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1

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... as a result of intestinal diseases, such as celiac disease, gastroenteritis and an inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn's ... that can cause lactose intolerance include bacterial overgrowth, celiac disease and Crohn's disease. Certain cancer treatments. If you ...

2

Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

Lactase deficiency; Milk intolerance; Disaccharidase deficiency; Dairy product intolerance ... make the lactase enzyme so they can digest milk, including breast milk. Babies born too early (premature) ...

3

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

4

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... that occurs with severe diarrheal illness, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, or chemotherapy. This type of lactase deficiency can ... but undigested lactose produces high levels of hydrogen. Smoking and some foods and medications may affect the ...

5

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... the large intestine use it and make hydrogen gas. To test the amount of hydrogen, the doctor will have you drink something with lactose in it. You'll be asked to blow into a mask or bag to check the hydrogen level in ...

6

Lactose intolerance among Mexican Americans.  

PubMed

Thirty-three Mexican Americans between the ages of 9 and 60 were interviewed and tested for lactose intolerance. The participants of the study included 16 children and 17 persons not related by birth, including the parents of the children. Determination of lactose intolerance was based on a rise of less than 25mg/100 ml of blood glucose as measured by an Ames Dextrostix/Reflectance Meter following consumption of a lactose load. Forty-seven percent of the 17 nonrelated Mexican Americans were lactose intolerant. There was a marked relationship between low rise in blood glucose and symptoms of diarrhea, flatulence, and distention. Sixteen children from four families had an incidence of 50 per cent intolerance. The findings of intolerance in two successive generations of three families and in both sexes of the families adds support to the contention that lactose intolerance has a genetic basis, without sex predilection. PMID:1146721

Sowers, M F; Winterfeldt, E

1975-07-01

7

Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon  

PubMed Central

Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lactose intolerance is more likely in blacks, Asians and South Americans. If lactose intolerance is present without concomitant bowel motility disorder, the response to a lactose free diet is excellent.

McSherry, J. A.

1982-01-01

8

Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors  

PubMed Central

Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world’s population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management.

Mattar, Rejane; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Carrilho, Flair Jose

2012-01-01

9

Dairy intake, dietary adequacy, and lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

Heaney, Robert P

2013-03-01

10

High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Lactose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Acquired lactase deficiency is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms but its etiology remains unclear. Celiac disease could lead to lactase deficiency and is much more common than previously suspected. Several studies have highlighted the prevalence of lactose intolerance in celiac disease, but studies assessing the prevalence of celiac disease in lactose intolerance are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence

Veronica Ojetti; Gabriella Nucera; Alessio Migneco; Maurizio Gabrielli; Cristiano Lauritano; Silvio Danese; Maria Assunta Zocco; Enrico Celestino Nista; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonino De Lorenzo; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Antonio Gasbarrini

2005-01-01

11

Lactose Intolerance in Pregnant African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and

D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler

1997-01-01

12

Calcium, dairy products, and osteoporosis: Implications of lactose intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high calcium intake reduces the severity of osteoporosis. Although dairy products are rich and inexpensive sources of calcium, these products contain large quantities of lactose, a sugar that is digested with difficulty by an appreciable fraction of the population. The resultant malabsorption of lactose may produce abdominal symptoms, a condition known as lactose intolerance. To prevent these symptoms, many

Patricia M. Bannan; Michael D. Levitt

1996-01-01

13

Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in Africa…

Smart, Jimmy L.

2008-01-01

14

Lactose Intolerance: Exploring Reaction Kinetics Governing Lactose Conversion of Dairy Products within the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lactose intolerance is a condition suffered by an estimated 50 million Americans. Certain ethnic and racial populations are more widely affected than others. As many as 75 percent of all African-American, Jewish, Native American, and Mexican-American adults, and 90 percent of Asian-American adults are lactose intolerant. Some populations in…

Smart, Jimmy L.

2008-01-01

15

HRQoL questionnaire evaluation in lactose intolerant patients with adverse reactions to foods.  

PubMed

The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy tests to identify the offending foods, including "in vivo" and "in vitro" allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy and may indicate a lactose intolerance, which is a recurrent condition affecting about 50% of adults. The aims of our study were the following: (1) What is the real incidence of the food hypersensitivity and the primary lactose intolerance in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, initially referred to allergy or food intolerance? (2) Does lactose intolerance affect the quality of life and compliance to the therapy program? We investigated 262 consecutive patients, 72 men and 190 women. An accurate and detailed history and clinical examination were completed to investigate the offending foods. The evaluation in each patient included: allergy tests, lactose H2 breath test (LHBT) and the HRQoL questionnaire. Five years after the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, a questionnaire on the persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion and the diet compliance was distributed. Our results demonstrate an high prevalence of lactose intolerance, more frequent in women; in these patients, bloating and diarrhea are the most reported symptoms. We observe only a significant positive correlation between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and LHBT+ patients, but not an augmented prevalence of food allergy and a negative impact on the HRQoL questionnaire of lactose intolerance. PMID:21614464

Erminia, Ridolo; Ilaria, Baiardini; Tiziana, Meschi; Silvia, Peveri; Antonio, Nouvenne; Pierpaolo, Dall'Aglio; Loris, Borghi

2011-05-26

16

Lactose intolerance among severely malnourished children with diarrhoea admitted to the nutrition unit, Mulago hospital, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lactose intolerance is a common complication of diarrhoea in infants with malnutrition and a cause of treatment failure. A combination of nutritional injury and infectious insults in severe protein energy malnutrition reduces the capacity of the intestinal mucosa to produce lactase enzyme necessary for the digestion of lactose. The standard management of severe malnutrition involves nutritional rehabilitation with lactose-based

Richard Nyeko; Israel Kalyesubula; Edison Mworozi; Hanifa Bachou

2010-01-01

17

What is lactose tolerance / intolerance?, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

2008-10-06

18

Calcium Absorption from Milk and Lactose-Free Milk in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Lactose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of isotope 47Ca, changes in the rate and intensity of calcium absorption from lactose-free milk and normal milk were investigated as well as 47Ca losses in faeces and urine and Ca retention in the organism during a 7-day period in healthy volunteers and in patients with lactose intolerance. The shape of 47Ca absorption curves after lactose-free milk in

J. Kocián; I. Skála; K. Bakos

1973-01-01

19

Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.  

PubMed

Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212

Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

2013-01-01

20

Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6–8 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35–0.61. P < 0.0001), but not with malabsorption. Non-GI symptoms occurred more commonly in patients with intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further.

Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

2013-01-01

21

The role of milk and lactose intolerance in Ethiopian patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia: a case control study.  

PubMed

Milk intolerance, lactose intolerance and non-ulcer dyspepsia are common among Ethiopians. This study, therefore, was designed to find out if milk intolerance associated with lactase deficiency account for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Ninety-eight patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and 95 controls were examined and interviewed for demographic data and milk drinking habits. Then each had a lactose tolerance test (LTT), stool examination for pH, ova and parasites. The demographic characteristics and the number of milk drinkers were comparable in the 2 groups. However, milk intolerance and lactose intolerance were significantly higher among the patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia than among the control group (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.05 respectively). The combination of milk intolerance, lactose intolerance and LTT was also significantly different (p less than 0.01). The mean stool pH was markedly reduced after lactose ingestion and there were more ova and parasites in the stools of the control group. These observations suggest that milk intolerance and/or lactose intolerance account significantly for the symptoms of the patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. However, since lactose intolerance and abnormal LTT are very common among adult Ethiopians symptoms related to the drinking of milk should be interpreted with caution vis-a-vis the results of the lactose loading test. PMID:2787744

Tsega, E; Endeshaw, Y; Mengesha, B; Tedla, B

1989-07-01

22

Lactose Intolerance: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

? Harvard Health Publications ? Order the Book ? Contact Us Sign up for our free e-mail newsletter, HEALTHbeat . ... Lactose tolerance test ©2000–2006 President & Fellows of Harvard College Sign Up Now For HEALTH beat Our ...

23

What People with Lactose Intolerance Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Lactose ...

24

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Lactose Intolerance Contribute to Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptomatology in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background /Aim: The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome resemble those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SIBO and lactose intolerance (LI) occurrence in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) according to Rome III criteria. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, patients over 18 years of age with altered bowel habit, bloating, and patients who had lactose Hydrogen breath test (H2BT) done were included. The “cases” were defined as patients who fulfill Rome III criteria for IBS-D, while “controls” were those having chronic nonspecific diarrhea (CNSD) who did not fulfill Rome III criteria for IBS-D. Demographic data, predominant bowel habit pattern, concurrent use of medications, etc., were noted. Results: Patients with IBS-D were 119 (51%) with a mean age of 35 ± 13 years, while those with CNSD were 115 (49%) with mean age 36 ± 15 years. Patients in both IBS-D and CNSD were comparable in gender, with male 87 (74%) and female 77 (64%). SIBO was documented by lactose H2BT in 32/234 (14%) cases. It was positive in 22/119 (19%) cases with IBS-D, while 10/115 (9%) cases had CNSD (P = 0.03). LI was positive in 43/234 (18%) cases. Of these, 25/119 (21%) cases had IBS-D and 18/115 (16%) cases had CNSD (P = 0.29). Conclusion: SIBO was seen in a significant number of our patients with IBS-D. There was no significant age or gender difference in patients with or without SIBO.

Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Khan, Rustam; Hamid, Saeed; Awan, Safia; Jafri, Wasim

2011-01-01

25

Tolerance of symptomatic lactose malabsorbers to lactose in milk chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study tolerance to lactose in milk chocolate among symptomatic lactose maldigesters.Design: Randomized cross-over study.Subjects: Twenty-seven adult lactose maldigesters with symptomatic lactose intolerance.Methods: A 100 g chocolate sample prepared with whole milk (12 g lactose), whole-milk powder (12 g lactose), low-lactose milk powder (2 g lactose) or lactose-free milk powder was eaten after an overnight fast. Gastrointestinal symptoms (flatulence,

R M K Järvinen; M Loukaskorpi; M I J Uusitupa

2003-01-01

26

Lactose Intolerance in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Children Radio: Summer Camp (Audio) Substantial Fraction of American Youth Arrested By Age 23 Hypertension in the Child Athlete Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) ...

27

Lactose Intolerance: Other Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Us Sign Up for Media Alerts For the Media The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the ... are talking about and join the conversation! Social Media Policy The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has ...

28

How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Education Campaigns & Programs Safe to Sleep, Media-Smart Youth, Maternal/Child Health Education Program NICHD Publications ... calcium as regular milk. Use over-the-counter pills or drops that contain lactase enzyme. With some ...

29

Diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or lactose intolerance in babies who cry a lot in the first few months overlooks feeding problems.  

PubMed

This paper explores two areas in which the translation of research into practice may be improved in the management of cry-fuss behaviours in the first few months of life. Firstly, babies who cry excessively are often prescribed proton pump inhibitors, despite evidence that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is very rarely a cause. The inaccuracy of commonly used explanatory mechanisms, the side-effects of acid-suppressive medications, and the failure to identify treatable problems, including feeding difficulty when the diagnosis of 'reflux' is applied, are discussed. Secondly, crying breastfed babies are still prescribed lactase or lactose-free formula, despite evidence that the problem of functional lactose overload is one of breastfeeding management. The mechanisms and management of functional lactose overload are discussed. These two problems of research translation need to be addressed because failure to identify and manage other causes of cry-fuss problems, including feeding difficulty, may have adverse outcomes for a small but significant minority of families. PMID:23495859

Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

2013-03-15

30

Fructose Intolerance: An Under-Recognized Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Although the role of lactose intolerance in the pathogenesis of abdominal symptoms is well known, the role of fructose intolerance is unclear. Our aims were 1) to examine the prevalence of fructose intolerance in patients with unexplained abdominal symptoms, and 2) to explore whether fructose concentration influences fructose breath test.METHODS:Over 2 yr, patients with unexplained symptoms answered questionnaires and underwent

Young K. Choi; Fredrick C. Johlin; Robert W. Summers; Michelle Jackson; Satish S. C. Rao

2003-01-01

31

Lactose and lactase--who is lactose intolerant and why?  

PubMed

Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is expressed only in the small intestine and is confined to absorptive enterocytes on the villi with a tightly controlled pattern of expression along the proximal to distal and crypt-villus axes of the intestine. LPH expression is regulated mainly at the level of lactase (LCT) gene transcription that directs 2 phenotypes: a decline in LCT activity (LCT nonpersistence) in mid-childhood in the majority of the world's population, and maintenance of the lactase levels found in infancy (LCT persistence) in people of northern European extraction and scattered populations elsewhere. The molecular mechanisms that regulate these phenotypes are not completely understood. A population genetic association of lactase persistence with 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the distal 5'-flanking region of LCT (-13.9T and -22A) has been confirmed in northern Europeans, but this fails to explain lactase persistence found in some African groups. Any hypothesis for the control of lactase expression must reconcile the presence of high levels of activity in early life in all humans and the characteristic loss of activity found subsequently in many but not all people. PMID:18185074

Montgomery, Robert K; Krasinski, Stephen D; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Grand, Richard J

2007-12-01

32

Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... a natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Your body makes an enzyme called lactase ... you will learn how much milk or other dairy products you can handle without having symptoms. Are ...

33

Exercise intolerance.  

PubMed

Patients with heart failure and normal EF have severe chronic exercise intolerance. The pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in this syndrome is incompletely understood, but as in systolic heart failure, it is likely multifactorial. Current data suggest that important contributors include decreased LV diastolic compliance, decreased aortic distensibility, exaggerated exercise systolic blood pressure, relative chronotropic incompetence, and possibly anemia and skeletal muscle remodeling. Because it is a primary determinant of quality of life, can be quantified objectively, is reproducible, and is modifiable, exercise intolerance is an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:16115516

Kitzman, Dalane W

34

High Lactose Tolerance in North Europeans: A Result of Migration, Not In Situ Milk Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, which must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose before the sugars can be digested. While 65% or more of the total human population are lactose intolerant, in some human populations lactase activity commonly persists into adulthood. Lactose tolerance is exceptionally widespread in Northern European countries such as Sweden and Finland, with tolerance levels

Timo Vuorisalo; Olli Arjamaa; Anti Vasemägi; Jussi-Pekka Taavitsainen; Auli Tourunen; Irma Saloniemi

2012-01-01

35

Cold Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Professionals Excerpt from the Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Cold Intolerance Many polio survivors report that their feet have always been cold to the touch, their skin a purplish color. As they age, their limbs become more sensitive ...

36

Intolerant tolerance.  

PubMed

The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights. PMID:8051515

Khushf, G

1994-04-01

37

Lactose malabsorption is associated with early signs of mental depression in females: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption is characterized by a deficiency of mucosal lactase. As a consequence, lactose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, CO2, and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of lactose malabsorbers. Having made the observation that females with lactose malabsorption not only showed signs of irritable bowel syndrome but also signs of premenstrual syndrome and mental depression, it was of interest to establish whether a statistical correlation existed between lactose malabsorption and mental depression. Thirty female volunteers were analyzed by measuring breath H2 concentrations after an oral dose of 50 g lactose and were classified as normals or lactose malabsorbers according to their breath H2 concentrations. All patients filled out a Beck's depression inventory questionnaire. Of the 30 female volunteers, six were lactose intolerant (20%) and 24 were normal lactose absorbers (80%). Subjects with lactose malabsorption showed a significantly higher score in the Beck's depression inventory than normal lactose absorbers did. The data thus suggest that lactose malabsorption may play a role in the development of mental depression. In lactose malabsorption high intestinal lactose concentrations may interfere with L-tryptophan metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) availability. Lactose malabsorption should be considered in patients with signs of mental depression. PMID:9824144

Ledochowski, M; Sperner-Unterweger, B; Fuchs, D

1998-11-01

38

New light on ethnic differences in adult lactose intolarance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a two-part article published in this journal in 1969 and 1970 (1, 2), I made an effort to relate the history of milk use to the exciting new medical evidence that revealed striking differences in the incidence of primary adult lactose intolerance among the world's peoples. My review of the medical literature led to the conclusion that genetic determinants

Frederick J. Simoons

1973-01-01

39

What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Program Awareness Campaigns Let’s Talk about Bowel Control Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign Bladder Control for Women We Can! ... intestine can be hurt by diseases such as celiac disease or Crohn’s disease infections surgery injuries [ Top ] What ...

40

Glucose intolerance in uraemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study confirms our first results showing large and prolonged insulin secretion in patients with azotaemia and glucose intolerance. It shows that the pattern of growth hormone and glucagon secretions was not modified in these well nourished patients with chronic renal diseases and hyperazotaemia : the fasting values were in the normal range and the response during a 5 h

G. Tchobroutsky; G. Rosselin; R. Assan; M. Derot

1969-01-01

41

An argument for intolerance.  

PubMed

"Multiculturalism", "pluralism" and "tolerance" have become buzz words in applied ethics. While serious and well thought out work is going on in these areas, a misunderstanding of the importance of tolerance, and the difficulties raised by multicultural moral conflict seems common. In this paper I argue that intolerance of some cultural traditions is morally required, and suggest that the forging of a moral mono-culture is preferable to pluralism. PMID:11129841

Catherwood, J F

2000-12-01

42

[Orthostatic intolerance syndromes].  

PubMed

In patients with an orthostatic intolerance, the hemodynamic response to standing, may identify an abnormality know as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome or orthostatic hypotension, that can often be treated without further testing. When the response to standing is normal, tilt-table testing may be useful in making the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and guiding treatment. In evaluating the results of tilt-table testing, an important consideration is the distinction between vasovagal syncope, and the dysautonomic response to tilt characterized by a gradual and progressive decrease in blood pressure that leads to syncope. Current practice patterns suggest that beta blockers, fludrocortisone, and midodrine are commonly used to treat patients with vasovagal syncope. These also suggest that patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and with the dysautonomic response, are better treated with fludrocortisone and midodrine. PMID:11565347

Gónzalez-Hermosillo, J A

43

Hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed Central

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images

Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

1998-01-01

44

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the...

2009-04-01

45

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the...

2010-04-01

46

BAM Media M74: Lactose Broth  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M74: Lactose Broth. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M74 Lactose Broth. Beef extract, 3 g. Peptone, 5 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

47

Lactose metabolism in Erwinia chrysanthemi.  

PubMed Central

Wild-type strains of the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are unable to use lactose as a carbon source for growth although they possess a beta-galactosidase activity. Lactose-fermenting derivatives from some wild types, however, can be obtained spontaneously at a frequency of about 5 X 10(-7). All Lac+ derivatives isolated had acquired a constitutive lactose transport system and most contained an inducible beta-galactosidase. The transport system, product of the lmrT gene, mediates uptake of lactose in the Lac+ derivatives and also appears to be able to mediate uptake of melibiose, raffinose, and galactose. Two genes encoding beta-galactosidase enzymes were detected in E. chrysanthemi strains. That mainly expressed in the wild-type strains was the lacZ product. The other, the lacB product, is very weakly expressed in these strains. These enzymes showed different affinities for the substrates o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside and lactose and for the inhibitors isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and galactose. The lmrT and lacZ genes of E. chrysanthemi, together with the lacI gene coding for the regulatory protein controlling lacZ expression, were cloned by using an RP4::miniMu vector. When these plasmids were transferred into Lac- Escherichia coli strains, their expression was similar to that in E. chrysanthemi. The cloning of the lmrT gene alone suggested that the lacZ or lacB gene is not linked to the lmrT gene on the E. chrysanthemi chromosome. One Lac+ E. chrysanthemi derivative showed a constitutive synthesis of the beta-galactosidase encoded by the lacB gene. This mutation was dominant toward the lacI lacZ cloned genes. Besides these mutations affecting the regulation of the lmrT or lacB gene, the isolation of structural mutants unable to grow on lactose was achieved by mutagenic treatment. These mutants showed no expression of the lactose transport system, the lmrT mutants, or the mainly expressed beta-galactosidase, lacZ mutants. The lacZ mutants retained a very low beta-galactosidase level, due to the lacB product, but this level was low enough to permit use of the lacZ mutants for the construction of gene fusions with the Escherichia coli lac genes.

Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N; Robert-Baudouy, J

1985-01-01

48

Dietary fructose intolerance: diet modification can impact self-rated health and symptom control.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate intolerance to lactose is widely accepted as a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms, but controversy persists on how important dietary fructose intolerance (DFI) is in causing gastrointestinal pain and suffering and if an elimination diet can control the presenting complaints. The objective of this study was to identify a group of well-defined DFI patients and explore whether dietary education followed by dietary compliance could control symptoms and improve quality of life. During a 5-year period, patients referred to a pancreato-biliary clinic were evaluated for dietary carbohydrate intolerances if they presented with gastrointestinal pain and/or gas and/or bloating and/or diarrhea. Patients were tested with a standardized mixture of glucose, fructose, and lactose diluted in sterile water. End-expiratory breath samples were collected for hydrogen and methane measurement. Symptoms were scored using a 9-point symptom questionnaire. The patients underwent in-depth education by a dietician, and were provided with access to a cookbook, a newsletter, and a support group. A dietary questionnaire was used to evaluate compliance with the fructose-restricted diet. DFI can cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms that may not respond to medications or surgical interventions. Symptoms can improve and self-rated health does improve in DFI patients willing to adhere to a low fructose diet. PMID:15624540

Johlin, Frederick C; Panther, Mary; Kraft, Nancy

49

Pharmaceutical design of a new lactose-free coprocessed excipient: application of hydrochlorothiazide as a low solubility drug model.  

PubMed

Most co-processed excipients used in direct-compression tablets contain lactose, which prevents lactose-intolerant patients from taking such tablets. Therefore, a novel lactose-free co-processed excipient for direct compression tablets has been prepared. Microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate dehydrate were used as primary excipients which underwent a wet granulation process and factorial experiment in order to ascertain the best prototype. Finally, the best two prototypes were added to hydrochlorothiazide, which has chosen as the model drug because of its low solubility. An extensive characterization of the new excipient as well as the drug loaded tablets is reported. Our results show adequate parameters (rheological and compression behavior, uniformity of weight, disintegration, friability, crushing force and cohesion index). Moreover, the biopharmaceutical profile was evaluated; the tablets exhibits a Weibull kinetic function and fast drug release. PMID:22607083

Viscasillas Clerch, Anna; Fernandez Campos, Francisco; Del Pozo, Alfonso; Calpena Campmany, Ana Cristina

2012-05-21

50

Lactose malabsorption in recurrent abdominal pain of childhood.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the role of lactose malabsorption in children with recurrent abdominal pain, we performed a prospective controlled double-blinded study in 40 children with RAP of at least three months' duration. Children were studied for lactose malabsorption by breath hydrogen determinations after ingestion of lactose (2 gm/kg of body weight; maximum 50 gm). Lactose malabsorbers were retested with 12.5 gm lactose; lactose absorbers were retested with lactose for ability to produce hydrogen. All children underwent a dietary trial which included two lactose elimination periods. Although 12 children (30%) were lactose malabsorbers, only three malabsorbed part of the smaller, more physiologic, lactose load. Improvement rates of lactose malabsorbers and absorbers during lactose elimination were not significantly different as judged by their physicians and as determined by a 50% or more decrease in pain frequency. These results suggest that lactose malabsorption is of little importance in children with RAP. PMID:7057318

Wald, A; Chandra, R; Fisher, S E; Gartner, J C; Zitelli, B

1982-01-01

51

Cloning of chemically synthesized lactose operators.  

PubMed

Recombinant DNA molecules, constructed from the ColE1-Mk5 hybrid plasmid PMB9 and a chemically synthesized wild-type lactose operator segment, have been used to transform Escherichia coli. Up to 10% of the transformants (selected for the tetracycline-resistance property of PMB9) are partially constitutive for the lactose operon enzyme beta-galactosidase. In vitro studies demonstrate that these partially constitutive transformants contain plasmid DNA molecules which carry one or more lactose operators, and which will bind purified lactose repressor. Preliminary results with some modified operator sequences are also presented. PMID:338421

Sadler, J R; Tecklenburg, M; Betz, J L; Goeddel, D V; Yansura, D G; Caruthers, M H

1977-07-01

52

Molecular Structure of Beta-Lactose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discovered in 1619 by Bartoletti, lactose came from the Latin word Lac which means milk. Found in the milk of most mammals, Lactose is exclusive to the animal kingdom. Lactose is commonly used in pharmaceuticals because of its low toxicity, acceptable taste and its low reactivity. It is also used in cooking as a natural coloring. Lactose has been around for millions of years and has been aiding mammals in populating the earth. Also, it is employed as a nutrient in preparing modified milk and food for infants and convalescents.

2002-08-13

53

The Acid Hydrolysis of Lactose and the Preparation of Hydrolyzed Lactose Sirup  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation of factors concerned in the hydrol- ysis of lactose by acids, including a study of the solubility of mixtures of glucose and galactose and of methods for the production of hydrolyzed lactose sirups. By hydro!yzing lactose into its more soluble hexose con- stituents, higher sugar concentrations could be obtained in some dairy prod- ucts which

G. A. Ramsdell; B. H. Webb

1945-01-01

54

Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy is usually reserved for severe and medically refractory disorders because of the toxicity, potential long-term risks and invasiveness of most gene transfer protocols. Here we show that an orally administered adeno-associated viral vector leads to persistent expression of a ß-galactosidase transgene in both gut epithelial and lamina propria cells, and that this approach results in long-term phenotypic recovery

Ruian Xu; Deborah Young; Michael G. Kaplitt; Robert S. Sherwin; Paola Leone

1998-01-01

55

Identification of lactose phosphotransferase systems in Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 required for lactose utilization.  

PubMed

Improving the annotation of sugar catabolism-related genes requires functional characterization. Our objective was to identify the genes necessary for lactose utilization by Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 (NCK334). The mechanism of lactose transport in many lactobacilli is a lactose/galactose-specific permease, yet no orthologue was found in NCK334. Characterization of an EI knockout strain [EI (enzyme I) is required for phosphotransferase system transporter (PTS) function] demonstrated that L. gasseri requires PTS(s) to utilize lactose. In order to determine which PTS(s) were necessary for lactose utilization, we compared transcript expression profiles in response to lactose for the 15 complete PTSs identified in the NCK334 genome. PTS 6CB (LGAS_343) and PTS 8C (LGAS_497) were induced in the presence of lactose 107- and 53-fold, respectively. However, L. gasseri ATCC 33323 PTS 6CB, PTS 8C had a growth rate similar to that of the wild-type on semisynthetic deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) medium with lactose. Expression profiles of L. gasseri ATCC 33323 PTS 6CB, PTS 8C in response to lactose identified PTS 9BC (LGAS_501) as 373-fold induced, whereas PTS 9BC was not induced in NCK334. Elimination of growth on lactose required the inactivation of both PTS 6CB and PTS 9BC. Among the six candidate phospho-?-galactosidase genes present in the NCK334 genome, LGAS_344 was found to be induced 156-fold in the presence of lactose. In conclusion, we have determined that: (1) NCK334 uses a PTS to import lactose; (2) PTS 6CB and PTS 8C gene expression is strongly induced by lactose; and (3) elimination of PTS 6CB and PTS 9BC is required to prevent growth on lactose. PMID:22282520

Francl, Alyssa L; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Miller, Michael J

2012-01-27

56

Hypoxia Causes Glucose Intolerance in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxic respiratory diseases are frequently accompanied by glucose intolerance. We examined whether hypoxia is a cause of glucose intolerance in healthy subjects. In a double-blind within-subject crossover design, hypoxic versus normoxic conditions were induced in 14 healthy men for 30 minutes by decreasing oxygen saturation to 75% (versus 96% in control subjects) under the conditions of a euglycemic clamp. The

Kerstin M. Oltmanns; Hartmut Gehring; Sebastian Rudolf; Bernd Schultes; Stefanie Rook; Ulrich Schweiger; Jan Born; Horst L. Fehm; Achim Peters

2004-01-01

57

Solid State Transformations of ?-Lactose Monohydrate in Alcoholic Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline a-lactose monohydrate was obtained from aqueous methanol or acetone solutions, and the amount of methanol or acetone retained in the crystals was measured by gas chroma- tography. Established procedures were used for conversion of a-lactose mono- hydrate containing methanol into an- hydrous a-lactose, mixed anomeric form of lactose, and\\/3-lactose in neutral, acidic, and alkaline ethanolic media, respec- tively. The

Frederick W. Parrish; Mona L. Brown

1982-01-01

58

Anhydrobiosis in yeast: Stabilization by exogenous lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that incubation in lactose solutions (0.75 M) of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae sensitive to dehydration damage increased the stability of the cells during dehydration. Simultaneously with this increase\\u000a in viability, a decrease in plasma membrane permeability during rehydration was seen. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy\\u000a to measure lipid phase transitions, we observed that the lactose treatment depressed

A. I. Rapoport; G. M. Khroustalyova; L. M. Crowe; J. H. Crowe

2009-01-01

59

Lactose Utilization and Hydrolysis in Saccharomyces fragilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sodium azide, 2,4-dinitrophenol and iodoacetate did not inhibit hydrolysis of lactose by cell-free preparations of Sacchuromyces fragilis ,8-galactosidase, but with intact organisms fermentation and hydrolysis were inhibited to a similar extent. This suggests that these inhibitors may interfere with the transport of lactose into the cell. Galactose fermentation was inhibited by sodium azide and dinitrophenol to a much greater

R. DAVIES

1964-01-01

60

Wheat extract and milk mixture as a milk substitute for children with milk intolerance.  

PubMed

A mixture of milk with wheat extract and oil provides a low lactose formula which contains higher concentrations of energy than does diluted infant formula. To evaluate this mixture in malnourished children with diarrhea of more than 1 week's duration, 28 patients aged 3-18 months were studied at the pediatric isolation and metabolic wards of Ramathibodi Hospital. They were divided equally into study and control groups. The experimenta formula was a mixture of wheat extract, powdered whole milk and corn oil. The control diet was an infant formula. The lactose contents of the experimental and control formulas were, respectively, 1.1 and 7.2 g/100 ml. Amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrates were almost identical in both formulas. After rehydration with intravenous or oral electrolyte solutions, patients were fed full strength experimental formula or diluted infant formula. The latter's concentration was increased gradually according to clinical response, determined by daily weight, and stool frequency and consistency. All study group patients and 11 of 14 control group patients recovered from diarrhea. The mean +or- SD treatment durations in the study and control groups were 3.2 +or- 1.1 and 5.3 +or- 2.2 days respectively (p 0.01). The result suggested that a combined wheat extract/milk mixture is beneficial as a milk substitute for children with lactose intolerance. PMID:6512217

Suthutvoravut, U; Tontisirin, K; Varavithya, W; Valyasevi, A; Björck, I; Dahlqvist, A

1984-09-01

61

Lactose crystallization delay in model infant foods made with lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and starch.  

PubMed

Handling and storage alter infant food powders due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model infant foods were prepared by colyophilization of lactose, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of infant food powders. The kinetics of crystallization was studied by a gravimetric method (dynamic vapor sorption) at 70% relative humidity (RH). After freeze-drying, lactose was amorphous and crystallized at 70% RH. The delay before crystallization depends on the contents of beta-LG and starch in the formulations. A mathematical model was proposed to predict crystallization time (delay) at 70% RH. For the formulation containing 50% lactose, 25% beta-LG, and 25% starch, lactose was still amorphous after 42 h at 70% RH, whereas pure amorphous lactose crystallized after approximately 70 min. Calculated and experimental results of adsorbed moisture from the formulations were compared. Adsorbed water of formulation containing lactose could not be calculated from moisture sorption properties of each component at a given RH because beta-LG and gelatinized starch prevented lactose crystal growth. PMID:17638972

Nasirpour, A; Landillon, V; Cuq, B; Scher, J; Banon, S; Desobry, S

2007-08-01

62

Common syndromes of orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted "initial OH" and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

Stewart, Julian M

2013-04-08

63

The use of lactose recrystallised from carbopol gels as a carrier for aerosolised salbutamol sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose was crystallised either from Carbopol gel without stirring or from a constantly-stirred aqueous solution, to obtain lactose crystals designated as Carbo and control lactose, respectively. The Carbo lactose was shown to have a more regular shape with smoother surface as compared with the control lactose. These lactoses were fractionated by sieving to produce batches with different sizes before blending

Xian Ming Zeng; Gary Peter Martin; Christopher Marriott; John Pritchard

2001-01-01

64

Deconditioning in patients with orthostatic intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the frequency and degree of deconditioning, clinical features, and relationship between deconditioning and autonomic parameters in patients with orthostatic intolerance. Methods: We retrospectively studied all patients seen for orthostatic intolerance at Mayo Clinic between January 2006 and June 2011, who underwent both standardized autonomic and exercise testing. Results: A total of 184 patients (84 with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome [POTS] and 100 without orthostatic tachycardia) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 89% were women, and median age was 27.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 22–37 years). Symptom duration was 4 years (IQR 2–7.8). Of the patients, 90% had deconditioning (reduced maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max%] <85%) during exercise. This finding was unrelated to age, gender, or duration of illness. The prevalence of deconditioning was similar between those with POTS (95%) and those with orthostatic intolerance (91%). VO2max% had a weak correlation with a few autonomic and laboratory parameters but adequate predictors of VO2max% could not be identified. Conclusion: Reduced VO2max% consistent with deconditioning is present in almost all patients with orthostatic intolerance and may play a central role in pathophysiology. This finding provides a strong rationale for retraining in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. None of the autonomic indices are reliable predictors of deconditioning.

Parsaik, Ajay; Allison, Thomas G.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.

2012-01-01

65

Lactose tolerance in a Slavic population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gather data on the frequency of primary lactase deficiency in various population groups, lactose tolerance tests were performed on 38 healthy adults of Slavic origin who had recently left Eastern Europe and are presently living in Western Canada. Twenty-one of the subjects were born in Poland and 17 in Czechoslovakia. There were 16 males and 22 females,

Joseph Leichter

1972-01-01

66

Improvement of Lactose Digestion by Humans Following Ingestion of Unfermented Acidophilus Milk: Influence of Bile Sensitivity, Lactose Transport, and Acid Tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus on in vivo digestion of lactose was investigated. Four strains of L. acidophilus exhibiting varied degrees of lactose transport, b-galactosidase activity, and bile sensitivity were used to prepare unfermented acidophilus milks. Lactose malabsorption was evalu- ated by measuring breath H2 excretion of 11 lactose maldigesting subjects following

Azlin Mustapha; Tianan Jiang; Dennis A. Savaiano

1997-01-01

67

Differential impact of lactose/lactase phenotype on colonic microflora  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The ability to digest lactose divides the world’s population into two phenotypes that may be risk variability markers for several diseases. Prebiotic effects likely favour lactose maldigesters who experience lactose spilling into their colon. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of fixed-dose lactose solutions on fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in digesters and maldigesters, and to determine whether the concept of a difference in ability to digest lactose is supported. METHODS: A four-week study was performed in 23 lactose mal-digesters and 18 digesters. Following two weeks of dairy food withdrawal, subjects ingested 25 g of lactose twice a day for two weeks. Stool bifidobacteria and lactobacilli counts pre- and postintervention were measured as the primary outcome. For secondary outcomes, total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, beta-galactosidase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in stool, as well as breath hydrogen and symptoms following lactose challenge tests, were measured. RESULTS: Lactose maldigesters had a mean change difference (0.72 log10 colony forming units/g stool; P=0.04) in bifidobacteria counts compared with lactose digesters. Lactobacilli counts were increased, but not significantly. Nevertheless, reduced breath hydrogen after lactose ingestion correlated with lactobacilli (r=?0.5; P<0.001). Reduced total breath hydrogen and symptom scores together, with a rise in fecal enzymes after intervention, were appropriate, but not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite failure to achieve full colonic adaptation, the present study provided evidence for a differential impact of lactose on microflora depending on genetic lactase status. A prebiotic effect was evident in lactose maldigesters but not in lactose digesters. This may play a role in modifying the mechanisms of certain disease risks related to dairy food consumption between the two phenotypes.

Szilagyi, Andrew; Shrier, Ian; Heilpern, Debra; Je, Jung Sung; Park, Sunghoon; Chong, George; Lalonde, Catherine; Cote, Louis-Francois; Lee, Byong

2010-01-01

68

Heat Intolerance, Heat Exhaustion Monitored: A Case Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 32 year-old male (S.H.) monitored during an 8-day heat acclimation (HA) investigation, unexpectedly exhibited heat intolerance and heat exhaustion. Thirteen other males completed HA without indications of either heat intolerance or heat exhaustion. Beca...

L. E. Armstrong R. W. Hubbard P. C. Szlyk I. V. Sils W. J. Kraemer

1987-01-01

69

Orthostatic intolerance in the chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the prevalence and pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and its potential contribution to symptoms of a group of unselected patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Seventy five patients (65 women, 10 men) with CFS were evaluated. During an initial visit, a clinical suspicion as to the likelihood of observing laboratory evidence of OI was assigned.

Ronald Schondorf; Julie Benoit; Theodore Wein; Denis Phaneuf

1999-01-01

70

Orthostatic Intolerance: Potential Pathophysiology and Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic intolerance affects an estimated 1 in 500 persons and causes a wide range of disabilities. After essential hypertension, it is the most frequently encountered dysautonomia, accounting for the majority of patients referred to centers specializing in autonomic disorders. Patients are typically young females with symptoms such as dizziness, visual changes, head and neck discomfort, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness,

Chih-Cherng Lu; Ching-Jiunn Tseng; Hung-Shang Tang; Che-Se Tung

2004-01-01

71

Food intolerance and the irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred patients (156 women) with the irritable bowel syndrome were treated with dietary exclusion for three weeks. Of the 189 who completed this study, 91 (48.2%) showed symptomatic improvement. Subsequent challenge with individual foods showed that 73 of these 91 responders were able to identify one or more food intolerances and 72 remained well on a modified diet during

R Nanda; R James; H Smith; C R Dudley; D P Jewell

1989-01-01

72

High liver glycogen in hereditary fructose intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of hereditary fructose intolerance is reported in a girl aged 2 years at the time of her death. She had apparently progressed normally until the age of 14 months. At 19 months she was admitted to hospital with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, and superficial infections. Investigations revealed hypoglycaemia, persistent acidosis, aminoaciduria, and a high liver glycogen level which

A. R. R. Cain; Brenda E. Ryman

1971-01-01

73

Dermatitis herpetiformis intolerant to dapsone in Aids.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old man with AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis presented with lesions suggestive of dermatitis herpetiformis and intolerance to dapsone. He was managed successfully with a combination of nicotinamide 200 mg/day and indomethacin 75 mg/day, topical steroids and gluten free diet. PMID:20885054

Krishna, K; Kavitha, K

74

It’s too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs regarding intolerance of frustration are central to the theory of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and are hypothesised as playing an important role in procrastination. However, there is evidence that frustration intolerance may involve several dimensions. To investigate the relative contribution of these dimensions, a multidimensional measure of frustration intolerance beliefs was employed in a student sample (n=86). The

Neil Harrington

2005-01-01

75

Glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C and to evaluate the relationship between interferon (IFN) treatment and glucose intolerance in these patients. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the outpatient

Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jiing-Chyuan Luo; Shou-Dong Lee; Full-Young Chang

76

PERMEABILITY AND METABOLISM OF LACTOSE IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA  

PubMed Central

Lester, G. (Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, Shrewsbury, Mass.), D. Azzena, and O. Hechter. Permeability and metabolism of lactose in Neurospora crassa. J. Bacteriol. 84:217–227. 1962.—Germinated conidia of Neurospora crassa suspended in buffer take up lactose, and this uptake can be attributed to the intracellular accumulation and to the metabolism of lactose. The former process predominates initially, and the latter after a few hours of incubation. The accumulation of lactose appears to be mediated by a very specific transport system, which can bring about intracellular concentrations that greatly exceed the external concentration of lactose. Both the influx and efflux of lactose appear to be dependent on metabolic energy, since azide and low temperature inhibit these events. The steroid hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone also reduces the uptake and prevents the accumulation of lactose. The metabolism of lactose was clearly demonstrated, but the pathway(s) of metabolism was not defined. The amount of ?-galactosidase activity extractable from the cells was insufficient to be solely responsible for the initial step in lactose metabolism. The present studies are discussed in relationship to ion permeability and lactose metabolism in N. crassa, and to galactoside permeability in Escherichia coli.

Lester, G.; Azzena, D.; Hechter, O.

1962-01-01

77

Xyr1 receives the lactose induction signal and regulates lactose metabolism in Hypocrea jecorina.  

PubMed

This study reports the vital regulatory influence of Xyr1 (xylanase regulator 1) on the transcription of hydrolytic enzyme-encoding genes and hydrolase formation on lactose in Hypocrea jecorina. While the transcription of the xyr1 gene itself is achieved by release of carbon catabolite repression, the transcript formation of xyn1 (xylanase 1) is regulated by an additional induction mechanism mediated by lactose. Xyr1 has an important impact on lactose metabolism by directly activating xyl1 (xylose reductase 1) transcription and indirectly influencing transcription of bga1 (beta-galactosidase 1). The latter is achieved by regulating the conversion of D-galactose to the inducing carbon source galactitol. PMID:17662982

Stricker, Astrid R; Steiger, Matthias G; Mach, Robert L

2007-07-23

78

Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cetevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding the β-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lactose concentrations, total lactose consumption was observed with a

L. Domingues; M. M. Dantas; N. Lima; J. A. Teixeira

1999-01-01

79

Structural prediction and comparative docking studies of psychrophilic ?- Galactosidase with lactose, ONPG and PNPG against its counter parts of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes.  

