These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... to Know Lactose Intolerance KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Lactose Intolerance Print A A A Text Size ... Child Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Digestive System About Recipes for Kids With Lactose Intolerance Lactose ...

2

Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

Lactase deficiency; Milk intolerance; Disaccharidase deficiency; Dairy product intolerance ... make the lactase enzyme so they can digest milk, including breast milk. Babies born too early (premature) ...

3

What Causes Lactose Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of lactose ...

4

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you ... get enough of it from your diet, since milk and foods made with milk are the most ...

5

How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... following tests also can help diagnose lactose intolerance: Hydrogen breath test. For this test, a person drinks ... beverage that has lactose in it. Then, the hydrogen level in the breath is measured at set ...

6

Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding lactose intolerance? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

7

Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... minutes to several hours after eating or drinking foods with lactose, you may have lactose intolerance. What should I do if I think I ... enzyme lactase. People with this type of lactose intolerance have the most ... eating foods that contain lactose. More commonly, people become lactose ...

8

Milk for Kids with Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... miss nutrients needed to grow and stay healthy. Milk for Kids With Lactose Intolerance Milk is good for kids. You know that. But ... of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Milk for Kids With Lactose Intolerance ? Serve milk with ...

9

[Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].  

PubMed

Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p?intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients?=?83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders. PMID:23224632

Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

2012-12-01

10

Potential Correlation between Lactose Intolerance and Cancer Occurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactase, the B-galactosidase enzyme, is responsible for splitting lactose molecule into glucose and galactose. Levels of lactase activity are a crucial determinant of lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance causes diarrhea and subsequent chronically induced diarrhea results in colitis with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation often is linked to etiology of colon cancers. Two other hereditary disorders, uridyl transferase and galactokinase deficiency, such

Chai-Won Chung

11

Systemic lactose intolerance: a new perspective on an old problem  

PubMed Central

Intolerance to certain foods can cause a range of gut and systemic symptoms. The possibility that these can be caused by lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose added to many foods and drinks inadequately labelled, confusing diagnosis based on dietary removal of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. This, with a 48 hour record of gut and systemic symptoms and a six hour breath hydrogen test, provides a new approach to the clinical management of lactose intolerance. The key is the prolonged effect of dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labelled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the wide range of systemic symptoms caused by lactose intolerance. This has important implications for the management of irritable bowel syndrome, and for doctors of many specialties. PMID:15749792

Matthews, S; Waud, J; Roberts, A; Campbell, A

2005-01-01

12

Are the Lactose Intolerant Safer from Some Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... Friday, November 7, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Lactose Intolerance FRIDAY, Nov. 7, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People who ... included nearly 23,000 people in Sweden with lactose intolerance, as well as members of their families. People ...

13

How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... many people are affected or at risk for lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... lactose do not get symptoms. 1 Who gets lactose intolerance and who is at risk for it? Lactose ...

14

Lactose Intolerance in Pregnant African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and

D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler

1997-01-01

15

Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.  

PubMed

Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ?19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p < 0.001). A greater proportion used supplements containing calcium (52% vs. 37%, p < 0.001) and vitamin D (58% vs. 46%, p < 0.001), but calcium intakes from the combination of milk products, alternatives, and supplements were lower (739 ± 30 mg·day(-1) vs. 893 ± 13 mg·day(-1), p < 0.0001). Variation in self-reported lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised. PMID:23855270

Barr, Susan I

2013-08-01

16

Clinical implications of lactose malabsorption versus lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

The majority of the world's adult population and an estimated 80 million Americans are hypolactasic and hence malabsorb ingested lactose. Although lactose malabsorption is easily identified, less readily assessed is the clinically important question of how often does this malabsorption induce symptoms. This review summarizes: (1) knowledge concerning the etiology and diagnosis of hypolactasia and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of lactose malabsorption and (2) the results of well-controlled trials of the symptomatic response of lactose malabsorbers to varying dosages of lactose and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions to alleviate these symptoms. We conclude that the clinical significance of lactose malabsorption has been overestimated by both the lay public and physicians in that commonly ingested doses of lactose (ie, the quantity in a cup of milk) usually do not cause perceptible symptoms when ingested with a meal. Symptoms occur when the lactose dosage exceeds that in a cup of milk or when lactose is ingested without other nutrients. Simple dietary instruction, rather than the use of commercial products to reduce lactose intake, is recommended for the vast majority of lactose-malabsorbing subjects. PMID:23632346

Levitt, Michael; Wilt, Timothy; Shaukat, Aasma

2013-07-01

17

Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment. PMID:24078411

Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

2014-06-01

18

Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance  

PubMed Central

“Lactose intolerance” is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5–10%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's –SH, –NH, and –OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's –NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, Km and Vmax, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Hassan, Mohamed E.

2014-01-01

19

Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

"Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10%?w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3?U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11?U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2?h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

2014-01-01

20

Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

21

HRQoL questionnaire evaluation in lactose intolerant patients with adverse reactions to foods.  

PubMed

The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy tests to identify the offending foods, including "in vivo" and "in vitro" allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy and may indicate a lactose intolerance, which is a recurrent condition affecting about 50% of adults. The aims of our study were the following: (1) What is the real incidence of the food hypersensitivity and the primary lactose intolerance in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, initially referred to allergy or food intolerance? (2) Does lactose intolerance affect the quality of life and compliance to the therapy program? We investigated 262 consecutive patients, 72 men and 190 women. An accurate and detailed history and clinical examination were completed to investigate the offending foods. The evaluation in each patient included: allergy tests, lactose H2 breath test (LHBT) and the HRQoL questionnaire. Five years after the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, a questionnaire on the persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion and the diet compliance was distributed. Our results demonstrate an high prevalence of lactose intolerance, more frequent in women; in these patients, bloating and diarrhea are the most reported symptoms. We observe only a significant positive correlation between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and LHBT+ patients, but not an augmented prevalence of food allergy and a negative impact on the HRQoL questionnaire of lactose intolerance. PMID:21614464

Erminia, Ridolo; Ilaria, Baiardini; Tiziana, Meschi; Silvia, Peveri; Antonio, Nouvenne; Pierpaolo, Dall'Aglio; Loris, Borghi

2013-09-01

22

What is lactose tolerance / intolerance?, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

2008-10-06

23

Lactose intolerance and African Americans: implications for the consumption of appropriate intake levels of key nutrients.  

PubMed

Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs. PMID:19899495

2009-10-01

24

Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.  

PubMed

Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212

Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

2013-01-01

25

Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p?=?0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p?=?0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

2013-01-01

26

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... powders and bars candies nondairy liquid and powdered coffee creamers nondairy whipped toppings People can check the ... all milk and milk products. Manufacturers also often add milk and milk products to boxed, canned, frozen, ...

27

Lactose Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... research & planning reports, strategic planning Scientific Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories Research Research networks, center programs, career development programs Grants & Funding About Research Grants, ...

28

Biogenesis of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in adults with lactose intolerance. Evidence for reduced biosynthesis and slowed-down maturation in enterocytes.  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic activity, biosynthesis, and maturation of lactasephlorizin hydrolase (LPH) were investigated in adult volunteers with suspected lactose intolerance. Mean LPH activity in jejunal biopsy homogenates of these individuals was 31% compared to LPH-persistent individuals, and was accompanied by a reduced level of LPH-protein. Mean sucrase activity in individuals with low LPH was increased to 162% and was accompanied by an increase in sucrase-isomaltase (SI)-protein. Biosynthesis of LPH, SI, and aminopeptidase N (APN) was studied in organ culture of small intestinal biopsy specimens. In individuals with LPH restriction, the rate of synthesis of LPH was drastically decreased, reaching just 6% of the LPH-persistent group after 20 h of culture, while the rate of synthesis of SI appeared to be increased. In addition, maturation of pro-LPH to mature LPH occurred at a slower rate in LPH-restricted tissue. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed an accumulation of immunoreactive LPH in the Golgi region of enterocytes from LPH-restricted individuals and reduced labeling of microvillus membranes. Therefore, lactose intolerance in adults is mainly due to a decreased biosynthesis of LPH, either at the transcriptional or translational level. In addition, intracellular transport and maturation is retarded in some of the LPH-restricted individuals, and this leads to an accumulation of newly synthesized LPH in the Golgi and a failure of LPH to reach the microvillus membrane. Images PMID:1976654

Sterchi, E E; Mills, P R; Fransen, J A; Hauri, H P; Lentze, M J; Naim, H Y; Ginsel, L; Bond, J

1990-01-01

29

Effects of Exogenous Lactase Administration on Hydrogen Breath Excretion and Intestinal Symptoms in Patients Presenting Lactose Malabsorption and Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A), while mean peak H2 levels (74.95?ppm versus 7.85), P < 0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B) were still positive, with the H2 level 20?ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7?ppm versus 66.64), P < 0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C) they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60?ppm). All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability. PMID:24967391

Ibba, Ivan; Gilli, Agnese; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo

2014-01-01

30

Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances  

MedlinePLUS

... found in fruits and honey (fructose intolerance). Cow's milk and dairy products (lactose intolerance). Corn ... even in stamp and envelope glue. Celiac disease causes your immune system to damage ...

31

Lactose intolerance genetic testing: Is it useful as routine screening? Results on 1426 south-central Italy patients.  

PubMed

Adult-type hypolactasia is a widespread condition throughout the world, causing lactose malabsorption. Several studies suggested that the identification of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations, located upstream the gene encoding the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of hypolactasia. We evaluated the frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 variants in a central-south Italian population and the usefulness of lactase deficiency genetic testing in the clinic practice. The genomic DNA of 1426 patients and 1000 healthy controls from central-south Italy was isolated from peripheral whole blood and genotyped for the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and sequencing. The frequencies of genotypes in the 1426 patients analysed were as follows: 1077 CC/GG (75.5%), 287 CT/GA (20.1%), 24 TT/AA (1.7%), 38 CC/GA (2.7%). Only 64 out of 1426 (4.5%) performed also L-BHT test, 29 of which were negative for L-BHT also in presence of different genotypes. Among the 35 individuals with L-BHT positive, 34 were CC/GG and only one CT/GA. Although lactose genetic test is a good predictor of persistence/non-persistence lactase in specific population, its use in the central-south Italy population should be limited given the high prevalence of the CCGG diplotype in normal individuals. PMID:25281930

Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Guarino, Donatella; Annicchiarico, Eleonora Brigida; Lisci, Rosalia; Penitente, Romina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

2015-01-15

32

Kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Kefir is a fermented milk beverage that contains different cultures than yogurt. The objective of this study was to determine whether kefir improves lactose digestion and tolerance in adults with lactose maldigestion. Design Randomized block design. Subjects Fifteen healthy, free-living adults with lactose maldigestion. Main outcome measures Breath hydrogen excretion and lactose intolerance symptoms were monitored hourly for 8

Steven R. Hertzler; Shannon M. Clancy

2003-01-01

33

Improved accuracy of lactose tolerance test in children, using expired H2 measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expired hydrogen and blood glucose were measured during an oral lactose tolerance test in 163 children aged between 9 months and 14 years. Lactose malabsorption, defined as an abnormal increase in expired H2 during a lactose tolerance test, was found in 54 children. Of these, 30 were found to be lactose intolerant as the increased expired H2 was accompanied by

A C Douwes; J Fernandes; H J Degenhart

1978-01-01

34

Lactose Intolerance: Information for Health Care Providers  

E-print Network

Providers Most tweens* and teens are not getting the recommended 1,300 mg of calcium a day they need in osteoporosis prevention. The tween and teen years are critical for bone development because most bone mass accumulates during this time. In fact, by the time teens finish their growth spurts around age 17, 90 percent

Rau, Don C.

35

[Histamine intolerance].  

PubMed

Histamine intolerance (HIT) is a pathological process that results from a disbalance between levels of released histamine and the ability of the body to metabolize it. Accumulated histamine leads to the onset of "histamine mediated" reactions which are usually excessive and decrease quality of life. Although we have a lot of knowledge about histamine intolerance, HIT is still vastly underestimated, because it manifests via the diversity of clinical symptoms, that are often misinterpreted by the patient and sometimes even by a physician. Clinical symptoms and their provocation by certain kinds of food, beverages and drugs are often attributed to the different diseases, such as food allergy and intolerance of sulfites, or other biogenic amines (eg. tyramine), mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases or adverse drug reactions in general. Proper diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine--free diet and supplementation of diaminooxidase can considerably improve patient's quality of life. PMID:23821960

Hanusková, E; Plevková, J

2013-01-01

36

Food allergies and food intolerances.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

2006-01-01

37

Statin intolerance.  

PubMed

The term statin intolerance refers to an inability to use statins because of muscle symptoms or elevated creatine kinase, and the major diagnostic challenge is to unambiguously link these to statin use. Roughly 5% to 10% of statin users develop statin intolerance, and because statin use is expected to increase--especially after recent updated guidelines have expanded the statin benefit groups--adverse effects from statins will become a growing issue. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology--and even the terminology--of statin-related muscle injury lacks clarity. Several risk factors have been identified, including advanced age, family history of myopathy and statin dose; many cases manifest only after patients are administered an interacting medication (e.g., azole antifungals, cimetidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin and cyclosporine). The diagnosis of myopathy remains challenging, especially because some patients can have normal serum creatine kinase levels despite demonstrable weakness and muscle biopsy-proven statin-induced myopathy. A statin withdrawal and rechallenge helps patients distinguish whether their myalgia symptoms are because of statins, but, in at least 1 clinical trial, even 5% of placebo-treated patients developed myalgias during a controlled withdrawal and rechallenge. No consensus exists for management of patients with statin intolerance. Many patients can eventually tolerate a statin but often at suboptimal doses. A subset of patients do well with nondaily regimens such as every other day or once weekly dosing. Some patients cannot tolerate statins at all, requiring nonstatin lipid-lowering medications--the benefit of which remains unclear with regard to preventing atherosclerotic events. Ultimately, statin intolerance undermines the drug adherence that is critical for achieving the benefits of lifelong lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, statin myopathy is a common challenge in lipid management, and further work is needed to establish a standard diagnostic criterion as well as treatment algorithms. PMID:24792743

Ahmad, Zahid

2014-05-15

38

[Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].  

PubMed

The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

Wüthrich, B

2009-04-01

39

The diagnosis and management of patients with lactose-intolerance.  

PubMed

Approximately 70% of the world's population is lactase deficient. This article reviews the evolutionary history of lactase deficiency, recent recommendations to establish screening, and clinical practice guidelines for increased diagnosis of this important, yet often misunderstood condition of malabsorption. PMID:23778177

Carter, Sherry L; Attel, Susan

2013-07-10

40

Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs  

PubMed Central

Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

2014-01-01

41

Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.  

PubMed

Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

2014-01-01

42

Gluten Intolerance Group  

MedlinePLUS

... make our programs possible. Helping to Promote Global Awareness The Gluten Intolerance Group continues to reach across ... company, and Udi’s, the No. 1 gluten-free brand in North America, in bringing a certified, brand- ...

43

Amperometric detection of lactose using ?-galactosidase immobilized in layer-by-layer films.  

PubMed

A direct, low-cost method to determine the concentration of lactose is an important goal with possible impact in various types of industry. In this study, a biosensor is reported that exploits the specific interaction between lactose and the enzyme ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) normally employed to process lactose into glucose and galactose for lactose-intolerant people. The biosensor was made with ?-Gal immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films with the polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(vinyl sufonate) (PVS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a layer of Prussian Blue (PB). With an ITO/PB/(PEI/PVS)1(PEI/?-Gal)30 architecture, lactose could be determined with an amperometric method with sensitivity of 0.31 ?A mmol(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.13 mmol L(-1), which is sufficient for detecting lactose in milk and for clinical exams. Detection occurred via a cascade reaction involving glucose oxidase titrated as electrolytic solution in the electrochemical cell, while PB allowed for operation at 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode, thus avoiding effects from interfering species. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy data for the interface between the LbL film and a buffer containing lactose indicated that ?-Gal lost order, which is the first demonstration of structural effects induced by the molecular recognition interaction with lactose. PMID:24991705

Campos, Paula P; Moraes, Marli L; Volpati, Diogo; Miranda, Paulo B; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Ferreira, Marystela

2014-07-23

44

Histamine and histamine intolerance.  

PubMed

Histamine intolerance results from a disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. Histamine is a biogenic amine that occurs to various degrees in many foods. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be rapidly detoxified by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the main enzyme for the metabolism of ingested histamine. It has been proposed that DAO, when functioning as a secretory protein, may be responsible for scavenging extracellular histamine after mediator release. Conversely, histamine N-methyltransferase, the other important enzyme inactivating histamine, is a cytosolic protein that can convert histamine only in the intracellular space of cells. An impaired histamine degradation based on reduced DAO activity and the resulting histamine excess may cause numerous symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction. The ingestion of histamine-rich food or of alcohol or drugs that release histamine or block DAO may provoke diarrhea, headache, rhinoconjunctival symptoms, asthma, hypotension, arrhythmia, urticaria, pruritus, flushing, and other conditions in patients with histamine intolerance. Symptoms can be reduced by a histamine-free diet or be eliminated by antihistamines. However, because of the multifaceted nature of the symptoms, the existence of histamine intolerance has been underestimated, and further studies based on double-blind, placebo-controlled provocations are needed. In patients in whom the abovementioned symptoms are triggered by the corresponding substances and who have a negative diagnosis of allergy or internal disorders, histamine intolerance should be considered as an underlying pathomechanism. PMID:17490952

Maintz, Laura; Novak, Natalija

2007-05-01

45

An argument for intolerance  

PubMed Central

"Multiculturalism", "pluralism" and "tolerance" have become buzz words in applied ethics. While serious and well thought out work is going on in these areas, a misunderstanding of the importance of tolerance, and the difficulties raised by multicultural moral conflict seems common. In this paper I argue that intolerance of some cultural traditions is morally required, and suggest that the forging of a moral mono-culture is preferable to pluralism. Key Words: Pluralism • multicultural • tolerance • relativism PMID:11129841

Catherwood, J.

2000-01-01

46

Lactose malabsorption and colonic fermentations alter host metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Lactose malabsorption is associated with rapid production of high levels of osmotic compounds, such as organic acids and SCFA in the colon, suspected to contribute to the onset of lactose intolerance. Adult rats are lactase deficient and the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the metabolic consequences of acute lactose ingestion, including host-microbiota interactions. Rats received diets of 25% sucrose (S25 control group) or 25% lactose (L25 experimental group). SCFA and lactic acid were quantified in intestinal contents and portal blood. Expression of SCFA transporter genes was quantified in the colonic mucosa. Carbohydrate oxidation (Cox) and lipid oxidation (Lox) were computed by indirect calorimetry. Measurements were performed over a maximum of 13 h. Time, diet and time × diet variables had significant effects on SCFA concentration in the caecum (P<0·001, P=0·004 and P=0·007, respectively) and the portal blood (P<0·001, P=0·04 and P<0·001, respectively). Concomitantly, expression of sodium monocarboxylate significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the L25 group (P=0·003 at t = 6 h and P<0·05 at t = 8 h). During 5 h after the meal, the L25 group's changes in metabolic parameters (Cox, Lox) were significantly lower than those of the S25 group (P=0·02). However, after 5 h, L25 Cox became greater than S25 (P=0·004). Thus, enhanced production and absorption of SCFA support the metabolic changes observed in calorimetry. These results underline the consequences of acute lactose malabsorption and measured compensations occurring in the host's metabolism, presumably through the microbiota fermentations and microbiota-host interactions. PMID:23321004

Alexandre, Virginie; Even, Patrick C; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Blachier, François; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Davila, Anne-Marie

2013-08-01

47

[Metabolic intolerance to exercise].  

PubMed

Exercise intolerance (EI) is a frequent cause of medical attention, although it is sometimes difficult to come to a final diagnosis. However, there is a group of patients in whom EI is due to a metabolic dysfunction. McArdle's disease (type V glucogenosis) is due to myophosphorylase (MPL) deficiency. The ischemic exercise test shows a flat lactate curve. The most frequent mutations in the PYGM gene (MPL gene) in Spanish patients with MPL deficiency are R49X and W797R. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is invariably associated to repetitive episodes of myoglobinuria triggered by exercise, cold, fever or fasting. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of CPT II deficiency in muscle. The most frequent mutation in the CPT2 gene is the S113L. Patients with muscle adenylate deaminase deficiency usually show either a mild myopathy or no symptom. The diagnosis is based on the absence of enzyme activity in muscle and the lack of rise of ammonia in the forearm ischemic exercise test. The mutation Q12X in the AMPD1 gene is strongly associated with the disease. Exercise intolerance is a common complaint in patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) deficiencies, although it is often overshadowed by other symptoms and signs. Only recently we have come to appreciate that exercise intolerance can be the sole presentation of defects in the mtDNA, particularly in complex I, complex III, complex IV, or in some tRNAs. In addition, myoglobinuria can be observed in patients under statin treatment, particularly if associated with fibrates, due to an alteration in the assembly of the complex IV of the MRC. PMID:12838448

Arenas, J; Martín, M A

2003-01-01

48

[Histamine intolerance mimics anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

Histamine intolerance is a clinically heterogeneous disease. We present a woman who suffered from weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, flushing and bronchial asthma for several years. When placed on a histamine-poor diet, she experienced weight gain and improvement of other all signs and symptoms, supporting the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Therefore, this disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. PMID:19907926

Stolze, I; Peters, K-P; Herbst, R A

2010-09-01

49

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.122 Lactose. (a) Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture...

2010-04-01

50

Lactose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has a high biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey bioremediation processes with simultaneous bio-ethanol production. We have developed a flocculent S. cerevisiae strain that efficiently ferments lactose to ethanol, using a combination of genetic engineering and evolutionary engineering approaches. This strain fermented efficiently and nearly completely (residual lactose

Pedro M. R. Guimarães; José A. Teixeira; Lucília Domingues

51

Crystallisation of ?-lactose monohydrate from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions: influence of ?-lactose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-lactose system has been used to study the effect of ?-lactose on the morphology of ?-lactose monohydrate crystals. DMSO was used as the solvent as it greatly reduces the rate of mutarotation of ?-lactose to ?-lactose. It is shown that as the ?-content of the solution increases, the crystal shape starts increasing in the a and b directions, whereas the major growth occurs in the c direction at low levels of ?-lactose. The morphology of the ?-lactose monohydrate crystal calculated by molecular modelling is in good agreement with that of the crystals grown in the presence of low ?-lactose concentrations. Atomic force microscopy has revealed growth spirals and unit cell high steps on the (0 2 0) face of crystals grown in the presence of low ?-anomer concentration.

Dincer, T. D.; Parkinson, G. M.; Rohl, A. L.; Ogden, M. I.

1999-09-01

52

Molecular Structure of Beta-Lactose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discovered in 1619 by Bartoletti, lactose came from the Latin word Lac which means milk. Found in the milk of most mammals, Lactose is exclusive to the animal kingdom. Lactose is commonly used in pharmaceuticals because of its low toxicity, acceptable taste and its low reactivity. It is also used in cooking as a natural coloring. Lactose has been around for millions of years and has been aiding mammals in populating the earth. Also, it is employed as a nutrient in preparing modified milk and food for infants and convalescents.

2002-08-13

53

Hydrogen-producing Escherichia coli strains overexpressing lactose permease: FT-IR analysis of the lactose-induced stress.  

PubMed

The lactose permease gene (lacY) was overexpressed in the septuple knockout mutant of Escherichia coli, previously engineered for hydrogen production from glucose. It was expected that raising the lactose transporter activity would elevate the intracellular lactose concentration, inactivate the lactose repressor, induce the lactose operon, and as a result stimulate overall lactose consumption and conversion. However, overexpression of the lactose transporter caused a considerable growth delay in the recombinant strain on lactose, resembling to some extent the "lactose killing" phenomenon. Therefore, the recombinant strain was subjected to selection on lactose-containing media. Selection on plates with 3% lactose yielded a strain with a decreased content of the recombinant plasmid but with an improved ability to grow and produce hydrogen on lactose. Macromolecular analysis of its biomass by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that increase of the cellular polysaccharide content might contribute to the adaptation of E. coli to lactose stress. PMID:23725289

Grube, Mara; Dimanta, Ilze; Gavare, Marita; Strazdina, Inese; Liepins, Janis; Juhna, Talis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

2014-01-01

54

Urticarial intolerance reaction to cetirizine.  

PubMed

The paradoxical acute exacerbation of pre-existing chronic idiopathic urticaria accompanied by intense generalized pruritus, facial oedema, and dyspnoea in a 36-year-old-woman 3-4 h after a single oral dose of 10 mg cetirizine (Zyrtec tablets), suggested the presence of an underlying intolerance reaction. However, a type I hypersensitivity reaction also had to be excluded. Detailed allergy testing supported the view that the patient had suffered an intolerance reaction to cetirizine. This is the third known case of most probably a nonallergic generalized urticaria following the administration of cetirizine, a drug with extensive usage worldwide. However a type I sensitization to cetirizine is indeed possible, as has been demonstrated in this research with the verification of cetirizine-specific IgE antibodies in one of the control sera. PMID:12072003

Schröter, S; Damveld, B; Marsch, W C

2002-05-01

55

Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.  

PubMed

In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry. PMID:24517206

Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

2014-03-01

56

75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...source of calcium and are fortified with vitamin D and other nutrients. Therefore, these...postmenopausal women. Very low intake of vitamin D can lead to the development of rickets...products are typically fortified with vitamin D and other nutrients, they are...

2010-01-15

57

[Food allergy or food intolerance?].  

PubMed

Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642

Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

58

Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

Williams, Amanda S.

2013-01-01

59

Exercise intolerance and the mitochondrial respiratory chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syndrome of exercise intolerance, cramps, and myoglobinuria is a common presentation of metabolic myopathies and has been associated with several specific inborn errors of glycogen or lipid metabolism. As disorders in fuel utilization presumably impair muscle energy production, it was more than a little surprising that exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria had not been associated with defects in the mitochondrial

S. DiMauro

1999-01-01

60

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Lactose is the carbohydrate normally obtained from whey. It may be anhydrous or contain one molecule of water of crystallization or be a mixture of both forms. (b) The food shall meet the following specifications: (1) The...

2011-04-01

61

Oxidation of lactose with bromine.  

PubMed

Oxidation of lactose by bromine in an aqueous buffered solution was conducted as a model experiment to examine the glycosidic linkage cleavage occurring during the oxidation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The resulting oxidation products, after reduction with sodium borodeuteride, were characterized by GLC-MS analyses of the per-O-methyl or per-O-Me3Si derivatives. Most of the products were carboxylic acids, of which lactobionic acid was major. Minor products, identified after partial fractionation on a BioGel P-2 column, comprised oxalic acid; glyceric acid; threonic and erythronic acids; tartaric acid; lyxonic, arabinonic, and xylonic acids; galactonic and gluconic acids; galactosylerythronic acid; galactosylarabinonic acid; galactosylarabinaric acid; galacturonosylarabinonic acid; and galactosylglucaric acid. No keto acids were identified. Galactose was detected as 1-deuteriogalactitol, the presence of which, together with the C6 aldonic acids, supported a galactosidic bond cleavage. Galactosylarabinonic acid was the major constituent (7.5%) among minors, and others constituted 0.2-3.7% of the principal lactobionic acid. These products together comprised 29% of the lactobionic acid, more than half (17%) of which were accounted for by the galactosidic linkage cleavage, supporting the significant decrease in molecular weight seen earlier in the bromine-oxidized polysaccharides by glycosidic cleavage. PMID:16202397

Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

2005-12-12

62

Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

Luty, Wei

2009-01-01

63

Common Syndromes of Orthostatic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

The autonomic nervous system, adequate blood volume, and intact skeletal and respiratory muscle pumps are essential components for rapid cardiovascular adjustments to upright posture (orthostasis). Patients lacking sufficient blood volume or having defective sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction develop orthostatic hypotension (OH), prohibiting effective upright activities. OH is one form of orthostatic intolerance (OI) defined by signs, such as hypotension, and symptoms, such as lightheadedness, that occur when upright and are relieved by recumbence. Mild OI is commonly experienced during intercurrent illnesses and when standing up rapidly. The latter is denoted “initial OH” and represents a normal cardiovascular adjustment to the blood volume shifts during standing. Some people experience episodic acute OI, such as postural vasovagal syncope (fainting), or chronic OI, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, which can significantly reduce quality of life. The lifetime incidence of ?1 fainting episodes is ?40%. For the most part, these episodes are benign and self-limited, although frequent syncope episodes can be debilitating, and injury may occur from sudden falls. In this article, mechanisms for OI having components of adrenergic hypofunction, adrenergic hyperfunction, hyperpnea, and regional blood volume redistribution are discussed. Therapeutic strategies to cope with OI are proposed. PMID:23569093

2013-01-01

64

Construction of lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose fermentation into ethanol fuel.  

PubMed

Two lactose-consuming diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, AY-51024A and AY-51024M, were constructed by expressing the LAC4 and LAC12 genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the host strain AY-5. In AY-51024A, both genes were targeted to the ATH1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to abolish the activity of acid/neutral trehalase. In AY-51024M, both genes were respectively integrated into the MIG1 and NTH1 gene-encoding regions to relieve glucose repression. Physiologic studies of the two transformants under anaerobic cultivations in glucose and galactose media indicated that the expression of both LAC genes did not physiologically burden the cells, except for AY-51024A in glucose medium. Galactose consumption was initiated at higher glucose concentrations in the MIG1 deletion strain AY-51024M than in the corresponding wild-type strain and AY-51024A, wherein galactose was consumed until glucose was completely depleted in the mixture. In lactose medium, the Sp. growth rates of AY-51024A and AY-51024M under anaerobic shake-flasks were 0.025 and 0.067 h(-1), respectively. The specific lactose uptake rate and ethanol production of AY-51024M were 2.50 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 23.4 g l(-1), respectively, whereas those of AY-51024A were 0.98 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1) and 24.3 g lactose g CDW(-1) h(-1), respectively. In concentrated cheese whey powder solutions, AY-51024M produced 63.3 g l(-1) ethanol from approximately 150 g l(-1) initial lactose in 120 h, conversely, AY-51024A consumed 63.7 % of the initial lactose and produced 35.9 g l(-1) ethanol. Therefore, relieving glucose repression is an effective strategy for constructing lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae. PMID:23344501

Zou, Jing; Guo, Xuewu; Shen, Tong; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

2013-04-01

65

Gender, ageing, and shiftwork intolerance.  

PubMed

The study investigated the hypothetical differences between male and female shiftworkers in their susceptibility to shiftwork-related health and social problems, with the special reference to the role of the age factor. The comparison concerned two matched-for-age-and-occupation groups of men and women, each of 83 persons, selected from the larger studied population of more than 700 workers in a Polish steel plant. The subjects were crane-operators employed in the same forward-rotated, three-shift, four-team shift system, 4:4:4 with shift changes at 06:00, 14:00, 22:00; and 48 h off following each shift block. The investigation comprised a battery of questionnaires on demographic characteristics, sleep quantity and quality, subjective health complaints, and opinions on shiftwork. The analysis of data revealed that men slept more than women, especially when working on the afternoon and night shifts. The differences became more striking and significant for all work shifts and days-off when related to declared individual sleep requirements. Women experienced more sleep disturbances than men and suffered more frequently from drowsiness during work, especially when working the morning shift. The ratings of subjective health were lower in women, with exception of respiratory complaints. Women generally suffered more than men from symptoms considered as specific to the 'intolerance syndrome', i.e. psychoneurotic, digestive, circulatory, and those of chronic fatigue. However, after passing the 'critical decade' of 40-50 years their subjective health generally improved, whereas in males one observed the consequent deterioration of health with advancing age. Women more often complained about their health and went to see the doctor, but on the other hand, they did not tend to quit shiftwork as often as did their male counterparts. PMID:8440214

Ogi?ska, H; Pokorski, J; Ogi?ski, A

1993-01-01

66

Mutarotational Kinetics and Glass Transition of Lactose Ronan LEFORT1*  

E-print Network

1 Mutarotational Kinetics and Glass Transition of Lactose Ronan LEFORT1* , Vincent CARON2** , Jean, Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex. Mutarotational Kinetics and Glass Transition of Lactose #12;2 Abstract We report for the first time real time in situ and quantitative measurements of the mutarotation reaction of lactose

Boyer, Edmond

67

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION OF LACTOSE BY ENGINEERED FLOCCULENT SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation to ethanol. Direct fermentation of whey to ethanol is generally not economically feasible because the low lactose content (ca. 5% w\\/v) results in low ethanol titre (2 - 3% v\\/v), making the distillation process too expensive. Concentration of whey lactose

P. M. R. Guimarães; J. A. Teixeira; L. Domingues

68

Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies  

E-print Network

Review Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies and physiological -- Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and an important osmotic regulator of lacta- tion suffers from lactase deficiency. A reduction in milk lactose content could be beneficial for nutritional

Boyer, Edmond

69

Analyzing phylogenetic trees with timed and probabilistic model checking: the lactose persistence case study.  

PubMed

Model checking is a generic verification technique that allows the phylogeneticist to focus on models and specifications instead of on implementation issues. Phylogenetic trees are considered as transition systems over which we interrogate phylogenetic questions written as formulas of temporal logic. Nonetheless, standard logics become insufficient for certain practices of phylogenetic analysis since they do not allow the inclusion of explicit time and probabilities. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of model checking techniques beyond qualitative phylogenetic properties and adapt the existing logical extensions and tools to the field of phylogeny. The introduction of time and probabilities in phylogenetic specifications is motivated by the study of a real example: the analysis of the ratio of lactose intolerance in some populations and the date of appearance of this phenotype. PMID:25339082

Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

2014-01-01

70

Mutarotational kinetics and glass transition of lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time real time in situ and quantitative measurements of the mutarotation reaction of lactose in the solid state. The experiments have been performed by 13C NMR. We show that mutarotation is initiated on heating the amorphous state, and reaches chemical equilibrium close above the glass transition temperature Tg. We do not observe this transformation when

Ronan Lefort; Vincent Caron; Jean-François Willart; Marc Descamps

2006-01-01

71

21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...calculated on a dry basis. (3) The pH of a 10.0-percent m/m solution...Lactose” or, alternatively, “Milk sugar”. (d) The...Ed. (1984), p. 575. (4) pH, section 14.022, “pH of Flour, Potentiometric...

2014-04-01

72

Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter  

SciTech Connect

Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (United States))

1991-04-01

73

Laser diffraction particle sizing of cohesive lactose powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to develop a suitable laser diffraction particle sizing method for cohesive lactose present either as agglomerates or adhered onto coarse lactose carriers. Micronised lactose (ML) was prepared by fluid energy milling. Particle size distributions (PSD) were determined by laser diffraction (Malvern Master Sizer S, U.K.). Ethanol, propan-2-ol, 1-butanol and isooctane were selected as dispersants. Sonication for 5 min

Handoko Adi; Ian Larson; Peter Stewart

2007-01-01

74

Structural prediction and comparative docking studies of psychrophilic ?- Galactosidase with lactose, ONPG and PNPG against its counter parts of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Enzymes from psychrophiles catalyze the reactions at low temperatures with higher specific activity. Among all the psychrophilic enzymes produced, cold active ?-galactosidase from marine psychrophiles revalorizes a new arena in numerous areas at industrial level. The hydrolysis of lactose in to glucose and galactose by cold active ?-galactosidase offers a new promising approach in removal of lactose from milk to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance. Herein we propose, a 3D structure of cold active ?-galactosidase enzyme sourced from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis by using Modeler 9v8 and best model was developed having 88% of favourable region in ramachandran plot. Modelling was followed by docking studies with the help of Auto dock 4.0 against the three substrates lactose, ONPG and PNPG. In addition, comparative docking studies were also performed for the 3D model of psychrophilic ?-galactosidase with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. Docking studies revealed that binding affinity of enzyme towards the three different substrates is more for psychrophilic enzyme when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. It indicates that the enzyme has high specific activity at low temperature when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. PMID:21769193

Kumar, Ponnada Suresh; Pulicherla, KK; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kumar, Anmol; Rao, KRS Sambasiva

2011-01-01

75

Galactose intolerance and the risk of cataract.  

PubMed Central

Cataracts may arise in association with various major and minor disorders restricting galactose metabolism, and the risk is broadly associated with the degree of galactose intolerance. A family is described in which a girl presented at the age of 7 3/4 years with cataracts, galactosuria, and partial deficiencies of the enzymes galactokinase and galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactose intolerance as determined by an oral test was impaired and fluctuated with variation in activity of the above galactose enzymes. Minor defects were also present in the parents and a maternal half-brother. The child has a compound disorder of galactose metabolism differing from those previously described. Assessment of galactose tolerance may be useful in the investigation of families with an incidence of cataract. Images PMID:7093182

Winder, A. F.; Fells, P.; Jones, R. B.; Kissun, R. D.; Menzies, I. S.; Mount, J. N.

1982-01-01

76

Studies on tableting properties of lactose. Part 2. Consolidation and compaction of different types of crystalline lactose.  

PubMed

Lactose is available in several crystalline forms, which differ in binding properties. A new method of estimating the fragmentation propensity was applied to investigate the consolidation and compaction behaviour of this excipient for direct compression. Mercury porosimetry was used to demonstrate that crystalline lactose fragments during compaction. Tablet strength was found to be dependent on the degree of fragmentation only. This finding indicates that the nature of the actual binding must be the same for the different types of crystalline lactose. PMID:4069972

Vromans, H; De Boer, A H; Bolhuis, G K; Lerk, C F; Kussendrager, K D; Bosch, H

1985-10-25

77

Acute rigid gas permeable contact lens intolerance.  

PubMed

Rigid gas permeable (RGP) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) lens wearers occasionally report episodes of acute intolerance which is experienced upon lens insertion. In this paper, we report two cases of such intolerance in which the probable cause was contact lens inversion. We also present the results of a study in which a custom-built calibrated strain gauge was used to measure the force in Newtons (N), required to invert RGP lenses [oxygen permeability, or Dk, values between 30 and 90 x 10(-11) (cm2/s) (mlO2/ml x mmHg)] and PMMA lenses of different spherical back vertex powers (+/-3.00 D, 9.00 D). Significantly, less force was required to invert minus powered lenses (17.5 +/- 4.8 N) than plus powered lenses (31.7 +/- 7 .4 N), irrespective of the material. PMMA lenses required more force to induce inversion than that required to invert RGP lenses. Lenses with a Dk of 90 required only two thirds of the force (20.0 +/- 5.8 N) required to cause inversion compared to PMMA lenses (32.9 +/- 11.0 N). High powered PMMA lenses were found to be more likely to fracture on inversion than any other lenses tested. The force required to return negatively powered lenses to their original shape, once inverted, was less than 25% of that initially required to induce inversion. Plus powered lenses either reverted to their original form spontaneously, or required less than 3% of the original inversion force to do so. It was concluded that practitioners should consider inversion as a possible reason for otherwise unexplained, acute RGP contact lens intolerance experienced upon lens insertion. The reason why inversion has eluded so many, as a possible cause of intolerance, is likely to be because minimal force is required to return those lenses, which do not crack or fracture, to their original shape. PMID:16303471

Jackson, A J; Wolsley, C; Briggs, J L; Frazer, D G

2001-01-01

78

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

79

Adaptation of a manometric biosensor to measure glucose and lactose.  

PubMed

A manometric sensor previously developed to measure urea was modified to measure glucose and lactose through enzymatic oxidation. Change in pressure in an enclosed cavity was correlated to the depletion of oxygen resulting from the enzymatic oxidation of glucose or lactose. The response of the sensor was linear and could be made adjustable over a large range by adjusting the amount of sample loaded into the fixed volume reactor. Because of the slow mutarotation of glucose, the oxidation of glucose was not allowed to proceed to completion. Therefore, the precision of the sensor (approximately 0.2 mM in a range from 0 to 5 mM) was limited by variations in the oxidation rate of glucose by glucose oxidase. Because the assay for lactose measured glucose subsequent to the hydrolysis of lactose by beta-galactosidase, the same degree of precision was observed in lactose. Milk lactose, typically at concentrations of about 150 mM, was estimated using the lactose assay after first diluting the samples. For many fluids such as milk, the use of manometric sensors for oxidizable substrates may be preferable to optical and electrochemical methods because they are robust and suffer a low degree of optical and chemical interferences. Glucose and lactose are representative of many important oxidizable substrates, which may be determined in this manner, many of which do not suffer from limitations caused by mutarotation. In theory, detection limits less than 1 microM may be achieved using these methods. PMID:12445450

Jenkins, Daniel M; Delwiche, Michael J

2003-01-01

80

Influence of Sucrose on the Mutarotation Velocity of Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of mutarotation of lactose in the presence of sucrose was determined at 25, 30 and 35 C. The rate of mnta- rotation o£ lactose decreased slightly by sucrose added to 40% and thereafter greatly decreased. Increasing sucrose from 30 to 60 g per 100 ml solution, decreased the velocity constant 1.8 to 1.9 times, inde- pendent of the

K. N. Patel; T. A. Nickerson

1970-01-01

81

Lactose maldigestion and recurrent abdominal pain in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to evaluate children with recurrent abdominal pain for lactose maldigestion and to assess factors which might predict lactose absorption status. One hundred thirty-seven children were referred for specialty evaluation of recurrent abdominal pain of at least three months' duration. Study subjects were evaluated by history and physical examination, dietary interviews, hematologic and biochemical laboratory testing, stool parasite

Rebecca B. Webster; Jack A. DiPalma; David A. Gremse

1995-01-01

82

Sugar Transport across Lactose Permease Probed by Steered Molecular Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic details of lactose interaction with the lumen of LacY during its permeation. Lactose induces a widening of the narrowest parts of the channel during permeation, the widening being largest within the periplasmic half-channel. During permeation, the water-filled lumen of LacY only partially hydrates lactose, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar interaction maximal. Upon unbinding from the binding pocket, lactose undergoes a rotation to permeate either half-channel with its long axis aligned parallel to the channel axis. The results hint at the possibility of a transport mechanism, in which lactose permeates LacY through a narrow periplasmic half-channel and a wide cytoplasmic half-channel, the opening of which is controlled by changes in protonation states of key protein side groups. PMID:17434947

Jensen, Morten Ø.; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Schulten, Klaus

2007-01-01

83

Intolerance of responsibility for internal conflict.  

