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Sample records for lactuca sativa var

  1. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made. PMID:12885858

  2. The effects of cover crop on weed control in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mennan, H; Ngouajio, M; Isik, D; Kose, B; Kaya, E

    2006-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are not very competitive and weed interference can cause considerable yield losses in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Currently there are no pre or post emergence herbicides registered for weed control in these vegetables in Turkey. For this reason, alternative weed control strategies need to be developed. Cover crop residue could represent an alternative method of weed management in these crops. Field studies were conducted in 2004 at the Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute experimental field in Samsun, Turkey. The cover crop treatments consisted of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Sorghum vulgare Pers., Vicia villosa L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Pisum sativum L. and the bare ground with no cover crop. All cover crops were seeded by hand and incorporated into the soil on 11 May, 2004. Each plot was 10 m2 (2 x 5 m) and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. All cover crops were incorporated into the soil by discing on 1 September 2004 at flowering stage of the cover crops. Broadleaved weed species were dominant in the experimental area. Most cover crops established well and S. bicolor biomass was the highest. The number of weed species emerging in all treatments was different at 14 DAD (days after desiccation). Similar results were observed at 28 and 56 DAD. Treatments with Vicia villosa residues had fewer weed species and lower total weed densities than other treatments. PMID:17390812

  3. Antioxidant potential of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Garg, Munish; Garg, Chanchal; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Suresh, B

    2004-07-01

    The present study is based on the evaluation of antioxidant potential of a well known plant Lactuca sativa. Methanolic leaf extract was investigated for in vitro inhibition of oxidative damage induced by UV-radiations to the salmonella typhi bacteria and in vivo effect on the production of body enzymes i.e. catalase and superoxide dismutase. The lipid peroxidation masurement was also done in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and brain of male albino wistar rats. The plant extract has shown significant antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22557144

  4. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed. PMID:21370638

  5. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and fast UHPLC-DAD-IT-TOF profiling of polyphenolic compounds extracted from green lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; var. Maravilla de Verano).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Novellino, Tiziana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-01-15

    Fresh cut vegetables represent a widely consumed food worldwide. Among these, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular on the market. The growing interest for this "healthy" food is related to the content of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, that show many beneficial effects. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of polyphenols extracted from lettuce (var. Maravilla de Verano), in J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lettuce extract significantly decreased reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide release, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 expression. A detailed quali/quantitative profiling of the polyphenolic content was carried out, obtaining fast separation (10 min), good retention time and peak area repeatability, (RSD% 0.80 and 8.68, respectively) as well as linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.999) and mass accuracy (⩽ 5 ppm). Our results show the importance in the diet of this cheap and popular food for his healthy properties. PMID:25148972

  6. The use of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2016-05-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  7. YIELD RESPONSE OF HEAD LETTUCE ('LACTUCA SATIVA' L.) TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv 'Empire') was grown in the field and exposed in open-top chambers to proportional increments of ozone (O3) from full charcoal filtration (CF) to twice ambient O3 concentrations(NF x 2.0). Severe foliar injury developed on young plants exposed to...

  8. Transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Michelmore, R; Marsh, E; Seely, S; Landry, B

    1987-12-01

    Lactuca sativa can be routinely transformed using Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric kanamycin resistance gene (NOS.NPTII.NOS). Critical experimental variables were plant genotype, bacterial concentration, presence of a nurse culture and timing of transfers between tissue culture media. Transformation was confirmed by the ability to callus and root in the presence of kanamycin, nopaline production, and by hybridization in Southern blots. Transformation has been achieved with several Ti vectors. Several hundred transformed plants have been regenerated. Kanamycin resistance was inherited monogenically. Homozygotes can be selected by growing R2 seedlings on media containing G418. PMID:24248927

  9. Yield response of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa l. ) to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.; Taylor, O.C.; Benoit, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Empire) was grown in the field and exposed in open-top chambers to proportional increments of ozone (O/sub 3/) from full charcoal filtration (CF) to twice ambient O/sub 3/ concentrations(NF x 2.0). Severe foliar injury developed on young plants exposed to O/sub 3/ concentrations 1.7 and 2.0 times greater than ambient (seasonal 7 hr means of 0.104 and 0.128 ppm, respectively). These exposure levels also reduced total head weight 13 and 35%, respectively, compared with CF plants. Marketable-sized head weight was reduced 21 and 80%, respectively.

  10. Variation for Big Vein Resistance in Lactuca virosa L. and Introgression of Resistance into Cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big vein is a damaging disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) caused by the Olpidium brassicae vectored Mirafiori Lettuce Big Vein Virus (MLBVV). Resistance to this disease is needed since no feasible cultural control methods have been identified. Partial resistance is available in cultivars such a...

  11. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  12. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  13. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene. PMID:11542270

  14. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    2000-12-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation. PMID:11762379

  15. Mutants of Downy Mildew Resistance in Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce)

    PubMed Central

    Okubara, P. A.; Anderson, P. A.; Ochoa, O. E.; Michelmore, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from γ- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci. PMID:8088530

  16. Phytotoxicity studies with Lactuca sativa in soil and nutrient solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hulzebos, E.M.; Dirven-van Breemen, E.M.; Dis, W.A. van; Herbold, H.A.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Baerselman, R.; Gestel, C.A.M van ); Adema, D.M.M.; Henzen, L. )

    1993-06-01

    The toxicity of 76 priority pollutants to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was determined in soil and in nutrient solution. In the first case a static and in the latter a semistatic exposure was established. Volatile and easily degradable compounds had high EC50 values in soil. In nutrient solution, however, several of these compounds were rather toxic. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) relating EC50 values to log K[sub ow] could be described for the toxicity in nutrient solution. Generally, the toxicity of the compounds increased with increasing lipophilicity. Deviations were caused by reactivity (N-containing compounds, double bonds in compounds), low lipophilicity, and EC50 values close to solubility. To relate toxicity in soil and nutrient solution, soil EC50 values were recalculated to values in the soil pore water using calculated adsorption coefficients. Estimated pore-water EC50 values showed a good correlation with values determined in nutrient solution but were not equal to these values. The differences can be attributed to differences in exposure.

  17. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  18. Phosphomannose isomerase gene for selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) transformation.

    PubMed

    Bríza, Jindrich; Růzicková, Nina; Niedermeierová, Hana; Dusbábková, Jana; Vlasák, Josef

    2010-01-01

    A positive selection system using phosphomannose isomerase was employed for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. 'Achát'). It was shown that the mannose-based selection system works very well with the lettuce genotype used, reaching up to 25% transformation efficiency on the medium with 20 g/L mannose and 20 g/L sucrose. The best transformation efficacy with the commonly-used kanamycin at 100 mg/L as a selection agent was 21%. Southern blot analyses of thirteen chosen mannose-resistant regenerants revealed that some of them have clonal origin, about one-half harbour a single T-DNA copy and one plant contains an incomplete T-DNA segment with only the left part of T-DNA with the pmi gene present in the genomic DNA. The following Northern analysis showed transcriptional activity of the introduced pmi gene in all plants analysed with very high differences in the level of pmi specific mRNA. The results demonstrate that both mannose and kanamycin provide comparable transformation efficiencies in our lettuce genotype. An alternative selection method with mannose as a selection agent is now available for lettuce transgenosis. PMID:20234883

  19. Carotenoids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown on soil enriched with spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, José Alberto; Casal, Susana

    2012-01-01

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%). This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine. PMID:22314378

  20. Semi-high throughput screening for potential drought-tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of th...

  1. Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major vegetable from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effictively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly avai...

  2. SSH reveals a linkage between a senescence-associated protease and Verticillium wilt symptom development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify lettuce (Lactuca sativa) genes that are differentially expressed in symptomatic leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. Genes expressed only in symptomatic leaves included those with homology to pathogenesis-related (PR) protei...

  3. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds. PMID:27097439

  4. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    PubMed

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity. PMID:2329764

  5. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa. PMID:26688970

  6. Antifungal action of latex saps from Lactuca sativa L. and Asclepias curassavica L.

    PubMed

    Moulin-Traffort, J; Giordani, R; Régli, P

    1990-01-01

    Asclepias curassavica and Lactuca sativa latex saps inhibit the growth of Candida albicans because they degrade a great number of yeasts. This was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations. After a contact of 4 h and 6 h yeasts are deformed and emptied of their cytoplasmic content. Moreover, it appears that these saps, particularly Asclepias, also act on the cell wall: the substances presumed to be responsible for these effects were probably terpens and cardenolids but also enzymes, in particular glucanases. PMID:2090937

  7. Blue and green light-induced phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa L. seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinitz, B.; Ren, Z.; Poff, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure time-response curves for blue and green light-induced phototropic bending in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Lactuca sativa L. seedlings are presented. These seedlings show significant phototropic sensitivity up to 540 to 550 nanometers. Since wavelengths longer than 560 nanometers do not induce phototropic bending, it is suggested that the response to 510 to 550 nanometers light is mediated by the specific blue light photoreceptor of phototropism. The authors advise care in the use of green safelights for studies of phototropism.