PubMed

Enzymes from psychrophiles catalyze the reactions at low temperatures with higher specific activity. Among all the psychrophilic enzymes produced, cold active ?-galactosidase from marine psychrophiles revalorizes a new arena in numerous areas at industrial level. The hydrolysis of lactose in to glucose and galactose by cold active ?-galactosidase offers a new promising approach in removal of lactose from milk to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance. Herein we propose, a 3D structure of cold active ?-galactosidase enzyme sourced from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis by using Modeler 9v8 and best model was developed having 88% of favourable region in ramachandran plot. Modelling was followed by docking studies with the help of Auto dock 4.0 against the three substrates lactose, ONPG and PNPG. In addition, comparative docking studies were also performed for the 3D model of psychrophilic ?-galactosidase with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. Docking studies revealed that binding affinity of enzyme towards the three different substrates is more for psychrophilic enzyme when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. It indicates that the enzyme has high specific activity at low temperature when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. PMID:21769193

Kumar, Ponnada Suresh; Pulicherla, Kk; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kumar, Anmol; Rao, Krs Sambasiva

2011-07-06

80

Sugar Binding and Protein Conformational Changes in Lactose Permease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose permease is an integral membrane protein that uses the cell membrane’s proton gradient for import of lactose. Based on extensive biochemical data and a substrate-bound crystal structure, intermediates involved in lactose\\/H+ co-transport have been suggested. Yet, the transport mechanism, especially the coupling of protonation states of essential residues and protein conformational changes involved in the transport, is not understood.

Ying Yin; Morten Ø. Jensen; Emad Tajkhorshid; Klaus Schulten

2006-01-01

81

Syndromes of orthostatic intolerance: a hidden danger.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a relatively common heterogenous and multifactorial disorder, traditionally classified as neurogenic (less common but often more severe) or nonneurogenic (more common, with no direct signs of autonomic nervous system disease). The different clinical variants of orthostatic intolerance include initial, classical and delayed OH as well as postural tachycardia syndrome. Orthostatic instability may induce syncopal attacks either alone or in combination with other mechanisms, and is often dismissed as a precipitating factor. Moreover, prevalent OH is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and the majority of patients with OH are asymptomatic or have few nonspecific symptoms. Management of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance includes both nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods, but it is not always successful and may lead to complications. Future studies of OH should focus on mechanisms that lead to neurogenic and nonneurogenic OH, novel diagnostic methods and more effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:23216860

Fedorowski, A; Melander, O

2013-04-01

82

Galactose intolerance and the risk of cataract.  

PubMed Central

Cataracts may arise in association with various major and minor disorders restricting galactose metabolism, and the risk is broadly associated with the degree of galactose intolerance. A family is described in which a girl presented at the age of 7 3/4 years with cataracts, galactosuria, and partial deficiencies of the enzymes galactokinase and galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactose intolerance as determined by an oral test was impaired and fluctuated with variation in activity of the above galactose enzymes. Minor defects were also present in the parents and a maternal half-brother. The child has a compound disorder of galactose metabolism differing from those previously described. Assessment of galactose tolerance may be useful in the investigation of families with an incidence of cataract. Images

Winder, A. F.; Fells, P.; Jones, R. B.; Kissun, R. D.; Menzies, I. S.; Mount, J. N.

1982-01-01

83

Management of the Patient with Statin Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current guidelines recommend statins as first-line therapy for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and preventing\\u000a cardiovascular events. Patients taking statins frequently experience adverse effects during therapy. The first step is to\\u000a determine whether the adverse effects are indeed related to statin therapy by statin dechallenge and rechallenge. Strategies\\u000a for managing statin intolerance include changing statins, intermittent dosing, intensification of lifestyle

Byron F. Vandenberg; Jennifer Robinson

2010-01-01

84

Statin intolerance: now a solved problem.  

PubMed

Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients. PMID:22120862

Sikka, P; Kapoor, S; Bindra, V K; Sharma, M; Vishwakarma, P; Saxena, K K

85

Serum lipids and proteins in lactose malabsorption13  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that dietary lactose may reduce the intestinal absorption of fat and protein in individuals with lactase deficiency. On the other hand, it is known that a high carbohydrate diet increases serum lipids. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences iii the fasting serum lipid and protein concentrations between people with lactose

Timo Sahi; Jaakko Jussila; Seppo Sarna; Mauri Isokoski

86

Glass transition temperature of regular and lactose hydrolyzed milk powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of lactose hydrolyzed milk powder (HMP) was determined and compared to that of regular milk powders (MP). Some physical and chemical changes (loss of flowing ability, browning development) were also evaluated during storage of the different milk powders. Sugars of HMP (glucose, galactose, lactose) influenced, but did not define, the Tg values of the product,

Emiliano Fernández; Carolina Schebor; Jorge Chirife

2003-01-01

87

Hydrogen production by Clostridium thermolacticum during continuous fermentation of lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of acetate by Clostridium thermolacticum growing on lactose, considerable amounts of hydrogen were generated. Lactose available in large amounts from milk permeate, a wastestream of the dairy industry, appears to be a valuable substrate for cheap production of biohydrogen.In this study, continuous cultivation of C. thermolacticum was carried out in a bioreactor, under anaerobic thermophilic conditions, on

Christophe Collet; Nevenka Adler; Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel; Paul Péringer

2004-01-01

88

The compelling anomaly of chemical intolerance.  

PubMed

In science, anomalies expose the limitations of existing paradigms and drive the search for new ones. In the late 1800s, physicians observed that certain illnesses spread from sick, feverish individuals to those contacting them, paving the way for the germ theory of disease. The germ theory served as a crude, but elegant formulation that explained dozens of seemingly unrelated illnesses affecting literally every organ system. Today, we are witnessing another medical anomaly-a unique pattern of illness involving chemically exposed groups in more than a dozen countries, who subsequently report multisystem symptoms and new-onset chemical, food, and drug intolerances. These intolerances may be the hallmark for a new disease process or paradigm, just as fever is a hallmark for infection. The fact that diverse demographic groups, sharing little in common except some initial chemical exposure event, develop these intolerances is a compelling anomaly pointing to a possible new theory of disease, one that has been referred to as "Toxicant-Induced Loss of Tolerance" ("TILT"). TILT has the potential to explain certain cases of asthma, migraine headaches, and depression, as well as chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and "Gulf War syndrome". It appears to evolve in two stages: (1) initiation, characterized by a profound breakdown in prior, natural tolerance resulting from either acute or chronic exposure to chemicals (pesticides, solvents, indoor air contaminants, etc.), followed by (2) triggering of symptoms by small quantities of previously tolerated chemicals (traffic exhaust, fragrances, gasoline), foods, drugs, and food/drug combinations (alcohol, caffeine). While the underlying dynamic remains an enigma, observations indicating that affected individuals respond to structurally unrelated drugs and experience cravings and withdrawal-like symptoms, paralleling drug addiction, suggest that multiple neurotransmitter pathways may be involved. PMID:12000012

Miller, C S

2001-03-01

89

Systems analysis of lactose metabolism in Trichoderma reesei identifies a lactose permease that is essential for cellulase induction.  

PubMed

Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

2013-05-08

90

Systems Analysis of Lactose Metabolism in Trichoderma reesei Identifies a Lactose Permease That Is Essential for Cellulase Induction  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei’s cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus.

Ivanova, Christa; Baath, Jenny A.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.

2013-01-01

91

Studies of Heated Milk. V. The Reaction of Lactose with Milk Protein as Shown by Lactose -1-C141  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the many mechanisms of lactose destruction which appear to operate in heated milk are to be understood, some technique of following the phe- nomena with precision must be developed. As yet there is no method with sufficient specificity by which total lactose destruction in heated milk can be measured. Larsen and Gould (5) have demonstrated this in a recent

Stuart Patton; Robert J. Flipse

1953-01-01

92

Lactose Permease and the Alternating Access Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Crystal structures of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) reveal twelve, mostly irregular transmembrane ?-helices surrounding a large cavity open to the cytoplasm and a tightly sealed periplasmic side (inward-facing conformation). However, LacY is highly dynamic, and binding of a galactopyranoside causes closing of the inward-facing cavity with opening of a complementary outward-facing cavity. Therefore, the coupled, electrogenic translocation of a sugar and an H+ across the cytoplasmic membrane via LacY very likely involves a global conformational change that allows alternating access of sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane. Here the various biochemical/biophysical approaches that provide strong support for the alternating access mechanism are reviewed. Evidence is also presented indicating that opening of the periplasmic cavity is probably the limiting step for binding as well as transport.

Smirnova, Irina; Kasho, Vladimir; Kaback, H. Ronald

2011-01-01

93

Refining the Measurement of Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Distress intolerance is an important transdiagnostic variable that has long been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Self-report measurement strategies for distress intolerance have emerged from several different models of psychopathology and these measures have been applied inconsistently in the literature in the absence of a clear gold standard. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies and samples, thus hampering the advancement of this research agenda. This study evaluated the latent factor structure of existing measures of DI to examine the degree to which they are capturing the same construct. Results of confirmatory factor analysis in 3 samples totaling 400 participants provided support for a single factor latent structure. Individual items of these four scales were then correlated with this factor to identify those that best capture the core construct. Results provided consistent supported for 10 items that demonstrated the strongest concordance with this factor. The use of these 10 items as a unifying measure in the study of DI and future directions for the evaluation of its utility are discussed.

McHugh, R. Kathryn; Otto, Michael W.

2012-01-01

94

Refining the measurement of distress intolerance.  

PubMed

Distress intolerance is an important transdiagnostic variable that has long been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Self-report measurement strategies for distress intolerance (DI) have emerged from several different models of psychopathology and these measures have been applied inconsistently in the literature in the absence of a clear gold standard. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies and samples, thus hampering the advancement of this research agenda. This study evaluated the latent factor structure of existing measures of DI to examine the degree to which they are capturing the same construct. Results of confirmatory factor analysis in three samples totaling 400 participants provided support for a single-factor latent structure. Individual items of these four scales were then correlated with this factor to identify those that best capture the core construct. Results provided consistent support for 10 items that demonstrated the strongest concordance with this factor. The use of these 10 items as a unifying measure in the study of DI and future directions for the evaluation of its utility are discussed. PMID:22697451

McHugh, R Kathryn; Otto, Michael W

2011-12-20

95

Chemical Intolerance in Primary Care Settings: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the Dartmouth–Northern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P <.001). Controlling for demographics, patients with chemical intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with non–chemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication intolerances in chemical intolerance, primary care clinicians could use the QEESI to identify patients for appropriate triage to comprehensive nonpharmacologic care.

Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.

2012-01-01

96

Intolerance and tolerance in the Jewish tradition and contemporary Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the author relates Jewish cultural resources to the structuring of intolerance and tolerance in the Jewish tradition. The role of collectivist and primordial orientations are highlighted not only in the definition of intolerance but in the construction of patterns of tolerance as well. Because of the decisive role of these orientations, the distinction between public and private

Shlomo Fischer

2003-01-01

97

Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

2012-01-01

98

Failure to improve parameters of lactose maldigestion using the multiprobiotic product VSL3 in lactose maldigesters: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Lactose maldigestion is a common genetic trait in up to 70% of the world's population. In these subjects, the ingestion of lactose may lead to prebiotic effects which can be confirmed by measurement of breath hydrogen. After a period of continuous lactose ingestion, colonic bacterial adaptation is measurable as improved parameters of lactose digestion. There may be inherent benefits in this process of adaptation which may protect against some diseases. We attempt to link therapeutically beneficial probiotics (VSL3, Seaford Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ontario) with improvement in parameters of lactose maldigestion. Two groups of five subjects with maldigestion were fed one or four packets of VSL3 (one packet containing 450 x 10(9) live bacteria) before testing and then 17 days later. A 50 g lactose challenge was carried out before and after feeding. While there was a trend toward increasing rather than reducing of summed breath hydrogen, no statistically significant changes were observed between results from before testing and those from testing 17 days later. The authors conclude that direct consumption of the probiotic VSL3 may not improve parameters of lactose maldigestion without metabolic activation. In its present format, therefore, the test for colonic adaptation cannot be used to demonstrate direct bacterial embedding with VSL3. PMID:14997218

Yesovitch, Rose; Cohen, Albert; Szilagyi, Andrew

2004-02-01

99

Continuous ethanol fermentation of lactose by a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol fermentation of lactose was investi- gated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding for b-galactosi- dase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source are presented. In the range of studied lac- tose concentrations, total lactose consumption was

Lucília Domingues; Maria M. Dantas; Nelson Lima; José A. Teixeira

1999-01-01

100

[Value of prokinetics in enteral nutrition intolerance].  

PubMed

Malnutrition is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality and therefore a raise in hospitalization's costs. Nevertheless, an early nutritional support can reverse this trend. Gastrointestinal dysfunctions (gastroparesis, abdominal distension, high gastric residues) in patient on enteral nutrition, may appear and very likely generate an increasing risk of regurgitations, pulmonary aspiration and infection. These symptoms represent the main factors limiting dosage in administering enteral nutrition. Prokinectics agents (metoclopramid, cisaprid and erythromycin) which improve gastric motility are often used in order to maintain enteral nutrition and to cover the energetic needs of patients. This revenue shows some way of using prokinectics in case of enteral nutrition intolerance and propose a step-by-step guideline on how to start and increase progressively enteral nutrition. PMID:11723704

Maisonneuve, N; Karsegard, V L; Genton, L; Pichard, C

2001-09-01

101

Hyperdibasicaminoaciduria and hyperammonemia in familial protein intolerance.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old boy with hyperdibasicaminoaciduria and hyperammonemia showed characteristics of familial protein intolerance (FPI). Oral loading tests of lysine and arginine disclosed a remarkably reduced capability for intestinal absorption of these amino acids. Because urinary excretion and renal clearance of dibasic amino acids were only moderately elevated in the patient, the conspicuously decreased serum concentration of lysine, arginine, and ornithine was attributed to the defect in internal absorption. A possible explanation for elevated blood ammonia levels in FPI is that it is due to a deficiency of arginine and ornithine in the urea cycle that in turn results from a severe impairment in absorption of the amino acids by the gut mucosa. PMID:998577

Kato, T; Tanaka, E; Horisawa, S

1976-12-01

102

Use of Boolean and fuzzy logics in lactose glycocluster research.  

PubMed

Fuzzy logic systems can be exploited for defining the degrees of true or false binding between calcium mediated multivalent lactose and peanut agglutinin lectin, which are difficult to define with Boolean logic. PMID:23990012

Bavireddi, Harikrishna; Bharate, Priya; Kikkeri, Raghavendra

2013-08-29

103

Lactose Tolerance in Pregnant African-American Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the investigation was to study lactose (milk sugar) digestion and milk tolerance and its association with dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome in pregnant black women. This study examined two broad areas of interest. The first explored ...

D. M. Paige

1998-01-01

104

Water sorption and time-dependent crystallization behaviour of freeze-dried lactose–salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sorption properties of freeze-dried lactose, lactose\\/CaCl2, lactose\\/NaCl, lactose\\/MgCl2, and lactose\\/KCl mixtures in their molar ratio of (9:1) were investigated. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) models were used to model water sorption properties. Water is known to function as a plasticizer, depressing the glass transition and facilitating crystallization. Crystallization in the present study resulted in loss of sorbed water

A. M. Elmonsef Omar; Yrjö H. Roos

2007-01-01

105

Regulation of Lactose Utilization Genes in Staphylococcus xylosus  

PubMed Central

The lactose utilization genes of Staphylococcus xylosus have been isolated and characterized. The system is comprised of two structural genes, lacP and lacH, encoding the lactose permease and the ?-galactosidase proteins, respectively, and a regulatory gene, lacR, coding for an activator of the AraC/XylS family. The lactose utilization genes are divergently arranged, the lacPH genes being opposite to lacR. The lacPH genes are cotranscribed from one promoter in front of lacP, whereas lacR is transcribed from two promoters of different strengths. Lactose transport as well as ?-galactosidase activity are inducible by the addition of lactose to the growth medium. Primer extension experiments demonstrated that regulation is achieved at the level of lacPH transcription initiation. Inducibility and efficient lacPH transcription are dependent on a functional lacR gene. Inactivation of lacR resulted in low and constitutive lacPH expression. Expression of lacR itself is practically constitutive, since transcription initiated at the major lacR promoter does not respond to the availability of lactose. Only the minor lacR promoter is lactose inducible. Apart from lactose-specific, LacR-dependent control, the lacPH promoter is also subject to carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA. When glucose is present in the growth medium, lacPH transcription initiation is reduced. Upon ccpA inactivation, repression at the lacPH promoter is relieved. Despite this loss of transcriptional regulation in the ccpA mutant strain, ?-galactosidase activity is still reduced by glucose, suggesting another level of control.

Bassias, Joannis; Bruckner, Reinhold

1998-01-01

106

Thermodynamic analysis of product formation in mesophilic acidogenesis of lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic analysis on the acidogenesis of lactose was performed to evaluate the different aci- dogenic patterns and mechanisms by using Gibbs free energy calculation. Batch acidogenesis of lactose was in- vestigated by using an enriched culture at 37jC, pH 5.5 and varied substrate levels. In addition to usual acido- genic products, i-butyrate, valerate, i-valerate, caproate, and propanol were also produced

Han-Qing Yu; Yang Mu; Herbert H. P. Fang

2004-01-01

107

Visualization of the crystallization of lactose from the amorphous state.  

PubMed

The physical stability and solid-state recrystallization of spray-dried 'amorphous' lactose particles were visualized using environmentally controlled atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) and conventional optical microscopy. The morphology and crystalline state were investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) and were correlated with bulk gravimetric vapor sorption measurements that were run in parallel. The metastable nature of amorphous spray-dried lactose particles was apparent at low RHs (<30% RH). Visualization of the recrystallization transformation of amorphous lactose during moisture uptake at 58 and 75% RH suggested only a proportion of the collapsed particles undergoes nucleation and crystal growth. The irregular surface morphology of the recrystallized particles suggested a secondary nucleation and growth process. Primary nucleation of alpha-lactose monohydrate within the non-recrystallized particles required exposure to elevated RH (94% RH). In relation to bulk measurements of moisture-induced amorphous recrystallization of spray-dried lactose, the results suggest that recrystallization of amorphous lactose, above a critical RH, may be induced by the presence of very low levels of a seed material, which may dramatically reduce the activation energy barrier for nucleation and crystal growth. PMID:14648645

Price, Robert; Young, Paul M

2004-01-01

108

Nutrition, population growth and disease: a short history of lactose.  

PubMed

Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. PMID:23574334

Brüssow, Harald

2013-04-09

109

Transcriptional Regulation and Evolution of Lactose Genes in the Galactose-Lactose Operon of Lactococcus lactis NCDO2054  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetics of lactose utilization within the slow-lactose-fermenting Lactococcus lactis strain NCDO2054 was studied with respect to the organization, expression, and evolution of the lac genes. Initially the b-galac- tosidase gene (lacZ) was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant on a 7-kb HpaI fragment. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the complete fragment revealed part of a gal-lac operon, and

ELAINE E. VAUGHAN; R. DAVID PRIDMORE; BEAT MOLLET

1998-01-01

110

Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of a Lactose-Free and a Lactose-Containing Formula in Dietary Management of Acute Childhood Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Refeeding of artificially fed infants with lactose-containing formula after oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea was concluded to be indifferent to non-lactose formula by a meta- analysis. In Thai as well as Asian infants and children with low lactase level from genetically determinant and with rotavirus infection, lactose malabsorption is most likely to occur and

Nipat Simakachorn; Yothi Tongpenyai

111

1) Please comment on the findings of glucose intolerance and ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1) Please comment on the findings of glucose intolerance and development of diabetes associated with Egrifta (tesamorelin) therapy and its impact ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

112

Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?  

MedlinePLUS

... com /health /food-allergy /AN01109 ">Food allergy vs. food intolerance: What's the difference? Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

113

[Case in point: allergy, intolerance or pseudoallergy to chocolate?].  

PubMed

Chocolate is traditionally considered as allergenic for predisposed subjects although many immunologic reactions are erroneously evaluated as allergic, due to misleading procedures. Therefore the term intolerance has been more properly employed. After summarizing the negative effects of chocolate, especially in children, we stress that the diagnosis of chocolate intolerance should be based upon reliable studies, including elimination/provocation tests in a double-blind fashion. PMID:2701027

Cantani, A; Ferrara, M; Vazzoler, C

1989-06-01

114

Lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide adulteration in milk.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect semicarbazide and lactose semicarbazone in milk was developed as part of a programme to set up methods for detecting the economically motivated adulteration of raw milk with nitrogen-containing compounds. The detection of semicarbazide was hampered by that fact that this compound tended to give broad, poor intensity peaks in the hydrophobic interaction chromatographic method employed. When spiked into milk at levels of 20-200 ppm, semicarbazide either partially or completely reacted with the matrix, which both increased the limit of detection of the method and made the setting of a threshold by using low level spikes almost impossible. Thus using lactose semicarbazone as a marker for semicarbazide addition to milk was investigated. Lactose semicarbazone was detected in semicarbazide-spiked milk, and its identity was confirmed by fragmentation analysis and comparison with the synthesised compound. The level of lactose semicarbazone correlated with the amount of semicarbazide added to the milk, and the acidic conditions employed in the extraction method appeared to enhance the sensitivity of detection by driving the semicarbazone-forming reaction towards completion. Thus lactose semicarbazone can be used as a marker for the addition of semicarbazide to milk; however, both compounds should be monitored during surveys looking for the semicarbazide adulteration of milk. PMID:23683401

Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

2013-04-08

115

Selection and Neutrality in Lactose Operons of Escherichia Coli  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of the permeases and ?-galactosidases of six lactose operons which had been transduced into a common genetic background from natural isolates of Escherichia coli were investigated. The fitnesses conferred by the operons were determined using chemostat competition experiments in which lactose was the sole growth-limiting factor. The cell wall is demonstrated to impose a resistance to the diffusion of galactosides at low substrate concentrations. A steady state model of the flux of lactose through the metabolic pathway (diffusion, uptake and hydrolysis) is shown to be proportional to fitness. This metabolic model is used to explain why an approximately twofold range in activity among the permease alleles confers a 13% range in fitness, whereas a similar range in activity among alleles of the ?-galactosidase confers a 0.5% range in fitness. This metabolic model implies that selection need not be maximized when a resource is scarce.

Dean, A. M.

1989-01-01

116

Quantification of lactose using ion-pair RP-HPLC during enzymatic lactose hydrolysis of skim milk.  

PubMed

The correct labelling of dairy foods as "lactose-free" requires a suitably sensitive and valid analytical method for the quantification of lactose in complex food matrices. Thus, an ion-pair RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of lactose, glucose and galactose in original skim milk was investigated. The samples derived from an enzymatic lactose hydrolysis approach (0.5L) using the commercial ?-galactosidase Godo-YNL2. After derivatisation with p-aminobenzoic acid and sodium cyanoborohydride, the samples were injected on a RP-C(18) column. Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate was used as the ion-pair reagent in the eluent system. The sugars were quantified using photometric- (UV; 303 nm) and fluorescence-detection (?(ex) 313 nm, ?(em) 358 nm). The overall run time was 27 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were estimated at 2 mgL(-1) (UV detection) and at 0.13 mgL(-1) (fluorescence detection). The limits of quantification were 6 mgL(-1) (UV detection) and 0.45 mgL(-1) (fluorescence detection). Thus, this analytical method is suitable for sensitive lactose quantification in milk systems of less than 10 mgL(-1). PMID:22980818

Erich, Sarah; Anzmann, Theresa; Fischer, Lutz

2012-07-20

117

[A false positive reaction to lactose in polycarbohydrate media].  

PubMed

In combined media for primary identification Salmonella typhi are detectable by the lactose test only within a certain range of proteolytic activities, which fact is explained by specific features of these media. Reduced proteolytic activity and thiosulfate reductase activity in S. typhi cultures resulted in false-positive lactose test and false-positive hydrogen sulfide production test, this leading to identification of these cultures as Escherichia in accordance with the universally acknowledged classification scheme. Taking this feature into consideration, the author has additionally isolated 20 typical S. typhi strains of the 22 cultures isolated in the laboratory. PMID:1715952

Podpletennaia, I M

1991-01-01

118

Bioenergetic consequences of lactose starvation for continuously cultured Streptococcus cremoris.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus cremoris cells that had been grown in a chemostat were starved for lactose. The viability of the culture remained essentially constant in the first hours of starvation and subsequently declined logarithmically. The viability pattern during starvation varied with the previously imposed growth rates. The death rates were 0.029, 0.076, and 0.298 h-1 for cells grown at dilution rates of 0.07, 0.11 and 0.38 h-1, respectively. The proton motive force and the pools of energy-rich phosphorylated intermediates in cells grown at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1 fell to zero within 2 h of starvation. The culture, however, remained fully viable for at least 20 h, indicating that these energy-rich intermediates are not crucial for survival during long-term lactose starvation. Upon starvation, the intracellular pools of several amino acids depleted with the proton motive force, while large concentration gradients of the amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartate, and glutamate were retained for several hours. A quantitative analysis of the amino acids released indicated that nonspecific protein degradation was not a major cause of the loss in viability. The response of the energy metabolism of starved S. cremoris cells upon refeeding with lactose was monitored. Upon lactose starvation, the glycolytic activity and the rate of proton motive force generation decreased rapidly but the steady-state level of the proton motive force decreased significantly only after several hours. The decreasing steady-state level of the proton motive force and consequently the capacity to accumulate amino acids after the addition of lactose correlated well with the loss of viability. The response of the energy metabolism of starved S. cremoris cells upon refeeding with lactose was monitored. Upon lactose starvation, the glycolytic activity and the rate of proton motive force generation decreased rapidly but the steady-state level of the proton motive force decreased significantly only after several hours. The decreasing steady-state level of the proton motive force and consequently the capacity to accumulate amino acids after the addition of lactose correlated well with the loss of viability. It is concluded that a regulatory loss of glycolytic capacity has pivotal role in the survival of S. cremoris under the conditions used.

Poolman, B; Smid, E J; Veldkamp, H; Konings, W N

1987-01-01

119

Beta-galactosidase and lactose fermentation in the identification of enterobacteria including salmonellae  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fourteen strains of non-lactose fermenters and 127 lactose fermenters on MacConkey's agar have been compared in the 5% and 1% lactose tests and in ?-galactosidase production, using ortho-nitro-phenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (O.N.P.G.) as a test substance. The superiority of the O.N.P.G. test in the number of positive results and its rapidity is shown. In general, late or non-lactose fermenting strains

S. P. Lapage; M. S. Jayaraman

1964-01-01

120

Kinetics of lactose transport in Kluyveromyces fragilis grown in a chemostat on diluted whey permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose transport was studied inKluyveromyces fragilis grown in lactose-limited chemostat cultures. Kinetic parameters were determined using a method based on genetic population evolution. Lactose transport was carried out via three carriers characterized respectively byKm of 0.1 mM, 3 mM and 15.5 mM. The synthesis of these lactose carriers and their capacity (Vmax) are dependent on the dilution rate (D). At

H Kallel-Mhiri; A Miclo

1995-01-01

121

Fractionation of Nonfat Dry Milk Powder into Protein and Lactose Products1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five processes were used to fractionate low heat NDM into a number of products including crude casein, three types of lactalbumin, crude lactose, United States Pharmacopeia-grade lactose, and a parti- ally deproteinated whey product. Regular lactalbumin and crude lactose were produced by process 1 with a total recovery of 91% of starting NDM solids including those obtained from the casein

H. W. Modler; D. B. Emmons; J. R. Rolland; J. Holme

1987-01-01

122

Effects of acute bovine trypanosomosis ( Trypanosoma vivax) on plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four calves infected with Trypanosoma vivax and four uninfected control calves were each injected intravenously with repeated doses of 0.5 g lactose kg?1 body weight, thrice daily at intervals of 4 h. Plasma samples were collected at specified time intervals and analysed for lactose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the data. T. vivax infection delayed excretion of lactose from the

I. A Umar; J. J Omage; A Shugaba; I. O Igbokwe; N. D. G Ibrahim; Kwem B Kadima; D. A Ameh; Helen O Kwanashie; R. I. S Agbede; D. I Saror; K. A. N Esievo

1998-01-01

123

LACTOSE AND WHEY UTILIZATION BY RATS AND SWINE I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The growth rate and feed efficiency of pigs fed a diet containing 10% dried whey and 20% alfalfa was less than with either treatment alone, suggesting a possible antagonism between alfalfa and whey. A digestibility trial with rats indicated that feeding lactose, a major constit- uent of whey, reduced the digestibility of alfalfa fiber and purified cellulose. In another

P. R. Cheeke; D. E. Stangel

124

Lactase Deficiency in Thailand: Effect of Prolonged Lactose Feeding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lactose tolerance test was abnormal in 97% of 140 healthy adult Thais, while glucose and sucrose tolerance tests were normal in nearly all. A selective deficiency of intestinal lactase activity was found that accounts for these results. Feeding 50 g o...

G. T. Keusch F. J. Troncale B. Thavaramara P. Prinyanont P. R. Anderson

1969-01-01

125

Preparation and Properties of Sirups Made by Hydrolysis of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear, nearly colorless sirups were prepared from lactose by hydrolysis with either lactase (~3-galactosidase) or hydrochloric acid, followed by decolor- ization, ion exchange demineralization, and concentration. Crystallization of sugars from the sirups was reduced by decreasing total solids from 66 to 60% and the degree of hydrolysis from 95 to 75%; however, overall stability of sirup with respect to both

E. J. Guy; L. F. Edmondson

1978-01-01

126

Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation  

PubMed Central

Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72.

Berner, Jon

2013-01-01

127

Surface modification of lactose inhalation blends by moisture.  

PubMed

We present an investigation of the effects of relative humidity (RH) on lactose powders during storage, with the aims of determining the humidity conditions under which lactose inhalation blends are stable, and characterising the surface changes that occur as a result of water condensation. Lactose inhalation powders manufactured by milling and sieving were stored in environments of RH from 32% to 100% (at room temperature) and changes in surface properties were observed using BET nitrogen adsorption, environmental scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analysis. We found that the specific surface area of all lactose powders decreased during storage, with the rate of decrease and final drop being larger at higher RH (ranging from a 62% decrease at 100% RH to a 34% decrease at 32% RH, at room temperature). The specific surface area decrease corresponded to a reduction in the volume of fine particles (<5 microm) in the blend. Two effects were found to contribute to the decrease in specific surface area: the smoothing of coarse particles, attributed to the surface fine particles undergoing deliquescence due to their enhanced solubility by the Kelvin effect (i.e. due to their greater curvature and consequently greater surface energy), and solid bridging between fine particles in agglomerates, such that loose fine particles disappeared from the powder blend, having bonded with coarser particles. These changes in particle properties resulting from moisture exposure are expected to influence the fine particle fraction of drug released from the powder blends, and the observation that lactose inhalation blends were unstable even at 32% RH could potentially be a concern for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20156536

Watling, C P; Elliott, J A; Scruton, C; Cameron, R E

2010-02-13

128

Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process\\u000a and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms\\u000a of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing

Sine Skovbjerg; Robert Zachariae; Alice Rasmussen; Jeanne Duus Johansen; Jesper Elberling

2010-01-01

129

Adult Human Milk Intolerance and Intestinal Lactase Deficiency: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In man, the dietary milk sugar, lactose, is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose by the small intestinal enzyme, lactase. This enzyme is located in the brush border of the small intestinal epithelial cell. Recent studies have called attention to the associ...

N. S. Rosenweig

1969-01-01

130

The effect of lactose supplementation and source on feed intake and production characteristics of laying hens.  

PubMed

Three experiments involving a total of 550 laying hens were conducted to study the effects of low level lactose feeding on the egg production characteristics of laying hens. The specific purposes were to determine if lactose influenced calcium utilization and feed intake and if there were any important interactions between lactose and calcium. There was a consistent significant improvement in egg shell breaking strength as a result of lactose supplementation. One percent dietary lactose appeared to be adequate to achieve this improvement. The addition of 2 or 3% lactose did not result in any greater improvement than 1%. There were no consistent influences of lactose, lactose source, or calcium level on feed intake or any of the other variables examined in the three experiments. As was expected, 61-week-old hens laid significantly fewer and larger eggs with weaker shells than 47-week-old hens. There were four statistically significant interaction effects: lactose level X calcium level on egg production; lactose level X calcium level on egg shell strength; and age X lactose level on egg shell strength. Even though these effects were statistically significant, it is questionable whether or not they are of practical importance in feeding laying hens. PMID:6984508

Gleaves, E W; Salim, A A

1982-12-01

131

Tolerance of Intolerance: Values and Virtues at Stake in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the…

Orlenius, Kennert

2008-01-01

132

Tolerance of intolerance: values and virtues at stake in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the idea of

Kennert Orlenius

2008-01-01

133

Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

2009-01-01

134

Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food

L. Hodge; K. Y. Yan; R. L. Loblay

1996-01-01

135

A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow's milk intolerance.  

PubMed

We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow's milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:22992216

Della Casa, Roberto; Ungaro, Carla; Acampora, Emma; Pignata, Claudio; Vajro, Pietro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Santamaria, Francesca; Parenti, Giancarlo

2012-09-19

136

A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow's milk intolerance  

PubMed Central

We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow’s milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases.

2012-01-01

137

Intolerance of Ambiguity and Political Orientation among Israeli University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores relations between political orientation and cognitive style among Israeli university students. Finds that intolerance of ambiguity contributed significantly to political orientation and that the political Left showed more complex cognitive styles than the Right. Notes implications for testing competing hypotheses about cognitive style…

Fibert, Zigi; Ressler, William Harris

1998-01-01

138

Construct Validity of the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

b Background: Domestic violence against married women has persisted throughout Korean history. However, very little empirical research has been conducted in Korea about domestic violence, its causes, or women's responses. b Objective: To develop and test psychometrically the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale (KWAIS) to measure women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands in Korea. b Methods: The first

Myunghan Choi; Linda R. Phillips; Aurelio José Figueredo; Katheleen Insel; Sung-Kil Min

2008-01-01

139

Psychological features of subjects with idiopathic environmental intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is associated with unexplained symptoms attributed to nonnoxious levels of environmental substances. Clinically, some of the symptoms of IEI overlap with those of panic disorder (PD). We have recently reported a link between IEI and panic responses to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO2), a reliable panic induction challenge. This study assessed depression,

Naveen P Poonai; Martin M Antony; Karen E Binkley; Peter Stenn; Richard P Swinson; Paul Corey; Frances S Silverman; Susan M Tarlo

2001-01-01

140

Dynamics of the glycosidic bond: conformational space of lactose.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the glycosidic bond of lactose was studied by a paramagnetic tagging-based NMR technique, which allowed the collection of an unusually large series of NMR data for a single compound. By the use of distance- and orientation-dependent residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts, the simultaneous fitting of the probabilities of computed conformations and the orientation of the magnetic susceptibility tensor of a series of lanthanide complexes of lactose show that its glycosidic bond samples syn/syn, anti/syn and syn/anti ?/? regions of the conformational space in water. The analysis indicates a higher reliability of pseudocontact shift data as compared to residual dipolar couplings with the presently available weakly orienting paramagnetic tagging technique. The method presented herein allows for an improved understanding of the dynamic behaviour of oligosaccharides. PMID:21755545

Erdélyi, Máté; d'Auvergne, Edward; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Leonov, Andrei; Griesinger, Christian

2011-07-13

141

Ethoxylated glycerol and propylene glycol glycoside palmitates from lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyoxyethylene polyol glycoside palmitates were prepared by the following successive reactions: transglycosylation of lactose\\u000a by glycerol and propylene glycol to yield crude mixtures of the polyol glucosides and galactosides; alkoxylation with ethylene\\u000a oxide; and tranesterfication by methyl palmitate. Almost all the solid waxy products exhibited low surface and interfacial\\u000a tensions and good emulsion stability; they are expected to be effective

C. L. Mehltretter; C. A. Wilham

1973-01-01

142

Metabolism of lactose by Clostridium thermolacticum growing in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to characterize the metabolism of Clostridium thermolacticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, growing continuously on lactose (10 g l?1) and to determine the enzymes involved in the pathways leading to the formation of the fermentation products. Biomass and metabolites concentration were measured at steady-state for different dilution rates, from 0.013 to 0.19 h?1. Acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and

Christophe Collet; Laurence Girbal; Paul Péringer; Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel; Philippe Soucaille

2006-01-01

143

Lack of effect of lactose digestion status on baseline fecal microflora  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The genetics of intestinal lactase divide the world’s population into two phenotypes: the ability (a dominant trait) or inability (a recessive trait) to digest lactose. A prebiotic effect of lactose may impact the colonic flora of these phenotypes differently. OBJECTIVE: To detect and evaluate the effects of lactose on subjects divided according to their ability to digest lactose. METHODS: A total of 57 healthy maldigesters (n=30) and digesters (n=27) completed diet questionnaires, genetic and breath hydrogen testing, and quantitative stool analysis for species of bacteria. Log10 transformation of bacterial counts was compared with lactose intake in both groups using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between genetic and breath hydrogen tests. Daily lactose intake was marginally lower in lactose maldigesters (median [interquartile range] 12.2 g [31 g] versus 15 g [29.6 g], respectively). There was no relationship between lactose intake and breath hydrogen tests in either group. There were no differences in bacterial counts between the two groups, nor was there a relationship between bacterial counts and lactose intake in either group. CONCLUSION: The differential bacterial effects of lactose were not quantitatively detected in stool samples taken in the present study.

Szilagyi, Andrew; Shrier, Ian; Chong, George; Je, Jung Sung; Park, Sunghoon; Heilpern, Debra; Lalonde, Catherine; Cote, Louis-Francois; Lee, Byong

2009-01-01

144

Creating lactose phosphorylase enzymes by directed evolution of cellobiose phosphorylase.  

PubMed

Disaccharide phosphorylases are interesting enzymes for the production of sugar phosphates from cheap starting materials and for the synthesis of novel glycosides. Cellobiose phosphorylase (CP) from Cellulomonas uda was subjected to directed evolution in order to create enzyme variants with significantly increased lactose phosphorylase (LP) activity, useful for the production of alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate. In a first round, random mutagenesis was performed on part of the CP gene and the resultant library was selected on minimal lactose medium. One clone containing six amino acid mutations was found with increased LP activity compared with the wild-type CP enzyme. The negative and neutral mutations were eliminated by site-directed mutagenesis and the resultant enzyme variant containing two amino acid substitutions (T508A/N667T) showed more LP activity than the parent mutant. Saturation mutagenesis of the beneficial sites and screening for improved mutants allowed us to identify the T508I/N667A mutant which has 7.5 times higher specific activity on lactose than the wild-type. The kinetic parameters of the mutants were determined and showed that the increased LP activity was caused by a higher k(cat) value. This is the first report of an engineered CP with modified substrate specificity. PMID:19487233

De Groeve, Manu R M; De Baere, Miet; Hoflack, Lieve; Desmet, Tom; Vandamme, Erick J; Soetaert, Wim

2009-05-31

145

Metabolism of lactose by Clostridium thermolacticum growing in continuous culture.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to characterize the metabolism of Clostridium thermolacticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, growing continuously on lactose (10 g l(-1)) and to determine the enzymes involved in the pathways leading to the formation of the fermentation products. Biomass and metabolites concentration were measured at steady-state for different dilution rates, from 0.013 to 0.19 h(-1). Acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced at all dilution rates, whereas lactate was detected only for dilution rates below 0.06 h(-1). The presence of several key enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, including beta-galactosidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, acetate kinase, ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, was demonstrated. Finally, the intracellular level of NADH, NAD+, ATP and ADP was also measured for different dilution rates. The production of ethanol and lactate appeared to be linked with the re-oxidation of NADH produced during glycolysis, whereas hydrogen produced should come from reduced ferredoxin generated during pyruvate decarboxylation. To produce more hydrogen or more acetate from lactose, it thus appears that an efficient H2 removal system should be used, based on a physical (membrane) or a biological approach, respectively, by cultivating C. thermolacticum with efficient H2 scavenging and acetate producing microorganisms. PMID:16508746

Collet, Christophe; Girbal, Laurence; Péringer, Paul; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul; Soucaille, Philippe

2006-03-01

146

Production of lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures: comparison of two cellobiose dehydrogenases for the selective oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid.  

PubMed

Galacto-oligosaccharides, complex mixtures of various sugars, are produced by transgalactosylation from lactose using beta-galactosidase and are of great interest for food and feed applications because of their prebiotic properties. Most galacto-oligosaccharide preparations currently available in the market contain a significant amount of monosaccharides and lactose. The mixture of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) in this study produced from lactose using recombinant beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri contains 48% monosaccharides, 26.5% lactose and 25.5% GalOS. To remove efficiently both monosaccharides and lactose from this GalOS mixture containing significant amounts of prebiotic non-lactose disaccharides, a biocatalytic approach coupled with subsequent chromatographic steps was used. Lactose was first oxidised to lactobionic acid using fungal cellobiose dehydrogenases, and then lactobionic acid and monosaccharides were removed by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Two different cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH), originating from Sclerotium rolfsii and Myriococcum thermophilum, were compared with respect to their applicability for this process. CDH from S. rolfsii showed higher specificity for the substrate lactose, and only few other components of the GalOS mixture were oxidised during prolonged incubation. Since these sugars were only converted once lactose oxidation was almost complete, careful control of the CDH-catalysed reaction will significantly reduce the undesired oxidation, and hence subsequent removal, of any GalOS components. Removal of ions and monosaccharides by the chromatographic steps gave an essentially pure GalOS product, containing less than 0.3% lactose and monosaccharides, in a yield of 60.3%. PMID:18353295

Maischberger, Thomas; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Sukyai, Prakit; Kittl, Roman; Riva, Sergio; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar

2008-02-06

147

Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis lactose genes and regulation of their expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important trait of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis , that is used in industrial dairy fermentations, is the conversion of lactose into lactic acid. The enzymatic steps involved in the breakdown of lactose, that is transported into the cell via a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent lactose phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS lac<\\/SUP>), have been well established (Fig. 1). However, except for the molecular

Rooijen van R. J

1993-01-01

148

Establishing a model to study the regulation of the lactose operon in Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomally encoded lactose-specific phosphoenol pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been investigated in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 [pLZ15-] and it was considered an excellent system to study the regulation of the lactose operon. This chromosomal operon has been cloned and sequenced, being 99% homologous to that encoded on the plasmid pLZ64. Expression of the lactose operon in different mutants of

Mar??a José Gosalbes; Vicente Monedero; Carl-Alfred Alpert; Gaspar Pérez-Mart??nez

1997-01-01

149

Effect of Hydration and Crystal Form on the Surface Area of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating crystalline a-lactose monohy- drate at 110 to 130 C, in vacuo, to form anhydrous a-lactose yielded a solid with an expanded surface area as determined by low tempeTature N2 or Kr adsorption. The BET area (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller Equation. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 60:309. 1938.) of the anhydrous sugar was 2.0 m2\\/g while that of the original a-lactose.