PubMed

A type of patient is described, who has marked intolerance of taking responsibility for his internal conflicts so as to confront them, analyze them, and change. Defensive repetition in pathological object relations aims to avoid what is wrong within and to engage another so as to protect oneself. Genetic, dynamic, and technical aspects of such defensive, dependent relating are considered. Responsibility for oneself and for what is within oneself is held to be terrifying--more than anyone can bear on his own. How destructiveness has become, and remains, so terrifying is discussed. PMID:2632630

Coen, S J

1989-01-01

84

Anomeric discrimination and rapid analysis of underivatized lactose, maltose, and sucrose in vegetable matrices by U-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using porous graphitic carbon.  

PubMed

Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by intestinal lactase deficiency, and a lactose-free diet represents the simplest way to avoid gastrointestinal symptoms. The emerging use of dietary supplements requires analytical tools that are capable of assessing these analytes, particularly for those based on dry herbal extracts that contain lactose together with maltose and sucrose, because of cross-contamination and/or deliberate addition as excipient. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and MS/MS are valuable detection methods for underivatized disaccharides; however, the absence of distinctive ions and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns does not allow discrimination of stereoisomers without good chromatographic resolution. We developed an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ESI (U-HPLC-ESI) approach, based on porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns, working at 5 °C to separate and detect the disaccharides in their anomeric forms as formate adducts obtained directly in-column by eluting with formate buffer/acetonitrile gradient mixtures. Using a Paul trap, we monitored the adducts [M + HCOO](-) at m/z 387 in ESI negative mode (MS(1)) as well as the CID fragment ion [M - H](-) at m/z 341 (MS(2)) and used MS(3) fragment ions at m/z 178 and 161 to confirm disaccharides identity in complex vegetable matrices. Complete resolution of lactose ?- and ?-anomers, maltose ?- and ?-anomers, and sucrose was obtained with R ? 2.0 for all peaks and selectivity ? = 1.2 between ?- and ?-anomers of lactose. The limits of detection were in the range of 3-7 µg/l (ppb) for the target disaccharides. Because of the rapidity and good anomeric discrimination, the described method represents an alternative tool to investigate the mutarotation phenomenon for reducing disaccharides. PMID:20862732

Gabbanini, Simone; Lucchi, Elena; Guidugli, Federico; Matera, Riccardo; Valgimigli, Luca

2010-09-01

85

Mutarotational kinetics and glass transition of lactose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time real time in situ and quantitative measurements of the mutarotation reaction of lactose in the solid state. The experiments have been performed by 13C NMR. We show that mutarotation is initiated on heating the amorphous state, and reaches chemical equilibrium close above the glass transition temperature Tg. We do not observe this transformation when starting from stable crystalline states. The final ratio of ? and ? anomers is 1:1, which suggests that the energy profile of the mutarotation reaction pathway in the solid state is actually different from the mechanism proposed for aqueous solution. This chemical equipartition is reached before the crystallization into the corresponding 1:1 molecular compound. These new data clearly illustrate the interrelation between the chemical molecular properties, the physical state of the material, and the relaxational dynamics of the glass.

Lefort, Ronan; Caron, Vincent; Willart, Jean-François; Descamps, Marc

2006-11-01

86

Galactosidase Activity of Lactose-positive Neisseria1  

PubMed Central

The chromogenic substrate o-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG) was hydrolyzed by lactose-positive Neisseria. Eight strains of pharyngeal origin were examined. In culture reactions, seven strains resembled Neisseria meningitidis with the exception that they produced acid from 1% (w/v) lactose. An eighth strain (V8) differed in that it did not form acid from maltose or from 1% lactose. However, acid formation was observed in 10% lactose cultures of strain V8, suggesting that entry of lactose occurred by passive diffusion, rather than as a result of permease activity. The enzymes which hydrolyzed ONPG were produced constitutively by the cells of all eight strains. Thus, specific activity in these strains was not increased by prior exposure to lactose, or to two other possible inducers, isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactoside or methyl-?-d-thiogalactoside. Study of cell-free extracts of one strain showed that the enzyme was heat-labile, having a half-life of 10 min at 45 C. The enzyme was unstable at low protein concentrations, but it was protected completely or partially when albumin or manganous ions were added. The enzyme appeared to be a typical ?-galactosidase: ?-galactosides (melibiose and p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside) were not hydrolyzed, activity against ONPG was not dependent upon inorganic phosphate, and galactose was released by cleavage of ONPG. ONPG hydrolysis provided a simple and rapid method for detecting lactose-positive Neisseria. PMID:5636831

Corbett, William P.; Catlin, B. Wesley

1968-01-01

87

Refining the measurement of distress intolerance.  

PubMed

Distress intolerance is an important transdiagnostic variable that has long been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Self-report measurement strategies for distress intolerance (DI) have emerged from several different models of psychopathology and these measures have been applied inconsistently in the literature in the absence of a clear gold standard. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies and samples, thus hampering the advancement of this research agenda. This study evaluated the latent factor structure of existing measures of DI to examine the degree to which they are capturing the same construct. Results of confirmatory factor analysis in three samples totaling 400 participants provided support for a single-factor latent structure. Individual items of these four scales were then correlated with this factor to identify those that best capture the core construct. Results provided consistent support for 10 items that demonstrated the strongest concordance with this factor. The use of these 10 items as a unifying measure in the study of DI and future directions for the evaluation of its utility are discussed. PMID:22697451

McHugh, R Kathryn; Otto, Michael W

2012-09-01

88

[Histamine intolerance--possible dermatologic sequences].  

PubMed

Although histamine intolerance (HIT) is not very frequently encountered, it can have serious consequences. Food intolerance is a non allergic hypersensitivity to food that does not include the immune system even though the symptoms are similar to those of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. HIT apparently develops as a result of an impaired diamine oxidase (DAO) activity due to gastrointestinal disease or through DAO inhibition, as well as through a genetic predisposition which was proven in a number of patients. The intake of histamine-rich foods as well as alcohol or drugs which cause either the release of histamine or the blocking of DAO can lead to various disorders in many organs (gastrointestinal system, skin, lungs, cardiovascular system and brain), depending on the expression of histamine receptors. Dermatologic sequels can be rashes, itch, urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, eczema and even acne, rosacea, psoriasis, and other. Recognizing the symptoms due to HIT is especially important in treating such patients. The significance of HIT in patients with atopic dermatitis in whom the benefit of a low histamine diet has been proven is becoming increasingly understood recently. Because of the possibility of symptoms affecting numerous organs, a detailed history of symptoms following the intake of histamine-rich foods or drugs that interfere with histamine metabolism is essential for making the diagnosis of HIT. Considering that such symptoms can be the result of multiple factors, the existence of HIT is usually underestimated, but considerable expectations are being made from future studies. PMID:23814966

Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Seserko, Ana; Duvanci?, Tomislav; Situm, Mirna; Mihi?, Josip

2012-12-01

89

Refining the Measurement of Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Distress intolerance is an important transdiagnostic variable that has long been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Self-report measurement strategies for distress intolerance have emerged from several different models of psychopathology and these measures have been applied inconsistently in the literature in the absence of a clear gold standard. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies and samples, thus hampering the advancement of this research agenda. This study evaluated the latent factor structure of existing measures of DI to examine the degree to which they are capturing the same construct. Results of confirmatory factor analysis in 3 samples totaling 400 participants provided support for a single factor latent structure. Individual items of these four scales were then correlated with this factor to identify those that best capture the core construct. Results provided consistent supported for 10 items that demonstrated the strongest concordance with this factor. The use of these 10 items as a unifying measure in the study of DI and future directions for the evaluation of its utility are discussed. PMID:22697451

McHugh, R. Kathryn; Otto, Michael W.

2012-01-01

90

[Selection of thermophilic lactose-fermenting yeast strains].  

PubMed

The screening and selection of lactose-fermenting yeasts among 97 collection yeast strains belonging to different taxonomic groups has been conducted to obtain ethanol from whey. The strains (n=18) (1 strain of K. lactis. 16 strains of K. marxianus and 1 strain of C. kefyr) fermented lactose at 48 degrees C and 15 selected strains rapidly consumed lactose within 24-48 h of cultivation. The presence of 6% of ethanol in the medium resulted in a considerable growth inhibition (more than 80%) of the selected strains. PMID:23293829

Ianeva, O D; Sichkar', S V; Voronina, A A; Podgorski?, V S

2012-01-01

91

High incidence of intolerance to tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis.  

PubMed

The outlook of inflammatory joint diseases has changed significantly with the advent of TNF blockers. However, these advances come with a trade off-risk of infections, especially tuberculosis. The Irish society of rheumatology has proposed guidelines to investigate and treat latent TB infection (LTBI), which is in accordance with majority of international recommendations. This protocol requires that every patient with LTBI should have chemoprophylaxis. INH and different anti-rheumatic drugs are known to cause hepatic and gastrointestinal complications. We sought to investigate the toxicity of adding prophylactic anti-TB medications to different DMARDs and anti-TNF agents. We prospectively documented the course of all patients who were prescribed chemoprophylaxis for LTBI, from August 2007 to August 2008. Arrangements were made for central re-issuing of prescription of INH or rifampicin, after reviewing monthly liver function tests and following telephone interview seeking presence of adverse events. Out of 132 patients who were commenced on different TNF blockers, only 23 patients (17%) were diagnosed with LTBI and were given prophylaxis as per recommended guidelines. Thirty-nine percent (9 out of 23) of patients discontinued INH because of adverse events. Primary reason for discontinuation in these 9 patients was as follows: 3 patients got marked transaminitis (transaminases >5 times the normal limit), 5 patients had non-resolving gastrointestinal intolerance (mainly nausea), and one patient developed non-resolving rash. We have found a significant number of our patients (39%) who could not continue anti-TB prophylaxis due to either gastrointestinal intolerance or hypertransaminesemia. PMID:20658233

Haroon, Muhammad; Martin, Una; Devlin, Joe

2012-01-01

92

Nutrition, population growth and disease: a short history of lactose.  

PubMed

Food and nutrition have played a crucial role in biological evolution. Lactation in mammals was one key invention. A central role in milk is played by lactose, otherwise an exotic sugar in nature. Lactose digestion needs the induction of specialized gut enzymes. This enzyme is shut off in a precisely timed developmental step leading to lactose malabsorption promoting weaning in the young and ovulation in the mother. The lactose-lactase system could thus regulate optimal birth spacing in land mammals. The domestication of cattle promoted milk as a food item also for adult nutrition. This was only possible by two further key inventions: the concomitant domestication of lactic acid bacteria which ferment the non-digestible lactose to the easily absorbed lactic acid and the mutation to lactase persistence (LP) in adults from dairy societies. This mutation represents one of the strongest selected loci of the human genome. Since no crucial nutritional selective advantage is conferred by LP, its dominance might be the result of indirect effects like the spread of cattle pathogens into humans. Lactase is also temporarily lost in rotavirus and Escherichia coli childhood diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea is consequently best treated with lactose-free diets. PMID:23574334

Brüssow, Harald

2013-08-01

93

PROTON-COUPLED DYNAMICS IN LACTOSE PERMEASE  

PubMed Central

Summary Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) catalyzes symport of a galactopyranoside and an H+ via an alternating access mechanism. The transition from an inward- to an outward-facing conformation of LacY involves sugar-release followed by deprotonation. Because the transition depends intimately upon the dynamics of LacY in a bilayer environment, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations may be the only means of following the accompanying structural changes in atomic detail. We describe here MD simulations of wild-type apo LacY in phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) lipids that features two protonation states of the critical Glu325. While the protonated system displays configurational stability, deprotonation of Glu325 causes significant structural rearrangements that bring into proximity sidechains important for H+ translocation and sugar binding and closes the internal cavity. Moreover, protonated LacY in phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids shows that the observed dynamics are lipid-dependent. Together, the simulations describe early dynamics of the inward-to-outward transition of LacY that agree well with experimental data. PMID:23000385

Andersson, Magnus; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Freites, J. Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J.; Kaback, H. Ronald; White, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

94

NMR study on the interaction of trehalose with lactose and its effect on the hydrogen bond interaction in lactose.  

PubMed

Trehalose, a well-known stress-protector of biomolecules, has been investigated for its effect on the mobility, hydration and hydrogen bond interaction of lactose using diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy and NMR of hydroxy protons. In ternary mixtures of trehalose, lactose and water, the two sugars have the same rate of diffusion. The chemical shifts, temperature coefficients, vicinal coupling constants and ROE of the hydroxy protons in trehalose, lactose and sucrose were measured for the disaccharides alone in water/acetone-d? solutions as well as in mixtures. The data indicated that addition of trehalose did not change significantly the strength of the hydrogen bond interaction between GlcOH3 and GalO5' in lactose. Small upfield shifts were however measured for all hydroxy protons when the sugar concentration was increased. The chemical shift of the GlcOH3 signal in lactose showed less change, attributed to the spatial proximity to GalO5'. Chemical exchange between hydroxy protons of lactose and trehalose was observed in the ROESY NMR spectra. Similar effects were observed with sucrose indicating no specific effect of trehalose at the concentrations investigated (73 to 763 mg/mL) and suggesting that it is the concentration of hydroxy groups more than the type of sugars which is guiding intermolecular interactions. PMID:23948714

Vilén, Eric Morssing; Sandström, Corine

2013-01-01

95

[Lactose malabsorption diagnosis with H2 breath test].  

PubMed

One hundred and five healthy subjects under investigation for lactose malabsorption were enrolled in this prospective study. After an overnight fast, breath was collected immediately before and every 15 minutes for three hours after an oral administration of 50 g lactose dissolved in 200 mL of water (lactose overload). Blood samples were also collected before and 20, 40 and 60 minutes after the lactose overload for blood glucose determination. Expired H2 was measured by gas chromatography using a Quintron Microlyser and the maximum increase in H2 (delta-H2) was calculated. The area under the curve (ASC-H2) was also calculated using the trapezoid model. Lactose malabsorption was defined as a maximum increase in blood glucose (delta-G) under 18 mg%. The sensibility (S), specificity (E) and accuracy (A) of the H2 determination was analyzed using (a) linear regression [log (ASC-H2) = 4.034-0.029. delta-G], (b) receiver operating curve (ROC) and by (c) Q-Q plot of the cubit root transformation of the ASC-H2 values. Our results demonstrate that ASC-H2, but not delta-H2, correlates with delta-G, suggesting that the measurement of maximum increase in H2 expired following a lactose overload is not reliable for the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption. The cutoff value for the ASC-H2 using linear regression was 3260 (S = 89.3%, E = 80% and A = 86.7%), while using ROC it was 3353 (S = 88.0%, E = 80.0% and A = 85.7%) and while using Q-Q plot method it was 2936 (S = 92.0%, E = 80.0% and A = 88.6%). When the cutoff value was set to 3000, the sensibility, specificity and accuracy were 90.7%, 80.0% and 88.6%, respectively. We conclude that the calculation of the ASC-H2, but not delta-H2, following a lactose overload is reliable in detecting lactose malabsorption and can be used in the clinical practice. PMID:10511875

Sevá-Pereira, A; da Silva, R de C; Pereira-Filho, R A

1999-01-01

96

Endogenous circulating sympatholytic factor in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathotonic orthostatic hypotension (SOH) is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, elevated plasma norepinephrine, and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance provoked by assumption of an upright posture. We studied a woman with severe progressive SOH with blood pressure unresponsive to the pressor effects of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. We tested the hypothesis that a circulating factor in this patient interferes with vascular adrenergic neurotransmission. Preincubation of porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings with patient plasma produced a dose-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in vitro, abolished vasoconstriction to direct electrical stimulation, and had no effect on nonadrenergic vasoconstrictive stimuli (endothelin-1), PGF-2alpha (or KCl). Preincubation of vessels with control plasma was devoid of these effects. SOH plasma inhibited the binding of an alpha(1)-selective antagonist radioligand ([(125)I]HEAT) to membrane fractions derived from porcine pulmonary artery vessel rings, rat liver, and cell lines selectively overexpressing human ARs of the alpha(1B) subtype but not other AR subtypes (alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)). We conclude that a factor in SOH plasma can selectively and irreversibly inhibit adrenergic ligand binding to alpha(1B) ARs. We propose that this factor contributes to a novel pathogenesis for SOH in this patient. This patient's syndrome represents a new disease entity, and her plasma may provide a unique tool for probing the selective functions of alpha(1)-ARs.

Shapiro, R. E.; Winters, B.; Hales, M.; Barnett, T.; Schwinn, D. A.; Flavahan, N.; Berkowitz, D. E.

2000-01-01

97

Lysinuric Protein Intolerance Presenting with Multiple Fractures.  

PubMed

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in SLC7A7, which encodes a component of the dibasic amino acid transporter found in intestinal and renal tubular cells. Patients typically present with vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, failure to thrive, and symptomatic hyperammonemia after protein-rich meals. Long-term complications may include pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, renal disease, and osteoporosis. We present a 5-year-old male who was followed in our skeletal dysplasia clinic for 3 years for multiple fractures, idiopathic osteoporosis, and short stature in the absence of typical features of LPI. Whole exome sequencing performed to determine the etiology of the osteoporosis and speech delay identified a nonsense mutation in SLC7A7. Chromosome microarray analysis identified a deletion involving the second allele of the same gene, and biochemical analysis supported the diagnosis of LPI. Our patient's atypical presentation underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for LPI in patients with unexplained fractures and idiopathic osteoporosis, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of hyperammonemia after protein rich meals or other systemic features of classical LPI. This case further demonstrates the utility of whole exome sequencing in diagnosis of unusual presentations of rare disorders for which early intervention may modify the clinical course. PMID:25419514

Posey, Jennifer E; Burrage, Lindsay C; Miller, Marcus J; Liu, Pengfei; Hardison, Matthew T; Elsea, Sarah H; Sun, Qin; Yang, Yaping; Willis, Alecia S; Schlesinger, Alan E; Bacino, Carlos A; Lee, Brendan H

2014-01-01

98

[Possibility of producing lactose-free products for infant and dietetic nutrition].  

PubMed

A study has been made of the conditions for manufacturing a milk-protein concentrate with a low lactose content. In order to hydrolyze lactose, defatted pasteurized milk is supplemented with yeast beta-galactosidase in an amount of 6 Units per g lactose. Milk and lactose are allowed to stand for 6-7 h at 35 degrees C, which provides a 75% hydrolysis of lactose. After thermal treatment and cooling hydrolyzed milk is subjected to lactic fermentation during which the residual amount of lactose and part of galactose are fermented. It is specified that the concentrate manufactured may be used for feeding children with upset carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:6836999

Anisimova, G A; Linke, O E

1983-01-01

99

Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses associated with orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance syndrome is characterized by postural symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion without arterial hypotension. Abnormal baroreceptor responses\\u000a with deranged cerebral autoregulation leading to cerebral vasoconstriction have been proposed as a causative mechanism. The\\u000a authors report the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses in a patient who recovered from orthostatic intolerance and\\u000a tachycardia. Changes in the orthostatic responses of mean arterial pressure

Mark P. M. Harms; Johannes J. van Lieshout

2001-01-01

100

[Current prospects for diagnosis and treatment of food intolerance].  

PubMed

In the study we found most frequent symptoms and pathological conditions associated with food intolerance and their changes when using dietary recommendations established on the results of test-FED (FED). We were determined the frequency of responses by type of food intolerance for the most common foods. We have investigated the possibility of the normalization of body weight in patients with high body mass index. PMID:25528835

Martynchuk, A A; Gubskaia, E Iu

2014-11-01

101

Assessing the re-crystallization behaviour of amorphous lactose using the RH-perfusion cell.  

PubMed

Many different reports have studied the crystallization behaviour of lactose, e.g., by exposing samples of amorphous lactose to different relative humidity at constant temperatures. However, only few reports are available investigating the formation of alpha-lactose monohydrate and beta-lactose during re-crystallization. Applying the static ampoule method in the microcalorimeter, the enthalpies of amorphous lactose were reported to be constantly 32 and 48 J/g, respectively, considering the mutarotation of lactose at 25 degrees C and 58% RH, 75% RH and 100% RH. In this study, an alternative microcalorimetric technique, the relative humidity-perfusion cell (RH-perfusion cell) was chosen. The RH-perfusion cell is able to deliver a constant and controlled flow of humidified air to the sample. Investigated compounds were purely amorphous lactose and different powder mixtures of lactose. They consisted of alpha-lactose monohydrate (Pharmatose 325M), beta-lactose (Pharmatose DCL21) or a combination (1:1) thereof as carriers, and different concentrations of amorphous lactose. The determination of the enthalpy of desorption of the just re-crystallization lactose by the RH-perfusion cell was used to discriminate whether the monohydrate or the anhydrous form of lactose was produced. Differences in the re-crystallization behaviour of lactose at 25 degrees C and 58-100% RH were found. At 60-80% RH purely amorphous lactose showed a high heat of desorption which can be attributed to a very high content of formed beta-lactose. Powder mixtures containing high contents of amorphous lactose (8% and 15%, respectively) blended with alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier resulted in similar results at the same RH ranges. The high amount of beta-lactose can be due to the equilibrium anomeric composition. Whereas powder mixtures containing beta-lactose as a carrier and amorphous lactose in a concentration of 1%, 8% and 15%, respectively, formed less beta-lactose than the mixtures containing alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier. At a relative humidity of 90% none of the powder mixtures showed desorption as to the fact that in all cases only alpha-lactose monohydrate was formed at the surface of the re-crystallized lactose. Furthermore, mixtures of alpha-lactose monohydrate and beta-lactose (1:1) and 8% amorphous lactose were investigated. An increase in formed alpha-lactose monohydrate by increasing RH was found. To consolidate the results, the same mixtures were re-crystallized at different RH in desiccators and subsequently investigated in the solution calorimeter. The results of the pre-mix were confirmed by the solution calorimeter. In summary, purely amorphous lactose and mixtures containing alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier show different re-crystallization behaviour compared to mixtures containing beta-lactose as a carrier. PMID:16527465

Timmermann, Inga-Lis; Steckel, Hartwig; Trunk, Michael

2006-08-01

102

Additivity of water sorption, alpha-relaxations and crystallization inhibition in lactose-maltodextrin systems.  

PubMed

Water sorption of lactose-maltodextrin (MD) systems, structural relaxations and lactose crystallization were studied. Accurate water sorption data for non-crystalline lactose previously not available over a wide range of water activity, aw (<0.76aw) were derived from lactose-MD systems data. Structural relaxations and crystallization of lactose in lactose-maltodextrin (MD) systems were strongly affected by water and MD. At high MD contents, inhibition of crystallization was significant. Inhibition with a high dextrose equivalent (DE) MD was more pronounced possibly because of molecular number and size effects. At 0.55-0.76aw, inhibition increased with increasing MD content. At aw>0.66, the rate of lactose crystallization decreased at increasing MD contents. Different MDs with similar Tg in lactose-MD systems showed different crystallization inhibition effects. The results of the present study showed that the DE in selection of MD for applications has important effects on component crystallization characteristics. PMID:24750913

Potes, Naritchaya; Kerry, Joseph P; Roos, Yrjö H

2012-08-01

103

[Lactose--a potential dietary fiber. The regulation of its microecological effect in the intestinal tract. 2. The nutrient effect of lactose].  

PubMed

In the small intestine lactose is subjected to the hydrolytic impact of beta-galactosidase originating mainly from the mucosa. In rats about two thirds of the enzyme activity are located in the first part of the small intestine, and one third in the second one. A part of the mucosal enzyme does not remain in the mucosa. It becomes detached and can be determined in the chymus. The ratio of the transient to the resident proportion amounts to 1.8: 1 in germfree and 0.23: 1 in conventional rats. Bacterial settlement causes an increase in the mucosal mass resulting in higher total activity whereas the specific activity of the mucosal enzyme remains unchanged. Microorganisms occurring close to the small intestine mucosa take part in lactose degradation. Lactose-containing diet leads to an increase in both the bacterial and the mucosal activity, the latter one to varying degrees. Lactose concentration in the ileal chymus rises with increasing intake of lactose and decreasing protein and phosphate intake. Following a saturation kinetics the velocity of lactose hydrolysis is correlated with the lactose concentration of the diet. alpha-lactose is hydrolysed more rapidly in the small intestine of both human sucklings and rats than beta-lactose. As the results of a mathematical model show lactose mutarotation does not effect on the degree of lactose degradation in the small intestine. Depending on the intake of lactose and the food composition the rate of lactose hydrolysis amounts to: --max. 50% after small intestine perfusion in human sucklings, --max. 80% after small intestine perfusion in rats, --max. 60% in rats with ileostomata. PMID:1664054

Zunft, H J; Schulze, J

1991-01-01

104

Preparation of agglomerated crystals of lactose for direct tabletting by the spherical crystallization technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Lactose is widely used as a filler or diluent in tablets and capsules and direct compresion grade of lactose can be used to carry small quantities of drug and this permits tablet to be made without granulation. The aim of the present study was to produce lactose agglomerates with high flowability and compactibility using crystallization technique. Methods: The spherical

105

Isothermal batch crystallization of alpha-lactose: A kinetic model combining mutarotation, nucleation and growth steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model combining first-order differential equations of the three consecutive steps of lactose crystallization, i.e., mutarotation, nucleation and crystal growth rate, was developed. Numerical solutions successfully fitted the variations of crystal mass growth rate as a function of lactose concentration during unseeded isothermal batch crystallization, at different initial lactose concentrations and temperatures. The model allowed the induction phase and

A. Mimouni; P. Schuck; S. Bouhallab

2009-01-01

106

Does mutarotation influence lactose digestion? Experimental investigations and a mathematical model.  

PubMed

The nutrient lactose acts as a potential dietary fibre. Depending on the composition of diet, lactose can partially escape from digestion and absorption in the small intestine and is utilised by the colonic microflora. The suggested mechanism, i.e. different rates of enzymatic hydrolysis of the lactose anomers and an influence of food ingredients on lactose mutarotation, seems to be supported by experimental results. The Michaelis constant of the mucosal beta-galactosidase of rats is 14 mmol/l with alpha-lactose and 50 mmol/l with beta-lactose as substrates. During intestinal perfusion of human infants, alpha-lactose is digested at a significantly higher rate than beta-lactose. The mutarotation of lactose is influenced by general acid-base catalysis. Milk formulae containing a high concentration of weak-acid anions, e.g. cow milk which is rich in phosphate and citrate, accelerate mutarotation, but milk formulae with a low content of these anions do not. With these experimental results a mathematical model has been set up simulating lactose digestion in the small intestine of human infants and of rats. The data show that certain dietary components may influence the ratio between lactose anomers, but, surprisingly, they do not influence the amount of digested lactose. PMID:2123425

Zunft, H J; Schulze, J

1990-01-01

107

Microbial flora in the digestive tract and action of lactose on mineral metabolism  

E-print Network

Microbial flora in the digestive tract and action of lactose on mineral metabolism Claude ANDRIEUX were given for 4 weeks a semi-synthetic diet containing 10 p. 100 lactose (L) or no lactose (LO. Introduction. It has been shown that the microbial flora of the digestive tract acts on mineral metabolism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

1998-01-01

109

Beta?galactosidase technology: A solution to the lactose problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose, a disaccharide more commonly known as milk sugar, is and has been a major problem for the dairy and food industry. First, the majority of human adults are incapable of digesting it owing to the deficiency of the hydrolytic enzyme beta?galactosidase and thus it is a health and nutritional problem; second, it is the main reason for the sandy

Triveni Piasad Shukla; Leopold E. Wierzbicki

1975-01-01

110

Structure and Mechanism of the Lactose Permease of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane transport proteins that transduce free energy stored in electrochemical ion gradients into a concentration gradient are a major class of membrane proteins. We report the crystal structure at 3.5 angstroms of the Escherichia coli lactose permease, an intensively studied member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. The molecule is composed of N- and C-terminal domains, each with six

Jeff Abramson; Irina Smirnova; Vladimir Kasho; Gillian Verner; H. Ronald Kaback; So Iwata

2003-01-01

111

Lactose-inducible system for metabolic engineering of Clostridium ljungdahlii.  

PubMed

The development of tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii has increased its attractiveness as a chassis for autotrophic production of organic commodities and biofuels from syngas and microbial electrosynthesis and established it as a model organism for the study of the basic physiology of acetogenesis. In an attempt to expand the genetic toolbox for C. ljungdahlii, the possibility of adapting a lactose-inducible system for gene expression, previously reported for Clostridium perfringens, was investigated. The plasmid pAH2, originally developed for C. perfringens with a gusA reporter gene, functioned as an effective lactose-inducible system in C. ljungdahlii. Lactose induction of C. ljungdahlii containing pB1, in which the gene for the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase AdhE1 was downstream of the lactose-inducible promoter, increased expression of adhE1 30-fold over the wild-type level, increasing ethanol production 1.5-fold, with a corresponding decrease in acetate production. Lactose-inducible expression of adhE1 in a strain in which adhE1 and the adhE1 homolog adhE2 had been deleted from the chromosome restored ethanol production to levels comparable to those in the wild-type strain. Inducing expression of adhE2 similarly failed to restore ethanol production, suggesting that adhE1 is the homolog responsible for ethanol production. Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. These studies demonstrate that the lactose-inducible system described here will be useful for redirecting carbon and electron flow for the biosynthesis of products more valuable than acetate. Furthermore, this tool should aid in optimizing microbial electrosynthesis and for basic studies on the physiology of acetogenesis. PMID:24509933

Banerjee, Areen; Leang, Ching; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

2014-04-01

112

Feeding Problems in Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Yes These symptoms may be a sign of LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, the inability to digest lactose. Lactose is a ... allergy or more severe intolerance to cow's milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) or wheat (CELIAC DISEASE). See your baby's doctor. ...

113

[Histamine intolerance syndrome. Its significance for ENT medicine].  

PubMed

The symptoms of histamine intolerance are similar to those of the IgE-mediated allergic immune response. Patients affected by this disease, mostly middle-aged women, suffer from conditions such as headaches and rhinitis, particularly after consuming histamine-rich foods, indulging in alcoholic beverages, or taking certain pharmaceuticals. Moreover, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions can be observed with this syndrome. This article describes the biochemical processes and cellular background of histamine intolerance syndrome and discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within otorhinolaryngology. It is our goal to direct attention to this often unrecognized clinical picture and to contribute to increased immunologic knowledge of this disease. PMID:18649066

Böttcher, I; Klimek, L

2008-08-01

114

[Histamine intolerance and pseudoallergy--do they exist?].  

PubMed

Histamine intolerance (HIT) is a controversial syndrome, in which the body is believed to react to histamine released by certain foodstuffs. Symptoms include among other things headache, urticaria and abdominal discomfort. Several fruits, nuts, spices and food additives have been regarded as pseudoallergens. Since there is no objective investigation to prove HIT, the diagnosis is based on symptoms. On the basis of literature, better clinical studies are needed. Because the phenomenon remains unclear, use of the terms histamine intolerance and pseudoallergens is not recommended. PMID:22667048

Hannuksela, Matti; Haahtela, Tari

2012-01-01

115

Novel products and new technologies for use of a familiar carbohydrate, milk lactose.  

PubMed

The cheese industry produces large amounts of lactose in the form of cheese whey and whey permeate, generating approximately 27 million tonnes/yr in the US alone. Many uses have been found for whey and lactose, including uses in infant formula; bakery, dairy, and confectionery products; animal feed; and feedstocks for lactose derivatives and several industrial fermentations. Lactose use in food products, however, is somewhat limited because of its low solubility and indigestibility in many individuals. For this reason, lactose is often hydrolyzed before use. Still, demand is insufficient to use all available whey lactose. The result is a low market value for lactose; almost half of the whey produced each year remains unused and is a significant waste disposal problem. Several approaches are possible for transforming lactose into value-added products. For example, galactooligosaccharides can be produce through enzymatic treatments of lactose and may be used as a probiotic food ingredient. Organic acids or xanthan gum may be produced via whey fermentation, and the fermented whey product can be used as a food ingredient with special functionality. This paper reviews the physical characteristics, production techniques, and current uses of lactose, whey, and lactose derivatives. Also examined are novel fermentation and separation technologies developed in our laboratory for the production of lactate, propionate, acetate, and xanthan gum from whey. PMID:8747342

Yang, S T; Silva, E M

1995-11-01

116

Lactose-induced cell death of beta-galactosidase mutants in Kluyveromyces lactis.  

PubMed

The Kluyveromyces lactis lac4 mutants, lacking the beta-galactosidase gene, cannot assimilate lactose, but grow normally on many other carbon sources. However, when these carbon sources and lactose were simultaneously present in the growth media, the mutants were unable to grow. The effect of lactose was cytotoxic since the addition of lactose to an exponentially-growing culture resulted in 90% loss of viability of the lac4 cells. An osmotic stabilizing agent prevented cells killing, supporting the hypothesis that the lactose toxicity could be mainly due to intracellular osmotic pressure. Deletion of the lactose permease gene, LAC12, abolished the inhibitory effect of lactose and allowed the cell to assimilate other carbon substrates. The lac4 strains gave rise, with unusually high frequency, to spontaneous mutants tolerant to lactose (lar1 mutation: lactose resistant). These mutants were unable to take up lactose. Indeed, lar1 mutation turned out to be allelic to LAC12. The high mutability of the LAC12 locus may be an advantage for survival of K. lactis whose main habitat is lactose-containing niches. PMID:15851101

Lodi, Tiziana; Donnini, Claudia

2005-05-01

117

Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: Carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.  

PubMed

The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ?71?m) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of ? and ?-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of ?-lactose was more as compared to ?-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose® ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations. PMID:25460546

Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

2015-02-20

118

Orthostatic Intolerance and Motion Sickness After Parabolic Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance is common in astronauts after prolonged space flight. However, the "push-pull effect" in military aviators suggests that brief exposures to transitions between hypo- and hypergravity are sufficient to induce untoward autonomic cardiovascular physiology in susceptible individuals. We therefore investigated orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular function in 16 healthy test subjects before and after a seated 2-hr parabolic flight. At the same time, we also investigated relationships between parabolic flight-induced vomiting and changes in orthostatic and autonomic cardiovascular function. After parabolic flight, 8 of 16 subjects could not tolerate a 30-min upright tilt test, compared to 2 of 16 before flight. Whereas new intolerance in non-Vomiters resembled the clinical postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), new intolerance in Vomiters was characterized by comparatively isolated upright hypocapnia and cerebral vasoconstriction. As a group, Vomiters also had evidence for increased postflight fluctuations in efferent vagal-cardiac nerve traffic occurring independently of any superimposed change in respiration. Results suggest that syndromes of orthostatic intolerance resembling those occurring after space flight can occur after a brief (i.e., 2-hr) parabolic flight.

Schlegel, Todd T.; Brown, Troy E.; Wood, Scott J.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Bondar, Roberta L.; Stein, Flo; Moradshahi, Peyman; Harm, Deborah L.; Low, Phillip A.

1999-01-01

119

Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, “ambiguity aversion” and “ambiguity intolerance,” are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, “ambiguity aversion” represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, “ambiguity intolerance” describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

2015-01-01

120

Rainbow Visibility: How One Catholic University Responded to Intolerance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)

Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn A.

2002-01-01

121

Synthesis, characterisation and microbial utilisation of amorphous polysugars from lactose.  

PubMed

The melt polymerisations of glucose, galactose, xylose and fucose with citric acid, and mixtures of sugars therein are reported. Characterisation of the citric-acid catalysed reaction products indicated similar degrees of branched polymerisation but differences in the overall molecular weight of the polymers produced. The dairy by-product lactose could not be polymerised in a similar fashion but was shown to be readily hydrolysed using microwave radiation and a polymer generated from the melt condensation of the resultant glucose and galactose monosaccharides. A preliminary assessment of the bifido-bacterial utilisation of the lactose-derived polymerised products demonstrated a significantly different growth profile compared to commercially utilised galactooligosaccharides (GOS). PMID:25498629

Daines, Alison M; Smart, Zlatka; Sims, Ian M; Tannock, Gerald W; Hinkley, Simon F R

2015-03-01

122

Management of Lactose Maldigestion by Consuming Milk Containing Lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nonfermented milk containing L.acidophilus or L. bulgaricus on lactose utilization bylactose maldigesters was investigated. Nonfermentedmilks containing L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus at 108 and 109 CFU\\/mlwere prepared using 2% low-fat milk. Lactosemaldigestion was monitored by measuring breath hydrogenat hourly intervals for 8 hr following consumption of400 ml of each diet. Nonfermented milk containing L. acidophilus B at108

Meei-Yn Lin; Chyuan-Liang Yen; Shu-Hua Chen

1998-01-01

123

Construction of a lactose-assimilating strain of baker's yeast.  

PubMed

A recombinant strain of baker's yeast has been constructed which can assimilate lactose efficiently. This strain has been designed to allow its propagation in whey, the byproduct resulting from cheese-making. The ability to metabolize lactose is conferred by the functional expression of two genes from Kluyveromyces lactis, LAC12 and LAC4, which encode a lactose permease and a beta-galactosidase, respectively. To make the recombinant strain more acceptable for its use in bread-making, the genetic transformation of the host baker's yeast was carried out with linear fragments of DNA of defined sequence, carrying as the only heterologous material the coding regions of the two K. lactis genes. Growth of the new strain on cheese whey affected neither the quality of bread nor the yeast gassing power. The significance of the newly developed strain is two-fold: it affords a cheap alternative to the procedure generally used for the propagation of baker's yeast, and it offers a profitable use for cheese whey. PMID:10509012

Adam, A C; Prieto, J A; Rubio-Texeira, M; Polaina, J

1999-09-30

124

Configuration of a bioreactor for milk lactose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Permeabilized microbial cells can be used as a crude enzyme preparation for industrial applications. Immobilization and process recycling can compensate for the low specific activity of this preparation. For biomass immobilization, the common support is alginate beads; however, its low surface area and the low biomass concentration limit the activity. We here describe a biocatalyst consisting of a paste of permeabilized Kluyveromyces lactis cells gelled with manganese alginate over a semicircular stainless steel screen. A ratio of wet permeabilized biomass to alginate of 50:4 (wt/wt) resulted in a paste with maximum immobilized beta-galactosidase activity and maximum gel biomass retention. The biocatalysts retained activity better when stored in milk at 4 degrees C than in 50% glycerol. The unused biocatalysts stored in milk did not lose activity after 50 d. However, repeated use of the same biocatalyst 40 times resulted in almost 50% loss of activity. A bioreactor design with two different conditions of operation were tested for milk lactose hydrolysis using this biocatalyst. The bioreactor was operated at 40 degrees C as packed bed or with recirculation, similar to a continuous stirred tank reactor. The continuous system with recirculation resulted in 82.9% lactose hydrolysis at a residence time of 285.5 min (flow of 2.0 ml/min), indicating the potential of this system for processing low lactose milk, or even in processing other substrates, using an appropriate biocatalyst. PMID:14507014

Genari, A N; Passos, F V; Passos, F M L

2003-09-01

125

Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis lactose genes and regulation of their expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important trait of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis , that is used in industrial dairy fermentations, is the conversion of lactose into lactic acid. The enzymatic steps involved in the breakdown of lactose, that is transported into the cell via a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent lactose phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS lac<\\/SUP>), have been well established (Fig. 1). However, except for the molecular

Rooijen van R. J

1993-01-01

126

Effects of lactose-containing stevioside sweeteners on dental biofilm acidogenicity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial lactose-containing stevioside sweetener on biofilm acidogenicity in vivo. Nine volunteers refrained from brushing their teeth for 3 days in five phases. On the 4th day of each phase, the pH of the biofilm was measured by the "Strip method". Interproximal plaque pH was measured before and up to 60 minutes after a 10 mL mouthrinse for 1 minute with the test solutions: I - sweetener with 93% lactose and 7% stevioside; II - sweetener with 6.8% saccharin, 13.6% cyclamate, and 0.82% stevioside; III - 18% sucrose solution (positive control); IV - mineral water (negative control); and V- 93% lactose solution. The results revealed that the most pronounced pH fall was found with sucrose (positive control), followed by the 93% lactose solution, the sweetener with lactose + stevioside, the sweetener with saccharin + cyclamate + stevioside, and finally water (negative control). According to the area under the curve, the two sweeteners containing stevioside were significantly different, and the sweetener with lactose + stevioside was significantly different from water but not from sucrose. The critical pH for dentin demineralization (pH ? 6.5) was reached by all volunteers after rinsing with sucrose solution, lactose solution, and the stevioside + lactose sweetener. Analysis of the data suggests that lactose-containing stevioside sweeteners may be cariogenic, especially to dentin. PMID:25098824

Giongo, Fernanda Cristina Mendes de Santana; Mua, Bruna; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Carlén, Anette; Maltz, Marisa

2014-01-01

127

Lactose-over-Glucose Preference in Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705: glcP, Encoding a Glucose Transporter, Is Subject to Lactose Repression†  

PubMed Central

Analysis of culture supernatants obtained from Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 grown on glucose and lactose revealed that glucose utilization is impaired until depletion of lactose. Thus, unlike many other bacteria, B. longum preferentially uses lactose rather than glucose as the primary carbon source. Glucose uptake experiments with B. longum cells showed that glucose transport was repressed in the presence of lactose. A comparative analysis of global gene expression profiling using DNA arrays led to the identification of only one gene repressed by lactose, the putative glucose transporter gene glcP. The functionality of GlcP as glucose transporter was demonstrated by heterologous complementation of a glucose transport-deficient Escherichia coli strain. Additionally, GlcP exhibited the highest substrate specificity for glucose. Primer extension and real-time PCR analyses confirmed that expression of glcP was mediated by lactose. Hence, our data demonstrate that the presence of lactose in culture medium leads to the repression of glucose transport and transcriptional down-regulation of the glucose transporter gene glcP. This may reflect the highly adapted life-style of B. longum in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. PMID:16452407

Parche, Stephan; Beleut, Manfred; Rezzonico, Enea; Jacobs, Doris; Arigoni, Fabrizio; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Jankovic, Ivana

2006-01-01

128

Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function. RESULTS: The patient had a high mean plasma norepinephrine concentration while standing, as compared with the mean (+/-SD) concentration in normal subjects (923 vs. 439+/-129 pg per milliliter [5.46 vs. 2.59+/-0.76 nmol per liter]), reduced systemic norepinephrine clearance (1.56 vs. 2.42+/-0.71 liters per minute), impairment in the increase in the plasma norepinephrine concentration after the administration of tyramine (12 vs. 56+/-63 pg per milliliter [0.07 vs. 0.33+/-0.37 pmol per liter]), and a disproportionate increase in the concentration of plasma norepinephrine relative to that of dihydroxyphenylglycol. Analysis of the norepinephrine-transporter gene revealed that the proband was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 (encoding a change from guanine to cytosine at position 237) that resulted in more than a 98 percent loss of function as compared with that of the wild-type gene. Impairment of synaptic norepinephrine clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by excessive sympathetic activation in response to physiologic stimuli. The mutant allele in the proband's family segregated with the postural heart rate and abnormal plasma catecholamine homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or acquired deficits in norepinephrine inactivation may underlie hyperadrenergic states that lead to orthostatic intolerance.