  8. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    PubMed

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. PMID:27543253

  9. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcão, E P S; Pereira, E C

    2012-10-01

    Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids. PMID:22835725

  10. Toxic Effects of Copper-based Nanoparticles or Compounds to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Keller, Arturo A.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2014-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 day-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L. At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species. PMID:25474419

  11. Toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether to plants (Avena sativa, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, and Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kampbell, Donald H; McGill, Mary E

    2002-08-01

    Influence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of seedling plants were studied in laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oats (Avena sativa), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination, shoot growth, and root growth of plants exposed to different concentrations of MTBE in a moist soil were examined. Seed germination and seedling growth in MTBE-contaminated soil were markedly reduced in all test plants. The median lethal concentration values for seed germination tests and the median effective concentration values for shoot or root growth were calculated. The values for lettuce, wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn were in the range of 18 to 91, 362 to 459, 432 to 751, and 672 to 964 mg MTBE/kg soil as dry weight, respectively. Lettuce was most sensitive to MTBE, followed (in order of decreasing sensitivity) by wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn. Because MTBE can be readily absorbed by plants due to its high solubility in water, plant growth was a more sensitive endpoint than seed germination. Shoot length was more reduced in MTBE-contaminated soil than was the root length, which indicated that MTBE might be transported within the plant from the roots to the shoots. PMID:12152769

  12. Toxicity of the effluent from an anaerobic bioreactor treating cereal residues on Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian Jonathan; Riera, Nicolás Iván; Beily, María Eugenia; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2012-02-01

    Effluents generated during the process of anaerobic digestion should be treated before their disposal into the environment. The aim of this study was evaluating the effectiveness of the effluent treatment system from an anaerobic bioreactor, assessing the toxicity reduction with the Lactuca sativa seed germination and root elongation inhibition test. Three sampling points were selected along the effluent treatment system: inflow into the first treatment pond, outflow from the third pond and recirculated flow to the bioreactor. Effluent dilutions tested for each sampling point were 25% and 50% (v/v), undiluted sample and controls. The pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD₅ and COD were measured. The decrease in the organic and inorganic loads was correlated with a reduction in the phytotoxicity. The use of the seed toxicity test allows evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the studied effluent treatment system. PMID:21993347

  13. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Lactuca sativa seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Sayyah, Mohammad; Hadidi, Naghmeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2004-06-01

    Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) is a member of Compositae family. In folk medicine of Iran, the seeds of this plant were used for relieving of inflammation and osteodynia. In this study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanol/petroleum ether (70/30, v/v) extract of the seeds have been evaluated. The extract exhibited a time- and dose-dependent analgesic effect in formalin test and also a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan model of inflammation. The extract had no analgesic effect in tail-flick test up to the highest dose used (6 g/kg). No abnormal behavior and lethality was observed by the extract up to 6 g/kg. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins and simple phenols in the extract. PMID:15138019

  14. Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Damerum, Annabelle; Selmes, Stacey L; Biggi, Gaia F; Clarkson, Graham JJ; Rothwell, Steve D; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W; Hancock, Robert D; Shellcock, Connie; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables has been acknowledged to afford protection against a range of human diseases, but many of the most popular vegetables are low in phytonutrients. Wild relatives of crops may contain allelic variation for genes determining the concentrations of these beneficial phytonutrients, and therefore understanding the genetic basis of this variation is important for breeding efforts to enhance nutritional quality. In this study, lettuce recombinant inbred lines, generated from a cross between wild and cultivated lettuce (Lactuca serriola and Lactuca sativa, respectively), were analysed for antioxidant (AO) potential and important phytonutrients including carotenoids, chlorophyll and phenolic compounds. When grown in two environments, 96 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for these nutritional traits: 4 for AO potential, 2 for carotenoid content, 3 for total chlorophyll content and 87 for individual phenolic compounds (two per compound on average). Most often, the L. serriola alleles conferred an increase in total AOs and metabolites. Candidate genes underlying these QTL were identified by BLASTn searches; in several cases, these had functions suggesting involvement in phytonutrient biosynthetic pathways. Analysis of a QTL on linkage group 3, which accounted for >30% of the variation in AO potential, revealed several candidate genes encoding multiple MYB transcription factors which regulate flavonoid biosynthesis and flavanone 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, which are known to have powerful AO activity. Follow-up quantitative RT-PCR of these candidates revealed that 5 out of 10 genes investigated were significantly differentially expressed between the wild and cultivated parents, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in determining the contrasting phenotypes. These results offer exciting opportunities to improve the nutritional

  15. Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Damerum, Annabelle; Selmes, Stacey L; Biggi, Gaia F; Clarkson, Graham Jj; Rothwell, Steve D; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W; Hancock, Robert D; Shellcock, Connie; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables has been acknowledged to afford protection against a range of human diseases, but many of the most popular vegetables are low in phytonutrients. Wild relatives of crops may contain allelic variation for genes determining the concentrations of these beneficial phytonutrients, and therefore understanding the genetic basis of this variation is important for breeding efforts to enhance nutritional quality. In this study, lettuce recombinant inbred lines, generated from a cross between wild and cultivated lettuce (Lactuca serriola and Lactuca sativa, respectively), were analysed for antioxidant (AO) potential and important phytonutrients including carotenoids, chlorophyll and phenolic compounds. When grown in two environments, 96 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for these nutritional traits: 4 for AO potential, 2 for carotenoid content, 3 for total chlorophyll content and 87 for individual phenolic compounds (two per compound on average). Most often, the L. serriola alleles conferred an increase in total AOs and metabolites. Candidate genes underlying these QTL were identified by BLASTn searches; in several cases, these had functions suggesting involvement in phytonutrient biosynthetic pathways. Analysis of a QTL on linkage group 3, which accounted for >30% of the variation in AO potential, revealed several candidate genes encoding multiple MYB transcription factors which regulate flavonoid biosynthesis and flavanone 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, which are known to have powerful AO activity. Follow-up quantitative RT-PCR of these candidates revealed that 5 out of 10 genes investigated were significantly differentially expressed between the wild and cultivated parents, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in determining the contrasting phenotypes. These results offer exciting opportunities to improve the nutritional

  16. An Analysis of Electrical Impedance Measurements Applied for Plant N Status Estimation in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F.; de J. Ortiz-Melendez, Antonio; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Contreras-Medina, Luis M.; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range) were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status. PMID:25057134

  17. Chryseobacterium formosense sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Lactuca sativa L. (garden lettuce).

    PubMed

    Young, Chiu-Chung; Kämpfer, Peter; Shen, Fo-Ting; Lai, Wei-An; Arun, A B

    2005-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain (CC-H3-2T), isolated from the rhizosphere of Lactuca sativa L. (garden lettuce) in Taiwan, was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium, with the highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Chryseobacterium indoltheticum (97.7 %), Chryseobacterium scophthalmum (97.5 %), Chryseobacterium joostei (97.2 %) and Chryseobacterium defluvii (97.2 %). The major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (52.2 %) and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed levels of only 27.4 % to C. scophthalmum, 27.1 % to C. indoltheticum, 14.1 % to C. joostei and 7.8 % to C. defluvii. DNA-DNA relatedness and biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties demonstrate that strain CC-H3-2T represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium formosense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-H3-2T (=CCUG 49271T=CIP 108367T). PMID:15653912

  18. Toxicity of polyfluorinated and perfluorinated compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

    PubMed

    Ding, Guanghui; Wouterse, Marja; Baerselman, Rob; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2012-01-01

    Recently, polyfluorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been detected in most surface waters around the world. Because some PFCs are persistent and tend to accumulate in surface waters, their potential adverse effects to aquatic organisms have received increasing attention. Nevertheless, currently available toxicity information is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of seven PFCs on root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and photosynthesis of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). It was found that the toxicity profiles of both species tested were similar and had good relations with the fluorinated carbon-chain length of the PFCs investigated. One of the compounds tested, perfluorobutanoic acid, was found to be more toxic than expected in the algae test, which may be related with acidification of the test solution. It was concluded that because short-chained PFCs are becoming the predominant PFC pollutants in surface waters, their long-term toxicity and mixture toxicity with other PFCs should be studied in greater detail. PMID:21626016