B. A. Anderson; M. J. Pallansch

1972-01-01

150

Effect of Lactose on Duodenal Calcium-Binding Protein and Calcium Absorption1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were fed a purified diet containing 30% lactose and calcium absorption was measured in duodenal loops in situ following in stillation of 1.25 or 10 mM CaCl2 solutions. Lactose feeding caused ab sorption to be depressed from 88 to 697e (1.25 mM Ca solution) and from 71 to 43%. (10 mM Ca solution). The effect of lactose feeding was

DANIELLE PANSU

2010-01-01

151

Lactose Malabsorption Is Associated with Early Signs of Mental Depression in Females (A Preliminary Report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose malabsorption is characterized by adeficiency of mucosal lactase. As a consequence, lactosereaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria toshort-chain fatty acids, CO2, andH2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms ofirritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can beseen in about 50% of lactose malabsorbers. Having madethe observation that females with lactose malabsorption not only showed

M. Ledochowski; B. Sperner-Unterweger; D. Fuchs

1998-01-01

152

Alpha-sarcoglycan deficiency featuring exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old boy was referred for recent onset of easy fatigue. He showed hyperCKemia and mild scapular winging. Muscle biopsy on the quadriceps muscle demonstrated slight fibre size variability. Dystrophin was normally distributed, carnitine palmitoyl transferase and glycolytic enzymes had normal activities. In the following years the patient developed exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria. Immunohistochemistry showed marked reduction of alpha-sarcoglycan, confirmed by Western blotting. Molecular analysis revealed compound heterozygosity with Arg284Cys and Glu137Lys substitutions, corresponding to nucleotide changes C850 T and G409 A in the gene. At present the patient, 20 years old, shows mild proximal weakness with prominent involvement of the paraspinal muscles, dorsal kyphosis and lumbar hyperlordosis. Exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria, already described in Becker muscular dystrophy, should be also considered among the possible presentations of sarcoglycan deficiencies. PMID:12075495

Mongini, T; Doriguzzi, C; Bosone, I; Chiadò-Piat, L; Hoffman, E P; Palmucci, L

2002-04-01

153

Is fatigue in Marfan syndrome related to orthostatic intolerance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Marfan syndrome have a tall stature, which could be associated with low orthostatic tolerance. Fatigue, a common\\u000a complaint of these patients, is also related to orthostatic intolerance. Treatment with beta-blockers, to prevent aortic complications,\\u000a could be a reinforcing factor of both. This study aimed to investigate (1) the relationship between symptoms of orthostatic\\u000a tolerance and in patients with

Nynke van Dijk; Mardi C. Boer; Barbara J. M. Mulder; Gert A. van Montfrans; Wouter Wieling

2008-01-01

154

Varicella and varicella immunity in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) had near-fatal generalized varicella infection with severe interstitial pneumonitis, hepatitis, decreased platelet count, bleeding and hypoalbuminaemia. Active haemolysis resulted in anaemia and massive haemoglobinuria. Serum lactate dehydrogenase activity and ferritin concentration, which in patients with LPI in normal circumstances exceed the upper reference values 3-fold to 10-fold, increased to >10 000U\\/L and >10

M. Lukkarinen; K. Näntö-Salonen; O. Ruuskanen; T. Lauteala; S. Säkö; M. Nuutinen; O. Simell

1998-01-01

155

Carbon dioxide inhalation challenges in idiopathic environmental intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is associated with unexplained physical symptoms, which overlap considerably with those of panic disorder (PD).Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that patients with symptoms to suggest IEI exhibit features of PD in response to nonnoxious environmental stimuli.Methods: A single-blind, case-control 35% carbon dioxide inhalation challenge was conducted at a university-based occupational health unit with the

Naveen Poonai; Martin M. Antony; Karen E. Binkley; Peter Stenn; Richard P. Swinson; Paul Corey; Frances S. Silverman; Susan M. Tarlo

2000-01-01

156

Microbial Ecophysiology of Whey Biomethanation: Intermediary Metabolism of Lactose Degradation in Continuous Culture  

PubMed Central

The intermediary carbon and electron flow routes for lactose degradation during whey biomethanation were studied in continuous culture. The chemostat was operated under lactose-limited conditions with a 100-h retention time. The carbon balance observed for lactose degradation was 4.65 mmol of CH4, 4.36 mmol of CO2 and 1.15 mmol of cellular carbon per mmol of lactose consumed, with other intermediary metabolites (i.e., acetate, lactate, etc.) accounting for less than 2% of the lactose consumed. The carbon and electron recoveries for this biomethanation were 87 and 90%, respectively. 14C tracer studies demonstrated that lactose biomethanation occurred in three distinct but simultaneous phases. Lactose was metabolized primarily into lactate, ethanol, acetate, formate, and carbon dioxide. During this hydrolytic phase, 82% of the lactose was transformed into lactate. These metabolites were transformed into acetate and H2-CO2 in a second, acetogenic, phase. Finally, the direct methane precursors were transformed during the methanogenic phase, with acetate accounting for 81% of the methane formed. A general scheme is proposed for the exact carbon and electron flow route during lactose biomethanation, which predicts the prevalent microbial populations in this ecosystem.

Chartrain, M.; Zeikus, J. G.

1986-01-01

157

Microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation: intermediary metabolism of lactose degradation in continuous culture.  

PubMed

The intermediary carbon and electron flow routes for lactose degradation during whey biomethanation were studied in continuous culture. The chemostat was operated under lactose-limited conditions with a 100-h retention time. The carbon balance observed for lactose degradation was 4.65 mmol of CH(4), 4.36 mmol of CO(2) and 1.15 mmol of cellular carbon per mmol of lactose consumed, with other intermediary metabolites (i.e., acetate, lactate, etc.) accounting for less than 2% of the lactose consumed. The carbon and electron recoveries for this biomethanation were 87 and 90%, respectively. C tracer studies demonstrated that lactose biomethanation occurred in three distinct but simultaneous phases. Lactose was metabolized primarily into lactate, ethanol, acetate, formate, and carbon dioxide. During this hydrolytic phase, 82% of the lactose was transformed into lactate. These metabolites were transformed into acetate and H(2)-CO(2) in a second, acetogenic, phase. Finally, the direct methane precursors were transformed during the methanogenic phase, with acetate accounting for 81% of the methane formed. A general scheme is proposed for the exact carbon and electron flow route during lactose biomethanation, which predicts the prevalent microbial populations in this ecosystem. PMID:16346969

Chartrain, M; Zeikus, J G

1986-01-01

158

Modulation of bacterial translocation in mice mediated through lactose and human milk oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Massive resection of the small intestine in infants is imposed to the regulation of several intestinal pathological situations, as intestinal adaptation cannot be relied upon. Many nutritional disturbances are occurring following surgery procedure. In this vein, long-term parenteral feeding is adopt to improve prognosis not always successfully. Clostridia and more specifically Clostridium perfringens, are suspected to participate in the physiopathology of the rising situation. In order to investigate the effect of lactose and human milk neutral oligosaccharides (HMNOs) on Clostridia, germfree mice were inoculated either with enterotoxigenic C.perfringens strain isolated from a patient with NEC, or with a human microbiota harboring C.clostridioforme group(HF). In this vein, different doses of lactose were administrated during 2 weeks in adult mice on an attempt to evaluate the lactase activity. Intake of lactose (70 g/L) and HMNOs (7 g/L) in C.perfringens monoassociated mice induced mortality within a week. In HF mice, no mortality was observed. An increase in Clostridia occurrence was observed in the median ileum after intake of 7 g lactose (p = 0.017). Higher clostridial numbers occurred in caecum following intake of 70 g lactose (p < 0.05) and HMNOs (p < 0.025). Bifidobacteria were found increased from distal ileum to colon following 70 g of lactose intake, whereas they decreased in the caecum of mice drinking lower lactose concentrations. Finally, bacteremia was more frequent in 70 g lactose/L mice (p < 0.02), whereas at lower doses of lactose bifidobacterial translocation was observed. As a result, human milk oligosaccharides could favor clostridial population when reaching the lower intestine. The shortness of the small intestine in infants underwent massive intestinal resection seems to be associated to an incomplete breakdown of lactose. Enteral feeds formulas deprived in lactose would be more suitable in enteral feeding of infants. PMID:21939778

Mielcarek, C; Romond, P C; Romond, M B; Bezirtzoglou, E

2011-09-14

159

Lactose uptake rate measurements by 14C-labelled lactose reveals promotional activity of porous cellulose in whey fermentation by kefir yeast.  

PubMed

Lactose uptake rate by kefir yeast, immobilized on tubular cellulose and gluten pellets during fermentation of lactose and whey, was monitored using (14)C-labelled lactose. Results illustrated that, in all cases, lactose uptake rate was strongly correlated with fermentation rate and the fermentation's kinetic parameters were improved by kefir yeast entrapped in tubular cellulose. As a result, twofold faster fermentations were achieved in comparison with kefir yeast immobilized on gluten. This is probably due to cluster and hydrogen bonds formation between cellulose and inhibitors, such as Ca(++) and generated lactic acid, by which they leave the liquid medium. The findings, regarding the promotional effect of cellulose, seem promising for application in industrial whey fermentations. PMID:23442646

Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Soupioni, Magdalini; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2012-04-05

160

Synthesis of carbon-13 enriched disaccharides: lactose and sucrose  

SciTech Connect

Disaccharides can be prepared enzymatically and by chemical synthesis. Lactose enriched with carbon-13 at C-1 can be synthesized by reacting K/sup 13/CN with a sugar having a one fewer carbon than the desired product. Thus, a mixture of 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)glucose ((1-/sup 13/C)lactose) and 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)mannose can be synthesized from 3-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose and K/sup 13/CN. (/sup 13/C)Sucrose is conveniently prepared in gram quantities from D-(/sup 13/C)fructose and UDP-glucose in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose synthetase. This reaction proceeds smoothly at 25/sup 0/ over a period of hours to give an equilibrium mixture which can be separated chromatographically. The glucose portion of sucrose can be labeled using enzymatically-prepared UDP-(/sup 13/C)glucose. Labeled sucrose is important for the preparation of labeled starches to be used for structural and metabolic studies.

Walker, T.E.; Unkefer, P.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Ehler, D.S.

1986-05-01

161

EFFECTS OF LACTOSE ON GASTRO-INTESTINA L MOTILITY: A REVIEW 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of the nutritive value of milk and dairy products, lactose has received less attention than the protein, fat, vitamin and mineral constituents. In numerous investigations, the lactose of milk is simply considered as so much carbohydrate without cognizance of any special characteristics, so that in some instances nutritive differences attributed to other factors may well have resulted

JESSIE E. FISCHER; T. S. SUTTON

162

SYMPOSIUM: USE OF MILK DERIVATIVES IN OTHER FOODS Use of Milk Derivative, Lactose, in Other Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples are drawn from the literature to illustrate how lactose can be used to advantage in foods. These uses are based on relative sweetness, browning reaction, protein stabilizing properties, alteration of crystallization patterns, flavor accentu- ation, selective fermentation, and the nutritional attributes of lactose.

T. A. NICKERSON

163

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relatedness of Lactose-Positive Bacillus subtilis Strains and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 130 strains classified as Bacillus subtilis, 60 fermented lactose and utilized gluconate slowly. High deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 70 to 100% to the type strain (NRRL B-14393) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens indicated these organisms to be strains of that species. The 70 remaining strains did not ferment lactose, utilized gluconate strongly, and were highly related genetically to the type

L. K. NAKAMURA

1987-01-01

164

Yogurt Manufactured from Whey-Caseinate Blends and Hydrolyzed Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of NDM by economi- cal whey-caseinate blends at 50 and 100% in the manufacture of yogurt was studied. Lactose in the yogurt mixes was hydro- lyzed to 50% and 75% before fermenta- tion to increase sweetness, which reduced added sucrose and simultaneously re- duced lactose. Two taste panels detected flavor differences between yogurts from the 100% replacement formula

C. A. Whalen; T. M. Gilmore; K. R. Spurgeon; J. G. Parsons

1988-01-01

165

CONTRIBUTION OF PLASMA GALACTOSE AND GLUCOSE TO MILK LACTOSE SYNTHESIS DURING GALACTOSE INGESTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have previously demonstrated that plasma glucose contributed 80% in the fed and 60% in the fasted state to lactose synthesis in humans, while de novo synthesis in the breast contributing to both the glucose and galactose moieties accounted for the remaining 20 and 40%, respectively, of lactose. T...

166

Influence of fine lactose and magnesium stearate on low dose dry powder inhaler formulations.  

PubMed

The behaviour of dry powder blends for inhalation, depending on the amount of fine lactose particles smaller than 10microm and the presence of magnesium stearate (MgSt), was studied in this work. A laser light diffraction method was developed to determine accurately size and volume fraction of these fine lactose particles in coarse carrier lactose (x(50) approximately 220microm). A linear relationship between measured volume fraction undersize at 10microm Q(3)(10microm) and added fine lactose could be established. Aerodynamic particle size distribution analysis of lactose showed that the fine lactose was attached to the coarse particles. In the presence of MgSt this interaction was increased. Consequently, the number of free active sites on the carrier surface was reduced and the investigated drug (formoterol fumarate dihydrate) was more effectively delivered. Addition of fine lactose and MgSt improved the aerodynamic performance the drug, as determined by resulting fine particle fraction, by 3% (for each 1% of added fine lactose) and 10%, respectively. Stability tests indicated that added MgSt was the most relevant of the studied parameter to achieve a stable aerodynamic performance. Its ability to protect the moisture uptake into the system was considered as rational for this effect. PMID:17689898

Guchardi, R; Frei, M; John, E; Kaerger, J S

2007-07-01

167

Specific food intolerance: its place as a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen out of 49 patients suspected of having specific food intolerance after withdrawal and reintroduction of specific foods, were further subjected to double blind placebo controlled food challenges. Only three of these subjects were thus shown to have proven specific food intolerance. Of the remaining 10, nine were strong 'placebo reactors'. The study suggests that a small number of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms have verifiable specific food intolerance but that a greater number have symptoms attributable to psychogenic causes.

Farah, D A; Calder, I; Benson, L; MacKenzie, J F

1985-01-01

168

Allergy \\/Intolerance to Buckwheat and Other Food Products among Swedish Subjects with Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckwheat can be used to produce a gluten free flour valuable for persons with gluten intolerance (celiac disease). Celiac disease is affecting about 0.2% of adults in Sweden. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of buckwheat allergy\\/intolerance, as well as other types of food allergies\\/intolerance, among members of a society for celiac disease patients in

Jeong-Lim Kim; Gunilla Wieslander; Dan Norblck

2004-01-01

169

Perceived food intolerance in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome – etiology, prevalence and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This study estimates the prevalence of perceived food intolerance and its consequences in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), evaluates the utility of common tests for food intolerance, studies the relation between perceived food intolerance and other disorders, and discusses the etiology.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting:National health survey.Subjects:A selection of the population (n=11078) in Oppland county, Norway, was invited to a health screening,

K W Monsbakken; P O Vandvik; P G Farup

2006-01-01

170

Oxidative metabolism of neutrophils in vitro and human mercury intolerance.  

PubMed

Neutrophils from 22 patients and 15 healthy controls were exposed in vitro to mercuric chloride and phenyl mercuric acetate in increasing doses and the superoxide anion production of the isolated cells was measured using the NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium) test. The patients were chosen for the study on the basis of their history following exposure to amalgam dust during dental treatment. Based on their psychosomatic response to challenge with percutaneously administered low doses (i.e. patch test doses) of metallic mercury and phenyl mercuric acetate, they were subdivided into two groups: 12 patients with a high score on the psychometric test (positive or mercury-intolerant patients) and 10 with a negative or low score (negative or mercury-tolerant patients). A significant difference in the NBT reduction of unstimulated neutrophils and one concentration of mercuric chloride was found between the tolerant and intolerant patients. Neutrophils from tolerant patients showed a peak NBT value at lower concentrations of mercuric chloride than did cells from the healthy controls and the intolerant patients. When the cells were exposed to increasing amounts of phenyl mercuric acetate, the positive and negative patients differed significantly. Furthermore, an inhibition was noted of the NBT response. Thus, the in vitro oxidative response pattern of neutrophils differs in subjects who do or do not react psychosomatically when exposed to in vivo provocations with low doses of mercury. The findings may be relevant for those complaining of subjective symptoms related to mercury released from dental amalgam and could provide some understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:20654420

Marcusson, J A; Jarstrand, C

1998-08-01

171

Down on heights? One in three has visual height intolerance.  

PubMed

The distressing phenomenon of visual height intolerance (vHI) occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing control of balance and falling from some height. Epidemiological data of this condition in the general population are lacking. Assignment of prevalence, determinants, and compensation of vHI was performed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 3,517 individuals representing the German population. Life-time prevalence of vHI is 28 % (females 32 %). A higher prevalence is associated independently with a family history of vHI, anxiety disorders, migraine, or motion sickness susceptibility. Women aged 50-59 have a higher prevalence than younger women or men of all ages. Initial attacks occur most often (30 %) in the second decade; however, attacks can manifest throughout life. The main symptoms are fearfulness, inner agitation, a queasy-stomach feeling, subjective postural instability with to-and-fro vertigo, and weakness in the knees. Climbing a tower is the first most common precipitating stimulus; the spectrum of such stimuli widens with time in more than 50 % of afflicted individuals. The most frequent reaction to vHI is to avoid the triggering stimuli (>50 %); 11 % of susceptible individuals consult a doctor, most often a general practitioner, neurologist, ENT doctor, or psychiatrist. In brief, visual height intolerance affects one-third of the general population, considerably restricting the majority of these individuals in their daily activities. The data show that the two terms do not indicate a categorical distinction but rather a continuum from slight forms of visual height intolerance to the specific phobia of fear of heights. PMID:23070463

Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas

2012-10-16

172

Influence of the lactose grade within dry powder formulations of fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate.  

PubMed

Dry powder formulations are often composed of fine drug particles and coarser carrier particles, typically alpha-lactose monohydrate. However, the performance of a powder formulation may be highly dependent on the lactose quality and source. This study investigated the characteristics of lactose that influence the drug-to-carrier interaction and the performance of lactose-based dry powder inhaler formulations. The selected lactoses differed in the preparation processes and the content of fine lactose particles. Efficiency testing was done using fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as model drugs. Inverse gas chromatography was used to determine the surface heterogeneity distribution of different energy sites of the lactose and to understand the mechanism by which the fine carrier particles can improve the performance of dry powder inhalers. To assess the adhesion of respirable-sized drug to carrier particles, a simple method was developed based on aspiration and considering the whole blend as it is used in dry powder inhalers. When the percentage of fine lactose is high, a lower quantity of drug adheres to the lactose and/or the adhesion force is also lower. This was confirmed by the aerosolization assays done in the TSI (twin stage impinger). A correlation was observed between adhesion characteristics and inertial impaction. For both drugs, the fine particle fractions were highest in blends that present a greater proportion of lactose fine particles. A fairly good correlation between the fine particle fractions of both drugs and the peak max value and the AUC (area under curve) were found by inverse gas chromatography. With higher fine particle fraction values, which correspond to higher content of fines, the peak maxima determined by inverse gas chromatography were shifted to higher adsorption potentials, which supports the agglomeration hypothesis. PMID:22036653

Le, V N P; Bierend, H; Robins, E; Steckel, H; Flament, M P

2011-10-20

173

Effects of Basolateral Amygdala Lesions on Taste Aversions Produced by Lactose and Lithium Chloride in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Experiment 1, intact rats were given either lactose or sucrose solutions. Although on first exposure they readily consumed lactose, its ingestion produced a conditioned taste avoidance which was partly extinguished by repeated sucrose exposure after lactose conditioning. In Experiment 2, rats with large bilateral electrolytic lesions of the basolateral amygdala and those with either sham or no operations were

Leickness C. Simbayi; Robert A. Boakes; Michael J. Burton

1986-01-01

174

Intolerance of sexy peers: intrasexual competition among women.  

PubMed

Intrasexual competition among males of different species, including humans, is well documented. Among females, far less is known. Recent nonexperimental studies suggest that women are intolerant of attractive females and use indirect aggression to derogate potential rivals. In Study 1, an experimental design was used to test the evolutionary-based hypothesis that women would be intolerant of sexy women and would censure those who seem to make sex too readily available. Results provide strong empirical support for intrasexual competition among women. Using independent raters, blind to condition, we found that almost all women were rated as reacting negatively ("bitchy") to an attractive female confederate when she was dressed in a sexually provocative manner. In contrast, when she was dressed conservatively, the same confederate was barely noticed by the participants. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to assess whether the sexy female confederate from Study 1 was viewed as a sexual rival by women. Results indicated that as hypothesized, women did not want to introduce her to their boyfriend, allow him to spend time alone with her, or be friends with her. Findings from both studies are discussed in terms of evolutionary theory. PMID:21932332

Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sharma, Aanchal

2011-09-19

175

The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children: A Psychometric Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has contributed to our understanding of excessive worry and adult anxiety disorders, but there is a paucity of research on IU in child samples. This gap is due to the absence of a psychometrically sound measure of IU in youth. The present study adapted parallel child- and parent-report forms of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and examined the internal consistency, convergent validity, and classification properties of these forms in youth aged 7–17 (M = 11.6 years, SD = 2.6). Participating youth (N = 197; 100 females) either met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder (N = 73) or were non-referred community participants (N = 124). The child-report form (i.e., IUS for Children, or IUSC), and to a lesser extent the parent-report form, demonstrated strong internal consistency and convergent validity, evidenced by significant associations with anxiety and worry (and reassurance-seeking in the case of the child-report form). Children diagnosed with anxiety disorders scored higher than non-referred community youth on both forms. ROC analysis demonstrated acceptable overall utility in distinguishing the two groups of youth. Findings provide preliminary support for use of the IUSC for continuous measurement of children’s ability to tolerate uncertainty.

Comer, Jonathan S.; Roy, Amy K.; Furr, Jami M.; Gotimer, Kristin; Beidas, Rinad S.; Dugas, Michel J.; Kendall, Philip C.

2009-01-01

176

Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor  

SciTech Connect

The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of /sup 14/C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of approx. 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA.

Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

1987-10-06

177

Entrainment of lactose inhalation powders: a study using laser diffraction.  

PubMed

We have investigated the mechanism of entrainment of lactose inhalation blends released from a dry powder inhaler using a diffraction particle size analyser (Malvern Spraytec). Whether a powder blend entrains as a constant stream of powder (the "erosion" mechanism) or as a few coarse plugs (the "fracture" mechanism) was found by comparing transmission data with particle size information. This technique was then applied to a lactose grade with 0, 5 and 10wt% added fine particles. As the wt% fines increased, the entrainment mechanism was found to change from a mild fracture, consisting of multiple small plugs, to more severe fracture with fewer plugs. The most severe fracture mechanism consisted of either the powder reservoir emptying as a single plug, or of the reservoir emptying after a delay of the order of 0.1s due to the powder sticking to its surroundings. Further to this, three different inhalation grades were compared, and the severity of the fracture was found to be inversely proportional to the flowability of the powder (measured using an annular ring shear tester). By considering the volume of aerosolised fine particles in different blends it was determined that the greater the volume of fines added to a powder, the smaller the fraction of fines that were aerosolised. This was attributed to different behaviour when fines disperse from carrier particles compared with when they disperse from agglomerates of fines. In summary, this paper demonstrates how laser diffraction can provide a more detailed analysis of an inhalation powder than just its size distribution. PMID:20417708

Watling, C P; Elliott, J A; Cameron, R E

2010-04-24

178

Maintenance of lactose secretion during acute insulin deficiency in lactating goats.  

PubMed

Induction of alloxan diabetes in 5 lactating goats resulted in reduced milk yields in 3 of the animals, while the yield was unchanged in two. After treatment of the diabetic goats with insulin for 4--5 days--the last 24 h intravenously--lactose secretion returned to the control values before alloxan administration provided that normoglycemia developed. In 2 experiments infusion of a large dose of insulin caused hypoglycemia and a 20--30 per cent reduction in lactose secretion rates. In the course of 1 h after withdrawal of the insulin infusion, patent signs of insulin deficiency developed as evidenced by steadily increasing plasma glucose concentrations. Nevertheless, lactose secretion continued at the same rate as during insulin infusion for the 4 h studied after discontinuation of the insulin infusion. In the goats where lactose secretion was reduced due to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, lactose secretion returned to control values when following discontinuation of insulin infusion the plasma glucose concentrations increased into normal and diabetic ranges. It is concluded that during insulin deficiency of short term duration, mammary lactose secretion was maintained at a normal rate. Since lactose is the major product of mammary glucose utilization, it is suggested that glucose uptake in the mammary gland was not reduced by short term insulin deficiency. PMID:676768

Hove, K

1978-06-01

179

Lactose modifications enhance its drug performance in the novel multiple dose Taifun DPI.  

PubMed

Drug-carrier particle interactions greatly affect the detachment of drug from the carrier in inhalation powders. In this study, a novel multiple dose, reservoir-based Taifun was used as a dry powder inhaler, and the effects of carrier physical properties were evaluated on the pulmonary deposition of budesonide, along with physical stability of the inhalation powder. In this study, untreated commercial preparation of alpha-lactose monohydrate, highly amorphous spray dried lactose, crystallized spray dried lactose, Flowlac-100 and Flowlac-100 mixed with crystalline micronized lactose were used as carriers. Dry powder formulations were prepared by the suspension method, where the budesonide-carrier ratio was 1:15.1 (w/w). Carriers and formulations were initially characterized, and again after 1 month's storage at 40 degrees C/75% RH. The physical properties of the carriers strongly affected the pulmonary deposition of budesonide and the physical stability of the inhalation powder. Initially, amorphous contents of the carriers were 0-64%, but spontaneous crystallisation of the amorphous lactose occurred during storage and, thus all carriers were 100% crystalline after storage. When compared to an untreated alpha-lactose monohydrate, the highly amorphous spray dried lactose and Flowlac-100 did not improve aerosol performance of the inhalation powder. When crystalline spray dried lactose was used as a carrier, the highest RF% values were achieved, and RF % values did not alter during storage but the emitted budesonide dose was lower than the theoretical dose. When Flowlac-100 mixed with crystalline micronized lactose was used as a carrier, the emitted budesonide dose was close to the theoretical dose, and high RF % values were achieved but these changed during storage. PMID:12208462

Harjunen, Päivi; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Martimo, Krista; Suihko, Eero; Lankinen, Tapio; Paronen, Petteri; Järvinen, Kristiina

2002-09-01

180

Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and

Giris Jacob; Denis Atkinson; Jens Jordan; John R Shannon; Raffaello Furlan; Bonnie K Black; David Robertson

1999-01-01

181

An exploration of food intolerance in the primary care setting: The general practitioner's experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intolerance is one of medicine's modern enigmas. Its etiology and mechanism are unclear and the subject of constant debate, while estimates of its prevalence vary widely from 2% to over 20% of the population. Using interpretive phenomenonological analysis, this study explored the phenomenon of food intolerance in primary care from the general practitioner's (GP) perspective. Semi-structured interviews were carried

Mia Nelson; Jane Ogden

2008-01-01

182

Heart rate variability and short duration spaceflight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Upon return from space many astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation due to spaceflight with further evidence to suggest that there might be pre-flight autonomic indicators of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. We used heart rate variability (HRV) to determine whether autonomic regulation of the heart in astronauts who did or did not experience

Andrew P Blaber; Roberta L Bondar; Mahmood S Kassam

2004-01-01

183

Consequences of perceived food intolerance for welfare, lifestyle and food choice practices, in a community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the consequences for lifestyle, welfare and dietary practices of perceiving food intolerance, in a community sample. Questionnaires enquiring about adverse symptoms attributed to foods and other agents were sent to randomly identified householders in diverse electoral wards in the Birmingham area. A total of 300 respondents with perceived food intolerance (PFI) were

R. C. Knibb; D. A. Booth; R. Platts; A. Armstrong; I. W. Booth; A. MacDonald

2000-01-01

184

Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

185

A Pilot Study Exploring the Effects of Reflexology on Cold Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold intolerance is an inability to tolerate cold temperatures and is accompanied by symptoms including headache, shoulder discomfort, dizziness and palpitations. The current study was performed to examine whether reflexology therapy affected cold intolerance in human subjects and whether the treatment was systemically effective. Ten female volunteer examinees with subjective feelings of cold were examined. After a 5-minute foot bath,

Wenping Zhang; Shougo Takahashi; Takashi Miki; Hisayo Fujieda; Torao Ishida

2010-01-01

186

Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

2010-01-01

187

The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general…

Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

2010-01-01

188

Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization in amorphous sucrose and lactose at low moisture contents.  

PubMed

Differential scanning calorimetry has been used in isothermal and non-isothermal modes to provide information on the crystallization of sucrose and lactose at low water contents. Using approaches previously applied to polymer crystallization an attempt has been made to combine the isothermal and non-isothermal data into a single curve. This is achieved by the use of appropriate shift factors in the time and temperature domains. This was successful for sucrose but not for lactose. It was suggested that this was because lactose crystallizes into multiple forms whereas sucrose crystallizes in a single form. PMID:11117325

Kedward, C J; MacNaughtan, W; Mitchell, J R

2000-11-01

189

Effect of pH and lactose concentration on solvent production from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to optimize the production of solvents from whey permeate in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Fermentations performed at relatively low pH values resulted in high solvent yields and productivities, but lactose utilization was incomplete. At higher pH values, lactose-utilization was improved but acid production dominated over solvent production. When operating at the higher pH values, an increase in the initial lactose concentration of the whey permeate resulted in lower rates of lactose utilization, and this was accompanied by increased solvent production and decreased acid production. Analysis of data from several experiments revealed a strong inverse relationship between solvent yield and lactose utilization rate. Thus, conditions which minimize the lactose utilization rate such as low culture pH values or high initial lactose concentrations, favor solventogenesis at the expense of acid production. 12 references.

Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.

1987-02-20

190

Studies of glucose intolerance in cirrhosis of the liver.  

PubMed

Patients with hepatic cirrhosis often have demonstrable glucose intolerance. We studied 21 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), intravenous arginine stimulation tests (IVAST), and intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT) were performed, and timed blood samples were obtained for the assay of glucose immunoreactive insulin (IRI), C-peptide (C-P), and immunoreactive glucagon (IRG). The 125I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was studied in some of the patients. All results were compared to those of similar studies performed on healthy controls. During OGTT significant glucose intolerance was demonstrable in the patients with cirrhosis (2 hr plasma glucose 198.8 +/- 14.3 mg/dl in cirrhosis and 116.4 +/- 4.2 in controls; p less than 0.001). Two-hour plasma IRI, C-P, and IRG were significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients than in controls (p less than 0.001; less than 0.001; less than 0.025). In response to IVAST, the patients with cirrhosis showed a greater first-phase insulin secretion and controls had a slightly better second-phase insulin release. Plasma IRG rose from a basal value of 446 pg/ml to 1100 in the patients with cirrhosis and from 171 pg/ml to 494 in controls. After intravenous insulin administration, there was only a 40% decline in plasma glucose concentration from basal values in the patients with cirrhosis whereas the controls showed a 60% decline, demonstrating that the patients with cirrhosis had significant insulin resistance. Moreover, the half-life of insulin was prolonged in the patients with cirrhosis (t 1/2 = 15.5 min in cirrhosis and 10.3 in controls; p less than 0.001); and the ratio of C-P to insulin during OGTT was also reduced, indicating that the patients with cirrhosis have reduced hepatic clearance of insulin. The specific binding of 125I-insulin to circulating monocytes was 2.7% in cirrhosis, 2% in obese controls, and 4% in lean controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the fasting plasma insulin values and the specific binding of insulin. In conclusion, patients with hepatic cirrhosis have significant glucose intolerance characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, insulin resistance, and down-regulation of insulin receptors. Although hyperinsulinemia is probably caused by reduced hepatic clearance of insulin, hyperglucagonemia is primarily due to increased pancreatic secretion. PMID:6352838

Shankar, T P; Solomon, S S; Duckworth, W C; Himmelstein, S; Gray, S; Jerkins, T; Bobal, M A; Iyer, R S

1983-10-01

191

Characterisation and deposition studies of recrystallised lactose from binary mixtures of ethanol/butanol for improved drug delivery from dry powder inhalers.  

PubMed

Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactose-drug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be employed as a method of altering the FPF of salbutamol sulphate from powder blends. Lactose particles were prepared by an anti-solvent recrystallisation process using various ratios of the two solvents. Crystallised lactose or commercial lactose was mixed with salbutamol sulphate and in vitro deposition studies were performed using a multistage liquid impinger. Solid-state characterisation results showed that commercial lactose was primarily composed of the ?-anomer whilst the crystallised lactose samples comprised a ?/? mixture containing a lower number of moles of water per mole of lactose compared to the commercial lactose. The crystallised lactose particles were also less elongated and more irregular in shape with rougher surfaces. Formulation blends containing crystallised lactose showed better aerosolisation performance and dose uniformity when compared to commercial lactose. The highest FPF of salbutamol sulphate (38.0 ± 2.5%) was obtained for the lactose samples that were crystallised from a mixture of ethanol/butanol (20:60) compared to a FPF of 19.7 ± 1.9% obtained for commercial lactose. Engineered lactose carriers with modified anomer content and physicochemical properties, when compared to the commercial grade, produced formulations which generated a high FPF. PMID:21057906

Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Royall, Paul; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

2010-11-06

192

Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During Re-Exposure to Gravity: Record 11 (MRL No. 02, Orthostatic)-BASELINE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post-flight orthostatic intolerance, the inability to maintain blood pressure while in an upright position, is an established, space-related medical problem. Orthostatic intolerance has been shown to progress to presyncope (inability to maintain standing ...

A. Lee S. Platts

2011-01-01

193

Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urban populations of different ethnic groups in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance.

D. L. Christensen; H. Friis; D. L. Mwaniki; B. Kilonzo; I. Tetens; M. K. Boit; B. Omondi; L. Kaduka; K. Borch-Johnsen

2009-01-01

194

Pesticide-initiated idiopathic environmental intolerance in South Korean farmers.  

PubMed

This study was designed to study patients with intolerance to pesticide smells. Ten subjects chosen were complaining of vague symptoms such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, myalgia, flu-like symptoms, etc., whenever exposed to the pesticide smells even at low intensity. To determine whether the etiology of this kind of pesticide hypersensitivity was of organic or psychiatric nature, all the subjects underwent tests as follows: complete blood cell count, urinalysis, and blood chemistry as routine tests; esophogastroduodenoscopy and abdomen ultrasonography for the gastrointestinal symptoms; chest x-ray, pulmonary function tests, and electrocardiography for the respiratory and/or cardiac symptoms; nerve conduction velocity and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for peripheral and central nerve system symptoms; and K-WAIS, Rey-Kim memory test, Rorschach, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for psychoanalysis. Of the 10 cases in which the chief complaint was headache, symptoms of two cases were caused by maxillary sinusitis. Another two showed typical multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Six out of the 10 cases, whose symptoms closely resembled the others, did not conclusively meet the criteria of classic MCS or IEI. The subjects of this case shared vague fears, both fear of pesticides and hypochondriasis. Some subjects faced financial insecurity and social uncertainty; others felt uneasy about the future of their farming life. Thus, to help verify the causes of MCS or IEI, which is strongly suggestive of pesticide smells, diagnosis needs a dual approach: on the anima and soma. Psychoanalysis can delve into the mental status of the patients to see whether the patients are aware of their symptoms. Clinical tests can see through the physical structure and functions of the organs on which patients' complaints are centered. PMID:17497536

Lee, Hae-Sung; Hong, So-Yong; Hong, Zoong-Rock; Gil, Hyo-Ook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Han, Mi-Jung; Jang, Nam-Woon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2007-05-01

195

Fat distribution and glucose intolerance among greenland inuit.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit participated in a population-based study. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. VAT and SAT were measured by ultrasound according to a validated protocol. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors was obtained by interview. RESULTS Mean SATs were 1.8 and 3.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Mean VATs were 7.0 and 6.3 cm in men and women, respectively. The total prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9%. Percentage of body fat generally was most strongly associated with all outcomes. Both SAT and VAT were significantly associated with glucose intolerance, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, and ISI0,120. VAT was more strongly associated with all outcomes than was SAT. After further adjustment for BMI or WC, VAT was associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend toward a negative or no association with SAT. CONCLUSIONS High mean values of SAT may to a large extent explain the high WC in Inuit populations, and this is suggested to contribute to the lower observed metabolic risk for a given level of obesity. PMID:23656981

Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald; Bjerregaard, Peter

2013-05-08

196

Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

1983-06-01

197

Ethanol Production from Cellulose, Lactose, and Xylose Using Yeasts and Enzymes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments with mixtures of whey and corn showed that more than 85% of the lactose was degraded into ethanol. The applicability of cellulose was investigated by means of potatoes. Cellulase is inhibited by glucose, which is a fermentation intermediate, a...

U. Schwank

1986-01-01

198

Lactose-Free, MCT-Containing Formulas in Severe Malnutrition. (612.3-G739c).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transient lactose deficiency is a common complication of severe diarrheal disease in infancy. In more prolonged and complicated cases other disaccharidases are also affected, and in extreme circumstances, secondary glucose and fructose malabsorption may f...

G. G. Graham

1973-01-01

199

Plasmid-Determined Ability of a 'Salmonella Tennessee' Strain to Ferment Lactose and Sucrose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of a Salmonella Tennessee strain to ferment both lactose and sucrose was attributed to a conjugally transmissible plasmid, deoxyribonucleic acid molecular weight 164 megadaltons, bearing the genetic determinants of both fermentation characters...

E. M. Johnson J. A. Wohlhieter B. P. Placek R. B. Sleet L. S. Baron

1975-01-01

200

Effect of age and lactose on sup 67 Cu utilization in rats  

SciTech Connect

Young and old male Fischer 344 rats were fed a control diet or a lactose diet. After four weeks rats were gavaged with approximately 6.24 uCl {sup 67}Cu, placed in metabolism cages, and fed their respective diets for an additional two weeks. Daily whole body, urine and fecal radioactivity measurements were made. Rats were killed on day 42 and livers removed for radioactivity determination. Diet had no effect on whole body retention of {sup 67}Cu in the old rats; approximately 20% of the initial dose was retained by the end of the study. In the young rats, however, lactose appeared to enhance initial {sup 67}Cu retention; by day three young control rats retained only 30% of the initial dose, while the young lactose rats retained about 50%. Retention of {sup 67}Cu at the end of the study was approximately 15% and 20% for young control and young lactose rats, respectively. During the first four days post dosing, cumulative fecal {sup 67}Cu excretion was approximately 83% for young control rats and 69% for young lactose rats indicating enhancement of {sup 67}Cu absorption by lactose in the young rats. For old rats cumulative {sup 67}Cu excretion in feces was about 50% regardless of diet. Cumulative urinary {sup 67}Cu excretion was approximately 6% and 8% for young control and lactose rats, respectively vs about 11% for old rats. {sup 67}Cu retention in liver was greater in old rats regardless of diet. The early increase in {sup 67}Cu absorption after a bolus dose may have therapeutic implications. In light of current concern regarding Cu-carbohydrate interactions, the apparent enhancement Cu retention by lactose in young rats deserves further attention.

Link, J.; Dowdy, R.; Michelmann, E.; Hill, G.; Zinn, K.; Trrokey, D.; Ellersieck, M. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States))

1991-03-15

201

Lactose metabolism in Lactobacillus bulgaricus: analysis of the primary structure and expression of the genes involved.  

PubMed Central

The genes coding for the lactose permease and beta-galactosidase, two proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, have been cloned, expressed, and found functional in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequences of these genes and their flanking regions have been determined, showing the presence of two contiguous open reading frames (ORFs). One of these ORFs codes for the lactose permease gene, and the other codes for the beta-galactosidase gene. The lactose permease gene is located in front of the beta-galactosidase gene, with 3 bp in the intergenic region. The two genes are probably transcribed as one operon. Primer extension studies have mapped a promoter upstream from the lactose permease gene but not the beta-galactosidase gene. This promoter is similar to those found in E. coli with general characteristics of GC-rich organisms. In addition, the sequences around the promoter contain a significantly higher number of AT base pairs (80%) than does the overall L. bulgaricus genome, which is rich in GC (GC content of 54%). The amino acid sequences obtained from translation of the ORFs are found to be highly homologous (similarity of 75%) to those from Streptococcus thermophilus. The first 460 amino acids of the lactose permease shows homology to the melibiose transport protein of E. coli. Little homology was found between the lactose permease of L. bulgaricus and E. coli, but the residues which are involved in the binding and the transport of lactose are conserved. The carboxy terminus is similar to that of the enzyme III of several phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems. Images

Leong-Morgenthaler, P; Zwahlen, M C; Hottinger, H

1991-01-01

202

At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.  

