrees C and at various initial concentrations of dissolved lactose ranging from 3-12.5% (w/v). The reaction is followed by concentration changes with time in the tank. Samples were obtained after the outlet stream of the packed bed reactor is mixed in a well-stirred tank. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to monitor the concentrations of all the sugars (reactants as well as products). The four-parameter rate model is featured with a term to describe the formation of trisaccharides, a side-reaction of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The proposed model simulates the process of lactose hydrolysis and the formation of glucose and galactose, giving better accuracy compared with the previous models. PMID:12451549

Zhou, Quinn Zhengkun; Chen, Xiao Dong; Li, Xuemei

2003-01-20

319

Crystal structures of Erythrina cristagalli lectin with bound N-linked oligosaccharide and lactose.  

PubMed

Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) is a galactose-specific legume lectin. Although its biological function in the legume is unknown, ECL exhibits hemagglutinating activity in vitro and is mitogenic for T lymphocytes. In addition, it has been recently shown that ECL forms a novel conjugate when coupled to a catalytically active derivative of the type A neurotoxin from Clostridium botulinum, thus providing a therapeutic potential. ECL is biologically active as a dimer in which each protomer contains a functional carbohydrate-combining site. The crystal structure of native ECL was recently reported in complex with lactose and 2'-fucosyllactose. ECL protomers adopt the legume lectin fold but form non-canonical dimers via the handshake motif as was previously observed for Erythrina corallodendron lectin. Here we report the crystal structures of native and recombinant forms of the lectin in three new crystal forms, both unliganded and in complex with lactose. For the first time, the detailed structure of the glycosylated hexasaccharide for native ECL has been elucidated. The structure also shows that in the crystal lattice the glycosylation site and the carbohydrate binding site are involved in intermolecular contacts through water-mediated interactions. PMID:15201215

Turton, Kathryn; Natesh, Ramanathan; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

2004-10-01

320

Persistent diarrhoea: associated infection and response to a low lactose diet.  

PubMed

Children aged 4-23 months with persistent diarrhoea received a low lactose diet, multivitamins, minerals and antibiotics for infection. Sixty-one (57 per cent) children improved with low lactose diet while 46 (43 per cent) failed. Children who failed were younger (8.9 +/- 3.5 vs. 11.3 +/- 4.4 months), had higher initial purging rate (146 +/- 102 vs. 109 +/- 102 g/kg/day) and consumed more ORS (138 +/- 77 vs. 95 +/- 79 g/kg/day). A higher proportion of children in the failure group needed unscheduled intravenous fluid (48 vs. 20 per cent) and lost body weight (24 vs. 0 per cent). Single and multiple stool pathogen were isolated from 44 and 45 per cent cases, respectively. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (66 per cent) was the most common pathogen isolated. Half of all pathogens including Campylobacter, rotavirus, cholera and non-typhoidal Salmonella were nosocomially acquired. Sixty four per cent of children had extraintestinal infections including acute lower respiratory infection (50 per cent), urinary tract infection (29 per cent) and septicaemia (11 per cent). The presence of extraintestinal infections were significantly associated with failure. Overall, 91 per cent of children had either intestinal and/or extraintestinal infections. PMID:12164597

Ashraf, by H; Ahmed, S; Fuchs, G J; Mahalanabis, D

2002-06-01

321

The effect of lactose derivatives lactulose, lactitol and lactobionic acid on the functional and technological properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactulose, lactitol and lactobionic acid are unabsorbable lactose derivatives with prebiotic potential. They are utilised in varying extent by different Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species\\/strains. To explore the possibility of improving the properties of probiotic strains with a specific prebiotic, the effect of the lactose derivatives on the technological and functional properties of putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains was studied in vitro.

Maria Saarela; Katri Hallamaa; Tiina Mattila-Sandholm; Jaana Mättö

2003-01-01

322

Immunohistochemical morphometry of pancreatic endocrine cells in diabetic, normoglycaemic glucose-intolerant and normal cats.  

PubMed

The anatomical distribution and volume fractions of pancreatic A cells (glucagon), B cells (insulin) and D cells (somatostatin) were evaluated by an immunoperoxidase technique in 6 diabetic cats, 6 normoglycaemic glucose-intolerant cats and 6 normal control cats. Islets lacking A cells were observed in some sections from the right lobe of the pancreas which correlated with a significantly lower A cell volume fraction in the right pancreatic lobe. Endocrine cell volume fractions in normoglycaemic glucose-intolerant cats were not significantly different from controls. Thus, a reduction in B cell volume fraction was not necessary for the occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance in these cats. However, the reduction of B cell volume fraction in the 2 normoglycaemic glucose-intolerant cats with insular amyloidosis may in part explain the more severely impaired glucose tolerance previously observed in these cats. Insular amyloidosis in our feline diabetics, as in human type II diabetics, was associated with a significant decrease in A and B cell volume fractions. In both human type II and feline diabetes mellitus, however, the reduction in B cell mass does not appear sufficient alone to lead to diabetes mellitus. Therefore, amyloid replacement of functional endocrine cells does not appear to be the primary diabetogenic event in feline diabetes mellitus, but may contribute to progression of the condition due to loss of functional B cell reserves. We thus postulate that a B cell defect precedes deposition of islet amyloid and that these amyloid deposits may thus provide an important biochemical clue to specific B cell derangements occurring in adult-onset diabetics. PMID:2874160

O'Brien, T D; Hayden, D W; Johnson, K H; Fletcher, T F

1986-07-01

323

Marked exacerbation of orthostatic intolerance after long- vs. short-duration spaceflight in veteran astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.

Meck, J. V.; Reyes, C. J.; Perez, S. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ziegler, M. G.

2001-01-01

324

Fructose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression in adult patients with fructose intolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption following fructose ingestion (fructose intolerance) are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is hypothesized to be related an abnormality of intestinal fructose transporter proteins. Objective To assess the expression of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins, glucose transport protein 5 (GLUT5) and 2 (GLUT2), in FGID. Methods The expression of GLUT5 and GLUT2 protein and mRNA in small intestinal biopsy tissue was investigated using real-time reverse-transcription PCR and Western immunoblotting in 11 adults with FGID and fructose intolerance ascertained by breath testing and in 15 controls. Results Median expression levels of GLUT5 mRNA normalized to beta-actin were 0.18 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.13–0.21) in patients and 0.17 (IQR 0.12–0.19) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective levels of GLUT2 mRNA were 0.26 (IQR 0.20–0.31) and 0.26 (IQR 0.19–0.31) (p?>?0.05). Median expression levels of GLUT5 protein normalized to alpha-tubulin were 0.95 (IQR 0.52–1.68) in patients and 0.95 (IQR 0.59–1.15) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective protein expression levels for GLUT2 were 1.56 (IQR 1.06–2.14) and 1.35 (IQR 0.96–1.79) (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Human fructose intolerance may not be associated with marked changes in GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression. Replication of these results in a larger subject group, including measures of transporter activation and membrane and subcellular localization, is warranted. PMID:24918004

Li, Xinhua; Ho, Sherry SY; Leong, Sai Mun; Wong, Reuben K; Koay, Evelyn SC; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

2014-01-01

325

Glucose intolerance and diabetes following antigen-specific insulitis in diabetes-susceptible "humanized" transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The genetic contribution of antigen-presenting molecules and the environmental ignition of an antigen-specific immune attack to pancreatic beta-cells define autoimmune diabetes. We focused here on generating an antigen-specific model of autoimmune diabetes in humanized double-transgenic mice carrying antigen-presenting HLA-DQ8 diabetes-linked haplotype and expressing human autoantigen GAD65 in pancreatic beta-cells using a relatively diabetes-susceptible strain of mice. Double transgenic (DQ8-GAD65) mice and controls were immunized with cDNA encoding human GAD65 in adenoviral vectors and monitored for glucose intolerance and diabetes. Human-GAD65 immunization induced insulitis, glucose intolerance and diabetes in double-transgenic mice, while controls were insulitis free and glucose tolerant. Glucose intolerance 10 weeks post-immunization was followed by diabetes later on in most animals. Destructive insulitis characterized by inflammation and apoptosis correlated with the diabetes outcome. Humoral immune responses to hGAD65 were sustained in mice with diabetes while transient in non-responders. Insulitis was massive in mice with diabetes while mild in non-responders by the end of the study. Our results show for the first time the occurrence of antigen-specific induced insulitis, impaired glucose homeostasis and diabetes after immunization with a clinically relevant, human autoantigen in the context of HLA-DQ8 diabetes-susceptibility transgenes and human GAD65 expression in beta-cells. This animal model will facilitate studies of mechanisms of disease involved in development of autoimmunity to GAD65 in the context of HLA-DQ8. Furthermore, this model would be ideal for testing therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing human beta-cell loss and/or restoring function in the setting of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:20350527

Elagin, Raya B; Jaume, Juan C

2010-04-23

326

Intolerance to sodium metabisulfite in children with steroid-dependent asthma.  

PubMed

Oral challenge tests were carried out with sodium metabisulfite solution doses of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, dissolved in 20 ml of citric acid, and administered to 20 children aged 7-14 years with steroid-dependent bronchial asthma. A single-blind challenge protocol was performed initially and the positive responses were confirmed by double-blind challenge. Initially, 6 of 20 presented a positive reaction, confirmed in 4 of 20 by double-blind challenge. Only 1 child was clinically suspected of exhibiting intolerance to this agent. The prevalence of the challenge test using sodium metabisulfite in children with steroid-dependent bronchial asthma was 20%. PMID:1342881

Sanz, J; Martorell, A; Torro, I; Carlos Cerda, J; Alvarez, V

1992-01-01

327

Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

328

Fatigue and exercise intolerance in mitochondrial diseases. Literature revision and experience of the Italian Network of mitochondrial diseases.  

PubMed

Fatigue and exercise intolerance are common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases, but difficult to be clinically assessed. New methods to quantify these rather common complaints are strongly needed in the clinical practice. Coenzyme Q10 administration and aerobic exercise may improve exercise intolerance, but more definite studies are still pending. Herein, we have revised "how to measure" and "how to treat" these symptoms of mitochondrial patients. Subsequently, we reviewed the clinical data of the 1164 confirmed mitochondrial patients present in the Italian nation-wide database of mitochondrial disease, with special regard to exercise intolerance. We observed that more of 20% of mitochondrial patients complain of exercise intolerance. This symptom seems to be frequently associated with specific patient groups and/or genotypes. Ragged red fibers and COX-negative fibers are more often present in subjects with exercise intolerance, whereas lactate levels could not predict this symptom. Multicenter efforts are strongly needed for rare disorders such as mitochondrial diseases, and may represent the basis for more rigorous longitudinal studies. PMID:23182644

Mancuso, M; Angelini, C; Bertini, E; Carelli, V; Comi, G P; Minetti, C; Moggio, M; Mongini, T; Servidei, S; Tonin, P; Toscano, A; Uziel, G; Zeviani, M; Siciliano, G

2012-12-01

329

A Quantitative Determination of the Ammonia, Amino Nitrogen, Lactose, Total Acid, and Volatile Acid Content of Cows’ Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative determination of the ammollia, Bznlno nitrogen, lactose, total acid, and volatile acid content of 27 samples of commercial milk obtained from Baltimore dairies has been made within the past year. As this milk was to be used in a later bacteriological investigation, it was sterilized by autoclaving before being subjected to chemical analysis. AMMONIA Shaffer (1903) published a

Henrietta Lisk

1924-01-01

330

[Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].  

PubMed

In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously. PMID:25039174

Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

2014-04-01

331

Effect of lactose feeding on cell renewal, disaccharidase activity and calcium-binding protein content in the intestinal  

E-print Network

. In controls, carbohydrates were supplied in the form of starch and a vitamin D supplement was given.52 p. 100 Ca and 0.34 p. 100 P, vitamin supplement with or without 50 IU/100 g vitamin D. CarbohydratesBP disappeared from the jejunum and ileum at 3 months of age. When a diet containing lactose and vitamin D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Plasmid linkage of the D-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway in Streptococcus lactis: effect on lactose and galactose metabolism.  