  19. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F; Botelho, Carolina M; Laviola, Bruno G; Palmieri, Marcel J; Praça-Fontes, Milene M

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests. PMID:24676174

  20. Trichoderma spp. alleviate phytotoxicity in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Caporale, Antonio G; Sommella, Alessia; Lorito, Matteo; Lombardi, Nadia; Azam, Shah M G G; Pigna, Massimo; Ruocco, Michelina

    2014-09-15

    The influence of two strains of Trichoderma (T. harzianum strain T22 and T. atroviride strain P1) on the growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with As-contaminated water, and their effect on the uptake and accumulation of the contaminant in the plant roots and leaves, were studied. Accumulation of this non-essential element occurred mainly into the root system and reduced both biomass development and net photosynthesis rate (while altering the plant P status). Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) of both Trichoderma species alleviated, at least in part, the phytotoxicity of As, essentially by decreasing its accumulation in the tissues and enhancing plant growth, P status and net photosynthesis rate. Our results indicate that inoculation of lettuce with selected Trichoderma strains may be helpful, beside the classical biocontrol application, in alleviating abiotic stresses such as that caused by irrigation with As-contaminated water, and in reducing the concentration of this metalloid in the edible part of the plant. PMID:25046759

  1. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  2. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. PMID:27289206

  3. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  4. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Felizeter, Sebastian; McLachlan, Michael S; de Voogt, Pim

    2012-11-01

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the total mass of each of the PFAAs (except the short-chain, C4-C7, PFCAs) taken up by plants appeared to be retained in the nonedible part, viz. the roots. Root concentration factors (RCF), foliage/root concentration factors (FRCF), and transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) were calculated. For the long chained PFAAs, RCF values were highest, whereas FRCF were lowest. This indicates that uptake by roots is likely governed by sorption of PFAAs to lipid-rich root solids. Translocation from roots to shoots is restricted and highly depending on the hydrophobicity of the compounds. Although the TSCF show that longer-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluorododecanoic acid) get better transferred from the nutrient solution to the foliage than shorter-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluoroheptanoic acid), the major fraction of longer-chain PFCAs is found in roots due to additional adsorption from the spiked solution. Due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the fluorine atoms the role of the negative charge of the dissociated PFAAs is likely insignificant. PMID:23043263

  5. 7a-hydroxfriedelan-3one-26-OL-29-OIC acid and other constituents from Pileostegia Viburnoids VAR. Glabrescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preliminary phytotoxic evaluations of a n-BuOH extract from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescens showed herbicidal activity against dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass). In order to identify the phytotoxic constituent...

  6. Differential Scanning Calorimetry as a Tool for Nondestructive Measurements of Seed Deterioration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, CV “Black Seeded Simpson”)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine if changes in lipid phase behavior could be used to detect lost viability in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. We used seeds from the cultivar ‘Black Seeded Simpson’ that were purchased every 2-3 years since 1989 and stored in resealable plastic bags at constan...

  7. LSGermOPA, a custom OPA of 384 EST-derived SNPs for high-throughput lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm fingerprinting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the genetic diversity and population structure among 148 cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) accessions using the high-throughput GoldenGate assay and 384 EST (Expressed Sequence Tag)-derived SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers. A custom OPA (Oligo Pool All), LSGermOPA was fo...

  8. Analysis of a Detailed Genetic Linkage Map of Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce) Constructed from RFLP and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kesseli, R. V.; Paran, I.; Michelmore, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed genetic map has been constructed from the F(2) population of a single intraspecific cross of Lactuca sativa (n = 9). It comprises 319 loci, including 152 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 130 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 7 isozyme, 19 disease resistance, and 11 morphological markers. Thirteen major, four minor linkage groups and several unlinked markers are identified for this genome which is estimated to be approximately 1950 cM. RFLP and RAPD markers show similar distributions throughout the genome and identified similar levels of polymorphism. RAPD loci were much quicker to identify but more difficult to order. Procedures for generating accurate genetic maps and their limitations are described. PMID:7912217

  9. Heavy metals deposited in the culture of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by the influence of vehicular traffic in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, Fernanda C S S; Albuuerque, Adriana M A; Almeida, Amanda C; Silveira, Patrícia B; Filho, Crescêncio A; Hazin, Clovis A; Honorato, Eliane V

    2017-01-15

    Currently one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution identified in urban centers is derived from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. These pollutants can be adsorbed to particulate matter which is present in the air or deposited in the soil and plants, eventually reaching the human food chain. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn in two subspecies of Lactuca sativa L. and in the soil from were lettuce samples were collected. The results for the soil samples analyzed show a possible contamination by Pb with concentration values as high as 140mg.kg(-1), which are above the Brazilian standards defined by Resolution CONAMA 420/2009 (Brazilian Environmental Council). However, the values found in the lettuce itself reveal that it is still suitable for consumption. PMID:27542464

  10. A bacterial-fungal metaproteomic analysis enlightens an intriguing multicomponent interaction in the rhizosphere of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marino; Minerdi, Daniela; Gehrig, Peter; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Riedel, Katharina

    2012-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum MSA 35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic isolate that protects plants against pathogenic Fusaria. This strain lives in association with ectosymbiotic bacteria. When cured of the prokaryotic symbionts [cured (CU) form], the fungus is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms similar to those of F. oxysporum f.sp. lactucae. The aim of this study was to understand if and how the host plant Lactuca sativa contributes to the expression of the antagonistic/pathogenic behaviors of MSA 35 strains. A time-course comparative analysis of the proteomic profiles of WT and CU strains was performed. Fungal proteins expressed during the early stages of plant-fungus interaction were involved in stress defense, energy metabolism, and virulence and were equally induced in both strains. In the late phase of the interkingdom interaction, only CU strain continued the production of virulence- and energy-related proteins. The expression analysis of lettuce genes coding for proteins involved in resistance-related processes corroborated proteomic data by showing that, at the beginning of the interaction, both fungi are perceived by the plant as pathogen. On the contrary, after 8 days, only the CU strain is able to induce plant gene expression. For the first time, it was demonstrated that an antagonistic F. oxysporum behaves initially as pathogen, showing an interesting similarity with other beneficial organisms such as mychorrizae. PMID:22360353

  11. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  12. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:19639268

  13. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies. PMID:24468072

  14. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  15. Dissection of Two Complex Clusters of Resistance Genes in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Christopoulou, Marilena; McHale, Leah K; Kozik, Alex; Reyes-Chin Wo, Sebastian; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    Of the over 50 phenotypic resistance genes mapped in lettuce, 25 colocalize to three major resistance clusters (MRC) on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. Similarly, the majority of candidate resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) proteins genetically colocalize with phenotypic resistance loci. MRC1 and MRC4 span over 66 and 63 Mb containing 84 and 21 NLR-encoding genes, respectively, as well as 765 and 627 genes that are not related to NLR genes. Forward and reverse genetic approaches were applied to dissect MRC1 and MRC4. Transgenic lines exhibiting silencing were selected using silencing of β-glucuronidase as a reporter. Silencing of two of five NLR-encoding gene families resulted in abrogation of nine of 14 tested resistance phenotypes mapping to these two regions. At MRC1, members of the coiled coil-NLR-encoding RGC1 gene family were implicated in host and nonhost resistance through requirement for Dm5/8- and Dm45-mediated resistance to downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae as well as the hypersensitive response to effectors AvrB, AvrRpm1, and AvrRpt2 of the nonpathogen Pseudomonas syringae. At MRC4, RGC12 family members, which encode toll interleukin receptor-NLR proteins, were implicated in Dm4-, Dm7-, Dm11-, and Dm44-mediated resistance to B. lactucae. Lesions were identified in the sequence of a candidate gene within dm7 loss-of-resistance mutant lines, confirming that RGC12G confers Dm7. PMID:25650829

  16. Nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after fertilization with sewage sludge and irrigation with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Castro, E; Mañas, M P; De Las Heras, J

    2009-02-01

    A romaine-type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was cultivated over three crop seasons (spring 2005, spring 2006 and autumn-winter 2006) in six 36 m(2) plots in Alcázar de San Juan, Spain. A drip irrigation system was used to water all plots: five plots with drinking water and one plot with wastewater from the activated sludge system of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). One drinking water-irrigated plot was not fertilized (control). Five different treatments were applied to the soil: three organic mixtures (sewage sludge, sewage sludge mixed with pine bark and municipal solid waste with composted sludge) and a conventional fertilizer were applied to the four plots irrigated with drinking water. The last plot was irrigated with treated wastewater. The treatments were tested for their effect on plant growth and nitrate concentration in vegetable tissue. An increase in fresh weight in the lettuce was linked to the dosage of sewage sludge. The highest nitrate level was observed in the sewage sludge treatment in all crops and seasons, although, in general, all values were below the maximum limits established by the European Commission for nitrate content in fresh romaine lettuce. In the third crop season, a significant increase in nitrate content was observed in lettuce from organic treatments. Nitrate concentration in lettuce from irrigated treated wastewater was higher than control, although significant differences were not found. PMID:19680887

  17. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A

    2015-12-30

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability. PMID:26322966

  18. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation.