PubMed

Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817

Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

2012-12-15

203

Feeding Lactose to Increase Ruminal Butyrate and the Metabolic Status of Transition Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (775 ± 24 kg body weight; 3.4 ± 0.11 body condition score) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment to determine the impact of increased ruminal butyrate from the fermentation of lactose on metabolism and lactation. Dietary treatments were either a corn-based control diet (CON) or a diet containing lactose at 15.7% of diet

J. M. DeFrain; A. R. Hippen; K. F. Kalscheur; D. J. Schingoethe

2006-01-01

204

Sophorolipid Production with High Yields on Whey Concentrate and Rapeseed Oil without Consumption of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophorolipids were produced by single-step batch cultivation of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 on deproteinized whey concentrate and repeated feed of rapeseed oil. A mild sterilization method for whey was developed. High yields of 280 g dry sophorolipids l-1 were obtained from deproteinized whey concentrate containing 100 g lactose l-1 and 300 g rapeseed oil l-1. Surprisingly, the whey lactose was

Hans-J. Daniel; Ralf T. Otto; Matthias Reuss; Christoph Syldatk

1998-01-01

205

Glass Transition, Water Plasticization, and Lactose Crystallization in Skim Milk Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of water content, storage time, and glass transition (physical state) on lactose crystallization and the resultant crystal forms in skim milk powder were investigated. Samples of freeze-dried skim milk containing amorphous lactose were stored at various relative humidities at room temperature (24°C). Crystallization was observed from time-dependent loss of sorbed water during storage and from increas- ing intensities and

K. Jouppila; J. Kansikas; Y. H. Roos

1997-01-01

206

Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities  

SciTech Connect

A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

1985-04-01

207

A novel combined thermometric and amperometric biosensor for lactose determination based on immobilised cellobiose dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

A novel method for lactose determination in milk is proposed. It is based on oxidation of lactose by cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, immobilised in an enzyme reactor. The reactor was prepared by cross-linking CDH onto aminopropyl-silanised controlled pore glass (CPG) beads using glutaraldehyde. The combined biosensor worked in flow injection analysis (FIA) mode and was developed for simultaneous monitoring of the thermometric signal associated with the enzymatic oxidation of lactose using p-benzoquinone as electron acceptor and the electrochemically generated current associated with the oxidation of the hydroquinone formed. A highly reproducible linear response for lactose was obtained between 0.05 mM and 30 mM. For a set of more than 500 samples an R.S.D. of less than 10% was achieved. The assay time was ca. 2 min per sample. The sensor was applied for the determination of lactose in dairy milk samples (milk with a fat content of 1.5% or 3% and also "lactose free" milk). No sample preparation except dilution with buffer was needed. The proposed method is rapid, suitable for repeated use and allows the possibility to compare results from two different detection methods, thus providing a built-in quality assurance. Some differences in the response observed between the methods indicate that the dual approach can be useful in mechanistic studies of redox enzymes. In addition, a dual system opens up interesting possibilities for studies of enzyme properties and mechanisms. PMID:22078845

Yakovleva, Maria; Buzas, Orsolya; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Larsson, Per-Olof; Gorton, Lo; Danielsson, Bengt

2011-10-21

208

The influence of physical properties and morphology of crystallised lactose on delivery of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhalers.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanistic evaluation of physicochemical properties of new engineered lactose on aerosolisation performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) delivered from dry powder inhaler (DPI). Different crystallised lactose particles were obtained from binary mixtures of butanol:acetone. The sieved fractions (63-90 ?m) of crystallised lactose were characterised in terms of size, shape, flowability, true density and aerosolisation performance (using multiple twin stage impinger (MSLI), Aerolizer(®) inhaler device, and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug). Compared to commercial lactose, crystallised lactose particles were less elongated, covered with fine lactose particles, and had a rougher surface morphology. The crystallised lactose powders had a considerably lower bulk and tap density and poorer flow when compared to commercial lactose. Engineered carrier with better flow showed improved drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug "deposited" on the inhaler device and throat, and a smaller drug aerodynamic diameter upon inhalation. Aerodynamic diameter of salbutamol sulphate increased as lactose aerodynamic diameter decreased (linear, R(2)=0.9191) and/or as fine particle lactose content increased (linear, R(2)=0.8653). Improved drug aerosolisation performance in the case of crystallised lactose particles was attributed to lower drug-carrier adhesion forces due to a rougher surface and higher fine particle content. In conclusion, this work proved that using binary combinations of solvents in crystallisation medium is vital in modification of the physicochemical and micromeritic properties of carriers to achieve a desirable aerosolisation performance from DPI formulations. Among all lactose samples, lactose particles crystallised from pure butanol generated the highest overall DPI formulations desirability. PMID:21962946

Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Larhrib, Hassan; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Kolosionek, Ewa; Nokhodchi, Ali

2011-09-10

209

Stability of the lactose permease in detergent solutions.  

PubMed

Protein stability, as measured by irreversible protein aggregation, is one of the central difficulties in the handling of detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. We present a quantitative analysis of the stability of the Escherichia coli lactose (lac) permease and a series of lac permease fusion proteins containing an insertion of cytochrome(b562), T4 lysozyme or beta-lactamase in the central hydrophilic loop of the permease. The stability of the proteins was evaluated under a variety of storage conditions by both a qualitative SDS-PAGE assay and by a quantitative hplc assay. Long-chain maltoside detergents were more effective at maintaining purified protein in solution than detergents with smaller head groups and/or shorter alkyl tails. A full factorial experiment established that the proteins were insensitive to sodium chloride concentrations, but greatly stabilized by glycerol, low temperature and the combination of glycerol and low temperature. The accurate quantitation of the protein by absorbance spectroscopy required exclusion of all contact with clarified polypropylene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials. Although some of the fusion proteins were more prone to aggregation than the wild-type permease, the stability of a fusion protein containing a cytochrome(b562) insertion was indistinguishable from that of native lac permease. PMID:12100995

Engel, Christian K; Chen, Lu; Privé, Gilbert G

2002-08-19

210

Retrospective analysis of cetuximab monotherapy for patients with irinotecan-intolerant metastatic colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The efficacy and safety of cetuximab for irinotecan-intolerant patients has not yet been evaluated in detail.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and safety of cetuximab monotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer\\u000a (MCRC) that was intolerant to irinotecan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Among 105 patients who received cetuximab-containing chemotherapy until March 2010, 22 patients were treated with cetuximab\\u000a monotherapy due to irinotecan intolerance. Cetuximab

Ayako MizotaKohei; Kohei Shitara; Chihiro Kondo; Motoo Nomura; Tomoya Yokota; Daisuke Takahari; Takashi Ura; Yoshitaka Inaba; Hidekazu Yamaura; Yozo Sato; Mina Kato; Kei Muro

211

The effect of lactose-in-saline infusion on packed cell volume variation during trypanosoma vivax - induced anaemia of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intravenous infusion of a solution of lactose-in-normal saline on the course of Trypanosoma vivax induced anaemia in Zebu yearlings was investigated. The animals were infected with 11 x 10 6 trypanosomes by jugular venipuncture and lactose-in-normal saline infusion started on day 6, post-infection (p.i). Three four-hourly doses of 0.5 g lactose\\/kg body weight were administered to each

I. A. Umar; I. O. Igbokwe; J. J. Omage; D. A. Ameh; H. O. Kwanashie; K. A. N. Esievo

212

The effect of the salt content on the crystallization behaviour and sorption fingerprints of spray-dried lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of salts in various proportions affect lactose crystallization. In this study, two common monovalent salts, NaCl and KCl, were used at lactose:salt ratios of 5:2 and 5:1 (w\\/w) to observe the change in crystallization behaviour of the mixtures compared with that of pure lactose obtained from spray drying. The same operating conditions (170°C inlet air temperature, 38m3\\/h main

Tim Langrish

2008-01-01

213

Utilization of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans: transport, toxicity, and carbon catabolite repression.  

PubMed

Abundant in milk and other dairy products, lactose is considered to have an important role in oral microbial ecology and can contribute to caries development in both adults and young children. To better understand the metabolism of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans, the major etiological agent of human tooth decay, a genetic analysis of the tagatose-6-phosphate (lac) and Leloir (gal) pathways was performed in strain UA159. Deletion of each gene in the lac operon caused various alterations in expression of a P(lacA)-cat promoter fusion and defects in growth on either lactose (lacA, lacB, lacF, lacE, and lacG), galactose (lacA, lacB, lacD, and lacG) or both sugars (lacA, lacB, and lacG). Failure to grow in the presence of galactose or lactose by certain lac mutants appeared to arise from the accumulation of intermediates of galactose metabolism, particularly galatose-6-phosphate. The glucose- and lactose-PTS permeases, EII(Man) and EII(Lac), respectively, were shown to be the only effective transporters of galactose in S. mutans. Furthermore, disruption of manL, encoding EIIAB(Man), led to increased resistance to glucose-mediated CCR when lactose was used to induce the lac operon, but resulted in reduced lac gene expression in cells growing on galactose. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably high degree of complexity in the regulation of lactose/galactose catabolism. PMID:20190045

Zeng, Lin; Das, Satarupa; Burne, Robert A

2010-02-26

214

Form conversion of anhydrous lactose during wet granulation and its effect on compactibility.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate the factors affecting the form conversion of anhydrous lactose to the monohydrate form during wet granulation using water as the granulating agent and (b) study the effect of lactose form conversion on its compaction properties. A two-level full factorial design with two center points was used to evaluate the factors affecting form conversion. The three variables evaluated were percentage of microcrystalline cellulose (low 0 and high 20), water to intragranular solids ratio (low 0.10 and high 0.18) and drying conditions (tray drying and fluid bed drying). The presence of microcrystalline cellulose in the formulation did not provide any benefit in reducing the percent lactose conversion. But, the conversion was significantly reduced by decreasing the amount of water added to the granulation and/or by decreasing the drying time, using a fluid bed dryer compared to a tray dryer. In the second part of the study, complete conversion of the anhydrous lactose to monohydrate was achieved by storing the anhydrous form under 25 degrees C/97% RH for 4 weeks. Physical characterization (compactibility, surface area and surface morphology) was performed on the form converted material and compared to the as received anhydrous lactose. The physical characterization results indicated that even though anhydrous lactose undergoes complete form conversion to monohydrate form under high humidity and/or during wet granulation, it retains its inherent higher as received material compactibility and the BET surface area and porosity of the form converted material are higher than that of the as received anhydrous lactose. PMID:18374527

Shah, Keyur R; Hussain, Munir A; Hubert, Mario; Farag Badawy, Sherif I

2008-02-16

215

Physiologic Basis of Muscular Fatigue, Pathophysiology of Exercise Intolerance, and Enhancing Exercise Tolerance in Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Final Proceedings for The Physiology and Pathophysiology of Exercise Tolerance, 21 September 1994 - 24 September 1994. The Topics covered include: the physiologic basis of muscular fatigue, pathophysiology of exercise intolerance, and enhancing exerci...

J. M. Steinacker S. A. Ward

1994-01-01

216

Domain-General and Domain-Specific Strategies for the Assessment of Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Recent research has provided evidence that distress intolerance—the perceived inability to tolerate distressing states—varies based on the domain of distress (e.g., pain, anxiety). Although domain-specific assessment strategies may provide information targeted to specific disorders or maladaptive behaviors, domain-general measures have the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, disorders, and populations. The current study evaluated the utilization of self-report measures of distress intolerance as domain-general measures by examining their association with indices of behavioral avoidance and substance craving. Two groups of participants (N = 55) were recruited including a substance-dependent group and a comparison group equated based on the presence of an affective disorder. Results provided support for the validity of domain-general measures for assessing distress intolerance across varied domains. The importance of both domain-general and domain-specific measurement of distress intolerance is discussed.

McHugh, R. Kathryn; Otto, Michael W.

2011-01-01

217

Domain-general and domain-specific strategies for the assessment of distress intolerance.  

PubMed

Recent research has provided evidence that distress intolerance-the perceived inability to tolerate distressing states-varies based on the domain of distress (e.g., pain, anxiety). Although domain-specific assessment strategies may provide information targeted to specific disorders or maladaptive behaviors, domain-general measures have the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, disorders, and populations. The current study evaluated the utilization of self-report measures of distress intolerance as domain-general measures by examining their association with indices of behavioral avoidance and substance craving. Two groups of participants (N = 55) were recruited including a substance-dependent group and a comparison group equated based on the presence of an affective disorder. Results provided support for the validity of domain-general measures for assessing distress intolerance across varied domains. The importance of both domain-general and domain-specific measurement of distress intolerance is discussed. PMID:21823763

McHugh, R Kathryn; Otto, Michael W

2011-08-08

218

Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?  

PubMed Central

Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance.

Gibson, Peter R.

2012-01-01

219

Orthostatic Intolerance Ambulation in Patients Using Patient Controlled Analgesia  

PubMed Central

Background Opioid analgesics are widely used to reduce postoperative pain and to enhance post-operative recovery. However, orthostatic intolerance (OI) induced by opioid containing intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IPCA) may hinder postoperative recovery. This study investigated factors that affect OI in patients receiving IPCA for postoperative pain control. Methods OI was instantly evaluated at the time of first ambulation in 175 patients taking opioid containing IPCA after open and laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomies. Patients were classified as having OI if they experienced dizziness, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, headache, somnolence and syncope. Factors contributing to OI were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results Out of 175 patients, 61 (52.6%) male and 44 (74.6%) female patients experienced OI at the time of first ambulation. The frequency of OI related symptoms were dizziness (97, 55.4%), nausea (46, 26.3%), headache (9, 5.1%), blurred vision (3, 1.7%) and vomiting (2, 1.1%). Significant risk factors for OI were gender (P=0.002) and total amount of opioids administered (P=0.033). Conclusions The incidence of OI is significantly higher in male than in female patients and is influenced by the opioid dose.

Park, Kwang Ok

2013-01-01

220

Salicylate intolerance: a masquerader of multiple adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

A female in her early 50s presented with a long-standing history of episodic urticaria and angioedema. She also reported urticarial reactions after ingestion of aspirin, prednisone and multiple antibiotics. These medications were all taken during upper respiratory tract infections. An elimination diet followed by a series of open challenges to food chemicals demonstrated an urticarial eruption following the ingestion of mints, which contain high levels of salicylates. A double-blinded placebo-controlled challenge to salicylate confirmed her sensitivity and explained her reaction to aspirin. The patient informed her treating physician of her copious ingestion of mints during upper respiratory tract infections. Drug hypersensitivity to antibiotics and prednisone was excluded on the basis of negative radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) and/or absent skin-test responses and/or tolerance to oral challenges. This patient had a salicylate intolerance that caused her episodic urticaria and angioedema, and also masqueraded as a drug allergy due to the concurrent ingestion of mints.

Fernando, Suran Loshana; Clarke, Lesley R

2009-01-01

221

Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from freeze-tolerant and -intolerant anurans.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa of the freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica) were used to develop a general protocol for the frozen storage of amphibian spermatozoa. Tolerance of spermatozoa to cryoprotective agents and freezing in suspension (-80 degrees C) was determined from rates of sperm lysis and dual-fluorochrome vital dye assays. We tested the efficacy of four cryoprotectants (Me2SO, methanol, glycerol, and ethylene glycol), two supplements (fetal bovine serum or glutathione), and combinations of these cryoprotectants and supplements. Me2SO and fetal bovine serum were the most effective cryoprotectant and supplement, respectively, in reducing sperm lysis. Vital dye assays showed that viability was greatest for spermatozoa treated with both Me2SO and fetal bovine serum. Thus, this combination was used to cryopreserve spermatozoa from the freeze-intolerant anurans, Rana pipiens and Bufo americanus. Recovery of viable spermatozoa was significantly greater for R. sylvatica (mean +/- SE = 81.2 +/- 9.6%) than for R. pipiens (59.0 +/- 2.8%) and B. americanus (47.8 +/- 4.1%), perhaps owing to inherent factors promoting its freeze tolerance. Nonetheless, our results support the feasibility of using gamete cryopreservation techniques in programs aimed at the captive propagation of amphibians. PMID:9769166

Beesley, S G; Costanzo, J P; Lee, R E

1998-09-01

222

Characterization of lactose utilization and ?-galactosidase in Lactobacillus brevis KB290, the hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium.  

PubMed

Unlike dairy lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus brevis cannot ferment milk. We characterized the lactose utilization by L. brevis KB290. In a carbohydrate fermentation assay using API 50 CHL, we showed during 7 days L. brevis did not ferment lactose. L. brevis grew to the stationary phase in 2 weeks in MRS broth containing lactose as the carbon source. L. brevis slowly consumed the lactose in the medium. L. brevis hydrolyzed lactose and a lactose analog, o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (ONPGal). This ?-galactosidase activity for ONPGal was not repressed by glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose, or maltose showing the microorganism may not have carbon catabolite repression. We purified the L. brevis ?-galactosidase using ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographies. The enzyme's molecular weight is estimated at 72 and 37 kDa using SDS-PAGE analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the larger protein was 90 % similar to the sequence of the putative ?-galactosidase (YP_796339) and the smaller protein was identical to the sequence of the putative ?-galactosidase (YP_796338) in L. brevis ATCC367. This suggests the enzyme is a heterodimeric ?-galactosidase. The specific activity of the purified enzyme for lactose is 55 U/mg. We speculate inhibition of lactose transport delays the lactose utilization in L. brevis KB290. PMID:22936499

Honda, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Saito, Tadao

2012-08-31

223

Self-Reported Symptoms of Cold Intolerance in Workers with Injuries of the Hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold intolerance is a well-recognized complication of crushing injuries and amputations in the hand. These symptoms are usually\\u000a thought to resolve within 2 years of injury. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence and course over\\u000a time of self-reported symptoms of cold intolerance in workers with hand injuries. Files from a large worker’s compensation\\u000a carrier were randomly selected

Brent Graham; Michel Schofield

2008-01-01

224

Intolerance to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: Results of controlled drug challenges in 98 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Controlled oral challenge is the only definitive way to detect the different clinical manifestations of intolerance to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to describe the clinical manifestations of drug challenges in a population with histories of intolerance to NSAIDs. METHODS: Two-hundred forty subjects were included in a single-blind, placebo-controlled drug challenge protocol. RESULTS: Eighty

Joaquín Quiralte; Carlos Blanco; Rodolfo Castillo; Julio Delgado; Teresa Carrillo

1996-01-01

225

Synthesis and characterization of lactose-based homopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this dissertation is the synthesis and characterization of lactose-based functional polymers. Currently 60% of lactose, a by-product from the cheese industry, is being utilized and the remaining fraction represents a serious disposal problem because of the high biological oxygen demand. Therefore, further development of utilization of lactose is an important issue both for industry and environment. Herein, the syntheses of lactose-based polymers such glycopolymers, hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers, and hydrogels are reported. A brief review of lactose formation, physical properties, and production is presented in Chapter 1. Syntheses and applications of lactose derivatives such as lactitol, lactulose, lactaime, lactosylurea, lactosylamine, lactone, and barbituric derivative are documented. Previous work in lactose-based polymers include: (1) hydrogels from cross linking of LPEP, borate complexation of lactose-containing polymer, and copolymerization of lactose monomer with crosslinkers; (2) lactose-based polyurethane rigid foams and adhesives; and (3) lactose-containing glycopolymers are also included. Chapter 2 documents the synthesis of acrylamidolactamine and the free radical copolymerization of this monomer with N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of BisA to make hydrogels. Swelling behavior of the hydrogels at different temperatures as well as DSC study of these hydrogels are also carried out to characterize the swelling transition and the organization of water in the copolymer hydrogels. In Chapter 3, novel monomer syntheses of N-lactosyl- N'-(4-vinylbenzyl)urea or N '-lactosyl-N,N-methyl(4-vinylbenzyl)urea are described. Polymerization of these new urea monomers using a redox initiator gave water-soluble homopolymers with molecular weights in the range of 1.9 x 103 to 5.3 x 106. Synthesis and polymerization of lactose-O-(p-vinylbenzyl)hydroxime are documented in Chapter 4. The resulting polymers had high molecular weight (106) and narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn: 1.20--1.35). The Mark-Houwink equation was obtained as [eta] = 2.15 x 10-4Mv0.73. Hydrogels produced in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide swelled as much as 21-fold in deionized water. Copolymerization of styrene with lactose-O-(vinylbenzyl)oxime in dimethylsulfoxide-toluene (1:1, v/v) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator are discussed in Chapter 5. The resulting hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymers were characterized by viscometry, TGA, DSC, GPC, and solubility tests in solvents of varied polarities. Chapter 6 documents the preparation of polystyrene beads with different length of oligo(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers. Swelling in different solvents, solvent accessibility, and reagent diffusion of these beads with different crosslinking density were studied and the results indicated that the PEG-crosslinked polymers showed slightly better solvent accessibility in polar solvents than the analogous DVB-crosslinked networks.

Zhou, Wenjing

226

Intolerance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia: Definitions and clinical implications.  

PubMed

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment targeting breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia virus, the cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), has revolutionized therapy for patients with this disease. The majority of patients with CML maintain favorable responses with long-term imatinib therapy; however, the availability of the second-generation TKIs nilotinib and dasatinib limits the need for patients intolerant to imatinib to continue with therapy. Unfortunately, there is currently no standard definition of intolerance to imatinib. Common Toxicity Criteria for grading adverse events, designed to identify acute toxicities, are often used to determine intolerance. However, because CML therapies are long-term, patient quality of life may provide a better measure of true intolerance. Several general methods of quantifying patient quality of life are in use for patients with CML, and a CML-specific variant of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory is in development. An appropriate and consistent definition of intolerance will provide clinicians with an algorithm for managing their patients with severe or chronic adverse events during treatment with imatinib. As more long-term data become available for newer TKIs, the definition of intolerance in the context of CML treatment will continue to evolve to maximize the likelihood of durable responses and superior quality of life for patients. PMID:20922786

Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Cortes, Jorge; Mauro, Michael J

2010-10-04

227

Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance.

Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

2011-01-01

228

Clarithromycin treatment in preterm infants: a pilot study for prevention of feeding intolerance.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of oral clarithromycin versus placebo treatment in preventing feeding intolerance in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: A prospective, randomised controlled trial in which two groups of preterm infants (birth weight <1500?g) were randomised to clarithromycin (7.5?mg/kg/dose every 12?h) or placebo treatment. During the period, 38 infants, whose parents accepted participation, were enrolled in the study. Feeding intolerance and time to achieve full enteral feeding were considered as primary outcome measures. Results: Feeding intolerance was significantly longer in placebo than clarithromycin (p?=?0.031). Time to achieve full feeding after beginning the treatment was equal among the groups. Conclusion: This is the first randomised controlled study of clarithromycin and placebo treatment that compares the improvement of feeding intolerance in VLBW infants. Our findings indicate a dramatic improvement in feeding intolerance after oral clarithromycin treatment. But according to our results, clarithromycin-treated infants were not able to attain full enteral feeding more quickly than placebo. This may be due to prophylactic usage of clarithromycin. Significant differences might have resulted if only infants who had feeding intolerance were recruited. PMID:23570248

Gokmen, Tulin; Ozdemir, Ramazan; Bozdag, Senol; Oguz, Serife Suna; Erdeve, Omer; Uras, Nurdan; Dilmen, Ugur

2013-05-02

229

Shared Variance among Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Distress intolerance may be an important individual difference variable in understanding maladaptive coping responses across diagnostic categories. However, the measurement of distress intolerance remains inconsistent across studies and little evidence for convergent validity among existing measures is available. This study evaluated the overlap among self-report and behavioral measures of distress intolerance in four samples, including an unselected sample, a sample of patients with drug dependence, and two samples of cigarette smokers. Results suggested that the self-report measures were highly correlated, as were the behavioral measures; however, behavioral and self-report measures did not exhibit significant associations with each other. There was some evidence of domain specificity, with anxiety sensitivity demonstrating strong associations with somatic distress intolerance, and a lack of association between behavioral measures that elicit affective distress and those that elicit somatic distress. These findings highlight a potential divergence in the literature relative to the conceptualization of distress intolerance as either sensitivity to distress or as the inability to persist at a task when distressed. Further research is needed to elucidate the conceptualization and measurement of distress intolerance to facilitate future clinical and research applications of this construct.

McHugh, R. Kathryn; Daughters, Stacey B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Murray, Heather W.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Otto, Michael W.

2013-01-01

230

Predictors of Beta-Blocker Intolerance and Mortality in Patients After Acute Coronary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the predictors of intolerance to beta-blockers treatment and the 6-month mortality in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods This was a single-center, prospective, and longitudinal study including 370 consecutive ACS patients in Killip class I or II. BBs were prescribed according to international guidelines and withdrawn if intolerance occurred. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of our university. Statistics: the clinical parameters evaluated at admission, and the related intolerance to BBs and death at 6 months were analyzed using logistic regression (p<0.05)in PATIENTS. Results BB intolerance was observed in 84 patients and was associated with no prior use of statins (OR: 2.16, 95%CI: 1.26–3.69, p= 0.005) and Killip class II (OR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.30-4.75, p=0.004) in the model adjusted for age, sex, blood pressure, and renal function. There was no association with ST-segment alteration or left anterior descending coronary artery plaque. Intolerance to BB was associated with the greatest risk of death (OR: 4.5, 95%CI: 2.15–9.40, p<0.001). Conclusions After ACS, intolerance to BBs in the first 48 h of admission was associated to non previous use of statin and Killip class II and had a high risk of death within 6 months.

De Stefano, Laercio Martins; Ferraz, Alex Lombardi Barbosa; Ferreira, Ana Lucia dos Anjos; Gut, Ana Lucia; Cogni, Ana Lucia; Farah, Elaine; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2013-01-01

231

Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion  

SciTech Connect

The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

1986-02-01

232

Improving powder flow properties of a cohesive lactose monohydrate powder by intensive mechanical dry coating.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to improve the cohesive lactose powder flowability. A cohesive lactose monohydrate powder was processed in either a tumbling blender or an intensive mechanical processor with either magnesium stearate or fumed silica. No substantial changes in particle size were detected by laser diffraction following either treatment. The untreated lactose sample exhibited very poor powder flow. Only limited improvements in powder flowability were indicated after the tumbling blending, intensive mechanical processing with the fumed silica or without additives. However, the intensive mechanical processing of the lactose sample with magnesium stearate demonstrated exceptionally large increases in both poured and tapped density as well as notable improvements in all powder flowability indicators examined. Our findings support the use of intensive mechanical processing technique as an effective method to coat cohesive pharmaceutical powders with selected additives, modify the surface nature of the particles, reduce the interparticle cohesive forces and hence improve powder flowability. The subtle differences in powder flow behaviour of lactose samples between the untreated and tumbling blended powders with magnesium stearate were only detected by the powder rheometer using its dynamic mode, indicating its potential advantages over traditional powder flow characterisation approaches. PMID:19795479

Zhou, Qi; Armstrong, Brian; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

2010-02-01

233

Truncated forms of Escherichia coli lactose permease: models for study of biosynthesis and membrane insertion.  

PubMed Central

Using in vitro DNA manipulations, we constructed different lacY alleles encoding mutant proteins of the Escherichia coli lactose carrier. With respect to structural models developed for lactose permease, the truncated polypeptides represent model systems containing approximately one, two, four, and five of the N-terminal membrane-spanning alpha-helices. In addition, a protein carrying a deletion of predicted helices 3 and 4 was obtained. The different proteins were radiolabeled in plasmid-bearing E. coli minicells and were found to be stably integrated into the lipid bilayer. The truncated polypeptides of 50, 71, 143, and 174 N-terminal amino acid residues resembled the wild-type protein in their solubilization characteristics, whereas the mutant protein carrying an internal deletion of amino acid residues 72 to 142 of the lactose carrier behaved differently. Minicell membrane vesicles containing truncated proteins comprising amino acid residues 1 to 143 or 1 to 174 were subjected to limited proteolysis. Upon digestion with proteases of different specificities, the same characteristic fragment that was also produced from the membrane-associated wild-type protein was found to accumulate under these conditions. It has previously been shown to contain the intact N terminus of lactose permease. This supports the idea of an independent folding and membrane insertion of this segment even in the absence of the C-terminal part of the molecule. The results suggest that the N-terminal region of the lactose permease represents a well-defined structural domain. Images

Stochaj, U; Fritz, H J; Heibach, C; Markgraf, M; von Schaewen, A; Sonnewald, U; Ehring, R

1988-01-01

234

Idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI): from molecular epidemiology to molecular medicine.  

PubMed

Inherited or acquired impairment of xenobiotics metabolism is a postulated mechanism underlying environment-associated pathologies such as multiple chemical sensitivity, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, dental amalgam disease, and others, also collectively named idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI). In view of the poor current knowledge of their etiology and pathogenesis, and the absence of recognised genetic and metabolic markers of the diseases. They are often considered "medically unexplained syndromes",. These disabling conditions share the features of polysymptomatic multi-organ syndromes, considered by part of the medical community to be aberrant responses triggered by exposure to low-dose organic and inorganic chemicals and metals, in concentrations far below average reference levels admitted for environmental toxicants. A genetic predisposition to altered biotransformation of environmental chemicals, drugs, and metals, and of endogenous low-molecular weight metabolites, caused by polymorphisms of genes coding for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, their receptors and transcription factors appears to be involved in the susceptibility to these environment-associated pathologies, along with epigenetic factors. Free radical/antioxidant homeostasis may also be heavily implicated, indirectly by affecting the regulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and directly by causing increased levels of oxidative products, implicated in the chronic damage of cells and tissues, which is in part correlated with clinical symptoms. More systematic studies of molecular epidemiology, toxico- and pharmaco-genomics, elucidating the mechanisms of regulation, expression, induction, and activity of antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, and the possible role of inflammatory mediators, promise a better understanding of this pathologically increased sensitivity to low-level chemical stimuli, and a solid basis for effective individualized antioxidant- and/or chelator-based treatments. PMID:20929047

De Luca, C; Scordo, G; Cesareo, E; Raskovic, D; Genovesi, G; Korkina, L

2010-07-01

235

Lactose substituted zinc phthalocyanine: a near infrared fluorescence imaging probe for liver cancer targeting.  

PubMed

A near infrared fluorescence probe, lactose substituted zinc phthalocyanine, [2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis((1-(?-d-lactose-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxyl)phthalocyaninato] zinc(II), was synthesized via click reaction. Structural characterization and optical experiment demonstrated its excellent biocompatibility and fluorescence imaging ability. Near infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo for liver cancer, lung cancer and melanoma cancer with tumor bearing nude mice as models demonstrated that lactose substituted zinc phthalocyanine has specifically targeting ability to liver cancer while no targeting to lung cancer or melanoma, which implied its potential in liver cancer diagnosis as a near infrared optical probe. PMID:23395663

Lv, Feng; He, Xujun; Wu, Li; Liu, Tianjun

2013-01-09

236

Lactose and milk replacer influence on lead absorption and lead toxicity in calves  

SciTech Connect

The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.

Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.; Womac, C.W.; Rowe, L.D. Jr.; Wagner, B.

1986-03-01

237

Release of indomethacin from ultrasound dry granules containing lactose-based excipients.  

PubMed

Physical mixtures were prepared containing indomethacin and beta-lactose and alpha-lactose-based excipients (Ludipress and Cellactose). The mixtures were compacted with the aid of ultrasound, obtaining tablets, which were milled and sieved. Granules thus obtained were examined by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The intense yellow color of the granules and the absence of indomethacin peak in thermograms suggest important modifications of indomethacin physical state; the drug thus modified appears to be spread on the excipient particle surface as a thin film, giving a lustrous appearance. No influence of ultrasound was observed on phase transition concerning lactose; only loss of water was important under high energy ultrasound. Dissolution profiles suggest an increased release of the drug from the systems treated with ultrasound at high energy, with respect to a traditional compaction; while no difference could be evidenced among the three excipients that, however, appear all suitable for this ultrasound-aided direct compression process. PMID:15653132

Cavallari, Cristina; Albertini, Beatrice; Rodriguez, Lorenzo; Rabasco, Antonio M; Fini, Adamo

2005-01-20

238

Natural history of soy allergy and/or intolerance in children, and clinical use of soy-protein formulas.  

PubMed

Atopic diseases of infants and children are common, debilitating, chronic and sometimes even life-threatening. Several well-conducted studies in high risk babies have demonstrated a significant reduction in the prevalence and severity of atopic diseases with dietary and environmental manipulations. The currently available cow's milk (CM) substitutes for infants are soy protein (SP) formulas (SPFs), hydrolyzed formulas (HF), and home-made meat-based formulas. Soybeans have been cultivated in Eastern countries for many centuries and were first used to feed US babies with CM allergy (CMA) in 1929. Since then, SPFs containing purified SP, a mixture of vegetable oils, and purified carbohydrate have been developed. From a nutritional point of view, SPFs are adequate, support normal growth, protein status, bone mineralization, are well accepted, and economical. SPFs are used for different conditions including CMA, lactose and galactose intolerance and in the management of severe gastroenteritis, and some studies show that feeding SPFs for the first six months of life significantly reduces the prevalence of atopic diseases in high risk babies. Although gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis (AD) may occur in some SPF-fed children, anaphylaxis following the ingestion of soybean is extremely rare in children. However, in the past few years the antigenicity/allergenicity of SPFs has been over-emphasized in the medical literature. In this paper on the natural history of soy antigenicity/allergenicity we discuss all the pros and cons of SPFs, their composition and nutritional value, the basic immune definitions, chemistry and characterization of SPs. We then discuss the antigenicity and allergenicity of SPFs in animals, recent data on the use of SPFs and the incidence of soy allergy in children, clinical reactions to SPFs, and the clinical relevance of skin testing and IgE antibodies to soy, challenge test procedure, clinical indication of SPFs, and their relevance in the prevention of atopy. We have meta-analyzed 17 different studies and conclude that history-based SPF allergy incidence totals 27%, in skin prick tests (SPT) RAST-oral food challenge (OFC)/double-blind food challenge (DBFC)-based epidemiological studies attains 3%, and in challenge test studies 4%. We suggest that double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) studies in larger cohorts of babies may establish a more reliable prevalence of SPF allergy in different disorders associated with CMA. PMID:9617775

Cantani, A; Lucenti, P

1997-05-01

239

Lactose maldigestion during methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in a rat model.  

PubMed

Patients with chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis suffer from anorexia, diarrhea, and stomach pain, often causing weight loss and malnutrition. When the intestinal function during mucositis would be known, a rational feeding strategy might improve the nutritional state, accelerate recuperation, and increase survival of mucositis patients. We developed a methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis rat model to study nutrient digestion and absorption. To determine lactose digestion and absorption of its derivative glucose during mucositis, we injected Wistar rats intravenously with MTX (60 mg/kg) or 0.9% NaCl (controls). Four days later, we orally administered trace amounts of [1-(13)C]lactose and [U-(13)C]glucose and quantified the appearance of labeled glucose in the blood for 3 h. Finally, we determined plasma citrulline level and harvested the small intestine to assess histology, myeloperoxidase level, glycohydrolase activity, immunohistochemical protein, and mRNA expression. MTX-treated rats showed profound villus atrophy and epithelial damage. During the experimental period, the absorption of lactose-derived [1-(13)C]glucose was 4.2-fold decreased in MTX-treated rats compared with controls (P < 0.01). Lactose-derived [1-(13)C]glucose absorption correlated strongly with villus length (rho = 0.86, P < 0.001) and with plasma citrulline level (rho = 0.81, P < 0.001). MTX treatment decreased jejunal lactase activity (19.5-fold, P < 0.01) and immunohistochemical protein and mRNA expression (39.7-fold, P < 0.01) compared with controls. Interestingly, MTX treatment did not affect the absorption of [U-(13)C]glucose during the experimental period. We conclude that lactose digestion is severely decreased during mucositis while glucose absorption is still intact, when supplied in trace amounts. Plasma citrulline level might be a useful objective, noninvasive marker for lactose maldigestion during mucositis in clinic. PMID:21088238

Fijlstra, M; Rings, E H H M; Verkade, H J; van Dijk, T H; Kamps, W A; Tissing, W J E

2010-11-18

240

Orthostatic intolerance in 6 degrees head-down tilt and lower body negative pressure loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.

Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi

241

Dietary manipulation of postprandial colonic lactose fermentation: II. Addition of exogenous, microbial beta-galactosidases at mealtime13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and efficacy of adding microbial beta-galactosidase enzymes directly to milk at the time of consumption was explored in adult lactose-malabsorbers. The hydrogen breath test, and on one occasion, the rise in blood glucose, were used as indices of the completeness of intraintestinal hydrolysis and absorption of milk lactose. When added to 360 ml of cow milk containing 18

Noel W Solomons; Aura-Marina Guerrero; Benjamin Torun

242

Digestibility, Mineral Balance, and Rumen Fermentation by Steers of Rations Containing Large Amounts of Lactose or Dried Whey1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine Holstein steers in three ration groups were in a series of five digestion trials during 10 wk to measure digestibili- ties of rations containing lactose fed as either lactose or dried whole whey. All steers received a control ration of corn, soybean meal, and corn silage during period 1. Three steers also received the control ration during periods 2

D. J. Schingoethe; E. W. Skyberg; R. W. Bailey

1980-01-01

243

Diagnostic and public health dilemma of lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in cattle in the Northeastern United States.  

PubMed

The presence of lactose-fermenting Salmonella strains in clinical case materials presented to microbiology laboratories presents problems in detection and identification. Failure to detect these strains also presents a public health problem. The laboratory methods used in detecting lactose-fermenting Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from six outbreaks of salmonellosis in veal calves are described. Each outbreak was caused by a multiply-resistant and lactose-fermenting strain of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. The use of Levine eosin-methylene blue agar in combination with screening of suspect colonies for C8 esterase enzyme and inoculation of colonies into sulfide-indole-motility medium for hydrogen sulfide production was particularly effective for their detection. A hypothesis for the creation of lactose-fermenting salmonellae in the environment is presented. It is proposed that the environment and husbandry practices of veal-raising barns provide a unique niche in which lactose-fermenting salmonellae may arise. PMID:10699026

McDonough, P L; Shin, S J; Lein, D H

2000-03-01

244

Effect of surface layering time of lactose carrier particles on dry powder inhalation properties of salbutamol sulfate.  

PubMed

The effect of the surface layering time of lactose carrier particles on the dry powder inhalation properties of salbutamol sulfate was investigated. Lactose carrier particles were layered with vegetable magnesium stearate by physical mixing. In the present study, drug/carrier powder mixtures were designed consisting of micronized salbutamol sulfate and lactose carriers with various particle surface conditions prepared by surface layering. These powder mixtures were aerosolized by a Jethaler, and the in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulfate were evaluated by a twin impinger. Compared with the powder mixed with unlayered lactose carrier, the in vitro inhalation properties of the powder mixture prepared using the surface layering lactose carrier were significantly different, showing that the in vitro inhalation properties of the drug/carrier powder mixtures were improved. In vitro deposition properties (RP) increased with surface layering time. Using this surface layering system would thus be valuable for increasing the inhalation properties of dry powder inhalation. PMID:14993760

Iida, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Youhei; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi; Luenberger, Hans

2004-03-01

245

Genetic analysis of milk urea nitrogen and lactose and their relationships with other production traits in Canadian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to estimate heritabilities of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and lactose in the first 3 parities and their genetic relationships with milk, fat, protein, and SCS in Canadian Holsteins. Data were a random sample of complete herds (60,645 test day records of 5,022 cows from 91 herds) extracted from the edited data set, which included 892,039 test-day records of 144,622 Holstein cows from 4,570 herds. A test-day animal model with multiple-trait random regression and the Gibbs sampling method were used for parameter estimation. Regression curves were modeled using Legendre polynomials of order 4. A total of 6 separate 4-trait analyses, which included MUN, lactose, or both (yield or percentage) with different combinations of production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score) were performed. Average daily heritabilities were moderately high for MUN (from 0.384 to 0.414), lactose kilograms (from 0.466 to 0.539), and lactose percentage (from 0.478 to 0.508). Lactose yield was highly correlated with milk yield (0.979). Lactose percentage and MUN were not genetically correlated with milk yield. However, lactose percentage was significantly correlated with somatic cell score (-0.202). The MUN was correlated with fat (0.425) and protein percentages (0.20). Genetic correlations among parities were high for MUN, lactose percentage, and yield. Estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls for MUN were correlated with fat percentage EBV (0.287) and EBV of lactose percentage were correlated with lactation persistency EBV (0.329). Correlations between lactose percentage and MUN with fertility traits were close to zero, thus diminishing the potential of using those traits as possible indicators of fertility. PMID:17430951

Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Lefebvre, D M; Moore, R K

2007-05-01

246

Genic intolerance to functional variation and the interpretation of personal genomes.  

PubMed

A central challenge in interpreting personal genomes is determining which mutations most likely influence disease. Although progress has been made in scoring the functional impact of individual mutations, the characteristics of the genes in which those mutations are found remain largely unexplored. For example, genes known to carry few common functional variants in healthy individuals may be judged more likely to cause certain kinds of disease than genes known to carry many such variants. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop a quantitative assessment of how well genes tolerate functional genetic variation on a genome-wide scale. Here we describe an effort that uses sequence data from 6503 whole exome sequences made available by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Specifically, we develop an intolerance scoring system that assesses whether genes have relatively more or less functional genetic variation than expected based on the apparently neutral variation found in the gene. To illustrate the utility of this intolerance score, we show that genes responsible for Mendelian diseases are significantly more intolerant to functional genetic variation than genes that do not cause any known disease, but with striking variation in intolerance among genes causing different classes of genetic disease. We conclude by showing that use of an intolerance ranking system can aid in interpreting personal genomes and identifying pathogenic mutations. PMID:23990802

Petrovski, Slavé; Wang, Quanli; Heinzen, Erin L; Allen, Andrew S; Goldstein, David B

2013-08-22

247

A New Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Haplotype Associated With Intolerance to Azathioprine.  