PubMed Central

The three enzymes of the D-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway (galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, D-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and tagatose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase) were absent in lactose-negative (Lac-) derivatives of Streptococcus lactis C10, H1, and 133 grown on galactose. The lactose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and phospho-beta-galactosidase activities were also absent in Lac- derivatives of strains H1 and 133 and were low (possibly absent) in C10 Lac-. In all three Lac- derivatives, low galactose phosphotransferase system activity was found. On galactose, Lac- derivatives grew more slowly (presumably using the Leloir pathway) than the wild-type strains and accumulated high intracellular concentrations of galactose 6-phosphate (up to 49 mM); no intracellular tagatose 1,6-diphosphate was detected. The data suggest that the Lac phenotype is plasmid linked in the three strains studied, with the evidence being more substantial for strain H1. A Lac- derivative of H1 contained a single plasmid (33 megadaltons) which was absent from the Lac- mutant. We suggest that the genes linked to the lactose plasmid in S. lactis are more numerous than previously envisaged, coding for all of the enzymes involved in lactose metabolism from initial transport to the formation of triose phosphates via the D-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. Images PMID:6294064

Crow, V L; Davey, G P; Pearce, L E; Thomas, T D

1983-01-01

333

Identification of a new genetic determinant for cell aggregation associated with lactose plasmid transfer in Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed Central

Derivatives of the lactose miniplasmid pMG820 were constructed in which a staphylococcal erm gene was inserted and in which this was accompanied by subsequent deletion of the lactose genes. The resulting plasmids were thus marked with both erythromycin resistance and lactose utilization genes in pF1132 or solely erythromycin resistance in pF1133. These plasmids retained the normal conjugation properties characteristic of lactose plasmid pLP712, including the generation by intermolecular rearrangement of high-frequency-transfer Clu+ derivatives which exhibited cell aggregation. The use of such Clu+ plasmids in a variety of mating experiments between different lactococcal strains and the observation of cell aggregation when particular mating mixtures were made led to the discovery of a new component of this conjugation system named Agg. A chromosomal gene agg was postulated to be present in some but not all strains of lactococci. High-frequency conjugation and cell aggregation thus depend on the presence of both Agg and Clu, although in a mating pair these components can be in the same or in separate strains. The Agg and Clu components may be analogous to the binding substance and aggregation substance that are involved in the hemolysin plasmid transfer system of Enterococcus faecalis, although control of their expression is different. PMID:1903626

van der Lelie, D; Chavarri, F; Venema, G; Gasson, M J

1991-01-01

334

The isolation of lactic acid bacteria from human colonic biopsies after enrichment on lactose derivatives and rye arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from human colon biopsies on LAMVAB by enrichment with different substrates such as lactose derivatives, rye arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides and rye fractions. The selected isolates were tested for their ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Only Lactobacillus species were enriched under these conditions. From 161 isolates screened, 28% were identified by ribotyping as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 29%

P Kontula; M.-L Suihko; T Suortti; M Tenkanen; T Mattila-Sandholm; A von Wright

2000-01-01

335

Lactose-Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Poly-L-Lysine as Hepatoma Cell-Targeted Gene Carrier  

E-print Network

outlined prospects for human gene therapy (1). Since then, gene therapy has represented a new paradigm to deliver the gene to the appropriate specific cells in sufficient quantities, gene therapy wouldLactose-Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Poly-L-Lysine as Hepatoma Cell-Targeted Gene Carrier Young

Park, Jong-Sang

336

Lactose Synthesis in a Monotreme, the Echidna ( Tachyglossus aculeatus): Isolation and Amino Acid Sequence of Echidna ?-Lactalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Lactalbumin and lysozyme were each isolated from echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) milk by gel permeation and ion exchange chromatography. The ?-lactalbumin modified the action of echidna milk galactosyltransferase to promote the synthesis of lactose but had very little effect on bovine galactosyltransferase. Echidna ?-lactalbumin is a glycosylated protein with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000 (SDS-PAGE) whose concentration in the milk

Michael Messer; Mervyn Griffiths; Peggy D Rismiller; Denis C Shaw

1997-01-01

337

Influence de l'ingestion de lactose sur le mtabolisme protique de l'agneau nouveau-n  

E-print Network

). Introduction. L'ingestion de colostrum s'accompagne d'une stimulation du métabolisme protéique de l., 1985a). La digestion du lactose du colostrum assure au nouveau-né, dès les premiers repas, un apport de musculaire consécutive à l'ingestion de colostrum par l'agneau nouveau-né pourrait en partie résulter des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Cold Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... of the brain that causes blood vessels to contract, and the hypothalmus, the part that controls the ... message to the capillaries of the skin to contract when it is cold (Bodian, 1949) . Consequently, as ...

339

A proposed definition of the 'activity' of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation.  

PubMed

A new definition of the activity of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation is proposed which relates to drug detachment during dispersion. The new definition is expected to improve the understanding of 'carrier surface site activity', which stimulates the unambiguous communication about this subject and may aid in the rational design and interpretation of future formulation studies. In contrast to the currently prevailing view on carrier surface site activity, it follows from the newly proposed definition that carrier surface site activity depends on more variables than just the physicochemical properties of the carrier surface. Because the term 'active sites' is ambiguous, it is recommended to use the term 'highly active sites' instead to denote carrier surface sites with a relatively high activity. PMID:24613490

Grasmeijer, Floris; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

2014-06-01

340

Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.  

PubMed

Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. PMID:22541456

Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

2012-05-01

341

Blaming for a better future: future orientation and associated intolerance of personal uncertainty lead to harsher reactions toward innocent victims.  

PubMed

People are often encouraged to focus on the future and strive for long-term goals. This noted, the authors argue that this future orientation is associated with intolerance of personal uncertainty, as people usually cannot be certain that their efforts will pay off. To be able to tolerate personal uncertainty, people adhere strongly to the belief in a just world, paradoxically resulting in harsher reactions toward innocent victims. In three experiments, the authors show that a future orientation indeed leads to more negative evaluations of an innocent victim (Study 1), enhances intolerance of personal uncertainty (Study 2), and that experiencing personal uncertainty leads to more negative evaluations of a victim (Study 3). So, while a future orientation enables people to strive for long-term goals, it also leads them to be harsher toward innocent victims. One underlying mechanism causing these reactions is intolerance of personal uncertainty, associated with a future orientation. PMID:22492551

Bal, Michèlle; van den Bos, Kees

2012-07-01

342

Dynamic tracheal collapse as a cause of exercise intolerance in a thoroughbred.  

PubMed

A 2-year-old Thoroughbred filly was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of exercise intolerance. Resting videoendoscopic evaluation (i.e., while the horse was standing) of the nasopharynx and trachea revealed right arytenoid paresis and a tracheal defect that was 100 cm distal to the external nares. Surgery, consisting of a right prosthetic laryngoplasty, was performed. However, postoperative videoendoscopic evaluation revealed minimal abduction of the affected arytenoid cartilage. Dynamic videoendoscopic evaluation (i.e., while the horse was exercising) revealed the right arytenoid to be fixed in a submaximal position with no evidence of collapse into the airway. When the endoscope was positioned in the midcervical tracheal region, marked tracheal collapse was identified during exercise. Tracheal collapse can critically limit athletic function. Treatment of tracheal collapse depends on causative factors, the length of the trachea involved, and accessibility of the affected tracheal segment. The use of dynamic tracheal videoendoscopy should be considered in athletic horses with exercise intolerance in which the cause cannot be determined from resting or dynamic videoendoscopic evaluations of the nasopharynx. PMID:10707689

Tetens, J; Hubert, J D; Eddy, A L; Moore, R M

2000-03-01

343

Marked Exacerbation of Orthostatic Intolerance After Long vs. Short-Duration Spaceflight in Veteran Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance following short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence following long-duration spaceflight is unknown. We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after their long-duration (129 - 190 days) spaceflights and compared these data to those obtained during stand tests before and after their previous short-duration missions and also to tilt test data from 20 different short-duration (8 - 16 days) flight astronauts. Five of these six became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights: only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. Five of the twenty astronauts who flew on other short-duration flights, became presyncopal during upright tilt on landing day. Long-duration presyncopal subjects had lower stroke volumes, lower cardiac outputs and higher peripheral vascular resistance than short-duration presyncopal subjects, but their heart rate responses were not different. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after a long but not short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably related to altered autonomic function.

Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Reyes, Carlos; Perez, Sondra A.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

344

Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Renin Exhibit Glucose Intolerance and Diet-Genotype Interactions  

PubMed Central

Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass. PMID:23308073

Fletcher, Sarah J.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Kim, Jung Han; Saxton, Arnold M.; Wasserman, David H.; De Taeye, Bart; Voy, Brynn H.; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

2013-01-01

345

Interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not understood. If genetic predisposition were important in the pathogenesis of IOI, monozygotic twins of patients with IOI should have similar hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities. METHODS: We studied two patients with IOI and their identical twins. Both siblings in the first twin pair had orthostatic symptoms, significant orthostatic tachycardia, increased plasma norepinephrine levels with standing, and a greater than normal decrease in systolic blood pressure with trimethaphan infusion. RESULTS: Both siblings had a normal response of plasma renin activity to upright posture. In the second twin pair, only one sibling had symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, an orthostatic tachycardia, and raised plasma catecholamines with standing. The affected sibling had inappropriately low plasma renin activity with standing and was 8-fold more sensitive to the pressor effect of phenylephrine than the unaffected sibling. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in some patients, IOI seems to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. In others, however, IOI may be mainly caused by nongenetic factors. These findings suggest that IOI is heterogenous, and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute individually or collectively to create the IOI phenotype.

Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Jacob, G.; Pohar, B.; Robertson, D.

1999-01-01

346

Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: Results from a reputation-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.

Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.

2014-08-01

347

Cardiac-specific VLCAD deficiency induces dilated cardiomyopathy and cold intolerance  

PubMed Central

The very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) enzyme catalyzes the first step of mitochondrial ?-oxidation. Patients with VLCAD deficiency present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and cardiomyopathy, which can be exacerbated by fasting and/or cold stress. Global VLCAD knockout mice recapitulate these phenotypes: mice develop cardiomyopathy, and cold exposure leads to rapid hypothermia and death. However, the contribution of different tissues to development of these phenotypes has not been studied. We generated cardiac-specific VLCAD-deficient (cVLCAD?/?) mice by Cre-mediated ablation of the VLCAD in cardiomyocytes. By 6 mo of age, cVLCAD?/? mice demonstrated increased end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular dimensions and decreased fractional shortening. Surprisingly, selective VLCAD gene ablation in cardiomyocytes was sufficient to evoke severe cold intolerance in mice who rapidly developed severe hypothermia, bradycardia, and markedly depressed cardiac function in response to fasting and cold exposure (+5°C). We conclude that cardiac-specific VLCAD deficiency is sufficient to induce cold intolerance and cardiomyopathy and is associated with reduced ATP production. These results provide strong evidence that fatty acid oxidation in myocardium is essential for maintaining normal cardiac function under these stress conditions. PMID:24285112

Xiong, Dingding; He, Huamei; James, Jeanne; Tokunaga, Chonan; Powers, Corey; Huang, Yan; Osinska, Hanna; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Purevjav, Enkhsaikhan; Balschi, James A.; Javadov, Sabzali; McGowan, Francis X.; Strauss, Arnold W.

2013-01-01

348

Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.  

PubMed

The food contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) is pointed out as a risk factor in development of food allergy and food intolerance, two adverse food reactions increasing worldwide. We evaluated the consequences of perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA on immune-specific response to the food antigen ovalbumin (OVA) at adulthood. Perinatal exposure to BPA (0.5, 5, or 50 ?g/kg/d) from 15th day of gravidity to pups weaning resulted in an increase of anti-OVA IgG titers at all BPA dosages in OVA-tolerized rats, and at 5 ?g/kg/d in OVA-immunized rats compared to control rats treated with vehicle. In BPA-treated and OVA-tolerized rats, increased anti-OVA IgG titers were associated with higher IFN? secretion by the spleen. This result is in accordance with the increase of activated CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) T lymphocytes observed in spleen of BPA-exposed rats compared to controls. Finally, when BPA-treated OVA-tolerized rats were orally challenged with OVA, colonic inflammation occurred, with neutrophil infiltration, increased IFN?, and decreased TGF?. We show that perinatal exposure to BPA altered oral tolerance and immunization to dietary antigens (OVA). In summary, the naive immune system of neonate is vulnerable to low doses of BPA that trigger food intolerance later in life. PMID:25085925

Menard, Sandrine; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Leveque, Mathilde; Braniste, Viorica; Lencina, Corinne; Naturel, Manon; Moussa, Lara; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Gaultier, Eric; Theodorou, Vassilia; Houdeau, Eric

2014-11-01

349

Leucocyte interferon-alpha retreatment for chronic hepatitis C patients previously intolerant to other interferons.  