    PubMed

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-01-15

    The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag(+) by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products. PMID:24275476

  19. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action. PMID:27497783

  20. Preliminary studies on growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as affected by clay pot irrigation and spacing.

    PubMed

    Abubakari, Abdul-Halim; Nyarko, George; Maalinyuur, Sheila

    2011-07-15

    An experiment (Completely Randomized Design) was set up to determine the effects of Clay Pot Sub-surface Irrigation (CPSI) and spacing on the growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The treatments were: CPSI with spacing; 15 x 15 cm, 20 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm. Control treatments were Watering Can Irrigation (WCI) with the same spacing as above. Treatments were replicated three times given a total of 18 experimental units. Eighteen large enamel basins of 50/20 cm (diameter/height) were filled with good topsoil and a clay pot buried neck deep in each of the basins. Seedlings were planted in all the eighteen basins. Five Hundred mL of wastewater was applied daily to plants in each container having either clay pot or watering can treatment. Plant height increased from 2.50 to 4.25 cm within 6 Weeks after Transplanting (WAT) under CPSI and only increased from 2.14 to 2.99 cm under WCI. The CPSI also supported better leave growth and fresh weight. The fresh weight of lettuce increased almost two fold under 15 x 15 cm spacing compared to 20 x 20 and 30 x 30 cm. PMID:22308659

  1. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

  2. Construction of transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa) dominantly producing astaxanthin fatty acid esters and detailed chemical analysis of generated carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hisashi; Maoka, Takashi; Osawa, Ayako; Hattan, Jun-Ichiro; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Otomatsu, Toshihiko; Misawa, Norihiko

    2014-04-01

    The plastid genome of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Berkeley was site-specifically modified with the addition of three transgenes, which encoded β,β-carotenoid 3,3'-hydroxylase (CrtZ) and β,β-carotenoid 4,4'-ketolase (4,4'-oxygenase; CrtW) from a marine bacterium Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase from a marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain N81106. Constructed transplastomic lettuce plants were able to grow on soil at a growth rate similar to that of non-transformed lettuce cv. Berkeley and generate flowers and seeds. The germination ratio of the lettuce transformants (T0) (98.8%) was higher than that of non-transformed lettuce (93.1 %). The transplastomic lettuce (T1) leaves produced the astaxanthin fatty acid (myristate or palmitate) diester (49.2% of total carotenoids), astaxanthin monoester (18.2%), and the free forms of astaxanthin (10.0%) and the other ketocarotenoids (17.5%), which indicated that artificial ketocarotenoids corresponded to 94.9% of total carotenoids (230 μg/g fresh weight). Native carotenoids were there lactucaxanthin (3.8%) and lutein (1.3 %) only. This is the first report to structurally identify the astaxanthin esters biosynthesized in transgenic or transplastomic plants producing astaxanthin. The singlet oxygen-quenching activity of the total carotenoids extracted from the transplastomic leaves was similar to that of astaxanthin (mostly esterified) from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis. PMID:24287848

  3. Effect of Salicylhydroxamic Acid on Endosperm Strength and Embryo Growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Carolyn Anne; Mitchell, Cary Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm for SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11538237

  4. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  5. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

  6. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. PMID:25553584

  7. Impact of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes on pesticide uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Helmi; De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; White, Jason C

    2015-03-01

    The effect of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) exposure, as well as the impact of CNT presence on coexistent pesticide accumulation, was investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lettuce seeds were sown directly into CNT-amended vermiculite (1000 mg L(-1)) to monitor phytotoxicity during germination and growth. During growth, lettuce seedlings were subsequently exposed to chlordane (cis-chlordane [CS], trans-chlordane [TC] and trans-nonachlor [TN]) and p,p'-DDE (all at 100 ng/L) in the irrigation solution for a 19-d growth period. CNT exposure did not significantly influence seed germination (82-96%) or plant growth. Similarly, pesticide exposure had no impact on plant growth, total pigment production or tissue lipid peroxidation. After 19 d, the root content of total chlordane and p,p'-DDE was 390 and 73.8 µg g(-1), respectively; in plants not exposed to CNTs, the shoot levels were 1.58 and 0.40 µg g(-1), respectively. The presence and type of CNT significantly influenced pesticide availability to lettuce seedlings. Non-functionalized CNT decreased the root and shoot pesticide content by 88% and 78%, respectively, but amino-functionalized CNT effects were significantly more modest, with decreases of 57% in the roots and 23% in the shoots, respectively. The presence of humic acid completely reversed the reduced accumulation of pesticides induced by amino-functionalized CNT, likely due to strong competition over adsorption sites on the nanomaterial (NM). These findings have implications for food safety and for the use of engineered NMs in agriculture, especially with leafy vegetables. PMID:24716640

  8. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes. PMID:24085515

  9. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel. PMID:26521567

  10. Health risks resulting from contaminants transfers in soil-plants systems: case study of Atrazine in Lactuca sativa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Camoin

    2015-04-01

    Food safety is presently at the center of great part of scientific and political debates. This represents a field of study in its own right of health risks, including ingestion by humans of hazardous biological, physical, chemical or radiological substances, from contaminated foods during different stages of production. Plant cultivation step is often one of the main sources of contamination, whether of voluntary (pesticide application) or accidental (nuclear, industrial waste, etc.) origin. As a result, the plants growth in an contaminated environment may increase the risk of transfer within the plant, and finally the exposure of humans. Furthermore, pesticides are among the main contaminants investigated in the frame of human health risks resulting from food intakes. However, most of these scientific works focus mainly on their occurrence and persistence in water bodies, and few of them are interested in soil/plants transfer. In this context, the understanding of the processes governing transfers of pesticides in plants is become a necessity, in particular to prevent human risks linked the ingestion of food produced in contaminated environments. This objective can be reached by studying the pollutants behavior in soils/plants transfers, and using various substances/plants couples. In our study, we selected a salad/pesticide couple as our experimental model. Atrazine was chosen as model contaminant because of its problematic presence in a large amount of environmental compartments, its physico-chemical properties and because of its long-term toxicity. Lactuca sativa has been selected as model plant because of its importance in French agriculture, and specifically in Languedoc-Roussillon. Salad has been cultivated in peats and irrigated with an atrazine spiked water solution (concentrations from 10 to 100 μg/L). Plant growth in such conditions has been compared to a growth in clean condition (irrigation with non spiked water). Measurements of atrazine contents in

  11. Remote sensing of nutrient deficiency in Lactuca sativa using neural networks for terrestrial and advanced life support applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Edie Seldon

    2000-12-01

    A remote sensing study using reflectance and fluorescence spectra of hydroponically grown Lactuca sativa (lettuce) canopies was conducted. An optical receiver was designed and constructed to interface with a commercial fiber optic spectrometer for data acquisition. Optical parameters were varied to determine effects of field of view and distance to target on vegetation stress assessment over the test plant growth cycle. Feedforward backpropagation neural networks (NN) were implemented to predict the presence of canopy stress. Effects of spatial and spectral resolutions on stress predictions of the neural network were also examined. Visual inspection and fresh mass values failed to differentiate among controls, plants cultivated with 25% of the recommended concentration of phosphorous (P), and those cultivated with 25% nitrogen (N) based on fresh mass and visual inspection. The NN's were trained on input vectors created using reflectance and test day, fluorescence and test day, and reflectance, fluorescence, and test day. Four networks were created representing four levels of spectral resolution: 100-nm NN, 10-nm NN, 1-nm NN, and 0.1-nm NN. The 10-nm resolution was found to be sufficient for classifying extreme nitrogen deficiency in freestanding hydroponic lettuce. As a result of leaf angle and canopy structure broadband scattering intensity in the 700-nm to 1000-nm range was found to be the most useful portion of the spectrum in this study. More subtle effects of "greenness" and fluorescence emission were believed to be obscured by canopy structure and leaf orientation. As field of view was not as found to be as significant as originally believed, systems implementing higher repetitions over more uniformly oriented, i.e. smaller, flatter, target areas would provide for more discernible neural network input vectors. It is believed that this technique holds considerable promise for early detection of extreme nitrogen deficiency. Further research is recommended using