PubMed

The authors have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene in the context of efficacy and toxicity of azathioprine (AZA) to determine possible genotype-phenotype correlations between TPMT allelic variants and response to AZA treatment in 76 Italian patients with myasthenia gravis. They confirm known intronic and exonic TPMT polymorphisms that do not correlate with AZA responses and demonstrate a novel intronic polymorphism in a patient intolerant to AZA. Most importantly, they show that of the 22 AZA-intolerant patients, all 5 who carried mutations of the intolerance-linked haplotype TPMT(?)3A also carried the intronic T140+114A (rs3931660), all 3 mutations being part of a new haplotype designated TMPT(?)3E. TPMT(?)3E was not observed in unresponsive or responsive patients. The association of TPMT(?)3E with AZA intolerance and its frequency must be ascertained in larger, ethnically different cohorts. Nevertheless, in view of the highly significant association (Psim = 0.0026) between TPMT(?)3E and AZA intolerance in the study, this new haplotype should be taken into consideration in pharmacogenetic profiling for AZA. PMID:22308273

Colleoni, Lara; Kapetis, Dimos; Maggi, Lorenzo; Camera, Giorgia; Canioni, Eleonora; Cavalcante, Paola; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Baggi, Fulvio; Antozzi, Carlo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

2012-02-01

248

A new thiopurine s-methyltransferase haplotype associated with intolerance to azathioprine.  

PubMed

The authors have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene in the context of efficacy and toxicity of azathioprine (AZA) to determine possible genotype-phenotype correlations between TPMT allelic variants and response to AZA treatment in 76 Italian patients with myasthenia gravis. They confirm known intronic and exonic TPMT polymorphisms that do not correlate with AZA responses and demonstrate a novel intronic polymorphism in a patient intolerant to AZA. Most importantly, they show that of the 22 AZA-intolerant patients, all 5 who carried mutations of the intolerance-linked haplotype TPMT*3A also carried the intronic T140+114A (rs3931660), all 3 mutations being part of a new haplotype designated TMPT*3E. TPMT*3E was not observed in unresponsive or responsive patients. The association of TPMT*3E with AZA intolerance and its frequency must be ascertained in larger, ethnically different cohorts. Nevertheless, in view of the highly significant association (Psim = 0.0026) between TPMT*3E and AZA intolerance in the study, this new haplotype should be taken into consideration in pharmacogenetic profiling for AZA. PMID:23400745

Colleoni, Lara; Kapetis, Dimos; Maggi, Lorenzo; Camera, Giorgia; Canioni, Eleonora; Cavalcante, Paola; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Baggi, Fulvio; Antozzi, Carlo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

2013-01-24

249

Genic Intolerance to Functional Variation and the Interpretation of Personal Genomes  

PubMed Central

A central challenge in interpreting personal genomes is determining which mutations most likely influence disease. Although progress has been made in scoring the functional impact of individual mutations, the characteristics of the genes in which those mutations are found remain largely unexplored. For example, genes known to carry few common functional variants in healthy individuals may be judged more likely to cause certain kinds of disease than genes known to carry many such variants. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop a quantitative assessment of how well genes tolerate functional genetic variation on a genome-wide scale. Here we describe an effort that uses sequence data from 6503 whole exome sequences made available by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Specifically, we develop an intolerance scoring system that assesses whether genes have relatively more or less functional genetic variation than expected based on the apparently neutral variation found in the gene. To illustrate the utility of this intolerance score, we show that genes responsible for Mendelian diseases are significantly more intolerant to functional genetic variation than genes that do not cause any known disease, but with striking variation in intolerance among genes causing different classes of genetic disease. We conclude by showing that use of an intolerance ranking system can aid in interpreting personal genomes and identifying pathogenic mutations.

Petrovski, Slave; Wang, Quanli; Heinzen, Erin L.; Allen, Andrew S.; Goldstein, David B.

2013-01-01

250

Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization in amorphous sucrose and lactose at low moisture contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry has been used in isothermal and non-isothermal modes to provide information on the crystallization of sucrose and lactose at low water contents. Using approaches previously applied to polymer crystallization an attempt has been made to combine the isothermal and non-isothermal data into a single curve. This is achieved by the use of appropriate shift factors in the

Claire J Kedward; William MacNaughtan; John R Mitchell

2000-01-01

251

Nature of Lactose-Fermenting Salmonella Strains Obtained from Clinical Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six of seven lactose-fermenting (lac(+) Salmonella strains obtained from clinical sources were found to be capable of transferring the lac(+) property by conjugation to Salmonella typhosa WR4204. All of the six S. typhosa strains which received the lac(+)...

S. B. Easterling E. M. Johnson J. A. Wohlhieter L. S. Baron

1969-01-01

252

Performance of ?-galactosidase pretreated with lactose to prevent activity loss during the enzyme immobilisation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase was pretreated with lactose to prevent loss of activity during the immobilisation process, and glutaraldehyde was used as a linker to immobilise ?-galactosidase on the surface of a silica gel. The pretreatment of ?-galactosidase strongly improved its activity after immobilisation. Specifically, the activity of pretreated immobilised ?-galactosidase was 2.6 times greater than that of

Yoon Seok Song; Jong Ho Lee; Seong Woo Kang; Seung Wook Kim

2010-01-01

253

Efficient ethanol production from glucose, lactose, and xylose by recombinant Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Lactose and all of the major sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose) present in cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli containing plasmid-borne genes encoding the enzymes for the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis. Environmental tolerances, plasmid stability, expression of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase, substrate range, and ethanol production (from glucose, lactose, and xylose) were compared among eight American Type Culture Collection strains. E. coli ATCC 9637(pLO1297), ATCC 11303(pLO1297), and ATCC 15224(pLO1297) were selected for further development on the basis of environmental hardiness and ethanol production. Volumetric ethanol productivities per hour in batch culture were 1.4 g/liter for glucose (12%), 1.3 g/liter for lactose (12%), and 0.64 g/liter for xylose (8%). Ethanol productivities per hour ranged from 2.1 g/g of cell dry weight with 12% glucose to 1.3 g/g of cell dry weight with 8% xylose. The ethanol yield per gram of xylose was higher for recombinant E. coli than commonly reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glucose. Glucose (12%), lactose (12%), and xylose (8%) were converted to (by volume) 7.2% ethanol, 6.5% ethanol, and 5.2% ethanol, respectively.

Alterthum, F; Ingram, L O

1989-01-01

254

Hydrolysis of lactose in whey permeate for subsequent fermentation to ethanol.  

PubMed

Fermentation of lactose in whey permeate directly into ethanol has had only limited commercial success, as the yields and alcohol tolerances of the organisms capable of directly fermenting lactose are low. This study proposes an alternative strategy: treat the permeate with acid to liberate monomeric sugars that are readily fermented into ethanol. We identified optimum hydrolysis conditions that yield mostly monomeric sugars and limit formation of fermentation inhibitors such as hydroxymethyl furfural by caramelization reactions. Both lactose solutions and commercial whey permeates were hydrolyzed using inorganic acids and carbonic acid. In all cases, more glucose was consumed by secondary reactions than galactose. Galactose was recovered in approximately stoichiometric proportions. Whey permeate has substantial buffering capacity-even at high partial pressures (>5500 kPa[g]), carbon dioxide had little effect on the pH in whey permeate solutions. The elevated temperatures required for hydrolysis with CO2-generated inhibitory compounds through caramelization reactions. For these reasons, carbon dioxide was not a feasible acidulant. With mineral acids reversion reactions dominated, resulting in a stable amount of glucose released. However, the Maillard browning reactions also appeared to be involved. By applying Hammet's acidity function, kinetic data from all experiments were described by a single line. With concentrated inorganic acids, low reaction temperatures allowed lactose hydrolysis with minimal by-product formation and generated a hexose-rich solution amenable to fermentation. PMID:15453474

Coté, A; Brown, W A; Cameron, D; van Walsum, G P

2004-06-01

255

Galactooligosaccharides formation during enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: Towards a prebiotic-enriched milk.  

PubMed

The formation of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in skim milk during treatment with several commercial ?-galactosidases (Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae) was analysed in detail, at 4 and 40°C. The maximum GOS concentration was obtained at a lactose conversion of approximately 40-50% with B. circulans and A. oryzae ?-galactosidases, and at 95% lactose depletion for K. lactis ?-galactosidase. Using an enzyme dosage of 0.1% (v/v), the maximum GOS concentration with K. lactis ?-galactosidase was achieved in 1 and 5h at 40 and 4°C, respectively. With this enzyme, it was possible to obtain a treated milk with 7.0g/L GOS - the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) concentration is between 5 and 15g/L - and with a low content of residual lactose (2.1g/L, compared with 44-46g/L in the initial milk sample). The major GOS synthesised by this enzyme were 6-galactobiose [Gal-?(1?6)-Gal], allolactose [Gal-?(1?6)-Glc] and 6'-O-?-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-?(1?6)-Gal-?(1?4)-Glc]. PMID:24128493

Rodriguez-Colinas, Barbara; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Ballesteros, Antonio O; Plou, Francisco J

2013-08-28

256

Crystallization kinetics of amorphous lactose, whey-permeate and whey powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous lactose, whey-permeate and whey powders have been converted to their crystalline forms by exposure to air at various temperatures and relative humidities. The total time required for sorption, induction and crystallization of these powders was observed by following the time-dependent mass change of the powders during treatment. These experiments have shown that higher temperatures and relative humidities lead to

Alexander Ibach; Matthias Kind

2007-01-01

257

Spray-dried whey protein\\/lactose\\/soybean oil emulsions. 1. Surface composition and particle structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions made of whey protein, lactose and soybean oil were spray-dried and the chemical surface composition of the dried powders estimated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. In particular, the ability of whey protein to encapsulate fat was highlighted. Additionally, the structure of the spray-dried powder particles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The powders were examined after storage in

Pia Fäldt; Björn Bergenståhl

1996-01-01

258

Association of Dairy Products, Lactose, and Calcium with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic findings have been inconsistent regarding the association of dietary fat, dairy products, and lactose with risk of ovarian cancer. The authors conducted a case-control study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, Cali- fornia, to examine several dietary hypotheses regarding the etiology of ovarian cancer in a population with a broad range of dietary intakes. A total of 558 patients with

Marc T. Goodman; Anna H. Wu; Ko-Hui Tung; Katharine McDuffie; Laurence N. Kolonel; Abraham M. Y. Nomura; Keith Terada; Lynne R. Wilkens; Suzanne Murphy; Jean H. Hankin

259

Efficient ethanol production from glucose, lactose, and xylose by recombinant Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Lactose and all of the major sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose) present in cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli containing plasmid-borne genes encoding the enzymes for the ethanol pathway from Zymomonas mobilis. Environmental tolerances, plasmid stability, expression of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase, substrate range, and ethanol production (from glucose, lactose, and xylose) were compared among eight American Type Culture Collection strains. E. coli ATCC 9637(pLOI297), ATCC 11303(pLOI297), and ATCC 15224(pLOI297) were selected for further development on the basis of environmental hardiness and ethanol production. Volumetric ethanol productivities per hour in batch culture were 1.4 g/liter for glucose (12%), 1.3 g/liter for lactose (12%), and 0.64 g/liter for xylose (8%). Ethanol productivities per hour ranged from 2.1 g/g of cell dry weight with 12% glucose to 1.3 g/g of cell dry weight with 8% xylose. The ethanol yield per gram of xylose was higher for recombinant E. coli than commonly reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with glucose. Glucose (12%), lactose (12%), and xylose (8%) were converted to (by volume) 7.2% ethanol, 6.5% ethanol, and 5.2% ethanol, respectively.

Alterthum, F. (Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

1989-08-01

260

Galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis from lactose and whey by ?-galactosidase immobilized in PVA.  

PubMed

The synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) by ?-galactosidase immobilized in both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) lenses and sol-gel carriers was studied and compared with the performance of the free enzyme. PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase retained 95 % of the initial activity after seven repeated uses and retained 51 % of the initial activity after 3 months of storage, while sol-gel-immobilized ?-galactosidase only retained 39 % of the initial activity under storage. Lactose conversion takes place at a higher rate in the PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, while the lowest rate of lactose conversion was noticed with immobilized ?-galactosidase in sol-gel. Continuous production of GOS from either lactose or whey, with PVA-immobilized ?-galactosidase, was performed in a packed-bed reactor. A maximum GOS production of 30 % of total sugars was attained for a 40-% lactose feed solution with a feed rate of 10.8 ml/h, at pH 4.5 and 40 °C, corresponding to a productivity of 117 g/l?h. The maximum GOS productivity of 344 g/l?h was obtained at a flow rate of 28.7 ml/h. 3-OS and 4-OS were the major types of GOS formed. Conversion of whey in continuous mode resulted in GOS production of 15 % of total sugars and formation of 45 % 3-OS, 40 % 4-OS, and 15 % 5-OS. PMID:22941309

Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Fernandes, Pedro; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Fonseca, Luis

2012-09-02

261

Lactational Response to a Feed Supplement Containing Fermentation Products, Cobalt, Dextrose, and Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feed supplement containing dried microbial fermentation products, cobalt, dextrose, and lactose was fed at 15 g per cow daily to 10 lactating Holstein cows in a switchback experiment with three periods of 5 wk each. Cows averaged 80 days postpartum and produced from 28 to 45 kg daily at the beginning of the experiment. Throughout the 15-wk experiment, cows

D. J. Schingoethe; F. C. Ludens; T. Sahlu

1984-01-01

262

Effect of compression on interaction between 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds and lactose monohydrate.  

PubMed

Manidipine dihydrochloride or benidipine hydrochloride will change to hydrate form in part, when differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurement is carried out together with lactose monohydrate. This interaction was accelerated by compressing their mixture. It can be suggested that the interaction may cause by the disruption of crystal structure of lactose monohydrate due to compression to set free of water molecules. A new DSC peak at 170 degrees C, which was not observed in each component, appeared in DSC measurement of a mixture. This will be based on hydrate formed by the interaction, i.e., movement of water molecules. The profile of the plotting of the DSC peak area ratio before and after compression against the compression force changed by the molar ratio of lactose monohydrate in a mixture. In the case of low molar ratio of lactose monohydrate, profiles for manidipine dihydrochloride and benidipine hydrochloride differed from each other. This will be because manidipine dihydrochloride is stickier than benidipine hydrochloride. The profile for manidipine dihydrochloride became more gradual and showed lag compression force region when the amount of addition of the lubricant, magnesium stearate in a mixture increased. The endothermic peak area at 170 degrees C for manidipine dihydrochloride was larger than that for benidipine hydrochloride. It should be suggested that benidipine hydrochloride is easier to be transformed to its hydrate than manidipine dihydrochloride. PMID:15863920

Hosaka, Shouichi; Sato, Mika; Ozawa, Yoshiki; Hamada, Chikayuki; Takahashi, Yoshiteru; Kitamori, Nobuyuki

2005-05-01

263

Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

2012-01-01

264

Characterisation of adhesional properties of lactose carriers using atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe technique was investigated as a method for the characterisation of adhesional properties of pharmaceutical powder surfaces. Lactose carriers used in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were chosen for investigation since adhesion between the carrier surface and drug particles has been proposed to affect the dispersion of drug particles. Individual adhesion forces were determined

Margaret D Louey; Paul Mulvaney; Peter J Stewart

2001-01-01

265

Lactose absorption in patients with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with and without favism.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has recently been suggested that primary lactase deficiency might have been selected for by malaria, as has been previously shown to occur for thalasaemia and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. AIMS: To test this hypothesis, the prevalence of primary lactase deficiency in G6PD deficient subjects and in controls from the area of Sassari (Northern Sardinia) was determined, which in the past was characterised by an intermediate malarial endemicity. SUBJECTS: 70 adult subjects with G6PD deficiency, 34 of whom had a past history of favism, and 50 age matched control subjects. METHODS: The capacity to absorb lactose was assessed by measuring breath hydrogen production after oral administration of lactose (50 g) by a gas chromatographic method. RESULTS: Twenty per cent of G6PD deficient subjects with a positive history of favism and 22% of G6PD deficient subjects without a positive history of favism were lactose absorbers compared with 14% lactose absorbers in the control group. The differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the prevalence of primary lactase deficiency in the area of Sassari is relatively high, but comparable to that seen in the adult population from another area of southern Italy (Naples) where malaria was less endemic.

Meloni, T; Colombo, C; Ogana, A; Mannazzu, M C; Meloni, G F

1996-01-01

266

Managing chronic myeloid leukemia patients intolerant to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy  

PubMed Central

The outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia have improved dramatically with the development and availability of BCR–ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) over the past decade. TKI therapy has a superior safety profile compared with the previous standard of care, interferon-?, and most adverse events (AEs) observed with front-line and second-line TKI treatment are managed with supportive care. However, some patients are intolerant to TKI therapy and experience AEs that cannot be managed through dose reduction or symptomatic treatment. Careful management of AEs helps patients to remain adherent with treatment and increases their chances for successful outcomes. Proactive vigilance for potential AEs and treatment strategies that reduce symptom burden will help to minimize patient intolerance. This review discusses the most common AEs associated with intolerance to TKI therapy and treatment strategies to help manage patients at risk for or experiencing these events.

DeAngelo, D J

2012-01-01

267

(51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance  

SciTech Connect

Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. (Academic Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands))

1990-02-01

268

Effects of regional intravenous guanethidine block in posttraumatic cold intolerance in hand amputees.  

PubMed

In twenty-four patients with intolerance to cold after partial or complete finger amputations, lower skin temperature together with cold and vibration allodynia (allodynia = pain due to a non-noxious stimulus to neural skin) were found in the cold intolerant area compared with the corresponding area in the uninjured hand. When treated with regional intravenous guanethidine block nine patients became free from symptoms for up to twelve weeks, which is longer than would be expected from the duration of the known pharmacological effects of guanethidine. The patients had several features in common with reflex sympathetic dystrophies, and we suggest that neurogenic rather than vascular disturbances are mainly involved in the post-traumatic cold intolerance syndrome. PMID:4031591

Engkvist, O; Wahren, L K; Wallin, G; Torebjrk, E; Nystrom, B

1985-06-01

269

Random Plasma Glucose in Serendipitous Screening for Glucose Intolerance: Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study 2  

PubMed Central

Background With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. Measurements RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose110 (IFG110; fasting glucose, 110–125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose?intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG110). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74–0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68–0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p?intolerance. Such “serendipitous screening” could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

Ziemer, David C.; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K.; Weintraub, William S.; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K.; Varughese, Rincy M.; Tsui, Circe W.; Koch, David D.; Twombly, Jennifer G.; Venkat Narayan, K. M.

2008-01-01

270

Unexpected Different Binding of Mistletoe Lectins from Plant Extracts to Immobilized Lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine  

PubMed Central

Mistletoe Extracts (ME) are of growing interest to pharmacological research because of their apoptosis-inducing/cytostatic and immunomodulatory effects. The standardization of the three different groups of Mistletoe Isolectins (ML-I, II and III) is often rendered more difficult since the primary structures are nearly identical. Their classification is based on their Galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc)-specificity which was measured by various inhibitory assays. The aim of the present study was to improve the characterization of the direct binding activity of the isolectins from ME to immobilized lactose, GalNAc and to the oligosaccharide asialofetuin. After careful ultrafiltration of fresh ME, affinity chromatography was carried out using lactose- agarose, GalNAc—agarose and asialofetuin—affigel 15 columns. MLs were further purified by Sephadex G-100 or by cation exchange chromatography which was adapted to a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. Proteins from both fresh plants and commercial ME were able to bind immobilized lactose to a considerable extent. The majority of this lectin has a B-chain with a Molecular Weight (MW) of 34kD and an A-chain with a MW of 29 kD (ML-I). Only a minor part of the lactose-binding proteins has a lower MW, namely 32kD and 27kD (MLII). However, neither MLs which were eluted from lactose columns, nor the proteins from fresh plant or ME showed a direct binding to the immobilized GalNAc. In spite of this deficiency, GalNAc was able to induce a considerable (25% and 32%) inhibitory effect on their binding to immobilized asialofetuin indicating a discrepancy between the lectin binding and inhibiting effects of GalNAC. Consequently, for an improved standardization of ME more specific sugar molecules are necessary.

Hajto, Tibor; Krisztina, Fodor; Ildiko, Aponyi; Zsolt, Pallai; Peter, Balogh; Peter, Nemeth; Pal, Perjesi

2007-01-01

271

An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose in milk and dairy products.  

PubMed

An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose is reported. The bioelectrode design is based on the use of a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrode on which the enzymes beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal), glucose oxidase (GOD), peroxidase (HRP) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) are coimmobilized by a dialysis membrane. beta-Gal catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose, and the produced glucose is catalytically oxidized to gluconic acid and H(2)O(2), which is reduced in the presence of HRP. This enzyme reaction is mediated by TTF, and the reduction of TTF(+) at 0.00 V (vs Ag/AgCl) gives rise to an amperometric signal proportional to the lactose concentration. The biosensor exhibits a good repeatability of the measurement carried out with the same biosensor, a good reproducibility of the responses obtained with different biosensors and a useful lifetime of 28 days. A linear calibration plot was obtained for lactose over the 1.5 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-4) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 4.6 x 10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (sucrose, lactulose, fructose, arabinose, maltose, galactose, glucose and uric and ascorbic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. Furthermore, the bioelectrode exhibits a suitable performance in flow-injection systems in connection with amperometric detection. The developed biosensor was applied to the determination of lactose in milk and other foodstuffs (chocolate, butter, margarine, yogurt, cheese and mayonnaise), and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit. PMID:20509693

Conzuelo, F; Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Ruiz, M A; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

2010-06-23

272

Maternal intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety, and adherence with food challenge referrals.  

PubMed

Anxiety regarding food challenges may serve an important role in parents' decisions to adhere to their child's food challenge referrals. This study examined the role of intolerance of uncertainty in food challenge referral adherence by assessing state/trait anxiety among mothers whose children were referred for a food challenge. Mothers whose children passed a food challenge reported significant decreases in anxiety regarding allergic reactions, but intolerance of uncertainty did not predict adherence. Trust in the physician was a primary reason mothers attended the food challenge, suggesting that physicians should consider the impact of the physician-patient relationship when treating these families. PMID:23129828

Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Bollinger, Mary E

2012-11-05

273

Development of a rapid method for the measurement of lactose in milk using a blood glucose biosensor.  

PubMed

Current methods for lactose measurement in dairy products are time consuming and tedious and may require expensive equipment and skilled technicians. The aim of this research was to develop a novel and rapid method for the routine measurement of lactose in dairy products. The proposed method is based on the rapid hydrolysis of lactose using ?-galactosidase and subsequently measuring glucose using a blood glucose meter. Blood glucose meters were developed after decades of research and clinical trials and are used extensively worldwide by individuals with diabetes to monitor their blood glucose levels. The method was developed and validated in a series of experiments. In the first experiment, temperature and time required for the near-complete hydrolysis of lactose were determined. Subsequently, the influence of glucose meters and their test strip lots were evaluated. We found that meters were not significantly different. However, the test strip lots were significantly different from each other. In the second experiment, the proposed method was validated using different concentrations of lactose solutions (1.9-6.5%) and compared with a HPLC-based reference method. In the third experiment, the proposed method was used to determine the lactose content of raw milk. The proposed method shows potential for rapid, routine, and low-cost measurement of lactose in milk and other dairy products. PMID:21943731

Amamcharla, J K; Metzger, L E

2011-10-01

274

Sacral neuromodulation outcomes for the treatment of refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity stratified by indication: Lack of anticholinergic efficacy versus intolerability  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Patients may fail oral overactive bladder therapies due to either poor drug efficacy or intolerability. We determined if the success of sacral neuromodulation varies if performed secondary to lack of anticholinergic efficacy versus drug intolerability. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 152 patients undergoing staged sacral neuromodulation from 2004 to 2010 for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity with or without urge incontinence. Outcomes following sacral neuromodulation trials were compared based on the primary indication for anticholinergic failure: lack of drug efficacy versus intolerable side effects. Results: Overall, successful sacral neuromodulation trials were reported in 70% (106/152) of patients. Successful outcomes were noted in 70% (89/128) and 71% (17/24) of patients with poor anti-cholinergic efficacy and drug intolerability, respectively (p = NS). Conclusions: We found no significant difference in outcome success in patients undergoing sacral neuromodulation trials for refractory detrusor overactivity due to lack of anticholinergic efficacy versus intolerability.

Davis, Tanya; Makovey, Iryna; Guralnick, Michael L.; O'Connor, R. Corey

2013-01-01

275

Approaches to determine the enthalpy of crystallisation, and amorphous content, of lactose from isothermal calorimetric data.  

PubMed

Amorphous lactose will crystallise rapidly if its glass transition temperature is reduced below its storage temperature. This is readily achieved by storing samples at ambient temperature and a relative humidity (RH) of greater than 50%. If the sample is monitored in an isothermal microcalorimeter as it crystallises, the heat changes associated with the event can be measured; indeed this is one of the methods used to quantify the amorphous content of powders and formulations. However, variations in the calculation methods used to determine these heat changes have led to discrepancies in the values reported in the literature and frequently make comparison of data from different sources difficult. Data analysis and peak integration software allow the selection and integration of specific areas of complex traces with great reproducibility; this has led to the observation that previously ignored artefacts are in fact of sufficient magnitude to affect calculated enthalpies. In this work a number of integration methodologies have been applied to the analysis of amorphous spray-dried lactose, crystallised under 53 or 75% RH at 25 degrees C. The data allowed the selection of a standard methodology from which reproducible heat changes could be determined. The method was subsequently applied to the analysis of partially amorphous lactose samples (containing 1-100% (w/w) amorphous content) allowing the quantification limit of the technique to be established. It was found that the best approach for obtaining reproducible results was (i) to crystallise under an RH of 53%, because this slowed the crystallisation response allowing better experimental measurement and (ii) to integrate all the events occurring in the ampoule, rather than trying to select only that region corresponding to crystallisation, since it became clear that the processes occurring in the cell overlapped and could not be deconvoluted. The technique was able to detect amorphous contents as low as 1% (w/w), using this integration strategy, although it was observed that the calibration plot constructed showed a negative deviation from linearity. It is suggested that such non-ideal behaviour results from the formation of varying ratios of alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous alpha-lactose and anhydrous beta-lactose. PMID:15454300

Dilworth, Sarah E; Buckton, Graham; Gaisford, Simon; Ramos, Rita

2004-10-13

276

Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose With and Without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that

Marie E. Latulippe; Suzanne Skoog

2011-01-01

277

Abnormal Norepinephrine Clearance and Adrenergic Receptor Sensitivity in Idiopathic Orthostatic Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of $30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses. Methods

Giris Jacob; John R. Shannon; Fernando Costa; Raffaello Furlan; Italo Biaggioni; Rogelio Mosqueda-Garcia; Rose Marie Robertson; David Robertson

278

Student Engagement for College Students with the Hidden Disability of Orthostatic Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study described the factors that contribute to engagement patterns of college students with the hidden health-related disability of orthostatic intolerance. Specifically, it used a qualitative methodology and collective-case study design to explore the categories of campus physical, institutional, academic and social engagement from a…

Karabin, Beverly Lynn

2010-01-01

279

Selective Attention, Memory Bias, and Symptom Perception in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance and Somatoform Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) refers to a polysymptomatic condition, similar to somatoform disorders. Various processes seem to contribute to its yet unknown etiology. Attention and memory for somatic symptom and IEI-trigger words was compared among participants with IEI (n = 54), somatoform disorders (SFD; n = 44) and control participants (n = 54). Groups did not differ in a dot-probe

Michael Witthöft; Alexander L. Gerlach; Josef Bailer

2006-01-01

280

Discrepancies between reported food intolerance and sensitization test findings in irritable bowel syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with clinical signs typical of “intestinal” food allergies or intolerance. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of IBS patients suspected of suffering from adverse reactions to food.METHODS: The study involved 128 consecutive IBS patients divided into four groups according to their main symptom on presentation

Raffaella Dainese; Ermenegildo A Galliani; Franca De Lazzari; Vincenza Di Leo; Remo Naccarato

1999-01-01

281

Chiropractic Management of Cow's Milk Protein Intolerance in Infants With Sleep Dysfunction Syndrome: A Therapeutic Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn addition to the more usual cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory problems, infants with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) may present with a disturbed sleep pattern. Frustrated mothers may turn to their doctor of chiropractic for assistance. This pilot study shows how a therapeutic trial may offer a realistic, noninvasive approach to the chiropractic management of infants with this clinical problem.

Jennifer R. Jamison; Neil J. Davies

2006-01-01

282

Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess maternal-fetal outcomes in patients with increasing carbohydrate intolerance not meeting the current criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes.STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective analytic cohort study in which nondiabetic women aged ?24 years, receiving prenatal care in three Toronto teaching hospitals, were eligible for enrollment. A glucose challenge test and an oral glucose

Mathew Sermer; C. David Naylor; Douglas J. Gare; Anne B. Kenshole; J. W. K. Ritchie; Dan Farine; Howard R. Cohen; Karen McArthur; Stephen Holzapfel; Anne Biringer; Erluo Chen

1995-01-01

283

Intracerebroventricular Administration of Bromocriptine Ameliorates the Insulin-Resistant\\/Glucose-Intolerant State in Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D2 receptor agonist, suppresses lipogenesis and improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Recent evidence suggests that bromocriptine may produce these effects by altering central nervous system (CNS) regulation of metabolism. To determine whether or not the CNS plays a critical role in these bromocriptine-mediated effects on peripheral metabolism, we compared the metabolic responses to bromocriptine when

Shuqin Luo; Yin Liang; Anthony H. Cincotta

1999-01-01

284

Effect of overweight and obesity on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in Saudi Arabia, epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to study the effect of overweight and obesity on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey of 2059 Saudi subjects, aged 30–64 years was carried out. The sample was representative and was in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and residency,

Abdul Rahman Al-Nuaim

1997-01-01

285

Increased Cardiopulmonary Disease Risk in a Community-Based Sample With Chemical Odor Intolerance: Implications for Women's Health and HealthCare Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical intolerance, or reported illness from odors of common environmental chemicals (e.g., car exhaust, pesticides), is emerging as an important environmental and public health-care issue. Epidemiologic methods provide relevant heuristic devices for studies of complex disorders, such as chemical intolerance. The authors examined personal and reported parental cardiopulmonary disease prevalence rates in a community sample of chemically intolerant and control

Carol M. Baldwin; Iris R. Bell

1998-01-01

286

Study of whey fermentation by kefir immobilized on low cost supports using (14)C-labelled lactose.  

PubMed

Brewer's Spent Grains (BSG) and Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR) were used as supports for kefir cells immobilization and the role of lactose uptake rate by kefir in the positive activity of produced biocatalysts during whey fermentation was investigated. Lactose uptake rate by the immobilized cells was recorded using (14)C-labelled lactose and the effect of various conditions (pH, temperature and kind of support) on it and consequently on fermentation time and ethanol production was examined. The results showed that lactose uptake rate was correlated to fermentation rate and increased as temperature was increased up to 30°C at pH 5.5. The same results have been recently noticed by using biocatalysts with Delignified Cellulosic Materials (DCM) and Gluten Pellets (GP), but fermentation time of about 7h by kefir immobilized on DCM and BSG resulted to two fold lower than that on GP and MSR. The highest alcohol concentration was observed by MSR. PMID:23385156

Soupioni, Magdalini; Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2013-01-07

287

Intolerable human suffering and the role of the ancestor: literary criticism as a means of analysis.  

PubMed

Intolerable human suffering and the role of the ancestor: literary criticism as a means of analysis This essay explores the experience of intolerable human suffering in Toni Cade Bambara's novel, The Salt Eaters. The method of analysis is literary criticism, a technique that shares many of the same goals as other types of inquiry. It employs close reading to illuminate the novel's meaning(s), thereby revealing information about the nature of intolerable human suffering. Morrison's characteristics of black art is the literary and cultural framework that guides the analysis of Bambara's novel. The paradigm has broad application for nursing. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the role of the ancestral system as a predictor of the trajectory of suffering. The results extend Morrison's paradigm and her notion of ancestor to include traditions and other non-corporeal factors that are essential for well-being and survival. The protagonist in Bambara's novel, Velma Henry, is the patient and exemplar who does not succumb to intolerable suffering because of its cumulative weight, but because she has lost touch with the traditions of her people, an essential component of her ancestral system. The ancestral system is a rich and complex network of individuals, groups, customs and beliefs that are instructive, protective and benevolent. Ancestors are also timeless and provide wisdom, but when the ancestral system is weak or absent, the trajectory of suffering is not favourable. Nurses must learn to recognize intolerable human suffering, to identify the patient's ancestral system, and to work within that system to keep suffering patients from harm. PMID:11012813

Harrison, E

2000-09-01

288

Integrating anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance: a hierarchical model of affect sensitivity and tolerance.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present investigation was to concurrently examine the latent dimensional and hierarchical structure of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and two key theoretically relevant and related affect (in)tolerance and sensitivity constructs: distress tolerance and discomfort intolerance. These constructs were measured using the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, & McNally, 1986), the Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005), and the Discomfort Intolerance Scale (Schmidt, Richey, & Fitzpatrick, 2006). A total of 229 individuals (124 females; M(age)=21.0 years, SD=7.5) without current Axis I psychopathology participated by completing a battery of self-report questionnaires. A two-stage exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the lower- and higher-order latent structural relations among the variables. The factor solution was subsequently evaluated in relation to negative affectivity, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression. AS and distress tolerance appeared to be related to one another as distinct lower-order facets of a common higher-order affect tolerance and sensitivity factor, whereas discomfort intolerance did not appear to demonstrate similar relations with either AS or distress tolerance at the lower-order or higher-order levels. A unique pattern of association with theoretically-relevant criterion variables was observed between the affect tolerance and sensitivity higher-order factor, the AS and distress tolerance lower-order factors, and the discomfort intolerance factor. Findings are discussed in the context of theoretical and clinical implications and future directions for the study of affect tolerance and sensitivity in relation to emotional vulnerability. PMID:19647530

Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Moos, Rudolf

2008-10-31

289

A LIPID REQUIREMENT FOR INDUCTION OF LACTOSE TRANSPORT IN Escherichia coli*  

PubMed Central

The rate of derepressed synthesis of a membrane protein required for lactose transport (M protein) by Escherichia coli is increased in response to increased gene dosage to the same extent as the rates of synthesis of ?-galactosidase and galactoside acetylase. However, elevated gene dosage does not increase ?-galactoside transport to the same extent that it increases synthesis of M protein and of the soluble proteins of the lac operon. Though the factor or factors other than M protein which limit induction of the transport system at high levels of lac operon expression have not been identified, studies with Escherichia coli mutants blocked in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids indicate that unsaturated fatty acids must be supplied during the course of induction of the lac operon to permit synthesis of a functional lactose transport system, but not of ?-galactosidase or galactoside acetylase.

Fox, C. Fred

1969-01-01

290

Continuous lactose fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum--assessment of acidogenesis kinetics.  

PubMed

An assessment of the growth kinetics of acidogenic cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 is reported in the paper. Tests were carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor under controlled conditions adopting a complex medium supplemented with lactose as carbon source to mimic cheese whey. The effects of acids (acetic and butyric), solvents (acetone, ethanol and butanol) and pH on the growth rate of acidogenic cells were assessed. The conversion process was characterized under steady-state conditions in terms of concentration of lactose, cells, acids, total organic carbon and pH. The growth kinetics was expressed by means of a multiple product inhibition and interacting model including a novel formulation to account for the role of pH. The model has the potential to predict microorganism growth rate under a broad interval of operating conditions, even those typical of solvents production. PMID:20889336

Napoli, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

2010-09-07

291

Lactosucrose bioconversion from lactose and sucrose by whole cells of Paenibacillus polymyxa harboring levansucrase activity.  

PubMed

Lactosucrose, a functional trisaccharide, was produced from lactose as an acceptor and sucrose as a fructosyl donor by whole cells harboring transfructosylation activity of levansucrase. Levansucrase-induced cells of Paenibacillus polymyxa were obtained in the medium containing sucrose, and the transfructosylation activity in the whole cell was optimized for lactosucrose production. The optimal cell concentration, substrates ratio, temperature, and pH were 2.0% (w/v), 22.5% (w/v) lactose and 22.5% (w/v) sucrose, 55 degrees C, and 6.0, respectively. Under these conditions, the whole cells produced approximately 17.0% (w/v) lactosucrose in 6 h of reaction time with a productivity of 2.8% (w/v)/h. PMID:15575726

Choi, Ha-Jong; Kim, Chang Sup; Kim, Pil; Jung, Heun-Chae; Oh, Deok-Kun

292

Effective in vivo hydrolysis of milk lactose by beta-galactosidases in the presence of solid foods13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy with exogenous, food-grade, microbial enzymes at mealtime to effect intragastrointestinal hydrolysis of the lactose from 360 ml of cow's milk consumed with a solid food meal (breakfast cereals) was investigated in adult Guatemalan lactose-malabsorbers using a hydrogen breath-analysis procedure to quantify the completeness of postprandial carbohydrate absorption. Adding 2 g of a commercial preparation

Noel W Solomons; Aura-Marina Guerrero; Benjamin Torun

293

Effect of dairy and non-dairy calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose digester and maldigester obese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The effect of dietary calcium (Ca) on fecal fat excretion in lactose maldigestion is not known.Objective:To investigate the effect of dairy and non-dairy dietary Ca on fecal fat excretion in lactose digesters and maldigesters during moderate energy restriction.Design:A randomized cross-over trial comparing the effect of 500 mg versus 1500 mg dairy and non-dairy Ca on fecal fat excretion in 34

M S Buchowski; M Aslam; C Dossett; C Dorminy; L Choi; S Acra

2010-01-01

294

Nano-coating of ?-galactosidase onto the Surface of Lactose by Using an Ultrasound-assisted Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We nano-coated powdered lactose particles with the enzyme ?-galactosidase using an ultrasound-assisted technique. Atomization\\u000a of the enzyme solution did not change its activity. The amount of surface-attached ?-galactosidase was measured through its\\u000a enzymatic reaction product D-galactose using a standardized method. A near-linear increase was obtained in the thickness of\\u000a the enzyme coat as the treatment proceeded. Interestingly, lactose, which is

Natalja Genina; Heikki Räikkönen; Jyrki Heinämäki; Peep Veski; Jouko Yliruusi

2010-01-01

295

Improved regeneration response of creeping bentgrass and japonica rice by maltose and lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alternative carbohydrate sources to sucrose for plant regeneration from long-term cell cultures of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.cv.Penncross) and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.cv.Nipponbare) was studied. Both maltose and lactose supported a higher degree of regeneration compared to sucrose; in 8-and 19-month-old cultures of creeping bentgrass, the frequencies of regenerating calli remained at 76–93% and the numbers

Yoshito Asano; Yasuyuki Ito; Mari Ohara; Kiyoyuki Sugiura; Azusa Fujiie

1994-01-01

296

Effect of furfural on the growth of lactose-utilizing Candida Blankii 35  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of furfural on the growth of the lactose-utilizing yeast Candida blankii 35 were investigated using the method of continuous cultivation under conditions of carbon limitation and at dilution rates\\u000a of 0.1 and 0.25 h?1. The data obtained at dilution rate 0.1 h?1 and 0.04% furfural showed a decrease in the yield of biomass by 6% and in the

Bonka Tzvetkova; Tsonka Hristozova; Angel Angelov; Donka Paskaleva

2004-01-01

297

Preliminary atomic force microscopy study of two-dimensional crystals of lactose permease from Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli is not only a paradigm for secondary transporters but also for difficulties in two-dimensional (2D) crystallization. In this work we present the progresses achieved in the observation of 2D crystals of wild-type LacY by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Crystals were obtained following reconstitution of LacY in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes. Proteolipid sheets (PLSs) 6.4 nm

Sandra Merino-Montero; Òscar Domènech; M. Teresa Montero; Jordi Hernández-Borrell

2006-01-01

298

Utilization of canola oil and lactose to produce biosurfactant with Candida bombicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prerequisites for a commercial fermentation process of biosurfactants include the use of low- or negative-cost substrates\\u000a and maximum conversion yields. Under competitive market conditions, the price of canola oil is expected to decrease in response\\u000a to its increased supply. Lactose, obtained from cheese whey, is a by-product of the dairy industry. In this work, canola oil\\u000a with glucose or

Qing-Hua Zhou; Naim Kosaric

1995-01-01

299

FTIR study of state and phase transitions of low moisture sucrose and lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-infrared spectra of freeze-dried sucrose and lactose systems were acquired over a range of temperatures (30–200°C) and water contents (0–6.3%). Starting from the glassy state, the experimental conditions were selected to cover the main thermal transitions: the glass–rubber transition, the crystallisation and, for some samples, the subsequent melting. The FTIR spectra were very sensitive to the physical state. While subtle

Marie-Astrid Ottenhof; William MacNaughtan; Imad A. Farhat

2003-01-01

300

Pilot-scale lactose hydrolysis using ?-galactosidase immobilized on cotton fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general lack of information on large scale operation of an immobilised enzyme reactor with realistic production capacity. In the current study, ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis was immobilized on cotton fabric using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking reagent. A pilot-scale module with a 10-l packed-bed reactor has been set up and applied to hydrolyse lactose in whole milk. Both

Xuemei Li; Quinn Z. K. Zhou; Xiao Dong Chen

2007-01-01

301

Effect of Lactose on Phosphate Transport into Rat Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV)were used to evaluate the influence of lactose on phosphate (P¡) transport in the intestine of the rat. BBMV were prepared from duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 3-, 4- and 7-wk-old rats. Na*-dependent active transport of P¡ was investigated in the presence of an Na* gradient; NaMndependent, diffusional transport was investigated by substitution of choline chloride

HANNA DEBIEC; ANDROMAN LORENC

302

Complex filler for direct molding based on lactose and microcrystalline cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose on the flowability and moldability of a tabletting mixture and the quality\\u000a of tablets obtained by direct pressing have been investigated. The optimum composition of a complex filler for direct pressing\\u000a of tablets is proposed. The possibility of replacing the technology of wet granulation by direct pressing for five well-known\\u000a medicinal preparations is

N. N. Zhuikova; O. S. Sablina; E. A. Shtokareva; A. S. Gavrilov

2010-01-01

303

Complex filler based on lactose and microcrystalline cellulose for direct tablet molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose on the flowability and moldability of tabletization mixtures and the\\u000a quality of tablets obtained by direct molding has been studied. The optimum filler composition for direct molding is proposed.\\u000a The possibility of replacing the wet granulation technology by direct molding is established for five well-known medicinal\\u000a preparations.