PubMed

The activity and tolerability of a retreatment cycle with leucocyte interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) (6 million units (MU) three times weekly for 12 months) was evaluated in a group of 22 hepatitis C patients who had been intolerant to a previous course of lymphoblastoid IFN-alpha. Seven patients (31%) discontinued the new therapy owing to either a lack of response (six patients) or to severe leucopenia (one patient). Fifteen patients (68%) completed the 12-month treatment: all had a biochemical response and 10 (45%) also had disappearance of serum HCV RNA (complete response). Mild adverse reactions (fever, headaches and diarrhoea) were seen in these patients during retreatment. After 12 months of follow-up, 11 patients (50%) still maintained the biochemical response (long-term response); seven of these patients (32%) were also negative for serum HCV RNA. Biochemical and complete responses, at the end of both treatment and follow-up, were similar to those seen with lymphoblastoid IFN-alpha. The full dose of leucocyte IFN-alpha, when used in patients previously intolerant to the same dosage of lymphoblastoid IFN-alpha, was better tolerated: only one of the 15 patients who completed the 12-month treatment had a severe adverse event leading to withdrawal vs 22 of 68 patients treated with lymphoblastoid IFN-alpha. Furthermore, there were no manifestations of serological or clinical autoimmunity caused by leucocyte IFN-alpha, even in patients with autoantibodies associated with previous IFN therapy. PMID:9795917

Cacopardo, B; Benanti, F; Brancati, G; Romano, F; Nunnari, A

1998-09-01

350

Effects of Metoclopramide on Feeding Intolerance among Preterm Neonates; A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of metoclopramide in the treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm neonates less than 36 weeks of gestational age. Methods: A randomized, controlled, masked cross-over study. A block of 4 randomizations was used. The “drug group” received intravenous metoclopramide before feeding and placebo group received placebo at the same time. The time to full enteral feeding and suspected adverse effects of metoclopramide, length of hospital stay or incidence of NEC or septicemia were the main outcome measures. Findings: Mean (standard deviation) of weight and Apgar score among metoclopramide and placebo groups were 1638.3±321 gr, 8.9±1.4 and 1593.3±318.8 gr, 8.8±1.3 respectively. Times to full feeding were significantly shorter in the metoclopramide group than in the control group (12.9±5.6 vs 17.0±6.3; P<0.0001) and also the numbers of withheld feedings were significantly lower (P<0.0001). According to the regression analysis, lower weight and placebo group were significantly related to increasing of lavage frequency, number of vomits, start time of feeding, number of feeding cessations and decreased feeding completion time (P<0.0001).No adverse effects of this treatment modality were observed in the two groups. Conclusion: Intravenous metoclopramide may be considered as an attempt in facilitating and treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm neonates.

Mussavi, Mirhadi; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Abangah, Ghobad

2014-01-01

351

Postpsychotic posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with fear of recurrence and intolerance of uncertainty.  

PubMed

Experiencing psychosis can be sufficiently distressing to precipitate symptoms of postpsychotic posttraumatic stress disorder (PP-PTSD). The current research sought to investigate potential associations that PP-PTSD had with the Fear of Recurrence Scale and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Twenty-seven individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV Schizophrenia and adjudged to be distressed by their experience of psychosis were recruited by referral to the study. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was used to assess participants for PP-PTSD. Clinical rating scales (PANSS, HADS, and IES-R) and measures assessing appraisals of paranoia and hallucinatory voices (BAPS and IVI) were also employed. The prevalence rate of PP-PTSD in the sample was 37%. PP-PTSD caseness was associated with being fearful about psychosis recurring, being intolerant of uncertainty, and making negative appraisals of paranoia. Logistical regression analyses indicated that fear of recurrence was a significant predictor of PP-PTSD caseness. The implications of these results for understanding how fear and worry processes might influence emotional adaptation following psychosis are discussed. PMID:19996723

White, Ross G; Gumley, Andrew I

2009-11-01

352

Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... to other digestive conditions like lactose intolerance or celiac disease , though, so it's important to see a doctor ... Well While Eating Out Lactose Intolerance Digestive System Celiac Disease Ulcers Inflammatory Bowel Disease Contact Us Print Additional ...

353

What People Mistake for Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... than usual amounts of these foods, and most lactose-intolerant people can tolerate hard cheeses, yogurt and sour cream without developing symptoms. Most people diagnose lactose intolerance without any scientific tests—they simply identify ...

354

The effectiveness of switching antidepressants during remission: a case series of depressed patients who experienced intolerable side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is unknown whether depressed patients who have experienced intolerable side effects to one antidepressant can safely and effectively be switched to a second antidepressant while the depressive disorder is in remission. The present study sought to determine the viability of such a strategy. Methods: All subjects were psychiatric outpatients who were treated in an open-label manner according to

Michael A. Posternak; Mark Zimmerman

2002-01-01

355

The Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America. Student Text ("Us and Them") and Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Shadow of Hate" resource kit provides a videotape program (40 minutes), 20 copies of a 128-page student text ("Us and Them"), and a 32-page teacher's guide. This document consists of single copies of the two printed components of this kit. The resource traces the history of racial, religious, and social intolerance in the United States.…

Carnes, Jim; Roberson, Houston

356

Biological control of intolerant hardwood competition: Silvicultural efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum and worker productivity in conifer plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vigorous vegetative reproduction of intolerant deciduous competition limits the efficacy of mechanical release operations in young softwood plantations. Applying bioherbicides such as the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouzar could improve the effectiveness of release by reducing stump sprouting while gaining public acceptance. A field experiment was conducted in Québec (Canada) in two white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench

Vincent Roy; Denise Dubeau; Isabelle Auger

2010-01-01

357

Fatty liver disease and hypertransaminasemia hiding the association of clinically silent Duchenne muscular dystrophy and hereditary fructose intolerance  

PubMed Central

We report a case with the association of well self-compensated hereditary fructose intolerance and still poorly symptomatic Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. This case illustrates the problems of a correct diagnosis in sub-clinical patients presenting with “cryptogenic” hypertransaminasemia. PMID:23114028

2012-01-01

358

Does distress intolerance moderate the link between ADHD symptoms and number of sexual partners?  

PubMed

Previous research demonstrates that ADHD symptoms are related to increased risky sexual behavior. Distress intolerance (DIT) has also been linked to risk behavior and may also be related to increased risky sexual behavior. Thus, we evaluated the degree to which DIT moderated the link between ADHD symptoms and number of casual and monogamous sexual partners. Participants were undergraduate psychology students (N = 660; 30 % male; M = 20.23, SD = 1.40; 47 % European American) who completed an online assessment. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that several DIT constructs, specifically tolerance, appraisal, and regulation, moderated the link between ADHD symptoms and casual sex partners. Only regulation moderated the association between ADHD symptoms and monogamous sex partners. Results suggest that difficulty managing distress moderates the link between ADHD symptoms and number of sexual partners. These results have important implications for prevention and intervention program development. PMID:24858733

Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Willis, Danielle

2015-03-01

359

[Demonstration of sulfite-group-specific IgE in patients with intolerance to preservatives].  

PubMed

On the basis of the selection of a population of patients intolerant to sulfites by the clinical history, a simple blind oral provocation test and a basophil activation test, we explored the basophil activation reaction induced by sulfites after passive sensitisation of blood donors basophils. We demonstrated that the percentages of activation obtained with a non covalent reagent (MBS-HSA), a covalent reagent (sulfonyl-HSA) and the optimal concentration of an anti-IgE were not significantly different. Human basophil activation was negativated by heating the transferred sera and by competition with a monoclonal human IgE. We also observed mediator release (histamine and LTC4) with a low frequency, histamine release being strictly related to the carrier protein concentration. In two cases, sulfite specific IgE were detected by ELISA. These results are in favour of the specificity and the IgE dependent nature of basophil activation induced by sulfites. PMID:7518236

Sainte-Laudy, J; Vallon, C; Guérin, J C

1994-04-01

360

The intolerance of uncertainty construct in the context of anxiety disorders: theoretical and practical perspectives.  

PubMed

Modern anxiety disorder models implicitly include intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a critical component for the development and maintenance of these pervasive social and economic concerns. IU represents, at its core, fear of the unknown - a long-recognized, deep-seated fear identified in normative and pathological samples. Indeed, the intrinsic nature of IU can be argued as evolutionarily supported, a notion buttressed by initial biophysiological evidence from uncertainty-related research. Originally thought to be specific to generalized anxiety disorder, recent research has clearly demonstrated that IU is a broad transdiagnostic dispositional risk factor for the development and maintenance of clinically significant anxiety. The available evidence suggests that theorists, researchers and clinicians may benefit from explicitly incorporating IU into models, research designs, case conceptualizations and as a treatment target. PMID:23002938

Carleton, R Nicholas

2012-08-01

361

Development of lower body negative pressure as a countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to prolonged (1-4 hr) lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a countermeasure against postflight orthostatic intolerance which is used in the Soviet space program and planned for use in the American space program. LBNP in combination with fluid-loading is believed to act by promoting a transient positive fluid balance resulting in an increase in vascular, as well as extravascular fluid. Inflight LBNP also may provide beneficial orthostatic effects by restoring baroreceptor reflex functions and/or lower body venous compliance. Current research efforts at the Johnson Space Center are directed toward increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the LBNP and saline countermeasure. A promising avenue may involve combining pharmacologic agents, such as inhaled anti-diuretic hormone, or mineralocorticoids, with mechanical stimuli such as LBNP.

Fortney, Suzanne M.

1991-01-01

362

"What if I make a mistake?": intolerance of uncertainty is associated with poor behavioral performance.  

PubMed

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been posited as ubiquitous across experiences of anxiety; however, studies testing how IU impacts behavior remain scant. The current study examined the impact of IU on performance during a keyboard typing task, a relatively complex and common behavior. A total of 40 members of the university community completed the task and measures of IU, trait anxiety, negative affect, and state anxiety. Heart rate and skin conductance were also assessed during the task as indices of state anxiety. IU was independently and substantially associated with slower typing speed (part r = -0.68) beyond other measured psychological and physiological variables but was not associated with typing errors. Prospective and inhibitory IU, as manifestations of IU, did not seemingly differ in their relationship with performance. IU may negatively impact day-to-day behaviors and contribute to undesired consequences. Further research is needed to explore whether this relationship warrants consideration in models of anxiety disorders. PMID:23995031

Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; Gómez-Pérez, Lydia; Asmundson, Gordon J G

2013-09-01

363

Laid bare: religious intolerance within online commentary about 'bare below the elbows' guidance in professional journals.  

PubMed

The decision by the Department of Health to introduce amendments to the uniform and workwear policy for the NHS in response to increasing problems with infection control seemed uncontroversial. There was, however, some difficulty with implementing the policy, which arose largely because of the conflict this caused for staff who wished to keep their arms covered for reasons which stemmed from religious beliefs. This paper uses textual analysis to examine how those reasons and challenges were discussed in online commentary within a medical and nursing journal. The papers shows that there was a marked difference in how the two groups of professionals responded to the changes to workwear, and exposes a worrying degree of religious intolerance expressed by contributors to the nursing journal. PMID:23575472

Jones, June; Shanks, Andrew

2013-09-01

364

Lactose malabsorption in Bangladeshi village children: relation with age, history of recent diarrhea, nutritional status, and breast feeding.  

PubMed

The prevalence of lactose malabsorption (LM) among Bangladeshi village children has been determined using the recent developed breath hydrogen test. Initial hospital-based comparison studies showed general agreement between the breath hydrogen test and a modified lactose tolerance test. Two hundred thirty-four children, stratified by age, nutritional status, and history of recent diarrhea then participated in the field study. LM was diagnosed in more than 80% of children over 36 months of age but in none of the children under 6 months. Rates of LM were significantly increased in children with a history of recent diarrhea and a greater proportion of children in some age groups evidenced malabsorption in association with acute undernutrition. In the weanling age group children who were still breast feeding had a lower rate of LM than fully weaned subjects. PMID:474486

Brown, K H; Parry, L; Khatun, M; Ahmed, G

1979-09-01

365

Conversion of lactose to ?- d-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)- d- arabino-hexos-2-ulose-(2-dehydrolactose) and lactobiono-1,5-lactone by fungal pyranose dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quinone-dependent pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) purified from culture media of the basidiomycete fungus Agaricus xanthoderma catalyzed the simultaneous oxidation of lactose to ?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-d-arabino-hexos-2-ulose (2-dehydrolactose) and lactobiono-1,5-lactone, with the latter spontaneously hydrolyzing to lactobionic acid. These products were identified by MS and in situ NMR spectroscopy. C-2 oxidation at the reducing moiety of lactose was confirmed by analysis of

Jind?ich Volc; Petr Sedmera; Magdalena Kujawa; Petr Halada; Elena Kubátová; Dietmar Haltrich

2004-01-01

366

High-resolution Crystal Structures of Erythrina cristagalli Lectin in Complex with Lactose and 2?-?- l-Fucosyllactose and Correlation with Thermodynamic Binding Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary sequence of Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) was mapped by mass spectrometry, and the crystal structures of the lectin in complex with lactose and 2?-?-l-fucosyllactose were determined at 1.6Å and 1.7Å resolution, respectively. The two complexes were compared with the crystal structure of the closely related Erythrina corallodendron lectin (ECorL) in complex with lactose, with the crystal structure of

Cecilia Svensson; Susann Teneberg; Carol L. Nilsson; Anders Kjellberg; Frederick P. Schwarz; Nathan Sharon; Ute Krengel

2002-01-01

367

Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as a human model of orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Observations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effect of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on cardiovascular responses to cold pressor testing, handgrip testing, and a graded head-up tilt test (HUT) in 18 healthy subjects. In a subset, we determined isoproterenol and phenylephrine sensitivities. Subjects ingested 8 mg reboxetine or placebo 12 hours and 1 hour before testing. In the supine position, heart rate was 65+/-2 bpm with placebo and 71+/-3 bpm with reboxetine. At 75 degrees HUT, heart rate was 84+/-3 and 119+/-4 bpm with placebo and with reboxetine (P<0.0001). Mean arterial pressure was 85+/-2 with placebo and 91+/-2 mm Hg with reboxetine while supine (P<0.01) and 88+/-2 mm Hg and 90+/-3 mm Hg at 75 degrees HUT. Blood pressure responses to cold pressor and handgrip testing were attenuated with reboxetine. Reboxetine increased the sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of isoproterenol and the pressor effect of phenylephrine. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 9 subjects on placebo and in 1 subject on reboxetine. CONCLUSIONS: Selective NET blockade creates a phenotype that resembles idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. This observation supports the hypothesis that disordered norepinephrine uptake mechanisms can contribute to human cardiovascular disease. Our study also suggests that NET inhibition might be useful in preventing vasovagal reactions.