Shannon, J. R.; Flattem, N. L.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Black, B. K.; Biaggioni, I.; Blakely, R. D.; Robertson, D.

2000-01-01

129

Proteomic analysis in allergy and intolerance to wheat products.  

PubMed

Owing to its extensive use in the human diet, wheat is among the most common causes of food-related allergies and intolerances. Allergies to wheat are provoked by ingestion, inhalation or contact with either the soluble or the insoluble gluten proteins in wheat. Gluten proteins, and particularly the gliadin fraction, are also the main factor triggering celiac disease, a common enteropathy induced by ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related prolamins from oat, rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The role of gliadin and of its derived peptides in eliciting the adverse reactions in celiac disease are still far from being completely explained. Owing to its unique pathogenesis, celiac disease is widely investigated as a model immunogenetic disorder. The structural characterization of the injuring agents, the gluten proteins, assumes a particular significance in order to deepen the understanding of the events that trigger this and similar diseases at the molecular level. Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of several basic aspects of wheat protein-related diseases. These include: the identification of gluten fractions and derived peptides involved in wheat allergy and intolerance, including celiac disease, and the elucidation of their mechanism of toxicity; the development and validation of sensitive and specific methods for detecting trace amounts of gluten proteins in gluten-free foods for intolerant patients; and the formulation of completely new substitute foods and ingredients to replace the gluten-based ones. In this article, the main aspects of current and prospective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterization of gluten proteins and derived peptides are critically presented, with a focus on issues related to their detection, identification and quantification, which are relevant to the biochemical, immunological and toxicological aspects of wheat intolerance. PMID:21329430

Mamone, Gianfranco; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

2011-02-01

130

Drug effects on orthostatic intolerance induced by bedrest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective and practical preventive procedures for postflight orthostatic intolerance are highly desirable. The current practice of attempts to expand plasma volume by ingestion of salt and fluids before reentry has proven benefits. This study evaluated alternative options using fludrocortisone (F) to expand plasma volume (PV), dextroamphetamine (Dex) to enhance norepinephrine (NE) release, and atropine (A) to reduce the effects of vagal stimulation. Seven subjects with proven post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance returned for a 7-day 6-deg head-down bedrest study. F (0.2 mg) was given at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM the day before and 8:00 AM the day the subjects got out of bed (2 hours before standing). PV was measured before and 1 hour after the last dose of F. Dex (5 mg) and A (0.8 mg) were then taken orally 1 hour before the stand test. F expanded PV by 16 percent and caused sodium retention. Four of the 7 subjects stood for 1 hour post-bedrest and heart rate, plasma NE and plasma renin responses to standing were greatly enhanced and sustained. Although there was a narrowing of pulse pressure, the ability to overcome orthostatic intolerance with these countermeasures was largely due to vasoconstriction and sustained high heart rate.

Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Van Loon, G.; Keil, L. C.

1991-01-01

131

Lactose as a “Trojan Horse” for Quantum Dot Cell Transport**  

PubMed Central

A series of glycan-coated quantum dots were prepared to probe the effect of glycan presentation in intracellular localization in HeLa and SV40 epithelial cells. We show that glycan density mostly impacts on cell toxicity, whereas glycan type affects the cell uptake and intracellular localization. Moreover, we show that lactose can act as a “Trojan horse” on bi-functionalized QDs to help intracellular delivery of other non-internalizable glycan moieties and largely avoid the endosomal/lysosomal degradative pathway. PMID:24311369

Benito-Alifonso, David; Tremel, Shirley; Hou, Bo; Lockyear, Harriet; Mantell, Judith; Fermin, David J; Verkade, Paul; Berry, Monica; Galan, M Carmen

2014-01-01

132

Studies on tableting properties of lactose. Part III. The consolidation behaviour of sieve fractions of crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate.  

PubMed

The consolidation and compaction behaviour of sieve fractions of crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate were studied. From mercury porosimetry measurements tablet pore surface areas were derived. At a certain compaction load it appeared that tablets compressed from small particles were generally stronger and showed a larger surface area than compacts prepared from coarse sieve fractions. By plotting compact strength against pore surface area, a unique linear relationship was obtained. From these results it can be concluded that the actual tablet surface area, being a function of both the initial particle size and applied compaction pressure, is responsible for the compact strength. PMID:3714438

De Boer, A H; Vromans, H; Lerk, C F; Bolhuis, G K; Kussendrager, K D; Bosch, H

1986-04-25

133

Continuous lactose fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum - Assessment of solventogenic kinetics.  

PubMed

This work reports the results of a series of tests on the specific butanol production rate by Clostridium acetobutylicum continuous cultures. The tests were carried out using lactose as carbon source to mimic cheese-whey. A continuous stirred tank reactor equipped with a microfiltration unit was used. The dilution rate (D) ranged between 0.02 and 0.15h(-1) and the ratio R of the permeate stream rate to the stream fed to the reactor ranged between 14% and 95%. For each set of D and R values, the continuous cultures were characterized in terms of concentration of cells, acids and solvents. Results were processed to assess the concentration of acidogenic cells, solventogenic cells, spores and the specific butanol production rate. The max butanol productivity was 0.5gL(-1)h(-1) at D=0.1h(-1) and R=95%. The butanol productivity referred to solventogenic cells was expressed as a function of concentration of lactose, acids and butanol. PMID:25621726

Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Salatino, Piero; Marzocchella, Antonio

2015-03-01

134

Influence of fine lactose and magnesium stearate on low dose dry powder inhaler formulations.  

PubMed

The behaviour of dry powder blends for inhalation, depending on the amount of fine lactose particles smaller than 10microm and the presence of magnesium stearate (MgSt), was studied in this work. A laser light diffraction method was developed to determine accurately size and volume fraction of these fine lactose particles in coarse carrier lactose (x(50) approximately 220microm). A linear relationship between measured volume fraction undersize at 10microm Q(3)(10microm) and added fine lactose could be established. Aerodynamic particle size distribution analysis of lactose showed that the fine lactose was attached to the coarse particles. In the presence of MgSt this interaction was increased. Consequently, the number of free active sites on the carrier surface was reduced and the investigated drug (formoterol fumarate dihydrate) was more effectively delivered. Addition of fine lactose and MgSt improved the aerodynamic performance the drug, as determined by resulting fine particle fraction, by 3% (for each 1% of added fine lactose) and 10%, respectively. Stability tests indicated that added MgSt was the most relevant of the studied parameter to achieve a stable aerodynamic performance. Its ability to protect the moisture uptake into the system was considered as rational for this effect. PMID:17689898

Guchardi, R; Frei, M; John, E; Kaerger, J S

2008-02-01

135

Metabolites of lactose synthesis in milk from diabetic and nondiabetic women during lactogenesis II.  

PubMed

The concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), glucose 1-phosphate (G1P), UDPglucose (UDPglc), UDPgalactose (UDPgal), and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) (metabolites in the lactose synthesis pathway) were measured in mammary secretion from nondiabetic (ND) and insulin-dependent diabetic (IDD) mothers during the first 10 days postpartum to determine their relationship with the amount of lactose synthesized and their association with the delay in lactose synthesis in IDD mothers. For all mothers the concentrations of all metabolites were low initially, and in ND mothers the first increases occurred as follows: lactose--day 2; glucose, G6P and P(i)--day 3; G1P and UDPglc--day 4; and UDPgal--day 6. The first increases for IDD mothers occurred 1-4 days later than for ND mothers. The concentrations of glucose, G6P, G1P, UDPglc, and P(i) were related to the amount of lactose synthesized. Since the rate of lactose synthesis and concentrations of other metabolites were less than half-maximal while the concentration of glucose was low, and since there was a delay in the increase in mammary gland concentrations of glucose in IDD mothers, it is concluded that glucose availability has the potential to play a role in the regulation of the rate of lactose synthesis at lactogenesis II. PMID:7965458

Arthur, P G; Kent, J C; Hartmann, P E

1994-07-01

136

Effect of lactose hydrolysis on calcium absorption during duodenal milk perfusion  

E-print Network

Effect of lactose hydrolysis on calcium absorption during duodenal milk perfusion Ines BIRLOUEZ, Skala and Bakos, 1973). However, as yet there is little direct evidence that such hydrolysis show the role of lactose hydrolysis ; such a study was carried out by Debongnie et al. (1979), but only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent  

E-print Network

NOTE Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone of an anti-solvent (acetone) was investigated. Process parameters, such as acetone concentration (65­85% v suggest that >90% of lactose was recovered from whey after 1 h of stirring at an acetone concentration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium  

E-print Network

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Requirement for Phosphoglucomutase in Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis in Glucose- and Lactose-Utilizing Streptococcus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

To study the influence of phosphoglucomutase (PGM) activity on exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis in glucose- and lactose-growing Streptococcus thermophilus, a knockout PGM mutant and a strain with elevated PGM activity were constructed. The pgmA gene, encoding PGM in S. thermophilus LY03, was identified and cloned. The gene was functional in Escherichia coli and was shown to be expressed from its own promoter. The pgmA-deficient mutant was unable to grow on glucose, while the mutation did not affect growth on lactose. Overexpression of pgmA had no significant effect on EPS production in glucose-growing cells. Neither deletion nor overexpression of pgmA changed the growth or EPS production on lactose. Thus, the EPS precursors in lactose-utilizing S. thermophilus are most probably formed from the galactose moiety of lactose via the Leloir pathway, which circumvents the need for a functional PGM. PMID:11375188

Levander, Fredrik; Rådström, Peter

2001-01-01

140

Effect of pelvic irradiation of lactose absorption. [. gamma. rays or x rays were used in gynecologic malignancy therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients undergoing pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancies had ¹⁴C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of their treatment. The ¹⁴C-lactose breath test was performed by administering 2 ..mu..Ci of ¹⁴C-lactose by mouth along with 50 g of lactose. Breath samples were collected in ethanolic hyamine 1, 2, and 3 hr later; the radioactivity of the trapped

J. A. Stryker; R. Mortel; G. W. Hepner

1978-01-01

141

Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

142

Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

1991-01-01

143

[Soluble apoptosis markers in obese patients with food intolerance].  

PubMed

For the soluble apoptosis markers study 151 patients with obesity (92 women and 59 men) aged between 18 and 63 years were examined. Diagnosis and degree of obesity was based on the body mass index (38.2 +/- 5.4 kg/m2). Generally food intolerance was identified in 36.4% of obese patients. Four groups of patients were formed: three groups of patients with obesity stage I (15 patients), II (18 patients) and III (22 patients), respectively, and with food intolerance, and a group of obese patients without food intolerance (control group, n = 31). Obese patients with food intolerance received standard version of hypocaloric diet with the exception of specific food allergens. Duration of observation was 39-43 days. Such soluble apoptosis markers as sFas-L, Caspase-9, Caspase-8 and sCD153 were significantly higher in stage III obesity patients compared obese patients without food allergy (0.120 +/- 0.030 vs 0.035 +/- 0.010; 13.2 +/- 3.2 vs 5.9 +/- 0.4; 1.4 +/- 0.18 vs 0.6 +/- 0.24; 0.123 +/- 0.010 vs 0.025 +/- 0.002 ng/ml respectively). Positive dynamic of sFas-L, Caspase-9 and Caspase-8 (decrease to 0.052 +/- 0.030; 7.7 +/- 2.2 and 0.4 +/- 0.18 ng/ml respectively) in patients with obesity stage III and intactness sCD153 during diet therapy course were revealed. Significant differences for only Caspase-9 in patients with obesity stage II were obtained. The data obtained are considered as normalization of apoptosis due to nutritional correction of immunological disorders. Study of sFas-L, Caspase-9 and Caspase-8 allows to predict the course of disease, as immunological research for early detection of food allergy makes possible to implement the principles of personalized diet therapy. PMID:25059065

Vorozhko, I V; Sentsova, T B; Kirillova, O O; Gapparova; Chekhonina, Iu G

2014-01-01

144

[Aspirin-Intolerance-Syndrom : a common and interdisciplinary disease].  

PubMed

The full clinical picture of aspirin intolerance - the association of aspirin-induced bronchial asthma, aspirin sensitivity and nasal polyps - has been described as Morbus Widal or later as the "Samter triad". Today the term Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is preferred to account for the progressive nature of this inflammatory airway condition with its unrelenting course even in the absence of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). This acquired idiosyncrasy appears to be related to an abnormal arachidonic acid metabolism. Epidemiological data suggests that 10% of all asthmatics do react with life-threatening asthma-attacks after the ingestion of aspirin (ASA) or other NSAID. Some asthmatics with nasal polyposis have been reported to suffer from aspirin intolerance. Although the exact mechanism is still unclear, it is unlikely that the pathogenesis is IgE-mediated. Patients often report chronic nasal obstruction, hyposmia, chronic rhinorrhoea, orbital edema and urticaria with flushing after the ingestion of NSAID. While a typical history and endoscopic findings can be suggestive of AERD, a definite diagnosis relies on appropriate challenge tests. AERD is often refractory to standard asthma treatment with systemic and inhaled steroids, ?(2)-agonists, leukotrien-antagonists. Adaptive desactivation can induce a reversible tolerance to NSAID which also leads to an improvement in signs and symptoms of the underlying AERD. PMID:20725708

Umbreit, C; Virchow, J C; Thorn, C; Hörmann, K; Klimek, L; Pfaar, O

2010-09-01

145

The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.  

PubMed

The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400MPa) at 20°C for 40min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. PMID:25466047

Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

2015-04-15

146

Kinetics and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JA6.  

PubMed

Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24504708

Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M

2014-07-01

147

Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the…

Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

2007-01-01

148

Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

2010-01-01

149

Cow milk protein allergy presenting as feeding intolerance and eosinophilia: case reports of three preterm neonates.  

PubMed

Three preterm infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) presented with feeding intolerance, sepsis-like episodes and persistent moderate-to-severe eosinophilia. After eliminating cow milk, the clinical symptoms improved significantly. CMPA can cause common manifestations in sick preterm infants such as feeding intolerance and eosinophilia. PMID:25410689

Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Siripool, Khanitha; Prempunpong, Chatchay; Singvijarn, Prapasiri; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Supapannachart, Sarayut

2014-11-19

150

The Intolerance of Uncertainty Index: Replication and Extension with an English Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to anxiety, depression, worry, and anxiety sensitivity. Precedent IU measures were criticized for psychometric instability and redundancy; alternative measures include the novel 45-item measure (Intolerance of Uncertainty Index; IUI). The IUI was developed in French with 2 parts, assessing general…

Carleton, R. Nicholas; Gosselin, Patrick; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

2010-01-01

151

Studies on Intolerance in American Life. Program in American History and Civilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrative selected for this unit on intolerance illustrates the perennial and universal methods for scapegoating. The general teaching objectives are to lead the students: 1) to feelings of tolerance toward individuals and groups who are different; 2) to investigate intolerance in terms of some of its causes: fear, deprivation, threatened…

Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs.

152

A comparison of intolerance of uncertainty in analogue obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance of uncertainty has been defined as the unwillingness to tolerate the possibility that negative events may occur in the future, no matter how low the probability [Personality Individual Differences 17 (1994), 791–802]. Previous research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be more specific to worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than to other anxiety disorders [e.g., Dugas, M. J.,

Robert M. Holaway; Richard G. Heimberg; Meredith E. Coles

2006-01-01

153

Mechanisms of Orthostatic Intolerance During Real and Simulated Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session MP1 includes short reports on: (1) Orthostatic Tests after 42 Days of Simulated Weightlessness; (2) Effects of 12 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity on Central Circulatory Hemodynamics in the Rhesus Monkey; (3) Increased Sensitivity and Resetting of Baroflex Control of Exercise Heart Rate After Prolonged Bed-Rest; (4) Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics and Deconditioning During Head-down Bed Rest; (5) The Cardiovascular Effects of 6 Hours of Head-down Tilt Upon Athletes and Non-athletes; (6) Individual Susceptibility to Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance: Contributions of Gender-related and Microgravity-related Factors; (7) Cassiopee Mission 1996: Comparison of Cardiovascular Alteration after Short and Long-term Spaceflights; (8) Cerebral and Femoral Flow Response to LBNP during 6 Month MIR Spaceflights (93-95); and (9) Cerebrovascular Changes due to Spaceflight and Postflight Presyncope.

1997-01-01

154

Defined bacterial culture development for methane generation from lactose. [Streptococcus lactis; Clostridium formicoaceticum; Methanococcus mazei  

SciTech Connect

The defined microbial cultures for methane generation from lactose were investigated. A mixed culture consisting of homolactic (Streptococcus lactis), homoacetic (Clostridium formicoaceticum), and acetate-utilizing methanogenic (Methanococcus mazei) bacteria was used to convert lactose and whey permeate to methane at mesophilic temperatures (35-37/sup 0/C) and a pH around 7.0. Lactose was first converted to lactic acid by S. lactis, then to acetic acid by C. formicoaceticum, and finally to methane and CO/sub 2/ by M. mazei. About 5.3 mol methane were obtained from each mole of lactose consumed, and the conversion of acetate to methane was the rate-limiting step for this mixed-culture fermentation.

Yang, S.T.; Tang, I.C.; Okos, M.R.

1988-06-20

155

Fat Distribution and Glucose Intolerance Among Greenland Inuit  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit participated in a population-based study. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. VAT and SAT were measured by ultrasound according to a validated protocol. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors was obtained by interview. RESULTS Mean SATs were 1.8 and 3.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Mean VATs were 7.0 and 6.3 cm in men and women, respectively. The total prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9%. Percentage of body fat generally was most strongly associated with all outcomes. Both SAT and VAT were significantly associated with glucose intolerance, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, and ISI0,120. VAT was more strongly associated with all outcomes than was SAT. After further adjustment for BMI or WC, VAT was associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend toward a negative or no association with SAT. CONCLUSIONS High mean values of SAT may to a large extent explain the high WC in Inuit populations, and this is suggested to contribute to the lower observed metabolic risk for a given level of obesity. PMID:23656981

Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald; Bjerregaard, Peter

2013-01-01

156

Human gut microbiota changes reveal the progression of glucose intolerance.  

PubMed

To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n?=?44), prediabetes (Pre-DM; n?=?64), or newly diagnosed T2DM (n?=?13). Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP) and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6) had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24013136

Zhang, Xiuying; Shen, Dongqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Jie, Zhuye; Qiu, Xinmin; Zhang, Chunfang; Chen, Yingli; Ji, Linong

2013-01-01

157

Lactose-Enhanced Cellulase Production by Microbacterium sp. Isolated from Fecal Matter of Zebra ( Equus zebra )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cellulase-producing bacterial strain designated Z5 was isolated from the fecal matter of Zebra (Equus zebra). The strain was identified as Microbacterium sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The effect of substrates like CMC, avicel, starch, maltose, sucrose, glucose,\\u000a fructose, galactose, and lactose on cellulase production was also determined. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase

Sangrila Sadhu; Pradipta Saha; Shanmugam Mayilraj; Tushar Kanti Maiti

2011-01-01

158

At-line measurement of lactose in dairy-processing plants.  

PubMed

Environmental and process control applications have needs for sensors that operate continuously or repeatedly, making them applicable to batch measurement and flowing product stream measurement. Additionally, for lactose monitoring in dairy-processing plants, the sensors must have sufficient flexibility to handle a wide range of substrate concentration and be resilient to withstand wide pH excursions brought about by frequent exposure to clean-in-place chemicals that happen without any warning. This paper describes the development and trialling of an at-line lactose biosensor that meets the needs of the dairy industry for loss monitoring of lactose in dairy-processing plants by the combination of a third-generation enzyme biosensor with a sequential injection analyser. Results, both from grab sample analysis and an at-line factory prototype, are shown from their operation when installed at a Fonterra dairy factory (New Zealand) during the 2011-2012 season. Previous sensor fabrication methods were converted to a single-step process, and the flow-through cell was adapted to bubble-free operation. The lactose concentration in wastewater-processing streams was successfully monitored by taking and analysing samples every 2-3 min, semi-continuously, for 3 months by an unskilled operator. The Fonterra site flushes approximately 100-300,000 L of wastewater per hour from its lactose plant. In the 2011-2012 season, the daily mean lactose content of this wastewater varied significantly, from 0.0 to 8.0% w/v (0-233,712 ?M) and equated to substantial total losses of lactose over a 6-month period. These lactose losses represent lost saleable or useable product. PMID:23241817

Glithero, Nick; Clark, Claire; Gorton, Lo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Pasco, Neil

2013-04-01

159

Athermal character of the solid state amorphization of lactose induced by ball milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the possibility to reach pure glassy amorphous lactose by ball milling of crystalline ? lactose under a dry nitrogen atmosphere. This route to the glassy state is found to be free of mutarotation towards the anomer ? while this mutarotation is unavoidable using the usual thermal route, i.e. the quench of the liquid. This result definitely makes the 'local quench melting' hypothesis unsuitable to account for amorphization by ball milling.

Willart, J. F.; Caron, V.; Lefort, R.; Danède, F.; Prévost, D.; Descamps, M.

2004-12-01

160

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Oligosaccharides Formed During ?-Galactosidase Action on Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatog- raphy was used to determine the formation of oligosaccharides during 3-galactosidase action on lactose. Lactose solutions (5 and 20%) in .025 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.60) were inoculated with 3-galactosidase at 1 and 2 \\/lmol ortho- nitrophenol units\\/ml from two different microbial sources and incubated at 4°C for 24 h and 37°C for 4 h.

I. J. Jeon; V. R. Mantha

1985-01-01

161

Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: studies with a mutant lacking glucokinase and mannose-phosphotransferase activities  

SciTech Connect

A mutant of Streptococcus lactis 133 has been isolated that lacks both glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannose- phosphotransferase (mannose-PTS) activities. The double mutant S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- is unable to utilize either exogenously supplied or intracellularly generated glucose for growth. Fluorographic analyses of metabolites formed during the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)lactose labeled specifically in the glucose or galactosyl moiety established that the cells were unable to phosphorylate intracellular glucose. However, cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- readily metabolized intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, and the growth rates and cell yield of the mutant and parental strains on sucrose were the same. During growth on lactose, S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- fermented only the galactose moiety of the disaccharide, and 1 mol of glucose was generated per mol of lactose consumed. For an equivalent concentration of lactose, the cell yield of the mutant was 50% that of the wild type. The specific rate of lactose utilization by growing cells of S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- was ca. 50% greater than that of the wild type, but the cell doubling times were 70 and 47 min, respectively. High-resolution /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lactose transport by starved cells of S. lactis 133 and S. lactis 133 mannose-PTSd GK- showed that the latter cells contained elevated lactose-PTS activity. Throughout exponential growth on lactose, the mutant maintained an intracellular steady-state glucose concentration of 100 mM.

Thompson, J.; Chassy, B.M.; Egan, W.

1985-04-01

162

Associations among milk production traits and glycosylated haemoglobin in dairy cattle; importance of lactose synthesis potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is the major precursor of lactose synthesis in the mammary gland. Lactose the major carbohydrate and osmolyte of milk,\\u000a controls milk volume and its concentration. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbG) is a retrospective measure of mean blood glucose\\u000a level and it is largely unaffected by recent physiological conditions and environmental events. The purposes of this study\\u000a were to determine the correlations

Homayon Reza Shahbazkia; Mahmoud Aminlari; Atoosa Tavasoli; Ahmad Reza Mohamadnia; Alfredo Cravador

2010-01-01

163

Some PhysicoChemical Properties of LactoseIV. The Influence of Salts and Acids Upon the Mutarotation Velocity of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose contains a free aldehyde group, and therefore it is capable of existing in two different isomeric modifications. When either of these is dissolved in water, it is partially transformed into the other until an equilibrium is reached. The transformation is slow at low temperatures. This fact is of practical importance because the rate of mutarotation sets an upper limit

B. L. Herrington

1934-01-01

164

Cooperative binding of lactose and the phosphorylated phosphocarrier protein HPr(Ser-P) to the lactose/H+ symport permease of Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis accumulates lactose and nonmetabolizable lactose analogues via sugar/H+ symport, but addition of glucose to the extracellular medium results in rapid efflux of the free sugar from the cells due to the uncoupling of sugar transport from proton transport. By using vesicles of L. brevis cells, we recently showed that these regulatory/effects could be attributed to the metabolite-activated ATP-dependent protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier protein HPr [HPr(Ser-P)] of the phosphotransferase system and that a mutant form of HPr with the serine-46-->aspartate replacement ([S46D]HPr) is apparently locked in the seryl phosphorylated conformation. We here demonstrate that [S46D]HPr binds directly to inside-out membrane vesicles of L. brevis that contain the lactose permease. Sugar substrates of the permease markedly and specifically stimulate binding of [S46D]HPr to the membranes while certain transport inhibitors such as N-ethylmaleimide block binding. The pH dependency for binding follows that for transport. Wild-type HPr and the [S46A]HPr mutant protein did not appreciably compete with [S46D]HPr for binding to the permease. These results provide evidence for the direct interaction of HPr(Ser-P) with an allosteric site on the lactose/proton symporter of L. brevis for the purpose of regulating sugar accumulation in response to the metabolic needs of the cell. PMID:7831302

Ye, J J; Saier, M H

1995-01-17

165

Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?  

PubMed Central

Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

Gibson, Peter R.

2012-01-01

166

Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ills  

PubMed Central

Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and thus requires promptly and effective treatment. Prokinetic agents are currently considered as the first-line therapy given issues relating to parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric placement. Currently, the agents of choice are erythromycin and metoclopramide, either alone or in combination, which are highly effective with relatively low incidence of cardiac, hemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. Diarrhea, however, can occur in up to 49% of patients who are treated with the dual prokinetic therapy, which is not associated with Clostridium difficile infection and settled soon after the cessation of the drugs. Hence, the use of prokinetic therapy over a long period or for prophylactic purpose must be avoided, and the indication for ongoing use of the drug(s) must be reviewed frequently. Second line therapy, such as total parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric feeding, must be considered once adverse effects relating the prokinetic therapy develop. PMID:25133043

Nguyen, Nam Q

2014-01-01

167

Salicylate intolerance: a masquerader of multiple adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

A female in her early 50s presented with a long-standing history of episodic urticaria and angioedema. She also reported urticarial reactions after ingestion of aspirin, prednisone and multiple antibiotics. These medications were all taken during upper respiratory tract infections. An elimination diet followed by a series of open challenges to food chemicals demonstrated an urticarial eruption following the ingestion of mints, which contain high levels of salicylates. A double-blinded placebo-controlled challenge to salicylate confirmed her sensitivity and explained her reaction to aspirin. The patient informed her treating physician of her copious ingestion of mints during upper respiratory tract infections. Drug hypersensitivity to antibiotics and prednisone was excluded on the basis of negative radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) and/or absent skin-test responses and/or tolerance to oral challenges. This patient had a salicylate intolerance that caused her episodic urticaria and angioedema, and also masqueraded as a drug allergy due to the concurrent ingestion of mints. PMID:21918670

Fernando, Suran Loshana; Clarke, Lesley R

2009-01-01

168

Drying and denaturation characteristics of whey protein isolate in the presence of lactose and trehalose.  

PubMed

The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65°C and 80°C) for 500s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65°C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80°C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose. PMID:25660851

Haque, M Amdadul; Chen, Jie; Aldred, Peter; Adhikari, Benu

2015-06-15

169

Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3? end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, ?-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

Gosalbes, María José; Esteban, Carlos David; Galán, José Luis; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

2000-01-01

170

Permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus with mild detergent for whey lactose hydrolysis and augmentation of mixed culture.  

PubMed

Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese-manufacturing industries, and the utilization of whey is a challenging problem either to use it or dispose it, because only few microorganisms can metabolize the whey lactose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose and galactose by ?-galactosidase is the approach for biotechnological application. Kluyveromyces marxianus cells were permeabilized with non-toxic, biodegradable, anionic detergent N-lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) for the enzyme activity. The permeabilization process parameters (N-LS concentration, solvent volume, temperature and incubation time) were optimized. The maximum ?-galactosidase activity of 1,220 IU/g dry weight was obtained using permeabilized cells under optimized conditions. Moreover, viability of the permeabilized cells was also evaluated, which showed that cells were alive; however, viability was reduced by two log cycles. The permeabilized cells were evaluated for whey lactose hydrolysis. The maximum lactose hydrolysis of 91% was observed with 600 mg (dry cell weight/100 mL) in whey powder (5% w/v) solution at 180-min incubation, pH 6.5 and 30 °C. Further, the hydrolyzed whey was evaluated for amelioration of growth of non-lactose-consuming yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae was able to grow in hydrolyzed whey simultaneously with K. marxianus. The study confirmed that N-LS could be used to permeabilize K. marxianus cells to make available the enzyme activity. PMID:24500798

Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Bezawada, Jyothi; Yan, Song; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

2014-03-01

171

Quantitation of ?-Lactalbumin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Adjuvant Lactose  

PubMed Central

Lactose is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient, sometimes irreplaceable. Traces of residual proteins left during production of lactose are potential allergen to body. The present paper describes a sensitive and specific LC-MS method for the determination of ?-lactalbumin (?-La) in lactose samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH300 C18 column (2.1 × 150?mm, 1.7??m) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile containing 0.1% TFA (80?:?20, v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of m/z 2364 for ?-La. The calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 10?µg/mL. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 7.6% and the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 104.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.15?µg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05?µg/mL. This method was then successfully applied to investigate 6 different lactose samples. The application can provide technical preparation for the development of specification of lactose.

Yan, Rui; Qu, Longmei; Luo, Nan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Chen, Lijiang

2014-01-01

172

Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ?14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2–3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns. PMID:24392279

Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

2013-01-01

173

An examination of distress intolerance in undergraduate students high in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance. PMID:25299853

MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M

2015-01-01

174

Shared Variance among Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Distress intolerance may be an important individual difference variable in understanding maladaptive coping responses across diagnostic categories. However, the measurement of distress intolerance remains inconsistent across studies and little evidence for convergent validity among existing measures is available. This study evaluated the overlap among self-report and behavioral measures of distress intolerance in four samples, including an unselected sample, a sample of patients with drug dependence, and two samples of cigarette smokers. Results suggested that the self-report measures were highly correlated, as were the behavioral measures; however, behavioral and self-report measures did not exhibit significant associations with each other. There was some evidence of domain specificity, with anxiety sensitivity demonstrating strong associations with somatic distress intolerance, and a lack of association between behavioral measures that elicit affective distress and those that elicit somatic distress. These findings highlight a potential divergence in the literature relative to the conceptualization of distress intolerance as either sensitivity to distress or as the inability to persist at a task when distressed. Further research is needed to elucidate the conceptualization and measurement of distress intolerance to facilitate future clinical and research applications of this construct. PMID:23894216

McHugh, R. Kathryn; Daughters, Stacey B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Murray, Heather W.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Otto, Michael W.

2013-01-01

175

Histamine 50-skin-prick test: a tool to diagnose histamine intolerance.  

PubMed

Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

2011-01-01

176

Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ?3?mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance. PMID:23724226

Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

2011-01-01

177

Simultaneous determination of hydrolysis and mutarotation rates during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose.  

PubMed

An experiment is described in which a custom-made glucose electrode is used to directly monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose to glucose. The transient profile of beta- d-glucose can be used to simultaneously determine the rate constants for mutarotation and for enzymatic hydrolysis by applying a dynamic nonlinear regression routine. Due to differences in the mutarotation rate constants between lactose and glucose, the beta- d-glucose concentration "overshoots" equilibrium under certain conditions, which can be modeled mathematically. This overshoot can be observed reliably and used to quantify the differences in mutarotational equilibria between glucose and lactose. These observations may be important for the analysis of dairy products and commercial lactase preparations and illustrate an unusual kinetic phenomenon caused by intramolecular forces. This approach may also be important for the accurate determination of a variety of oligosaccharides such as glycogen, which tend to be composed primarily of one stereoisomer. PMID:18712880

Jenkins, Daniel M; Teruel, Michael A; Reyes-de-Corcuera, José I; Young, Owen

2008-09-24

178

Inhalable Lactose-Based Dry Powder Formulations of Low Molecular Weight Heparin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Currently low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is administered as subcutaneous injection. This study sought to investigate the feasibility of LMWH as an inhalable dry powder (DPI) formulation and evaluate the interaction of the drug with lactose when used as a carrier. The study also compares the extent of pulmonary absorption of LMWH administered as a dry powder with that administered as an aerosolized aqueous solution. Methods The formulations were prepared by mixing LMWH in an aqueous solution of lactose followed by lyophilization of the resulting solution. The lyophilized preparation was then ground and sieved. Physical characterization of the formulations was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, and determination of aerodynamic diameter. For in vivo studies, formulations were administered to anesthetized rats, and drug absorption was monitored by measuring plasma antifactor Xa activity. Results and Conclusions In the FTIR scan, all characteristic peaks of lactose and LMWH were observed, suggesting that there was no strong interaction between lactose and LMWH. Although the aerodynamic diameter of the formulation (DPI-2) that was sieved through 170- and 230-mesh screens was similar to that of the formulation (DPI-1) sieved through 120- and 170-mesh screens, the particle sizes of the two formulations were significantly different. Dry powder formulations of LMWH were better absorbed compared to an inhalable solution of LMWH. One of the dry powder formulations (DPI-2) produced an almost 1.5-fold increase in the relative bioavailability (41.6%) compared to the liquid formulation of LMWH (32.5%). Overall, the data presented here suggest that lactose does not adversely affect the physical-chemical characteristics of the drug, and that lactose can be used as a carrier for pulmonary delivery of LMWH. PMID:19778265

Bai, Shuhua; Gupta, Vivek

2010-01-01

179

Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2).

Serrador, J. M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Brown, T. E.; Kassam, M. S.; Bondar, R. L.; Schlegel, T. T.

2000-01-01

180

Cerebral vasoconstriction precedes orthostatic intolerance after parabolic flight.  

PubMed

The effects of brief but repeated bouts of micro- and hypergravity on cerebrovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) were examined in 13 individuals after (compared to before) parabolic flight. Middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA MFV; transcranial Doppler ultrasound), eye level blood pressure (BP) and end tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) were measured while supine and during 80 degrees HUT for 30 min or until presyncope. In the postflight tests subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT) (n = 7) or intolerant (OI) (n = 6). BP was diminished with HUT in the OT group in both tests (p < 0.05) whereas postflight BP was not different from supine in the OI group. Postflight compared to preflight, the reduction in P(ET)CO(2) with HUT (p < 0.05) increased in both groups, although significantly so only in the OI group (p < 0.05). The OI group also had a significant decrease in supine MCA MFV postflight (p < 0.05) that was unaccompanied by a change in supine P(ET)CO(2). The decrease in MCA MFV that occurred during HUT in both groups preflight (p < 0.05) was accentuated only in the OI group postflight, particularly during the final 30 s of HUT (p < 0.05). However, this accentuated decrease in MCA MFV was not correlated to the greater decrease in P(ET)CO(2) during the same period (R = 0.20, p = 0.42). Although cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) also increased in the OI group during the last 30 s of HUT postflight (p < 0.05), the dynamic autoregulatory gain was not simultaneously changed. Therefore, we conclude that in the OI individuals, parabolic flight was associated with cerebral hypoperfusion following a paradoxical augmentation of CVR by a mechanism that was not related to changes in autoregulation nor strictly to changes in P(ET)CO(2). PMID:11033215

Serrador, J M; Shoemaker, J K; Brown, T E; Kassam, M S; Bondar, R L; Schlegel, T T

2000-09-01

181

Utility of Corrected QT Interval in Orthostatic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.8±33.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.5±30.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.3±6.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.3±0.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.7±28.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.5±9.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.8±0.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=??0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=??0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH. PMID:25180969

Kim, Jung Bin; Hong, Soonwoong; Park, Jin-Woo; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Byung-Jo

2014-01-01

182

Investigation of Electrostatic Behavior of a Lactose Carrier for Dry Powder Inhalers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aims to elucidate the electrostatic behavior of a model lactose carrier used in dry powder inhaler formulations\\u000a by examining the effects of ambient relative humidity (RH), aerosolization air flow rate, repeated inhaler use, gelatin capsule\\u000a and tapping on the specific charge (nC\\/g) of bulk and aerosolized lactose.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Static and dynamic electrostatic charge measurements were performed using

Keat Theng Chow; Kewu Zhu; Reginald B. H. Tan; Paul W. S. Heng

2008-01-01

183

Genic Intolerance to Functional Variation and the Interpretation of Personal Genomes  

PubMed Central

A central challenge in interpreting personal genomes is determining which mutations most likely influence disease. Although progress has been made in scoring the functional impact of individual mutations, the characteristics of the genes in which those mutations are found remain largely unexplored. For example, genes known to carry few common functional variants in healthy individuals may be judged more likely to cause certain kinds of disease than genes known to carry many such variants. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop a quantitative assessment of how well genes tolerate functional genetic variation on a genome-wide scale. Here we describe an effort that uses sequence data from 6503 whole exome sequences made available by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Specifically, we develop an intolerance scoring system that assesses whether genes have relatively more or less functional genetic variation than expected based on the apparently neutral variation found in the gene. To illustrate the utility of this intolerance score, we show that genes responsible for Mendelian diseases are significantly more intolerant to functional genetic variation than genes that do not cause any known disease, but with striking variation in intolerance among genes causing different classes of genetic disease. We conclude by showing that use of an intolerance ranking system can aid in interpreting personal genomes and identifying pathogenic mutations. PMID:23990802

Petrovski, Slavé; Wang, Quanli; Heinzen, Erin L.; Allen, Andrew S.; Goldstein, David B.

2013-01-01

184

Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate feeding of piglets weaned at 10 days. Effects of lactose from whey ultrafiltrate value of three carbohydrate sources incorporated into a dry pelleted milk replacer for piglets weaned were replaced by an association of soluble fish protein concentrate (SFPC 80) and the carbohydrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

2012-01-01

186

Use of novel immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor to hydrolyze the lactose constituent of skim milk.  