N. N. Zhuikova; O. S. Sablina; E. A. Shtokareva; A. S. Gavrilov

2009-01-01

304

Effect of furfural on carbon metabolism key enzymes of lactose-assimilating yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic response of lactose-assimilating yeasts to changes of cultivation conditions after addition of furfural into the medium was explored. Two yeast strains were studied—Candida blankii 35 with an oxidative metabolism, and C. pseudotropicalis 11 with a fermentative metabolism. Strains were cultivated in a chemostat under carbon limitation and dilution rates D=0.1 and 0.25h?1.During the transition period after a shock

Ts. Hristozova; A. Angelov; B. Tzvetkova; D. Paskaleva; V. Gotcheva; S. Gargova; K. Pavlova

2006-01-01

305

Conformational entropy changes upon lactose binding to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conformational entropy of proteins can make significant contributions to the free energy of ligand binding. NMR spin relaxation\\u000a enables site-specific investigation of conformational entropy, via order parameters that parameterize local reorientational\\u000a fluctuations of rank-2 tensors. Here we have probed the conformational entropy of lactose binding to the carbohydrate recognition\\u000a domain of galectin-3 (Gal3), a protein that plays an important

Carl Diehl; Samuel Genheden; Kristofer Modig; Ulf Ryde; Mikael Akke

2009-01-01

306

Influence of storage humidity on the in vitro inhalation properties of salbutamol sulfate dry powder with surface covered lactose carrier.  

PubMed

The influence of storage humidity on the in vitro inhalation properties of salbutamol sulfate dry powder with surface covered lactose carrier was investigated. In the present study, drug/carrier powder mixtures were prepared consisting of micronized salbutamol sulfate and lactose carriers with different particle surface conditions prepared by surface covering. Lactose carrier surfaces were covered with vegetable magnesium stearate (Mg-St-V) by a high-speed elliptical-rotor-type powder mixer (Theta-Composer). These powder mixtures were aerosolized by a Jethaler), and the in vitro inhalation properties of salbutamol sulfate were evaluated by a twin impinger. Compared with the powder mixed with uncovered lactose carrier, the in vitro inhalation properties of the powder mixture prepared using the surface covered lactose carrier were little decreased with increased in relative humidity (RH), showing that the in vitro inhalation properties of salbutamol sulfate were improved at high RH. Using this surface covering technique would thus be valuable for storage humidity of dry powder inhalation (DPI) with lactose carrier particles. PMID:15056961

Iida, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Youhei; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi; Luenberger, Hans

2004-04-01

307

Impact of Lactose Starvation on the Physiology of Lactobacillus casei GCRL163 in the Presence or Absence of Tween 80.  

PubMed

The global proteomic response of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei strain GCRL163 under carbohydrate depletion was investigated to understand aspects of its survival following cessation of fermentation. The proteome of L. casei GCRL163 was analyzed quantitatively after growth in modified MRS (with and without Tween 80) with different levels of lactose (0% lactose, starvation; 0.2% lactose, growth limiting; 1% lactose, non-growth-limited control) using gel-free proteomics. Results revealed that carbohydrate starvation lead to suppression of lactose and galactose catabolic pathways as well as pathways for nucleotide and protein synthesis. Enzymes of the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, amino acid synthesis, and pyruvate and citrate metabolism become more abundant as well as other carbohydrate catabolic pathways, suggesting increased optimization of intermediary metabolism and scavenging. Tween 80 did not affect growth yield; however, proteins related to fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the presence of Tween 80. The data suggest that L. casei adeptly switches to a scavenging mode, using both citrate and Tween 80, and efficiently adjusts energetic requirements when carbohydrate starved and thus can sustain survival for weeks to months. Explaining the adaptation of L. casei during lactose starvation will assist efforts to maintain viability of L. casei and extend its utility as a beneficial dietary adjunct and fermentation processing aid. PMID:24066708

Al-Naseri, Ali; Bowman, John P; Wilson, Richard; Nilsson, Rolf E; Britz, Margaret L

2013-10-23

308

Functionalization of lactose as a biological carrier for bovine serum albumin by electrospraying.  

PubMed

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) is an attractive technique to make new types of composite particles for pharmaceutical use. The aim of this work is to prove that EHDA can be successfully used to attach nano/micro-particles of protein to lactose, the commonly used excipient for pulmonary delivery, keeping all the biological properties of the protein after dissolution of the complex. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The atomization of BSA was tested with two different solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol. The process using DMSO resulted in the formation of a thin layer of protein while the tests using ethanol resulted in the formation of spherical particles with mean diameters around 700 nm. Ethanol as solvent was also used to produce a composite formed by BSA adsorbed at the surface of lactose by electrostatic forces. No denaturation or significant conformational changes of the protein were observed, although an increase in the exposition of the lactose to the jet of the solution decreases the reproducibility of the method. Due to the absence of denaturation in the model protein, this new approach can be tested for the production of new formulations for dry powders for drug delivery systems. PMID:21536114

Tavares Cardoso, M A; Talebi, M; Soares, P A M H; Yurteri, C U; van Ommen, J R

2011-04-22

309

Comparison of the THz absorption feature in lactose to related saccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state organic compounds such as ?-lactose-monohydrate and biotin have been shown to have narrow and intense THz absorption features at room temperature. Interest in lineshapes in the THz region is justified not only for practical reasons, since they are of crucial importance to spectroscopy-based identification of materials, but also because of the information the line-widths contain about the solid-state physics of the materials. The line-width of THz absorption features (generally from lattice vibrations) in solids is excepted to be inversely proportional to the scattering time of optical phonons. The line-width of absorption features might thus have implications on the solid-state physics of the material, in particular, the interaction of phonons and the phonon density of states. We use a continuous wave THz photomixing system to obtain a high resolution spectrum of ?-lactose-mohohydrate and analyze two of its lowest-frequency absorption lines. For comparison we measure the transmission spectra of 5 chemically related saccharides: melecitose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, and raffinose. Since ?-lactose-monohydrate has a stronger and narrower absorption feature than any of its related saccharides, this comparison study is an important step in understanding the mechanism of THz radiation absorption by organic solids and what line-widths to expect in THz spectroscopy.

Bjarnason, Jon E.; Brown, Elliott R.; Korter, Timothy M.

2007-05-01

310

Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2012-02-15

311

Regulation of product formation during glucose or lactose limitation in nongrowing cells of Streptococcus lactis.  

PubMed Central

Nongrowing cells of Streptococcus lactis in a pH-stat were dosed with sugar to allow fermentation at the maximum rate or were fed a continuous supply of sugar at rates less than the maximum. Under anaerobic conditions, rapid fermentation of either glucose or lactose was essentially homolactic. However, with strain ML3, limiting the fermentation rate diverted approximately half of the pyruvate to formate, acetate, and ethanol. At limiting glucose fermentation rates, cells contained lower concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase activator (fructose 1,6-diphosphate) and pyruvate formate-lyase inhibitors (triose phosphates). As a result, pyruvate formate-lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase play a greater role in pyruvate metabolism. In contrast to strain ML3, strain ML8 did not give the same diversion of products under anaerobic conditions, and cells retained higher concentrations of the above effector compounds. Lactose metabolism under aerobic conditions resulted in pyruvate excretion by both S. lactis ML3 and ML8. At 7% of the maximum utilization rate, pyruvate accounted for 69 and 35% of the lactose metabolized by ML3 and ML8, respectively. Acetate was also a major product, especially with ML8. The data suggest that NADH oxidase is involved in coenzyme recycling in the presence of oxygen and that pyruvate formate-lyase is inactivated, but the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex still functions.

Fordyce, A M; Crow, V L; Thomas, T D

1984-01-01

312

Influence of ageing, grinding and preheating on the thermal behaviour of alpha-lactose monohydrate.  

PubMed

It is shown that the onset temperature and the magnitude of thermal events observed during DSC analyses of alpha-lactose monohydrate can be strongly affected by various treatments such as ageing, manual grinding and preheating (cycle of preliminary dehydration and rehydration). In the case of grinding and preheating, the change of dehydration pathways was further investigated by using a suitable combination of characterization techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) performed with a synchrotron source (allowing an accurate Rietveld analysis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle size measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR for the determination of beta-lactose contents in samples. It appeared that the dehydration mechanism is affected not only by a smaller particle size distribution, but also by residual anisotropic lattice distortions and by the formation of surface defects or high energy surfaces. The fusion-recrystallization process occurring between anhydrous forms of alpha-lactose at ca. 170 degrees C is not significantly affected by grinding, whereas a preheating treatment induces an unexpected large increase of the enthalpy associated with this transition. Our observations and interpretations confirm the important role of water molecules in the crystal cohesion of the title compound and illustrate the necessity to consider the history of each sample for a satisfactory understanding of the physical properties and the behaviour of this important pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:18617338

Garnier, S; Petit, S; Mallet, F; Petit, M-N; Lemarchand, D; Coste, S; Lefebvre, J; Coquerel, G

2008-05-29

313

Microflora and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed Central

We compared the microbiological and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance who restrict their dietary sugar intake with that of control subjects who do not. The two groups showed no significant differences in chemical composition of plaque: the mean protein, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate contents were similar. Dental plaque from both groups contained similar numbers of total colony-forming units per microgram of plaque protein, and Streptococcus sanguis, an indigenous nonpathogen, was isolated with equal frequency from plaque samples of both groups. However, potentially odontopathic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were isolated three to four times more frequently from plaque samples of control subjects than from plaque samples of subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance. Clearly, diet (sucrose in particular) influences the colonization and multiplication of specific cariogenic organisms in dental plaque.

Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E; Mettraux, G; Graf, H

1980-01-01

314

Food intolerance and food allergy in children: a review of 68 cases.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and laboratory features of 68 children with food intolerance or food allergy are reviewed. Young children were affected the most with 79% first experiencing symptoms before age 1 year. Forty-eight (70%) children presented with gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea, colic, abdominal pain, failure to thrive), 16 (24%) children with skin manifestations (eczema, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, other rashes), and 4 (6%) children with wheeze. Twenty-one children had failed to thrive before diagnosis. A single food (most commonly cows' milk) was concerned in 28 (41%) cases. Forty (59%) children had multiple food intolerance or allergy; eggs, cows' milk, and wheat were the most common. Diagnosis was based on observing the effect of food withdrawal and of subsequent rechallenge. In many children food withdrawal will mean the use of an elimination diet which requires careful supervision by a dietician. Laboratory investigations were often unhelpful in suggesting or confirming the diagnosis.

Minford, A M; MacDonald, A; Littlewood, J M

1982-01-01

315

WATER PLASTICIZATION EFFECTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF LACTOSE IN A CO-LYOPHILIZED AMORPHOUS POLYSACCHARIDE MATRIX AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE GLASS TRANSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization of lactose in a co-lyophilized amorphous polysaccharide matrix was investigated under various hydration conditions to test the possible relation between the ability of the polymer to raise the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the lactose-pullulan blend, relative to pure lactose, and the crystallization kinetics. Both calorimetric (DSC) non-isothermal measurements and x-ray diffraction analysis of samples stored at a constant

C. G. Biliaderis; A. Lazaridou; A. Mavropoulos; N. Barbayiannis

2002-01-01

316

Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to fat free milk and low-lactose fat free milk in healthy human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to test milk samples were studied in healthy normal volunteers. After an overnight fast the subjects were given 500 ml of either regular fat free milk (? 25 g lactose) or 500 ml of a new low-lactose fat free milk (3.75 g lactose and 4.25 g fructose). Blood glucose levels were not

E. Salminenl; S.-L. Karonen; S. Salminen

1987-01-01

317

Characterisation and Deposition Studies of Recrystallised Lactose from Binary Mixtures of Ethanol\\/Butanol for Improved Drug Delivery from Dry Powder Inhalers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactose–drug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose\\u000a during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present\\u000a study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol\\/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be\\u000a employed as a method of altering the FPF of

Waseem Kaialy; Gary P. Martin; Martyn D. Ticehurst; Paul Royall; Mohammad A. Mohammad; John Murphy; Ali Nokhodchi

2011-01-01

318

Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of Incremental Validity for Panic-relevant Symptoms Using 10% Carbon Dioxide-enriched Air Provocation  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined the relation between discomfort intolerance and panic-relevant symptoms among 216 (117 women) young adults who participated in a biological challenge procedure. Partially consistent with hypotheses, after covarying for anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, and emotional acceptance, the intolerance subscale of the Discomfort Intolerance Scale (DIS; Schmidt et al., 2006) was significantly incrementally related to increased post-challenge anxiety focused on bodily sensations, physical panic symptoms, and behavioral avoidance, but not cognitive panic symptoms. Inconsistent with prediction, the avoidance subscale of the DIS was not significantly related to any of the dependent variables. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of discomfort intolerance as a unique explanatory factor in the context of panic psychopathology.

Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

2009-01-01

319

Increased prevalence of mutant null alleles that cause hereditary fructose intolerance in the American population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the aldolase B gene (ALDOB) impairing enzyme activity toward fructose-1-phosphate cleavage cause hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). Diagnosis of\\u000a the disease is possible by identifying known mutant ALDOB alleles in suspected patients; however, the frequencies of mutant alleles can differ by population. Here, 153 American HFI\\u000a patients with 268 independent alleles were analyzed to identify the prevalence of seven

Laura Yerkes; Elizabeth P. Ewen; Tiffany Zee; Dean R. Tolan

2010-01-01

320

The Effects of Ciprofloxacin on Chest Radiographic Regression in Patients with Drug Intolerance or Resistant Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin as a second-line anti-tuberculosis agent in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with drug intolerance or resistance. Methods: There were 20 patients with drug related adverse effects or drug resistance enrolled in the ciprofloxacin treatment group (CG). There were also 32 patients enrolled in the non-ciprofloxacin treatment group (NCG)

Chao-Kai Yang; Horng-Chyuan Lin; Kang-Yun Lee; Shu-Min Lin; Chih-Teng Yu; Han-Pin Kuo

321

Reduced nitric oxide production by l-arginine deficiency in lysinuric protein intolerance exacerbates intravascular coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) results in low serum l-arginine, hyperammonemia, mental retardation, thrombocytopenia, and an increased frequency of bowel movements. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of low serum l-arginine, the essential substrate for reactions catalyzed by nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), on the serum nitric oxide (NO) level and coagulation activity in a patient with LPI. A 37-year-old Japanese

Yoshiro Kayanoki; Sumio Kawata; Eiji Yamasaki; Shin-ichi Kiso; Satoshi Inoue; Shinji Tamura; Naoyuki Taniguchi; Yuji Matsuzawa

1999-01-01

322

Ocular complications in the old and glucose-intolerant genetically obese (fa\\/fa) rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Genetically obese fatty (fa\\/fa) male rats with abnormal oral glucose tolerance associated with initial hyperinsulinaemia as well as control lean (FA\\/FA) rats were investigated for the development of retinal microangiopathies. The animals were kept on a standard or sucrose supplemented diet. When tested at 60 weeks, the glucose intolerance of fa\\/fa rats was accompanied by an insulin response that was

A. Dosso; E. Rungger-Brändle; F. Rohner-Jeanrenaud; E. Ionescu; C. Guillaume-Gentil; B. Jeanrenaud; P. M. Leuenberger

1990-01-01

323

Abnormalities in cognitive-emotional information processing in idiopathic environmental intolerance and somatoform disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) represents a functional somatic syndrome marked by diverse bodily complaints attributed to various substances in the environment. Evidence for abnormalities in affective information processing similar to somatoform disorders (SFD) has recently been found in people with IEI. In order to further investigate these cognitive-emotional abnormalities, we compared people with IEI (n=49), SFD only (n=43), and non-somatoform

Michael Witthöft; Fred Rist; Josef Bailer

2009-01-01

324

Association of CACNG6 polymorphisms with aspirin-intolerance asthmatics in a Korean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) occurs in the lower and upper airways through excessive production of leukotrienes upon administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). One of the three symptoms of AIA is nasal polyposis, a chronic inflammatory disease that is related to the function of calcium ion in recruitment of immune cells during airway inflammation. It has been implicated that bronchodilation

Jin Sol Lee; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Joon Seol Bae; Jason Yongha Kim; Tae Joon Park; Charisse Flerida Pasaje; Byung-Lae Park; Hyun Sub Cheong; Soo-Taek Uh; Jong-Sook Park; An-Soo Jang; Mi-Kyeong Kim; Inseon S Choi; Choon-Sik Park; Hyoung Doo Shin

2010-01-01

325

Mutations in the promoter region of the aldolase B gene that cause hereditary fructose intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase\\u000a B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single

Dean R. Tolan

2010-01-01

326

An investigation of appraisals in individuals vulnerable to excessive worry: the role of intolerance of uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have been conducted to examine whether the construct of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) (Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur,\\u000a & Freeston, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 215–226, 1998b) meets formal criteria as a cognitive vulnerability for excessive and uncontrollable worry. Cognitive models\\u000a of anxiety suggest that vulnerability is manifest in the manner in which individuals process information. As such, cognitive\\u000a bias

Naomi Koerner; Michel J. Dugas

2008-01-01

327

High prevalence of glucose intolerance even among young adults in south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is experiencing an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2218 young adults (aged 26–32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in south India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969–1973 in Vellore and

Palany Raghupathy; Belavendra Antonisamy; Caroline H. D. Fall; Finney S. Geethanjali; Samantha D. Leary; Julia Saperia; G. Priya; Abel Rajaratnam; Joseph Richard

2007-01-01

328

No increased herniation of the cerebellar tonsils in a group of patients with orthostatic intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Orthostatic intolerance, seen predominantly in young women, is characterized by symptoms of lightheadedness, fatigue and\\u000a palpitations in the upright posture. With standing, plasma norepinephrine levels rise dramatically and heart rate often increases\\u000a by more than 30 beats per minute, although blood pressure does not usually fall. A theory recently popularized in the media\\u000a suggests that some cases of orthostatic

Emily M. Garland; James C. Anderson; Bonnie K. Black; Robert M. Kessler; Peter E. Konrad; David Robertson

2002-01-01

329

Dietary Change and Obesity Associated with Glucose Intolerance in Alaska Natives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate frequency of food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives.Design Height, weight, and random blood glucose levels were measured and a frequency-of-food-intake questionnaire was obtained. This questionnaire classified persons as consumers of indigenous foods or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. Those with a random blood glucose measurement ?6.72 mmol\\/L received an oral glucose tolerance

NEIL J MURPHY; CYNTHIA D SCHRAER; MAUREEN C THIELE; EDWARD J BOYKO; LISA R BULKOW; BARBARA J DOTY; ANNE P LANIER

1995-01-01

330

Safety of Iron Sucrose in Hemodialysis Patients Intolerant to Other Parenteral Iron Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This report summarizes the data gathered in four prospective studies of intravenous iron sucrose therapy administered to iron-deficient hemodialysis patients with a history of intolerance to other parenteral iron preparations. Methods: A total of 130 iron dextran- and\\/or sodium ferric gluconate-sensitive patients received intravenous iron sucrose therapy to correct iron deficiency, and\\/or maintain body iron stores. A history of

Chaim Charytan; Michael H. Schwenk; Mourhege M. Al-Saloum; Bruce S. Spinowitz

2004-01-01

331

Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat pattern in South Asians and Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with centrally-distributed obesity. These disturbances are especially prevalent in people of South Asian (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) descent. We examined the relationship of glucose intolerance to body fat pattern in a population survey of 2936 men and 537 women of South Asian and European origin living in London, UK. In

P. M. McKeigue; T. Pierpoint; J. E. Ferrie; M. G. Marmot

1992-01-01

332

Anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty: Requisites of the fundamental fears?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fears related to anxiety sensitivity (AS)—illness\\/injury sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, and fear of pain—may have important theoretical associations with intolerance of uncertainty (IU). In separate investigations, AS and IU have been independently related to the same anxiety-related psychopathology. AS and IU seem to share a basis in fearing unknown, potentially harmful consequences; however, their inter-relationship remains uncertain. IU regarding

R. Nicholas Carleton; Donald Sharpe; Gordon J. G. Asmundson

2007-01-01

333

Computational models of cardiovascular function for analysis of post-flight orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

The work presented in this paper is part of an ongoing effort to use mathematical models to investigate the effects of microgravity on the cardiovascular system. In particular, a thirteen compartment lumped parameter representation of the cardiovascular system is used to simulate some of the current hypotheses concerning the mechanism of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. Simulations are compared to astronaut stand test data pre - and post-flight in an effort to quantitatively evaluate alternative hypotheses. PMID:11795340

Heldt, T; Shim, E B; Kamm, R D; Mark, R G

1999-01-01

334

Freezing tolerance\\/intolerance and cryoprotectant synthesis in terrestrially overwintering anurans in the Great Plains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic bases for freezing tolerance in anurans have been well-studied only in wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, so comprehensive explanations for the mechanisms and evolution of freezing tolerance in anurans are lacking. We measured crystallization temperatures, freezing tolerance\\/intolerance, and tissue glucose and glycogen phosphorylase activities in frozen and unfrozen winter-acclimated Pseudacris triseriata, Bufo cognatus and B. woodhousei. Freezing occurred at higher

D. L. Swanson; B. M. Graves; K. L. Koster

1996-01-01

335

Impaired Skeletal Muscle Substrate Oxidation in Glucose-intolerant Men Improves After Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:An impaired fatty acid handling in skeletal muscle may be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). We investigated muscle fatty acid metabolism in glucose-intolerant men (impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)), a prediabetic state, relative to BMI-matched control men (normal glucose tolerance (NGT)) during fasting and after a meal, because most people in the western

Eva Corpeleijn; Marco Mensink; Marianne E. Kooi; Paul M. H. J. Roekaerts; Wim H. M. Saris; Ellen E. Blaak

2008-01-01

336

A Matched Case Control Study of Orthostatic Intolerance in Children\\/Adolescents With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define cardiovascular and heart rate variability (HRV) changes following head-up tilt (HUT) in children\\/adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in comparison to age- and gender-matched controls. Twenty-six children\\/adolescents with CFS (11-19 y) and controls underwent 70-degree HUT for a maximum of 30 min, but returned to horizontal earlier at the participant's request with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) that

BARBARA C. GALLAND; PAMELA M. JACKSON; RACHEL M. SAYERS; BARRY J. TAYLOR

2008-01-01

337

Liposomal nystatin in patients with invasive aspergillosis refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the activity and safety of liposomal nystatin, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, for invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B. Thirty-three patients were enrolled, received at least one dose of the study drug, and were evaluable for safety. Twenty-six patients had confirmed probable or definite aspergillosis and were fully eligible. Most patients had a hematological

Fritz Offner; Vladimir Krcmery; Marc Boogaerts; Chantal Doyen; Dan Engelhard; Patricia Ribaud; Catherine Cordonnier; Ben de Pauw; Simon Durrant; J.-P. Marie; P. Moreau; H. F. L. Guiot; G. Samonis; R. J. Sylvester; R. Herbrecht

2004-01-01

338

Orthostatic intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with both Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and orthostatic intolerance. Study design: Case series of adolescents referred to a tertiary clinic for the evaluation of CFS. All subjects had 2-dimensional echocardiography, tests of orthostatic tolerance, and examinations by both a geneticist and an ophthalmologist. Results: Twelve patients (11 female), median age 15.5 years, met

Peter C. Rowe; Diana F. Barron; Hugh Calkins; Irene H. Maumenee; Patrick Y. Tong; Michael T. Geraghty

1999-01-01

339

Fructose malabsorption and intolerance: effects of fructose with and without simultaneous glucose ingestion.  

PubMed

Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provided in tests for malabsorption, which is thought to be a key cause of intolerance, often exceeds the normal physiological absorption capacity for this sugar. To help health professionals accurately identify and treat this condition, this article reviews clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance (i.e., malabsorption that manifests with symptoms) relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake. Because simultaneous consumption of glucose attenuates fructose malabsorption, information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided. PMID:21793722

Latulippe, Marie E; Skoog, Suzanne M

2011-08-01

340

Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Relationship to Tobacco Dependence and Abstinence  

PubMed Central

While smokers’ ability to tolerate emotional or physical distress has been associated with length of smoking cessation, there is no measure of ability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort specifically, which may be more heuristic than a measure of tolerance of general emotional stress or physical discomfort. Methods Questionnaires completed by 300 smokers assessed inability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort (IDQ-S), general physical discomfort (IDQ-P), and general emotional discomfort (IDQ-E), so that shared variance among these measures could be assessed. Results The IDQ-S has three reliable components: Withdrawal Intolerance, Lack of Cognitive Coping, and Pain Intolerance. The 14-item IDQ-P and 9-item IDQ-E each consist of one reliable component. Intercorrelations suggest only modest shared variance. Support for construct and discriminant validity was seen. Two scales of the IDQ-S showed excellent convergent validity, correlating with smoking use, dependence, motivation, and length of past smoking cessation, while IDQ-P and IDQ-E correlated with few indices of use or dependence and not with smoking cessation. Conclusions The final 17-item IDQ-S with two scales is reliable and valid, and more heuristic than measures of general physical or emotional discomfort intolerance as a correlate of motivation and past success with smoking cessation.

Sirota, Alan D.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; MacKinnon, Selene V.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Kaplan, Gary B.; Monti, Peter M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.

2013-01-01

341

[McArdle disease revealed by exercise intolerance associated with severe rhabdomyolysis].  

PubMed

McArdle's disease (MAD) is a rare hereditary myopathy secondary to a deficit in myophosphorylase, an essential enzyme for the use of muscular glycogen reserves. Exercise intolerance to a variable degree is the fundamental manifestation. Muscular enzymes are usually normal or slightly elevated, except during episodes of rhabdomyolysis. Generally, the electromyogram has poor sensitivity for the diagnosis of exercise myopathies. The muscular biopsy can be misleadingly normal. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of MAD is not well clarified in the literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old patient, hospitalized in July 2008 for exercise intolerance. On admission, he was asymptomatic and the physical examination was non contributive. Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures were normal. Cycloergometer exercise testing unmasked the disease. EMG and muscular biopsies were normal. During the second hospitalization, this time for rhabdomyolysis, T2 weighted MRI of the thighs showed high intensity signals from the gracilis muscles. The control MRI, made after 2 weeks of rest, was normal. Right gracilis muscle biopsy demonstrated excess glycogen with myophosphorylase deficiency, establishing the diagnosis of MAD. MAD is a rare metabolic myopathy to consider in patients with a history of exercise intolerance. The muscle biopsy can be misleadingly normal and should be, to our opinion, be guided by MRI findings. PMID:19878922

Amezyane, T; El Kharras, A; Abouzahir, A; Fatihi, J; Bassou, D; Mahassin, F; Ghafir, D; Ohayon, V

2009-10-29

342

Artificial gravity: a possible countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None of the astronauts who were centrifuged had orthostatic intolerance when tested with head-up passive tilt after flight. Thus, centrifugation may also have helped maintain post-flight hemodynamic responses to orthostasis by preserving the gain of the otolith-sympathetic reflex. A comparison with two fellow Neurolab orbiter crewmembers not exposed to artificial gravity provided some support for this hypothesis. One of the two had hemodynamic changes in response to post-flight tilt similar to orthostatically intolerant subjects from previous missions. More data is necessary to evaluate this hypothesis, but if it were proven correct, in-flight short-radius centrifugation may help counteract orthostatic intolerance after space flight. PMID:15835033

Moore, Steven T; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

343

Artificial gravity: A possible countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four payload crewmembers were exposed to sustained linear acceleration in a centrifuge during the Neurolab (STS-90) flight. In contrast to previous studies, otolith-ocular reflexes were preserved during and after flight. This raised the possibility that artificial gravity may have acted as a countermeasure to the deconditioning of otolith-ocular reflexes. None of the astronauts who were centrifuged had orthostatic intolerance when tested with head-up passive tilt after flight. Thus, centrifugation may also have helped maintain post-flight hemodynamic responses to orthostasis by preserving the gain of the otolith-sympathetic reflex. A comparison with two fellow Neurolab orbiter crewmembers not exposed to artificial gravity provided some support for this hypothesis. One of the two had hemodynamic changes in response to post-flight tilt similar to orthostatically intolerant subjects from previous missions. More data is necessary to evaluate this hypothesis, but if it were proven correct, in-flight short-radius centrifugation may help counteract orthostatic intolerance after space flight.

Moore, Steven T.; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

2005-05-01

344

Feeding intolerance in preterm infants. How to understand the warning signs.  

PubMed

It is essential to start enteral nutrition early to preterm infants by giving small amounts of milk (preferably human milk) to ensure that metabolic homeostasis is kept stable and to limit postnatal growth retardation. Increasing feeding volumes to reach "full enteral feeding" is limited by individual feeding tolerance. Feeding intolerance is extremely common in premature infants. The most frequent signs of a suspect feeding intolerance are the presence of gastric residuals, abdominal distension and the onset of crises of apnea/bradycardia. Gastric residuals are probably a benign consequence of delayed gut maturation and motility in VLBW infants and there are no established normal standards. When gastric aspirates occur isolated they should not immediately induce the neonatologist to withhold feeding. Gastric residual becomes more important when accompanied by other warning signs, such as bilious vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal wall erythema or ecchymosis, gross or occult blood in the stool, apnoea, bradycardia and temperature instability. Nutrition protocols in preterm infants must take caution when starting and increasing enteral feeding, and pay proper, but not excessive, attention to early signs of food intolerance. PMID:21892877

Lucchini, Renato; Bizzarri, Bianca; Giampietro, Silvia; De Curtis, Mario

2011-09-05

345

Randomized Controlled Trial of a High Dose of Oral Erythromycin for the Treatment of Feeding Intolerance in Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of high-dose erythromycin to treat feeding intolerance in preterm infants predominantly fed milk formula. Design: This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial on 60 premature infants suffering from feeding intolerance. Thirty infants were given oral erythromycin ethylsuccinate at a dose of 50 mg\\/kg\\/day for 10 days or until they reached full enteral feeds. Randomization

Yasmeen Mansi; Nabil Abdelaziz; Zahraa Ezzeldin; Rania Ibrahim

2011-01-01

346

Immersion in Cold-Water Evaluation (ICE) and Self-reported Cold Intolerance are Reliable but Unrelated Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance to the cold is common following peripheral nerve injury and surgery of the upper extremity. Despite its prevalence,\\u000a the exact pathophysiology and natural history of this condition are not well understood. Subjective, self-report questionnaires\\u000a have been created and validated as reliable measures of post-traumatic cold intolerance. The difficulty currently lies in\\u000a assigning an objective measure to this predominantly subjective

Robyn Traynor; Joy C. MacDermid

2008-01-01

347

Effect of Dairy and Nondairy Calcium on Fecal Fat Excretion in Lactose Digester and Maldigester Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose maldigestion is not known. Objective To investigate the effect of dairy and nondairy dietary calcium on fecal fat excretion in lactose digesters and maldigesters during moderate energy restriction. Design A randomized cross-over trial comparing the effect of 500 mg vs. 1500 mg dairy and nondairy calcium on fecal fat excretion in 34 healthy adults during moderate (? 30%) energy restriction diet-induced weight loss for 12 weeks. The participants were classified as lactose digester or maldigester on the basis of breath hydrogen test. Measurements Anthropometric parameters and body composition, resting energy expenditure, energy and nutrient intake, fecal fat, physical activity, blood pressure, blood and urine sampling for pertinent measurements. Results Fecal fat loss expressed as percent of fat intake was significantly higher with 1500 mg (high-Ca) compared to 500 mg (low-Ca) calcium intake per day (mean: 3.0%; the 95% CI: 2.3 to 3.7%; P <0.001) independent of calcium source and lactose digestion status. Conclusions During moderate energy restriction induced weight loss a high-Ca diet causes an increase in fecal fat excretion independent of calcium source. Calcium intake related fecal fat loss is also independent of the ability to digest lactose and it is not diminished over time.

Buchowski, Maciej S.; Aslam, Muhammad; Dossett, Cynthia; Dorminy, Cindy; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari

2009-01-01

348

Evidence for structural symmetry and functional asymmetry in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Previous work on the lactose permease of Escherichia coli has shown that mutations along a face of predicted transmembrane segment 8 (TMS-8) play a critical role in conformational changes associated with lactose transport (Green, A. L., and Brooker, R. J. [2001] Biochemistry 40, 12220-12229). Substitutions at positions 261, 265, 268, 272, and 276, which form a continuous stripe along TMS-8, were markedly defective for lactose transport velocity. In the current study, three single mutants (F261D, N272Y, N272L) and a double mutant (T265Y/M276Y) were chosen as parental strains for the isolation of mutants that restored transport function. A total of 68 independent mutants were isolated and sequenced. Forty-four were first-site revertants in which the original mutation was changed back to the wild-type residue or to a residue with a similar side-chain volume. The other 24 mutations were second-site suppressors in TMS-2 (Q60L, Q60P), loop 2/3 (L70H), TMS-7 (V229G/A), TMS-8 (F261L), and TMS-11 (F354V, C355G). On the basis of their locations, the majority of the second-site suppressors can be interpreted as improving the putative TMS-2/TMS-7/TMS-11 interface to compensate for conformational defects imposed by mutations in TMS-8 that disrupt the putative TMS-1/TMS-5/TMS-8 interface. Overall, this paper suggests that the TMS-2/TMS-7/TMS-11 interface is more important from a functional point of view, even though there is compelling evidence for structural symmetry between the two halves of the permease. PMID:14503872

Green, Aileen L; Hrodey, Heather A; Brooker, Robert J

2003-09-30

349

Influence of dilution rate on the acidogenic phase products distribution during two-phase lactose anaerobiosis.  

PubMed

Acidogenic fermentation of lactose was carried out in a continuous stirred reactor with a mixed anaerobic culture. From the variation of the reactor products with pH and dilution rate two possible carbon flow schemes were proposed for the reaction. In both schemes the carbon flow from pyruvate to butyrate and lactate was assumed to occur in parallel. A change in gas composition and in product concentrations at dilution rates between 0.1 and 0.15 h(-1) for pH levels between 4.5 and 6.0 was ascribed to a shift in microbial population. To clarify the mechanism radiotracer tests were made using [U-(14)C]-butyrate, [2-(14)C]-propionate and [U-(14)C]-lactate to determine the path of carbon flow during acidogenesis of lactose using a mixed culture. At a dilution rate between 0.1 and 0.15 h(-1) and pH from 4.5 to 6.0 a rise in the lactate concentration in the product was shown to be due to a microbial population shift which disabled the conversion of lactate to other intermediary metabolites. It was also found that the flow of carbon from pyruvate to butyrate and lactate occurred by parallel pathways. Also, in the presence of hydrogen reducing methanogens, lactate was almost completely converted to acetate and not propionate. Butyrate was found to be converted to acetate at a slow rate as long as hydrogen reducing methanogens were present. The role played by propionibacteria in this lactose acidogenic eocosystem was minor. From the carbon flow model it can be concluded that lactate is the most suitable marker for optimizing an acidogenic reactor in a two-phase biomethanation process. PMID:18588064

Kisaalita, W S; Lo, K V; Pinder, K L

1989-12-01

350

Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells  

SciTech Connect

Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. (Univ. di Milano (Italy))

1993-07-01

351

Nano-coating of ?-galactosidase onto the Surface of Lactose by Using an Ultrasound-assisted Technique  

PubMed Central

We nano-coated powdered lactose particles with the enzyme ?-galactosidase using an ultrasound-assisted technique. Atomization of the enzyme solution did not change its activity. The amount of surface-attached ?-galactosidase was measured through its enzymatic reaction product D-galactose using a standardized method. A near-linear increase was obtained in the thickness of the enzyme coat as the treatment proceeded. Interestingly, lactose, which is a substrate for ?-galactosidase, did not undergo enzymatic degradation during processing and remained unchanged for at least 1 month. Stability of protein-coated lactose was due to the absence of water within the powder, as it was dry after the treatment procedure. In conclusion, we were able to attach the polypeptide to the core particles and determine precisely the coating efficiency of the surface-treated powder using a simple approach.

Raikkonen, Heikki; Heinamaki, Jyrki; Veski, Peep; Yliruusi, Jouko

2010-01-01

352

Nano-coating of beta-galactosidase onto the surface of lactose by using an ultrasound-assisted technique.  

PubMed

We nano-coated powdered lactose particles with the enzyme beta-galactosidase using an ultrasound-assisted technique. Atomization of the enzyme solution did not change its activity. The amount of surface-attached beta-galactosidase was measured through its enzymatic reaction product D-galactose using a standardized method. A near-linear increase was obtained in the thickness of the enzyme coat as the treatment proceeded. Interestingly, lactose, which is a substrate for beta-galactosidase, did not undergo enzymatic degradation during processing and remained unchanged for at least 1 month. Stability of protein-coated lactose was due to the absence of water within the powder, as it was dry after the treatment procedure. In conclusion, we were able to attach the polypeptide to the core particles and determine precisely the coating efficiency of the surface-treated powder using a simple approach. PMID:20512434

Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Veski, Peep; Yliruusi, Jouko

2010-05-29

353

Study of the compaction mechanisms of lactose-based direct compression excipients using indentation hardness and Heckel plots.  

PubMed

Indentation hardness of tablet surfaces has been used to determine the consolidation mechanisms of the lactose-based excipients Fast Flo Lactose, Ludipress, Cellactose and Tablettose. The Leuenberger equation has been modified to obtain values of compressibility and compactability by using a value of compactability obtained from a tablet at maximum applied force and by substituting deformation resistance by relative deformation resistance. Also, parameters obtained from plots of the Heckel tablet-indie and ejected-tablet methods were calculated in order to establish the comparative consolidation mechanisms in the lactose-based excipients under study. The possibility of using the absolute value of the difference between upper and lower surface hardnesses of the tablets made on an eccentric press is suggested as an alternative method to determine the comparative consolidation mechanisms of different substances. PMID:8027923

Monedero Perales, M D; Muñoz-Ruiz, A; Velasco Antequera, M V; Jiménez-Castellanos Ballesteros, M R

1994-03-01

354

Autoanalyzer for milk quality control based on the lactose, fat, and total protein contents.  

PubMed

A novel autoanalyzer was developed to assess the quality of milk samples according to the percentage of lactose, fat, and total protein they contain. The module comprises two pumps (one of high pressure), an injection valve, a filter, and an evaporative light-scattering detector. A volume of 15 microL of dilute milk was injected in an ethanol-water (50% v/v) stream for precipitation/retention of protein/fat, being the lactose content determined in the filtrate. The fat fraction was calculated using an ethanol stream, and total protein was finally dissolved by means of a 1.7 mol/L acetic acid solution. The simplicity of the proposed automatic module lies in the universal response of the detector, which permits the determination of the three macrocomponents in milk. In addition, the flow injection method allows their sequential analysis in the same injected sample by using selective reagents for each compound. The proposed method was validated with an SRM milk sample as well as by comparison of the results obtained with those provided by the IR method. In addition, the proposed analyzer is cheaper than its counterpart that is based on infrared technique. PMID:12659205

Lucena, Rafael; Gallego, Mercedes; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

2003-03-15

355

FTIR study of state and phase transitions of low moisture sucrose and lactose.  

PubMed

Mid-infrared spectra of freeze-dried sucrose and lactose systems were acquired over a range of temperatures (30-200 degrees C) and water contents (0-6.3%). Starting from the glassy state, the experimental conditions were selected to cover the main thermal transitions: the glass-rubber transition, the crystallisation and, for some samples, the subsequent melting. The FTIR spectra were very sensitive to the physical state. While subtle but systematic spectral differences between the glassy and rubbery states were detectable throughout the spectrum, a very pronounced increase in spectral resolution was observed as crystallisation occurred and was followed by the expected spectral broadening during melting. The temperatures at which these changes occurred were in satisfactory agreement with the transition temperatures measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The increase in molecular mobility as a result of increasing temperature or plasticisation by water led to a significant shift of the O-H stretching band to higher wavenumbers indicating a weakening of hydrogen bonding. This shift reached a maximum as the DSC measured crystallisation temperature range was approached. As expected, the crystallisation led to a highly effective hydrogen bonding network. This was more significant for lactose than for sucrose. No significant step change in hydrogen bonding was observed at Tg. As anticipated, the temperature at which these transitions occurred decreased with increasing water content but overlapped when observed in the context of the shifted temperature (T-Tg). PMID:14553980

Ottenhof, Marie-Astrid; MacNaughtan, William; Farhat, Imad A

2003-10-10

356

Development of conductometric biosensor array for simultaneous determination of maltose, lactose, sucrose and glucose.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop an array of biosensors for simultaneous determination of four carbohydrates in solution. Several enzyme systems selective to lactose, maltose, sucrose and glucose were immobilised on the surface of four conductometric transducers and served as bio-recognition elements of the biosensor array. Direct enzyme analysis carried out by the developed biosensors was highly sensitive to the corresponding substrates. The analysis lasted 2min. The dynamic range of substrate determination extended from 0.001mM to 1.0-3.0mM, and strongly depended on the enzyme system used. An effect of the solution pH, ionic strength and buffer capacity on the biosensors responses was investigated; the conditions of simultaneous operation of all biosensors were optimised. The data on cross-impact of the substrates of all biosensors were obtained; the biosensor selectivity towards possible interfering carbohydrates was tested. The developed biosensor array showed good signal reproducibility and storage stability. The biosensor array is suited for simultaneous, quick, simple, and selective determination of maltose, lactose, sucrose and glucose. PMID:24054580

Soldatkin, O O; Peshkova, V M; Saiapina, O Y; Kucherenko, I S; Dudchenko, O Y; Melnyk, V G; Vasylenko, O D; Semenycheva, L M; Soldatkin, A P; Dzyadevych, S V

2013-05-03

357

An NMR, DSC and X-ray investigation of the disaccharides sucrose, maltose and lactose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline samples of anhydrous sucrose and the monohydrates of ?-lactose and ?-maltose have been studied by using nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that, apart from twofold reorientations of water molecules, these lattices are fairly rigid below room temperature. The NMR results in the case of sucrose and lactose reveal that above room temperature molecular motions reduce the dipolar interactions to almost zero, even below the melting points. In each of these compounds an endothermic DSC peak occurs at approximately 421 K. Proton T1 and T1? values change noticeably in the vicinity of this temperature. Interpretation of the results leads to the conclusion that these DSC peaks are not associated with the loss of water, but are most likely due to the breaking of hydrogen bonds. A similar DSC peak was not observed in the case of ?-maltose, while the NMR results show that molecular motions start to reduce the dipolar interactions much closer to the melting point than in the other two compounds.