Schroeder, Christoph; Tank, Jens; Boschmann, Michael; Diedrich, Andre; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

368

Muscle oxygen transport and utilization in heart failure: implications for exercise (in)tolerance  

PubMed Central

The defining characteristic of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an exercise intolerance that is inextricably linked to structural and functional aberrations in the O2 transport pathway. CHF reduces muscle O2 supply while simultaneously increasing O2 demands. CHF severity varies from moderate to severe and is assessed commonly in terms of the maximum O2 uptake, which relates closely to patient morbidity and mortality in CHF and forms the basis for Weber and colleagues' (167) classifications of heart failure, speed of the O2 uptake kinetics following exercise onset and during recovery, and the capacity to perform submaximal exercise. As the heart fails, cardiovascular regulation shifts from controlling cardiac output as a means for supplying the oxidative energetic needs of exercising skeletal muscle and other organs to preventing catastrophic swings in blood pressure. This shift is mediated by a complex array of events that include altered reflex and humoral control of the circulation, required to prevent the skeletal muscle “sleeping giant” from outstripping the pathologically limited cardiac output and secondarily impacts lung (and respiratory muscle), vascular, and locomotory muscle function. Recently, interest has also focused on the dysregulation of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? as well as reactive oxygen species as mediators of systemic and muscle dysfunction. This brief review focuses on skeletal muscle to address the mechanistic bases for the reduced maximum O2 uptake, slowed O2 uptake kinetics, and exercise intolerance in CHF. Experimental evidence in humans and animal models of CHF unveils the microvascular cause(s) and consequences of the O2 supply (decreased)/O2 demand (increased) imbalance emblematic of CHF. Therapeutic strategies to improve muscle microvascular and oxidative function (e.g., exercise training and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant strategies, in particular) and hence patient exercise tolerance and quality of life are presented within their appropriate context of the O2 transport pathway. PMID:22101528

Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Musch, Timothy I.

2012-01-01

369

Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

2010-01-01

370

Endothelial Function in Women with and without a History of Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and milder gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) identify women who are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by impaired flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) on brachial artery ultrasound, is an early marker of vascular disease. Thus, we sought to evaluate endothelial function in women with and without recent glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Methods. One-hundred and seventeen women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in pregnancy, enabling stratification into those with normal gestational glucose tolerance (n = 59) and those with GDM or GIGT (n = 58). 6 years postpartum, they underwent a repeat of OGTT and brachial artery FMD studies, enabling assessment of FMD and 4 secondary vascular measures: FMD after 60 seconds (FMD60), baseline arterial diameter, peak shear rate, and reactive hyperemia. Results. There were no differences between the normal gestational glucose tolerance and GDM/GIGT groups in FMD (mean 8.5 versus 9.3%, P = 0.61), FMD60 (4.1 versus 5.1%, P = 0.33), baseline diameter (3.4 versus 3.4?mm, P = 0.66), peak shear rate (262.6 versus 274.8?s?1, P = 0.32), and reactive hyperemia (576.6 versus 496.7%, P = 0.07). After covariate adjustment, there were still no differences between the groups. Conclusion. Despite their long-term cardiovascular risk, women with glucose intolerance in pregnancy do not display endothelial dysfunction 6 years postpartum. PMID:23819127

Floras, John; Retnakaran, Ravi

2013-01-01

371

Busulfan in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) resistant or intolerant to hydroxyurea are limited. Busulfan is effective as first-line therapy, but there is scarce information on this drug as second-line treatment. The efficacy of busulfan in patients with advanced PV or ET refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea was assessed in 36 patients (PV n = 15, ET n = 21) treated for a median of 256 days. Complete hematological response (CHR) was achieved in 83 % of patients, after a median time of 203 days (range 92-313). The probability of sustained CHR at 1 and 2 years was 87 and 62 %, respectively. Time to CHR was shorter in patients treated with ?14 mg of busulfan per week than with lower doses (141 versus 336 days, p = 0.01). Partial molecular response was achieved in three out of nine (33 %) patients. Busulfan was stopped in 27 patients (75 %) due to CHR achievement in 18 cases (67 %), hematological toxicity in 8 cases (30 %), and disease transformation in 1 case. With a median follow-up of 721 days, six patients have died, with the probability of survival at 2 years being 85 %. The probability of thrombosis at 2 years was 11 %. Transformation into acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in three cases, all of them in a JAK2V617F-negative clone carrying additional mutations. Busulfan, at a dose of 2 mg/day, is an effective option for elderly patients with PV or ET who fail to hydroxyurea, but a significant rate of transformation was observed. PMID:24981691

Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Hernández-Boluda, Juan Carlos; Ferrer-Marín, Francisca; Antelo, María Luisa; Burgaleta, Carmen; Mata, M Isabel; Xicoy, Blanca; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Gómez-Casares, M Teresa; Durán, M Antonia; Marcote, Bárbara; Ancochea, Agueda; Senín, Alicia; Angona, Anna; Gómez, Montse; Vicente, Vicente; Cervantes, Francisco; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles

2014-12-01

372

Uptake of lactose and continuous lactic acid fermentation by entrapped non-growing Lactobacillus helveticus in whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous production of lactic acid from lactose has been carried out in a stirred-tank reactor with non-growing Lactobacillus helveticus entrapped in calcium alginate beads. A considerably longer operation half-life was obtained in a continuously operated reactor\\u000a than in a batch-operated reactor. It is possible to simulate the action of entrapped non-growing cells on the basis of information\\u000a from diffusion and

J. Øyaas; I. Storrø; D. W. Levine

1996-01-01

373

Effects of essential amino acids and lactose on bony fractures and defects in rabbits: a preliminary histomorphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was performed in order to test the possibility of improving bone repair with the administration of\\u000a a drug (Calciofix, Farmaceutici Damor SpA, Naples, Italy) containing essential amino acids and lactose. Fifty rabbits were\\u000a submitted to an open transversal fracture of the left fibula and to a right femoral condyle defect. They were left untreated\\u000a or treated daily

M. Fini; N. N. Aldini; V. Canè; D. Zaffe; G. Giavaresi; M. Rocca; G. A. Guzzardella; R. Giardino

1999-01-01

374

NMR confirmation of an alkali-insoluble glucan from Kluyveromyces marxianus cultivated on a lactose-based medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus grown in a sterile lactose-based medium, were extracted with sodium hydroxide to give a fraction of alkali-insoluble yeast (AIY) glucan. From 1H- and 13C-NMR characterization it was concluded that the glucan consisted mostly of ß(1 ? 3) linkages and was similar to that obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the preparations for skin revitalization and

Tredwell Lukondeh; Nicholas J. Ashbolt; Peter L. Rogers; James M. Hook

2003-01-01

375

Selective chemo-catalytic oxidation of lactose and\\/of lactobionic acid towards 1-carboxylactulose (2-keto-lactobionic acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous liquid phase selective catalytic oxidation of lactose and\\/of lactobionic acid towards 1-carboxylactulose (2-keto-lactobionic acid) was investigated. Bismuth-modified platinum catalyst with air as the terminal oxidant was the catalyst of choice to carry out this conversion. The oxidation of lactobionic acid was performed with a selectivity >95% towards 1-carboxylactulose but the conversion did not exceed 50% due to poisoning of

A. Abbadi; K. F. Gotlieb; J. B. M. Meiberg; H. van Bekkum

1997-01-01

376

Application of in situ catalyst potential measurements for estimation of reaction performance: Lactose oxidation over Au and Pd catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold and palladium catalysts were successfully applied in aerobic d-lactose oxidation. Comparison between these catalysts revealed, that gold catalysts are more active and selective for the production of the first reaction product, lactobionic acid, while Pd can be of importance when the product of second consecutive reaction, 2-keto-lactobionic acid is aimed at. The electrochemical catalyst potential response was measured in

A. V. Tokarev; E. V. Murzina; J.-P. Mikkola; J. Kuusisto; L. M. Kustov; D. Yu. Murzin

2007-01-01

377

Selective production of lactobionic acid by aerobic oxidation of lactose over gold crystallites supported on mesoporous silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial oxidation of lactose over Au-based catalyst system using nanostructured silica materials with improved activity, selectivity and stability was investigated as a novel chemo-catalytic approach for selective synthesis of lactobionic acid (LBA) for therapeutic, pharmaceutical and food grad applications.Highly active gold crystallites dispersed on mesoporous silica (SiO2-meso) using bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTSPT), a silane coupling agent to immobilize gold, were

Luis-Felipe Gutierrez; Safia Hamoudi; Khaled Belkacemi

2011-01-01

378

Functional Properties of Nonfat Dairy Ingredients — A Review. Modification of Lactose and Products Containing Whey Proteins1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey proteins can be modified by a variety of physical, chemical, or enzymatic processes. The principal whey proteins, a- lactalbumin and 3-1actoglobulin, are sen- sitive to heat. Once denatured, ionic and pH conditions can be altered and com- bined with centrifugation to produce traditional products such as lactalbumin. Relatively undentatured whey proteins can be selectively depleted of ions and lactose

H. W. Modler

1985-01-01

379

Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (p<.06) when controlling for FTND. Lower withdrawal intolerance significantly predicted 3month abstinence when controlling for FTND. Higher withdrawal intolerance pretreatment correlated with less motivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation. PMID:25531536

Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

2015-04-01

380

Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.  

PubMed

Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach. PMID:24732384

Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

2014-09-30

381

Lactose in Human Breast Milk an Inducer of Innate Immunity with Implications for a Role in Intestinal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Postpartum, infants have not yet established a fully functional adaptive immune system and are at risk of acquiring infections. Hence, newborns are dependent on the innate immune system with its antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins expressed at epithelial surfaces. Several factors in breast milk are known to confer immune protection, but which the decisive factors are and through which manner they work is unknown. Here, we isolated an AMP-inducing factor from human milk and identified it by electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR to be lactose. It induces the gene (CAMP) that encodes the only human cathelicidin LL-37 in colonic epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction was suppressed by two different p38 antagonists, indicating an effect via the p38-dependent pathway. Lactose also induced CAMP in the colonic epithelial cell line T84 and in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. It further exhibited a synergistic effect with butyrate and phenylbutyrate on CAMP induction. Together, these results suggest an additional function of lactose in innate immunity by upregulating gastrointestinal AMPs that may lead to protection of the neonatal gut against pathogens and regulation of the microbiota of the infant. PMID:23326523

Printz, Gordana; Yoshio, Hiroyuki; Alvelius, Gunvor; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Strömberg, Roger; Jörnvall, Hans; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Agerberth, Birgitta

2013-01-01

382

Kinetic modeling of a bi-enzymatic system for efficient conversion of lactose to lactobionic acid.  

PubMed

A model has been developed to describe the interaction between two enzymes and an intermediary redox mediator. In this bi-enzymatic process, the enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase oxidizes lactose at the C-1 position of the reducing sugar moiety to lactobionolactone, which spontaneously hydrolyzes to lactobionic acid. 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt is used as electron acceptor and is continuously regenerated by laccase. Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor and is fully reduced to water by laccase, a copper-containing oxidase. Oxygen is added to the system by means of bubble-free oxygenation. Using the model, the productivity of the process is investigated by simultaneous solution of the rate equations for varying enzyme quantities and redox mediator concentrations, solved with the aid of a numerical solution. The isocharts developed in this work provide an easy-to-use graphical tool to determine optimal process conditions. The model allows the optimization of the employed activities of the two enzymes and the redox mediator concentration for a given overall oxygen mass transfer coefficient by using the isocharts. Model predictions are well in agreement with the experimental data. PMID:18988269

Van Hecke, Wouter; Bhagwat, Aditya; Ludwig, Roland; Dewulf, Jo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Van Langenhove, Herman

2009-04-01

383

Classification of lactose and mandelic acid THz spectra using subspace and wavelet-packet algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work compares classification results of lactose, mandelic acid and dl-mandelic acid, obtained on the basis of their respective THz transients. The performance of three different pre-processing algorithms applied to the time-domain signatures obtained using a THz-transient spectrometer are contrasted by evaluating the classifier performance. A range of amplitudes of zero-mean white Gaussian noise are used to artificially degrade the signal-to-noise ratio of the time-domain signatures to generate the data sets that are presented to the classifier for both learning and validation purposes. This gradual degradation of interferograms by increasing the noise level is equivalent to performing measurements assuming a reduced integration time. Three signal processing algorithms were adopted for the evaluation of the complex insertion loss function of the samples under study; a) standard evaluation by ratioing the sample with the background spectra, b) a subspace identification algorithm and c) a novel wavelet-packet identification procedure. Within class and between class dispersion metrics are adopted for the three data sets. A discrimination metric evaluates how well the three classes can be distinguished within the frequency range 0.1 - 1.0 THz using the above algorithms.