PubMed

beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae immobilized in an axial-annular flow reactor was used to effect the hydrolysis of the lactose component of skim milk. Nonlinear regression methods were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of four rate expressions derived from a proposed enzymatic mechanism. Data taken at three different temperatures (30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 50 degrees C) were fit via nonlinear regression methods assuming an Arrhenius temperature model for each of the parameters. For the reaction conditions used in this research, a three-parameter rate expression which includes the separate competitive inhibition effects of alpha- and beta-galactose (and the associated mutarotation reaction) is sufficient to model the hydrolysis of lactose in skim milk. The effects of temperature on the individual kinetic parameters are small. The most significant effect appears in the term for inhibition by the beta anomer of galactose (E(A) = 10.3 kcal/mol). At 40 degrees C and a space time of 10 min, 70% of the lactose present in skim milk can be hydrolyzed with the axial-annular flow reactor. This reactor can be used to hydrolyze the lactose in skim milk without the problems observed with other reactor configurations, namely, plugging due to particulates, microbial contamination, and large pressure drop. PMID:18595081

Bakken, A P; Hill, C G; Amundson, C H

1990-07-01

187

Lactational Response to a Feed Supplement Containing Fermentation Products, Cobalt, Dextrose, and Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feed supplement containing dried microbial fermentation products, cobalt, dextrose, and lactose was fed at 15 g per cow daily to 10 lactating Holstein cows in a switchback experiment with three periods of 5 wk each. Cows averaged 80 days postpartum and produced from 28 to 45 kg daily at the beginning of the experiment. Throughout the 15-wk experiment, cows

D. J. Schingoethe; F. C. Ludens; T. Sahlu

1984-01-01

188

Color Development in Lactose Solutions during Heating with Special Reference to the Color of Evaporated Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the manufacture of those dairy products which are processed at high temperatures or which contain a large quantity of reducing sugar, an unde- sirable brown color develops. This color is especially noticeable in the manufacture of milk sugar, evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk. It is a matter of general experience in lactose manufacture that during the heating of

B. H. Webb

1935-01-01

189

Comparison of properties of tablets and energy profile of compaction of two spray-dried lactoses.  

PubMed

The paper compared two spray-dried lactoses Flowlac 100 and SuperTab 14SD from the standpoint of tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets, the effect of an addition of the lubricant magnesium stearate and silicified microcrystalline cellulose on these properties, and also from the standpoint of the energy profile of compression. The comparison of the values was performed at the compression force of 15 kN. The strength of tablets was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increase in the concentration of magnesium stearate did not decrease tablet strength. Prosolv SMCC 90 increased the strength of tablets and made it equal for both lactoses, but it also increased the sensitivity to the added lubricant. The disintegration time of tablets was shorter in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increased concentration of magnesium stearate prolonged it, and an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 shortened it and made it equal for both lactoses. From the energy standpoint, the maximal energy was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 increased it and again made it equal for both lactoses. The differences in the values of the maximal energy were primarily due to the values of the energy for friction and the energy accumulated by the tablet after compression, and there was no marked difference in the values of the energy of decompression. SuperTab 14SD showed a higher plasticity than Flowlac 100. PMID:23610968

Muzíková, Jitka; Sináglová, Pavla

2013-01-01

190

Elements Involved in Catabolite Repression and Substrate Induction of the Lactose Operon in Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

In Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, the chromosomally encoded lactose operon, lacTEGF, encodes an antiterminator protein (LacT), lactose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) elements (LacE and LacF), and a phospho-?-galactosidase. lacT, lacE, and lacF mutant strains were constructed by double crossover. The lacT strain displayed constitutive termination at a ribonucleic antiterminator (RAT) site, whereas lacE and lacF mutants showed an inducer-independent antiterminator activity, as shown analysis of enzyme activity obtained from transcriptional fusions of lac promoter (lacp) and lacp?RAT with the Escherichia coli gusA gene in the different lac mutants. These results strongly suggest that in vivo under noninducing conditions, the lactose-specific PTS elements negatively modulate LacT activity. Northern blot analysis detected a 100-nucleotide transcript starting at the transcription start site and ending a consensus RAT sequence and terminator region. In a ccpA mutant, transcription initiation was derepressed but no elongation through the terminator was observed in the presence of glucose and the inducing sugar, lactose. Full expression of lacTEGF was found only in a man ccpA double mutant, indicating that PTS elements are involved in the CcpA-independent catabolite repression mechanism probably via LacT. PMID:10383959

Gosalbes, María José; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

1999-01-01

191

NCOA5 Haplo-insufficiency Results in Glucose Intolerance and Subsequent Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and male gender are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. We demonstrate that heterozygous deletion of the Ncoa5 gene causes spontaneous development of HCC, exclusively in male mice. Tumor development is preceded by increased IL-6 expression, early-onset glucose intolerance, and progressive steatosis and dysplasia in livers. Blockading IL-6 overexpression averts glucose intolerance and partially deters HCC development. Moreover, reduced NCOA5 expression is associated with a fraction of human HCCs and HCCs with comorbid T2D. These findings suggest that NCOA5 is a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor, and NCOA5 deficiency increases susceptibility to both glucose intolerance and HCC, partially by increasing IL-6 expression. Thus, our findings open additional avenues for developing therapeutic approaches to combat these diseases. PMID:24332041

Gao, Shenglan; Li, Aimin; Liu, Feiye; Chen, Fengsheng; Williams, Mark; Zhang, Chengliang; Kelley, Zakiya; Wu, Chin-Lee; Luo, Rongcheng; Xiao, Hua

2013-01-01

192

Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms. PMID:25166918

Nordin, Steven; Neely, Gregory; Olsson, David; Sandström, Monica

2014-01-01

193

Galactooligosaccharides derived from lactose and lactulose: influence of structure on Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium growth.  

PubMed

The effect of structure on the fermentative properties of potential prebiotic trisaccharides derived from lactulose like 6'-galactosyl-lactulose (?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-fructopyranose), 4'-galactosyl-lactulose (?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-fructopyranose), and 1-galactosyl-lactulose (?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-fructopyranosyl-(1?1)-?-d-galactopyranose); and from lactose like 4'-galactosyl-lactose (?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranose) and 6'-galactosyl-lactose (?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranose), has been assessed in vitro. Fermentations with twelve pure strains of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium were carried out using the purified trisaccharides as the sole carbon source, and bacteria growth was evaluated at 600nm by means of a microplate reader during 48h. Maximum growth rates (?(max)) and lag phase were calculated. In general, all the strains tested were able to utilize lactulose and pure trisaccharides derived from lactulose and lactose when they were used as sole carbon source. Nonetheless, glycosidic linkage and/or the monosaccharide composition of the trisaccharides affected the individual strains lag phase, cell densities and growth rates. A general preference towards ?-galactosyl residues ?(1-6) and ?(1-1) linked over those ?(1-4) linked was observed, and some strains showed higher cell densities and speed of growth on 6'-galactosyl-lactulose than on 6'-galactosyl-lactose. This is the first study of the effect of lactulose-derived oligosaccharides on pure culture growth which shows that transglycosylation of lactulose allows for obtaining galactooligosaccharides with new glycosidic structures and would open new routes to the synthesis of compounds with potential prebiotic effects. PMID:21700354

Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustin; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Ávila, Marta

2011-09-01

194

Assessment of the inhibition of ricin toxicity by lactose in milk.  

PubMed

The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 ?g/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 ?Ci of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 ?g/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 ?g/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 ?g/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 ?g/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk. PMID:24290678

Lumor, Stephen E; Deen, Bronwyn D; Ronningen, Ian; Smith, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Neal R; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

2013-12-01

195

Chemical and Proteolysis-Derived Changes during Long-Term Storage of Lactose-Hydrolyzed Ultrahigh-Temperature (UHT) Milk.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activity in milk may release bitter-tasting peptides and generate free amino terminals that react with carbohydrates, which initiate Maillard reaction. Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) heat treatment inactivates the majority of proteolytic enzymes in milk. In lactose-hydrolyzed milk a ?-galactosidase preparation is applied to the milk after heat treatment, which has proteolytic side activities that may induce quality deterioration of long-term-stored milk. In the present study proteolysis, glycation, and volatile compound formation were investigated in conventional (100% lactose), filtered (60% lactose), and lactose-hydrolyzed (<1% lactose) UHT milk using reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteolysis was observed in all milk types. However, the degree of proteolysis was significantly higher in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to the conventional and filtered milk. The proteins most prone to proteolysis were ?-CN and ?s1-CN, which were clearly hydrolyzed after approximately 90 days of storage in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk. PMID:25356780

Jansson, Therese; Jensen, Hanne B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Clausen, Morten R; Eggers, Nina; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

2014-11-19

196

Comparison of lactose uptake in resting and energized Escherichia coli cells: high rates of respiration inactivate the lac carrier.  

PubMed Central

The transport of lactose by Escherichia coli cells was radically different in the absence and in the presence of an exogenous energy source: in the former case, the time course of lactose accumulation was monotonous; in the latter case, lactose accumulation reached a maximum and then decreased to a final steady-state level lower than that observed in the absence of an energy source. We show that this "overshoot" is the result of a decrease in the influx rate and of an increase in the rate constant of efflux as lactose accumulates. These phenomena were irreversible. The extent of the overshoot was dependent upon the experimental conditions: it was maximal at alkaline pH, for low external potassium concentrations, and for relatively high external lactose concentrations (around or above the KT of uptake). The addition of an energy source to resting E. coli cells resulted in an increase in both the electrochemical gradient of protons and in the rate of respiration. We demonstrate that the overshoot is the result of the latter and unrelated to the former. We observed an irreversible decrease in the membrane potential as lactose accumulated in the presence of an exogenous energy source. We discuss the whole of our data in terms of an irreversible inactivation of the lactose carrier as a result of a possible interaction with the respiratory chain. PMID:6403513

Ghazi, A; Therisod, H; Shechter, E

1983-01-01

197

Extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.  

PubMed

Penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. We investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain NRRL 1951 with the high producing strain AS-P-78. Both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. In silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that P. chrysogenum features at least five putative ?-galactosidase (bGal)-encoding genes at the annotated loci Pc22g14540, Pc12g11750, Pc16g12750, Pc14g01510 and Pc06g00600. The first two proteins appear to be orthologs of two Aspergillus nidulans family 2 intracellular glycosyl hydrolases expressed on lactose. The latter three P. chrysogenum proteins appear to be distinct paralogs of the extracellular bGal from A. niger, LacA, a family 35 glycosyl hydrolase. The P. chrysogenum genome also specifies two putative lactose transporter genes at the annotated loci Pc16g06850 and Pc13g08630. These are orthologs of paralogs of the gene encoding the high-affinity lactose permease (lacpA) in A. nidulans for which P. chrysogenum appears to lack the ortholog. Transcript analysis of Pc22g14540 showed that it was expressed exclusively on lactose, whereas Pc12g11750 was weakly expressed on all carbon sources tested, including D-glucose. Pc16g12750 was co-expressed with the two putative intracellular bGal genes on lactose and also responded on L-arabinose. The Pc13g08630 transcript was formed exclusively on lactose. The data strongly suggest that P. chrysogenum exhibits a dual assimilation strategy for lactose, simultaneously employing extracellular and intracellular hydrolysis, without any correlation to the penicillin-producing potential of the studied strains. PMID:24690910

Jónás, Ágota; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Sándor, Erzsébet; Jäger, Szilvia; Molnár, Ákos P; Szentirmai, Attila; Karaffa, Levente

2014-07-01

198

Idiopathic environmental intolerance: Increased prevalence of panic disorder–associated cholecystokinin B receptor allele 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a psychophysiologic disorder with prominent features of anxiety\\/panic and somatization, although proponents of a toxicogenic explanation claim, despite a lack of convincing evidence, that symptoms arise from exposure to otherwise nonnoxious environmental agents. Patient behaviour is characterized by strenuous avoidance of perceived triggers to the point of

Karen Binkley; Nicole King; Naveen Poonai; Philip Seeman; Carla Ulpian; James Kennedy

2001-01-01

199

Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant…

Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.

2013-01-01

200

Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered

B. J Yates; I. A Kerman

1998-01-01

201

Autogenic-Feedback Training: A Potential Treatment for Orthostatic Intolerance in Aerospace Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder that are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily, and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The current pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, autogenic-feedback training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine training (15-30-minute) sessions. At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures, that the subjects made ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings indicate that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.; Stevenson, J.; Maloney, S.; Knapp, J.

1994-01-01

202

Abstract Submission for ESPGHAN Update 2012 Immunology including Food Allergy and Intolerance  

E-print Network

Abstract Submission for ESPGHAN Update 2012 Immunology including Food Allergy and Intolerance this abstract previously been presented or published?: No Objectives and Study: Allergy afflicts one third signs that a child may be at risk of developing allergies. Methods: To this end, we recruited a cohort

Dupont, Pierre

203

THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF REVISITED: THE IMPACT OF FALSE ALARM INTOLERANCE ON  

E-print Network

THE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF REVISITED: THE IMPACT OF FALSE ALARM INTOLERANCE ON COST-LOSS SCENARIOS M's fable about the "The Boy who Cried Wolf", a young shepherd boy guarding the village flock cries. This event is repeated two or three times before a wolf actually does show up on the hillside. The boy cries

Stevenson, Paul

204

Autogenic-feedback training: A potential treatment for post-flight orthostatic intolerance in aerospace crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance was identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority was given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training, the average increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, as well as mean arterial pressures that the subjects made, ranged between 20 and 5O mmHg under both supine and 45 deg head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neil E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shapiro, David

1993-01-01

205

Genetic Disruption of SOD1 Gene Causes Glucose Intolerance and Impairs ?-Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. ?-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo ?-cell insulin secretion and decreased ?-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow–fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to ?-cell dysfunction. PMID:24009256

Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Salmon, Adam B.; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Li, Mengyao; Balas, Bogdan; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Giaccari, Andrea; Reddick, Robert L.; Reyna, Sara M.; Weir, Gordon; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

2013-01-01

206

Intolerance, Forgiveness, and Promise in the Rhetoric of Conversion: Italian Women Defy the Mafia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes to scholarship on the rhetoric of conversion and conversion narratives by examining the narratives of Italian women who have turned state's evidence against the Mafia. Finds that the "topoi" of intolerance, forgiveness, and promise are used to describe the process of conversion, translate private experiences into public testimonies,…

Fabj, Valeria

1998-01-01

207

Computer simulation studies in fluid and calcium regulation and orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems analysis approach to physiological research uses mathematical models and computer simulation. Major areas of concern during prolonged space flight discussed include fluid and blood volume regulation; cardiovascular response during shuttle reentry; countermeasures for orthostatic intolerance; and calcium regulation and bone atrophy. Potential contributions of physiologic math models to future flight experiments are examined.

1985-01-01

208

Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate…

Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

2009-01-01

209

Defining the IntolerableChild Work, Global Standards and Cultural Relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores some of the unresolved tensions between `universalistic' and `relativistic' approaches in the establishment of standards and strategies designed to prevent or overcome the abuse of children's capacity to work. Global standards (on children's rights, on unacceptable or intolerable forms of children's work, etc.) require universal notions of (ideal, normal or `tolerable') childhood, while cultural relativism stresses the

BEN WHITE

1999-01-01

210

Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

1998-06-01

211

The Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post space flight orthostatic intolerance among Space Shuttle crew members following exposure to extended periods of microgravity has been of significant concern to the safety of the shuttle program. Following the Challenger accident, flight crews were required to wear launch and entry suits (LES). It was noted that overall, there appeared to be a higher degree of orthostatic intolerance among the post-Challenger crews (approaching 30%). It was hypothesized that the increased heat load incurred when wearing the LES, contributed to an increased degree of orthostatic intolerance, possibly mediated through increased peripheral vasodilatation triggered by the heat load. The use of liquid cooling garments (LCG) beneath the launch and entry suits was gradually implemented among flight crews in an attempt to decrease heat load, increase crew comfort, and hopefully improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and landing. The hypothesis that the use of the LCG during reentry and landing would decrease the degree of orthostasis has not been previously tested. Operational stand-tests were performed pre and post flight to assess crewmember's cardiovascular system's ability to respond to gravitational stress. Stand test and debrief information were collected and databased for 27 space shuttle missions. 63 crewpersons wearing the LCG, and 70 crewpersons not wearing the LCG were entered into the database for analysis. Of 17 crewmembers who exhibited pre-syncopal symptoms at the R+O analysis, 15 were not wearing the LCG. This corresponds to a 21% rate of postflight orthostatic intolerance among those without the LCG, and a 3% rate for those wearing LCG. There were differences in these individual's average post-flight maximal systolic blood pressure, and lower minimal Systolic Blood pressures in those without LCG. Though other factors, such as type of fluid loading, and exercise have improved concurrently with LCG introduction, from this data analysis, it appears that LCG usage provided a significant degree of protection from post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

Billica, Roger; Kraft, Daniel

1997-01-01

212

Genealogical analysis as a new approach for the investigation of drug intolerance heritability.  

PubMed

Genealogical analysis has proven a useful method to understand the origins and frequencies of hereditary diseases in many populations. However, this type of analysis has not yet been used for the investigation of drug intolerance among patients suffering from inherited disorders. This study aims to do so, using data from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients receiving high doses of statins. The objective is to measure and compare various genealogical parameters that could shed light on the origins and heritability of muscular intolerance to statins using FH as a model. Analysis was performed on 224 genealogies from 112 FH subjects carrying either the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) prom_e1 deletion>15?kb (n=28) or c.259T>G (p.Trp87Gly) (n=84) mutations and 112 non-FH controls. Number of ancestors, geographical origins and genetic contribution of founders, inbreeding and kinship coefficients were calculated using the S-Plus-based GENLIB software package. For both mutations, repeated occurrences of the same ancestors are more frequent among the carriers' genealogies than among the controls', but no difference was observed between tolerant and intolerant subjects. Founders who may have introduced both mutations in the population appear with approximately the same frequencies in all genealogies. Kinship coefficients are higher among carriers, with no difference according to statins tolerance. Inbreeding coefficients are slightly lower among >15-kb deletion carriers than among c.259?T>G carriers, but the differences between tolerants and intolerants are not significant. These findings suggest that although muscular intolerance to statins shows a family aggregation, it is not transmitted through the same Mendelian pattern as LDLR mutations. PMID:24281370

Tremblay, Marc; Bouhali, Tarek; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane

2014-07-01

213

Dark fermentative H 2 production from xylose and lactose—Effects of on-line pH control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although xylose and lactose, two major carbohydrates existing in lignocellulosic and dairy wastes, are produced in huge amounts every year, their potentials in dark fermentative H2 production were not investigated sufficiently and the optimum fermentation pH is still unclear particularly at thermophilic temperatures. Therefore, in this study, the influence of pH on fermentative H2 production from xylose and lactose was

Baris Calli; Kim Schoenmaekers; Karolien Vanbroekhoven; Ludo Diels

2008-01-01

214

Lactose mother liquor as an alternative nutrient source for microbial concrete production by Sporosarcina pasteurii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation by the bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using the industrial effluent of the dairy industry, lactose mother liquor (LML) as growth medium was demonstrated\\u000a for the first time in this study. The urease activity and the calcite precipitation by the bacterium was tested in LML and\\u000a compared with the standard media like nutrient media and yeast

V. Achal; A. Mukherjee; P. C. Basu; M. S. Reddy

2009-01-01

215

Alpha-Lactalbumin and lactose concentrations in rat milk during lactation.  

PubMed Central

Homogeneous rat alpha-lactalbumin was prepared from whey by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Ultrogel AcA 44. Two biologically active forms of alpha-lactalbumin were apparent after ion-exchange chromatography, but on gel filtration the combined forms were eluted as a single peak with a molecular weight of approx. 33000. The molecular weight when determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis was 15100. Antiserum to alpha-lactalbumin was prepared from rabbits, and single radial immunodiffusion was used to measure the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin in milk expressed from rats during lactation and for 2 days after the cessation of lactation. A significant positive correlation (r = + 0.89) between the concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin and lactose was obtained for the first 20 days of lactation. This is consistent with the suggestion that alpha-lactalbumin may control the concentration of lactose in milk. However, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.91) between the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin and lactose was obtained for 2 days after the cessation of lactation on day 20. Images Fig. 1. PMID:7305975

Nicholas, K R; Hartmann, P E; McDonald, B L

1981-01-01

216

Microanalysis of the metabolic intermediates of lactose synthesis in human milk and plasma using bioluminescent methods.  

PubMed

Sensitive bioluminescent methods were developed to measure the metabolites glucose, glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), glucose 1-phosphate (G1P), UDP-glucose, and UDP-galactose in human milk and lactose and galactose in human plasma. The bioluminescent methods measured NADH produced by coupled enzymatic assays derived from equivalent spectrophotometric methods. We found that the long chain fatty acids in human milk (C10-C16) inhibited the bioluminescent reactions. This inhibition was overcome by adding defatted bovine serum albumin to the reaction mixture containing the bioluminescent enzymes. It also was necessary to modify methods of deproteinizing milk and blood plasma to accommodate small sample volumes. In the development of these assays emphasis was given to simplicity of reagent preparation, minimizing cost, and ease of use. The detection limit for the bioluminescent method for NADH was 0.28 nM for a 20-microliters sample. For the assays of the metabolites, recoveries ranged from 91 to 107%. For sample sizes of 2 to 5 microliters of protein free sample, the detection limits for milk were G1P, 0.09 microM; G6P, 0.05 microM; UDPhexose, 0.07 microM; UDP-Glc, 0.03 microM; glucose, 9 microM; and for plasma, lactose, 0.76 microM, galactose, 0.31 microM. The bioluminescent methods gave equivalent results to spectrophotometric methods for the measurement of blood lactose and milk glucose. PMID:2742136

Arthur, P G; Kent, J C; Hartmann, P E

1989-02-01

217

Lactose-hydrolyzed milk is more prone to chemical changes during storage than conventional ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk.  

PubMed

The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose gives rise to reactions that change the chemistry and quality of ambient-stored lactose-hydrolyzed ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare chemical changes in lactose-hydrolyzed and conventional UHT milk during a 9 month ambient storage period. Several complementary analyses of volatiles, free amino acids, acetate, furosine, and level of free amino terminals were concluded. The analyses revealed an increased level of free amino acids and an increased formation rate of specific compounds such as furosine and 2-methylbutanal in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk compared to conventional UHT milk during storage. These observations indicate more favorable conditions for Maillard and subsequent reactions in lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to conventional UHT milk stored at ambient temperature. Furthermore, it is postulated that proteolytic activity from the lactase-enzyme preparation may be responsible for the observed higher levels of free amino acids in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk. PMID:25019952

Jansson, Therese; Clausen, Morten R; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Eggers, Nina; Nyegaard, Steffen; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Sundgren, Anja; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

2014-08-01

218

Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose  

PubMed Central

Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing carbon source for enzyme production. Results We have examined and compared the transcriptome of T. reesei growing on wheat straw and lactose as carbon sources under otherwise similar conditions. Gene expression on wheat straw exceeded that on lactose, and 1619 genes were found to be only induced on wheat straw but not on lactose. They comprised 30% of the CAZome, but were also enriched in genes associated with phospholipid metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, iron homeostatis and autophagy. Two thirds of the CAZome was expressed both on wheat straw as well as on lactose, but 60% of it at least >2-fold higher on the former. Major wheat straw specific genes comprised xylanases, chitinases and mannosidases. Interestingly, the latter two CAZyme families were significantly higher expressed in a strain in which xyr1 encoding the major regulator of cellulase and hemicellulase biosynthesis is non-functional. Conclusions Our data reveal several major differences in the transcriptome between wheat straw and lactose which may be related to the higher enzyme formation on the former and their further investigation could lead to the development of methods for increasing enzyme production on lactose. PMID:24016404

2013-01-01

219

Malabsorption syndrome with cow's milk intolerance. Clinical findings and course in 54 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-four infants with the malabsorption syndrome and cow's milk intolerence seen during 1962-1971 were investigated. All had diarrhoea and failed to thrive. Most had vomiting and about 20% had atopic eczema and recurrent respiratory infections. Laboratory investigations revealed malabsorption, raised serum IgA, and precipitins to cow's milk. Biopsies showed that the jejunal mucosa was damaged, and in about half the

P Kuitunen; J K Visakorpi; E Savilahti; P Pelkonen

1975-01-01

220

Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension. There is a predilection for younger rather than older adults and for women more than men. Its cause is unknown; partial sympathetic denervation or hypovolemia has been proposed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma renin activity, perhaps from defects in sympathetic innervation of the kidney, could underlie a hypovolemia, giving rise to these clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had orthostatic intolerance, together with a raised upright plasma norepinephrine (> or = 600 pg/mL). Patients underwent a battery of autonomic tests and biochemical determinations. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the blood volume and plasma renin activity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). The tachycardic response to upright posture correlated with the severity of the hypovolemia. There was also a correlation between the plasma renin activity measured in these patients and their concomitant plasma aldosterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance.

Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Ertl, A. C.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

1997-01-01

221

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2013-12-15

222

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged Brown Norway rats.  

PubMed

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?2-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2>1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. PMID:24103449

Bass, V; Gordon, C J; Jarema, K A; MacPhail, R C; Cascio, W E; Phillips, P M; Ledbetter, A D; Schladweiler, M C; Andrews, D; Miller, D; Doerfler, D L; Kodavanti, U P

2013-12-15

223

Relationship of glucose intolerance to coronary risk in Afro-Caribbeans compared with Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Afro-Caribbeans have low mortality rates from coronary heart disease, despite a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. We examined 1166 Afro-Caribbean and European men and women aged 40–64 years in a community survey in London, UK. Prevalence of glucose intolerance (combining impaired glucose tolerance, new and known diabetes) was 31% in Afro-Caribbeans and 14% in Europeans (pppp

N. Chaturvedi; P. M. McKeigue; M. G. Marmot

1994-01-01

224

Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat pattern in South Asians and Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with centrally-distributed obesity. These disturbances are especially prevalent in people of South Asian (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) descent. We examined the relationship of glucose intolerance to body fat pattern in a population survey of 2936 men and 537 women of South Asian and European origin living in London, UK. In

P. M. McKeigue; T. Pierpoint; J. E. Ferrie; M. G. Marmot

1992-01-01

225

An investigation of appraisals in individuals vulnerable to excessive worry: the role of intolerance of uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have been conducted to examine whether the construct of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) (Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur,\\u000a & Freeston, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 215–226, 1998b) meets formal criteria as a cognitive vulnerability for excessive and uncontrollable worry. Cognitive models\\u000a of anxiety suggest that vulnerability is manifest in the manner in which individuals process information. As such, cognitive\\u000a bias

Naomi Koerner; Michel J. Dugas

2008-01-01

226

TREATMENT STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH STATIN INTOLERANCE: THE CLEVELAND CLINIC EXPERIENCE  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Statin therapy is a proven effective treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, a significant number of patients cannot tolerate statins. This study was conducted to review treatment strategies for patients intolerant to statin therapy with a focus on intermittent statin dosing. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 1605 patients referred to the Cleveland Clinic Preventive Cardiology section for statin intolerance between January 1995 and March 2010 with at least a six-month follow-up. The changes in lipid profile, achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals and statin tolerance rate were analyzed. 72.5% of patients with prior statin intolerance were able to tolerate a statin for the median follow-up time of 31 months. Patients on intermittent statin dosing (n=149) had significantly lower LDL-C reduction compared to daily dosing group (n=1014) (21.3±4.0% vs 27.7±1.4%, p<0.001). But compared to the statin discontinued group (n=442), they had a significantly higher LDL-C reduction (21.3±4.0% vs 8.3±2.2%, p<0.001), and a significantly higher portion achieved their ATP–III goal of LDL-C (61% vs 44%, p<0.05). There was a trend toward a decrease in all-cause mortality at 8 years for patients on daily and intermittent statin dosing compared with those who discontinued statin (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS The majority of patients with previous statin intolerance can tolerate subsequent trial of statin. A strategy of intermittent statin dosing can be an effective therapeutic option in some patients and may result in reduction in LDL-C and achievement of LDL-C goals. PMID:24016512

Mampuya, Warner M.; Frid, David; Rocco, Michael; Huang, Julie; Brennan, Danielle M.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Cho, Leslie

2014-01-01

227

Immersion in Cold-Water Evaluation (ICE) and Self-reported Cold Intolerance are Reliable but Unrelated Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance to the cold is common following peripheral nerve injury and surgery of the upper extremity. Despite its prevalence,\\u000a the exact pathophysiology and natural history of this condition are not well understood. Subjective, self-report questionnaires\\u000a have been created and validated as reliable measures of post-traumatic cold intolerance. The difficulty currently lies in\\u000a assigning an objective measure to this predominantly subjective

Robyn Traynor; Joy C. MacDermid

2008-01-01

228

Contributions of MSNA and stroke volume to orthostatic intolerance following bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined whether the altered orthostatic tolerance following 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) was related to inadequate sympathetic outflow or to excessive reductions in cardiac output during a 10- to 15-min head-up tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography), and stroke volume blood velocity (SVV, Doppler ultrasound) were assessed during supine 30 degrees (5 min) and 60 degrees (5-10 min) HUT positions in 15 individuals who successfully completed the pre-HDBR test without evidence of orthostatic intolerance. Subjects were classified as being orthostatically tolerant (OT, n = 9) or intolerant (OI, n = 6) following the post-HDBR test. MSNA, BP, and SVV during supine and HUT postures were not altered in the OT group. Hypotension during 60 degrees HUT in the post-bed rest test for the OI group (P < 0.05) was associated with a blunted increase in MSNA (P < 0.05). SVV was reduced following HDBR in the OI group (main effect of HDBR, P < 0.02). The data support the hypothesis that bed rest-induced orthostatic intolerance is related to an inadequate increase in sympathetic discharge that cannot compensate for a greater postural reduction in stroke volume.

Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

1999-01-01

229

A Case of Chlorpheniramine Maleate-Induced Hypersensitivity With Aspirin Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic disease, such as allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema. Although several previous reports describe hypersensitivity to antihistamines such as cetirizine and hydroxyzine, documented cases of chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old Korean woman who presented with urticaria after ingesting a cold medication. Over the previous 5 years, she had also experienced a food allergy to crab and shrimp, allergic rhinitis, and repeated urticaria after ingesting cold medication. Provocation with aspirin elicited generalized urticaria. Intravenous chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone was injected for symptom control, but in fact appeared to aggravate urticaria. A second round of skin and provocation tests for chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone showed positive results only for chlorpheniramine. She was diagnosed with aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity, and was instructed to avoid these drugs. To date, this is the second of only two cases of chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance. Although the relationship between aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity is unclear, physicians should be aware of the possibility of urticaria or other allergic reactions in response to antihistamines. PMID:21217928

Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, So-Hee; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young

2011-01-01

230

Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.

Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

1999-01-01

231

Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Relationship to Tobacco Dependence and Abstinence  

PubMed Central

While smokers’ ability to tolerate emotional or physical distress has been associated with length of smoking cessation, there is no measure of ability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort specifically, which may be more heuristic than a measure of tolerance of general emotional stress or physical discomfort. Methods Questionnaires completed by 300 smokers assessed inability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort (IDQ-S), general physical discomfort (IDQ-P), and general emotional discomfort (IDQ-E), so that shared variance among these measures could be assessed. Results The IDQ-S has three reliable components: Withdrawal Intolerance, Lack of Cognitive Coping, and Pain Intolerance. The 14-item IDQ-P and 9-item IDQ-E each consist of one reliable component. Intercorrelations suggest only modest shared variance. Support for construct and discriminant validity was seen. Two scales of the IDQ-S showed excellent convergent validity, correlating with smoking use, dependence, motivation, and length of past smoking cessation, while IDQ-P and IDQ-E correlated with few indices of use or dependence and not with smoking cessation. Conclusions The final 17-item IDQ-S with two scales is reliable and valid, and more heuristic than measures of general physical or emotional discomfort intolerance as a correlate of motivation and past success with smoking cessation. PMID:20381260

Sirota, Alan D.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; MacKinnon, Selene V.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Kaplan, Gary B.; Monti, Peter M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.

2013-01-01

232

Nitric oxide in microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance: relevance to spinal cord injury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in cardiovascular deconditioning which is marked by orthostatic intolerance in the returning astronauts and recovering bed-ridden patients. Recent studies conducted in our laboratories at University of California, Irvine have revealed marked elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production in the kidney, heart, brain, and systemic arteries coupled with significant reduction of NO production in the cerebral arteries of microgravity-adapted animals. We have further demonstrated that the observed alteration of NO metabolism is primarily responsible for the associated cardiovascular deconditioning. Recovery from acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is frequently complicated by orthostatic intolerance that is due to the combined effects of the disruption of efferent sympathetic pathway and cardiovascular deconditioning occasioned by prolonged confinement to bed. In this presentation, I will review the nature of altered NO metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. The possible relevance of the new findings to orthostatic intolerance in patients with acute SCI and its potential therapeutic implications will be discussed.

Vaziri, N. D.; Purdy, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

233

Two Gene Clusters Coordinate Galactose and Lactose Metabolism in Streptococcus gordonii  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gordonii is an early colonizer of the human oral cavity and an abundant constituent of oral biofilms. Two tandemly arranged gene clusters, designated lac and gal, were identified in the S. gordonii DL1 genome, which encode genes of the tagatose pathway (lacABCD) and sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzyme II permeases. Genes encoding a predicted phospho-?-galactosidase (LacG), a DeoR family transcriptional regulator (LacR), and a transcriptional antiterminator (LacT) were also present in the clusters. Growth and PTS assays supported that the permease designated EIILac transports lactose and galactose, whereas EIIGal transports galactose. The expression of the gene for EIIGal was markedly upregulated in cells growing on galactose. Using promoter-cat fusions, a role for LacR in the regulation of the expressions of both gene clusters was demonstrated, and the gal cluster was also shown to be sensitive to repression by CcpA. The deletion of lacT caused an inability to grow on lactose, apparently because of its role in the regulation of the expression of the genes for EIILac, but had little effect on galactose utilization. S. gordonii maintained a selective advantage over Streptococcus mutans in a mixed-species competition assay, associated with its possession of a high-affinity galactose PTS, although S. mutans could persist better at low pHs. Collectively, these results support the concept that the galactose and lactose systems of S. gordonii are subject to complex regulation and that a high-affinity galactose PTS may be advantageous when S. gordonii is competing against the caries pathogen S. mutans in oral biofilms. PMID:22660715

Zeng, Lin; Martino, Nicole C.

2012-01-01

234

A new graphical method for determining parameters in Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics for enzymatic lactose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A new graphical method was developed to determine the kinetic parameters in the Michaelis-Menten-type equation. This method was then applied to studying the kinetics of lactose hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger beta-galactosidase. In this study, the reaction temperature ranged between 8 and 60 degrees C, and the initial lactose concentration ranged between 2.5 and 20%. A kinetic model similar to the conventional Michaelis-Menten equation with competitive product inhibition by galactose was tested using this graphical method as well as a nonlinear computer regression method. The experimental data and the model fit together fairly well at 50 degrees C. However, a relative large disparity was found for reactions at 30 degrees C. A three-parameter integrated model derived from the reversible reaction mechanism simulates the experimental data very well at all temperatures studied. However, this reversible reaction model does not follow the Arrhenius temperature dependence. Nevertheless, reaction rate constants for the proposed model involving the enzyme-galactose complex (in addition to the Michaelis complex) as an intermediate in lactose hydrolysis follow the Arrhenius temperature dependence fairly well, suggesting that this model can be best used for describing the enzymatic lactose hydrolysis. The lack of fit between the model predictions and data may be largely attributed to the effects of galactose mutarotation and oligosaccharide formation during lactose hydrolysis. PMID:18588163

Yang, S T; Okos, M R

1989-09-01

235

Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using ?-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-09-01

236

Intracellular ?-Glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b Are Essential for Cellulase Induction on Lactose in Trichoderma reesei  

PubMed Central

Lactose (1,4-O-?-d-galacto-pyranosyl-d-glucose) induces cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei and is in fact one of the most important soluble carbon sources used to produce cellulases on an industrial level. The mechanism underlying the induction is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cellular functions of the intracellular ?-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b in the induction of cellulase genes by lactose in T. reesei. We demonstrated that while CEL1a and CEL1b were functionally equivalent in mediating the induction, the simultaneous absence of these intracellular ?-glucosidases abolished cbh1 gene expression on lactose. d-Galactose restored the efficient cellulase gene induction in the ?cel1a strain independently of its reductive metabolism, but not in the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain. A further comparison of the transcriptional responses of the ?cel1a ?cel1b strain complemented with wild-type CEL1a or a catalytically inactive CEL1a version and the ?cel1a strain constitutively expressing CEL1a or the Kluyveromyces lactis ?-galactosidase LAC4 showed that both the CEL1a protein and its glycoside hydrolytic activity were indispensable for cellulase induction by lactose. We also present evidence that intracellular ?-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. PMID:24879125

Xu, Jintao; Zhao, Guolei; Kou, Yanbo; Zhang, Weixin; Zhou, Qingxin; Chen, Guanjun

2014-01-01

237

Formation of budesonide/?-lactose glass solutions by ball-milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to obtain amorphous budesonide stabilised by blending with an excipient characterised by a higher glass transition temperature, namely ?-lactose, has been studied. We carried out the mixing of the two compounds at room temperature by ball-milling. The four obtained blends (containing, respectively, 10, 30, 50 and 70% w of budesonide) are X-ray amorphous and exhibit a single glass transition located between the ones of pure milled crystalline compounds. This revealed that the two amorphous phases are miscible whatever the composition and sufficiently mixed to relax as a whole. Ball-milling thus appears as a powerful tool to form amorphous molecular alloys with enhanced stability properties.

Dudognon, E.; Willart, J. F.; Caron, V.; Capet, F.; Larsson, T.; Descamps, M.

2006-04-01

238

High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no differences (p=0.77) between groups. Plasma volume (absolute or relative to body mass index) decreased (p<0.001) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results corroborate previous reports that the performance of a vigorous exercise countermeasure protocol during BR, even with testosterone supplementation, does not protect against orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. Preventing post-BR orthostatic intolerance may require additional countermeasures, such as orthostatic stress during BR or end-of-BR fluid infusion.

Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

2014-01-01

239

ATP-dependent phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier protein HPr regulates lactose/H+ symport in Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis takes up lactose and the nonmetabolizable lactose analogue thiomethyl beta-galactoside (TMG) by a permease-catalyzed lactose/H+ symport mechanism. Earlier studies have shown that TMG, previously accumulated in L. brevis cells, rapidly effluxes from the cells upon addition of glucose, and that glucose inhibits further uptake of TMG. We have developed a vesicular system to analyze this regulatory mechanism and have used electroporation to shock proteins and membrane-impermeant metabolites into the vesicles. Uptake of TMG was dependent on an energy source, effectively provided by intravesicular ATP or extravesicular arginine. TMG uptake into these vesicles was not inhibited, and preaccumulated TMG did not efflux from them upon addition of glucose. Intravesicular but not extravesicular wild-type phosphocarrier protein HPr of Bacillus subtilis restored regulation. Glucose could be replaced by intravesicular (but not extravesicular) fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, gluconate 6-phosphate, or 2-phosphoglycerate, but not by other phosphorylated metabolites, in agreement with the allosteric activating effects of these compounds on HPr(Ser) kinase measured in vitro. Intravesicular serine-46-->alanine mutant HPr cold not promote regulation of lactose permease activity when electroporated into the vesicles with or without glucose or the various phosphorylated metabolites, but the serine-46-->aspartate mutant HPr promoted regulation, even in the absence of glucose or a metabolite. HPr(Ser-P) appears to convert the lactose/H+ symporter into a sugar uniporter. These results establish that HPr serine phosphorylation by the ATP-dependent metabolite-activated HPr kinase regulates lactose permease activity in L. brevis. A direct allosteric mechanism is proposed. PMID:8159711

Ye, J J; Reizer, J; Cui, X; Saier, M H

1994-04-12

240

Hydrolysis of lactose in skim milk by immobilized beta-galactosidase in a spiral flow reactor.  

PubMed

beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus Oryzae immobilized in a spiral flow reactor was used to effect the hydrolysis of the lactose component of skim milk. Residence time distribution measurements were used to assess the amount of longitudinal dispersion occurring as a consequence of the spiral flow pattern and the semiporous nature of the polymeric material used to construct the spiral. It was possible to model the flow conditions as tubular flow with a Peclet number that was a linear function of the reactor space time. Nonlinear regression methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of three proposed enzymatic rate expressions. The best fit of the data was obtained using a rate expression containing separate terms for competitive inhibition of the reaction by both the a and beta anomers of galactose. This kinetic model also incorporates the kinetics of the mutarotation between these forms. At 30 degrees C and a space time of 7 minutes, 80% of the lactose present in skim milk can be converted to glucose and galactose. PMID:18587857

Bakken, A P; Hill, C G; Amundson, C H

1989-04-20

241

The bulk crystallization of alpha-lactose monohydrate from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The bulk crystallization of alpha-lactose monohydrate from aqueous solution by primary nucleation has been studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, temperature, and pH. The induction times to nucleation were extremely long compared with those generally observed for other materials, even at the high supersaturations used in the experiment. As a result, it was necessary to stir the supersaturated solution vigorously to induce nucleation in a reasonable but still lengthy working time. Even then, nucleation only occurred to a limited extent, following which growth ceased for 8-10 h before resuming. After this period, growth recommenced but again slowed to a low rate after another 8 h. At this stage, the yield of product was low and in most cases the particles had achieved sizes close to the maximum noted. The yields increased with further crystallization time (22-72 h total from the recommencement of growth) to give, under high initial supersaturation conditions, amounts of product close to the theoretical value. For the most part, however, the particle size did not increase with this later increase in yield, showing only significant changes after the extremely long total crystallization times. It is proposed that these extreme properties result from the formation in solution by mutarotation of the anomer alpha-lactose, which inhibits nucleation as well as its previously observed influence on growth. PMID:11458332

Raghavan, S L; Ristic, R I; Sheen, D B; Sherwood, J N

2001-07-01

242

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

243

The Molecular Basis for Oat Intolerance in Patients with Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Celiac disease is a small intestinal inflammatory disorder characterized by malabsorption, nutrient deficiency, and a range of clinical manifestations. It is caused by an inappropriate immune response to dietary gluten and is treated with a gluten-free diet. Recent feeding studies have indicated oats to be safe for celiac disease patients, and oats are now often included in the celiac disease diet. This study aimed to investigate whether oat intolerance exists in celiac disease and to characterize the cells and processes underlying this intolerance. Methods and Findings We selected for study nine adults with celiac disease who had a history of oats exposure. Four of the patients had clinical symptoms on an oats-containing diet, and three of these four patients had intestinal inflammation typical of celiac disease at the time of oats exposure. We established oats-avenin-specific and -reactive intestinal T-cell lines from these three patients, as well as from two other patients who appeared to tolerate oats. The avenin-reactive T-cell lines recognized avenin peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2. These peptides have sequences rich in proline and glutamine residues closely resembling wheat gluten epitopes. Deamidation (glutamine?glutamic acid conversion) by tissue transglutaminase was involved in the avenin epitope formation. Conclusions We conclude that some celiac disease patients have avenin-reactive mucosal T-cells that can cause mucosal inflammation. Oat intolerance may be a reason for villous atrophy and inflammation in patients with celiac disease who are eating oats but otherwise are adhering to a strict gluten-free diet. Clinical follow-up of celiac disease patients eating oats is advisable. PMID:15526039

2004-01-01

244

Histamine intolerance-like symptoms in healthy volunteers after oral provocation with liquid histamine.  