Reynhardt, E. C.

358

Lactose synthesis in the rat, and the effects of litter size and malnutrition.  

PubMed Central

1. The rate of lactose synthesis per g of mammary tissue, measured in vivo by a radioisotopic technique, rose 13-fold between parturition and day 16 of lactation in the rat, but was unaffected by wide variation in litter size. 2. The increase reflected a greater tissue content of galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.22), and was augmented by a rise in the total weight of mammary tissue. Superimposed on this were unpredictable changes in the functional efficiency of the enzyme. 3. Lactose synthesis in 14-day-lactating rats, permitted only 76% of the food intake of paired control rats over the previous 3 weeks, showed a pronounced diurnal variation at an overall rate markedly below that in control rats. 4. Such nutritional deficiency did not affect the tissue content of galactosyltransferase, but impaired its functional efficiency in a manner reversed by renewed feeding or by the preparation and incubation of acini in vitro. 5. Plasma insulin concentrations decreased at parturition and with increasing litter size, and remained relatively unchanged during lactation and malnutrition.

Wilde, C J; Kuhn, N J

1979-01-01

359

Comparison of efficacies between live and killed probiotics in children with lactose malabsorption.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of live and killed probiotics to decrease the presence of hydrogen using the breath hydrogen test (BHT). This pretest-posttest control group design single blinded randomized study was performed in 5 government elementary schools in Tuminting subdistrict, Manado, Indonesia from March to May 2008. The study for inclusion as subjects consisted of healthy 10-12 year old children with heights and weights within normal limits using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria whose BHT was 220 parts per million (ppm), indicating lactose malabsorption. One hundred thirty children were screened, 86 met criteria, 43 children were randomized into two groups. Thirty-nine children who were given live probiotic and 40 children who were given killed probiotic completed the study. There was a significant difference when comparing the BHT results before and 120 minutes after giving probiotic for the children taking both the live and the killed probiotic (p < 0.001). When the children taking the live and killed probiotics were compared, there was no difference in the BHT at 120 minutes of probiotic (p = 0.453) by t-test. The administration of live or killed probiotic for 2 weeks can decrease the results of a BHT in children with lactose malabsorption. No adverse reactions attributable to treatment were noted. PMID:20578532

Rampengan, Novie Homenta; Manoppo, Jeanette; Warouw, Sarah Maria

2010-03-01

360

Characterisation of adhesional properties of lactose carriers using atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe technique was investigated as a method for the characterisation of adhesional properties of pharmaceutical powder surfaces. Lactose carriers used in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were chosen for investigation since adhesion between the carrier surface and drug particles has been proposed to affect the dispersion of drug particles. Individual adhesion forces were determined by measuring the detachment forces in air between the colloid probe and the lactose particle surface. The colloid probe consisted of a silica sphere (10 microm diameter) attached to a V-shaped silicon nitride cantilever (spring constant, k=0.42 N/m). Adhesion forces were calculated from individual force-distance curves using Hooke's Law. Individual forces measured at various adhesion sites were observed to be reproducible and stable over 10 min (coefficient of variation, CV below 5%). The adhesion force distribution determined from measurements at multiple sites (n>50) on each sample followed a log-normal relationship (regression coefficient, r(2) ranged between 0.95 and 0.99). This enabled characterisation in terms of the geometric mean adhesion force and a geometric standard deviation (GSD). Significant differences (P<0.001) in adhesion force were observed between samples, ranging from 37.47+/-1.95 to 117.48+/-2.20 nN. This study demonstrates the suitability of AFM as sensitive technique for the characterisation of adhesional properties of pharmaceutical particles. PMID:11377036

Louey, M D; Mulvaney, P; Stewart, P J

2001-06-01

361

[Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene sequence analysis of ALL children severely intolerant to 6-mercaptopurine].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to analyze the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene sequence in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children severely intolerant to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and to investigate the causes resulting in tolerance difference to 6-MP in ALL children so as to provide evidence for safe and rational use of 6-MP. The adverse reactions of drug was evaluated in ALL children treated with BCH-2003-ALL chemotherapeutic protocol during 2004-10-1 to 2007-9-30 according to NCI-CTC V2.0. The TPMT gene sequences of ALL children with 3-4 grade of severe toxicity during the maintenance therapy were analyzed by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. To assure the accuracy of sequencing, the 738 bp fragment of coding region in TPMT gene (NM_000367) was divided into 3 subfragments and bidirectionally sequenced. The results indicated that among 133 ALL children, 61 were severely intolerant to 6-MP. The direct DNA sequencing showed that among 59 patients (excluding 2 cases without RNA samples), the simple myelotoxicity was found in 37 cases, hepato-myelotoxicity was observed in 9 cases, hepatotoxicity along appeared in 12 cases, 1 case showed skin rash. Out of 59 ALL children, the C474T mutation was found in 57 cases, with mutation rate 96.6%, including 21 cases with heterozygous mutation and 36 cases with homozygosis mutation. The TPMT gene sequencing of 10 cases tolerant to 6-MP indicated that C474T mutation was detected in 8 cases which was homozygous mutation. It is concluded that the C474T mutation in 738 bp fragment of coding region in TPMT gene is very frequent, but it is not related with tolerance to 6-MP, suggesting that severe intolerance to 6-MP in ALL children may be not related with the mutation of coding region in TPMT gene. PMID:22931646

Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Wei-Jing; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Bin; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Xiang

2012-08-01

362

Dietary supplementation with vitamin E and C attenuates dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance in rats.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid excess induces marked insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. A recent study has shown that antioxidants prevent dexamethasone (DEX)-induced insulin resistance in cultured adipocytes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of dietary vitamin E and C (Vit E/C) supplementation on DEX-induced glucose intolerance in rats. We hypothesized that feeding rats a diet supplemented with Vit E/C would improve glucose tolerance and restore insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver and prevent alterations in AMPK signaling in these tissues. Male Wistar rats received either a control or Vit E/C-supplemented diet (0.5 g/kg diet each of L-ascorbate and DL-all rac-alpha-tocopherol) for 9 days prior to, and during, 5 days of daily DEX treatment (subcutaneous injections 0.8 mg/g body wt). DEX treatment resulted in increases in the glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The glucose, but not insulin, AUC was lowered with Vit E/C supplementation. Improvements in glucose tolerance occurred independent of a restoration of PKB phosphorylation in tissues of rats stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of insulin but were associated with increases in AMPK signaling in muscle and reductions in AMPK signaling and the expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in liver. There were no differences in mitochondrial enzymes in triceps muscles between groups. This study is the first to report that dietary Vit E/C supplementation can partially prevent DEX-induced glucose intolerance in rats. PMID:22031784

Williams, Deon B; Wan, Zhongxiao; Frier, Bruce C; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J; Wright, David C

2011-10-26

363

Histamine intolerance-like symptoms in healthy volunteers after oral provocation with liquid histamine.  

PubMed

Histamine in food at non-toxic doses has been proposed to be a major cause of food intolerance causing symptoms like diarrhea, hypotension, headache, pruritus and flush ("histamine intolerance"). Histamine-rich foods such as cheese, sausages, sauerkraut, tuna, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages may contain histamine up to 500 mg/kg. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 10 healthy females (age range 22-36 years, mean 29.1 +/- 5.4) who were hospitalized and challenged on two consecutive days with placebo (peppermint tea) or 75 mg of pure histamine (equaling 124 mg histamine dihydrochloride, dissolved in peppermint tea). Objective parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, peak flow) as well as a total clinical symptom score using a standardized protocol were recorded at baseline, 10, 20, 40, 80 minutes, and 24 hours. The subjects received a histamine-free diet also low in allergen 24 hours before hospitalization and over the whole observation period. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes, and histamine and the histamine-degrading enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined. After histamine challenge, 5 of 10 subjects showed no reaction. One individual experienced tachycardia, mild hypotension after 20 minutes, sneezing, itching of the nose, and rhinorrhea after 60 minutes. Four subjects experienced delayed symptoms like diarrhea (4x), flatulence (3x), headache (3x), pruritus (2x) and ocular symptoms (1x) starting 3 to 24 hours after provocation. No subject reacted to placebo. No changes were observed in histamine and DAO levels within the first 80 minutes in non-reactors as well as reactors. There was no difference in challenge with histamine versus challenge with placebo. We conclude that 75 mg of pure liquid oral histamine--a dose found in normal meals--can provoke immediate as well as delayed symptoms in 50% of healthy females without a history of food intolerance. PMID:15603203

Wöhrl, Stefan; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Focke, Margarete; Rappersberger, Klemens; Jarisch, Reinhart

364

The plight of gay visibility: intolerance in San Francisco, 1970-1979.  

PubMed

During the 1970s, San Francisco was often characterized as the "Gay Mecca" of the United States. While it's true that San Francisco was more supportive of the gay community during this period, this depiction often dismisses the problematic side of the increasing visibility of homosexuals. As with the increasing visibility of any minority group who is struggling to find its place in a community, the homosexual population in San Francisco soon found itself the target of anti-gay harassment and violence. This article hopes to elaborate on the published reports of intolerance that were chronicled by the gay community's own press. PMID:23241204

Roberts, Nicole E

2013-01-01

365

Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed rats  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1) could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2) modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3) also modified TNF-?, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C) and stressed (CS) rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F) and stressed (FS) rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-? and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration. Conclusions Footshock-stress promotes glucose intolerance associated to corticosterone serum level and epididymal white adipose tissue IL-6 concentration increase. The fish oil consumption by stressed rats normalized the stress responses. These results suggested that fish oil intake could be useful to minimize or prevent the development of diseases associated to the stress.

2011-01-01

366

Carnitine deficiency in lysinuric protein intolerance: lysine-sparing effect of carnitine.  

PubMed

Plasma carnitine deficiency (41% of normal control) was found in a 9 year-old boy with lysinuric protein intolerance. Following oral carnitine administration, the plasma level of lysine as well as carnitine has significantly increased (p less than 0.05). His well-being seemed to have improved on this substitutive remedy. Hitherto unrevealed these findings on LPI indicate that carnitine has a lysine-sparing effect and suggest that there might be a biosynthetic pathway of carnitine directly from free lysine in human. PMID:3126568

Takada, G; Goto, A; Komatsu, K; Goto, R

1987-12-01

367

Challenging Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social identity is multilayered and complex. Schools, communities, and nations can implement structures and approaches that help youth to understand one another and respect differences. (Contains 5 notes.)

Smith, Alan; Maolain, Ciaran O.

2004-01-01

368

Glucose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–8% of reproductive-age women. Patients with PCOS present with signs and symptoms\\u000a that are very heterogeneous and variable over time. The symptoms of the PCOS usually begin around menarche, but onset after\\u000a puberty may also occur as a result of environmental modifiers such as weight gain. The consequences of the PCOS, not adequately\\u000a treated, extend

Vincenzo Toscano

369

Aspartame intolerance.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a food additive marketed under the brand name Nutrasweet. Aspartame is a white, odorless, crystalline powder and consists of two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. It is 180 times as sweet as sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first allowed its use in dry foods in July 1981 and then approved its use in carbonated beverages in July 1983. It has subsequently been approved for use in a number of materials including multivitamins, fruit juices, stick-type confections, breath mints, and iced tea. The FDA requires the statement "phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine" on labels of food products containing aspartame because individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. Aspartame is judged to be free of long-term cancer risks. Aspartame is not stable under certain conditions including baking and cooking, and prolonged exposure to acid conditions. In such situations it loses its sweetness. Products formed from aspartame include its component amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid), methanol, and diketopiperazine (DKP). Animal studies show DKP to be nontoxic. Methanol occurs in small amounts and does not exceed that formed during consumption of many foods including fresh fruits and vegetables. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors aspartame's safety in part through reports of adverse reactions. After aspartame was approved for use in carbonated beverages, the FDA received an increased number of reports concerning adverse reactions related to aspartame. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reviewed these reports, which included complaints of neurologic, gastrointestinal, andallergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3061324

Garriga, M M; Metcalfe, D D

1988-12-01

370

Heat intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... worse when you exercise? Do you have vision changes? Are you dizzy or fainting? Do you have sweating or flushing? Do you have numbness or weakness? Do you have palpitations or a rapid pulse (heart rate)? Tests that may be performed include: Blood studies ...

371

Immersion in Cold-Water Evaluation (ICE) and Self-reported Cold Intolerance are Reliable but Unrelated Measures  

PubMed Central

Intolerance to the cold is common following peripheral nerve injury and surgery of the upper extremity. Despite its prevalence, the exact pathophysiology and natural history of this condition are not well understood. Subjective, self-report questionnaires have been created and validated as reliable measures of post-traumatic cold intolerance. The difficulty currently lies in assigning an objective measure to this predominantly subjective phenomenon. The present study evaluated the test–retest reliability of a proposed objective measure of cold intolerance, the Immersion in Cold-water Evaluation (ICE), and its correlation with subjective measures in healthy control subjects. Two age groups were also compared to investigate the effect of age on cold intolerance and temperature recovery. On two separate testing days, subjects completed three health-related questionnaires and submersed their dominant hands in cold water. The temperature of their second and fifth digits was monitored during recovery. Both the objective cold-provocation testing and the subjective self-report questionnaires were highly reliable albeit not significantly correlated. No significant temperature recovery trend was noted between the age groups. Post-traumatic cold intolerance is postulated to have both a vascular and neural etiology among other contributing causes. The protocol studied here was centered predominantly on the former etiology, examining peripheral blood flow and associated temperature recovery. This study established ICE as a reliable means to objectively measure cold response, supplementing information provided by previously validated self-report methods.

MacDermid, Joy C.

2008-01-01

372

Fatigue and exercise intolerance in mitochondrial diseases. Literature revision and experience of the Italian Network of mitochondrial diseases.  

PubMed

Fatigue and exercise intolerance are common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases, but difficult to be clinically assessed. New methods to quantify these rather common complaints are strongly needed in the clinical practice. Coenzyme Q10 administration and aerobic exercise may improve exercise intolerance, but more definite studies are still pending. Herein, we have revised "how to measure" and "how to treat" these symptoms of mitochondrial patients. Subsequently, we reviewed the clinical data of the 1164 confirmed mitochondrial patients present in the Italian nation-wide database of mitochondrial disease, with special regard to exercise intolerance. We observed that more of 20% of mitochondrial patients complain of exercise intolerance. This symptom seems to be frequently associated with specific patient groups and/or genotypes. Ragged red fibers and COX-negative fibers are more often present in subjects with exercise intolerance, whereas lactate levels could not predict this symptom. Multicenter efforts are strongly needed for rare disorders such as mitochondrial diseases, and may represent the basis for more rigorous longitudinal studies. PMID:23182644

Mancuso, M; Angelini, C; Bertini, E; Carelli, V; Comi, G P; Minetti, C; Moggio, M; Mongini, T; Servidei, S; Tonin, P; Toscano, A; Uziel, G; Zeviani, M; Siciliano, G

2012-12-01

373

Effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonisation and microbial fermentation in the crop of the young turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were performed to examine the effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on microbial fermentation and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonisation in the crop of the young turkey.2. The following carboxylic acids were detected in the crop ingesta: formic, acetic, butyric, lactic, valeric, caproic, oxalic, phenyl acetic, succinic and fumaric; propionic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were not detectable.3. At

S. A. Cutler; M. A. Rasmussen; M. J. Hensley; K. W. Wilhelms; R. W. Griffith; C. G. Scanes

2005-01-01

374

Comparison of chromogenic urinary tract infection medium with cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient media in a resource limited setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To compare the chromogenic UTI medium (CUM) with cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium (CLED) in terms of isolation of uropathogens, turnaround time and cost.METHODS: A total of 251 urine samples were selected and inoculated on both CLED and CUM, growth was observed after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. Isolates were identified by colony's colour and biochemical tests. Turnaround

Saba Qaiser; Muhammad Zeeshan; Kausar Jabeen; Tanwir Ahsan; Afia Zafar

2011-01-01

375

A Quantitative Determination of the Ammonia, Amino Nitrogen, Lactose, Total Acid, and Volatile Acid Content of Cows’ Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative determination of the ammollia, Bznlno nitrogen, lactose, total acid, and volatile acid content of 27 samples of commercial milk obtained from Baltimore dairies has been made within the past year. As this milk was to be used in a later bacteriological investigation, it was sterilized by autoclaving before being subjected to chemical analysis. AMMONIA Shaffer (1903) published a

Henrietta Lisk

1924-01-01

376

DIETARY PROTEIN AND LACTOSE INCREASE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS VIA MODULATION OF INSULIN SIGNALING PROTEINS AND TRANSLATION INITIATION FACTORS IN NEONATAL PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein synthesis (PS) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in muscle and liver of pigs parenterally infused with insulin and amino acids. This study was arranged as a 3 x 2 factorial with three dietary protein (5, 15, and 25 g•kg BW[-1]•d[-1]) and two lactose levels (low...

377

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Whey Lactose to Glucose for Alcohol Production. Final Report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the initial phase of a whey-to-glucose-to-alcohol process via an immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor in series with a fermentor. The first stage takes pure lactose and its hydrolysis with a soluble enzyme system. This stage involves ...

T. J. Hirasuna

1981-01-01

378

Effect of levels of starch, fiber, and lactose on digestion and growth performance of early-weaned rabbits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of source of carbohydrate on gut histology, digestion efficiency, and growth perfor- mance in early-weaned (25 d) rabbits at the starter period (25 to 39 d) was investigated. Six diets were factorially arranged to study the effect of partial substi- tution of starch (0, 25, or 50%) by lactose at two levels of fiber (30 or 36% NDF).

I. Gutierrez; A. Espinosa; J. Garcõ ´; R. Carabano; J. C. De Blas

379

The efficacy of lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici, lactose and formic acid as dietary supplements for turkeys.  

PubMed

A feeding trial was performed on 1400 Big-6 turkey toms divided into experimental groups subject to the use of dietary supplements. The ain of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the probiotic supplement Bactocell, containing lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici, and lactose, administered to turkeys separately or in combination, as well as a formic acid supplement. The addition of the probiotic under test (lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici) to diets for turkeys contributed to higher daily gains and lower feed consumption per kg weigh gain only during the first 12 weeks of their life. Diet supplementation with lactic acid bacteria and lactose reduced mortality rates. A slaughter value analysis revealed only a slightly (by approximately 1%) higher content of breast muscle and a lower content of thigh muscle in birds fed diets supplemented with lactic acid bacteria. Turkeys receiving lactic acid bacteria or lactose and a combination of both these supplements were characterized by a higher fat content of meat and slightly lower pH values, whereas meat from turkeys fed lactose-supplemented diets was darker in color. The addition of formic acid Acidum formicum to diets for turkeys contributed only to lower mortality rates. PMID:21077430

Wajda, S; Smieci?ska, K; Jankowski, J; Matusevicius, P; Buteikis, G

2010-01-01

380

Lactose in diet influences the degradation of mixed linked ?(1-3;1-4)-D-glucan in the small intestine of pigs.  

PubMed

The objective was to study the cause of variation in digestibility of mixed linked ?(1-3;1-4)-D-glucan (?-glucan) in the small intestine of growing pigs. The ?-glucan is an important cell wall [dietary fiber (DF)] component of the endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oats (Avena sativa). The digestibility of ?-glucan in the small intestine from both cereals is among the highest of all DF components, but in 1 study with oat-based diets it was lower (P < 0.001) than in other studies. In this study, whey protein containing lactose was used as protein supplement. Lactose is slowly digestible in the small intestine. To investigate if lactose might cause the lower digestibility of ?-glucan in the study with whey protein, the lactose in diets was analyzed together with lactose and organic acids (lactic acids and short-chain fatty acids) in digesta samples from the small intestine (the small intestine was by length divided in 3 equal segments: SI(1), SI(2), and SI(3)) and ileal digesta. Diets containing lactose were based on oat goats, oat flour, and oat bran (12 to 38 g lactose/kg DM) whereas the reference diets were based on rolled oats, rolled oats and oat bran, wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour with added oat bran, and wheat flour with added ?-glucan (0 to 1 g lactose/kg DM). Lactose was identified in digesta up to SI(2) but disappeared in digesta from SI(3) and ileum. Digestibility of ?-glucan did not differ among diets up to SI(3) (18% average) whereas digestibility in ileum was 64% in diets without lactose and 27% in diets containing lactose (P < 0.001). The ?-glucan was virtually completely digested in the cecum (96% average) in all diets. The concentration of organic acids did not differ between diets either in SI(3), ileum, or cecum. In conclusion, slowly digestible lactose was the most likely cause of the reduced digestibility of ?-glucan in oat diets containing lactose. PMID:23365304

Bach Knudsen, K E

2012-12-01

381

Blaming for a better future: future orientation and associated intolerance of personal uncertainty lead to harsher reactions toward innocent victims.  

PubMed

People are often encouraged to focus on the future and strive for long-term goals. This noted, the authors argue that this future orientation is associated with intolerance of personal uncertainty, as people usually cannot be certain that their efforts will pay off. To be able to tolerate personal uncertainty, people adhere strongly to the belief in a just world, paradoxically resulting in harsher reactions toward innocent victims. In three experiments, the authors show that a future orientation indeed leads to more negative evaluations of an innocent victim (Study 1), enhances intolerance of personal uncertainty (Study 2), and that experiencing personal uncertainty leads to more negative evaluations of a victim (Study 3). So, while a future orientation enables people to strive for long-term goals, it also leads them to be harsher toward innocent victims. One underlying mechanism causing these reactions is intolerance of personal uncertainty, associated with a future orientation. PMID:22492551

Bal, Michèlle; van den Bos, Kees

2012-04-06

382

Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity leads to an increase in inflammation and insulin resistance. This study determined antioxidant activity of flaxseed and its role in inflammation and insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people. Methods Using a randomized crossover design, nine obese glucose intolerant people consumed 40 g ground flaxseed or 40 g wheat bran daily for 12 weeks with a 4-week washout period. Plasma inflammation biomarkers (CRP, TNF-?, and IL-6), glucose, insulin, and thiobaribituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were measured before and after of each supplementation. Results Flaxseed supplementation decreased TBARS (p = 0.0215) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.0382). Flaxseed or wheat bran supplementation did not change plasma inflammatory biomarkers. A positive relationship was found between TBARS and HOMA-IR (r = 0.62, p = 0.0003). Conclusions The results of the study weakly support that decreased insulin resistance might have been secondary to antioxidant activity of flaxseed. However, the mechanism(s) of decreased insulin resistance by flaxseed should be further determined using flaxseed lignan.

2011-01-01

383

Endothelial Function in Women with and without a History of Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and milder gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) identify women who are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by impaired flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) on brachial artery ultrasound, is an early marker of vascular disease. Thus, we sought to evaluate endothelial function in women with and without recent glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Methods. One-hundred and seventeen women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in pregnancy, enabling stratification into those with normal gestational glucose tolerance (n = 59) and those with GDM or GIGT (n = 58). 6 years postpartum, they underwent a repeat of OGTT and brachial artery FMD studies, enabling assessment of FMD and 4 secondary vascular measures: FMD after 60 seconds (FMD60), baseline arterial diameter, peak shear rate, and reactive hyperemia. Results. There were no differences between the normal gestational glucose tolerance and GDM/GIGT groups in FMD (mean 8.5 versus 9.3%, P = 0.61), FMD60 (4.1 versus 5.1%, P = 0.33), baseline diameter (3.4 versus 3.4?mm, P = 0.66), peak shear rate (262.6 versus 274.8?s?1, P = 0.32), and reactive hyperemia (576.6 versus 496.7%, P = 0.07). After covariate adjustment, there were still no differences between the groups. Conclusion. Despite their long-term cardiovascular risk, women with glucose intolerance in pregnancy do not display endothelial dysfunction 6 years postpartum.

Floras, John; Retnakaran, Ravi

2013-01-01

384

Acetic acid production from lactose by an anaerobic thermophilic coculture immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.  

PubMed

An anaerobic thermophilic coculture consisting of a heterofermentative bacterium (Clostridium thermolacticum) and a homoacetogen (Moorella thermoautotrophica) was developed for acetic acid production from lactose and milk permeate. The fermentation kinetics with free cells in conventional fermentors and immobilized cells in a recycle batch fibrous-bed bioreactor were studied. The optimal conditions for the cocultured fermentation were found to be 58 degrees C and pH 6.4. In the free-cell fermentation, C. thermolacticum converted lactose to acetate, ethanol, lactate, H(2) and CO(2), and the homoacetogen then converted lactate, H(2), and CO(2) to acetate. The overall acetate yield from lactose ranged from 0.46 to 0.65 g/g lactose fermented, depending on the fermentation conditions. In contrast, no ethanol was produced in the immobilized-cell fermentation, and the overall acetate yield from lactose increased to 0.8-0.96 g/g lactose fermented. The fibrous-bed bioreactor also gave a higher final acetate concentration (up to 25. 5 g/L) and reactor productivity (0.18-0.54 g/L/h) as compared to those from the free-cell fermentation (final acetate concentration, 15 g/L; productivity, 0.06-0.08 g/L/h). The superior performance of the fibrous-bed bioreactor was attributed to the high cell density (20 g/L) immobilized in the fibrous-bed and adaptation of C. thermolacticum cells to tolerate a higher acetate concentration. The effects of yeast extract and trypticase as nutrient supplements on the fermentation were also studied. For the free-cell fermentation, nutrient supplementation was necessary for the bacteria to grow in milk permeate. For the immobilized-cell fermentation, plain milk permeate gave a high acetate yield (0.96 g/g), although the reactor productivity was lower than those with nutrient supplementation. Balanced growth and fermentation activities between the two bacteria in the coculture are important to the quantitative conversion of lactose to acetic acid. Lactate and hydrogen produced by C. thermolacticum must be timely converted to acetic acid by the homoacetogen to avoid inhibition by these metabolites. PMID:11101328

Talabardon, M; Schwitzguébel, J P; Péringer, P; Yang, S T

385

[Acute diarrhea: stool water loss in hospitalized infants and its correlation with etiologic agents and lactose content in the diet].  

PubMed

Forty weaned male infants were studied during their first year of life, all hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the Gastroenterology and Metabolism Unit of the Hospital "Umberto I", São Paulo, SP, Brazil. We evaluated and quantified water fecal losses, employing the metabolic bed technique, relating the feeding formula employed with the different causal enteropathogenic agents. 67.5% of the studied infants were under six months and 40% under three months of age. Two groups were randomly assembled to receive, lactose or lactose free feeding formulae. Twenty one patients received a lactose-containing formula (Ninho 10%) and the other 19 children were fed caseine (Portagen) formulae. According to coproculture results and identification of enteropathogenic agents, we divided the studied infants relating feeding formula with the presence or absence of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC): I-13 with positive coproculture for EPEC and diets which included lactose--(L/EPEC+); II--eight with negative coproculture for EPEC and diets which included lactose--(L/EPEC-); III--seven with positive coproculture for EPEC and lactose free diets--(G/EPEC+); IV--12 with negative coproculture for EPEC and lactose free diets. (G/EPEC-). The most frequently isolated agent at coproculture was EPEC, in 20 of the cases (50%), followed by Campylobacter (7.5%). It was also possible to observe that the frequencies of EIEC, Salmonella and Rotavirus were all equal (2.5%). Mixed infections occurred only between EPEC and EIEC, registering a frequency of 5%. The EIEC samples, associated to EPEC 0111 were serotyped as 0 28 ac: H- and 0 152:H-. The use of metabolic bed made the evaluation of fecal volumes possible by a simple and quick technique, thus allowing a closer clinical monitoring, as well as a more reliable evaluation of the patients hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Average acceptance volumes of the formulae--either with or without lactose--were always below the amount recommended by FAO/WHO (100 kcal/day) which shows the impact of acute diarrhea on the decrease of food intake. The average volumes of watery fecal losses found among any of the studied subgroups may be considered quite relevant when compared to standard values. Especially within the L/EPEC+ group fecal losses, both on the first day (83.56 ml/kg/day) and, mainly, on the second (119.44 ml/kg/day) reached exceedingly high levels indicating a disastrous association between the presence of EPEC in the small intestine and lactose offer in the diet. Thus, the results show that there exists a positive and significant association between poor lactose absorption and the presence of EPEC in the feces. WHO's recommendation proposing the use of diluted cow milk, in universal and indiscriminate administration, in the two first days of the disease, may represent a risk factor, not only for malnutrition, but also for the survival rates of children with severe diarrhea, especially those under six months of age and hospitalized with EPEC enteroinfection. PMID:9611297

Palma, D; Oliva, C A; Taddei, J A; Fagundes-Neto, U

386

Measurement of lactose repressor-mediated loop formation and breakdown in single DNA molecules.  

PubMed

In gene regulatory systems in which proteins bind to multiple sites on a DNA molecule, the characterization of chemical mechanisms and single-step reaction rates is difficult because many chemical species may exist simultaneously in a molecular ensemble. This problem was circumvented by detecting DNA looping by the lactose repressor protein of Escherichia coli in single DNA molecules. The looping was detected by monitoring the nanometer-scale Brownian motion of microscopic particles linked to the ends of individual DNA molecules. This allowed the determination of the rates of formation and breakdown of a protein-mediated DNA loop in vitro. The measurements reveal that mechanical strain stored in the loop does not substantially accelerate loop breakdown, and the measurements also show that subunit dissociation of tetrameric repressor is not the predominant loop breakdown pathway. PMID:7824935

Finzi, L; Gelles, J

1995-01-20

387

Synthesis of oligo(lactose)-based thiols and their self-assembly onto gold surfaces.  

PubMed

The ability to produce monomolecular coatings with well-defined structural and functional properties is of key importance in biosensing, drug delivery, and many recently developed applications of nanotechnology. Organic chemistry has proven to be a powerful tool to achieve this in many research areas. Herein, we present the synthesis of three oligo(lactosides) glycosylated in a (1?3) manner, and which are further functionalized with amide-linked short alkanethiol spacers. The oligosaccharides (di-, tetra-, and hexasaccharide) originate from the inexpensive and readily available lactose disaccharide. These thiolated derivatives were immobilized onto gold surfaces, and the thus formed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on planar gold were characterized by wettability, ellipsometry and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. Further, the ability of these SAMs to stabilize gold nanoparticles in saline solutions was also demonstrated, indicating that the oligosaccharides may be used as stabilizing agents in gold nanoparticle-based assays. PMID:23376745

Fyrner, Timmy; Ederth, Thomas; Aili, Daniel; Liedberg, Bo; Konradsson, Peter

2013-01-07

388

Evidence for phospholipid microdomain formation in liquid crystalline liposomes reconstituted with Escherichia coli lactose permease.  

PubMed Central

The well-characterized integral membrane protein lactose (lac) permease from Escherichia coli was reconstituted together with trace amounts (molar fraction X = 0.005 of the total phospholipid) of different pyrene-labeled phospholipid analogs into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac'-glycerol (POPG) liposomes. Effects of lac permease on bilayer lipid dynamics were investigated by measuring the excimer-to-monomer fluorescence intensity ratio IE/IM. Compared to control vesicles, the presence of lac permease (at a protein:phospholipid stoichiometry P/L of 1:4.000) increased the rate of excimer formation by 1-palmitoyl-2[6-(pyren-1-yl)]decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PPDPC) by approximately fivefold. Decreasing P/L from approximately 1:4.000 to 1:7.600 decreased the IE/IM for PPDPC from 0.16 to 0.05, respectively. An increase in bilayer fluidity due to permease is unlikely, thus implying that the augmented IE/IM should arise from partial lateral segregation of PPDPC in the vesicles. This notion is supported by the further 38% increase in IE/IM observed for the pyrene-labeled Cys-148 lac permease reconstituted into POPG vesicles at P/L 1:4000. The importance of the length of the lipid-protein boundary is implicated by the reduction in IE/IM resulting from the aggregation of the lac permease in vesicles by a monoclonal antibody. Interestingly, excimer formation by 1-palmitoyl-2[6-(pyren-1-yl)hexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PPHPC) was enhanced only fourfold in the presence of lac permease. Results obtained with the corresponding pyrenyl phosphatidylglycerols and -methanols were qualitatively similar to those above, thus indicating that lipid headgroup-protein interactions are not involved. Inclusion of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamino-N-(5-fluoresce inthio- carbamoyl) (DPPF, X = 0.005) into reconstituted lactose permease vesicles containing PPDPC caused a nearly 90% decrease in excimer fluorescence, whereas in control vesicles lacking the reconstituted protein only 40% quenching was evident. The addition of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac'-glycerol (DPPG) decreased IE/IM for PPDPC, revealing the driving force for the lateral segregation of this probe to become attenuated. More specifically for protein-free bilayers at XDPPG = 0.10 the rate of lateral diffusion of PPDPC in POPG is diminished, as evidenced by the 24% decrement in IE/IM, under these conditions the increase in IE/IM due to lac permease was strongly reduced, by approximately 84%. The present data are interpreted in terms of the hydrophobic mismatch theory, which predicts that integral membrane proteins will draw lipids of similar hydrophobic thickness into their vicinity. In brief, the approximate lengths of most of the predicted 12 hydrophobic, membrane-spanning alpha-helical segments of lactose permease range between 28.5 and 37.5 A and thus exceed the hydrophobic thickness of POPG of approximately 25.8 A. Therefore, to reduce the free energy of the assembly, longer lipids such as PPDPC and DPPF are accumulated in the immediate vicinity of lactose permease in fluid, liquid crystalline POPG bilayers.

Lehtonen, J Y; Kinnunen, P K

1997-01-01

389

Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.  

PubMed

Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. PMID:22541456

Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

2012-05-01

390

The etiology and prevention of feeding intolerance paralytic ileus - revisiting an old concept  

PubMed Central

Gastro-intestinal (G-I) motility is impaired ("paralytic ileus") after abdominal surgery. Premature feeding attempts delay recovery by inducing "feeding intolerance," especially abdominal distention that compromises respiration. Controlled studies (e.g., from Sloan-Kettering Memorial Hospital) have lead to recommendations that patients not be fed soon after major abdominal surgery to avoid this complication. We postulate that when total fluid inflow of feedings, digestive secretions, and swallowed air outstrip peristaltic outflow from the feeding site, fluid accumulates. This localized stagnation triggers G-I vagal reflexes that further slow the already sluggish gut, leading to generalized abdominal distention. Similarly, vagal cardiovascular reflexes in susceptible subjects could account for the 1:1,000 incidence of unexplained bowel necrosis reported with enteral feeding. We re-evaluated our data, which supports this postulated mechanism for the induction of "feeding intolerance." We had focused our efforts on postoperative enteral nutrition, with the largest reported series of immediate feeding of at least 100 kcal/hour after major surgery. We found that this complication can be avoided consistently by monitoring inflow versus peristaltic outflow, immediately removing any potential excess from the feeding site. We fed intraduodenally immediately following "open" surgery for 31 colectomy and 160 consecutive cholecystectomy patients. The duodenum was aspirated simultaneously just proximal to the feeding site, efficiently removing all swallowed air and excess feedings. To salvage digestive secretions, the degassed aspirate was re-introduced manually (and later automatically) via a separate feeding channel. Hourly assays were performed for nitrogen balance, serum amino acids, and for the presence of removed feedings in the aspirate. The colectomy patients had X-ray motility studies initiated 5 – 17 hours after surgery. Clinically normal motility and absorption resumed within two hours. Fed BaSO4 traversed secure anastomoses, to exit in bowel movements within 24–48 hours of colectomy. All patients were in positive protein balance within 2 – 24 hours, with elevated serum amino acids levels and without adverse G-I effects. Limiting inflow to match peristaltic outflow from the feeding site consistently prevented "feeding intolerance." These patients received immediate full enteral nutrition, with the most rapid resolution of postoperative paralytic ileus, to date.

Moss, Gerald

2009-01-01

391

The etiology and prevention of feeding intolerance paralytic ileus--revisiting an old concept.  

PubMed

Gastro-intestinal (G-I) motility is impaired ("paralytic ileus") after abdominal surgery. Premature feeding attempts delay recovery by inducing "feeding intolerance," especially abdominal distention that compromises respiration. Controlled studies (e.g., from Sloan-Kettering Memorial Hospital) have lead to recommendations that patients not be fed soon after major abdominal surgery to avoid this complication. We postulate that when total fluid inflow of feedings, digestive secretions, and swallowed air outstrip peristaltic outflow from the feeding site, fluid accumulates. This localized stagnation triggers G-I vagal reflexes that further slow the already sluggish gut, leading to generalized abdominal distention. Similarly, vagal cardiovascular reflexes in susceptible subjects could account for the 1:1,000 incidence of unexplained bowel necrosis reported with enteral feeding. We re-evaluated our data, which supports this postulated mechanism for the induction of "feeding intolerance." We had focused our efforts on postoperative enteral nutrition, with the largest reported series of immediate feeding of at least 100 kcal/hour after major surgery. We found that this complication can be avoided consistently by monitoring inflow versus peristaltic outflow, immediately removing any potential excess from the feeding site. We fed intraduodenally immediately following "open" surgery for 31 colectomy and 160 consecutive cholecystectomy patients. The duodenum was aspirated simultaneously just proximal to the feeding site, efficiently removing all swallowed air and excess feedings. To salvage digestive secretions, the degassed aspirate was re-introduced manually (and later automatically) via a separate feeding channel. Hourly assays were performed for nitrogen balance, serum amino acids, and for the presence of removed feedings in the aspirate. The colectomy patients had X-ray motility studies initiated 5-17 hours after surgery. Clinically normal motility and absorption resumed within two hours. Fed BaSO4 traversed secure anastomoses, to exit in bowel movements within 24-48 hours of colectomy. All patients were in positive protein balance within 2-24 hours, with elevated serum amino acids levels and without adverse G-I effects. Limiting inflow to match peristaltic outflow from the feeding site consistently prevented "feeding intolerance." These patients received immediate full enteral nutrition, with the most rapid resolution of postoperative paralytic ileus, to date. PMID:19374754

Moss, Gerald

2009-04-17

392

What Are Osteoporosis and Arthritis and How Are They Different?  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Arthritis ...

393

What People with Asthma Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking

394

Osteoporosis and Arthritis: Two Common but Different Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Arthritis ...

395

Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking

396

Pediatric Focused Safety Review: Lamictal XR (lamotrigine ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... N =1 each; toxic shock and hypernatremia • N =1 each; autism and lactose intolerance ... infections and lactose intolerance on an anti- ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

397

SLC7A7, encoding a putative permease-related protein, is mutated in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI, MIM 222700) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder found mainly in Finland and Italy. On a normal diet, LPI patients present poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhoea, episodes of hyperammoniaemic coma and failure to thrive. Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis and a life-threatening pulmonary involvement (alveolar proteinosis) are also seen. LPI is caused by defective cationic amino acid (CAA) transport at

Maria Teresa Bassi; Maria Pia Sperandeo; Alessandro De Grandi; Anna Buoninconti; Mirko Riboni; Marta Manzoni; Barbara Incerti; Antonio Pepe; Generoso Andria; Andrea Ballabio; Giuseppe Borsani; Gianfranco Sebastio

1999-01-01

398

Fatty liver disease and hypertransaminasemia hiding the association of clinically silent Duchenne muscular dystrophy and hereditary fructose intolerance  

PubMed Central

We report a case with the association of well self-compensated hereditary fructose intolerance and still poorly symptomatic Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. This case illustrates the problems of a correct diagnosis in sub-clinical patients presenting with “cryptogenic” hypertransaminasemia.

2012-01-01

399

The effectiveness of switching antidepressants during remission: a case series of depressed patients who experienced intolerable side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is unknown whether depressed patients who have experienced intolerable side effects to one antidepressant can safely and effectively be switched to a second antidepressant while the depressive disorder is in remission. The present study sought to determine the viability of such a strategy. Methods: All subjects were psychiatric outpatients who were treated in an open-label manner according to

Michael A. Posternak; Mark Zimmerman

2002-01-01

400

Morinda citrifolia fruit juice prevents ischemic neuronal damage through suppression of the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance.  