  12. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  13. The effect of cyanide compounds, fluorides, aluminum, and inorganic oxides present in spent pot liner on germination and root tip cells of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Andrade, L F; Davide, L C; Gedraite, L S

    2010-05-01

    SPL (spent pot liner) is a solid waste produced by the aluminum industry. This waste has a highly variable composition, consisting of cyanides, fluorides, organics, and metals. The aim of this work was to study the effect of SPL on root tips of Lactuca sativa using current plant bioassays. We observed a decrease in the germination rate with increasing concentrations of SPL. In addition, SPL was found to reduce root growth, which is correlated with a decrease in the mitotic index. Nevertheless, we noticed a significant enhancement in the percentage of stickiness, c-metaphase, anaphase bridges, and laggard chromosomes in dividing cells and also an increase in the number of cells with condensed nuclei. Moreover, SPL was found to alter the root tip surface, resulting in a reduction in the amount of root hair. These results demonstrate that SPL is a toxic agent that leads to cell damage and disturbance. PMID:20092896

  14. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  15. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites. PMID:26615478

  16. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  17. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation. PMID:27047532

  18. Metallic Nanoparticle (TiO2 and Fe3O4) Application Modifies Rhizosphere Phosphorus Availability and Uptake by Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Zahra; Arshad, Muhammad; Rafique, Rafia; Mahmood, Arshad; Habib, Amir; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Khan, Saud A

    2015-08-12

    Application of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with respect to nutrient uptake in plants is not yet well understood. The impacts of TiO2 and Fe3O4 NPs on the availability of naturally soil-bound inorganic phosphorus (Pi) to plants were studied along with relevant parameters. For this purpose, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was cultivated on the soil amended with TiO2 and Fe3O4 (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg(-1)) over a period of 90 days. Different techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor translocation and understand the possible mechanisms for phosphorus (P) uptake. The trends for P accumulation were different for roots (TiO2 > Fe3O4 > control) and shoots (Fe3O4 > TiO2 > control). Cystine and methionine were detected in the rhizosphere in Raman spectra. Affinities of NPs to adsorb phosphate ions, modifications in P speciation, and NP stress in the rhizosphere had possibly contributed to enhanced root exudation and acidification. All of these changes led to improved P availability and uptake by the plants. These promising results can help to develop an innovative strategy for using NPs for improved nutrient management to ensure food security. PMID:26194089

  19. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called “plant factory with artificial lighting” (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight. PMID:26697055

  20. Humic substances can modulate the allelopathic potential of caffeic, ferulic, and salicylic acids for seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda; Senesi, Nicola

    2005-11-30

    The capacity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA), a soil humic acid (SHA), and a soil fulvic acid (SFA) in modulating the allelopathic potential of caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and salicylic acid (SA) on seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated. Lettuce showed a sensitivity greater than that of tomato to CA, FA, and SA phytotoxicity, which was significantly reduced or even suppressed in the presence of SHA or SFA, especially at the highest dose, but not LHA. In general, SFA was slightly more active than SHA, and the efficiency of the action depended on their concentration, the plant species and the organ examined, and the allelochemical. The daily measured residual concentration of CA and FA decreased drastically and that of SA slightly in the presence of germinating seeds of lettuce, which were thus able to absorb and/or enhance the degradation of CA and FA. The adsorption capacity of SHA for the three allelochemicals was small and decreased in the order FA > CA > SA, thus suggesting that adsorption could be a relevant mechanism, but not the only one, involved in the "antiallelopathic" action. PMID:16302757

  1. Are uranium-contaminated soil and irrigation water a risk for human vegetables consumers? A study case with Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Neves, O; Abreu, M M

    2009-11-01

    The knowledge of uranium concentration, in the products entering the human diet is of extreme importance because of their chemical hazard to health. Controlled field experiments with potatoes, beans and lettuce (Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L.) were carried out in a contaminated soil used by local farmers located near a closed Portuguese uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde). The soil with high average uranium levels (64-252 mg/kg) was divided in two plots, and irrigated with non-contaminated and uranium-contaminated water (<20 and >900 microg/L). Uranium maximum average concentration in the edible vegetables parts (mg/kg fresh weight) ranged in the following order: lettuce (234 microg/kg) > green bean (30 microg/kg) > potatoes without peel (4 microg/kg). Although uranium in soil, irrigation water and vegetables was high, the assessment of the health risk based on hazard quotient indicates that consumption of these vegetables does not represent potential adverse (no carcinogenic) effects for a local inhabitant during lifetime. PMID:19590953

  2. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  3. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight. PMID:26697055

  4. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  5. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (G s) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved P N of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of G s to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation. PMID:27047532

  6. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Claire H; Maeda, Hiroshi A; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combined peak for β- and γ- forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Significant variation in amounts of tocochromanol compounds was observed across accessions and over time. Large increases in α-tocopherol were noted during both reproductive growth and the postharvest stages. The variation of tocochromanols in carrot root tissue provides useful information for future research seeking to understand the role of these compounds in carrot root tissue or to breed varieties with increased levels of these compounds. PMID:26504534

  7. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m−2⋅s−1 irradiance for a 16 h⋅d−1 photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. Pn and Amax under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between Pn and shoot dry weight accumulation. PMID:27014285

  8. Effects of microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture on growth, oxidative stress and mineral content in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Neves, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-06-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are documented worldwide as an emerging environmental concern. Recent studies support the hypothesis that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produce toxic effects in crop plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important commercial leafy vegetable that supplies essential elements for human nutrition; thus, the study of its sensitivity to MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture is of major relevance. This study aimed to assess the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture on growth, antioxidant defense system and mineral content in lettuce plants. In almost all treatments, an increase in root fresh weight was obtained; however, the fresh weight of leaves was significantly decreased in plants exposed to 100 µg/L concentrations of each toxin and the toxin mixture. Overall, GST activity was significantly increased in roots, contrary to GPx activity, which decreased in roots and leaves. The mineral content in lettuce leaves changed due to its exposure to cyanotoxins; in general, the mineral content decreased with MC-LR and increased with CYN, and apparently these effects are time and concentration-dependent. The effects of the MC-LR/CYN mixture were almost always similar to the single cyanotoxins, although MC-LR seems to be more toxic than CYN. Our results suggest that lettuce plants in non-early stages of development are able to cope with lower concentrations of MC-LR, CYN and the MC-LR/CYN mixture; however, higher concentrations (100 µg/L) can affect both lettuce yield and nutritional quality. PMID:25768423

  9. A lettuce (Lactuca sativa) homolog of human Nogo-B receptor interacts with cis-prenyltransferase and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T; Kwon, Eun-Joo G; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-23

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3-15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. PMID:25477521

  10. Impacts of major cations (K(+), Na (+), Ca (2+), Mg (2+)) and protons on toxicity predictions of nickel and cadmium to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using exposure models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-04-01

    Biotic ligand models (BLM) explicitly accounting for hypothetical interactions with biotic ligands and bioavailability as dictated by water chemistry have been developed for various metals and different organisms. It is only recently that BLMs for plants have received increasing attention. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. This study investigated the impacts of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+) and pH, on acute toxicity of Ni and Cd to butter-head lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.). 4-day assays with the root elongation inhibition (REI) as the endpoint were performed in hydroponic solutions. Magnesium was found to be the sole cation significantly enhancing the median inhibition concentration (IC50) of Ni(2+) with increasing concentration. By incorporating the competitive effects of Mg(2+), the Ni-toxicity prediction was improved significantly as compared to the total metal model (TMM) and the free ion activity model (FIAM). The conditional stability constants derived from the Ni-BLM were log K MgBL = 2.86, log K NiBL = 5.1, and f NiBL (50%)  = 0.57. A slight downtrend was observed in the 4-d IC50 of Cd(2+) at increasing H(+) concentrations, but this tendency was not consistent and statistically significant (p = 0.07) over the whole range. The overall variations of Cd-toxicity within the tested Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentration ranges were relatively small and not statistically significant. 80 % of lettuce REI by Cd could be explained using both TMM and FIAM instead of BLM in the present study. Thus, the mechanistically underpinned models for soil quality guidelines should be developed on a metal-specific basis across different exposure conditions. PMID:24510448