PubMed

Histamine in food at non-toxic doses has been proposed to be a major cause of food intolerance causing symptoms like diarrhea, hypotension, headache, pruritus and flush ("histamine intolerance"). Histamine-rich foods such as cheese, sausages, sauerkraut, tuna, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages may contain histamine up to 500 mg/kg. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 10 healthy females (age range 22-36 years, mean 29.1 +/- 5.4) who were hospitalized and challenged on two consecutive days with placebo (peppermint tea) or 75 mg of pure histamine (equaling 124 mg histamine dihydrochloride, dissolved in peppermint tea). Objective parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, peak flow) as well as a total clinical symptom score using a standardized protocol were recorded at baseline, 10, 20, 40, 80 minutes, and 24 hours. The subjects received a histamine-free diet also low in allergen 24 hours before hospitalization and over the whole observation period. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes, and histamine and the histamine-degrading enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined. After histamine challenge, 5 of 10 subjects showed no reaction. One individual experienced tachycardia, mild hypotension after 20 minutes, sneezing, itching of the nose, and rhinorrhea after 60 minutes. Four subjects experienced delayed symptoms like diarrhea (4x), flatulence (3x), headache (3x), pruritus (2x) and ocular symptoms (1x) starting 3 to 24 hours after provocation. No subject reacted to placebo. No changes were observed in histamine and DAO levels within the first 80 minutes in non-reactors as well as reactors. There was no difference in challenge with histamine versus challenge with placebo. We conclude that 75 mg of pure liquid oral histamine--a dose found in normal meals--can provoke immediate as well as delayed symptoms in 50% of healthy females without a history of food intolerance. PMID:15603203

Wöhrl, Stefan; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Focke, Margarete; Rappersberger, Klemens; Jarisch, Reinhart

2004-01-01

245

Exercise intolerance due to sustained atrial bigeminy with short coupling interval.  

PubMed

Atrial bigeminy is a supraventricular arrhythmia rarely associated with severe symptoms. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with no prior cardiac disease presenting with exercise intolerance since several months. No apparent heart disease other than a spontaneous conducted atrial bigeminy with a short coupling interval was found. At bicycle ergometric testing, symptoms occurred, because of an inadequate increase in pulse rate, due to sustained atrial bigeminy. At electrophysiological study, an ectopic atrial focus at the right atrial septum was successfully ablated. PMID:21894810

Jansen, Katrijn; Blommaert, Dominique; Deceuninck, Olivier

2011-08-01

246

Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

247

Cold Intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... January Membership renewal notices are in the mail. PHI's mission is supported by its Membership. Become a Member or Donate Now. Use: PHI's secure shopping cart Membership/Order Form (pdf) Donation ...

248

The effect of LacI autoregulation on the performance of the lactose utilization system in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The lactose operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm system for quantitative understanding of gene regulation in prokaryotes. Yet, none of the many mathematical models built so far to study the dynamics of this system considered the fact that the Lac repressor regulates its own transcription by forming a transcriptional roadblock at the O3 operator site. Here we study the effect of autoregulation on intracellular LacI levels and also show that cAMP-CRP binding does not affect the efficiency of autoregulation. We built a mathematical model to study the role of LacI autoregulation in the lactose utilization system. Previously, it has been argued that negative autoregulation can significantly reduce noise as well as increase the speed of response. We show that the particular molecular mechanism, a transcriptional roadblock, used to achieve self-repression in the lac system does neither. Instead, LacI autoregulation balances two opposing states, one that allows quicker response to smaller pulses of external lactose, and the other that minimizes production costs in the absence of lactose. PMID:23658223

Semsey, Szabolcs; Jauffred, Liselotte; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Erd?ssy, János; Stéger, Viktor; Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep

2013-01-01

249

Effects of temperature on the hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized beta-galactosidase in a capillary bed reactor.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature on the hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized beta-galactosidase were studied in a continuous flow capillary bed reactor. Temperature affects the rates of enzymatic reactions in two ways. Higher temperatures increase the rate of the hydrolysis reaction, but also increase the rate of thermal deactivation of the enzyme. The effect of temperature on the kinetic parameters was studied by performing lactose hydrolysis experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 degrees C. The kinetic parameters were observed to follow an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. Galactose mutarotation has a significant impact on the overall rate of lactose hydrolysis. The temperature dependence of the mutarotation of galactose was effectively modelled by first-order reversible kinetics. The thermal deactivation characteristics of the immobilized enzyme reactor were investigated by performing lactose hydrolysis experiments at 52, 56, 60, and 64 degrees C. The thermal deactivation was modelled effectively as a first order decay process. Based on the estimated thermal deactivation rate constants, at an operating temperature of 40 degrees C, 10% of the enzyme activity would be lost in one year. PMID:18588124

Peterson, R S; Hill, C G; Amundson, C H

1989-08-01

250

The effect of LacI autoregulation on the performance of the lactose utilization system in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The lactose operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm system for quantitative understanding of gene regulation in prokaryotes. Yet, none of the many mathematical models built so far to study the dynamics of this system considered the fact that the Lac repressor regulates its own transcription by forming a transcriptional roadblock at the O3 operator site. Here we study the effect of autoregulation on intracellular LacI levels and also show that cAMP-CRP binding does not affect the efficiency of autoregulation. We built a mathematical model to study the role of LacI autoregulation in the lactose utilization system. Previously, it has been argued that negative autoregulation can significantly reduce noise as well as increase the speed of response. We show that the particular molecular mechanism, a transcriptional roadblock, used to achieve self-repression in the lac system does neither. Instead, LacI autoregulation balances two opposing states, one that allows quicker response to smaller pulses of external lactose, and the other that minimizes production costs in the absence of lactose. PMID:23658223

Semsey, Szabolcs; Jauffred, Liselotte; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Erdossy, János; Stéger, Viktor; Hansen, Sabine; Krishna, Sandeep

2013-07-01

251

Cloning and Characterization of Sialidases with 2-6? and 2-3? Sialyl Lactose Specificity from Pasteurella multocida†  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella multocida is a mucosal pathogen that colonizes the respiratory system of susceptible hosts. Most isolates of P. multocida produce sialidase activity, which may contribute to colonization of the respiratory tract or the production of lesions in an active infection. We have cloned and sequenced a sialidase gene, nanH, from a fowl cholera isolate of P. multocida. Sequence analysis of NanH revealed that it exhibited significant amino acid sequence homology with many microbial sialidases. Insertional inactivation of nanH resulted in a mutant strain that was not deficient in sialidase production. However, this mutant exhibited reduced enzyme activity and growth rate on 2-3? sialyl lactose compared to the wild type. Subsequently, we demonstrated the presence of two sialidases by cloning another sialidase gene that differed from nanH in DNA sequence and substrate specificity. NanB demonstrated activity on both 2-3? and 2-6? sialyl lactose, while NanH demonstrated activity only on 2-3? sialyl lactose. Neither enzyme liberated sialic acid from colominic acid (2-8? sialyl lactose). Recombinant E. coli containing the sialidase genes were able to utilize several sialoconjugants when they were provided as sole carbon sources in minimal medium. These data suggest that sialidases have a nutritional function and may contribute to the ability of P. multocida to colonize and persist on vertebrate mucosal surfaces. PMID:11092845

Mizan, Shaikh; Henk, Adam; Stallings, Amy; Maier, Marie; Lee, Margie D.

2000-01-01

252

DIETARY PROTEIN AND LACTOSE INCREASE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS VIA MODULATION OF INSULIN SIGNALING PROTEINS AND TRANSLATION INITIATION FACTORS IN NEONATAL PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein synthesis (PS) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in muscle and liver of pigs parenterally infused with insulin and amino acids. This study was arranged as a 3 x 2 factorial with three dietary protein (5, 15, and 25 g•kg BW[-1]•d[-1]) and two lactose levels (low...

253

Effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonisation and microbial fermentation in the crop of the young turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were performed to examine the effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on microbial fermentation and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonisation in the crop of the young turkey.2. The following carboxylic acids were detected in the crop ingesta: formic, acetic, butyric, lactic, valeric, caproic, oxalic, phenyl acetic, succinic and fumaric; propionic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were not detectable.3. At

S. A. Cutler; M. A. Rasmussen; M. J. Hensley; K. W. Wilhelms; R. W. Griffith; C. G. Scanes

2005-01-01

254

Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product.  

PubMed

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 g L(-1) lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system, a productivity of 0.43 g L(-1) h(-1) was obtained which is 307 % of that achieved in a non-product removal batch reactor (0.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) where approximately 60 g L(-1) whey permeate lactose was fermented. The productivity obtained in this system is much higher than that achieved in other product removal systems (perstraction 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and gas stripping 0.32 g L(-1) h(-1)). This membrane was also used to concentrate butanol from approximately 2.50 g L(-1) in the reactor to 755 g L(-1). Using this membrane, ABE selectivities and fluxes of 24.4-44.3 and 0.57-4.05 g m(-2) h(-1) were obtained, respectively. Pervaporation restricts removal of water from the reaction mixture thus requiring significantly less energy for product recovery when compared to gas stripping. PMID:25326775

Qureshi, N; Friedl, A; Maddox, I S

2014-12-01

255

Use of continuous lactose fermentation for ethanol production by Kluveromyces marxianus for verification and extension of a biochemically structured model.  

PubMed

A biochemically structured model has been developed to describe the continuous fermentation of lactose to ethanol by Kluveromyces marxianus and allowed metabolic coefficients to be determined. Anaerobic lactose-limited chemostat fermentations at different dilution rates (0.02-0.35h(-1)) were performed. Species specific rates of consumption/formation, as well as yield coefficients were determined. Ethanol yield (0.655 C-mol ethanol(?)C-mol lactose(-1)) was as high as 98% of theoretical. The modeling procedure allowed calculation of maintenance coefficients for lactose consumption and ethanol production of m(s)=0.6029 and m(e)=0.4218 (C-mol) and (C-molh)(-1), respectively. True yield coefficients for biomass, ethanol and glycerol production were calculated to be Y(true)(sx)=0.114, Y(true)(ex)=0.192 and Y(sg)=2.250 (C-mol) and (C-mol)(-1), respectively. Model calculated maintenance and true yield coefficients agreed very closely with those determined by regressions of the experimental data. The model developed provides a solid basis for the rational design of optimised fermentation of cheese whey. PMID:23334030

Sansonetti, S; Hobley, T J; Curcio, S; Villadsen, J; Sin, G

2013-02-01

256

The high fermentative metabolism of Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3 relies on the increased expression of key lactose metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to obtain insights about the factors that determine the lactose fermentative metabolism of Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3. K. marxianus UFV-3 and Kluyveromyces lactis JA6 were cultured in a minimal medium containing different lactose concentrations (ranging from 0.25 to 64 mmol l(-1)) under aerobic and hypoxic conditions to evaluate their growth kinetics, gene expression and enzymatic activity. The increase in lactose concentration and the decrease in oxygen level favoured ethanol yield for both yeasts but in K. marxianus UFV-3 the effect was more pronounced. Under hypoxic conditions, the activities of ?-galactosidase and pyruvate decarboxylase from K. marxianus UFV-3 were significantly higher than those in K. lactis JA6. The expression of the LAC4 (?-galactosidase), RAG6 (pyruvate decarboxylase), GAL7 (galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase) and GAL10 (epimerase) genes in K. marxianus UFV-3 was higher under hypoxic conditions than under aerobic conditions. The high expression of genes of the Leloir pathway, LAC4 and RAG6, associated with the high activity of ?-galactosidase and pyruvate decarboxylase contribute to the high fermentative flux in K. marxianus UFV-3. These data on the fermentative metabolism of K. marxianus UFV-3 will be useful for optimising the conversion of cheese whey lactose to ethanol. PMID:22068918

Diniz, Raphael H S; Silveira, Wendel B; Fietto, Luciano G; Passos, Flávia M L

2012-03-01

257

[Influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in patients with intolerance of these drugs].  

PubMed

We have studied the intensity of barium sulfate stimulated luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (SLCHL and SLCCHL) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) after pre-incubation of PML suspension with sodium salicylate, sodium metamizole, or sodium diclofenac at various concentrations in healthy donors and patients with intolerance to aspirin, and/or sodium metamizole, and/or sodium diclofenac. No significant differences of SLCHL and SLCCHL indicators in PML isolated from healthy donors and patients with intolerance to these drugs have been found, which indirectly indicates the absence of any specific features in the oxidative metabolism of PML enzymes under the influence of indicated NSAIDs in patients intolerant of these drugs as compared to donors. PMID:25033569

2014-01-01

258

Blaming for a better future: future orientation and associated intolerance of personal uncertainty lead to harsher reactions toward innocent victims.  

PubMed

People are often encouraged to focus on the future and strive for long-term goals. This noted, the authors argue that this future orientation is associated with intolerance of personal uncertainty, as people usually cannot be certain that their efforts will pay off. To be able to tolerate personal uncertainty, people adhere strongly to the belief in a just world, paradoxically resulting in harsher reactions toward innocent victims. In three experiments, the authors show that a future orientation indeed leads to more negative evaluations of an innocent victim (Study 1), enhances intolerance of personal uncertainty (Study 2), and that experiencing personal uncertainty leads to more negative evaluations of a victim (Study 3). So, while a future orientation enables people to strive for long-term goals, it also leads them to be harsher toward innocent victims. One underlying mechanism causing these reactions is intolerance of personal uncertainty, associated with a future orientation. PMID:22492551

Bal, Michèlle; van den Bos, Kees

2012-07-01

259

Hydrolysis of lactose in skim milk by immobilized beta-galactosidase (bacillus circulans).  

PubMed

A novel chemical reactor, consisting of beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans immobilized onto a ribbed membrane made from polyvinylchloride and silica, was used to hydrolyze the lactose constituent of skim milk. Multiresponse nonlinear regression methods were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of rate expressions based on a proposed enzymatic mechanism that includes the formation of oligosaccharides. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were employed to monitor the concentrations of all species present in the effluent stream. For the experimental conditions used in this research, rate expressions which include the formation of trisaccharides, the inhibition effects of both the alpha and beta anomers of galactose, and the corresponding mutarotation reaction are sufficient to model the reaction network. PMID:18600962

Bakken, A P; Hill, C G; Amundson, C H

1992-02-20

260

Hydrolysis of milk lactose by immobilized beta-galactosidase-hen egg white powder.  

PubMed

Immobilized beta-galactosidase was obtained by crosslinking the enzyme with hen egg white using 2% glutaraldehyde. The gel obtained could be lyophilized to give a dry enzyme powder. The pH optimum of both the soluble and immobilized enzyme was found to be 6.8. The immobilized enzyme showed a higher K(m) for the substrates. The extent of enzyme inhibition by galactose was reduced upon immobilization. The stability towards inactivation by heat, urea, gamma irradiation, and protease treatment were enhanced. The bound enzyme as tested in a batch reactor could be used repeatedly for the hydrolysis of milk lactose. The possible application of this system for small-scale domestic use has been suggested. PMID:18553475

Kaul, R; D'Souza, S F; Nadkarni, G B

1984-08-01

261

Plasmid carriage in Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting marine vibrios.  

PubMed Central

A total of 42 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus were examined for plasmid carriage. Of these, only five (12%) harbored plasmids, which were of various molecular weights. In contrast, 20 of 32 (62.5%) unidentified lactose-fermenting Vibrio spp. were found to possess plasmids with masses of 2.1 to 150 megadaltons. In these isolates, multiple plasmids were common, with an average of 2.25 plasmids per plasmid-containing strain. Attempts to demonstrate a correlation with the plasmids identified in the various Vibrio spp. and a variety of phenotypic traits, production of several enzymes potentially involved in virulence, cytotoxicity for Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse lethality were unsuccessful. A correlation was observed, however, between the presence of a 6.5-megadalton plasmid and resistance to pteridine 0/129. It was concluded that V. vulnificus, unlike most other Vibrio spp., shows a general lack of these extrachromosomal elements. PMID:3729404

Davidson, L S; Oliver, J D

1986-01-01

262

A proposed definition of the 'activity' of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation.  

PubMed

A new definition of the activity of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation is proposed which relates to drug detachment during dispersion. The new definition is expected to improve the understanding of 'carrier surface site activity', which stimulates the unambiguous communication about this subject and may aid in the rational design and interpretation of future formulation studies. In contrast to the currently prevailing view on carrier surface site activity, it follows from the newly proposed definition that carrier surface site activity depends on more variables than just the physicochemical properties of the carrier surface. Because the term 'active sites' is ambiguous, it is recommended to use the term 'highly active sites' instead to denote carrier surface sites with a relatively high activity. PMID:24613490

Grasmeijer, Floris; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

2014-06-01

263

Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Renin Exhibit Glucose Intolerance and Diet-Genotype Interactions  

PubMed Central

Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass. PMID:23308073

Fletcher, Sarah J.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Kim, Jung Han; Saxton, Arnold M.; Wasserman, David H.; De Taeye, Bart; Voy, Brynn H.; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

2013-01-01

264

Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: Results from a reputation-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.

Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.

2014-08-01

265

Molecular and clinical evaluation of Turkish patients with lysinuric protein intolerance.  

PubMed

Lysinuric protein intolerance is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by defective transport of the cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine in the epithelial cells of the basolateral membrane in the small intestine and renal tubules. Mutations in the solute carrier family 7, member 7, SLC7A7, gene cause this multisystemic disease with a variety of clinical symptoms such as hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, hypotonia, developmental delay, pulmonary insufficiency or end-stage renal disease. In the present study, genomic structure of SLC7A7 in six Turkish patients with lysinuric protein intolerance was examined in order to detect disease causing mutations by denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Four novel mutations were identified in SLC7A7: c.223insGTC, p.Val74_Ile75insVal; c.283insTGG, p.Glu94_Thr95insTrp; c.344_347delTTGC, p.Leu115LeufsX53; and c.1099insT, p.Ile367TyrfsX16. Clinical and biochemical findings were evaluated together with these molecular analyses. PMID:23542076

Güzel-Ozantürk, Ay?egül; Ozgül, R?za Köksal; Unal, Ozlem; Hi?mi, Burcu; Ayd?n, Halil ?brahim; Sivri, Serap; Tokatl?, Ay?egül; Co?kun, Turgay; Aksöz, Erol; Dursun, Ali

2013-06-01

266

Clinical improvement in patients with orthostatic intolerance after treatment with bisoprolol and fludrocortisone.  

PubMed

Orthostatic intolerance is the development of disabling symptoms upon assuming an upright posture that are relieved partially by resuming the supine position. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an orthostatic intolerance syndrome characterized by palpitations because of excessive orthostatic sinus tachycardia, lightheadedness, tremor, and near-syncope. Patients usually undergo extensive medical, cardiac, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric evaluation, which usually fails to identify a specific abnormality. The authors investigated the autonomic and hemodynamic profile of patients with POTS and the effectiveness of bisoprolol and fludrocortisone. The authors evaluated 11 female patients with POTS before and after medical treatment with a cardioselective bisoprolol beta-blocker or fludrocortisone, or both, and 11 age-matched control patients. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure was assessed by fast Fourier transform, and spontaneous baroreceptor gain was assessed by use of the temporal sequences slope and alpha index. Modelflow was used to quantify hemodynamics. Symptoms in all patients improved greatly after medication. The autonomic and hemodynamic impairment observed in patients with POTS, particularly after orthostatic stress, is treated effectively with bisoprolol or fludrocortisone or both. These results need further confirmation in a controlled double-blind study. Proper medical treatment improves dramatically the clinical and autonomic-hemodynamic disturbances observed in patients with POTS. The data support the hypothesis that POTS is the result of a hyperadrenergic activation or hypovolemia during orthostasis. PMID:11198485

Freitas, J; Santos, R; Azevedo, E; Costa, O; Carvalho, M; de Freitas, A F

2000-10-01

267

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance. PMID:25206547

Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

2013-01-01

268

What People with Asthma Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking

269

What People with Diabetes Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance (??) Lupus Osteogenesis Imperfecta Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Smoking Partner Resources Diabetes ...

270

The etiology and prevention of feeding intolerance paralytic ileus – revisiting an old concept  

PubMed Central

Gastro-intestinal (G-I) motility is impaired ("paralytic ileus") after abdominal surgery. Premature feeding attempts delay recovery by inducing "feeding intolerance," especially abdominal distention that compromises respiration. Controlled studies (e.g., from Sloan-Kettering Memorial Hospital) have lead to recommendations that patients not be fed soon after major abdominal surgery to avoid this complication. We postulate that when total fluid inflow of feedings, digestive secretions, and swallowed air outstrip peristaltic outflow from the feeding site, fluid accumulates. This localized stagnation triggers G-I vagal reflexes that further slow the already sluggish gut, leading to generalized abdominal distention. Similarly, vagal cardiovascular reflexes in susceptible subjects could account for the 1:1,000 incidence of unexplained bowel necrosis reported with enteral feeding. We re-evaluated our data, which supports this postulated mechanism for the induction of "feeding intolerance." We had focused our efforts on postoperative enteral nutrition, with the largest reported series of immediate feeding of at least 100 kcal/hour after major surgery. We found that this complication can be avoided consistently by monitoring inflow versus peristaltic outflow, immediately removing any potential excess from the feeding site. We fed intraduodenally immediately following "open" surgery for 31 colectomy and 160 consecutive cholecystectomy patients. The duodenum was aspirated simultaneously just proximal to the feeding site, efficiently removing all swallowed air and excess feedings. To salvage digestive secretions, the degassed aspirate was re-introduced manually (and later automatically) via a separate feeding channel. Hourly assays were performed for nitrogen balance, serum amino acids, and for the presence of removed feedings in the aspirate. The colectomy patients had X-ray motility studies initiated 5 – 17 hours after surgery. Clinically normal motility and absorption resumed within two hours. Fed BaSO4 traversed secure anastomoses, to exit in bowel movements within 24–48 hours of colectomy. All patients were in positive protein balance within 2 – 24 hours, with elevated serum amino acids levels and without adverse G-I effects. Limiting inflow to match peristaltic outflow from the feeding site consistently prevented "feeding intolerance." These patients received immediate full enteral nutrition, with the most rapid resolution of postoperative paralytic ileus, to date. PMID:19374754

Moss, Gerald

2009-01-01

271

The Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America. Student Text ("Us and Them") and Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Shadow of Hate" resource kit provides a videotape program (40 minutes), 20 copies of a 128-page student text ("Us and Them"), and a 32-page teacher's guide. This document consists of single copies of the two printed components of this kit. The resource traces the history of racial, religious, and social intolerance in the United States.…

Carnes, Jim; Roberson, Houston

272

Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN

N Unwin; J Harland; M White; R Bhopal; P Winocour; P Stephenson; W Watson; C Turner; K G Alberti

1997-01-01

273

Intolerance of Uncertainty as a Framework for Understanding Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is a problem for many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). There is a paucity of models of the cognitive processes underlying this. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has utility in explaining anxiety in neurotypical populations but has only recently received attention in ASD. We modelled the relationship between anxiety…

Boulter, Christina; Freeston, Mark; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui

2014-01-01

274

Biological control of intolerant hardwood competition: Silvicultural efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum and worker productivity in conifer plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vigorous vegetative reproduction of intolerant deciduous competition limits the efficacy of mechanical release operations in young softwood plantations. Applying bioherbicides such as the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouzar could improve the effectiveness of release by reducing stump sprouting while gaining public acceptance. A field experiment was conducted in Québec (Canada) in two white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench

Vincent Roy; Denise Dubeau; Isabelle Auger

2010-01-01

275

A Potential Treatment for Post-Flight Orthostatic Intolerance in Aero-Space Crews: Autogenic-Feedback Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight orthostatic intolerance has been identified as a serious biomedical problem associated with long duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder which are both effective and practical. A considerable body of clinical research has demonstrated that people can be taught to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily and that this is an effective treatment for chronic Orthostatic intolerance in paralyzed patients. The present pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility of adding training in control of blood pressure to an existing preflight training program designed to facilitate astronaut adaptation to microgravity. Using in operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), three men and two women participated in four to nine (15-30 training sessions). At the end of training ranged between 20 and 50 mm Hg under both supine and 450 head-up tilt conditions. These findings suggest that AFT may be a useful alternative treatment or supplement to existing approaches for preventing postflight Orthostatic intolerance. Further, the use of operant conditioning methods for training cardiovascular responses may contribute to the general understanding of the mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance.

Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Miller, N. E.; Pickering, T. G.; Shapiro, D.

1994-01-01

276

Does distress intolerance moderate the link between ADHD symptoms and number of sexual partners?  

PubMed

Previous research demonstrates that ADHD symptoms are related to increased risky sexual behavior. Distress intolerance (DIT) has also been linked to risk behavior and may also be related to increased risky sexual behavior. Thus, we evaluated the degree to which DIT moderated the link between ADHD symptoms and number of casual and monogamous sexual partners. Participants were undergraduate psychology students (N = 660; 30 % male; M = 20.23, SD = 1.40; 47 % European American) who completed an online assessment. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that several DIT constructs, specifically tolerance, appraisal, and regulation, moderated the link between ADHD symptoms and casual sex partners. Only regulation moderated the association between ADHD symptoms and monogamous sex partners. Results suggest that difficulty managing distress moderates the link between ADHD symptoms and number of sexual partners. These results have important implications for prevention and intervention program development. PMID:24858733

Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Willis, Danielle

2014-05-25

277

Exploring the transcriptomic variation caused by the Finnish founder mutation of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI).  

PubMed

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in cationic amino acid transporter gene SLC7A7. Although all Finnish patients share the same homozygous mutation, their clinical manifestations vary greatly. The symptoms range from failure to thrive, protein aversion, anemia and hyperammonaemia, to immunological abnormalities, nephropathy and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. To unravel the molecular mechanisms behind those symptoms not explained directly by the primary mutation, gene expression profiles of LPI patients were studied using genome-wide microarray technology. As a result, we discovered 926 differentially-expressed genes, including cationic and neutral amino acid transporters. The functional annotation analysis revealed a significant accumulation of such biological processes as inflammatory response, immune system processes and apoptosis. We conclude that changes in the expression of genes other than SLC7A7 may be linked to the various symptoms of LPI, indicating a complex interplay between amino acid transporters and various cellular processes. PMID:22221392

Tringham, Maaria; Kurko, Johanna; Tanner, Laura; Tuikkala, Johannes; Nevalainen, Olli S; Niinikoski, Harri; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Hietala, Marja; Simell, Olli; Mykkänen, Juha

2012-03-01

278

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 14.  

PubMed Central

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defective transport of cationic amino acids and by hyperammonemia. Linkage analysis in 20 Finnish LPI families assigned the LPI gene locus to the proximal long arm of chromosome 14. Recombinations placed the locus between framework markers D14S72 and MYH7, a 10-cM interval in which the markers D14S742, D14S50, D14S283, and TCRA showed no recombinations with the phenotype. The phenotype was in highly significant linkage disequilibrium with markers D14S50, D14S283, and TCRA. The strongest allelic association obtained with marker TCRA, resulting in a P(excess) value of .98, suggests that the LPI gene locus lies in close proximity to this marker, probably within a distance of < 100 kb. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9199570

Lauteala, T; Sistonen, P; Savontaus, M L; Mykkänen, J; Simell, J; Lukkarinen, M; Simell, O; Aula, P

1997-01-01

279

Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: results from a model with reputation  

E-print Network

When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping or not others, and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as 'leading eight') enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one out of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, skin colour...) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviours can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyse the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree ...

Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A

2014-01-01

280

Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as a human model of orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Observations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effect of the selective NET blocker reboxetine and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion on cardiovascular responses to cold pressor testing, handgrip testing, and a graded head-up tilt test (HUT) in 18 healthy subjects. In a subset, we determined isoproterenol and phenylephrine sensitivities. Subjects ingested 8 mg reboxetine or placebo 12 hours and 1 hour before testing. In the supine position, heart rate was 65+/-2 bpm with placebo and 71+/-3 bpm with reboxetine. At 75 degrees HUT, heart rate was 84+/-3 and 119+/-4 bpm with placebo and with reboxetine (P<0.0001). Mean arterial pressure was 85+/-2 with placebo and 91+/-2 mm Hg with reboxetine while supine (P<0.01) and 88+/-2 mm Hg and 90+/-3 mm Hg at 75 degrees HUT. Blood pressure responses to cold pressor and handgrip testing were attenuated with reboxetine. Reboxetine increased the sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of isoproterenol and the pressor effect of phenylephrine. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 9 subjects on placebo and in 1 subject on reboxetine. CONCLUSIONS: Selective NET blockade creates a phenotype that resembles idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. This observation supports the hypothesis that disordered norepinephrine uptake mechanisms can contribute to human cardiovascular disease. Our study also suggests that NET inhibition might be useful in preventing vasovagal reactions.

Schroeder, Christoph; Tank, Jens; Boschmann, Michael; Diedrich, Andre; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

281

Genetic associations with performance on a behavioral measure of distress intolerance.  

PubMed

Both theory and empirical evidence support possible associations between two candidate genetic polymorphisms (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR l/s and COMT Val(158)Met--rs4680 variants) and emotion-regulation difficulties. One particular form of emotion-regulation difficulty, distress intolerance, has been measured using a behavioral assessment in youth; data indicate a relationship with poor psychological functioning. No prior study has investigated genetic influences on emotion-regulation difficulties in youth. As part of a larger longitudinal study on adolescent risk behaviors, 218 10-14 year-old youths from the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area completed a measure of distress intolerance, the Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress (BIRD), and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction and genotyping. Results indicate that those with one or two copies of the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were more likely to perform poorly on the task (i.e., choose to quit) than were those homozygous for the l allele. Participants who were Val allele carriers of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism were also more likely to quit the task compared to Met homozygotes. A summative risk allele score was created to combine the two polymorphisms, and each risk allele was associated with a 1.75 fold increased likelihood of quitting the task. Exploratory analyses revealed that emotional abuse moderated the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR and BIRD performance, as well as the genetic risk allele and the BIRD. This is the first investigation of genetic predictors of a behavioral measure of tolerance to distress. Results suggest that distress tolerance is at least partially regulated by specific genetic variants. Implications are discussed. PMID:22024485

Amstadter, Ananda B; Daughters, Stacey B; Macpherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Wang, Frances; Potenza, Marc N; Gelernter, Joel; Lejuez, C W

2012-01-01

282

Anterior stromal puncture for treatment of contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the results and effectiveness of anterior stromal puncture for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients with subepithelial fibrotic nodules. Methods Nine eyes of nine keratoconus patients who were rigid gas-permeable contact lenses (RGP)-intolerant due to subepithelial nodular scars were included in this study. The nine patients were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and December 2008. After confirming nodular elevation from slit-lamp biomicroscopy, the area where the epithelium of nodular scars had sloughed was punctured by anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle attached to a 1-ml syringe under slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The RGPs of all patients were refitted around 4 weeks after the puncture. Results Five of the nine patients were male, and the average patient age was 29.6 years (SD?±?5.22 years). Mean follow-up time was 13.7 months (SD?±?4.8 months), and the epithelial defect healed in 1.4 days on average. After the puncture, four of nine patients presented with a recurrent erosion of the nodule during follow-up and needed a second puncture. All the patients showed good contact lens tolerance and satisfactory contact lens fit. No complications such as corneal perforation or keratitis developed. Conclusions Anterior stromal puncture using a 26-gauge needle can be a successful and effective method to induce corneal epithelium and Bowman’s layer reattachment. It can be used as an outpatient procedure to improve RGP tolerance in patients with keratoconus with elevated subepithelial nodules. PMID:20625761

Kang, Su Yeon; Park, Young Kee; Song, Jong-Suk

2010-01-01

283

Acute Drop in Blood Monocyte Count Differentiates NEC from Other Causes of Feeding Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by macrophage infiltration into affected tissues. Because intestinal macrophages are derived from recruitment and in situ differentiation of blood monocytes in the gut mucosa, we hypothesized that increased recruitment of monocytes to the intestine during NEC reduces the blood monocyte concentration, and that this fall in blood monocytes can be a useful biomarker for NEC. Patients and methods We reviewed medical records of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated for NEC, and compared them with a matched control group comprised of infants with feeding intolerance but no signs of NEC. Clinical characteristics and absolute monocyte counts (AMC) were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of AMC values was tested using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC). Results We compared 69 cases and 257 controls (median 27 weeks, range 26–29 in both groups). In stage II NEC, AMC decreased from median 1.7 × 109/L (interquartile range (IQR) 0.98–2.4) to 0.8 (IQR 0.62–2.1); p <0.05. In stage III NEC, monocyte counts decreased from median 2.1 × 109/L (IQR 0.1.5–3.2) to 0.8 (IQR 0.6–1.9); p <0.05. There was no change in AMC in control infants. ROC of AMC values showed a diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76. In a given infant with feeding intolerance, a drop in AMC of >20% indicated NEC with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI 0.57–0.81) and specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64–0.77). Conclusions We have identified a fall in blood monocyte concentration as a novel biomarker for NEC in VLBW infants. PMID:24674979

Remon, Juan I.; Kampanatkosol, Richard; Kaul, Rajat; Muraskas, Jonathan K.; Christensen, Robert D.; Maheshwari, Akhil

2014-01-01

284

Busulfan in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) resistant or intolerant to hydroxyurea are limited. Busulfan is effective as first-line therapy, but there is scarce information on this drug as second-line treatment. The efficacy of busulfan in patients with advanced PV or ET refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea was assessed in 36 patients (PV n = 15, ET n = 21) treated for a median of 256 days. Complete hematological response (CHR) was achieved in 83 % of patients, after a median time of 203 days (range 92-313). The probability of sustained CHR at 1 and 2 years was 87 and 62 %, respectively. Time to CHR was shorter in patients treated with ?14 mg of busulfan per week than with lower doses (141 versus 336 days, p = 0.01). Partial molecular response was achieved in three out of nine (33 %) patients. Busulfan was stopped in 27 patients (75 %) due to CHR achievement in 18 cases (67 %), hematological toxicity in 8 cases (30 %), and disease transformation in 1 case. With a median follow-up of 721 days, six patients have died, with the probability of survival at 2 years being 85 %. The probability of thrombosis at 2 years was 11 %. Transformation into acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in three cases, all of them in a JAK2V617F-negative clone carrying additional mutations. Busulfan, at a dose of 2 mg/day, is an effective option for elderly patients with PV or ET who fail to hydroxyurea, but a significant rate of transformation was observed. PMID:24981691

Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Hernández-Boluda, Juan Carlos; Ferrer-Marín, Francisca; Antelo, María Luisa; Burgaleta, Carmen; Mata, M Isabel; Xicoy, Blanca; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Gómez-Casares, M Teresa; Durán, M Antonia; Marcote, Bárbara; Ancochea, Agueda; Senín, Alicia; Angona, Anna; Gómez, Montse; Vicente, Vicente; Cervantes, Francisco; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles

2014-12-01

285

Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (p<.06) when controlling for FTND. Lower withdrawal intolerance significantly predicted 3month abstinence when controlling for FTND. Higher withdrawal intolerance pretreatment correlated with less motivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation. PMID:25531536

Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

2015-04-01

286

Intolerance for Discomfort among Smokers: Comparison of Smoking-specific and Non-specific Measures to Smoking History and Patterns  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intolerance of discomfort associated with recent smoking cessation has been studied with only one smoking-specific questionnaire. The present study investigates the extent to which the previously validated Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) scales share variance with (a) laboratory measures of distress tolerance (Paced Serial Addition Task and a breath-holding task) that have themselves been validated against smoking history, (b) the cold pressor task (not previously validated for smoking), and (c) an anxiety sensitivity questionnaire previously used for a similar purpose. The study then tests the hypothesis that the IDQ-S scales will have a higher correlation with smoking rate and dependence and with number and length of past smoking cessation attempts than will anxiety sensitivity or behavioral distress tolerance tasks since those measures are not smoking-specific. Methods Sixty daily smokers recruited from the community completed the measures. Results The behavioral tasks and anxiety sensitivity shared little common variance. Anxiety sensitivity correlated more highly with IDQ-S than did the behavioral tasks but only 27% of variance was shared with the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance; no distress tolerance measure correlated significantly with the IDQ-S Lack of Cognitive Coping scale. Only the IDQ-S scales correlated significantly with nicotine dependence, rate and past cessation: Withdrawal Intolerance with nicotine dependence and rate, and Lack of Cognitive Coping with fewer quit attempts. Conclusions The smoking-specific measure of intolerance for discomfort may be more useful in smoking research than the less specific measures of distress tolerance. PMID:23254229

Sirota, Alan D.; Rohsenow, Damaris; Dolan, Sara L.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Kahler, Christopher W.

2012-01-01

287

The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to the suggestion of an epileptic personality. PMID:25138986

Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

2014-10-01

288

NMR confirmation of an alkali-insoluble glucan from Kluyveromyces marxianus cultivated on a lactose-based medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus grown in a sterile lactose-based medium, were extracted with sodium hydroxide to give a fraction of alkali-insoluble yeast (AIY) glucan. From 1H- and 13C-NMR characterization it was concluded that the glucan consisted mostly of ß(1 ? 3) linkages and was similar to that obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the preparations for skin revitalization and

Tredwell Lukondeh; Nicholas J. Ashbolt; Peter L. Rogers; James M. Hook

2003-01-01

289

Functional Properties of Nonfat Dairy Ingredients — A Review. Modification of Lactose and Products Containing Whey Proteins1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey proteins can be modified by a variety of physical, chemical, or enzymatic processes. The principal whey proteins, a- lactalbumin and 3-1actoglobulin, are sen- sitive to heat. Once denatured, ionic and pH conditions can be altered and com- bined with centrifugation to produce traditional products such as lactalbumin. Relatively undentatured whey proteins can be selectively depleted of ions and lactose

H. W. Modler

1985-01-01

290

Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.  

PubMed

Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach. PMID:24732384

Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

2014-09-30

291

DNA Recognition Process of the Lactose Repressor Protein Studied via Metadynamics and Umbrella Sampling Simulations.  

PubMed

The lactose repressor, LacI, finds its DNA target sites via a process that is faster than what it is expected from a diffusion-driven mechanism. This is possible thanks to nonspecific binding of LacI to DNA, followed by diffusion along the DNA molecule. The diffusion of the protein along DNA might lead to a fast-searching mechanism only if LacI binds with comparable strength to different nonspecific sequences and if, in addition, the value of the binding energy remarkably decreases in the presence of a binding site. The first condition would be favored by loose interactions with the base edges, while the second would take advantage from the opposite situation. In order to understand how the protein satisfies these two opposing requirements, the DNA recognition process was studied by a combination of umbrella sampling and metadynamics simulations. The simulations revealed that when aligned with a specific sequence, LacI establishes polar interactions with the base edges that require ?4 kcal/mol to be disrupted. In contrast, these interactions are not stable when the protein is aligned with nonspecific sequences. These results confirm that LacI is able to efficiently recognize a specific sequence while sliding along DNA before any structural change of the protein-DNA complex occurs. PMID:25341013

Furini, Simone; Domene, Carmen

2014-11-20

292

Dynamic modeling of gene expression in prokaryotes: application to glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

Coexpression of genes or, more generally, similarity in the expression profiles poses an unsurmountable obstacle to inferring the gene regulatory network (GRN) based solely on data from DNA microarray time series. Clustering of genes with similar expression profiles allows for a course-grained view of the GRN and a probabilistic determination of the connectivity among the clusters. We present a model for the temporal evolution of a gene cluster network which takes into account interactions of gene products with genes and, through a non-constant degradation rate, with other gene products. The number of model parameters is reduced by using polynomial functions to interpolate temporal data points. In this manner, the task of parameter estimation is reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations, thus making the computation time shorter by orders of magnitude. To eliminate irrelevant networks, we test each GRN for stability with respect to parameter variations, and impose restrictions on its behavior near the steady state. We apply our model and methods to DNA microarray time series' data collected on Escherichia coli during glucose-lactose diauxie and infer the most probable cluster network for different phases of the experiment.

Jaroslav Albert; Marianne Rooman

2011-06-01

293

Lactose mother liquor as an alternative nutrient source for microbial concrete production by Sporosarcina pasteurii.  