PubMed

Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni juice) is a well-known health drink and has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We have hitherto found the protective effect of Noni juice on brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. In addition, we also recently reported that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance might be important for good prognosis. Here, we focused on the effect of Noni juice on the development of the post-ischemic glucose intolerance as a cerebral protective mechanism. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 L/4 kg of fruit; 100% ONJ). Male ddY mice were given 10% ONJ in drinking water for 7 days. Then, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ingestion of 10% ONJ suppressed the development of neuronal damage after MCAO. Interestingly, glucose intolerance observed on the 1st day after MCAO completely disappeared after 10% ONJ administration. Furthermore, ONJ treatment significantly increased serum insulin levels much further than the control group on the 1st day, while serum adiponectin levels were not affected at all. These results suggest that ONJ could facilitate insulin secretion after ischemic stress and may attenuate the development of glucose intolerance. These mechanisms may contribute to the neuronal protective effect of ONJ against ischemic stress. PMID:20574728

Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Satake, Toshiko; Tokuyama, Shogo

2010-06-24

401

Increasing Ethical Sensitivity to Racial and Gender Intolerance in Schools: Development of the REST (Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An effort to develop a measure of ethical sensitivity to acts of racial and gender intolerance that occur in school settings is described. The rationale and theory on which the instrument is based is derived from the work of J. Rest (1983) that outlines four psychological components of morality: (1) ethical sensitivity; (2) moral judgment; (3)…

Brabeck, Mary M.; McCubbin, Laurie; Rogers, Lauren A.; Ting, Kathleen; Warner, Chris; Sirin, Selcuk; Weaver, Monica

402

Mycophenolate mofetil for maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis in patients resistant to or intolerant of azathioprine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Azathioprine is standard therapy for maintenance of remission in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. However, approximately 15% of patients are intolerant of therapy and 10% do not respond to it. There is a need for alternative therapies. We describe here the results of mycophenolate mofetil therapy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.Patients: We studied seven patients with type 1 AIH (six

Paul D Richardson; Peter D James; Stephen D Ryder

2000-01-01

403

Beneficial effect of dietary Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major contributor to both glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Ephedra sinica on high-fat diet-fed mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups; the normal group, the obese and diabetic control group treated with a high-fat diet, the positive control group treated with a high-fat diet containing acarbose, and the experimental group treated with a high-fat diet containing Ephedra sinica. The effects of Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance were measured by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma biochemistry, body and epididymal fat weight; the expression of adiponectin, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and leptin was also determined. Ephedra sinica reduced weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation, improved glucose intolerance on the OGTT, decreased triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the controls. Moreover, it reduced weight gain and fasting glucose levels and improved HDL-cholesterol levels more than acarbose. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ephedra sinica upregulated the expression of adiponectin and PPAR-?, and downregulated the expression of TNF-?. From these results, we suggest that Ephedra sinica may reduce obesity and hyperglycemia by increasing PPAR-? and adiponectin and reducing TNF-?, and that it may have the potential to be used clinically as an ingredient in food or drugs effective in obesity-related glucose intolerance treatments.

SONG, MOON-KOO; UM, JAE-YOUNG; JANG, HYEUNG-JIN; LEE, BYUNG-CHEOL

2012-01-01

404

Update on the theory and management of orthostatic intolerance and related syndromes in adolescents and children.  

PubMed

Orthostasis means standing upright. One speaks of orthostatic intolerance (OI) when signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. The experience of transient mild OI is part of daily life. 'Initial orthostatic hypotension' on rapid standing is a normal form of OI. However, other people experience OI that seriously interferes with quality of life. These include episodic acute OI, in the form of postural vasovagal syncope, and chronic OI, in the form of postural tachycardia syndrome. Less common is neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, which is an aspect of autonomic failure. Normal orthostatic physiology and potential mechanisms for OI are discussed, including forms of sympathetic hypofunction, forms of sympathetic hyperfunction and OI that results from regional blood volume redistribution. General and specific treatment options are proposed. PMID:23244360

Stewart, Julian M

2012-11-01

405

Selective attention, memory bias, and symptom perception in idiopathic environmental intolerance and somatoform disorders.  

PubMed

Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) refers to a polysymptomatic condition, similar to somatoform disorders. Various processes seem to contribute to its yet unknown etiology. Attention and memory for somatic symptom and IEI-trigger words was compared among participants with IEI (n = 54), somatoform disorders (SFD; n = 44) and control participants (n = 54). Groups did not differ in a dot-probe task. However, in an emotional Stroop task, attention was biased in IEI and SFD groups toward symptom words but not toward IEI-trigger words. Only the IEI group rated trigger words as more unpleasant and more arousing, and participants remembered them better in a recognition task. These implicit and explicit cognitive abnormalities in IEI and SFD may maintain processes of somatosensory amplification. PMID:16866581

Witthöft, Michael; Gerlach, Alexander L; Bailer, Josef

2006-08-01

406

Abnormalities in cognitive-emotional information processing in idiopathic environmental intolerance and somatoform disorders.  

PubMed

Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) represents a functional somatic syndrome marked by diverse bodily complaints attributed to various substances in the environment. Evidence for abnormalities in affective information processing similar to somatoform disorders (SFD) has recently been found in people with IEI. In order to further investigate these cognitive-emotional abnormalities, we compared people with IEI (n=49), SFD only (n=43), and non-somatoform controls (n=54) with respect to their performance in the extrinsic affective Simon task (EAST). This task allowed us to dissociate indicators of automatic affective associations and emotional intrusion effects of both bodily complaints and IEI-trigger words. Negative association effects toward IEI-trigger words were strongest for IEI participants. Emotional intrusion effects of symptom words were larger both in IEI and SFD than in controls. The results of enhanced negative automatic evaluations of IEI-trigger words and greater attention allocation to symptom words support cognitive models of IEI. PMID:18501333

Witthöft, Michael; Rist, Fred; Bailer, Josef

2008-05-23

407

[The importance of glycosylated plasma protein determination in the diagnosis of carbohydrate intolerance in obesity].  

PubMed

To evaluate the possible interest of the dosage of glycated plasma proteins in the diagnosis of glucidic intolerance, OGTT with determination of glycaemia and insulinaemia, HbA1c and fructosamine was determined in 6 normal and 35 obese subjects. On the basis of OGTT the subjects were subdivided into 20 obese with normal glucose tolerance, 7 with IGT and 8 with DM. In the comparison between all the subjects there was a significantly higher plasma fructosamine concentration in the obese with DM (p less than 0.001). No difference was noticed between the normal subjects and the other two classes of obese patients. This suggests that the evaluation of glycated plasma proteins is scarcely sure in a screening plan. PMID:2255412

Ardizzi, A; Grugni, G; Moreni, G; Sartorio, A; Conti, A; Morabito, F

1990-11-01

408

Znt7-null mice are more susceptible to diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.  

PubMed

The Znt7 gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed zinc transporter that is involved in transporting cytoplasmic zinc into the Golgi apparatus and a ZnT7-containing vesicular compartment. Overexpression of ZnT7 in the pancreatic ?-cell stimulates insulin synthesis and secretion through regulation of insulin gene transcription. In this study, we demonstrate that ZnT7 is expressed in the mouse skeletal muscle. The activity of the insulin signaling pathway was down-regulated in myocytes isolated from the femoral muscle of Znt7 knock-out (KO) mice. High fat diet consumption (45% kcal) induced weight gain in male Znt7 KO mice but not female Znt7 KO mice. Male Znt7 KO mice fed the high fat diet at 5 weeks of age for 10 weeks exhibited hyperglycemia in the non-fasting state. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that male Znt7 KO mice fed the high fat diet had severe glucose intolerance. Insulin tolerance tests showed that male Znt7 KO mice were insulin-resistant. Diet-induced insulin resistance in male Znt7 KO mice was paralleled by a reduction in mRNA expression of Insr, Irs2, and Akt1 in the primary skeletal myotubes isolated from the KO mice. Overexpression of ZnT7 in a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6) increased Irs2 mRNA expression, Irs2 and Akt phosphorylation, and glucose uptake. We conclude that a combination of decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance accounts for the glucose intolerance observed in Znt7 KO mice. PMID:22854958

Huang, Liping; Kirschke, Catherine P; Lay, Yu-An E; Levy, Lauren B; Lamirande, Danielle E; Zhang, Patrick H

2012-08-01

409

Genetic associations with performance on a behavioral measure of distress intolerance.  

PubMed

Both theory and empirical evidence support possible associations between two candidate genetic polymorphisms (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR l/s and COMT Val(158)Met--rs4680 variants) and emotion-regulation difficulties. One particular form of emotion-regulation difficulty, distress intolerance, has been measured using a behavioral assessment in youth; data indicate a relationship with poor psychological functioning. No prior study has investigated genetic influences on emotion-regulation difficulties in youth. As part of a larger longitudinal study on adolescent risk behaviors, 218 10-14 year-old youths from the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area completed a measure of distress intolerance, the Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress (BIRD), and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction and genotyping. Results indicate that those with one or two copies of the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely to perform poorly on the task (i.e., choose to quit) than were those homozygous for the l allele. Participants who were Val allele carriers of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism were also more likely to quit the task compared to Met homozygotes. A summative risk allele score was created to combine the two polymorphisms, and each risk allele was associated with a 1.75 fold increased likelihood of quitting the task. Exploratory analyses revealed that emotional abuse moderated the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR and BIRD performance, as well as the genetic risk allele and the BIRD. This is the first investigation of genetic predictors of a behavioral measure of tolerance to distress. Results suggest that distress tolerance is at least partially regulated by specific genetic variants. Implications are discussed. PMID:22024485

Amstadter, Ananda B; Daughters, Stacey B; Macpherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Wang, Frances; Potenza, Marc N; Gelernter, Joel; Lejuez, C W

2011-10-22

410

Genetic Associations with Performance on a Behavioral Measure of Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Both theory and empirical evidence support possible associations between two candidate genetic polymorphisms (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR l/s and COMT Val158Met – rs4680 variants) and emotion-regulation difficulties. One particular form of emotion-regulation difficulty, distress intolerance, has been measured using a behavioral assessment in youth; data indicate a relationship with poor psychological functioning. No prior study has investigated genetic influences on emotion-regulation difficulties in youth. As part of a larger longitudinal study on adolescent risk behaviors, 218 10-14 year-old youths from the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area completed a measure of distress intolerance, the Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress (BIRD), and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction and genotyping. Results indicate that those with one or two copies of the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely to perform poorly on the task (i.e., choose to quit) than were those homozygous for the l allele. Participants who were Val allele carriers of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism were also more likely to quit the task compared to Met homozygotes. A summative risk allele score was created to combine the two polymorphisms, and each risk allele was associated with a 1.75 fold increased likelihood of quitting the task. Exploratory analyses revealed that emotional abuse moderated the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR and BIRD performance, as well as the genetic risk allele and the BIRD. This is the first investigation of genetic predictors of a behavioral measure of tolerance to distress. Results suggest that distress tolerance is at least partially regulated by specific genetic variants. Implications are discussed.

Amstadter, Ananda B.; Daughters, Stacey B.; MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Wang, Frances; Potenza, Marc N.; Gelernter, Joel; Lejuez, C. W.

2013-01-01

411

Znt7-null Mice Are More Susceptible to Diet-induced Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance*  

PubMed Central

The Znt7 gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed zinc transporter that is involved in transporting cytoplasmic zinc into the Golgi apparatus and a ZnT7-containing vesicular compartment. Overexpression of ZnT7 in the pancreatic ?-cell stimulates insulin synthesis and secretion through regulation of insulin gene transcription. In this study, we demonstrate that ZnT7 is expressed in the mouse skeletal muscle. The activity of the insulin signaling pathway was down-regulated in myocytes isolated from the femoral muscle of Znt7 knock-out (KO) mice. High fat diet consumption (45% kcal) induced weight gain in male Znt7 KO mice but not female Znt7 KO mice. Male Znt7 KO mice fed the high fat diet at 5 weeks of age for 10 weeks exhibited hyperglycemia in the non-fasting state. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that male Znt7 KO mice fed the high fat diet had severe glucose intolerance. Insulin tolerance tests showed that male Znt7 KO mice were insulin-resistant. Diet-induced insulin resistance in male Znt7 KO mice was paralleled by a reduction in mRNA expression of Insr, Irs2, and Akt1 in the primary skeletal myotubes isolated from the KO mice. Overexpression of ZnT7 in a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6) increased Irs2 mRNA expression, Irs2 and Akt phosphorylation, and glucose uptake. We conclude that a combination of decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance accounts for the glucose intolerance observed in Znt7 KO mice.

Huang, Liping; Kirschke, Catherine P.; Lay, Yu-An E.; Levy, Lauren B.; Lamirande, Danielle E.; Zhang, Patrick H.

2012-01-01

412

Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people.

Unwin, N; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, R; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

1997-01-01

413

Studies on ?-Galactoside Transport in a Proteus mirabilis Merodiploid Carrying an Escherichia coli Lactose Operon  

PubMed Central

Merodiploid derivatives bearing an F-linked lac operon (i+, o+, z+, y+, a+) from Escherichia coli were prepared from a Proteus mirabilis strain unable to utilize lactose and from a lac deletion strain of E. coli. A suitable growth medium was found in which the episomal element in the P. mirabilis derivative was sufficiently stable to allow induction of the episome-borne lac operon and thus to permit a comparison of the activities and properties of E. coli lac products in the intracellular environments of P. mirabilis and E. coli. In both derivatives the episomal lac operon was shown to be repressed in the absence of inducer. Kinetics of induction with gratuitous inducer (isopropyl-1-thio-?-d-galactoside) were similar for both ?-galactosidase activity (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.4.1.23) and ?-galactoside transport activity in both derivatives, although the ratio of galactoside transport to ?-galactosidase activity was approximately 1.6-fold higher in the E. coli derivative. Comparison of ?-galactosidase and M-protein (lac y gene product)-specific activities indicated coordinate expression of the induced lac operon in both derivatives. Quantitatively, the maximal ?-galactosidase specific activity was two or three times higher for the E. coli derivative. A significant sodium azide inhibition (65% inhibition by 10 mM sodium azide) of lactose permease-mediated transport of o-nitrophenyl-?-galactoside from an outside region of high concentration to an inside region of very low concentration (“downhill transport”) was observed for the P. mirabilis derivative. Identical conditions for the E. coli derivative yielded only about 15% inhibition. Active transport of thiomethyl-?-galactoside was similar for both derivatives, the major difference being that active transport was more sensitive to azide poisoning in the P. mirabilis derivative. Preliminary examination of the thiomethyl-?-galactoside derivatives following active transport did not demonstrate the accumulation of a phosphorylated product in either strain but did reveal an unidentified derivative present in the P. mirabilis merodiploid extract which was not detectable in the E. coli merodiploid. Images

Stubbs, John; Horwitz, Alan; Moses, V.

1973-01-01

414

Analysis of the urinary glucose-[15N, 15N]-ureide content in the study of the lactose-[15N, 15N]-ureide metabolism in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Lactose-[15N, 15N]-ureide is used to study the fate of the colonic urea-nitrogen metabolism. During the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, lactose ureide is hydrolysed to glucose ureide, which is absorbed to a limited extent from the small intestine and is excreted urinarily. In the present study, a procedure has been developed to quantify the urinary excretion of glucose-[15N, 15N]-ureide. In

V De Preter; E Houben; K Windey; A Luypaerts; K Verbeke

2011-01-01

415

Lactose Genes Fused to Exogenous Promoters in One Step Using a Mu-lac Bacteriophage: In vivo Probe for Transcriptional Control Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactose structural genes, without the lactose promoter, have been incorporated into the bacteriophage Mu genome to form a Mu-lac specialized transducing phage. This phage also carries a gene encoding resistance to ampicillin (Ap) [Mu(Ap, lac)]. After infection and upon establishment of lysogeny, the Mu(Ap, lac) genome can integrate into apparently random sites in the Escherichia coli chromosome. When integration

Malcolm J. Casadaban; Stanley N. Cohen

1979-01-01

416

The State of Aggregation of Casein Affects the Storage Stability of Amorphous Sucrose, Lactose, and Their Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the state of aggregation of casein (micellar or non-micellar, as milk protein concentrate [MPC] or sodium caseinate\\u000a [Na-caseinate], respectively) on water sorption, plasticization, and crystallization of freeze-dried matrices containing sucrose,\\u000a lactose or their blends were studied. The Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) equation satisfactorily fitted to the water sorption\\u000a data. In most cases, sugar crystallization—studied by water sorption behavior,

César Vega; Yrjö H. Roos

2007-01-01

417

Genetic Analysis of Milk Urea Nitrogen and Lactose and Their Relationships with Other Production Traits in Canadian Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to estimate herita- bilities of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and lactose in the first 3 parities and their genetic relationships with milk,fat,protein,andSCS inCanadianHolsteins.Data were a random sample of complete herds (60,645 test day records of 5,022 cows from 91 herds) extracted from the edited data set, which included 892,039 test-day records of 144,622 Holstein

F. Miglior; A. Sewalem; J. Jamrozik; J. Bohmanova; D. M. Lefebvre; R. K. Moore

2007-01-01

418

Influence of Calcium and Phosphorus, Lactose, and Salt-to-Moisture Ratio on Cheddar Cheese Quality: Manufacture and Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Cheddar cheeses with 2 levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-mois- ture ratio (S\\/M) were manufactured. All cheeses were made using a stirred-curd procedure and were repli- cated 3 times. Treatments with a high level of Ca and P were produced by setting the milk and drawing the whey at a higher pH (6.6 and

P. Upreti; L. E. Metzger

2006-01-01

419

Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 1. Albuterol sulfate and disodium cromoglycate.  

PubMed

The major objective of this study was: discriminatory assessment of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs. Drug/lactose interactive physical mixtures (2%w/w) were prepared. Their properties were measured: solid-state characterization of phase behavior and molecular interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction; particle morphology and size by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction; aerosol generation by SETs and characterization by twin-stage liquid impinger and Andersen cascade impactor operated at 60 L/min. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress (tau(s)), using a novel powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). Drug particles were <5 microm in volume diameter with narrow unimodal distribution (Span <1). The lowest shear SET (tau(s) = 0.624 N/m(2)) gave a higher emitted dose (ED approximately 84-93%) and lower FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 7-25%). In contrast, the highest shear SET (tau(s) = 13.143 N/m(2)) gave a lower ED (ED approximately 75-89%) and higher FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 15-46%). The performance of disodium cromoglycate was superior to albuterol sulfate at given tau(s), as was milled with respect to sieved lactose monohydrate. Excellent correlation was observed (R(2) approximately 0.9804-0.9998) when pulmonary drug particle release from the surface of lactose carriers was interpreted by PADE linear regression for dry powder formulation evaluation and performance prediction. PMID:20198688

Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

2010-08-01

420

Production of low-lactose milk by ectopic expression of intestinal lactase in the mouse mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated, in mice, an in vivo method for producing low–lactose milk, based on the creation of transgenic animals carrying a hybrid gene in which the intestinal lactase–phlorizin hydrolase cDNA was placed under the control of the mammary–specific ?–lactalbumin promoter. Transgenic females expressed lactase protein and activity during lactation at the apical side of mammary alveolar cells. Active lactase

Bernard Jost; Isabelle Duluc

1999-01-01

421

Kinetics and design relation for enzymatic conversion of lactose into galacto-oligosaccharides using commercial grade ?-galactosidase.  

PubMed

The enzymatic synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose was studied using commercial grade ?-galactosidase (Biolacta FN5) from Bacillus circulans. The reaction was carried out under free enzyme condition varying initial lactose concentration (ILC: 55-525 g/L), enzyme concentration (0.05-1.575 g/L), temperature (30-50°C) and pH (5.0-6.0). Reaction mixture compositions were analyzed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A maximum GOS formation of 39% (dry basis) was achieved at an ILC of 525 g/L converting 60% of the lactose fed. Tri-saccharides were the major types of GOS formed, accounting approximately 24%; whereas, tetra-saccharides and penta-saccharides account approximately 12% and 3%, respectively. Design correlation was developed in order to observe the quantitative effect of operating parameters on GOS yield. Further, based on Michaelis-Menten model, four-step reaction pathways were considered for simplistic understanding of the kinetics. Apart from predicting the reaction mixture composition, the approach also provided kinetic parameters though simulation using COPASI 4.7®. Excellent agreements were observed between simulated and experimental results. PMID:22695078

Palai, Tapas; Mitra, Shubhrajyoti; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

2012-06-12

422

Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans isolated from goat's and ewe's milk: influence of glucose and lactose.  

PubMed

Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium ET C9 and Enterococcus durans Ov 421 was studied as sole energy source and in presence of glucose or lactose. Both strains utilized citrate as the sole energy source. Enterococcus faecium ET C9 showed diauxic growth in the presence of a limiting concentration of glucose. Neither strain used citrate until glucose was fully metabolized. The strains showed co-metabolism of citrate and lactose. Lactate, acetate, formate, and flavour compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) were detected in both strains. The highest production of flavour compounds was detected during growth of E. durans Ov 421 in media supplemented with citrate-glucose and citrate-lactose. Citrate lyase was inducible in both strains. Acetate kinase activities presented the highest values in LAPTc medium, with E. faecium ET C9 displaying a specific activity 2.4-fold higher than E. durans. The highest levels of alpha-acetolactate synthase specific activity were detected in E. durans grown in LAPTc+g, in accordance with the maximum production of flavour compounds detected in this medium. Diacetyl and acetoinreductases displayed lower specific activity values in the presence of citrate. Enterococcus faecium and E. durans displayed citrate lyase, acetate kinase, alpha-acetolactate synthase, and diacetyl and acetoin reductase activities. These enzymes are necessary for conversion of citrate to flavour compounds that are important in fermented dairy products. PMID:17668019

Cabral, María E; Abeijón Mukdsi, María C; Medina de Figueroa, Roxana B; González, Silvia N

2007-05-01

423

Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KNOUC808 as a source of cold-adapted lactose hydrolyzing enzyme  

PubMed Central

Psychrophilic bacteria, which grow on lactose as a carbon source, were isolated from Antarctic polar sea water. Among the psychrophilic bacteria isolated, strain KNOUC808 was able to grow on lactose at below 5°C, and showed 0.867 unit of o-nitrophenyl ?-D-galactopyranoside(ONPG) hydrolyzing activity at 4°C. The isolate was gram-negative, rod, aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase positive. Optimum growth was done at 20°C, pH 6.8–7.2. The composition of major fatty acids in cell of KNOUC801 was C12:0 (5.48%), C12:0 3OH (9.21%), C16:0 (41.83%), C17:0 ?8 (7.24%) and C18:1 ?7 (7.04%). All these results together suggest that it is affiliated with Pseudoalteromonas genus. The 16S rDNA sequence corroborate the phenotypic tests and the novel strain was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. KNOUC808. The optimum temperature and pH for lactose hydrolyzing enzyme was 20°C and 7.8, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 4°C for 7 days, but its activity decreased to about 50% of initial activity at 37°C in 7 days.

Nam, EunSook; Ahn, JongKun

2011-01-01

424

Sugar Binding in Lactose Permease: Anomeric State of a Disaccharide Influences Binding Structure  

PubMed Central

Lactose permease in E. coli (LacY) transports both anomeric states of disaccharides but has greater affinity for ?-sugars. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to probe the protein-sugar interactions, binding structures, and global protein motions in response to sugar binding by investigating LacY (the experimental mutant and wild-type) embedded in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer. A total of twelve MD simulations of 20-25ns each with ?(?)-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,1)-?-D-galactopyranoside (??-(Galp)2) and ??-(Galp)2 result in binding conformational families that depend on the anomeric state of the sugar. Both sugars strongly interact with Glu-126 and ??-(Galp)2 has a greater affinity to this residue. Binding conformations are also seen that involve protein residues not observed in the crystal structure, as well as those involved in the proton translocation (Phe-118, Asn-119, Asn-240, His-322, Glu-325, and Tyr-350). Common to nearly all protein-sugar structures, water acts as a hydrogen bond bridge between the disaccharide and protein. The average binding energy is more attractive for ??-(Galp)2 than ??-(Galp)2, i.e., ?10.7±0.7 and ?3.1±1.0 kcal/mol, respectively. Of the twelve helices in LacY, Helix-IV is the least stable with ??-(Galp)2 binding resulting in larger distortion than ??-(Galp)2.

Klauda, Jeffery B.; Brooks, Bernard R.

2007-01-01

425

Milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose activates intestinal CD11c+ cells through TLR4.  

PubMed

Breast milk oligosaccharides shape the intestinal environment by affecting mucosal immunity and bacterial colonization. To clarify the role of milk oligosaccharide sialyl(?2,3)lactose (3SL) in intestinal physiology and disease, we investigated colitis development in Il10(-/-) mice exposed to normal or 3SL-deficient milk during lactation. Onset and progression of intestinal inflammation were delayed in Il10(-/-) mice deficient for the ?2,3 sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) responsible for 3SL biosynthesis. The proinflammatory role of 3SL was confirmed by showing that oral supplementation of newborn Il10(-/-);St3gal4(-/-) mice with 3SL increased colitis severity. Conversely, fostering of newborn Il10(-/-) mice to lactating St3gal4(-/-) mothers reduced colitis severity. 3SL directly stimulated mesenteric lymph node CD11c(+) dendritic cells and induced production of cytokines required for expansion of TH1 and TH17 T cells. The stimulatory effect of 3SL was attenuated in Tlr4-deficient CD11c(+) cells, demonstrating that 3SL induces inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus, 3SL directly modulates mucosal immunity, which increases susceptibility to colitis. PMID:24101501

Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Hennet, Thierry; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Borsig, Lubor

2013-10-07

426

[Cloning, expression of phospholipase A1 from Serratia liquefaciens and auto-induction fermentation by lactose].  

PubMed

To produce recombinant phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1)) by Escherichian coli, the pla gene encoding PLA(1) was amplified from Serratia liquefaciens by PCR and cloned into two vectors pET20-b(+) and pET28-a(+). The two recombinant plasmids were then transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) individually to express PLA(1). E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET28a-pla yielded extracellular PLA(1) with an activity of 40.8 U/mL in batch cultivations of shaken flasks by auto-induction, which was accounted for 91% of total enzyme activity. On the basis of primal auto-induction medium, the optimized fermentation medium of PLA(1) contained tryptone 10 g/L, yeast extract 5 g/L, glucose 0.8 g/L, lactose 5 g/L, Na2HPO4 25 mmol/L, KH2PO4 25 mmol/L and 1 mmol/L MgSO4 (final concentration). Glycine (7.5 g/L) was added 6 h after inoculated. After incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h, extracellular enzyme activity reached 128.7 U/mL. PMID:24063244

Yan, Jinlei; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Zhenghua; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

2013-06-01

427

Quantum-like interference effect in gene expression: glucose-lactose destructive interference.  

PubMed

In this note we illustrate on a few examples of cells and proteins behavior that microscopic biological systems can exhibit a complex probabilistic behavior which cannot be described by classical probabilistic dynamics. These examples support authors conjecture that behavior of microscopic biological systems can be described by quantum-like models, i.e., models inspired by quantum-mechanics. At the same time we do not couple quantum-like behavior with quantum physical processes in bio-systems. We present arguments that such a behavior can be induced by information complexity of even smallest bio-systems, their adaptivity to context changes. Although our examples of the quantum-like behavior are rather simple (lactose-glucose interference in E. coli growth, interference effect for differentiation of tooth stem cell induced by the presence of mesenchymal cell, interference in behavior of PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) prions), these examples may stimulate the interest in systems biology to quantum-like models of adaptive dynamics and lead to more complex examples of nonclassical probabilistic behavior in molecular biology. PMID:22654994

Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Yamato, Ichiro

2011-03-20

428

Influence of reduced water activity on lactose metabolism by lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris At different pH values  

PubMed

The influence of reduced water activity (aw) on lactose metabolism by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 2254 and 2272 was studied at different pH values. In control incubations (aw, 0.99) with nongrowing cells in pH-controlled phosphate buffer, the levels of carbon recovered as L-(+)-lactate were 92% at pH 6.1 and 5.3 and 78% at pH 4.5. However, the levels of recovery decreased to approximately 50% at all pH values tested when the aw was 0.88 (with glycerol as the humectant). When growing cells in broth controlled at pH 6.3 were used, a reduction in the aw from 0.99 to 0.96 resulted in a decrease in the level of lactose carbon recovered as L-(+)-lactate from 100 to 71%. Low levels of L-(+)-lactate carbon recovery (<50%) were also observed with cells resuspended in pH-uncontrolled reconstituted skim milk at aw values of 0.99 and 0. 87 and in young cheese curds. The missing lactose carbon could not be accounted for by acetate, ethanol, formate, acetaldehyde, or pyruvate. Attempts were made to determine where the missing lactose carbon was diverted to under the stress conditions used. Some of the missing lactose carbon was recovered as galactose (0.1 to 2.5 mM) in culture supernatants. Decreasing either the aw or the pH resulted in increased galactose accumulation by nongrowing cells; adjusting both environmental factors together potentiated the effect. The sensitivities of the two lactococcal strains tested were different; strain 2272 was more prone to accumulate galactose under stress conditions. A methyl pentose(s) and additional galactose were found in acid-hydrolyzed supernatants from cultures containing both growing and nongrowing cells, indicating that a saccharide(s) rich in these components was formed by lactococci under low-aw and low-pH stress conditions. PMID:9603822

Liu; Asmundson; Gopal; Holland; Crow

1998-06-01

429

Determinants of Impaired Fasting Glucose Versus Glucose Intolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine insulin resistance and response in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance, and combined glucose intolerance (CGI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 143 patients with PCOS (diagnosed on the basis of National Institutes of Health criteria) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), and 68 patients also had frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, cardiovascular risk factors, and androgens were measured. RESULTS Compared with patients with NGT, those with both IFG and CGI were significantly insulin resistant (homeostasis model assessment 3.3 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.9 and 6.4 ± 0.5, P < 0.0001) and hyperinsulinemic (insulin area under the curve for 120 min 973 ± 69 vs. 1,470 ± 197 and 1,461 ± 172 pmol/l, P < 0.0001). Insulin response was delayed in patients with CGI but not in those with IFG (2-h OGTT, insulin 1,001 ± 40 vs. 583 ± 45 pmol/l, P < 0.0001). Compared with the NGT group, the CGI group had a lower disposition index (1,615 ± 236 vs. 987 ± 296, P < 0.0234) and adiponectin level (11.1 ± 1.1 vs. 6.2 ± 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.0096). Compared with the insulin-resistant tertile of the NGT group, those with IFG had a reduced insulinogenic index (421 ± 130 vs. 268 ± 68, P < 0.05). Compared with the insulin-sensitive tertile of the NGT group, the resistant tertile had higher triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lower HDL cholesterol and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG). In the entire population, insulin resistance correlated directly with triglyceride, hs-CRP, and the free androgen index and inversely with SHBG. CONCLUSIONS Patients with PCOS develop IFG and CGI despite having significant hyperinsulinemia. Patients with IFG and CGI exhibit similar insulin resistance but very different insulin response patterns. Increases in cardiac risk factors and free androgen level precede overt glucose intolerance.

Karakas, Sidika E.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Duleba, Antoni J.

2010-01-01

430

Structure of the SLC7A7 Gene and Mutational Analysis of Patients Affected by Lysinuric Protein Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene. We report the ge- nomic structure of the gene and the results of the mu- tational analysis in Italian, Tunisian, and Japanese pa- tients. The SLC7A7 gene consists of 10 exons; sequences of all of the exon-intron

Maria Pia Sperandeo; Maria Teresa Bassi; Mirko Riboni; Giancarlo Parenti; Anna Buoninconti; Marta Manzoni; Barbara Incerti; Maria Rosaria Larocca; Maja Di Rocco; Pietro Strisciuglio; Irma Dianzani; Rossella Parini; Miranda Candito; Fumio Endo; Andrea Ballabio; Generoso Andria; Gianfranco Sebastio; Giuseppe Borsani

2000-01-01

431

Doctor, my son is so tired… about a case of hereditary fructose intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the case of a 17-year-old male who was diagnosed at birth with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). The patient complained of morning-time asthenia and post-prandial drowsiness despite a correct sleep pattern. The physical examination and biological check-up only showed severe vitamin C deficiency (<10mol\\/l; normal range: 26–84). The patient's tiredness was attributed to this vitamin C deficiency, which is

M. J. Guery; C. Douillard; S. Marcelli-Tourvieille; D. Dobbelaere; J. L. Wemeau; M. C. Vantyghem

2007-01-01

432

The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne\\u000a chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether\\u000a other risk factors influence this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association\\u000a between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether

Sine Skovbjerg; Alice Rasmussen; Robert Zachariae; Lone Schmidt; Rikke Lund; Jesper Elberling

433

Contrasting responses of salinity-stressed salt-tolerant and intolerant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to ozone pollution.  

PubMed

Contrasting winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant DK961 and intolerant JN17, which sown in no salinity (-S) and salinity (+S) boxes were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CF) and elevated O(3) (+O(3)) in open top chambers (OTCs) for 30 days. In -S DK961 and JN17 plants, +O(3) DK961 and JN17 plants had significantly lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (A(sat), 26% and 24%), stomatal conductance (g(s), 20% and 32%) and chlorophyll contents (10% and 21%), while O(3) considerably increased foliar electrolyte leakage (13% and 39%), malondialdehyde content (9% and 23%), POD activity and ABA content. However, responses of these parameters to O(3) were significant in DK961 but not in JN17 in +S treatment. Correlation coefficient of DK961 reached significance level of 0.01, but it was not significant in JN17 under interaction of O(3) and salinity. O(3)-induced reductions were larger in shoot than in root in both cultivars. Results indicate that the salt-tolerant cultivar sustained less damage from salinity than did the intolerant cultivar but was severely injured by O(3) under +S condition. Therefore, selecting for greater salt tolerance may not lead to the expected gains in yield in areas of moderate (100 mM) salinity when O(3) is present in high concentrations. In contrast, salinity-induced stomatal closure effectively reduced sensitivity to O(3) in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Hence we suggest salt-tolerant winter wheat cultivars might be well adapted to areas of high (>100 mM) salinity and O(3) stress, while intolerant cultivars might be adaptable to areas of mild/moderate salinity but high O(3) pollution. PMID:22285371

Zheng, Y H; Li, X; Li, Y G; Miao, B H; Xu, H; Simmons, M; Yang, X H

2012-01-11

434

Cryoprotective and osmotic responses to cold acclimation and freezing in freeze-tolerant and freeze-intolerant earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of physiological responses to winter acclimation and tissue freezing in a freeze-tolerant\\u000a Siberian earthworm, Eisenia nordenskioeldi, and two freeze-intolerant, temperate earthworm species, Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa. By analysing the physiological responses to freezing of both types we sought to identify some key factors promoting freeze\\u000a tolerance in earthworms. Winter acclimation was followed

M. Holmstrup; J. P. Costanzo; R. E. Lee Jr

1999-01-01

435

Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Turkish Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Glucose Intolerants, and Normal Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum selenium levels in patients with gestational diabetes\\u000a mellitus (GDM) and glucose intolerants and compare them with those of glucose-tolerant pregnant women. This cross-sectional\\u000a study was prospectively performed in a total of 178 pregnant women undergoing a 50-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24\\u000a and 28 weeks of gestation who

Metin Kilinc; Melih A. Guven; Muhsin Ezer; Ibrahim Egemen Ertas; Ayhan Coskun

2008-01-01

436

Autotitration positive airway pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are intolerant of fixed continuous positive airway pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compliance with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is one of the most difficult management problems for patients\\u000a with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We postulated that autotitration positive airway pressure (APAP) may be effective in some\\u000a patients who have an intolerance of fixed CPAP. The study was done to estimate how often patients who cannot tolerate fixed\\u000a CPAP can tolerate

James M. Parish; Bernie W. Miller; Joseph G. Hentz

2008-01-01

437

Cognitive content-specificity in future expectancies: Role of hopelessness and intolerance of uncertainty in depression and GAD symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined cognitive content-specificity in future-event predictions associated with symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). College undergraduates (N=284) completed measures of depression, GAD, and rated their certainty that a given set of positive and negative outcomes were or were not likely to happen in their future. Participants also completed measures of hopelessness and intolerance of uncertainty

Regina Miranda; Monique Fontes; Brett Marroquín

2008-01-01

438

Differential Development of Glucose Intolerance and Pancreatic Islet Adaptation in Multiple Diet Induced Obesity Models  

PubMed Central

Background: The C57BL/6 mouse fed a high fat diet is a common and valuable model in experimental studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model most accurately resembling human T2D, they need to be compared head-to-head. Methods: Four different diets, the 60% high fat diet (HFD) and the 58% high fat-high sucrose Surwit diet (HFHS) and their respective controls, were compared in C57BL/6J mice using glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and the euglycemic clamp. Results: Mice fed a HFD gained more weight than HFHS fed mice despite having similar energy intake. Both high fat diet models were glucose intolerant after eight weeks. Mice fed the HFD had elevated basal insulin, which was not seen in the HFHS group. The acute insulin response (AIR) was unchanged in the HFD group, but slightly increased in the HFHS diet group. The HFHS diet group had a threefold greater total insulin secretion during the IVGTT compared to its control, while no differences were seen in the HFD group. Insulin sensitivity was decreased fourfold in the HFD group, but not in the HFHS diet group. Conclusion: The HFD and HFHS diet models show differential effects on the development of insulin resistance and beta cell adaptation. These discrepancies are important to acknowledge in order to select the appropriate diet for specific studies.

Omar, Bilal; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahren, Bo

2012-01-01

439

Hyperexcretion of homocitrulline in a Malaysian patient with lysinuric protein intolerance.  

PubMed

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI; MIM 222700) is an inherited aminoaciduria with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Biochemically, affected patients present with increased excretion of the cationic amino acids: lysine, arginine, and ornithine. We report the first case of LPI diagnosed in Malaysia presented with excessive excretion of homocitrulline. The patient was a 4-year-old male who presented with delayed milestones, recurrent diarrhea, and severe failure to thrive. He developed hyperammonemic coma following a forced protein-rich diet. Plasma amino acid analysis showed increased glutamine, alanine, and citrulline but decreased lysine, arginine and ornithine. Urine amino acids showed a marked excretion of lysine and ornithine together with a large peak of unknown metabolite which was subsequently identified as homocitrulline by tandem mass spectrometry. Molecular analysis confirmed a previously unreported homozygous mutation at exon 1 (235 G?>?A, p.Gly79Arg) in the SLC7A7 gene. This report demonstrates a novel mutation in the SLC7A7 gene in this rare inborn error of diamino acid metabolism. It also highlights the importance of early and efficient treatment of infections and dehydration in these patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis of LPI is usually not suspected by clinical findings alone, and specific laboratory investigations and molecular analysis are important to get a definitive diagnosis. PMID:23358709

Habib, Anasufiza; Md Yunus, Zabedah; Azize, Nor Azimah; Ch'ng, Gaik-Siew; Ong, Winnie Peitee; Chen, Bee-Chin; Hsu, Ho-Torng; Wong, Ke-Juin; Pitt, James; Ngu, Lock-Hock

2013-01-29

440

Mutations in the Promoter Region of the Aldolase B Gene that cause Hereditary Fructose Intolerance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single base mutations in the promoter, intronic enhancer, and the first exon, which is entirely untranslated. One mutation, g.–132G>A, is located within the promoter at an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide within a transcription factor-binding site. A second mutation, IVS1+1G>C, is at the donor splice site of the first exon. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays show a decrease in nuclear extract-protein binding at the g.–132G>A mutant site. The promoter mutation results in decreased transcription using luciferase reporter plasmids. Analysis of cDNA from cells transfected with plasmids harboring the IVS1+1G>C mutation results in aberrant splicing leading to complete retention of the first intron (~ 5 kb). The IVS1+1G>C splicing mutation results in loss of luciferase activity from a reporter plasmid. These novel mutations in ALDOB represent 2% of alleles in American HFI patients, with IVS1+1G>C representing a significantly higher allele frequency (6%) among HFI patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity.

Coffee, Erin M.; Tolan, Dean R.

2010-01-01

441

Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.  

PubMed

Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of ?-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased ?-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. PMID:23262275

Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

2012-12-19

442

Intolerance of Uncertainty: A Common Factor in the Treatment of Emotional Disorders  

PubMed Central

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a characteristic predominantly associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, emerging evidence indicates that IU may be a shared element of emotional disorders. Aims This study aimed to examine IU across diagnostic categories, change in IU during transdiagnostic treatment, and the relationship between change in IU and treatment outcome. Method Patients diagnosed with heterogeneous anxiety and depressive disorders received up to 18 weeks of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention. Patient self-reported IU and self-report and clinician-rated symptom/functioning measures were administered at pretreatment and posttreatment. Results When controlling for negative affectivity, IU correlated with measures of depressive symptoms and worry severity at pretreatment. Patients with GAD and panic disorder exhibited the highest pretreatment IU scores, yet IU scores did not differ significantly based on the presence or absence of a specific diagnosis. A significant decrease in IU was observed, and change in IU was related to reduced anxiety and depressive symptom levels at posttreatment across diagnostic categories. Discussion Change in IU can be observed across problem areas in transdiagnostic treatment and such change is correlated with treatment outcome.

Boswell, James F.; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

443

Intolerance of uncertainty and emotional distress following the death of a loved one.  

PubMed

Research has shown that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) - the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain - is involved in worry and generalized anxiety disorder, as well as in other anxiety symptoms and disorders. To our knowledge, no studies have yet examined the association between IU and emotional distress connected with the death of a loved one. Yet, it seems plausible that those who have more difficulties to tolerate the uncertainties that often times occur following such a loss experience more intense distress. The current study examined this assumption, using self-reported data from 134 bereaved individuals. Findings showed that IU was positively and significantly correlated with symptom levels of complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even when controlling for time since loss (the single demographic/loss-related variable associated with symptom levels), and for neuroticism and worry, which are both correlates of IU. Furthermore, IU was specifically related with worry and symptom levels of PTSD, but not complicated grief, when controlling the shared variance between worry, complicated grief severity, and PTSD-severity. The present findings complement prior research that has shown that IU is a cognitive vulnerability factor for worry, and indicate that it may also be involved in emotional distress following loss. PMID:20455126

Boelen, Paul

2010-07-01

444

High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability) piggyback contact lens (PBCL) systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Methods: Sixteen patients (29 eyes) who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen transmissibility or Dk/t = 150 units) and fluorosilicone methacrylate copolymer (Dk/t = 100 units) lenses were chosen as the PBCL systems. The clinical examinations included visual acuity and corneal observation by biomicroscopy, keratometer reading, and fluorescein staining before and after fitting the PBCL system. Results: Indications for using PBCL system were: lens stabilization and comfort, improving comfort, and adding protection to the cone. Visual acuities increased significantly in all of the patients compared with spectacles (P = 0). Improvement in visual acuity compared with rigid lenses alone was recorded in 89.7% of eyes and no alteration of the visual acuity was observed in 10.3% of the eyes. Wearing time of PBCL systems for most of the patients was limited time (mean 6 months, range 3–12 months); thereafter they tolerated rigid lenses alone except for 2 patients. Conclusion: The PBCL system is a safe and effective method to provide centering and corneal protection against mechanical trauma by the rigid lenses for keratoconus patients and may increase contact lens tolerance.