  11. A Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Homolog of Human Nogo-B Receptor Interacts with cis-Prenyltransferase and Is Necessary for Natural Rubber Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T.; Kwon, Eun-Joo G.; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3–15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. PMID:25477521

  12. Uptake of arsenic species by turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lian Xi; Yao, Li Xian; He, Zhao Huan; Zhou, Chang Min; Li, Guo Liang; Yang, Bao Mei; Li, Ying Fen

    2013-01-01

    Roxarsone is an organoarsenic feed additive that can be metabolised to other higher toxic arsenic (As) species in animal manure such as arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid and other unknown As species. The accumulation, transport and distribution of As species in turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) amended with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure were investigated. Results showed arsenite was the predominant As form, followed by arsenate in turnip and lettuce plants, and a low content of dimethylarsinic acid was detected only in lettuce roots. Compared with the control plants treated with chicken manure without roxarsone and its metabolites, the treatments containing roxarsone and its metabolites increased arsenite content by 2.0-3.2% in turnip shoots, by 6.6-6.7% in lettuce shoots, by 11-44% in turnip tubers and by 18-20% in lettuce roots at two growth stages. The enhanced proportion of arsenate content in turnip shoots, turnip tubers and lettuce roots was 4.3-14%, 20-35% and 70%, respectively, while dimethylarsinic acid content in lettuce roots increased 2.4 times. Results showed that the occurrence of dimethylarsinic acid in lettuce roots might be converted from the inorganic As species and the uptake of both inorganic and organic As compounds in turnip and lettuce plants would be enhanced by roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure. The pathway of roxarsone metabolites introduced into the human body via roxarsone → animal → manure → soil → crop was indicated. PMID:23859781

  13. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation. PMID:27014285

  14. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    PubMed

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  15. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  16. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan) PMID:24799863

  17. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (< 0.02 mg/L). Irrigation with contaminated water together with highest soil uranium available concentration (10 to 13 mg/kg) had negative effects on both studied lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium

  18. Benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) induced changes in leaf water relations, photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; González, L; Chiapusio, G; Reigosa, M J

    2011-08-01

    The effects are reported here of Benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), an allelopathic compound, on plant water relations, growth, components of chlorophyll fluorescence, and carbon isotope discrimination in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lettuce seedlings were grown in 1:1 Hoagland solution in perlite culture medium in environmentally controlled glasshouse. After 30 days, BOA was applied at concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM and distilled water (control). BOA, in the range (0.1-1.5 mM), decreased the shoot length, root length, leaf and root fresh weight. Within this concentration range, BOA significantly reduced relative water content while leaf osmotic potential remained unaltered. Stress response of lettuce was evaluated on the basis of six days of treatment with 1.5 mM BOA by analyzing several chlorophyll fluorescence parameters determined under dark-adapted and steady state conditions. There was no change in initial fluorescence (F₀) in response to BOA treatment while maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F(m)) was significantly reduced. BOA treatment significantly reduced variable fluorescence (F(v)) on first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth day. Quantum efficiency of open PSII reaction centers (F(v)/F(m)) in the dark-adapted state was significantly reduced in response to BOA treatment. Quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) electron transport was significantly reduced because of decrease in the efficiency of excitation energy trapping of PSII reaction centers. Maximum fluorescence in light-adapted leaves (F'(m)) was significantly decreased but there was no change in initial fluorescence in light-adapted state (F'₀) in response to 1.5 mM BOA treatment. BOA application significantly reduced photochemical fluorescence quenching (qP) indicating that the balance between excitation rate and electron transfer rate has changed leading to a more reduced state of PSII reaction centers. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) was also significantly reduced by BOA

  19. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

  20. Photosynthesis enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in high-yield rice varieties (Oryza sativa var. japonica L.) in the field.

    PubMed

    Wei, X D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand varietal differences in photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capability, and yield of japonica rice varieties. Nanjing 44, Oryza sativa var. japonica (average yield of 12.7 t/ha), Nanjing 46, and Nanjing 5055 (average yields of 11.3 and 11.5 t/ha) were included as "super" and high-yield varieties, respectively, whereas Wuyunjing 7 (average yield of 10.2 t/ha) was included as a control variety. These varieties were grown under field conditions in Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010-2012. Different organs (panicle, grain, etc.) were measured, before and after flowering, to identify differences of dry matter accumulation and transformation properties. Photosynthesis, the chlorophyll content, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the flag leaf in the days after flowering (DAF) were also investigated. The results showed that, compared with the other three rice varieties, Nanjing 44 had the highest plant dry weight and number of grains per panicle. It also had a relatively high net flag leaf photosynthetic rate and showed the least inhibition of photosynthesis at noon in DAF, which probably explains the higher yield in this variety. Furthermore, Nanjing 44 also had the highest stem export and conversion rate from stem to grain, exhibiting a strong ability to convert and distribute photosynthetic products. After DAF 42, Nanjing 44 still maintained a high-soluble protein content and a high antioxidant ability in the leaves to clear peroxidation products, which could protect the photosynthetic apparatus of the flag leaves, and maintain the grain-filling activity for longer. The high-yield capability of Nanjing 44 was attributed to its photosynthetic advantages in the leaves during the late developmental stage. PMID:27525885

  1. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, /sup 42/K/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ < 1 min) exchanges with the external medium was implicated in the radial transport of N/sup +/, accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K/sup +/ was at a high external concentration, labeled K/sup +/ exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K/sup +/ transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K/sup +/ the evidence indicated that transport of K/sup +/ across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period.

  2. The effect of light and ancymidol on the metabolism of sup 14 C-ent-Kaurene in photoblastic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Hazebroek, J.P.; Coolbaugh, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The effect of light ancymidol on the metabolism of {sup 14}C-kaurene in light-requiring lettuce seeds was investigated. Seeds were soaked in a solution of {sup 14}C-kaurene in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} with 0.1% Tween-20 for 24 h. The treatment did not reduce viability nor alter the light requirement. The solvent was removed and the seeds were incubated at 25{degree}C in continuous light or dark in 20% (w/v) PEG or 10 mM anycymidol. Labeled metabolites were extracted and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. {sup 14}C-Kaurenol and {sup 14}C-kaurenal were identified in seed incubated in 20% PeG in the light, while no acid EtOAc-soluble metabolites were found in seeds incubated in the dark. In the presence of ancymidol, {sup 14}C-karuenol, {sup 14}C-kaurenal, and a polar metabolite were found in seeds exposed to light, while only a trace of {sup 14}C-kaurenol was detected in seeds incubated in the dark. These results indicate that the oxidation of kaurene is a light sensitive step in the biosynthesis of gibberellins in photoblastic lettuce seeds. Under these conditions ancymidol inhibits germination at a site different than the light sensitive kaurene oxidation step.

  3. Lactuca spp. seeds as a bioindicator for the toxicity of Gezira Tannery Corporation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Ammar M S; Bashir, Nabil H H; Assad, Yousif O H

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to establish the potential of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. buttercrunch) seeds as a bioindicator (BI), or a biological tool for detecting the presence of some toxic materials used in tanning industry and determining their concentrations using the germination percentage as a parameter (indicator). Samples of Gezira Tannery Corporation (GTC) wastewater (WW) were collected from both the mouth and the tail of the drainage stream. Lettuce seeds (10/Petri dish, replicated 3x and each experiment was repeated 3x) were treated by GTC WW and other important tanning agents (chromium oxide, sodium sulfide, Preventol WB) in solution using different concentrations of each and their mixture. The bioassay experiment revealed that the seeds were intoxicated (i.e. reduced the germination percentage), when exposed to the WW. On exposure to several concentrations from each input, the concentrations that can be measured by this BI (i.e. sensitivity and reliability) are: chromium oxide from 0.1 to 3.25%, sodium sulfide from 0.19 to 1.5% and Preventol WB from 18.75 to 150 ppm. Lower concentrations cannot be measured, and higher concentrations resulted in 100% inhibition. The IC50 was determined by probit analysis for the WW, mixture of the three inputs, chromium oxide alone, sodium sulfide alone and Preventol WB alone were: 35.5, 14.5, 0.44, 0.45 and 0.005%, respectively. The slopes of the log-dose probability lines (Ld-P) showed that this BI response to all treatments was homogeneous (> 2) (tabulated X2 (df = n - 2) at 5% = 0.172, 0.11, 0.064, 0.05 and 0.05). It is concluded that lettuce seeds satisfy almost all the required properties of the ideal BI. PMID:23631151

  4. Specific in planta recognition of two GKLR proteins of the downy mildew Bremia lactucae revealed in a large effector screen in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Joost H M; den Boer, Erik; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein. PMID:23883357

  5. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way. PMID:25345876

  6. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. ) cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb (S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate) was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of /sup 14/C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of /sup 14/C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized /sup 14/C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides.