PubMed

Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation by the bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using the industrial effluent of the dairy industry, lactose mother liquor (LML) as growth medium was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The urease activity and the calcite precipitation by the bacterium was tested in LML and compared with the standard media like nutrient media and yeast extract media. Calcite constituted 24.0% of the total weight of the sand samples plugged by S. pasteurii and urease production was found to be 353 U/ml in LML medium. The compressive strength of cement mortar was increased by S. pasteurii in all the media used compared to control. No significant difference in the growth, urease production and compressive strength of mortar among the media suggesting LML as an alternative source for standard media. This study demonstrates that microbial calcite acts as a sealing agent for filling the gaps or cracks and fissures in constructed facilities and natural formations alike. PMID:19107535

Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Basu, P C; Reddy, M S

2009-03-01

294

A tree-step computational approach to simplify conformational determination of cellobiose and lactose.  

PubMed

Great theoretical attentions have been paid on the conformational preference of individual molecular building blocks of carbohydrates because it is helpful for assignments of the experimental signals and explorations of the biological implications. A tree-step approach is applied here to simplify the conformational determination of phenyl ?-cellobioside and benzyl ?-lactoside, for which 35 and 23 initial structures are built, respectively. After the high-level calculations, low-energy conformers are determined and then compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The low-energy conformers are reconstructed in our work for both cellobiose and lactose and the results show a quantitative agreement between the experimental signature and the predicted IR vibration assignment. In addition, two low-energy conformers, which are predicted in our work, have not been reported by the previous work using the traditional method. The tree-step computational approach provides an alternative timesaving and accurate method to focus on determining the preferred conformations of disaccharides. PMID:25464081

Chen, Dong; Wei, Zhichao; Yao, Yuheng; Liu, Bo

2015-01-12

295

Custom Gradient Compression Stockings May Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during re-entry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. We recently determined that thigh-high, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective after space flight, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. We also recently showed that addition of splanchnic compression to this thigh-high compression stocking paradigm improved orthostatic tolerance to a level similar to the AGS, in a ground based model. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, three-piece breast-high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Eight U.S. astronauts have volunteered for this experiment and were individually fitted for a three-piece, breast-high compression garment to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle which decreased to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and provides 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days pre-flight (w/o garment) and 2 hours after flight (w/ garment) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stands up. To date, two astronauts have completed pre- and post-space flight testing. Data are mean SD. Results: BP [pre (prone to stand): 137+/-1.6 to 129+/-2.5; post: 130+/-2.4 to 122+/-1.6 mmHg] and SV [pre (prone to stand): 61+/-1.6 to 38+/-0.2; post: 58+/-6.4 to 37+/-6.0 ml] decreased with standing, but no differences were seen post-flight w/ compression garments compared to pre-flight w/o garments. HR [pre (prone to stand): 66+/-1.6 to 74+/-3.0, post: 67+/-5.6 to 78+/-6.8 bpm] increased with standing, but no differences were seen pre- to post-flight. Conclusion: After space flight, blood pressure and stroke volume are normally decreased and heart rate is usually elevated to compensate. In this small group of subjects, breast-high gradient compression stockings seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight.

Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

2010-01-01

296

Compression Stockings May Ameliorate Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Short-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight has been observed since the early days of manned spaceflight, and no countermeasure has been 100% effective. During re-entry NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) which compresses the legs and abdomen, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Space Shuttle. We previously reported that foot-to-thigh, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective during standing after Shuttle missions. More recently we showed in a ground-based model of spaceflight that the addition of splanchnic compression to the foot-to-thigh compression stockings, creating foot-to-breast high compression, improved orthostatic tolerance in hypovolemic subjects to a level similar to the AGS. Purpose: To evaluate a new three-piece, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Fourteen astronauts completed this experiment (7 control, 7 treatment) following Space Shuttle missions lasting 12-16 days. Treatment subjects were custom-fitted for a three-piece, foot-to-breast high compression garment consisting of shorts and foot-to-thigh stockings. The garments were constructed to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle and decreased gradually to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days before flight (without garments) and 2 hours after flight (with garments for treatment group only) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stood. Data are reported as mean +/- SE. Results: The compression garment successfully prevented the tachycardia and hypotension typically seen post-spaceflight. On landing day, treatment subjects had a smaller change in HR (11+/-1 vs. 21+/-4 beats/min, p< or =0.05) and no decrease in systolic BP (2+/-4 vs. -9+/-2 mmHg, p< or =0.05). Garments also received good comfort ratings and were relatively easy to don. Conclusion: In this small group of astronauts, foot-to-breast high gradient compression garments seem to have prevented these negative effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular responses to standing.

Platts, Steven H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Stenger, Michael B.

2011-01-01

297

Splanchnic Compression Improves the Efficacy of Compression Stockings to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purpose: Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance (OI) is observed in 20-30% of astronauts. Previous data from our laboratory suggests that this is largely a result of decreased venous return. Currently, NASA astronauts wear an anti-gravity suit (AGS) which consists of inflatable air bladders over the calves, thighs and abdomen, typically pressurized from 26 to 78 mmHg. We recently determined that, thigh-high graded compression stockings (JOBST , 55 mmHg at ankle, 6 mmHg at top of thigh) were effective, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of splanchnic compression to prevent orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (6M, 4F) participated in three 80 head-up tilts on separate days while (1) normovolemic (2) hypovolemic w/ breast-high compression stockings (BS)(JOBST(R), 55 mmHg at the ankle, 6 mmHg at top of thigh, 12 mmHg over abdomen) (3) hypovolemic w/o stockings. Hypovolemia was induced by IV infusion of furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) and 48 hrs of a low salt diet to simulate plasma volume loss following space flight. Hypovolemic testing occurred 24 and 48 hrs after furosemide. One-way repeated measures ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections, was used to test for differences in blood pressure and heart rate responses to head-up tilt, stand times were compared using a Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis. Results: BS were effective in preventing OI and presyncope in hypovolemic test subjects ( p = 0.015). BS prevented the decrease in systolic blood pressure seen during tilt in normovolemia (p < 0.001) and hypovolemia w/o countermeasure (p = 0.005). BS also prevented the decrease in diastolic blood pressure seen during tilt in normovolemia (p = 0.006) and hypovolemia w/o countermeasure (p = 0.041). Hypovolemia w/o countermeasure showed a higher tilt-induced heart rate increase (p = 0.022) than seen in normovolemia; heart rate while wearing BS was not different than normovolemia (p = 0.353). Conclusion: BS may be an effective countermeasure to post-space flight OI. The addition of splanchnic compression is more effective than the previous thigh-high garments. These stockings are readily available, inexpensive, and can be worn for days following landing as astronauts re-adapt to Earth gravity.

Platts, Steven H.; Brown, A. K.; Lee, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.

2009-01-01

298

Synergistic effects in semidilute mixed solutions of alginate and lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).  

PubMed

The present study specifically aimed at preparing and characterizing semidilute binary polymer mixtures of alginate and chitlac which might find an application in the field of cell encapsulation. A polyanion, alginate, and a polycation, a lactose-modified chitosan, were mixed under physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and NaCl 0.15) and at a semidilute concentration avoiding associative phase separation. The mutual solubility was found to be dependent on the charge screening effect of the added NaCl salt, being prevented below 0.05 M NaCl. A comparison with the behavior of the polyanion (alginate) under the same experimental conditions revealed that both the viscosity and the relaxation times of the binary polymer solutions are strongly affected by the presence of the polycation. In particular, the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between the two oppositely charged polysaccharides led to a synergistic effect on the zero-shear viscosity of the solution, which showed a 4.2-fold increase with respect to that of the main component of the solution, i.e., alginate. Moreover, the relaxation time, calculated as the reciprocal of the critical share rate, markedly increased upon reducing the alginate fraction in the binary polysaccharide solution. However, the formation of the soluble complexes and the synergistic effect are reduced upon increasing the concentration of the 1:1 electrolyte. By containing a gel-forming polyanion (alginate, e.g., with Ca(2+) ions) and a bioactive polycation (chitlac, bearing a beta-linked D-galactose), the present system can be regarded as a first step toward the development of biologically active scaffold from polysaccharide mixtures. PMID:17300173

Donati, Ivan; Haug, Ingvild J; Scarpa, Tommaso; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Draget, Kurt I; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Paoletti, Sergio

2007-03-01

299

PKC?-regulated inflammation in the non-hematopoietic compartment is critical for obesity-induced glucose intolerance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Obesity-induced inflammation is critical for the development of insulin resistance. Here we show, that genetic inactivation of PKC? in vivo leads to a hyperinflammatory state in obese mice that correlates with a higher glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Previous studies implicated PKC? in the regulation of type 2 inflammatory responses in T cells. By using ex vivo and in vivo experiments, here we demonstrate that although PKC? is involved in the alternative (M2) activation of macrophages, surprisingly, PKC? ablation in the non-hematopoietic compartment but not in the hematopoietic system is sufficient to drive inflammation and IL-6 synthesis in the adipose tissue, as well as insulin resistance. Experiments using PKC?/IL-6 double-knockout mice demonstrated that IL-6 production accounts for obesity-associated glucose intolerance induced by PKC? deficiency. These results establish PKC? as a critical negative regulator of IL-6 in the control of obesity-induced inflammation in adipocytes. PMID:20620996

Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Nogueiras, Ruben; Linares, Juan F.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Drew, Angela; Leitges, Michael; Kim, Jason K.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Diaz-Meco, Maria T.; Moscat, Jorge

2010-01-01

300

Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs  

PubMed Central

With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

301

Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Tki) as Salvage Therapy for Resistant or Intolerant Patients to Prior TKIs.  

PubMed

With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second-and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors. PMID:24455112

Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

2014-01-01

302

Enhanced ?-galactosidase production from whey powder by a mutant of the psychrotolerant yeast Guehomyces pullulans 17-1 for hydrolysis of lactose.  

PubMed

In order to isolate ?-galactosidase overproducers of the psychrotolerant yeast Guehomyces pullulans 17-1, its cells were mutated by using nitrosoguanidine (NTG). One mutant (NTG-133) with enhanced ?-galactosidase production was obtained. The mutant grown in the production medium with 30.0 g/l lactose and 2.0 g/l glucose could produce more ?-galactosidase than the same mutant grown in the production medium with only 30.0 g/l lactose while ?-galactosidase production by its wild type was sensitive to the presence of glucose in the medium. It was found that 40.0 g/l of the whey powder was the most suitable for ?-galactosidase production by the mutant. After optimization of the medium and cultivation conditions, the mutant could produce 29.2 U/ml of total ?-galactosidase activity within 132 h at the flask level while the mutant could produce 48.1 U/ml of total ?-galactosidase activity within 144 h in 2-l fermentor. Over 77.1% of lactose in the whey powder (5.0% w/v) was hydrolyzed in the presence of the ?-galactosidase activity of 280 U/g of lactose within 9 h while over 77.0% of lactose in the whey was hydrolyzed in the presence of ?-galactosidase activity of 280 U/g of lactose within 6 h. This was the first time to show that the ?-galactosidase produced by the psychrotolerant yeast could be used for hydrolysis of lactose in the whey powder and whey. PMID:22086565

Xu, Jin-Li; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Ling-Fei; Sun, Huai-Yong; Song, Chun-Li; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2012-02-01

303

The characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma dual refractory or intolerant to bortezomib and lenalidomide in the era of carfilzomib and pomalidomide  

PubMed Central

Patients with multiple myeloma who are refractory or intolerant to both bortezomib and lenalidomide have a poor prognosis. Next-generation therapies carfilzomib and pomalidomide have shown promising activity in this dual refractory population. Here we describe the clinical characteristics and ascertain the effects of carfilzomib and pomalidomide on survival in this patient cohort. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 65 dual refractory/intolerant myeloma patients diagnosed between January 2007 and May 2012 at a single institution. The median overall survival (OS) from the time patients became dual refractory/intolerant was 10.2 months. Patients who received carfilzomib or pomalidomide after they became dual refractory/intolerant had a better OS compared to those who did not (12.6 vs. 6.8 months, p=0.03 by Wilcoxon test). Prospective randomized control trials are needed for confirmation. PMID:23662990

Wang, Tzu-Fei; Ahluwalia, Rohan; Fiala, Mark A.; Trinkaus, Kathryn M.; Cox, Doug P.; Jaenicke, Matthew; Moliske, Caitlin C.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Tomasson, Michael H.; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E.; Vij, Ravi

2014-01-01

304

The characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma dual refractory or intolerant to bortezomib and lenalidomide in the era of carfilzomib and pomalidomide.  

PubMed

Patients with multiple myeloma who are refractory or intolerant to both bortezomib and lenalidomide have a poor prognosis. Next-generation therapies carfilzomib and pomalidomide have shown promising activity in this dual refractory population. Here we describe the clinical characteristics and ascertain the effects of carfilzomib and pomalidomide on survival in this patient cohort. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 65 patients with dual refractory/intolerant myeloma diagnosed between January 2007 and May 2012 at a single institution. The median overall survival (OS) from the time patients became dual refractory/intolerant was 10.2 months. Patients who received carfilzomib or pomalidomide after they became dual refractory/intolerant had a better OS compared to those who did not (12.6 vs. 6.8 months, p = 0.03 by Wilcoxon test). Prospective randomized control trials are needed for confirmation. PMID:23662990

Wang, Tzu-Fei; Ahluwalia, Rohan; Fiala, Mark A; Trinkaus, Kathryn M; Cox, Doug P; Jaenicke, Matthew; Moliske, Caitlin C; Carson, Kenneth R; Wildes, Tanya M; Tomasson, Michael H; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E; Vij, Ravi

2014-02-01

305

Treating feeding intolerance with an enteral solution patterned after human amniotic fluid: a randomized, controlled, masked trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Feeding intolerance is a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and some cases might be causally related to atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa. We speculated that for such patients, feeding tolerance might improve after oral administration of enterocyte growth factors in a sterile, isotonic solution patterned after amniotic fluid.Study Design:Twenty neonates meeting criteria for feeding

C K Barney; D K Lambert; S C Alder; S H Scoffield; N Schmutz; R D Christensen

2007-01-01

306

Genetic susceptibility to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are located in HLA region  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To test the hypothesis that the genetic susceptibility to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is the same as that to insulin dependent disease and to see whether glucose intolerance is associated with specific HLA haplotypes. DESIGN--Population based study of men in 1989 first tested for glucose tolerance in 1984. HLA haplotypes, including HLA-A, C, B, DR, and DQ, were defined serologically.

E Tuomilehto-Wolf; J Tuomilehto; G A Hitman; A Nissinen; J Stengård; J Pekkanen; P Kivinen; E Kaarsalo; M J Karvonen

1993-01-01

307

The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne\\u000a chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether\\u000a other risk factors influence this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association\\u000a between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether

Sine Skovbjerg; Alice Rasmussen; Robert Zachariae; Lone Schmidt; Rikke Lund; Jesper Elberling

308

Stress-Induced Increase in Kynurenic Acid as a Potential Biomarker for Patients With Schizophrenia and Distress Intolerance  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Several lines of evidence have linked the endogenous neuromodulator kynurenic acid (KYNA) to schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The KYNA level was measured in saliva samples taken at baseline and at 2 times following a laboratory-based psychological stress challenge in 128 participants (64 patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics and 64 healthy controls from the community). EXPOSURE Laboratory-based psychological stress challenge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quitting the stressful task early was used as a behavioral marker of distress intolerance. RESULTS Patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher rate of distress intolerance compared with healthy controls (P = .003). Salivary KYNA levels increased significantly between baseline and 20 minutes following the stress task in both patients and controls (mean [SEM], 6.72 nM [0.65 nM] vs 8.43 nM [1.05 nM], respectively; P = .007). Patients who were unable to tolerate the stressful tasks and quit early showed significantly higher levels of KYNA than patients who tolerated the psychological stressor (P = .02) or healthy controls (P = .02). In patients with distress intolerance, KYNA elevation significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms (? = 0.64; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Distress intolerance is more common in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with this behavioral phenotype have elevated salivary KYNA levels. This stress response behavior–linked biomarker may aid heterogeneity reduction in schizophrenia and other stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24806441

Chiappelli, Joshua; Pocivavsek, Ana; Nugent, Katie L.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L. Elliot

2014-01-01

309

The first Korean case of lysinuric protein intolerance: presented with short stature and increased somnolence.  

PubMed

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare inherited metabolic disease, caused by defective transport of dibasic amino acids. Failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, hematological abnormalities, and hyperammonemic crisis are major clinical features. However, there has been no reported Korean patient with LPI as of yet. We recently encountered a 3.7-yr-old Korean girl with LPI and the diagnosis was confirmed by amino acid analyses and the SLC7A7 gene analysis. Her initial chief complaint was short stature below the 3rd percentile and increased somnolence for several months. Hepatosplenomegaly was noted, as were anemia, leukopenia, elevated levels of ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase, and hyperammonemia. Lysine, arginine, and ornithine levels were low in plasma and high in urine. The patient was a homozygote with a splicing site mutation of IVS4+1G > A in the SLC7A7. With the implementation of a low protein diet, sodium benzoate, citrulline and L-carnitine supplementation, anemia, hyperferritinemia, and hyperammonemia were improved, and normal growth velocity was observed. PMID:22876067

Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won; Seong, Moon Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Song, Junghan

2012-08-01

310

"But it might be a heart attack": intolerance of uncertainty and panic disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

Panic disorder models describe interactions between feared anxiety-related physical sensations (i.e., anxiety sensitivity; AS) and catastrophic interpretations therein. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been implicated as necessary for catastrophic interpretations in community samples. The current study examined relationships between IU, AS, and panic disorder symptoms in a clinical sample. Participants had a principal diagnosis of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia (n=132; 66% women). IU was expected to account for significant variance in panic symptoms controlling for AS. AS was expected to mediate the relationship between IU and panic symptoms, whereas IU was expected to moderate the relationship between AS and panic symptoms. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that IU accounted for significant unique variance in panic symptoms relative to AS, with comparable part correlations. Mediation and moderation models were also tested and suggested direct and indirect effects of IU on panic symptoms through AS; however, an interaction effect was not supported. The current cross-sectional evidence supports a role for IU in panic symptoms, independent of AS. PMID:24873884

Carleton, R Nicholas; Duranceau, Sophie; Freeston, Mark H; Boelen, Paul A; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

2014-06-01

311

Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance: possible relationship to microgravity-induced plasticity in the vestibular system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even after short spaceflights, most astronauts experience at least some postflight reduction of orthostatic tolerance; this problem is severe in some subjects. The mechanisms leading to postflight orthostatic intolerance are not well-established, but have traditionally been thought to include the following: changes in leg hemodynamics, alterations in baroreceptor reflex gain, decreases in exercise tolerance and aerobic fitness, hypovolemia, and altered sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors in the periphery. Recent studies have demonstrated that signals from vestibular otolith organs play an important role in regulating blood pressure during changes in posture in a 1-g environment. Because spaceflight results in plastic changes in the vestibular otolith organs and in the processing of inputs from otolith receptors, it is possible that another contributing factor to postflight orthostatic hypotension is alterations in the gain of vestibular influences on cardiovascular control. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, although controlled studies will be required to determine the relationship between changes in the vestibular system and orthostatic hypotension following exposure to microgravity. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Yates, B. J.; Kerman, I. A.

1998-01-01

312

Increased sympathetic activation in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance: role of systemic adrenoreceptor sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by adrenergic symptoms with standing. Changes in central sympathetic tone or in adrenoreceptor sensitivity could contribute to this syndrome. In OI patients and control subjects, we determined heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes after incremental bolus doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine before and during ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan. SBP decreased by 17+/-1.6 mm Hg in patients and 3.9+/-3.8 mm Hg in control subjects (P<0.01) with trimethaphan. Patients with a larger decrease (28+/-3.8 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP with trimethaphan had greater supine SBP and supine and upright plasma norepinephrine levels than did patients with a lesser decrease (3.0+/-3.0 mm Hg, n=7) in SBP. Supine and orthostatic HRs were similar for the groups. The majority of patients had a normal HR response to isoproterenol before and during ganglionic blockade. Phenylephrine increased SBP similarly in patients and control subjects before and during blockade. Sympathetic support is increased in a subgroup of OI patients. Hyperadrenergic and nonhyperadrenergic subgroups have similar degrees of orthostatic tachycardia. Our findings suggest that the hyperadrenergic features of OI cannot be completely explained by systemic hypersensitivity of postsynaptic alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoreceptors but rather originates in enhanced sympathetic activation.

Jordan, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Black, Bonnie K.; Robertson, David

2002-01-01

313

Management of Intolerance to Casting the Upper Extremities in Claustrophobic Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Some patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities. We hypothesized their that intolerance with excessive anxiety to casts is due to claustrophobia triggered by cast immobilization. The aim of this study is to analyze the relevance of cast immobilization to the feeling of claustrophobia and discover how to handle them. Methods. There were nine patients who showed the caustrophobic symptoms with their casts. They were assesed whether they were aware of their claustrophobis themselves. Further we investigated the alternative immobilization to casts. Results. Seven out of nine cases that were aware of their claustrophobic tendencies either were given removable splints initially or had the casts converted to removable splints when they exhibited symptoms. The two patients who were unaware of their latent claustrophobic tendencies were identified when they showed similar claustrophobic symptoms to the previous patients soon after short arm cast application. We replaced the casts with removable splints. This resolved the issue in all cases. Conclusions. We should be aware of the claustrophobia if patients showed unusual responses to the immobilization without any objective findings with casts in upper extremities, where removal splint is practical alternative to cast to continue the treatment successfully. PMID:25379544

Nagura, Issei; Kanatani, Takako; Sumi, Masatoshi; Inui, Atsuyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kokubu, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

314

Impaired phagocytosis in macrophages from patients affected by lysinuric protein intolerance.  

PubMed

Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (LPI, MIM 222700) is a recessive aminoaciduria caused by defective cationic amino acid transport in epithelial cells of intestine and kidney. SLC7A7, the gene mutated in LPI, codifies for the y+LAT1 subunit of system y(+)L amino acid transporter. LPI patients frequently display severe complications, such as pulmonary disease, haematological abnormalities and disorders of the immune response. The transport defect may explain only a part of the clinical aspects of the disease, while the mechanisms linking the genetic defect to the clinical features of the patients remain thus far obscure. The aim of the study is to investigate the consequences of SLC7A7 mutations on specific macrophage functions, so as to evaluate if a macrophage dysfunction may have a role in the development of pulmonary and immunological complications of LPI. The results presented 1) confirm previous data obtained in one LPI patient, demonstrating that arginine influx through system y(+)L is markedly compromised in LPI macrophages; 2) demonstrate that also system y(+)L-mediated arginine efflux is significantly lower in LPI macrophages than in normal cells and 3) demonstrate that the phagocytic activity of LPI macrophages is severely impaired. In conclusion, SLC7A7/y+LAT1 mutations lead to a defective phenotype of macrophages, supporting the pathogenetic role of these cells in the development of LPI-associated complications. PMID:22325938

Barilli, Amelia; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Visigalli, Rossana; Bussolati, Ovidio; Gazzola, Gian C; Gatti, Rita; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Martinelli, Diego; Goffredo, Bianca M; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Mariani, Francesca; Luisetti, Maurizio; Dall'Asta, Valeria

2012-04-01

315

Aversive responding to safety signals in panic disorder: the moderating role of intolerance of uncertainty.  

PubMed

An inability to inhibit aversive responding during conditions that signal safety may be a core dysfunction associated with anxiety disorders. However, there has been inconsistent evidence as to whether individuals with panic disorder (PD) exhibit aversive responding during safety signals. It is therefore possible that only certain subgroups of PD patients, particularly those with high levels of intolerance of uncertainty (IU), evidence this type of abnormal responding. The aim of the current study was to examine whether IU moderates the association between PD and startle potentiation during (a) safety and (b) threat periods during a threat-of-shock task. Participants included 172 adults, 74 of which had current diagnoses of PD. Results indicated that at high levels of IU, PD was associated with greater startle potentiation during safety. At low levels of IU, PD was not associated with startle potentiation during safety. IU did not moderate the effect of PD on threat responding. These results suggest that PD patients with high levels of IU fail to inhibit aversive responding during safety, possibly due to a tendency to interpret distal threat as distressing. PMID:25173980

Gorka, Stephanie M; Lieberman, Lynne; Nelson, Brady D; Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A

2014-10-01

316

Association analysis of DTD1 gene variations with aspirin-intolerance in asthmatics.  

PubMed

Aspirin ingestion is a common precipitating factor of life-threatening asthma attacks, requiring some patients to undergo mechanical ventilation. The gene, D-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase 1 (DTD1), may be a risk factor for aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) by catalyzing the hydrolysis of D-tryptophan and interacting with the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (tyrRS) enzyme, which promotes a pro-inflammatory phenotype. In order to investigate the association of DTD1 variants with the risk of AIA in an asthma cohort, 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and 5 major haplotypes were obtained in 163 AIA cases and 429 aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) controls. Differences in DTD1 SNP and haplotype distributions were analyzed using logistic and multiple regression models and were adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, atopy and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. Subsequent analyses revealed no association between DTD1 variants and the risk of AIA. Although nominal evidence of an association was detected between several DTD1 variants and the rate of decline of the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in AIA patients (rs6136444, rs6136469, rs6081338 and DTD1_ht5; P=0.01-0.02), the signals reached the threshold of multiple testing corrections, suggesting that DTD1 variants do not affect the abnormalities of the upper airways in AIA patients. PMID:21479357

Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Bae, Joon Seol; Park, Byung-Lae; Jang, An-Soo; Uh, Soo-Taek; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Koh, In Song; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Tae-Joon; Lee, Jin-Sol; Kim, Yongha; Park, Choon-Sik; Shin, Hyoung Doo

2011-07-01

317

Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

Jahid, Md. Abu

318

Oxygen-dependent energetics of anoxia-tolerant and anoxia-intolerant hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The oxygen-dependence of cellular energetics was investigated in hepatocytes from goldfish Carassius auratus (anoxia-tolerant) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (anoxia-intolerant). In goldfish hepatocytes, an approximately 50 % reduction in the rate of oxygen consumption was observed in response to both acute and prolonged hypoxia, the latter treatment shifting the threshold for this reduction to a higher oxygen level. A concomitant increase in the rate of lactate production did not compensate for the decreased aerobic ATP supply, resulting in an overall metabolic depression of 26 % during acute hypoxia and of 42 % during prolonged hypoxia. Trout hepatocytes showed a similar suppression of cellular respiration after prolonged hypoxia but were unresponsive to acute hypoxia. Similarly, the rate of lactate production was unaltered during acute hypoxia but was increased during prolonged hypoxia, metabolic depression amounting to 7 % during acute hypoxia and 30 % during prolonged hypoxia. In both species, the affinity of hepatocytes for oxygen decreased during hypoxia, but this alteration was not sufficient in absolute terms to account for the observed decrease in aerobic ATP supply. Protein synthesis was suppressed in both cell types under hypoxia, whereas Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity decreased in trout but not in goldfish hepatocytes, emphasising the importance of membrane function in these cells during conditions of limited energy supply. PMID:10667979

Krumschnabel, G; Schwarzbaum, P J; Lisch, J; Biasi, C; Wieser, W

2000-03-01

319

Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.  

PubMed

Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of ?-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased ?-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. PMID:23262275

Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

2013-03-01

320

Exercise intolerance and the impact of physical activity in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (SCT) is increasingly used to treat children with cancer, and survival following SCT is improving. One predominant consequence of childhood cancer therapy is increased physical morbidity, which is worse in pediatric SCT recipients compared with children treated with chemotherapy or radiation alone. There are many factors that contribute to exercise intolerance and reduced physical function during the pretransplant, peritransplant, and posttransplant phases. These include side effects from chemotherapy or radiation, excessive immobility due to bed rest, infections, the negative effects of immunosuppressants, and graft vs host disease, all of which can impair cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and muscle function. Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise in childhood SCT recipients. In a small number of published studies, exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, preserve or increase muscle mass, and improve muscle strength in children following SCT. The use of exercise as medicine may be a noninvasive and nonpharmaceutical treatment to target physical complications post-SCT. Researchers and health-care professionals should work together to develop exercise prescription guidelines for this unique and important population. PMID:24721685

West, Sarah L; Gassas, Adam; Schechter, Tal; Egeler, R Maarten; Nathan, Paul C; Wells, Greg D

2014-08-01

321

Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

Rubin, Marilyn

1991-01-01

322

Assessment of the Magnitude of Contextual and Individual Demographic Effects on Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Intolerance in Rural Southwest China: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine the contribution of individual and contextual socioeconomic status (SES) to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in the adult population in rural southwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study of diabetes was performed in 4801(2152 men) Chinese adults (?25 years old). Multilevel logistic regression model was used to examine the association between individuals’ and townships’ variables and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Results The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance were 7.1% (3.6% for undiagnosed) and 8.8% in adults aged ?25 years, respectively, and increasing with age. Females were more likely to develop diabetes than males. The probability of developing diabetes increased with BMI. Both contextual and individual educational level and yearly household income were found to be negatively associated with the prevalence of diabetes. Residence in communities with a higher percentage of ethnic minorities was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. Smoking had a protective effect for diabetes, drinking had a positive association with diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are common in rural adults of southwest China by international standards. These results indicate that diabetes mellitus has become a major public health problem in rural areas in southwest China, and strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are needed. PMID:23874667

Wang, Ke-wei; Shu, Zhan-kun; Cai, Le; Wu, Jun-Qing; Wei, Wei

2013-01-01

323

Common nonsynonymous substitutions in SLCO1B1 predispose to statin intolerance in routinely treated individuals with type 2 diabetes: a go-DARTS study.  

PubMed

SLCO1B1 gene variants are associated with severe statin-induced myopathy. We examined whether these variants are also associated with general statin intolerance in a large population of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving statins as part of routine clinical care. A total of 4,196 individuals were genotyped for rs4149056 (Val174Ala) and rs2306283 (Asp130Asn). Intolerance was defined by serum biochemistry and also by discontinuation, switching, or reduction in dose of the prescribed statin drug. Ala174 was associated with higher intolerance (odds ratio = 2.05, P = 0.043), whereas Asp130 was associated with lower intolerance (odds ratio = 0.71, P = 0.026). Ala174 was associated with a lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) response to statins (P = 0.01) whereas 130D was associated with a greater LDLc response to statins (P = 0.048), as previously reported; however, this association was no longer present when data for statin-intolerant individuals were removed from the analysis. This study suggests that common genetic variants selected for an extreme phenotype of statin-induced myopathy also predispose to more common milder statin intolerance and may, for this reason, impact lipid-lowering efficacy. PMID:21178985

Donnelly, L A; Doney, A S F; Tavendale, R; Lang, C C; Pearson, E R; Colhoun, H M; McCarthy, M I; Hattersley, A T; Morris, A D; Palmer, C N A

2011-02-01

324

Common non-synonymous substitutions in SLCO1B1 predispose to statin intolerance in routinely treated individuals with type 2 diabetes: A Go-DARTS study  

PubMed Central

SLCO1B1 gene variants are associated with severe statin-induced myopathy. We examined whether these variants are also associated with general statin intolerance in a large population of patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed statins as part of routine clinical care. 4196 individuals were genotyped for rs4149056 (Val174Ala) and rs2306283 (Asp130Asn). Intolerance was defined by serum biochemistry and statin discontinuation, switching or dose reduction. Ala174 was associated with higher intolerance (OR=2.05, p=0.043), while Asp130 was associated with lower intolerance (OR=0.71, p= 0.026). Ala174 was associated with a reduced LDLc response (p=0.01) and 130D was associated with a greater LDLc response to statins (p=0.048) as previously reported, however this association was not present when intolerant individuals were removed. This study suggests that common genetic variants, selected for an extreme phenotype of statin-induced myopathy also predispose to more common milder statin intolerance and may, for this reason, impact on lipid-lowering efficacy. PMID:21178985

Donnelly, LA; Doney, ASF; Tavendale, R; Lang, CC; Pearson, ER; Colhoun, HM; McCarthy, MI; Hattersley, AT; Morris, AD; Palmer, CNA

2012-01-01

325

High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports in shorter BR studies that the performance of an exercise countermeasure protocol by itself during BR does not prevent orthostatic intolerance or plasma volume loss. This suggests that protection against orthostatic intolerance in astronauts following long-duration spaceflight will require an additional intervention, such as periodic orthostatic stress, fluid repletion, and/or lower-body compression garments.

Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

2015-01-01

326

Glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the U.S. Virgin Islands.  

PubMed Central

This study describes the prevalence on glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the United States Virgin Islands. A population-based sample of 1026 individuals 20 years of age or older was recruited on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, where 80% of the population classify their race as African American and 20% indicate their ethnicity as Hispanic. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria was used to classify glucose tolerance for the entire sample. Persons 40 years of age or older (405) were also administered a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Among the major race/ethnic groups, the prevalence of diabetes in patients 20 years of age or older (age-adjusted to the 1995 world population) was 14.1% for non-Hispanic blacks (n = 712), 12.1% for Hispanic blacks (n = 145), 13.5% for Hispanic whites (n = 70) and 1.2% for non-Hispanic whites (n = 37). In each group, the prevalence of diabetes increased with age and appeared higher for men. Among individuals 40 years of age or older a slightly higher prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was found when using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria compared to ADA criteria (WHO 10.3%, ADA 7.7% for black non-Hispanic persons and WHO 10.4%, ADA 6.0% for all other groups combined). The prevalence of diabetes for African Americans residing in the U.S. Virgin Islands is similar to rates for the African-American population on the United States mainland and is double that of estimates for blacks on neighboring islands. PMID:11918382

Tull, Eugene S.; LaPorte, Ronald; Kriska, Andrea; Mark, Joseph; Hatcher, Ann T.

2002-01-01

327

Liposomal Nystatin in Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis Refractory to or Intolerant of Amphotericin B  

PubMed Central

We assessed the activity and safety of liposomal nystatin, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, for invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B. Thirty-three patients were enrolled, received at least one dose of the study drug, and were evaluable for safety. Twenty-six patients had confirmed probable or definite aspergillosis and were fully eligible. Most patients had a hematological malignancy (53.8%) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (23.0%), were neutropenic (61.5%), and were refractory to previous amphotericin B (92.3%). The median duration of previous amphotericin B treatment was 16.5 days (range, 5 to 64 days). Aspergillosis was definite in 3 cases and probable in 23 cases. Liposomal nystatin was initiated at a dose of 4 mg/kg of body weight/day. Twenty-five patients were evaluable for response: a complete response was achieved for one patient, and a partial response was achieved for six. Thus, the overall response rate is 7 of 25 (28%; 95% confidence interval, 12 to 49%). Seventeen (68.0%) of the 25 evaluable patients died during therapy or within 1 month after the end of therapy. The primary cause of death was invasive aspergillosis for nine patients and underlying malignancy for eight patients. The most frequent side effects included chills, shivering, and fever, leading to discontinuation of therapy for two patients. Grade 1 decline in renal function was seen for 10 (30.3%) patients, and hypokalemia was seen for 13 (39.4%). We conclude that liposomal nystatin can be effective for salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Infusion-related adverse events have been observed frequently. PMID:15561860

Offner, Fritz; Krcmery, Vladimir; Boogaerts, Marc; Doyen, Chantal; Engelhard, Dan; Ribaud, Patricia; Cordonnier, Catherine; de Pauw, Ben; Durrant, Simon; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Moreau, Philippe; Guiot, Harry; Samonis, George; Sylvester, Richard; Herbrecht, Raoul

2004-01-01

328

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance.  

PubMed

Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of "ripening" sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent surge in kidney failure among agricultural workers in Central America. We conclude with a plea to governments to reconsider policies regarding the safety of glyphosate residues in foods. PMID:24678255

Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

2013-12-01

329

A Role for Prostaglandin E in Defective Insulin Secretion and Carbohydrate Intolerance in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) infusion in normal humans inhibited acute insulin responses to a glucose (5 g i.v.) pulse (response before PGE2 = 593 ± 104%; during PGE2 = 312±55%; mean±SE, mean change 3-5 min insulin,% basal, P < 0.005). This effect was associated with a decrease in glucose disappearance rates (KG before PGE2 = 0.73±0.07; during PGE2 = 0.49±0.06%/min, P < 0.025). Acute insulin responses to arginine (2 g i.v.) were not affected by PGE2 (response before PGE2 = 592±164%; during PGE2 = 590±118%; P = NS). Infusion of sodium salicylate (SS), an inhibitor of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis, augmented acute insulin responses to glucose in normals (response before SS = 313±62%; during SS = 660±86%; P < 0.001). In adult-onset diabetes with fasting hyperglycemia, SS restored absent acute insulin responses to glucose (20 g i.v.) pulses (response before SS = 5±6%; during SS = 97±24%; P < 0.005). This was accompanied by a fourfold augmentation in second phase insulin secretion (second phase before SS = 1,696±430%; during SS = 5,176±682%; change 10-60 min insulin, ?U/ml·min,% basal, P < 0.001) and by acceleration of glucose disappearance rates (KG before SS = 0.56±0.06; during SS = 1.02±0.17%/min, P < 0.005). These findings uniquely demonstrate that (a) PGE2 inhibits glucose-induced acute insulin responses and decreases glucose disposal in nondiabetic humans and (b) SS restores acute insulin responses, augments second phase insulin secretion, and accelerates glucose disposal in hyperglycemic, adultonset diabetics. It is hypothesized that endogenous PGE synthesis may play a role in defective insulin secretion and glucose intolerance in diabetes mellitus. PMID:330566

Robertson, R. Paul; Chen, Mei

1977-01-01

330

Self-Efficacy Beliefs Are Associated with Visual Height Intolerance: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Responses to height may range from indifference to minor distress to severe symptoms of fear of heights (acrophobia); visual height intolerance (vHI) denotes the whole spectrum of symptoms. Although there are options to manage vHI, only a small part of persons affected by vHI are willing to seek professional help or confront their problem. Purpose of this study was to determine if persons with vHI, specifically those who show avoidant behavior towards heights (avoiders), score lower in their general self-efficacy (GSE) than those who confront vHI (confronters). Method Cross-sectional survey in 607 individuals living in the urban region of Munich, Germany, using a mailed questionnaire on presence or absence of vHI, confronting or avoiding behaviour, and GSE. Results Of all participants (mean age 53.9, 50.3% female), 407 reported life-time presence of vHI. Participants with vHI had a mean GSE score of 31.8 (SD 4.3) points (participants without vHI: 32.5, SD 4.3, p ?=?0.008 for difference). Among individuals with vHI, 23% reported confronting behavior. Confronters were significantly younger (p<.0001, 50.2 vs. 55.7 years), more likely to be female (p ?=?0.0039, 64.3% female), and had a higher GSE score (p ?=?0.0049, 32.5 vs. 31.1). Associations remained significant after multiple adjustment. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the association of GSE and vHI. These findings may have consequences for strategies of alleviation and therapy of vHI. PMID:25548910

Grill, Eva; Schäffler, Florian; Huppert, Doreen; Müller, Martin; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

2014-01-01

331

Dysfunctional survival-signaling and stress-intolerance in aged murine and human myocardium  

PubMed Central

Changes in cytoprotective signaling may influence cardiac aging, and underpin sensitization to ischemic insult and desensitization to ‘anti-ischemic’ therapies. We tested whether age-dependent shifts in ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) tolerance in murine and human myocardium are associated with reduced efficacies and coupling of membrane, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial survival-signaling. Hormesis (exemplified in ischemic preconditioning; IPC) and expression of proteins influencing signaling/stress-resistance were also assessed in mice. Mouse hearts (18 vs. 2–4 mo) and human atrial tissue (75±2 vs. 55±2 yr) exhibited profound age-dependent reductions in I-R tolerance. In mice aging negated cardioprotection via IPC, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonism (opioid, A1 and A3 adenosine receptors) and distal protein kinase C (PKC) activation (4 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA). In contrast, p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) activation (1 ?M anisomycin), mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mKATP) opening (50 ?M diazoxide) and permeability transition pore (mPTP) inhibition (0.2 ?M cyclosporin A) retained protective efficacies in older hearts (though failed to eliminate I-R tolerance differences). A similar pattern of change in protective efficacies was observed in human tissue. Murine hearts exhibited molecular changes consistent with altered membrane control (reduced caveolin-3, cholesterol and caveolae), kinase signaling (reduced p70 ribosomal s6 kinase; p70s6K) and stress-resistance (increased G-protein receptor kinase 2, GRK2; glycogen synthase kinase 3?, GSK3?; and cytosolic cytochrome c). In summary, myocardial I-R tolerance declines with age in association with dysfunctional hormesis and transduction of survival signals from GPCRs/PKC to mitochondrial effectors. Differential changes in proteins governing caveolar and mitochondrial function may contribute to signal dysfunction and stress-intolerance. PMID:24316036

Peart, Jason N.; Pepe, Salvatore; Reichelt, Melissa E.; Beckett, Nikkie; Hoe, Louise See; Ozberk, Victoria; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Patel, Hemal H.; Headrick, John P.

2014-01-01

332

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields: A Content Analysis of British Newspaper Reports  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged with the media to counteract this effect. PMID:23799038

Eldridge-Thomas, Buffy; Rubin, G James

2013-01-01

333

Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.  