Yin, Xiaoxia; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Fischer, Bernd M.; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Paiva, Henrique M.; Galvão, Roberto K. H.; Walker, Gillian C.; Bowen, John W.; Abbott, Derek

2007-12-01

384

Milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose activates intestinal CD11c+ cells through TLR4  

PubMed Central

Breast milk oligosaccharides shape the intestinal environment by affecting mucosal immunity and bacterial colonization. To clarify the role of milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose (3SL) in intestinal physiology and disease, we investigated colitis development in Il10?/? mice exposed to normal or 3SL-deficient milk during lactation. Onset and progression of intestinal inflammation were delayed in Il10?/? mice deficient for the ?2,3 sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) responsible for 3SL biosynthesis. The proinflammatory role of 3SL was confirmed by showing that oral supplementation of newborn Il10?/?;St3gal4?/? mice with 3SL increased colitis severity. Conversely, fostering of newborn Il10?/? mice to lactating St3gal4?/? mothers reduced colitis severity. 3SL directly stimulated mesenteric lymph node CD11c+ dendritic cells and induced production of cytokines required for expansion of TH1 and TH17 T cells. The stimulatory effect of 3SL was attenuated in Tlr4-deficient CD11c+ cells, demonstrating that 3SL induces inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus, 3SL directly modulates mucosal immunity, which increases susceptibility to colitis. PMID:24101501

Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Hennet, Thierry; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Borsig, Lubor

2013-01-01

385

Dynamic modeling of gene expression in prokaryotes: application to glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Coexpression of genes or, more generally, similarity in the expression profiles poses an unsurmountable obstacle to inferring the gene regulatory network (GRN) based solely on data from DNA microarray time series. Clustering of genes with similar expression profiles allows for a course-grained view of the GRN and a probabilistic determination of the connectivity among the clusters. We present a model for the temporal evolution of a gene cluster network which takes into account interactions of gene products with genes and, through a non-constant degradation rate, with other gene products. The number of model parameters is reduced by using polynomial functions to interpolate temporal data points. In this manner, the task of parameter estimation is reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations, thus making the computation time shorter by orders of magnitude. To eliminate irrelevant networks, we test each GRN for stability with respect to parameter variations, and impose restrictions on its behavior near the steady state. We apply our model and methods to DNA microarray time series' data collected on Escherichia coli during glucose-lactose diauxie and infer the most probable cluster network for different phases of the experiment.

Jaroslav Albert; Marianne Rooman

2011-06-01

386

Molecularly defined lactose malabsorption, peak bone mass and bone turnover rate in young finnish men.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption (LM; adult-type hypolactasia), an autosomal recessive condition, results from the down-regulation of the activity of lactase enzyme in the intestinal wall. In previous studies the effect of LM on bone mass, bone turnover rate, development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures has remained controversial. We have recently identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a C to T change residing 13910 base pairs upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene at chromosome 2q21-22, which shows complete association with lactase persistence, with the C/C-13910 genotype defining LM and the genotypes C/T-13910 and T/T-13910 lactase persistence. The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship of the C/T-13910 polymorphism to peak bone mass, bone turnover rate, and stress fractures among young Finnish men. The study population comprised 234 young men, aged 18.3 to 20.6 years, 184 men were recruits of the Finnish Army, and 50 were men of similar age who had postponed their military service for reasons not related to health. Bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD), and scan area were measured in the lumbar spine and upper femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Blood was sampled for genotyping of the C/T-13910 polymorphism and determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b). Second-void urine samples were collected for the determination of type I collagen aminoterminal telopeptide (NTX). The prevalence of the C/C-13910-genotype of these young adults did not differ significantly from the corresponding population prevalence of C/C-13910 (17.1% vs 18.1%) among Finnish blood donors. Fifteen recruits of the army experienced a stress fracture; 3 of them (20%) had the C/C-13910-genotype. Calcium intake was similar for the three genotypes as were the unadjusted BMCs, scan areas, and BMDs at different measurement sites. The adjustments for age, height, weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical exercise in the multiple regression analysis did not reveal any significant relationships between the lactase genotypes and BMDs at lumbar (P = 0.16), femoral neck (P = 0.99) or total hip (P = 0.96) sites. Serum 25OHD, iPTH, and bone marker levels were similar for the C/C-13910 C/T-13910 and T/T-13910 genotypes. In summary, in young Finnish men, molecularly defined lactose malabsorption does not alter bone turnover rate and impair the acquisition of peak bone mass. Moreover, the C/C-13910 genotype does not seem to be a risk factor for stress fractures in army recruits. PMID:15365657

Enattah, N; Välimäki, V-V; Välimäki, M J; Löyttyniemi, E; Sahi, T; Järvelä, I

2004-12-01

387

Compression Stockings May Ameliorate Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Short-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight has been observed since the early days of manned spaceflight, and no countermeasure has been 100% effective. During re-entry NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) which compresses the legs and abdomen, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Space Shuttle. We previously reported that foot-to-thigh, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective during standing after Shuttle missions. More recently we showed in a ground-based model of spaceflight that the addition of splanchnic compression to the foot-to-thigh compression stockings, creating foot-to-breast high compression, improved orthostatic tolerance in hypovolemic subjects to a level similar to the AGS. Purpose: To evaluate a new three-piece, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Fourteen astronauts completed this experiment (7 control, 7 treatment) following Space Shuttle missions lasting 12-16 days. Treatment subjects were custom-fitted for a three-piece, foot-to-breast high compression garment consisting of shorts and foot-to-thigh stockings. The garments were constructed to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle and decreased gradually to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days before flight (without garments) and 2 hours after flight (with garments for treatment group only) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stood. Data are reported as mean +/- SE. Results: The compression garment successfully prevented the tachycardia and hypotension typically seen post-spaceflight. On landing day, treatment subjects had a smaller change in HR (11+/-1 vs. 21+/-4 beats/min, p< or =0.05) and no decrease in systolic BP (2+/-4 vs. -9+/-2 mmHg, p< or =0.05). Garments also received good comfort ratings and were relatively easy to don. Conclusion: In this small group of astronauts, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garments seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular responses to standing.

Platts, Steven H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Stenger, Michael B.

2011-01-01

388

Custom Gradient Compression Stockings May Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during re-entry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. We recently determined that thigh-high, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective after space flight, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. We also recently showed that addition of splanchnic compression to this thigh-high compression stocking paradigm improved orthostatic tolerance to a level similar to the AGS, in a ground based model. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, three-piece breast-high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Eight U.S. astronauts have volunteered for this experiment and were individually fitted for a three-piece, breast-high compression garment to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle which decreased to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and provides 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days pre-flight (w/o garment) and 2 hours after flight (w/ garment) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stands up. To date, two astronauts have completed pre- and post-space flight testing. Data are mean SD. Results: BP [pre (prone to stand): 137+/-1.6 to 129+/-2.5; post: 130+/-2.4 to 122+/-1.6 mmHg] and SV [pre (prone to stand): 61+/-1.6 to 38+/-0.2; post: 58+/-6.4 to 37+/-6.0 ml] decreased with standing, but no differences were seen post-flight w/ compression garments compared to pre-flight w/o garments. HR [pre (prone to stand): 66+/-1.6 to 74+/-3.0, post: 67+/-5.6 to 78+/-6.8 bpm] increased with standing, but no differences were seen pre- to post-flight. Conclusion: After space flight, blood pressure and stroke volume are normally decreased and heart rate is usually elevated to compensate. In this small group of subjects, breast-high gradient compression stockings seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight.

Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

2010-01-01

389

Skeletal muscle abnormalities and exercise intolerance in older patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of HF in older persons. The primary chronic symptom in HFPEF is severe exercise intolerance, and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. To determine whether skeletal muscle abnormalities contribute to their severely reduced peak exercise O2 consumption (Vo2), we examined 22 older HFPEF patients (70 ± 7 yr) compared with 43 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects using needle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle and cardiopulmonary exercise testing to assess muscle fiber type distribution and capillarity and peak Vo2. In HFPEF versus HC patients, peak Vo2 (14.7 ± 2.1 vs. 22.9 ± 6.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.001) and 6-min walk distance (454 ± 72 vs. 573 ± 71 m, P < 0.001) were reduced. In HFPEF versus HC patients, the percentage of type I fibers (39.0 ± 11.4% vs. 53.7 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001), type I-to-type II fiber ratio (0.72 ± 0.39 vs. 1.36 ± 0.85, P = 0.001), and capillary-to-fiber ratio (1.35 ± 0.32 vs. 2.53 ± 1.37, P = 0.006) were reduced, whereas the percentage of type II fibers was greater (61 ± 11.4% vs. 46.3 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001). In univariate analyses, the percentage of type I fibers (r = 0.39, P = 0.003), type I-to-type II fiber ratio (r = 0.33, P = 0.02), and capillary-to-fiber ratio (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001) were positively related to peak Vo2. In multivariate analyses, type I fibers and the capillary-to-fiber ratio remained significantly related to peak Vo2. We conclude that older HFPEF patients have significant abnormalities in skeletal muscle, characterized by a shift in muscle fiber type distribution with reduced type I oxidative muscle fibers and a reduced capillary-to-fiber ratio, and these may contribute to their severe exercise intolerance. This suggests potential new therapeutic targets in this difficult to treat disorder. PMID:24658015

Kitzman, Dalane W; Nicklas, Barbara; Kraus, William E; Lyles, Mary F; Eggebeen, Joel; Morgan, Timothy M; Haykowsky, Mark

2014-05-01

390

Splanchnic Compression Improves the Efficacy of Compression Stockings to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purpose: Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance (OI) is observed in 20-30% of astronauts. Previous data from our laboratory suggests that this is largely a result of decreased venous return. Currently, NASA astronauts wear an anti-gravity suit (AGS) which consists of inflatable air bladders over the calves, thighs and abdomen, typically pressurized from 26 to 78 mmHg. We recently determined that, thigh-high graded compression stockings (JOBST , 55 mmHg at ankle, 6 mmHg at top of thigh) were effective, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of splanchnic compression to prevent orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (6M, 4F) participated in three 80 head-up tilts on separate days while (1) normovolemic (2) hypovolemic w/ breast-high compression stockings (BS)(JOBST(R), 55 mmHg at the ankle, 6 mmHg at top of thigh, 12 mmHg over abdomen) (3) hypovolemic w/o stockings. Hypovolemia was induced by IV infusion of furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) and 48 hrs of a low salt diet to simulate plasma volume loss following space flight. Hypovolemic testing occurred 24 and 48 hrs after furosemide. One-way repeated measures ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections, was used to test for differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses to head-up tilt, stand times were compared using a Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis. Results: BS were effective in preventing OI and presyncope in hypovolemic test subjects ( p = 0.015). BS prevented the decrease in systolic blood pressure seen during tilt in normovolemia (p < 0.001) and hypovolemia w/o countermeasure (p = 0.005). BS also prevented the decrease in diastolic blood pressure seen during tilt in normovolemia (p = 0.006) and hypovolemia w/o countermeasure (p = 0.041). Hypovolemia w/o countermeasure showed a higher tilt-induced heart rate increase (p = 0.022) than seen in normovolemia; heart rate while wearing BS was not different than normovolemia (p = 0.353). Conclusion: BS may be an effective countermeasure to post-space flight OI. The addition of splanchnic compression is more effective than the previous thigh-high garments. These stockings are readily available, inexpensive, and can be worn for days following landing as astronauts re-adapt to Earth gravity.

Platts, Steven H.; Brown, A. K.; Lee, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.

2009-01-01

391

Cardiac atrophy after bed-rest deconditioning: a nonneural mechanism for orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular adaptation to bed rest leads to orthostatic intolerance, characterized by an excessive fall in stroke volume (SV) in the upright position. We hypothesized that this large fall in SV is due to a change in cardiac mechanics. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), SV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and left ventricular mass (by echocardiography) at rest, during lower-body negative pressure, and after saline infusion before and after 2 weeks of bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt (n=12 subjects aged 24+/-5 years). Pressure (P)-volume (V) curves were modeled exponentially by P=ae(kV)+b and logarithmically by P=-Sln[(Vm-V)/(Vm-V0)], where V0 indicates volume at P=0, and the constants k and S were used as indices of normalized chamber stiffness. Dynamic stiffness (dP/dV) was calculated at baseline LVEDV. The slope of the line relating SV to PCWP during lower-body negative pressure characterized the steepness of the Starling curve. We also measured plasma volume (with Evans blue dye) and maximal orthostatic tolerance. Bed rest led to a reduction in plasma volume (17%), baseline PCWP (18%), SV (12%), LVEDV (16%), V0 (33%), and orthostatic tolerance (24%) (all P<.05). The slope of the SV/PCWP curve increased from 4.6+/-0.4 to 8.8+/-0.9 mL/mm Hg (P<.01) owing to a parallel leftward shift in the P-V curve. Normalized chamber stiffness was unchanged, but dP/dV was reduced by 50% at baseline LVEDV, and cardiac mass tended to be reduced by 5% (P<.10). CONCLUSIONS: Two weeks of head-down-tilt bed rest leads to a smaller, less distensible left ventricle but a shift to a more compliant portion of the P-V curve. This results in a steeper Starling relationship, which contributes to orthostatic intolerance by causing an excessive reduction in SV during orthostasis.