  7. The effects of chloramphenicol on Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2013-04-01

    The administration of pharmacological substances in the food producing industry is a crucial and long established practice in ensuring animal welfare. However, a very high percentage of the drugs used will directly or indirectly be present in the various compartments of natural ecosystems therefore constituting a source of pollution. The reactions that these active compounds may impose on non-target organisms are still widely unknown and further research is essential. Also, new approaches on monitoring are necessary and in this sense, the present work aimed to assess the persistence of chloramphenicol (a banned but illegally used antibiotic) in seawater, together with its effects on the growth of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Moreover, the potential use of this species as a bioindicator was assessed. Results showed CAP presented an exponential degradation pattern in seawater with concentrations decreasing faster than expected. As for the effects on U. lactuca it acted as a growth promoter also contradicting the initial assumptions. Regarding the role of this species in biomonitoring it successfully took up CAP in solution while reflecting the concentrations present conferring it good characteristics as a bioindicator. On the other hand, this ability points to a possibility of CAP being accumulated and transferred along the trophic web through the consumption of U. lactuca by organisms in higher levels. PMID:23395526

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARISON OF NATURAL RUBBER FROM TWO LACTUCA SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in the identification of alternative sources of natural rubber to Hevea brasiliensis has focused on the Compositae family. In our search for Compositae models for rubber synthesis, we extracted latex from stems of two lettuce species: Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce, and Lactuca...

  9. Identification and comparison of natural rubber from two lactuca species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in the identification of alternative sources of natural rubber to Hevea brasiliensis has focused on the Compositae family. In our search for Compositae models for rubber synthesis, we extracted latex from stems of two lettuce species: Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce, and Lactuca s...

  10. Irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Pilar; Castro, Elena; de Las Heras, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients, heavy metal and the dynamics of pathogen and indicator microorganism content in soil and foliar tissues were analysed. Wastewater irrigation had a high influence on soil parameters: organic matter, N, P, Ca, Al, Fe, Pb and Zn. Indicator and pathogenic microorganisms were detected in soil and plants grown in the wastewater-irrigated plot, and persisted in the soil for 27 days during the study under humid conditions. N, P, Pb and Al content were significantly higher in plant tissues of wastewater-irrigated plots than in the control after 3 years of irrigation. Harvest was significantly higher in the wastewater-irrigated plot. Wastewater can be a resource for agricultural irrigation. In any case, the possible heavy metal accumulation in soils and presence of pathogenic organisms require careful management of this alternative resource: use of a drip irrigation system, previous wastewater disinfection and a limited irrigation period are recommended. PMID:19847714

  11. Genetic Control of Water and Nitrate Capture and Their Use Efficiency in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kerbiriou, Pauline J.; Maliepaard, Chris A.; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Koper, Martin; Froissart, Dorothee; Roobeek, Ilja; Lammerts Van Bueren, Edith T.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Robustness in lettuce, defined as the ability to produce stable yields across a wide range of environments, may be associated with below-ground traits such as water and nitrate capture. In lettuce, research on the role of root traits in resource acquisition has been rather limited. Exploring genetic variation for such traits and shoot performance in lettuce across environments can contribute to breeding for robustness. A population of 142 lettuce cultivars was evaluated during two seasons (spring and summer) in two different locations under organic cropping conditions, and water and nitrate capture below-ground and accumulation in the shoots were assessed at two sampling dates. Resource capture in each soil layer was measured using a volumetric method based on fresh and dry weight difference in the soil for soil moisture, and using an ion-specific electrode for nitrate. We used these results to carry out an association mapping study based on 1170 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We demonstrated that our indirect, high-throughput phenotyping methodology was reliable and capable of quantifying genetic variation in resource capture. QTLs for below-ground traits were not detected at early sampling. Significant marker-trait associations were detected across trials for below-ground and shoot traits, in number and position varying with trial, highlighting the importance of the growing environment on the expression of the traits measured. The difficulty of identifying general patterns in the expression of the QTLs for below-ground traits across different environments calls for a more in-depth analysis of the physiological mechanisms at root level allowing sustained shoot growth. PMID:27064203

  12. VARIATION FOR RESISTANCE TO VERTICILLIUM WILT IN LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host resistance offers the most cost-effective control method of Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by V. dahliae. One hundred and seven lettuce cultivars were screened in infested fields for resistance and disease progress on resistant and susceptible cultivars was determined. Subsequent greenhou...

  13. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  14. Populations structure in cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its impact on assocation mapping.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association mapping technique is a useful tool for detecting markers linked to the genes underlying the variation of a trait among elite cultivars. To avoid false positive results due to unrecognized population structure in the analyzed set of individuals, the subpopulations need to be identifie...

  15. Phytochemical relationship of Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima with Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Hafiza Ayesha; Yousaf, Zubaida; Rashid, Madiha; Younas, Afifa; Arif, Ayesha; Afzal, Ismah; Akram, Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important phenomenon that modifies the ecosystem. A plant can enhance or reduce the growth of other plant due to the presence of a number of allelochemicals in its different parts. Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima are medicinal plant species. Both these species are collected from wild resources for various purposes. To reduce the pressure on wild population, it is important to bring them into cultivation. Therefore, the allelopathic effects of E. helioscopia and E. pulcherrima on the growth of lettuce seeds were studied. Three different concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%) of five different solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and distilled water) were used to estimate the allelopathic potential of the above-mentioned Euphorbia species. Results indicated a non-significant growth inhibitory effect of both plants on lettuce seeds. Different extracts reduced the growth of test plant to some extent but this inhibition was not significant. From the observed results, it was concluded that the studied Euphorbia species, being medicinally important crops, can be introduced as intercrop with other cash crops. PMID:25075544

  16. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Alkhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar "robinson" of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was found to be inferior to the other types of P fertilizers (Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), Single superphosphate (SSP), and Di ammonium phosphate ((DAP)). MAP fertilizer at 375 and 500 kg P2O5/ha application rates recorded the highest significant values of head fresh weight and WUE, respectively. PMID:24255857

  17. Development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce dieback disease is widespread in commercially grown romaine and leaf-type lettuces, but not in iceberg-type cultivars. The cause of disease are two closely related tombusviruses -- Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). A single dominant gene on chromosome 2...

  18. Development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce dieback disease is widespread in commercially grown romaine and leaf-type lettuces, but not in iceberg-type cultivars. The disease is caused by two closely related Tombusviruses: Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). A single dominant gene (Tvr1) on chromos...

  19. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Sung, Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate. PMID:24758896

  20. Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (hG-CSF) Expression in Plastids of Lactuca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Habashi, Ali Akbar; Rajabi Memari, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) can serve as valuable biopharmaceutical for research and treatment of the human blood cancer. Transplastomic plants have been emerged as a new and high potential candidate for production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins in comparison with transgenic plants due to extremely high level expression, biosafety and many other advantages. Methods: hG-CSF gene was cloned into pCL vector between prrn16S promoter and TpsbA terminator. The recombinant vector was coated on nanogold particles and transformed to lettuce chloroplasts through biolistic method. Callogenesis and regeneration of cotyledonary explants were obtained by Murashige and Skoog media containing 6-benzylaminopurine and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid hormones. The presence of hG-CSF gene in plastome was studied with four specific PCR primers and expression by Western immunoblotting. Results: hG-CSF gene cloning was confirmed by digestion and sequencing. Transplastomic lettuce lines were regenerated and subjected to molecular analysis. The presence of hG-CSF in plastome was confirmed by PCR using specific primers designed from the plastid genome. Western immunoblotting of extracted protein from transplastomic plants showed a 20-kDa band, which verified the expression of recombinant protein in lettuce chloroplasts. Conclusions: This study is the first report that successfully express hG-CSF gene in lettuce chloroplast. The lettuce plastome can provide a cheap and safe expression platform for producing valuable biopharmaceuticals for research and treatment. PMID:23748895

  1. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  2. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio. PMID:26685781