PubMed

This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (?2=36.398, p<0.01). It was mildest at tilt angle 60° utilising the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.01). A positive rank correlation was found between the psychological fear and the degree of tilt angle (rs=0.445, p<0.01). Positive response appearance time was 15.1±14.0 minutes at 60° for vasovagal syncope children. There was no significant difference in the time to positive response, at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope. PMID:24124665

Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

2015-01-01

334

Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI.

Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

2014-01-01

335

Agreement between milk fat, protein, and lactose observations collected from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) and a real-time milk analyzer.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to quantify the agreement between AfiLab real-time milk analyzer (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) measures for fat, protein, and lactose based on near-infrared spectrum light scattering, and those collected on Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test days and measured with the Bentley 2000 analyzer (Bentley Instruments Inc., Chaska, MN), which uses mid-infrared spectrum light. The AfiLab data were collected twice daily for each milking cow in the herd at 12-h intervals from the double-12 parlor at the University of Florida Dairy Unit (Hague, FL) from January 2010 to December 2011. Bentley data for the 23 DHIA test days in 2010 and 2011 were also obtained. Approximately 450 cows were tested each month. Tested milk was collected during 1 milking each month, alternating monthly between morning and evening milkings. AfiLab data were matched with Bentley fat and protein (n=10,273; 23 test days) and lactose (n=6,741; 16 test days). Overall means ± standard deviations (SD) of monthly mean Bentley fat, protein, and lactose were 3.74 ± 0.80%, 3.06 ± 0.37%, and 4.76 ± 0.30%, respectively. Overall means ± SD of monthly mean AfiLab minus Bentley observations were -0.08 ± 0.12 percentage points (PP) for fat (n=23), 0.02 ± 0.11 PP for protein (n=23), and -0.02 ± 0.08 PP for lactose (n=16). Overall means ± SD of monthly within-test-day SD of AfiLab minus Bentley observations were 0.66 ± 0.11 PP for fat, 0.27 ± 0.03 PP for protein, and 0.26 ± 0.03 PP for lactose. Overall means ± SD of the corresponding monthly correlations were 0.59 ± 0.09 for fat, 0.67 ± 0.04 for protein, and 0.46 ± 0.08 for lactose. Averaging the AfiLab observations from up to 6 milkings before and after the test-day milking improved the agreement for protein and lactose but not for fat. Averaging the 13 protein observations improved the mean difference to 0.01 ± 0.10 PP and the SD of the difference to 0.23 ± 0.03 PP. The correlation increased to 0.78 ± 0.04. Averaging the 13 lactose observations improved the SD of the difference to 0.23 ± 0.02 PP, but the mean of the difference decreased to -0.03 ± 0.09 PP. The correlation for lactose increased to 0.55 ± 0.05. Generally, AfiLab slightly overestimated low Bentley components and underestimated high Bentley components. We found some evidence for a systematic cow effect on lack of agreement for lactose, but not for fat and protein. The agreement between AfiLab and Bentley observations was better for protein and lactose than that for fat. Combinations of AfiLab observations from various milkings improved the agreement for protein and lactose. AfiLab real-time milk analyzers may be helpful to estimate DHIA observations. PMID:24630652

Kaniyamattam, K; De Vries, A

2014-05-01

336

Synthesis, anti-oxidant activity, and biodegradability of a novel recombinant polysaccharide derived from chitosan and lactose.  

PubMed

A novel recombinant polysaccharide (RP) based on polysaccharide-disaccharide was synthesized from oligo-chitosan (oligo-CS) and reducing lactose using Maillard reaction with the yield of 85.1%. Chemical structure and thermal stability of RP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS (13)C-NMR), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The anti-oxidant activity of RP was preliminarily investigated by its scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Biodegradability of RP was also examined by the observation of growth status of Aspergillus niger colony. It was demonstrated that RP achieved excellent radical-scavenging efficiency (>80%) at high concentrations of DPPH and its scavenging ability was superior to that of CS, suggesting that anti-oxidant property of CS was remarkably promoted by chemical modification with reducing lactose via Maillard reaction. And biodegradation test revealed that RP had better biodegradability than CS. PMID:25542127

Guo, Ming; Ma, Yanfei; Wang, Chunge; Liu, Hongzhi; Li, Qian; Fei, Meng

2015-03-15

337

High level production of ?-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.  

PubMed

A ?-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant ?-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the ?-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries. PMID:24435763

Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

2014-03-01

338

ClaR-a novel key regulator of cellobiose and lactose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.  

PubMed

In a number of previous studies, our group has discovered an alternative pathway for lactose utilization in Lactococcus lactis that, in addition to a sugar-hydrolyzing enzyme with both P-?-glucosidase and P-?-galactosidase activity (BglS), engages chromosomally encoded components of cellobiose-specific PTS (PTS(Cel-Lac)), including PtcA, PtcB, and CelB. In this report, we show that this system undergoes regulation via ClaR, a novel activator protein from the RpiR family of transcriptional regulators. Although RpiR proteins are widely distributed among lactic acid bacteria, their roles have yet to be confirmed by functional assays. Here, we show that ClaR activity depends on intracellular cellobiose-6-phosphate availability, while other sugars such as glucose or galactose have no influence on it. We also show that ClaR is crucial for activation of the bglS and celB expression in the presence of cellobiose, with some limited effects on ptcA and ptcB activation. Among 190 of carbon sources tested, the deletion of claR reduces L. lactis growth only in lactose- and/or cellobiose-containing media, suggesting a narrow specificity of this regulator within the context of sugar metabolism. PMID:25239037

Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Stasiak-Ró?a?ska, Lidia; Cie?la, Jaros?aw; Bardowski, Jacek

2015-01-01

339

Determination of the lactose content of fluid milk by spectrophotometric enzymatic analysis using weight additions and path length adjustment: collaborative study.  

PubMed

The objective of this collaborative study was to determine the method performance characteristics of a spectrophotometric enzymatic assay for measuring the lactose content of fluid milk. The principle behind the method is similar to that of AOAC Method 984.15 but with significant modifications and added quality control. Additionally, lactose concentration is expressed on a weight/weight (wt/wt) rather than a weight/volume (wt/vol) basis. The principle of the method is the hydrolysis of lactose to D-glucose and D-galactose by beta-galactosidase, followed by the oxidation of beta-D-galactose by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the presence of beta-galactose dehydrogenase. The reaction is catalyzed by the addition of aldose-l-epimerase, which accelerates the mutarotation of alphha-D-galactose to beta-D-galactose. The amount of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) formed is measured at 340 nm and is proportional to the amount of lactose present. Important aspects of the assay include preparing the assay solution by weight (rather than volume), mixing the contents of the spectrophotometric cuvette without losing solution, inclusion of aldose-l-epimerase, specifying spectrophotometer characteristics, and accounting for the optical path length of the spectrophotometric cuvettes. In the collaborative study, 11 laboratories tested one lactose standard and 8 pairs of blind replicate raw, processed, and formulated milks with an anhydrous lactose content between 3.0-7.2%. Statistical performance, in units of g/100 g anhydrous lactose, for the milk materials within the applicability of the method was as follows: mean = 4.4040, Sr = 0.0130, SR = 0.0250, RSDr = 0.29%, RSDR = 0.57%, r = 0.0364, and R = 0.0700. Standard and marginal recoveries were 98.66 and 99.53%, respectively. Method performance represented a significant improvement over what would be achieved if path length was not accounted for or the assay was done volumetrically. The Study Directors recommend that the method for determination of the lactose content of fluid milk by the spectrophotometric enzymatic method using weight additions and path length adjustment be adopted Official First Action. PMID:17373452

Lynch, Joanna M; Barbano, David M; Fleming, J Richard

2007-01-01

340

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, hypersensitivity to analgesics and urinary leukotriene E4 excretion in patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of cromolyn sodium on airway sensitivity to sulpyrine, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine, and to investigate whether this protective activity is associated with reduction in aspirin-induced excretion of urinary leukotriene E4 (u-LTE4), a marker of the cysteinyl LT overproduction that participates in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma. We assessed the effects of pretreatment with cromolyn sodium on bronchoconstriction precipitated by inhalation of methacholine and sulpyrine in 16 adult patients with mild or moderate aspirin-intolerant asthma; those who were in stable clinical condition and were hypersensitive to a sulpyrine provocation test were included in this study. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used. u-LTE4 was measured using combined reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography enzyme immunoassay. Cromolyn sodium protected against analgesic-induced bronchoconstriction through mechanisms that are not related to its bronchodilator property, but to the improvement of both bronchial hyperresponsiveness and hypersensitivity to analgesics (p<0.01 and p<0.001). Although excretion of u-LTE4 did not increase after the methacholine provocation test, it significantly increased after sulpyrine provocation (p<0.01). Furthermore, after pretreatment with cromolyn sodium, the maximum level of u-LTE4 after the sulpyrine provocation test was significantly lower than in controls (p<0.01). These results support the hypothesis that cysteinyl LT is one of the most important components in the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma. Cromolyn sodium improves both hypersensitivity to analgesics, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in aspirin-intolerant asthma. PMID:9784659

Yoshida, S; Nakagawa, H; Yamawaki, Y; Sakamoto, H; Akahori, K; Nakabayashi, M; Sakamoto, M; Hasegawa, H; Shoji, T; Tajimab, T; Amayasu, H

1998-10-01

341

Development of Gradient Compression Garments for Protection Against Post Flight Orthostatic Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronaut health. No in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective to date. NASA currently uses an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during reentry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. The Russian Space Agency currently uses a mechanical counter-pressure garment (Kentavr) that is difficult to adjust alone, and prolonged use may result in painful swelling at points where the garment is not continuous (feet, knees, and groin). To improve comfort, reduce upmass and stowage requirements, and control fabrication and maintenance costs, we have been evaluating a variety of gradient compression, mechanical counter-pressure garments, constructed from spandex and nylon, as a possible replacement for the current AGS. We have examined comfort and cardiovascular responses to knee-high garments in normovolemic subjects; thigh-high garments in hypovolemic subjects and in astronauts after space flight; and 1-piece, breast-high garments in hypovolemic subjects. These gradient compression garments provide 55 mmHg of compression over the ankle, decreasing linearly to 35 mmHg at the knee. In thigh-high versions the compression continues to decrease to 20 mmHg at the top of the leg, and for breast-high versions, to 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Measures of efficacy include increased tilt survival time, elevated blood pressure and stroke volume, and lower heart-rate response to orthostatic stress. Results from these studies indicate that the greater the magnitude of compression and the greater the area of coverage, the more effective the compression garment becomes. Therefore, we are currently testing a 3-piece breast-high compression garment on astronauts after short-duration flight. We chose a 3-piece garment consisting of thigh-high stockings and shorts, because it is easy to don and comfortable to wear, and should provide the same level of protection as the 1-piece breast-high garments evaluated in hypovolemic test subjects.

Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

2010-01-01

342

Impaired Cardiac SIRT1 Activity by Carbonyl Stress Contributes to Aging-Related Ischemic Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo) and aged (22-24 mo) mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05). Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE) exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator) (all P<0.05). However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05). The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1+/? knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1+/? hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance. PMID:24040162

Jiang, Li; Chen, Mai; Xu, Ming; Yin, Yue; Li, Chen; Yang, Zheng; Yu, Lu; Ma, Heng

2013-01-01

343

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF): A systematic review of identifying criteria  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) remains a complex and unclear phenomenon, often characterized by the report of various, non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) when an EMF source is present or perceived by the individual. The lack of validated criteria for defining and assessing IEI-EMF affects the quality of the relevant research, hindering not only the comparison or integration of study findings, but also the identification and management of patients by health care providers. The objective of this review was to evaluate and summarize the criteria that previous studies employed to identify IEI-EMF participants. Methods An extensive literature search was performed for studies published up to June 2011. We searched EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus and Web of Science. Additionally, citation analyses were performed for key papers, reference sections of relevant papers were searched, conference proceedings were examined and a literature database held by the Mobile Phones Research Unit of King’s College London was reviewed. Results Sixty-three studies were included. “Hypersensitivity to EMF” was the most frequently used descriptive term. Despite heterogeneity, the criteria predominantly used to identify IEI-EMF individuals were: 1. Self-report of being (hyper)sensitive to EMF. 2. Attribution of NSPS to at least one EMF source. 3. Absence of medical or psychiatric/psychological disorder capable of accounting for these symptoms 4. Symptoms should occur soon (up to 24?hours) after the individual perceives an exposure source or exposed area. (Hyper)sensitivity to EMF was either generalized (attribution to various EMF sources) or source-specific. Experimental studies used a larger number of criteria than those of observational design and performed more frequently a medical examination or interview as prerequisite for inclusion. Conclusions Considerable heterogeneity exists in the criteria used by the researchers to identify IEI-EMF, due to explicit differences in their conceptual frameworks. Further work is required to produce consensus criteria not only for research purposes but also for use in clinical practice. This could be achieved by the development of an international protocol enabling a clearly defined case definition for IEI-EMF and a validated screening tool, with active involvement of medical practitioners. PMID:22883305

2012-01-01

344

An experimental renal acidification defect in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance  

PubMed Central

In adult patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) fructose induces a renal acidification defect characterized by (a) a 20-30% reduction in tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate (T HCO3-) at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 21-31 mEq/liter, (b) a maximal tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate (Tm HCO3-) of approximately 1.9 mEq/100 ml of glomerular filtrate, (c) disappearance of bicarbonaturia at plasma bicarbonate concentrations less than 15 mEq/liter, and (d) during moderately severe degrees of acidosis, a sustained capacity to maintain urinary pH at normal minima and to excrete acid at normal rates. In physiologic distinction from this defect, the renal acidification defect of patients with classic renal tubular acidosis is characterized by (a) just less than complete tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate at plasma bicarbonate concentrations of 26 mEq/liter or less, (b) a normal Tm HCO3- of approximately 2.8 mEq/100 ml of glomerular filtrate, and (c) during acidosis of an even severe degree, a quantitatively trivial bicarbonaturia, as well as (d) a urinary pH of greater than 6. That the fructose-induced renal acidification defect involves a reduced H+ secretory capacity of the proximal nephron is supported by the magnitude of the reduction in T HCO3- (20-30%) and the simultaneous occurrence and the persistence throughout administration of fructose of impaired tubular reabsorption of phosphate, alpha amino nitrogen and uric acid. A reduced H+ secretory capacity of the proximal nephron also appears operative in two unrelated children with hyperchloremic acidosis, Fanconi's syndrome, and cystinosis. In both, T HCO3- was reduced 20-30% at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 20-30 mEq/liter. The bicarbonaturia disappeared at plasma bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 15-18 mEq/liter, and during moderate degrees of acidosis, urinary pH decreased to less than 6, and the excretion rate of acid was normal. PMID:5658593

Morris, R. Curtis

1968-01-01

345

Effect of Human Milk on Plaque pH in situ and Enamel Dissolution in vitro Compared with Bovine Milk, Lactose, and Sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidogenic and enamel dissolution potential of human milk was compared with bovine milk and solutions of lactose and sucrose. It was found that human milk caused a greater fall in plaque pH than bovine milk. Human milk caused more enamel dissolution than bovine milk. Both plaque pH changes and enamel dissolution were less for bovine and human milk when

A. J. Rugg-Gunn; G. J. Roberts; W. G. Wright

1985-01-01

346

Cryopreservation of epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm: a comparison of citrate-, Tris- and lactose-based diluents and pellets and straws.  

PubMed

Epididymal spermatozoa were harvested from male alpacas and frozen after extension and cooling to 4 degrees C in citrate-, Tris- and lactose-based diluents (Experiment 1) and as pellets in 0.25- and 0.5-mL straws on either dry ice or over liquid nitrogen vapour (Experiment 2) to determine the effects diluents and packaging on their motility and acrosome integrity. In Experiment 1, sperm motility was higher after cooling to 4 degrees C and after freeze-thawing (0 but not 3 h post-thaw) for spermatozoa extended in the lactose- than the citrate- or Tris-based diluent (P < 0.05). Post-thaw acrosome integrity after cooling to 4 degrees C and post-thaw (0 h) was reduced for spermatozoa frozen in citrate- compared with lactose- or Tris-based diluents, but was similar for all groups 3 h after thawing. In Experiment 2, sperm motility immediately after thawing was higher for pellet freezing than for 0.25- or 0.5-mL straws on dry ice or liquid nitrogen vapour (P < 0.05), although by 3 h post-thaw motility was similar for pellets and straws (P > 0.05). Acrosome integrity was similar for all groups immediately after thawing and 3 h post-thaw. Cryopreservation of epididymal alpaca spermatozoa is feasible, with retained motility and acrosome integrity post-thaw. Freezing as pellets in a lactose-based diluent is recommended. PMID:17897581

Morton, Katherine M; Bathgate, Roslyn; Evans, Gareth; Maxwell, W M Chis

2007-01-01

347

Use of a fluidized bed hammer mill for size reduction and classification: effects of process variables and starting materials on the particle size distribution of milled lactose batches.  

PubMed

The process capability of a fluidized bed hammer mill was investigated with respect to four process variables, namely, rotational speeds of beater system and classifier wheel, airflow rates and length of grinding zones, as well as the particle size and flow property of the starting materials. The size distributions of all the milled lactose batches could be fitted to the Rosin Rammler distribution (RRD) function. The characteristic particle size (De) and uniform coefficient (n), which were derived from the RRD function, complemented the size at the 99th percentile of the cumulative undersize distribution (D99) to characterize the lactose batches. Lower De and D99 values indicate a finer powder while a higher n value indicates a narrower size distribution. The beater speed played a critical role. Increasing the beater speed from 12000 to 21000 rpm generally resulted in an increase in n and a decrease in D99 values due to the greater amount of milling energy supplied. The particle size and flow property of the starting material also played an important role at beater speed of 12000 rpm, where the lowest amount of milling energy was supplied. When a higher amount of milling energy was provided, the effect of particle size of the starting material was less significant. The other process variables exerted varying effects. Increasing the classifier wheel speed from 5000 to 15000 rpm decreased the De and D99 and increased the n values of the milled lactose batches, provided sufficient milling energy was supplied to the lactose particles. Changing airflow rates from 80 to 90 m3/h generally resulted in larger De and D99 values and lower n values as the higher airflow rate provided greater airflow-induced kinetic energy that facilitated the passage of lactose through the classifier wheel. However, changing the long grinding zone to a short one did not significantly affect the De, D99 and n values of the milled lactose batches produced. Small lactose particles of narrow size distribution could be obtained using the fluidized bed hammer mill upon gaining a better understanding of the milling process. PMID:14601967

Lee, C C; Chan, L W; Heng, Paul W S

2003-01-01

348

Galactosyl-lactose sialylation using Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase as the biocatalyst and bovine ?-casein-derived glycomacropeptide as the donor substrate.  

PubMed

trans-Sialidase (TS) enzymes catalyze the transfer of sialyl (Sia) residues from Sia(?2-3)Gal(?1-x)-glycans (sialo-glycans) to Gal(?1-x)-glycans (asialo-glycans). Aiming to apply this concept for the sialylation of linear and branched (Gal)nGlc oligosaccharide mixtures (GOS) using bovine ?-casein-derived glycomacropeptide (GMP) as the sialic acid donor, a kinetic study has been carried out with three components of GOS, i.e., 3'-galactosyl-lactose (?3'-GL), 4'-galactosyl-lactose (?4'-GL), and 6'-galactosyl-lactose (?6'-GL). This prebiotic GOS is prepared from lactose by incubation with suitable ?-galactosidases, whereas GMP is a side-stream product of the dairy industry. The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Its temperature and pH optima were determined to be 25°C and pH 5.0, respectively. GMP [sialic acid content, 3.6% (wt/wt); N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), >99%; (?2-3)-linked Neu5Ac, 59%] was found to be an efficient sialyl donor, and up to 95% of the (?2-3)-linked Neu5Ac could be transferred to lactose when a 10-fold excess of this acceptor substrate was used. The products of the TcTS-catalyzed sialylation of ?3'-GL, ?4'-GL, and ?6'-GL, using GMP as the sialic acid donor, were purified, and their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Monosialylated ?3'-GL and ?4'-GL contained Neu5Ac connected to the terminal Gal residue; however, in the case of ?6'-GL, TcTS was shown to sialylate the 3 position of both the internal and terminal Gal moieties, yielding two different monosialylated products and a disialylated structure. Kinetic analyses showed that TcTS had higher affinity for the GL substrates than lactose, while the Vmax and kcat values were higher in the case of lactose. PMID:25063655

Wilbrink, Maarten H; ten Kate, Geert A; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Sanders, Peter; Sallomons, Erik; Hage, Johannes A; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

2014-10-01

349

[Diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for two popular but quite distinct adverse reactions to food - fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance].  

PubMed

Claiming to suffer from adverse food reactions is popular. In contrast to the classical food allergy, there are some pathomechanisms which are evidently dose-dependent. Thus the procedure in diagnosis and therapy must undoubtedly differ from the practice when food allergy is suspected or proven. Nevertheless many patients suffering from dose-dependent adverse reactions to food are given strict elimination diets, which is neither necessary nor helpful and decreases their quality of life broadly. This holds especially true for fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance. For the latter, the term adverse reaction to ingested histamine is preferred, because histamine intolerance implies that symptoms are caused entirely by an enzyme defect. Why this is not very likely to be the only reason is discussed in this article. Both adverse reactions require an individual approach especially with regard to nutrition therapy. Therefore the task of diagnosis should be to establish an individual profile of tolerated and not tolerated foods taking into account that tolerance can greatly vary by meal composition, frequency and individual triggering factors. In view of this, therapeutic recommendations should not be based on the absolute quantities of the eliciting substance to be eliminated but on a feasible transfer into daily life. Thereby food restriction can be minimized and a high quality of life will be maintained. PMID:22477662

Reese, I

2012-04-01

350

Absence of Perilipin 2 Prevents Hepatic Steatosis, Glucose Intolerance and Ceramide Accumulation in Alcohol-Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Perilipin 2 (Plin2) is a lipid droplet protein that has roles in both lipid and glucose homeostasis. An increase in Plin2 in liver is associated with the development of steatosis, glucose intolerance, and ceramide accumulation in alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the role of Plin2 on energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis in wildtype and Plin2 knockout (Plin2KO) mice chronically fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol or control diet for six weeks. Methods We performed in vivo measurements of energy intake and expenditure; body composition; and glucose tolerance. After sacrifice, liver was dissected for histology and lipid analysis. Results We found that neither genotype nor diet had a significant effect on final weight, body composition, or energy intake between WT and Plin2KO mice fed alcohol or control diets. Additionally, alcohol feeding did not affect oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production in Plin2KO mice. We performed glucose tolerance testing and observed that alcohol feeding failed to impair glucose tolerance in Plin2KO mice. Most notably, absence of Plin2 prevented hepatic steatosis and ceramide accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These changes were related to downregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis and triglyceride synthesis. Conclusions Plin2KO mice chronically fed alcohol are protected from hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and hepatic ceramide accumulation, suggesting a critical pathogenic role of Plin2 in experimental alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24831094

Carr, Rotonya M.; Peralta, Giselle; Yin, Xiaoyan; Ahima, Rexford S.

2014-01-01

351

On tolerability and safety of a maintenance treatment with 6-thioguanine in azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine intolerant IBD patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the tolerability and safety profile of a low-dose maintenance therapy with 6-TG in azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) intolerant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients over a treatment period of at least 1 year. METHODS: Database analysis. RESULTS: Twenty out of ninety-five (21%) patients discontinued 6-TG (mean dose 24.6 mg; mean 6-TGN level 540 pmol/8×108 RBC) within 1 year. Reasons for discontinuation were GI complaints (31%), malaise (15%) and hepatotoxicity (15%). Hematological events occurred in three patients, one discontinued treatment. In the 6-TG-tolerant group, 9% (7/75) could be classified as hepatotoxicity. An abdominal ultrasound was performed in 54% of patients, one patient had splenomegaly. CONCLUSION: The majority of AZA or 6-MP-intolerant IBD patients (79%) is able to tolerate maintenance treatment with 6-TG (dosages between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg per d). 6-TG may still be considered as an escape maintenance immunosuppressant in this difficult to treat group of patients, taking into account potential toxicity and efficacy of other alternatives. The recently reported hepatotoxicity is worrisome and 6-TG should therefore be administered only in prospective trials. PMID:16222751

de Boer, Nanne KH; Derijks, Luc JJ; Gilissen, Lennard PL; Hommes, Daniel W; Engels, Leopold GJB; de Boer, Sybrand Y; den Hartog, Gijsbertus; Hooymans, Piet M; Mäkelburg, Anja BU; Westerveld, Barend D; Naber, Anton HJ; Mulder, Chris JJ; de Jong, Dirk J

2005-01-01

352

Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition  

SciTech Connect

Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff (UCLA); (TTU)

2011-08-29

353

The Effects of Lactose, Microcrystalline Cellulose and Dicalcium Phosphate on Swelling and Erosion of Compressed HPMC Matrix Tablets: Texture Analyzer  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the use of texture analysis in studying the performance of hydrophilic matrices of highly soluble drugs and different types of excipients (i.e. water-soluble, water-insoluble and swellable, and water insoluble and non-swellable). Tablets were prepared by direct compression, and their swelling and erosion in presence of these different excipients were assessed with the help of volumetric, gravimetric, morphological, and rheological studies. Dissolution test was performed using USP 26 apparatus 2 modified by insertion of a sieve to prevent sticking of the tablets to the bottom of the vessel and allow them to swell 3-dimensionally. Loading 15% of the highly soluble drug in formulations containing 65% lactose showed the most pronounced swelling and erosion and the best sustained drug release, compared to matrices containing microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate. The correlation between front movement, mass erosion and solute transport in relation to excipient type on progression of probe displacement and total work was examined throughout texture analysis studies. The formulation containing the soluble excipient lactose showed better swelling and erosion properties compared to formulations containing the swellable and insoluble excipients. In conclusion, it could be said that based on the distinct conventional dosage forms insertion of particular excipients in hydrophilic controlled release tablets containing water soluble drug, the finger print information of drug release profile could be obtained. To study the release profile from hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K 15M matrices with different types of excpients, diltiazem hydrochloride was used as a model soluble drug. PMID:24381599

Namdeo Tukaram, Bendgude; Vidaya Rajagopalan, Iyer; Sushi Ikumar Shartchandra, Poddar

2010-01-01

354

Lactose and galactose content in cheese results in overestimation of moisture by vacuum oven and microwave methods.  

PubMed

Moisture determination in cheese is a critical test for regulatory compliance, functionality, and economic reasons. Common methods for moisture determination in cheese rely upon the thermal volatilization of water from cheese and calculation of moisture content based on the resulting loss of mass. Residual sugars, such as lactose and galactose, are commonly present in cheeses at levels ranging from trace amounts to 5%. These sugars are capable of reacting with other compounds in cheese, especially under the thermal conditions required for moisture determination, to yield volatile reaction products. The hypothesis of this work is that residual sugars in cheese will be converted into volatile compounds over the course of moisture determination at a level sufficient to result in overestimated cheese moisture. A full-factorial statistical design was used to evaluate the effects of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and all interactions. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were prepared with 1, 3, and 5% added lactose or galactose, and subjected to either vacuum oven or microwave-based moisture determination methods. Browning index and colorimetry were measured to characterize the color and extent of browning. Volatile analyses were performed to provide chemical evidence of the reactions proposed. The presence of residual sugars altered moisture calculations as a function of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and numerous interactions. At higher concentrations of residual sugar, the percentage moisture determinations were increased by values of up to 1.8. Measures of browning reactions, including browning index, colorimetry, and volatile profiles demonstrate that the proposed browning reactions played a causative role. This work establishes the need to consider cheese type, sugar type, sugar levels, and method type as a means of more accurately determining moisture levels. PMID:24630670

Lee, H; Rankin, S A; Fonseca, L M; Milani, F X

2014-05-01

355

A clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the combination of etravirine plus raltegravir in HIV patients with expanded intolerance or resistance  

PubMed Central

Introduction The combination of etravirine (ETR) plus raltegravir (RAL) could be an option for HIV patients with resistance, intolerance or important interactions with other drugs. However, there are few data on the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of this dual therapy, taking into account the effect of HCV co-infection or the possible induction of ETR in the drug metabolism of RAL. Material and Methods Cohort study of HIV patients initiating ETR plus RAL as dual therapy. Plasma trough levels of RAL were measured by LC/MS after at least one month on therapy. Results A total of 25 patients have been included in this combination since 2009. Mean age was 46 years, 72% were male, and 20 patients (80%) had HCV co-infection (seven patients with fibrosis 3–4). Median nadir CD4+ count was 109 (60–209), and 21 patients had an HIV RNA level below 50 copies/mL. Median time on previous therapy was 473 months (IQR, 395–570), and reasons for this dual therapy was toxicity/intolerance in 19, and interactions in nine (two chemotherapy, three DAAs, two methadone, two other). After a median follow up of 722 days (473–1088: 53.3 patients-year), there were no cases of blips or virological failure. Six patients (24%) discontinued therapy after more than 1.5 year on therapy, in four cases due to lost follow up and in two due to simplification after finishing the reason for interaction. There were no cases of liver toxicity, and only two patients increased slightly transaminases values (grade 1 and 2). Total cholesterol and triglycerides levels decrease significantly after initiation (TC, from 182 to 165 at one year; p=0.01; TG from 185 to 143 mg/dL; p=0.01). CT/HDL ratio decreases from 4.35 to 4.28 after six months. Geometric mean plasma trough level of RAL was 166 ng/mL (IQR, 40–249) and only one patient (6%) was below the in vitro IC50 of the wild type. Conclusions The combination of ETR plus RAL as dual therapy is effective and safe in patients with expanded intolerance or interactions. There are no significant pharmacokinetic interactions between both drugs. PMID:25397548

Bañón, Sara; Moreno, Ana; Quereda, Carmen; Gomez, Cristina; Diaz de Santiago, Alberto; Perez-Elías, María J; Moreno, Santiago; Luis Casado, Jose

2014-01-01

356

Ideological Homogeneity, School Leadership, and Political Intolerance in Secondary Education: A Study of Three High Schools during the 2008 Presidential Election  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports findings from a qualitative case study of three high schools during the 2008 presidential election. The schools appeared to promote the political ideologies of their corresponding populations, and in the two predominately ideologically homogenous schools, political intolerance often appeared to affect teachers' instruction and…

Journell, Wayne

2012-01-01

357

Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins  

PubMed Central

Background Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®), known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients’ lipidic and glycemic profiles.

Di Pierro, Francesco; Bellone, Iaele; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Putignano, Pietro

2015-01-01

358

Frontier Justice versus the Rule of Law: Two Cases of Intolerance in Mid-19th Century America Illustrate the Role of the Bill of Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an essay dealing with two nineteenth-century incidents of religious intolerance. Recounts the story of Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon Church, who was murdered by opponents of the new religion. Explains how the writings of Presbyterian minister and newspaper publisher, Elijah Lovejoy, set off a response that led to his death. (SG)

Kopecky, Frank

1992-01-01

359

[Investigation on the mechanisms of leukocyte alteration in patients with intolerance to some drugs (with novocaine as a model)].  

PubMed

The mechanisms of novocain damaging action on blood cells in persons with increased sensitivity to this drug were studied in the leukocyte alteration test. The leading role of histamine liberated from basophils was established. The increased sensitivity to novocain was shown not to be passively transferred to the cells of healthy donors with patient serum with intolerance to the drug; moreover, the joint action of both cell-mediated and thermolabile humoral factors was found to be necessary for the realization of leukocyte alteration under the action of novocain. The comparison of the information content of a number of methods--skin testing, dosed provocation, leukocyte alteration test and chemiluminescence--for revealing increased sensitivity to novocain in 30 persons with adverse reactions to this preparation registered in their medical history. The two in vitro tests were shown to be comparable in their diagnostic significance with the method of dosed provocation. PMID:11881499

Stepanova, E V; Sveranovskaia, V V; Kuznetsova, N M; Gervazieva, V B

2001-01-01

360

Non-traditional dosing of statins in statin-intolerant patients-is it worth a try?  

PubMed

In this manuscript, three manifestations of statin intolerance will be covered. The first, myopathy, is mostly subjective with variable complaints of myalgias often worsened by exercise, muscle cramping or weakness, and at times associated with a biomarker, elevations in creatine kinase (CK). A rare but serious manifestation can be rhabdomyolysis. The second, liver toxicity, is associated with reversible biochemical increases in transaminases and rarely other liver function tests. Finally, statin-related central nervous system (CNS) toxicity typically defined as cognitive impairment is quite rare and appears to be idiosyncratic. Statin dose alternatives will then be discussed and highlighted in the setting of the new cholesterol-lowering guidelines. Non-statin lipid-altering therapies as well as other alternative therapies will also be reviewed. PMID:25432858

Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

2015-02-01

361

A novel sporadic mutation G14739A of the mitochondrial tRNA(Glu) in a girl with exercise intolerance.  

PubMed

We describe a 7-year-old girl who presented with loss of appetite, weakness and excercise intolerance. Enzyme investigation of the respiratory chain in muscle tissue revealed a combined complex I, III and IV deficiency. A novel heteroplasmic G-->A exchange at nucleotide position 14739 was found in the MTTE gene of the tRNA glutamic acid. The mutation load in muscle was 72%, urine sediment 38%, blood 31% and fibroblasts 29% and it correlated with COX-negative fibres. Our patient presented with a predominantly myopathic phenotype. The G14739A mutation is the third reported in the mitochondrial tRNA glutamic acid gene, and it occurred in a sporadic case. PMID:17056256

Mayr, Johannes A; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Förster, Holger; Kamper, Adrian; Idriceanu, Carmen; Muss, Wolfgang; Huemer, Michael; Oldfors, Anders; Sperl, Wolfgang

2006-12-01

362

Radiotherapy With or Without Surgery for Patients With Idiopathic Sclerosing Orbital Inflammation Refractory or Intolerant to Steroid Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI) treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with histopathologically confirmed ISOI who had been refractory or intolerant to steroid therapy and treated with radiation with or without surgery. The radiation dose ranged from 20 to 40 Gy (median, 20 Gy) at 2 Gy per fraction. Presenting signs and treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: Proptosis was the most common sign at presentation, seen in 19 (86.3%) patients, followed by restriction of extraocular movements in 10 (45.4%) patients. Response to radiotherapy was complete in 15 (68.1%) patients, partial in 3 (13.6%) patients, and none in 4 (18.2%) patients. At the median follow-up of 34 months, 14 (63.6%) patients had progression-free state of symptoms and signs, with the progression-free duration ranging from 3 to 75 months (median, 41.5 months), whereas 8 (36.4%) patients had recurrent or persistent disease although they had received radiotherapy. Of the 14 progression-free patients, 6 underwent a bimodality treatment of debulking surgery of ocular disease and radiotherapy. They had had no recurrent disease. Cataract was the most common late complications, and 2 patients experienced a Grade 3 cataract. Conclusion: Our study suggests that for patients with ISOI who are refractory or intolerant to steroid therapy, 20 Gy of radiotherapy appears to be effective for the control of disease with acceptable complications, especially when it is combined with surgery.

Lee, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Sil, E-mail: yeonkim7@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Suk Woo; Cho, Won-Kyung [Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Ji [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Mi-Ryeong; Jang, Hong Seok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-01

363

Short communication: Effects of lactose and milk on the expression of biofilm-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The ability of S. aureus to form biofilms plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mastitis. Biofilm formation in S. aureus is associated with the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protein and several other proteins. Several environmental factors, including glucose, osmolarity, oleic acid, temperature, and anaerobiosis, have been reported to affect bio?lm formation in S. aureus. This study investigated the influence of lactose and milk on the biofilm formation capacity of 2 clinical bovine isolates of S. aureus. We found that lactose increased biofilm formation predominantly by inducing PIA production, whereas milk increased biofilm formation through PIA as well as by increasing the production of other biofilm-associated proteins, which might be mediated by the transcriptional regulators intercellular adhesion regulator (icaR) and repressor of biofilm (rbf). PMID:25151886

Xue, Ting; Chen, Xiaolin; Shang, Fei

2014-10-01

364

Towards producing novel fish gelatin films by combination treatments of ultraviolet radiation and sugars (ribose and lactose) as cross-linking agents.  

PubMed

Developing novel fish gelatin films with better mechanical properties than mammalian gelatin is a challenging but promising endeavor. Studies were undertaken to produce fish gelatin films by combining treatments with different sugars (ribose and lactose) followed 'by' 'and' ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as possible cross-linking agents. Increase in tensile strength and percent elongation at break was recorded, which was more significant in films without sugars that were exposed to UV radiation. Films with added ribose showed decreased solubility after UV treatment and exhibited higher swelling percentage than films with added lactose, which readily dissolved in water. FTIR spectra of all the films showed identical patterns, which indicated no major changes to have occurred in the functional groups as a result of interaction between gelatin, sugars and UV irradiation. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for food packaging purposes. PMID:24966426

Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

2014-07-01

365

The Effect of the Electric Field on Lag Phase, ?-Galactosidase Production and Plasmid Stability of a Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Growing on Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol and ?-galactosidase production from cheese whey may significantly contribute to minimise environmental problems while\\u000a producing value from low-cost raw materials. In this work, the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC869-A3\\/pVK1.1 flocculent strain expressing the lacA gene (coding for ?-galactosidase) of Aspergillus niger under ADHI promoter and terminator was used. This strain shows high ethanol and ?-galactosidase productivities when grown on lactose.

Inês Castro; Carla Oliveira; Lucília Domingues; José A. Teixeira; António A. Vicente

366

Enteric-coated capsule containing ?-galactosidase-loaded polylactic acid nanocapsules: enzyme stability and milk lactose hydrolysis under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.  

PubMed

In order to protect peroral ?-galactosidase from being degraded and hydrolyse milk lactose efficiently in the environments of gastrointestinal tract, a double-capsule delivery system composed of enteric-coated capsule and polylactic acid (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) was developed for encapsulation of ?-galactosidase. ?-galactosidase-loaded PLA NCs in the size range of 100-200 nm were prepared by a modified w1/o/w2 technique. During the encapsulation process, dichloromethane/ethyl acetate (1 : 1, v/v) as the solvent composition, high-pressure homogenisation (150 bar, 3 min) as the second emulsification method and polyvinyl alcohol or Poloxamer 188 as a stabiliser in the inner phase could efficiently improve the activity retention of ?-galactosidase (>90%). Subsequently, the prepared NCs were freeze-dried and filled in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55)-coated capsule. In vitro results revealed that the HP55-coated capsule remained intact in the simulated gastric fluid and efficiently protected the nested ?-galactosidase from acidic denaturation. Under the simulated intestinal condition, the enteric coating dissolved rapidly and released the ?-galactosidase-loaded PLA NCs, which exhibited greater stability against enzymatic degradation and higher hydrolysis ratio (?100%) towards milk lactose than the free ?-galactosidase. These results suggest that this double-capsule delivery system represents promising candidate for efficient lactose hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25263933

He, Hongjun; Zhang, Xueting; Sheng, Yan

2014-11-01

367

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose  

PubMed Central

Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P4212 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10?Å and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2?Å resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1?Å. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4. PMID:18607104

Krej?i?íková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; ?ezá?ová, Pavlína; Brynda, Ji?í

2008-01-01

368

Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.  

PubMed

Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55?m (soy) to 2.08?m (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52?m. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-?-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. PMID:25172757

Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

2015-02-01

369

Improved bioavailability of inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase: PEGylation of lactose analogs with multiarm polyethyleneglycol  

PubMed Central

The trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS) catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from host glycoconjugates to terminal ?-galactopyranosides in the mucins of the parasite. During infection, the enzyme is actively shed by the parasite to the bloodstream inducing hematological alterations. Lactitol prevents cell apoptosis caused by the TcTS, although it is rapidly eliminated from the circulatory system. Linear polyethyleneglycol (PEG) conjugates of lactose analogs were prepared but their clearance from blood was still quite fast. With the aim of improving their circulating half-lives in vivo, we now synthesized covalent conjugates of eight-arm PEG. The star-shape of these conjugates allows an increase in the molecular weight together with the loading of the active sugar. Two approaches were used for PEGylation of disaccharide derivatives containing ?-d-Galp as the non-reducing unit. (1) Amide formation between benzyl ?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?6)-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranoside and a succinimide-activated PEG. (2) Conjugation of lactobionolactone with amino end-functionalized PEG. Two 8-arm PEG derivatives (20 and 40 kDa) were used for each sugar. Substitution of all arms was proved by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of the conjugates in mice plasma was considerably improved with respect to the 5 kDa linear PEG conjugates retaining their inhibitory properties. PMID:22653661

Giorgi, M. Eugenia; Ratier, Laura; Agusti, Rosalía; Frasch, Alberto C.C.; de Lederkremer, Rosa M.