Levine, B. D.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

392

Thermodynamic mechanism for inhibition of lactose permease by the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc.  

PubMed

In a variety of bacteria, the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Glc) plays a key regulatory role in catabolite repression in addition to its role in the vectorial phosphorylation of glucose catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli catalyzes stoichiometric symport of a galactoside with an H(+), using a mechanism in which sugar- and H(+)-binding sites become alternatively accessible to either side of the membrane. Both the expression (via regulation of cAMP levels) and the activity of LacY are subject to regulation by IIA(Glc) (inducer exclusion). Here we report the thermodynamic features of the IIA(Glc)-LacY interaction as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies show that IIA(Glc) binds to LacY with a Kd of about 5 ?M and a stoichiometry of unity and that binding is driven by solvation entropy and opposed by enthalpy. Upon IIA(Glc) binding, the conformational entropy of LacY is restrained, which leads to a significant decrease in sugar affinity. By suppressing conformational dynamics, IIA(Glc) blocks inducer entry into cells and favors constitutive glucose uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the studies support the notion that sugar binding involves an induced-fit mechanism that is inhibited by IIA(Glc) binding. The precise mechanism of the inhibition of LacY by IIA(Glc) elucidated by ITC differs from the inhibition of melibiose permease (MelB), supporting the idea that permeases can differ in their thermodynamic response to binding IIA(Glc). PMID:25675534

Hariharan, Parameswaran; Balasubramaniam, Dhandayuthapani; Peterkofsky, Alan; Kaback, H Ronald; Guan, Lan

2015-02-24

393

Time-resolved study of the inner space of lactose permease.  

PubMed Central

Pyranine (8-hydroxy pyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate) is a commonly used photoacid that discharges a proton when excited to its first electronic singlet state. Follow-up of its dissociation kinetics reveals the physicochemical properties of its most immediate environment. At vanishing ionic strength the dye adsorbs to the Escherichia coli lactose permease with stoichiometry of 1:1 and an association constant of 2.5 x 10(5) M(-1). The reversal of the binding at high ionic strength and the lower pK value of the bound dye imply that positive charge(s) stabilize the dye in its site. The fluorescence decay curve of the bound dye was measured by time-correlated single photon counting and the measured transient was subjected to kinetic analysis based on the geminate recombination model. The analysis indicated that the binding domain is a cleft (between 9 and 17 A deep) characterized by low activity of water (a((water)) = 0.71), reduced diffusivity of protons, and enhanced electrostatic potential. The binding of pyranine and a substrate are not mutually exclusive; however, when the substrate is added, the dye-binding environment is better solvated. These properties, if attributed to the substrate-conducting pathway, may explain some of the forces operating on the substrate in the cavity. The reduced activities of the water strips the substrate from some of its solvation water molecules and replace them by direct interaction with the protein. In parallel, the lower dielectric constant enhances the binding of the proton to the protein, thus keeping a tight seal that prevents protons from diffusing. PMID:11222310

Nachliel, E; Pollak, N; Huppert, D; Gutman, M

2001-01-01

394

Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs  

PubMed Central

With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

395

Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs.  

PubMed

With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

396

Stress-Induced Increase in Kynurenic Acid as a Potential Biomarker for Patients With Schizophrenia and Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Several lines of evidence have linked the endogenous neuromodulator kynurenic acid (KYNA) to schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The KYNA level was measured in saliva samples taken at baseline and at 2 times following a laboratory-based psychological stress challenge in 128 participants (64 patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics and 64 healthy controls from the community). EXPOSURE Laboratory-based psychological stress challenge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quitting the stressful task early was used as a behavioral marker of distress intolerance. RESULTS Patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher rate of distress intolerance compared with healthy controls (P = .003). Salivary KYNA levels increased significantly between baseline and 20 minutes following the stress task in both patients and controls (mean [SEM], 6.72 nM [0.65 nM] vs 8.43 nM [1.05 nM], respectively; P = .007). Patients who were unable to tolerate the stressful tasks and quit early showed significantly higher levels of KYNA than patients who tolerated the psychological stressor (P = .02) or healthy controls (P = .02). In patients with distress intolerance, KYNA elevation significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms (? = 0.64; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Distress intolerance is more common in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with this behavioral phenotype have elevated salivary KYNA levels. This stress response behavior–linked biomarker may aid heterogeneity reduction in schizophrenia and other stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24806441

Chiappelli, Joshua; Pocivavsek, Ana; Nugent, Katie L.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L. Elliot

2014-01-01

397

High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability) piggyback contact lens (PBCL) systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Methods: Sixteen patients (29 eyes) who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen transmissibility or Dk/t = 150 units) and fluorosilicone methacrylate copolymer (Dk/t = 100 units) lenses were chosen as the PBCL systems. The clinical examinations included visual acuity and corneal observation by biomicroscopy, keratometer reading, and fluorescein staining before and after fitting the PBCL system. Results: Indications for using PBCL system were: lens stabilization and comfort, improving comfort, and adding protection to the cone. Visual acuities increased significantly in all of the patients compared with spectacles (P = 0). Improvement in visual acuity compared with rigid lenses alone was recorded in 89.7% of eyes and no alteration of the visual acuity was observed in 10.3% of the eyes. Wearing time of PBCL systems for most of the patients was limited time (mean 6 months, range 3–12 months); thereafter they tolerated rigid lenses alone except for 2 patients. Conclusion: The PBCL system is a safe and effective method to provide centering and corneal protection against mechanical trauma by the rigid lenses for keratoconus patients and may increase contact lens tolerance. PMID:21468342

Sengor, Tomris; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat; Özkurt, Yelda

2011-01-01

398

Regulation of intracellular pH in anoxia-tolerant and anoxia-intolerant teleost hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of intracellular pH (pHi) regulation were investigated in anoxia-tolerant hepatocytes from goldfish Carassius auratus, and compared to the situation in the anoxia-intolerant hepatocytes from trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Under normoxic conditions, the pHi of goldfish hepatocytes was regulated by a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and a Na(+)-independent Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger, the latter being activated only after acidification of the cells. Mechanisms of acid secretion appear to be fuelled, at least in part, by lactate formation under fully aerobic conditions, as inhibition of glycolysis caused a drastic reduction of steady state proton release. In trout hepatocytes both a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger were found to be tonically active, as described previously. During chemical anoxia a constant pHi was maintained in goldfish hepatocytes, whereas it was reversibly reduced by 0.3 units in the trout cells. Under these conditions a reversible increase in the rate of acid secretion was induced in the cells from both species. In the goldfish cells this was based on a SITS-sensitive transporter, possibly involving export of lactate, with no contribution from Na(+)/H(+) exchange. By contrast, in hepatocytes from trout, CN-induced acid secretion was dominated by the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. Brief exposure to extracellular acidosis had no dramatic effects on the energetics of hepatocytes from either species. PMID:11807112

Krumschnabel, G; Manzl, C; Schwarzbaum, P J

2001-11-01

399

Management of Intolerance to Casting the Upper Extremities in Claustrophobic Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Some patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities. We hypothesized their that intolerance with excessive anxiety to casts is due to claustrophobia triggered by cast immobilization. The aim of this study is to analyze the relevance of cast immobilization to the feeling of claustrophobia and discover how to handle them. Methods. There were nine patients who showed the caustrophobic symptoms with their casts. They were assesed whether they were aware of their claustrophobis themselves. Further we investigated the alternative immobilization to casts. Results. Seven out of nine cases that were aware of their claustrophobic tendencies either were given removable splints initially or had the casts converted to removable splints when they exhibited symptoms. The two patients who were unaware of their latent claustrophobic tendencies were identified when they showed similar claustrophobic symptoms to the previous patients soon after short arm cast application. We replaced the casts with removable splints. This resolved the issue in all cases. Conclusions. We should be aware of the claustrophobia if patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities, where removal splint is practical alternative to cast to continue the treatment successfully. PMID:25379544

Nagura, Issei; Kanatani, Takako; Sumi, Masatoshi; Inui, Atsuyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kokubu, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

400

Cardio-postural deconditioning: A model for post-flight orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

Post-flight astronauts experience temporary but sometimes severe postural control dysfunction and decreased orthostatic tolerance. Research points to a possible link between cardiovascular and postural controls and orthostatic tolerance [Claydon,V.E., Hainsworth, R., 2006. Postural sway in patients with syncope and poor orthostatic tolerance. Heart 92, 1688-1689], for which a neurophysiological model has been presented [Souvestre, P.A., Blaber A.P., Landrock C.K., 2008. Space motion sickness: the sensory-motor controls and cardiovascular correlation. Acta Astronautica 63, 745-757]. To validate this model, young and elderly subjects (n=12) were compared with respect to postural mediolateral sway (ML sway) and blood pressure (BP) during quiet standing. Both groups had a peak in the low frequency region (0.03-0.07Hz) of cross-spectral power between ML sway and BP; however, only the young subjects had signal coherence greater than 0.5. Short-range Hurst coefficient from Stabilogram Dynamic Analysis was significantly lower for ML sway in young (0.694+/-0.068) compared to elderly subjects (0.812+/-0.10) (p=0.028). Young subjects were better able to command a closed-loop strategy of motor-control providing a more efficient postural control. Further application of this model with astronauts could lead to further understanding of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. PMID:19379846

Blaber, Andrew P; Landrock, Clinton K; Souvestre, Philippe A

2009-10-01

401

Oxygen-dependent energetics of anoxia-tolerant and anoxia-intolerant hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The oxygen-dependence of cellular energetics was investigated in hepatocytes from goldfish Carassius auratus (anoxia-tolerant) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (anoxia-intolerant). In goldfish hepatocytes, an approximately 50 % reduction in the rate of oxygen consumption was observed in response to both acute and prolonged hypoxia, the latter treatment shifting the threshold for this reduction to a higher oxygen level. A concomitant increase in the rate of lactate production did not compensate for the decreased aerobic ATP supply, resulting in an overall metabolic depression of 26 % during acute hypoxia and of 42 % during prolonged hypoxia. Trout hepatocytes showed a similar suppression of cellular respiration after prolonged hypoxia but were unresponsive to acute hypoxia. Similarly, the rate of lactate production was unaltered during acute hypoxia but was increased during prolonged hypoxia, metabolic depression amounting to 7 % during acute hypoxia and 30 % during prolonged hypoxia. In both species, the affinity of hepatocytes for oxygen decreased during hypoxia, but this alteration was not sufficient in absolute terms to account for the observed decrease in aerobic ATP supply. Protein synthesis was suppressed in both cell types under hypoxia, whereas Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity decreased in trout but not in goldfish hepatocytes, emphasising the importance of membrane function in these cells during conditions of limited energy supply. PMID:10667979

Krumschnabel, G; Schwarzbaum, P J; Lisch, J; Biasi, C; Wieser, W

2000-03-01

402

Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

Jahid, Md. Abu

403

Increased sympathetic activation in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance: role of systemic adrenoreceptor sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by adrenergic symptoms with standing. Changes in central sympathetic tone or in adrenoreceptor sensitivity could contribute to this syndrome. In OI patients and control subjects, we determined heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes after incremental bolus doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine before and during ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan. SBP decreased by 17+/-1.6 mm Hg in patients and 3.9+/-3.8 mm Hg in control subjects (P<0.01) with trimethaphan. Patients with a larger decrease (28+/-3.8 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP with trimethaphan had greater supine SBP and supine and upright plasma norepinephrine levels than did patients with a lesser decrease (3.0+/-3.0 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP. Supine and orthostatic HRs were similar for the groups. The majority of patients had a normal HR response to isoproterenol before and during ganglionic blockade. Phenylephrine increased SBP similarly in patients and control subjects before and during blockade. Sympathetic support is increased in a subgroup of OI patients. Hyperadrenergic and nonhyperadrenergic subgroups have similar degrees of orthostatic tachycardia. Our findings suggest that the hyperadrenergic features of OI cannot be completely explained by systemic hypersensitivity of postsynaptic alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoreceptors but rather originates in enhanced sympathetic activation.

Jordan, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Black, Bonnie K.; Robertson, David

2002-01-01

404

Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors in the periphery. Recent studies have demonstrated that signals from vestibular otolith organs play an important role in regulating blood pressure during changes in posture in a 1-g environment. Because spaceflight results in plastic changes in the vestibular otolith organs and in the processing of inputs from otolith receptors, it is possible that another contributing factor to postflight orthostatic hypotension is alterations in the gain of vestibular influences on cardiovascular control. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, although controlled studies will be required to determine the relationship between changes in the vestibular system and orthostatic hypotension following exposure to microgravity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Yates, B. J.; Kerman, I. A.