2012-01-01

370

Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate effects of a ruminal dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells. Six ruminally cannulated nonlactating nonpregnant Holstein cows (body weight=725±69.6kg) were assigned to treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods; 1d for data and sample collection followed by a 6-d washout period. Cows were fed a diet containing whole-crop barley silage and dry ground corn, and dietary neutral detergent fiber and crude protein contents were 41.8 and 13.2% [dry matter (DM) basis], respectively. Treatment was a pulse-dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch (3.0, 3.0, and 2.85kg of DM, respectively; providing similar amounts of hexose across the treatments) through the ruminal cannulas. All treatments were given with alfalfa silage (1.75kg DM) to prevent acute rumen acidosis. Rumen pH was continuously monitored, and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after the dose. In addition, ruminal papillae were sampled from the ventral sac at 180min after the dose. Ruminal dosing with sucrose and lactose, compared with corn starch, increased ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportion of butyrate from 60 to 180min after the dose, and expression of genes for sodium hydrogen exchanger isoforms 1 and 2, and ATPase isoform 1 in ruminal epithelial cells. Ruminal dosing with sucrose, compared with lactose and corn starch, decreased rumen pH from 120 to 180min after the dose and molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min after the dose, and increased molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min, and expression of genes involved in butyrate metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase isoform 1) and anion exchange across ruminal apical cell membrane (putative anion transporter isoform 1). These results suggest that replacing dietary starch with sugars may affect ruminal fermentation and metabolism regulating intracellular pH and fermentation acid absorption in ruminal epithelial cells, and that these effects can be greater for sucrose than lactose. PMID:25468705

Oba, M; Mewis, J L; Zhining, Z

2015-01-01

371

Can dietary fibre help provide safer food products for sufferers of gluten intolerance? A well-established biophysical probe may help towards providing an answer  

PubMed Central

Gluten intolerance is a condition which affects an increasing percentage of the world’s population and for which the only current treatment is a restrictive gluten free diet. However could the inclusion of a particular polysaccharide, or blends of different types, help with the provision of ‘safer’ foods for those individuals who suffer from this condition? We review the current knowledge on the prevalence, clinical symptoms and treatment of gluten intolerance, and the use and properties of the allergens responsible. We consider the potential for dietary fibre polysaccharides to sequester peptides that are responsible for activation of the disease in susceptible individuals, and consider the potential of co-sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge as a molecular probe for finding interactions strong enough to be considered as useful. PMID:22594658

2012-01-01

372

Effect of lactose permease presence on the structure and nanomechanics of two-component supported lipid bilayers.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a comparative study of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) and proteolipid sheets (PLSs) obtained from deposition of lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli proteoliposomes in plane. Lipid matrices of two components, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), at a 3:1, mol/mol ratio, were selected to mimic the inner membrane of the bacteria. The aim was to investigate how species of different compactness and stiffness affect the integration, distribution and nanomechanical properties of LacY in mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) or 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (POPG). Both compositions displayed phase separation and were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and force-spectroscopy (FS) mode. PLSs displayed two separated, segregated domains with different features that were characterised by FS and force-volume mode. We correlated the nanomechanical characteristics of solid-like gel phase (L?) and fluid liquid-crystalline phase (L?) with phases emerging in presence of LacY. We observed that for both compositions, the extended PLSs showed a L? apparently formed only by lipids, whilst the second domain was enriched in LacY. The influence of the lipid environment on LacY organisation was studied by performing protein unfolding experiments using the AFM tip. Although the pulling experiments were unspecific, positive events were obtained, indicating the influence of the lipid environment when pulling the protein. A possible influence of the lateral surface pressure on this behaviour is suggested by the higher force required to pull LacY from DPPE:POPG than from POPE:POPG matrices. This is related to higher forces governing protein-lipid interaction in presence of DPPE. PMID:24316189

Suárez-Germà, Carme; Domènech, Oscar; Montero, M Teresa; Hernández-Borrell, Jordi

2014-03-01

373

Characterization of Pancreatic Islets in Two Selectively Bred Mouse Lines with Different Susceptibilities to High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Hereditary predisposition to diet-induced type 2 diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. We recently established 2 mouse lines with different susceptibilities (resistant and prone) to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance by selective breeding (designated selectively bred diet-induced glucose intolerance-resistant [SDG-R] and -prone [SDG-P], respectively). To investigate the predisposition to HFD-induced glucose intolerance in pancreatic islets, we examined the islet morphological features and functions in these novel mouse lines. Male SDG-P and SDG-R mice were fed a HFD for 5 weeks. Before and after HFD feeding, glucose tolerance was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Morphometry and functional analyses of the pancreatic islets were also performed before and after the feeding period. Before HFD feeding, SDG-P mice showed modestly higher postchallenge blood glucose levels and lower insulin increments in OGTT than SDG-R mice. Although SDG-P mice showed greater ? cell proliferation than SDG-R mice under HFD feeding, SDG-P mice developed overt glucose intolerance, whereas SDG-R mice maintained normal glucose tolerance. Regardless of whether it was before or after HFD feeding, the isolated islets from SDG-P mice showed impaired glucose- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion relative to those from SDG-R mice; accordingly, the expression levels of the insulin secretion-related genes in SDG-P islets were significantly lower than those in SDG-R islets. These findings suggest that the innate predispositions in pancreatic islets may determine the susceptibility to diet-induced diabetes. SDG-R and SDG-P mice may therefore be useful polygenic animal models to study the gene–environment interactions in the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24454742

Nagao, Mototsugu; Asai, Akira; Inaba, Wataru; Kawahara, Momoyo; Shuto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Sanoyama, Daisuke; Sugihara, Hitoshi; Yagihashi, Soroku; Oikawa, Shinichi

2014-01-01

374

Bosutinib efficacy and safety in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia after imatinib resistance or intolerance: Minimum 24-month follow-up  

PubMed Central

Bosutinib is an orally active, dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) following resistance/intolerance to prior therapy. Here, we report the data from the 2-year follow-up of a phase 1/2 open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of bosutinib as second-line therapy in 288 patients with chronic phase CML resistant (n = 200) or intolerant (n = 88) to imatinib. The cumulative response rates to bosutinib were as follows: 85% achieved/maintained complete hematologic response, 59% achieved/maintained major cytogenetic response (including 48% with complete cytogenetic response), and 35% achieved major molecular response. Responses were durable, with 2-year estimates of retaining response >70%. Two-year probabilities of progression-free survival and overall survival were 81% and 91%, respectively. The most common toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea [84%], nausea [45%], vomiting [37%]), which were primarily mild to moderate, typically transient, and first occurred early during treatment. Thrombocytopenia was the most common grade 3/4 hematologic laboratory abnormality (24%). Outcomes were generally similar among imatinib-resistant and imatinib-intolerant patients and did not differ with age. The longer-term results of the present analysis confirm that bosutinib is an effective and tolerable second-line therapy for patients with imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic phase CML. http://ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00261846. Am. J. Hematol. 89:732–742, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24711212

Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Kim, Dong-Wook; Turkina, Anna G; Masszi, Tamas; Assouline, Sarit; Durrant, Simon; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Khoury, H Jean; Zaritskey, Andrey; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Jin, Jie; Vellenga, Edo; Pasquini, Ricardo; Mathews, Vikram; Cervantes, Francisco; Besson, Nadine; Turnbull, Kathleen; Leip, Eric; Kelly, Virginia; Cortes, Jorge E

2014-01-01

375

Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A  

PubMed Central

Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

2014-01-01

376

The Development of Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in C57Bl/6 Mice on a High-Fat Diet Consists of Distinct Phases  

PubMed Central

High–fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12 - 16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable. PMID:25170916

Williams, Lynda M.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Drew, Janice E.; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D.; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R.; Tups, Alexander

2014-01-01

377

Ethylene enhances gibberellin levels and petiole sensitivity in flooding-tolerant Rumex palustris but not in flooding-intolerant R. acetosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The role of gibberellin (GA) and ethylene in submergence-induced petiole elongation was studied in two species of the genus\\u000a Rumex. Analysis of endogenous GAs in the flooding-tolerant Rumex palustris Sm. and the intolerant Rumex acetosa L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed for both species the presence of GA1, GA4, GA9, GA19, GA20 and GA53. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of

Jan G. H. M. Rijnders; Young-Yell Yang; Yuji Kamiya; Nobuta Takahashi; Gerard W. M. Barendse; Cornelis W. P. M. Blom; Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek

1997-01-01

378

Abundance and diversity of GI microbiota rather than IgG4 levels correlate with abdominal inconvenience and gut permeability in consumers claiming food intolerances.  

PubMed

Food intolerances are an increasing global health problem. Interactions between genetics and environmental changes such as microbial- and stress factors remain poorly understood. Whereas the analyses of IgE mediated allergic responses is based on solid concepts, the roles of microbiota, gut permeability, and IgG antibodies remain widely unclear and are under fierce discussion for scientific relevance. The present pilot study analyzes forty participants, under consultation of nutritional health professionals, for gastrointestinal discomfort and claimed food intolerances. Food frequency questionnaire addresses nutrition, lifestyle and present discomfort. Feces samples are analyzed for dominant microbiota using 16S rDNA based methods and the fecal marker Calprotectin. Blood samples are analyzed for IgG4 levels. The total microbial abundance significantly correlates with claimed discomfort (R=-0.37; p=0.02). The abundance and diversity of microbiota significantly correlates with low Calprotectin values (R=-0.35; p=0.01) and with higher abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (R=0.78; p<0.01) and Akkermansia (R=0.82; p<0.01). Participants with low discomfort show enhanced Clostridium Cluster XIVa (p=0.008). An increased diversity is also correlating with reduced antibodies against IgG4 of egg white (R=0.68; p<0.01). Data suggest an interaction of low gut permeability and reduced inflammation with an established microbial equilibrium. Self-reported abdominal inconvenience of participants relates mainly to characteristics of microbiota and gut permeability. Anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or Lactobacilli and gut barrier functions of Akkermansia may have a key role in food intolerances. The role of IgG4 linking food immune responses with intolerances remains unclear. PMID:24502607

Hippe, Berit; Remely, Marlene; Bartosiewicz, Natalie; Riedel, Monika; Nichterl, Claudia; Schatz, Lulit; Pummer, Sandra; Haslberger, Alexander

2014-03-01

379

Changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation and xanthophyll cycle interconversions during dehydration in desiccation-tolerant and intolerant liverworts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The interactions among water content, chlorophyll a fluorescence emission, xanthophyll interconversions and net photosynthesis were analyzed during dehydration in desiccation-tolerant\\u000a Frullania dilatata (L.) Dum. and desiccation-intolerant Pellia endiviifolia (Dicks) Dum. Water loss led to a progressive suppression of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in both species. Their chlorophyll\\u000a fluorescence characteristics at low water content were: low photosynthetic quantum conversion efficiency, high

Vicente I. Deltoro; Angeles Calatayud; Cristina Gimeno; Anunciación Abadía; Eva Barreno

1998-01-01

380

Alteration of NCoR corepressor splicing in mice causes increased body weight and hepatosteatosis without glucose intolerance.  

PubMed

Alternative mRNA splicing is an important means of diversifying function in higher eukaryotes. Notably, both NCoR and SMRT corepressors are subject to alternative mRNA splicing, yielding a series of distinct corepressor variants with highly divergent functions. Normal adipogenesis is associated with a switch in corepressor splicing from NCoR? to NCoR?, which appears to help regulate this differentiation process. We report here that mimicking this development switch in mice by a splice-specific whole-animal ablation of NCoR? is very different from a whole-animal or tissue-specific total NCoR knockout and produces significantly enhanced weight gain on a high-fat diet. Surprisingly, NCoR?(-/-) mice are protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance despite enhanced adiposity and the presence of multiple additional, prodiabetic phenotypic changes. Our results indicate that the change in NCoR splicing during normal development both helps drive normal adipocyte differentiation and plays a key role in determining a metabolically appropriate storage of excess calories. We also conclude that whole-gene "knockouts" fail to reveal how important gene products are customized, tailored, and adapted through alternative mRNA splicing and thus do not reveal all the functions of the protein products of that gene. PMID:25182530

Goodson, Michael L; Young, Briana M; Snyder, Chelsea A; Schroeder, Amy C; Privalsky, Martin L

2014-11-15

381

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-03-01

382

Domain-specific intolerance of uncertainty in socially anxious and contamination-focused obsessive-compulsive individuals.  

PubMed

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been increasingly recognized as a transdiagnostic factor across anxiety disorders and depression and is associated with substantial cognitive, behavioral, and emotional impairment. IU is typically construed as a dispositional tendency to view ambiguous stimuli and unknown outcomes as unacceptably threatening regardless of context, but recent findings suggest that the domain in which uncertainty is encountered may be relevant. Taking that research to the next step, the aim of the present study was to determine whether IU is more salient in concern-congruent versus incongruent domains and whether domain-specific IU is a better predictor of anxiety symptoms than trait IU. A total of 102 undergraduates were recruited into analog socially anxious (SA), obsessive-compulsive contamination (OCC), and nonanxious control (NAC) groups based on responses to measures of SA and OCC symptoms. Both groups reported more domain-congruent IU than trait IU or domain-incongruent IU. The SA group reported more social interaction IU than the OCC and NAC groups; the OCC group reported more cleanliness IU than the SA and NAC groups. Domain-specific IU predicted social anxiety and OCC fears above and beyond trait IU. Results suggest that IU has a substantial context-specific component and should be examined both transdiagnostically and transsituationally. PMID:25269822

Jensen, Dane; Heimberg, Richard G

2015-01-01

383

Disruption of the chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) gene is associated with reduced adiposity and glucose intolerance.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive signaling molecules, termed adipokines, which regulate numerous biological functions including appetite, energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. Chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipocyte differentiation and metabolism by binding to and activating the G protein-coupled receptor, chemokine like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). In the present study, we investigated the impact of CMKLR1 deficiency on adipose development, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation in vivo. Herein we report that regardless of diet (low or high fat), CMKLR1(-/-) mice had lower food consumption, total body mass, and percent body fat compared with wild-type controls. CMKLR1(-/-) mice also exhibited decreased hepatic and white adipose tissue TNF? and IL-6 mRNA levels coincident with decreased hepatic dendritic cell infiltration, decreased adipose CD3+ T cells, and increased adipose natural killer cells. CMKLR1(-/-) mice were glucose intolerant compared with wild-type mice, and this was associated with decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion as well as decreased skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue glucose uptake. Collectively these data provide compelling evidence that CMKLR1 influences adipose tissue development, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the metabolic derangement characteristic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:22186410

Ernst, Matthew C; Haidl, Ian D; Zúñiga, Luis A; Dranse, Helen J; Rourke, Jillian L; Zabel, Brian A; Butcher, Eugene C; Sinal, Christopher J

2012-02-01

384

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

PubMed Central

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter–enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose–response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16537411

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-01-01

385

New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tartrazine An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France.  

PubMed

Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the JECFA in 1964, many new studies have been conducted, some of which have incriminated tartrazine in food intolerance reactions. The aims of this work are to update the hazard characterization and to revaluate the safety of tartrazine. Our bibliographical review of animal studies confirms the initial hazard assessment conducted by the JECFA, and accordingly the ADI established at 7.5mg/kg bw. From our data, in France, the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile. It may therefore be concluded that from a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not represent a risk for the consumer. It appears more difficult to show a clear relationship between ingestion of tartrazine and the development of intolerance reactions in patients. These reactions primarily occur in patients who also suffer from recurrent urticaria or asthma. The link between tartrazine consumption and these reactions is often overestimated, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is estimated to be less than 0.12% in the general population. Generally, the population at risk is aware of the importance of food labelling, with the view of avoiding consumption of tartrazine. However, it has to be mentioned that products such as ice creams, desserts, cakes and fine bakery are often sold loose without any labelling. PMID:17218045

Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Héraud, Fanny; Bemrah, Nawel; Gauchard, Françoise; Lorino, Tristan; Lambré, Claude; Frémy, Jean Marc; Poul, Jean-Michel

2007-04-01

386

Problems Digesting Dairy Products?  

MedlinePLUS

... intolerant. As people age, their bodies produce fewer lactase enzymes, so most people don’t have symptoms until ... no treatment to make the body produce more lactase enzyme, but the symptoms of lactose intolerance can be ...

387

REFLUX TREATMENT A C I D R E F L U X A N D O E S O P H A G I T I S : A N I N F O R M A T I V E G U I D E T O S Y M P T O M S ,  

E-print Network

Central.com - Chronic constipation Lactose intolerance (milk intolerance) Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Irritable bowel syndrome (sensitive stomach with intermittent episodes of diarrhea and reflux treatment constipation) Heartburn or indigestion Gastroesophageal reflux Ulcers Source: www.healthcentral.com 'It saved

Chiao, Jung-Chih

388

Chromosome 2: the gene for lactase, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>Tour>genome spots>Lactose tolerance / intolerance Location: chromosome 2 gene name: LCT (lactase) This gene on chromosome 2 codes for the enzyme lactase. This enzyme enables infants to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. In people who are lactose tolerant, the gene remains active throughout their lives. In most people who are lactose intolerant, the gene is turned off after infancy, making the digestion of dairy products difficult and painful.

2008-10-06

389

Use of slow glucose feeding as supporting carbon source in lactose autoinduction medium improves the robustness of protein expression at different aeration conditions.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein expression from lac derived promoters by the autoinduction regime is based on diauxic growth of Escherichia coli on glucose and lactose. Glycerol is used as a supporting carbon source during the lactose-induced expression. While this glycerol-based formulation usually provides high cell densities, successful protein expression by autoinduction is often very dependent on correct aeration level. This complicates the reproducibility and scalability of the cultures. In this study we investigate the use of an alternative autoinduction formulation, in which the supporting carbon source is provided by fed-batch-like slow glucose feed from a biocatalytically degraded polysaccharide. The glucose feed as supporting carbon source allowed for high level of autoinduced target protein expression from T7lac promoter in E. coli BL21(DE3) and from T5lac promoter in E. coli K-12 RB791(lacI(q)) with lactose concentrations of 0.5-2gl(-1). Cell densities and protein yields per culture volume were similar to or higher than in the glycerol-based ZYM-5052 medium. In the glycerol-based medium, protein production was adversely influenced by high aeration level, resulting in 75-90% reduction in protein yield per cell compared to more moderately aerated conditions. The glucose fed-batch medium attenuated this oxygen-sensitivity and provided robust high-yield expression also under high aeration rates. It is concluded that the slow glucose feed as supporting carbon source mitigates aeration-related scale differences in autoinduced protein expression, and combined with the benefit of high product yields this makes the fed-batch autoinduction medium ideal for high-throughput screening and scale-up of the production process. PMID:23938950

Ukkonen, Kaisa; Mayer, Sonja; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter

2013-10-01

390

Dietary intake of lactose as a strong predictor for secretor status of nipple aspirate fluid in healthy premenopausal non-lactating women1  

PubMed Central

Purpose Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) is considered a potential source for discovering breast cancer biomarkers. However, the success rate of obtaining NAF was reported to vary from 48 to 77%, and mechanisms for its secretion are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary, demographic, reproductive, hormonal, and anthropometric factors that are associated with the ability to obtain NAF by aspiration (secretor status) from premenopausal women. Study Design NAF procedures were attempted for women who were 30–40 years old, not pregnant, not breastfeeding, and not taking contraceptive medications. Results Compared with non-secretors, secretors of NAF consumed significantly more dietary lactose (mainly from milk), were more likely to be parous, were older at first and last childbirth, breastfed their babies for a longer period of time, and had an earlier menarche and lower plasma concentrations of 17?-estradiol (P<0.05). Using multivariate logistic regression models, higher dietary intake of lactose [Odds Ratio (OR) =2.7; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.5–4.8], earlier menarche (OR=0.8, CI: 0.7–1.0), being parous (OR=2.3, CI: 1.0–5.6), and older at first childbirth (OR=1.5, CI: 1.0–2.1) were found to be independent and positive predictors for being a secretor of NAF. Conclusions These findings suggest that dietary intake of lactose, a modifiable factor, may be used to change the NAF secretor status of women. This finding may facilitate the use of NAF as a diagnostic material for detecting breast diseases. PMID:18316559

Huang, Yafei; Anderson, Karl E.; Nagamani, Manubai; Grady, James J.; Lu, Lee-Jane W.

2009-01-01

391

Rituximab for the treatment of patients with autoimmune hepatitis who are refractory or intolerant to standard therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Although most patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) respond to treatment with prednisone and/or azathioprine, some patients are intolerant or refractory to standard therapy. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that depletes B cells and has demonstrated efficacy in other autoimmune conditions. AIMS: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of rituximab in patients with refractory AIH in an open-label, single-centre pilot study. METHODS: Six patients with definite, biopsy-proven AIH who failed prednisone and azathioprine treatment received two infusions of rituximab 1000 mg two weeks apart and were followed for 72 weeks. RESULTS: Rituximab was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. By week 24, mean (± SD) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels had significantly improved (90.0±23.3 U/L versus 31.3±4.2 U/L; P=0.03) and mean immunoglobulin G levels had fallen (16.4±2.0 g/L versus 11.5±1.1 g/L; P=0.056). The prednisone dose was weaned in three of four subjects, with one subject flaring after steroid withdrawal. Inflammation grade improved in all four subjects who underwent repeat liver biopsy at week 48. Regulatory T cell levels examined by FoxP3 immunohistochemistry paralleled inflammatory activity and did not increase on follow-up biopsies. There was no significant change in serum chemokine or cytokine levels from baseline to week 24 (n=5), although interferon-gamma-induced protein 10 levels improved in three of five subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab was safe, well tolerated and resulted in biochemical improvement in subjects with refractory AIH. These results support further investigation of rituximab as a treatment for AIH. PMID:23712302

Burak, Kelly W; Swain, Mark G; Santodomino-Garzon, Tania; Lee, Samuel S; Urbanski, Stefan J; Aspinall, Alexander I; Coffin, Carla S; Myers, Robert P

2013-01-01

392

The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula  

PubMed Central

Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics—North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement—more marked in some regions than in others—plus the effects of genetic drift. PMID:19061982

Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes; Grifo, Marina S. Gisbert; Brion, Maria; Carracedo, Angel; Lavinha, João; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Skorecki, Karl; Behar, Doron M.; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A.

2008-01-01

393

Kinetics of Lactose Crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of certain variables on a-lac- tose crystallization were examined. The tem- perature for optimum crystallization rate varied with the initial supersaturation. Crystallization rate was not directly pro- portional to seed crystal surface area, probably because of false graining or be- cause mutarotation has a limiting effect on rate as surface area is increased. When the position of the

W. C. Twieg; T. A. Nickerson

1968-01-01

394

Distribution and ecology of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting marine vibrios in coastal waters of the southeastern United States.  

PubMed Central

Water, sediment, plankton, and animal samples from five coastal sites from North Carolina to Georgia were sampled for their lactose-fermenting vibrio populations. Over 20% of all vibrios tested were sucrose negative and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) positive, suggesting identification as the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. These vibrios were isolated from all sample sites and sources (water, sediment, plankton, and animals). Correlations with several of 19 environmental parameters monitored at each site were found for total vibrios. The presence of ONPG-positive, sucrose-negative vibrios was correlated with hydrocarbon levels in the water and, in the case of plankton samples, with salinity. A total of 279 sucrose-negative, ONPG-positive isolates were subjected to numerical taxonomic analysis, which resulted in three major clusters. Cluster I corresponded to and included 11 reference strains of V. vulnificus. Cluster II contained the largest number (133) of isolates, of which the great majority were bioluminescent. Although having a resemblance to V. harveyi, the isolates were ONPG positive and many were H2S positive. Cluster III consisted of strains similar to the group F vibrios (V. fluvialis). Of all of the isolates, 55% were luminescent, of which over 20% were lethal when injected into mice. Problems involved in detecting lactose fermentation among marine vibrios and the potential pathogenicity of these organisms are discussed. PMID:7159083

Oliver, J D; Warner, R A; Cleland, D R

1982-01-01

395

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of trace level condensation products formed between lactose and the amine-containing diuretic hydrochlorothiazide.  

PubMed

Trace levels of condensation products between lactose and the amine-containing diuretic hydrochlorothiazide are formed when a mixture of the two solids containing 30% weight water is heated at 60 degrees C for 2 weeks. The two most abundant condensation products were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Under these relatively mild conditions of formation, the amine-lactose reaction products are limited to those involving the elimination of only a single molecule of water, rather than the multiple-water eliminations associated with later stages of the Maillard reaction. The spectroscopic data clearly show that the primary condensation products are cyclic N-substituted glycosylamines rather than Schiff base, 1,2-enolic forms, or Amadori rearrangement products of identical mass. In solution, the two most abundant N-substituted glycosylamines are shown to be in a kinetically slow equilibrium with each other, most likely through a mutarotation involving the intermediate formation of the acyclic Schiff base. PMID:10861593

Harmon, P A; Yin, W; Bowen, W E; Tyrrell, R J; Reed, R A

2000-07-01

396

Flow injection analysis of lactose using covalently immobilized beta-galactosidase, mutarotase, and glucose oxidase/peroxidase on a 2-fluoro-1-methylpyridinium salt-activated Fractogel support.  

PubMed

Milk samples were analyzed for their lactose content using flow injection analysis and incorporating immobilized beta-galactosidase or beta-galactosidase/mutarotase and glucose oxidase/peroxidase bioreactors. These enzymes were immobilized, under mild conditions, on to a 2-fluoro-1-methylpyridinium salt-activated Fractogel support. The use of a phosphate buffer (0.15 M) was found to facilitate the rapid mutarotation of alpha-D-glucose and hence could obviate the need for the more expensive mutarotase. The chromogenic agents of choice for monitoring the reaction were 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone and 3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid. Linearity was observed over the concentration range 16-160 micrograms/ml using lactose standards (r = 0.996). Between 30 and 40 milk samples/h can be analyzed. Comparisons are made with existing HPLC and alkaline methylamine methods for a range of milk matrices. The FIA method consistently gives the lowest standard deviations and coefficient of variation for the various milk matrices analyzed. PMID:1907811

Narinesingh, D; Stoute, V A; Davis, G; Ngo, T T

1991-04-01

397

d-Glucose, d-Galactose, and d-Lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.  

PubMed

Here, d-Glucose, d-Galactose, and d-Lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to d-Glucose, d-Galactose, and d-Lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18mM and 3.47mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79mAcm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57mAcm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64mAcm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30?M, 29.40?M, and 26?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

2015-05-15

398

Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.  

PubMed

A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2012-12-01

399

Efficacy and safety of radotinib in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance or intolerance to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Radotinib (IY5511HCL), a novel and selective BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown pre-clinical and phase I activity and safety in chronic myeloid leukemia. This phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of radotinib in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance and/or intolerance to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Patients received radotinib 400 mg twice daily for 12 cycles based on results from the phase I trial. The primary end point was rate of major cytogenetic response by 12 months. A total of 77 patients were enrolled. Major cytogenetic response was achieved in 50 (65%; cumulative 75%) patients, including 36 (47%) patients with complete cytogenetic response by 12 months. Median time to major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response were 85 days and 256 days, respectively. Major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates were similar between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-intolerant patients, but were higher in patients without BCR-ABL1 mutations. Overall and progression-free survival rates at 12 months were 96.1% and 86.3%, respectively. All newly-occurring or worsening grade 3/4 hematologic abnormalities included thrombocytopenia (24.7%) and anemia (5.2%); grade 3/4 drug-related non-hematologic adverse events included fatigue (3.9%), asthenia (3.9%), and nausea (2.6%). The most common biochemistry abnormality was hyperbilirubinemia (grade 3/4 23.4%), and 12 of 18 cases were managed with dose modification. Study findings suggest radotinib is effective and well tolerated in chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance and/or intolerance to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may represent a promising alternative for these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01602952) PMID:24705186

Kim, Sung-Hyun; Menon, Hari; Jootar, Saengsuree; Saikia, Tapan; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Sohn, Sang-Kyun; Park, Joon Seong; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Kim, Hyeoung Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Oh, Suk Joong; Kim, Hawk; Zang, Dae Young; Chung, Joo Seop; Shin, Ho Jin; Do, Young Rok; Kim, Jeong-A; Kim, Dae-Young; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Sahee; Park, Hye Lin; Lee, Gong Yeal; Cho, Dae Jin; Shin, Jae Soo; Kim, Dong-Wook

2014-01-01

400

Intolerance reactions to knee arthroplasty in patients with nickel/cobalt allergy and disappearance of symptoms after revision surgery with titanium-based endoprostheses.  

PubMed

Intolerance reactions to metal implants may present as dermatitis, impaired wound healing, effusions, pain or loosening. The clinical relevance of metal allergy in the differential diagnosis is often unclear and patients may even tolerate implants containing metals to which they are allergic. We present four patients with knee arthroplasty in whom after exclusion of infection or mechanical causes, a nickel/cobalt allergy led to replacement surgery with titanium-based prostheses. The subsequent alleviation of symptoms underlined the relevance and usefulness of allergological diagnostics in selected cases of complicated arthroplasty. PMID:19192161

Dietrich, Karin-Almut; Mazoochian, Farhad; Summer, Burkhard; Reinert, Mark; Ruzicka, Thomas; Thomas, Peter

2009-05-01

401

In Lysinuric Protein Intolerance system y+L activity is defective in monocytes and in GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background In the recessive aminoaciduria Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (LPI), mutations of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 impair system y+L transport activity for cationic amino acids. A severe complication of LPI is a form of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP), in which alveolar spaces are filled with lipoproteinaceous material because of the impaired surfactant clearance by resident macrophages. The pathogenesis of LPI-associated PAP remains still obscure. The present study investigates for the first time the expression and function of y+LAT1 in monocytes and macrophages isolated from a patient affected by LPI-associated PAP. A comparison with mesenchymal cells from the same subject has been also performed. Methods Monocytes from peripheral blood were isolated from a 21-year-old patient with LPI. Alveolar macrophages and fibroblastic-like mesenchymal cells were obtained from a whole lung lavage (WLL) performed on the same patient. System y+L activity was determined measuring the 1-min uptake of [3H]-arginine under discriminating conditions. Gene expression was evaluated through qRT-PCR. Results We have found that: 1) system y+L activity is markedly lowered in monocytes and alveolar macrophages from the LPI patient, because of the prevailing expression of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 in these cells; 2) on the contrary, fibroblasts isolated from the same patient do not display the transport defect due to compensation by the SLC7A6/y+LAT2 isoform; 3) in both normal and LPI monocytes, GM-CSF induces the expression of SLC7A7, suggesting that the gene is a target of the cytokine; 4) GM-CSF-induced differentiation of LPI monocytes is comparable to that of normal cells, demonstrating that GM-CSF signalling is unaltered; 5) general and respiratory conditions of the patient, along with PAP-associated parameters, markedly improved after GM-CSF therapy through aerosolization. Conclusions Monocytes and macrophages, but not fibroblasts, derived from a LPI patient clearly display the defect in system y+L-mediated arginine transport. The different transport phenotypes are referable to the relative levels of expression of SLC7A7 and SLC7A6. Moreover, the expression of SLC7A7 is regulated by GM-CSF in monocytes, pointing to a role of y+LAT1 in the pathogenesis of LPI associated PAP. PMID:21110863

2010-01-01

402

Combating Racism and Intolerance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Council of Europe, this site offers a number of resources for individuals and organizations fighting racism and promoting tolerance. For instance, because "international law has become such a powerful means of combatting discrimination," the Legal Framework section provides the text of international legal instruments and a report on [European] national legal measures. The Council of Europe section introduces the organization and its key resolutions, recommendations, and speeches. In the Educational Resources section, users will find a list of relevant publications, a cartoon book (also downloadable in .pdf format), video clips, and other material geared toward younger audiences. Additional resources include an overview of "good practices" in policy initiatives by Council of Europe member states and an online Forum (currently under construction). The site is also available in French.

403

Intolerance, Prejudice and Discrimination  

E-print Network

Copy-editing (German) Eva Fenn Translation and editing (English) Meredith Dale Copy-editing (English .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.3 Treating Others as Inferior as a Core Element of Right-wing Populist and Extremist Ideologies

Moeller, Ralf

404

Hereditary fructose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... a doctor who specializes in biochemical genetics or metabolism. ... Steinmann B, Santer R. Disorders of Fructose Metabolism. In: ... Diagnosis and Treatment. 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012: ...

405

The effect of wet granulation on the erosion behaviour of an HPMC–lactose tablet, used as a rate-controlling component in a pulsatile drug delivery capsule formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in the performance of a pulsatile capsule delivery system induced by wet granulation of an erodible HPMC tablet, used to seal the contents within an insoluble capsule body. Erodible tablets containing HPMC and lactose were prepared by direct compression (DC) and wet granulation (WG) techniques and used to seal the

Jason T McConville; Alistair C Ross; Alan R Chambers; Geoff Smith; Alastair J Florence; Howard N. E Stevens

2004-01-01

406

MIF-deficiency reduces chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue and impairs the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and associated atherosclerotic disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) is positively associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and the development of type-2 diabetes (T2D). The pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an essential, upstream component of the inflammatory cascade. This study examines whether MIF is required for the development of obesity, IR, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis in the LDL-receptor-deficient (Ldlr?/?) mouse model of disease. Ldlr?/?-mice develop IR and glucose intolerance within 15-w while Mif?/?Ldlr?/? littermates are protected. MIF-deficiency does not affect obesity and lipid risk factors but specifically reduces inflammation in WAT and liver, as reflected by lower plasma SAA and fibrinogen levels at baseline and under inflammatory conditions. Conversely, MIF stimulates the in vivo expression of human-CRP, an inflammation marker and risk factor of IR and cardiovascular-disease. In WAT, MIF-deficiency reduces nuclear c-Jun levels and improves insulin sensitivity; MIF-deficiency also reduces macrophage accumulation in WAT and blunts the expression of two proteins that regulate macrophage infiltration (ICAM-1, CD44). Mechanistic parallels to WAT were observed in aorta, where the absence of MIF reduces monocyte adhesion, macrophage lesion content and atherosclerotic lesion size. These data highlight the physiological importance of chronic inflammation in development of IR and atherosclerosis, and suggest that MIF is a potential therapeutic target for reducing the inflammatory component of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:19478200

Verschuren, Lars; Kooistra, Teake; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Voshol, Peter J.; Ouwens, D. Margriet; van Erk, Marjan; de Vries-van der Weij, Jitske; Leng, Lin; van Bockel, J. Hajo; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Bucala, Rick; Kleemann, Robert

2009-01-01

407

Maternal high folic acid supplement promotes glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control), 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS) or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS) mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS) were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p=0.009), glucose intolerance (p<0.001) and insulin resistance (p<0.001), compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring. PMID:24736781

Huang, Yifan; He, Yonghan; Sun, Xiaowei; He, Yujie; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

2014-01-01

408

A mitochondrial tRNA(Met) mutation causing developmental delay, exercise intolerance and limb girdle phenotype with onset in early childhood.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old girl presented with exercise intolerance, learning difficulty, and muscle weakness in a limb girdle distribution. She had delayed achievement of motor milestones and difficulties with social interaction at pre-school age. Muscle biopsy showed no myopathic or dystrophic features, but 90% COX negative fibres and ragged blue fibres. Respiratory chain enzyme analysis in muscle showed a combined deficiency and mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed the presence of an m.4450G>A mutation in the MT-TM gene encoding the tRNA for methionine. The mutation was only detected in mtDNA extracted from muscle and skin fibroblast, and could not be found in other tissues or in the mother. This is the second patient reported in the literature with a mitochondrial myopathy due to a mt-tRNA(Met) mutation. The first patient, a 30-year-old woman, presented with exercise intolerance, limb girdle muscle weakness, lactic acidosis, learning difficulty, and growth retardation in early childhood. Thus, the two patients exhibit strikingly overlapping phenotypes. PMID:25468263

Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten; Rafiq, Jabin; Risom, Lotte; Wibrand, Flemming; Østergaard, Elsebet; Vissing, John

2015-01-01

409

Just to be certain: Confirming the factor structure of the intolerance of uncertainty scale in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a cognitive construct in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); yet no studies exist confirming the factor structure of the most widely used measure of IU, the intolerance of uncertainty scale (IUS), in OCD patients. Moreover, no studies have examined how scores on this measure relate to OCD symptom dimensions. Accordingly, the present study examined a 12-item two-factor revised version of the IUS (IUS-12) in 205 OCD patients. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the scale's two-factor structure. The measure also demonstrated high internal consistency and the IUS-12 was correlated moderately with another self-report measure of IU. Finally, theoretically consistent and specific relationships emerged between the IUS-12 and OCD symptom dimensions. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for the assessment and treatment of OCD, and specifically how elevated scores on the IUS-12 subscales may be utilized to identify subtleties in the presentation of OCD-related problems with IU. PMID:23973743

Jacoby, Ryan J; Fabricant, Laura E; Leonard, Rachel C; Riemann, Bradley C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

2013-06-01

410

The effect of high lactose-isomaltulose on cognitive performance of young children. A double blind cross-over design study.  

PubMed

Changes in blood glucose are hypothesized to influence cognitive performance and these changes can be affected by certain nutrients. This double-blind 4-period cross-over study evaluated the effects of a slow-release modified sucrose (isomaltulose) in combination with a high concentration of lactose on cognitive performance of 5-6 year old children. Thirty children received a standard growing upmilk (Std GUM), reformulated growing up milk (Reform GUM), standard growing up milk with lactose-isomaltulose (Iso GUM), and a standard glucose drink (Glucose). The CDR System, a computerised cognitive assessment system, was used to assess various measures of attention and memory of the children at baseline (T=0), 60 (T=1), 120 (T=2), and 180 (T=3) minutes following the intake of test products. Overall, there was a decline in performance over the morning on almost every cognitive task. Children showed better attention following consumption of Iso GUM compared to Std GUM but attention was not significantly different than Reform GUM and glucose. Also, Iso GUM conferred a beneficial effect over both Reform GUM and glucose on sensitivity index of numeric working memory with no difference observed between Iso GUM and Std GUM. Surprisingly, glucose group showed lowest decline in the sensitivity index of spatial working memory and highest speed in picture recognition, although the latter was significantly better than Reform GUM only. For speed of spatial working memory, Reform GUM had the lowest decline but was significantly different only with Std GUM. There was, however, no significant difference among conditions for continuity of attention, speed of numeric working memory and picture recognition sensitivity. Despite the small sample size, the findings are intriguing as carbohydrate composition seems to influence some aspects of cognitive performance such as attention and memory. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21986189

Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Wesnes, Keith A; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Sariman, Sarina

2012-02-01

411

Lactose binding to human galectin-7 (p53-induced gene 1) induces long-range effects through the protein resulting in increased dimer stability and evidence for positive cooperativity  

PubMed Central

The product of p53-induced gene 1 is a member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-7 (Gal-7). To move beyond structural data by X-ray diffraction, we initiated the study of the lectin by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In concert, our results indicate that lactose binding to human Gal-7 induces long-range effects (minor conformational shifts and changes in structural dynamics) throughout the protein that result in stabilization of the dimer state, with evidence for positive cooperativity. Monte Carlo fits of 15N-Gal-7 HSQC titrations with lactose using a two-site model yield K1 = 0.9 ± 0.6 × 103 M?1 and K2 = 3.4 ± 0.8 × 103 M?1. Ligand binding-induced stabilization of the Gal-7 dimer was supported by several lines of evidence: MD-based calculations of interaction energies between ligand-loaded and ligand-free states, gel filtration data and hetero-FRET spectroscopy that indicate a highly reduced tendency for dimer dissociation in the presence of lactose, CD-based thermal denaturation showing that the transition temperature of the lectin is significantly increased in the presence of lactose, and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR using a molecular probe of the monomer state whose presence is diminished in the presence of lactose. MD simulations with the half-loaded ligand-bound state also provided insight into how allosteric signaling may occur. Overall, our results reveal long-range effects on Gal-7 structure and dynamics, which factor into entropic contributions to ligand binding and allow further comparisons with other members of the galectin family. PMID:23376190

Ermakova, Elena; Miller, Michelle C; Nesmelova, Irina V; López-Merino, Lara; Berbís, Manuel Alvaro; Nesmelov, Yuri; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Lagartera, Laura; Daragan, Vladimir A; André, Sabine; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Mayo, Kevin H

2013-01-01

412

Lactose binding to human galectin-7 (p53-induced gene 1) induces long-range effects through the protein resulting in increased dimer stability and evidence for positive cooperativity.  

PubMed

The product of p53-induced gene 1 is a member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-7 (Gal-7). To move beyond structural data by X-ray diffraction, we initiated the study of the lectin by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In concert, our results indicate that lactose binding to human Gal-7 induces long-range effects (minor conformational shifts and changes in structural dynamics) throughout the protein that result in stabilization of the dimer state, with evidence for positive cooperativity. Monte Carlo fits of (15)N-Gal-7 HSQC titrations with lactose using a two-site model yield K1 = 0.9 ± 0.6 × 10(3) M(-1) and K2 = 3.4 ± 0.8 × 10(3) M(-1). Ligand binding-induced stabilization of the Gal-7 dimer was supported by several lines of evidence: MD-based calculations of interaction energies between ligand-loaded and ligand-free states, gel filtration data and hetero-FRET spectroscopy that indicate a highly reduced tendency for dimer dissociation in the presence of lactose, CD-based thermal denaturation showing that the transition temperature of the lectin is significantly increased in the presence of lactose, and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR using a molecular probe of the monomer state whose presence is diminished in the presence of lactose. MD simulations with the half-loaded ligand-bound state also provided insight into how allosteric signaling may occur. Overall, our results reveal long-range effects on Gal-7 structure and dynamics, which factor into entropic contributions to ligand binding and allow further comparisons with other members of the galectin family. PMID:23376190

Ermakova, Elena; Miller, Michelle C; Nesmelova, Irina V; López-Merino, Lara; Berbís, Manuel Alvaro; Nesmelov, Yuri; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Lagartera, Laura; Daragan, Vladimir A; André, Sabine; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Mayo, Kevin H

2013-05-01

413

What People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Disease Diabetes Lactose Intolerance L