1998-01-01

405

Cardiac dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and a small left ventricle.  

PubMed

The etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) has been recently postulated to be the cause of CFS. Orthostatic intolerance (OI) has been known as an important symptom in predicting quality of life in CFS patients. Cardiac function may be impaired in patients with ME. The presence or absence of OI was determined both symptomatically and by using a 10-min stand-up test in 40 ME patients. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function were determined echocardiographically in the ME patients compared to 40 control subjects. OI was noted in 35 (97 %) of the 36 ME patients who could stand up quickly. The mean values for the cardiothoracic ratio, systemic systolic and diastolic pressures, LV end-diastolic diameter (EDD), LV end-systolic diameter, stroke volume index, cardiac index and LV mass index were all significantly smaller in the ME group than in the controls. Both a small LVEDD (<40 mm, 45 vs. 3 %) and a low cardiac index (<2 l/min/mm(2), 53 vs. 8 %) were significantly more common in the ME group than in the controls. Both heart rate and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups. In conclusion, a small LV size with a low cardiac output was common in ME patients, in whom OI was extremely common. Cardiac dysfunction with a small heart appears to be related to the symptoms of ME. PMID:24736946

Miwa, Kunihisa

2014-04-16

406

Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

Rubin, Marilyn

1991-01-01

407

Intolerance of uncertainty mediates the relation between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and anger.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report elevated anger compared with nonanxious individuals; however, the pathways linking GAD and anger are currently unknown. We hypothesized that negative beliefs about uncertainty, negative beliefs about worry and perfectionism dimensions mediate the relationship between GAD symptoms and anger variables. We employed multiple mediation with bootstrapping on cross-sectional data from a student sample (N = 233) to test four models assessing potential mediators of the association of GAD symptoms to inward anger expression, outward anger expression, trait anger and hostility, respectively. The belief that uncertainty has negative personal and behavioural implications uniquely mediated the association of GAD symptoms to inward anger expression (confidence interval [CI] = .0034, .1845, PM = .5444), and the belief that uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything uniquely mediated the association of GAD symptoms to outward anger expression (CI = .0052, .1936, PM = .4861) and hostility (CI = .0269, .2427, PM = .3487). Neither negative beliefs about worry nor perfectionism dimensions uniquely mediated the relation of GAD symptoms to anger constructs. We conclude that intolerance of uncertainty may help to explain the positive connection between GAD symptoms and anger, and these findings give impetus to future longitudinal investigations of the role of anger in GAD. PMID:24579760

Fracalanza, Katie; Koerner, Naomi; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

2014-01-01

408

Profilin-1 Haploinsufficiency Protects Against Obesity-Associated Glucose Intolerance and Preserves Adipose Tissue Immune Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Metabolic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Previously, we showed that the actin-binding protein profilin-1 (pfn) plays a role in atherogenesis because pfn heterozygote mice (PfnHet) exhibited a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion burden and vascular inflammation. In the current study, we tested whether pfn haploinsufficiency would also limit diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). First, we found that a high-fat diet (HFD) upregulated pfn expression in epididymal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) but not in the liver or muscle of C57BL/6 mice compared with normal chow. Pfn expression in WAT correlated with F4/80, an established marker for mature macrophages. Of note, HFD elevated pfn protein levels in both stromal vascular cells and adipocytes of WAT. We also found that PfnHet were significantly protected from HFD-induced glucose intolerance observed in pfn wild-type mice. With HFD, PfnHet displayed blunted expression of systemic and WAT proinflammatory cytokines and decreased accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, which were also preferentially biased toward an M2-like phenotype; this correlated with preserved frequency of regulatory T cells. Taken together, the findings indicate that pfn haploinsufficiency protects against diet-induced IR and inflammation by modulating WAT immune homeostasis. PMID:23884883

Romeo, Giulio R.; Pae, Munkyong; Eberlé, Delphine; Lee, Jongsoon; Shoelson, Steven E.

2013-01-01

409

Novel MTND1 mutations cause isolated exercise intolerance, complex I deficiency and increased assembly factor expression.  

PubMed

Complex I (CI) is the largest of the five multi-subunit complexes constituting the human oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Seven of its catalytic core subunits are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (ND (NADH dehydrogenase)1-6, ND4L (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L)), with mutations in all seven having been reported in association with isolated CI deficiency. We investigated two unrelated adult patients presenting with marked exercise intolerance, persistent lactic acidaemia and severe muscle-restricted isolated CI deficiency associated with sub-sarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation. Screening of the mitochondrial genome detected novel mutations in the MTND1 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1) gene, encoding subunit of CI [Patient 1, m.3365T>C predicting p.(Leu20Pro); Patient 2, m.4175G>A predicting p.(Trp290*)] at high levels of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in skeletal muscle. We evaluated the effect of these novel MTND1 mutations on complex assembly showing that CI assembly, although markedly reduced, was viable in the absence of detectable ND1 signal. Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed overexpression of different CI assembly factor transcripts and proteins in patient tissue. Together, our data indicate that the mechanism underlying the expression of the biochemical defect may involve a compensatory response to the novel MTND1 gene mutations, promoting assembly factor up-regulation and stabilization of respiratory chain super-complexes, resulting in partial rescue of the clinical phenotype. PMID:25626417

Gorman, Grainne S; Blakely, Emma L; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Tuppen, Helen A L; Greaves, Laura C; He, Langping; Baker, Angela; Falkous, Gavin; Newman, Jane; Trenell, Michael I; Lecky, Bryan; Petty, Richard K; Turnbull, Doug M; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W

2015-06-01

410

Increased A? production prompts the onset of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two prevalent diseases with comparable pathophysiological features and genetic predisposition. Patients with AD are more susceptible to develop T2D. However, the molecular mechanism linking AD and T2D remains elusive. In this study, we have generated a new mouse model to test the hypothesis that AD would prompt the onset of T2D in mice. To test our hypothesis, we crossed Alzheimer APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice with mice partially deficient in leptin signaling (db/+). Body weight, plasma glucose, and insulin levels were monitored. Phenotypic characterization of glucose metabolism was performed using glucose and insulin tolerance tests. ?-Cell mass, islet volume, and islet number were analyzed by histomorphometry. APP/PS1 coexpression in mice with intact leptin receptor signaling did not show any metabolic perturbations in glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity. In contrast, APP/PS1 coexpression in db/+ mice resulted in nonfasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia without changes in body weight. Conversely, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels remained unchanged. Coinciding with altered glucose metabolism, APP/PS1 coexpression in db/+ mice resulted in glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling. In addition, histomorphometric analysis of pancreata revealed augmented ?-cell mass. Taken together, these findings provide experimental evidence to support the notion that aberrant A? production might be a mechanistic link underlying the pathology of insulin resistance and T2D in AD. PMID:22414803

Jiménez-Palomares, Margarita; Ramos-Rodríguez, Juan José; López-Acosta, José Francisco; Pacheco-Herrero, Mar; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Perdomo, Germán; García-Alloza, Mónica; Cózar-Castellano, Irene

2012-06-01

411

Association Analysis of Member RAS Oncogene Family Gene Polymorphisms with Aspirin Intolerance in Asthmatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Member RAS oncogene family (RAB1A), a member of the RAS oncogene family, cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms regulating vesicle transport in exocytosis. Thus, functional alterations of the RAB1A gene may contribute to aspirin intolerance in asthmatic sufferers. To investigate the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RAB1A gene and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatics (n=1197) were categorized into AERD and aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA). All subjects were diagnosed as asthma on the basis of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. AERD was defined as asthmatics showing 15% or greater decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or naso-ocular reactions by the oral acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) challenge (OAC) test. In total, eight SNPs were genotyped. Logistic regression analysis identified that the minor allele frequency of +14444 T>G and +41170 C>G was significantly higher in the AERD group (n=181) than in the ATA group (n=1016) (p=0.0003?0.03). Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between the SNPs and the aspirin-induced decrease in FEV1 (p=0.0004?0.004). The RAB1A gene may play a role in the development of AERD in asthmatics and the genetic polymorphisms of the gene have the potential to be used as an indicator of this disease. PMID:24555545

Park, Jong-Sook; Heo, Jeong-Seok; Chang, Hun Soo; Choi, Inseon S.; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Jong-Uk; Park, Byung Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo

2014-01-01

412

Calorimetric Properties of Dehydrating Pollen (Analysis of a Desiccation-Tolerant and an Intolerant Species).  

PubMed Central

The physical state of water in the desiccation-tolerant pollen of Typha latifolia L. and the desiccation-sensitive pollen of Zea mays L. was studied using differential scanning calorimetry in an attempt to further unravel the complex mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. Melting transitions of water were not observed at water content (wc) values less than 0.21 (T. latifolia) and 0.26 (Z. mays) g H2O/g dry weight. At moisture levels at which melting transitions were not observable, water properties could be characterized by changes in heat capacity. Three hydration regions could be distinguished with the defining wc values changing as a function of temperature. Shifts in baseline power resembling second-order transitions were observed in both species and were interpreted as glass-to-liquid transitions, the glass-transition temperatures being dependent on wc. Irrespective of the extent of desiccation tolerance, both pollens exhibited similar state diagrams. The viability of maize pollen at room temperature decreased gradually with the removal of the unfrozen water fraction. In maize, viability was completely lost before grains were sufficiently dried to enter into a glassy state. Apparently, the glassy state per se cannot provide desiccation tolerance. From the existing data, we conclude that, although no major differences in the physical behavior of water could be distinguished between desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant pollens, the physiological response to the loss of water varies between the two pollen types. PMID:12226289

Buitink, J.; Walters-Vertucci, C.; Hoekstra, F. A.; Leprince, O.

1996-01-01

413

Impaired kisspeptin signaling decreases metabolism and promotes glucose intolerance and obesity  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (Kiss1r KO mice). Compared with WT littermates, adult Kiss1r KO females displayed dramatically higher BW, leptin levels, and adiposity, along with strikingly impaired glucose tolerance. Conversely, male Kiss1r KO mice had normal BW and glucose regulation. Surprisingly, despite their obesity, Kiss1r KO females ate less than WT females; however, Kiss1r KO females displayed markedly reduced locomotor activity, respiratory rate, and energy expenditure, which were not due to impaired thyroid hormone secretion. The BW and metabolic phenotype in Kiss1r KO females was not solely reflective of absent gonadal estrogen, as chronically ovariectomized Kiss1r KO females developed obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced metabolism, and glucose intolerance compared with ovariectomized WT females. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to reproduction, kisspeptin signaling influences BW, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis in a sexually dimorphic and partially sex steroid–independent manner; therefore, alterations in kisspeptin signaling might contribute, directly or indirectly, to some facets of human obesity, diabetes, or metabolic dysfunction. PMID:24937427

Tolson, Kristen P.; Garcia, Christian; Yen, Stephanie; Simonds, Stephanie; Stefanidis, Aneta; Lawrence, Alison; Smith, Jeremy T.; Kauffman, Alexander S.

2014-01-01

414

Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in ulcerative colitis: Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent co-morbidities of ulcerative colitis patients. The epidemiological association of these diseases suggested a genetic sharing and has challenged gene identification. Diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis has also relevant clinical and therapeutic implications, with potential clinical impact on the follow up and outcome of patients. These diseases share specific complications, such as neuropathy, hepatic steatosis, osteoporosis and venous thrombosis. It is still unknown whether the coexistence of these diseases may increase their occurrence. Diabetes and hyperglycaemia represent relevant risk factors for postoperative complications and pouch failure in ulcerative colitis. Medical treatment of ulcerative colitis in patients with diabetes mellitus may be particularly challenging. Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice of active ulcerative colitis. Their use may be associated with the onset of glucose intolerance and diabetes, with difficult control of glucose levels and with complications in diabetic patients. Epidemiologic and genetic evidences about diabetes co-morbidity in ulcerative colitis patients and shared complications and treatment of patients with these diseases have been discussed in the present review. PMID:24707133

Maconi, Giovanni; Furfaro, Federica; Sciurti, Roberta; Bezzio, Cristina; Ardizzone, Sandro; de Franchis, Roberto

2014-01-01

415

Intolerance and ineffectiveness of mexiletine in patients with serious ventricular arrhythmias.  

PubMed

Fifty-one patients were treated with mexiletine over 10.4 +/- 16 months. The clinical arrhythmia in 25 (49%) was ventricular fibrillation (VF), 11 (22%) had sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), and 15 (29%) had symptomatic nonsustained VT. Ischemic heart disease was present in 33 patients (66%), cardiomyopathy in nine (17%), and valvular or congenital heart disease in nine (17%). Only six (12%) remain on the drug. Arrhythmias recurred in 21 patients (41%): seven (14%) with VF, three (5%) with sustained VT, and 11 (22%) with symptomatic nonsustained VT. Intolerable side effects occurred in another 17 (33%). Seven patients (14%) died from nonarrhythmic-related deaths while taking mexiletine. Mexiletine was combined with a conventional type IA antiarrhythmic agent in 25 patients (49%). In 12 of these 25 patients (48%), ventricular arrhythmias recurred. These findings were not significantly different from those of the group treated with mexiletine alone, where arrhythmias recurred in 9 of 26 patients (35%) (p = NS). Thus mexiletine, alone or in combination with a type IA antiarrhythmic agent, has limited clinical utility in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:3739884

Poole, J E; Werner, J A; Bardy, G H; Graham, E L; Pulaski, W P; Fahrenbruch, C E; Greene, H L

1986-08-01

416

Delayed effects of proton irradiation in Macaca mulatta. III. Glucose intolerance. Interim report 1964-1983  

SciTech Connect

A group of rhesus monkeys is being studied in a lifetime survey of the delayed effects of proton irradiation. The animals were exposed during the period 1964 - 1969 to single total-body doses of protons covering the spectrum of energies and total doses that might be expected to occur in space during a major solar flare event. This report describes the results of intravenous glucose tolerance test and the insulin response to glucose challenge in 106 irradiated animals, their control group of 42, and 10 younger control animals. The results indicate that the clearance rate of blood glucose is influenced by the age of the animal and by the type and energy of the radiation. Animals receiving greater than 360 rads of proton irradiation of energies above 138 MeV had significantly slower glucose clearance than nonirradiated controls. Seventeen-twenty-year-old controls were less glucose tolerant than 9-11-year-old controls. Animals with normal glucose tolerance showed considerable individual variation in insulin response, while in animals with marked glucose intolerance (clearance rate < 1.0 %/min), low insulin response was a consistent finding.

Salmon, Y.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Wood, D.H.

1984-03-01

417

Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype distribution in azathioprine-tolerant and -intolerant patients with various disorders. The impact of TPMT genotyping in predicting toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the distribution of the thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype among azathioprine (Aza)-tolerant and -intolerant patients with various disorders, and to investigate a possible relationship with the Aza metabolite levels. Methods Forty-six Aza-tolerant and six Aza-intolerant patients had the TPMT genotype distribution determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the forty-six Aza-tolerant patients had the Aza metabolite

Lene O. Reuther; Ben Vainer; Jesper Sonne; Niels-Erik Larsen

2004-01-01

418

A double-blind assessment of additive intolerance in children using a 12 day challenge period at home.  

PubMed

Alleged food-additive intolerance (respiratory, dermatological, behavioural or abdominal) was assessed in 19 children using daily challenge drinks of either, base product alone, base product plus sunset yellow/tartrazine, or base product plus sodium metabisulphite/sodium benzoate. The same type of drink was given for 12 days, double-blind and in random order. During the trial the children were maintained on an additive-free diet under supervision. Diary cards were used to record symptoms and medication usage. If there was an apparent association between symptoms and drink ingredient the trial was repeated, again double-blind. Additive intolerance was confirmed by a consistent deterioration of symptoms in only three children. In one, urticaria was induced by the colourings, in another extremely abnormal behaviour was induced by the preservatives and a third child was only free of asthma and abdominal pain on placebo. This form of individual trial, using 12 daily drinks, overcomes some of the objections to a single challenge study. Despite this, intolerance to the additives was only confirmed in 3/19 children in whom it had been believed to occur. PMID:2736427

Wilson, N; Scott, A

1989-05-01

419

Lactose consuming strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) insight into the emergence of natural field resources for xanthan gum production.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas genus possesses a low level of ?-galactosidase gene expression and is therefore unable to produce xanthan gum in lactose-based media. In this study, we report the emergence of some natural field strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) capable to use lactose as a sole carbon source to produce xanthan gum. From 210 Xcc strains isolated from key lime (C. aurantifolia), 27 showed the capacity to grow on lactose containing medium. Xcc lactose consuming strains demonstrated a good level of xanthan production. Amongst all, NIGEBK37 produced the greatest (14.62 g/l) amount of xanthan gum in experimental laboratory conditions. By evaluating the viscosity of the biopolymer at 25 °C, it was demonstrated that xanthan synthesized by strain NIGEBK37 has the highest viscosity (44,170.66 cP). Our results were indicative for the weakness of a commercial strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris DSM1706 (Xcc/DSM1706) to produce xanthan in lactose containing medium. PMID:24318518

Ramezani, Aghdas; Jafari, Mahyat; Goodarzi, Tannaz; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Azin, Mehrdad

2014-05-01

420

Lactose electroisomerization into lactulose: effect of the electrode material, active membrane surface area-to-electrode surface area ratio, and interelectrode-membrane distance.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to study and develop an innovative, clean, and environmentally friendly process for lactulose synthesis by electroactivation of lactose. In this work, the electrode material (type 304 stainless steel, titanium, and copper), dimensionless interelectrode-membrane distance at the cathodic compartment (0.36, 0.68, and 1), and the membrane:electrode surface area ratio (0.23, 0.06, and 0.015) were considered to be the factors that could affect the kinetic conversion of lactose into lactulose. The reactions were conducted under an initial lactose concentration of 0.15mol/L at 10°C, Froude number (mixing speed) of 2.05×10(-2), and electric current intensity of 300mA for 30min. The highest lactulose formation yield of 32.50% (0.05mol/L) was obtained by using a copper electrode, interelectrode-membrane distance of 0.36, and membrane:electrode surface area ratio of 0.23. The 2-parameter Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used for the prediction of the lactose isomerization kinetics as well as the 3-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. It was shown that the lactose isomerization kinetics into lactulose followed the Temkin and Langmuir-Freundlich models with coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.90 and a relative error of 1.42 to 1.56% and 4.27 to 4.37%, respectively. PMID:24931526

Aït-Aissa, Amara; Aïder, Mohammed

2014-08-01

421

Cold active ?-galactosidase from Thalassospira sp. 3SC-21 to use in milk lactose hydrolysis: a novel source from deep waters of Bay-of-Bengal.  

PubMed

The cold active ?-galactosidase from psychrophilic bacteria accelerate the possibility of outperforming the current commercial ?-galactosidase production from mesophilic sources. The present study is carried out to screen and isolate a cold active ?-galactosidase producing bacterium from profound marine waters of Bay-of-Bengal and to optimize the factors for lactose hydrolysis in milk. Isolated bacterium 3SC-21 was characterized as marine psychrotolerant, halophile, gram negative, rod shaped strain producing an intracellular cold active ?-galactosidase enzyme. Further, based upon the 16S rRNA gene sequence, bacterium 3SC-21 was identified as Thalassospira sp. The isolated strain Thalassospira sp. 3SC-21 had shown the enzyme activity between 4 and 20 °C at pH of 6.5 and the enzyme was completely inactivated at 45 °C. The statistical method, central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the hydrolysis of lactose and to reveal the interactions between various factors behind this hydrolysis. It was found that maximum of 80.18 % of lactose in 8 ml of raw milk was hydrolysed at pH of 6.5 at 20 °C in comparison to 40 % of lactose hydrolysis at 40 °C, suggesting that the cold active ?-galactosidase from Thalassospira sp. 3SC-21 would be best suited for manufacturing the lactose free dairy products at low temperature. PMID:22806727

Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Pulicherla, K K; Rekha, V P B; Raja, P Kumar; Sambasiva Rao, K R S

2012-09-01

422

Structural studies on 4-O-acetyl-?-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2?3)-lactose, the main oligosaccharide in echidna milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main oligosaccharide (50%) in the milk of the Australian echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) has been identified unequivocally as 4-O-acetyl-?-N-acetylneur-aminyl-(2?3)-lactose. The 4-O-acetyl substituent of the sialic acid residue was characterised by g.l.c.-m.s. of the isolated (after mild, acid hydrolysis) and trimethyl-silylated\\/esterified sialic acid, and by m.s. (after derivatisation) and 500-MHz, 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the intact oligosaccharide. Information about the glycosidic bonds

J. F. G. Vliegenthart; J. P. Kamerling; L. Dorland; H. van Halbeek; M. Messer; R. Schauer

1982-01-01

423

High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports in shorter BR studies that the performance of an exercise countermeasure protocol by itself during BR does not prevent orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. This suggests that protection against orthostatic intolerance in astronauts following long-duration spaceflight will require an additional intervention, such as periodic orthostatic stress, fluid repletion, and/or lower-body compression garments.

Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

2015-01-01

424

Utilization of lactose and presence of the phospho-?-galactosidase (lacG) gene in Lactococcus garvieae isolates from different sources.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the utilization of lactose (Lac) and the presence of the phospho-?-galactosidase (lacG) gene as markers for distinguishing between fish (Lac-/lacG-) and dairy isolates (Lac+/lacG+) of Lactococcus garvieae, using a panel of L. garvieae isolates from different sources. None of the fish isolates produced acid from lactose (Lac-), however Lac-/lacG- isolates were observed in pigs, cows, birds and humans. Most of the dairy isolates (77.8%) were Lac+/lacG+, but some dairy isolates did not produce acid from this sugar. Data in the present study show that the ability to metabolize lactose and the presence of the lacG gene are heterogeneously scattered among L. garvieae isolates of different sources. Therefore, the use of these criteria as markers to differentiate between L. garvieae isolates of dairy and fish origin should be considered with caution. PMID:21404213

Aguado-Urda, Mónica; Cutuli, M Teresa; Blanco, M Mar; Aspiroz, Carmen; Tejedor, José L; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Gibello, Alicia

2010-12-01

425

Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595

Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

2014-01-01

426

Evidence for a specific link between the personality trait of absorption and idiopathic environmental intolerance.  

PubMed

Absorption as a personality trait refers to the predisposition to get deeply immersed in sensory (e.g., smells, sounds, pictures) or mystical experiences, that is, to experience altered states of consciousness. Absorption is markedly related to constructs openness to experiences, hypnotic suggestibility, imagination, and dissociation. Although absorption was hypothesized to be a risk factor for medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the construct has yet not been investigated in individually suffering from idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), formerly better known as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). IEI is a complex condition marked by MUS, which patients attribute to various chemical substances that are typically detectable by their odor (e.g., exhaust emissions, cigarette smoke). The current study investigated whether IEI was related to the personality trait of absorption. In a longitudinal study, 54 subjects with IEI were compared to 44 subjects with a somatoform disorder (SFD), but without IEI, and 54 subjects with neither SFD nor IEI (control group, CG). Self-report measures of somatic symptoms, severity of IEI, and level of absorption were collected both at a first examination and 32 mo later. On both assessments, subjects with IEI and individuals with SFD reported similar highly elevated levels of MUS, compared to CG. In contrast to SFD, IEI was specifically related to elevated absorption scores. IEI was specifically associated with a tendency to experience self-altering states of consciousness. Since absorption is related to both openness to unusual experiences and elevated imaginative involvement, absorption might contribute to IEI via two routes by (1) enhancing the susceptibility for IEI-specific convictions and (2) fostering classical conditioning processes of MUS via enhanced cognitive-imaginative representations of assumed IEI triggers. PMID:18569578

Witthöft, Michael; Rist, Fred; Bailer, Josef

2008-01-01

427

Characterization of Membrane Properties in Desiccation-Tolerant and -Intolerant Carrot Somatic Embryos.  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, we have shown that carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryos acquire complete desiccation tolerance when they are treated with abscisic acid during culture and subsequently dried slowly. With this manipulable system at hand, we have assessed damage associated with desiccation intolerance. Fast drying caused loss of viability, and all K+ and carbohydrates leached from the somatic embryos within 5 min of imbibition. The phospholipid content decreased by about 20%, and the free fatty acid content increased, which was not observed after slow drying. However, the extent of acyl chain unsaturation was unaltered, irrespective of the drying rate. These results indicate that, during rapid drying, irreversible changes occur in the membranes that are associated with extensive leakage and loss of germinability. The status of membranes after 2 h of imbibition was analyzed in a freeze-fracture study and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Rapidly dried somatic embryos had clusters of intramembraneous particles in their plasma membranes, and the transition temperature of isolated membranes was above room temperature. Membrane proteins were irreversibly aggregated in an extended [beta]-sheet conformation and had a reduced proportion of [alpha]-helical structures. In contrast, the slowly dried somatic embryos had irregularly distributed, but non-clustered, intramembraneous particles, the transition temperature was below room temperature, and the membrane proteins were not aggregated in a [beta]-sheet conformation. We suggest that desiccation sensitivity of rapidly dried carrot somatic embryos is indirectly caused by an irreversible phase separation in the membranes due to de-esterification of phospholipids and accumulation of free fatty acids. PMID:12226295

Tetteroo, FAA.; De Bruijn, A. Y.; Henselmans, RNM.; Wolkers, W. F.; Van Aelst, A. C.; Hoekstra, F. A.

1996-01-01

428

Importance of glycolysis for the energetics of anoxia-tolerant and anoxia-intolerant teleost hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The importance of glycolysis, as an ATP-producing and substrate-providing pathway, was studied in anoxia-tolerant (goldfish) and anoxia-intolerant (trout) hepatocytes. Inhibition of glycolysis with iodoacetic acid (IAA) left aerobic ATP production largely unaffected in hepatocytes fr