  3. Genetic Control of Water and Nitrate Capture and Their Use Efficiency in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kerbiriou, Pauline J; Maliepaard, Chris A; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Koper, Martin; Froissart, Dorothee; Roobeek, Ilja; Lammerts Van Bueren, Edith T; Struik, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Robustness in lettuce, defined as the ability to produce stable yields across a wide range of environments, may be associated with below-ground traits such as water and nitrate capture. In lettuce, research on the role of root traits in resource acquisition has been rather limited. Exploring genetic variation for such traits and shoot performance in lettuce across environments can contribute to breeding for robustness. A population of 142 lettuce cultivars was evaluated during two seasons (spring and summer) in two different locations under organic cropping conditions, and water and nitrate capture below-ground and accumulation in the shoots were assessed at two sampling dates. Resource capture in each soil layer was measured using a volumetric method based on fresh and dry weight difference in the soil for soil moisture, and using an ion-specific electrode for nitrate. We used these results to carry out an association mapping study based on 1170 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We demonstrated that our indirect, high-throughput phenotyping methodology was reliable and capable of quantifying genetic variation in resource capture. QTLs for below-ground traits were not detected at early sampling. Significant marker-trait associations were detected across trials for below-ground and shoot traits, in number and position varying with trial, highlighting the importance of the growing environment on the expression of the traits measured. The difficulty of identifying general patterns in the expression of the QTLs for below-ground traits across different environments calls for a more in-depth analysis of the physiological mechanisms at root level allowing sustained shoot growth. PMID:27064203

  4. Species-specific toxicity of ceria nanoparticles to Lactuca plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-02-01

    Species-specific differences in the toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We previously found that CeO2 NPs inhibited root elongation of head lettuce, whereas no toxic effect was observed on other plants (such as wheat, cucumber and radish). In this study, interactions between Lactuca plants and three types of CeO2 NPs (lab-synthesized 7 and 25 nm CeO2 NPs, and a commercial CeO2 NPs) were investigated. It was found that CeO2 NPs were toxic to three kinds of Lactuca genus plants and different CeO2 NPs showed different degrees of toxicity. The results of X-ray absorption near edge fine structure indicate that small parts of CeO2 NPs were transformed from Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in roots of the plants that were treated with CeO2 NPs during the seed germination stage. But the high sensitivity of Lactuca plants to the released Ce(3+) ions caused the species-specific phytotoxicity of CeO2 NPs. Differences in sizes and zeta potentials among three types of CeO2 NPs resulted in their different degrees of biotransformation which accounted for the discrepancy in the toxicity to Lactuca plants. This study is among the few, and may indeed the first, that addresses the relation between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and its species-specific phytotoxicity. PMID:24256192

  5. Cadmium effects on growth and physiology of Ulva lactuca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, J. W.; Kremer, B. P.; Sperling, K.-R.

    1980-03-01

    The chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. was grown in the laboratory in unialgal culture to sufficient size so that up to 70 discs, 24 mm in diameter, could be punched out of a single plant. Using such discs, U. lactuca was then tested with various concentrations of Cd under continuous-flow conditions. A concentration of 4.5 ppm Cd was lethal to U. lactuca within 6 days. Control discs in unpolluted water increased in diameter at a rate of 8 to 13 % day-1 over a 6-day period. At sublethal concentrations of Cd a sharp reduction in growth rate was observed at increasing concentrations up to approximately 0.3 ppm Cd, whereas from 0.3 ppm Cd to the lethal concentration the reduction of the growth rate was significantly less. Reduction in photosynthetic performance corresponded closely to the reduction in growth rate. At ambient concentrations of 0.8 ppm Cd, the plants concentrated Cd by a factor of approximately 50 in 6 days. Much higher concentration factors were attained in lower ambient concentrations. After removal from Cd-polluted water into flow-through culture in unpolluted water, a subsequent loss of Cd was indicated and the plants recovered rapidly. Plants exposed up to 3 d to 0.7 ppm Cd recovered sufficiently to produce viable gametes 7 days after removal from Cd. Because it has a relatively short life span and apparently loses Cd subsequent to exposure to Cd-polluted water, Ulva lactuca is not recommended as an alga for monitoring in-situ environmental pollution.

  6. Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Trinelli, María Alcira; Areco, María Mar; Afonso, María dos Santos

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG≥1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ≡Cu-PMG-Cu to ≡Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG. PMID:23376752

  7. Mitochondrial genomes of Bremia lactucae and development of haplotype markers for population and genetic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bremia lactucae, the causative agent of lettuce downy mildew, is the most important pathogen of lettuce in the US and worldwide. In order to identify cytoplasmic markers for use in population and genetic studies the reference mitochondrial genome of B. lactucae isolate SF5 was assembled from Illumi...

  8. Interactions of silver nanoparticles with the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Brice, David; Brown, Murray T

    2012-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed for 48 h to different concentrations of Ag added as either silver nanoparticles (AgNP) or aqueous metal (AgNO(3)) and the resulting toxicity, estimated from reductions in quenching of chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and accumulation of Ag measured. Aqueous Ag was toxic at available concentrations as low as about 2.5 μg l(-1) and exhibited considerable accumulation that could be defined by the Langmuir equation. AgNP were not phytotoxic to the macroalga at available Ag concentrations up to at least 15 μg l(-1) and metal measured in U. lactuca was attributed to a physical association of nanoparticles at the algal surface. At higher AgNP concentrations, a dose-response relationship was observed that was similar to that for aqueous Ag recorded at much lower concentrations. These findings suggest that AgNP are only indirectly toxic to marine algae through the dissolution of Ag(+) ions into bulk sea water, albeit at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those predicted in the environment. PMID:21877230

  9. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    PubMed

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. PMID:27181942

  10. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

  11. The influence of sulfathiazole on the macroalgae Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Nebot, Carolina; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Sulfonamides (SA) are a class of antibiotics routinely found in environmental matrices and therefore their role as contaminants should be investigated in non-target organisms. With this purpose the present experimental work has evaluated the exposure of the chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. to sulfathiazole (STZ), a SA drug commonly used in aquaculture, at two concentrations representing prophylactic (25 μg mL(-1)) and therapeutic (50 μg mL(-1)) administrations. Results showed that STZ exhibits high stability in seawater with only 18% degradation over the 5d assay at both dosages tested. Also, macroalgae demonstrated an efficient uptake capacity with constant internal concentrations after 24h regardless of the external solutions and thus should be considered as a bioindicator species in risk assessment. Both STZ concentrations induced a slight inhibition of the macroalgae growth after 96 h. PMID:24393561

  12. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-02-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1) y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy. PMID:21044839

  13. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    PubMed Central

    Kanthal, Lakshmi Kanta; Dey, Akalanka; Satyavathi, K.; Bhojaraju, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24497744

  14. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koronowicz, Aneta A.; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment. PMID:26799209

  16. High-Throughput Growth Prediction for Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence in a Plant Factory with Artificial Lighting

    PubMed Central

    Moriyuki, Shogo; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade plants at an early stage, using so-called seedlings diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing), a CF image of 7200 seedlings was captured every 4 h on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock. PMID:27242805

  17. Effect of supplemental ultraviolet radiation on the concentration of phytonutrients in green and red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britz, Steven; Caldwell, Charles; Mirecki, Roman; Slusser, James; Gao, Wei

    2005-08-01

    Eight cultivars each of red and green leaf lettuce were raised in a greenhouse with supplemental UV radiation, either UV-A (wavelengths greater than ca. 315 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (wavelengths greater than ca. 290 nm; 6.4 kJ m-2 daily biologically effective UV-B), or no supplemental UV (controls). Several phytonutrients were analyzed in leaf flours to identify lines with large differences in composition and response to UV-B. Red leaf lettuce had higher levels of phenolic acid esters, flavonols and anthocyanins than green lines. Both green and red lines exposed to UV-B for 9 days showed 2-3-fold increases in flavonoids compared to controls, but only 45% increases in phenolic acid esters, suggesting these compounds may be regulated by different mechanisms. There were large differences between cultivars in levels of phenolic compounds under control conditions and also large differences in UV-B effects. Among red varieties, cv. Galactic was notable for high levels of phenolics and a large response to UV-B. Among green varieties, cvs. Black-Seeded Simpson and Simpson Elite had large increases in phenolics with UV-B exposure. Photosynthetic pigments were also analyzed. Green leaf lettuce had high levels of pheophytin, a chlorophyll degradation product. Total chlorophylls (including pheophytin) were much lower in green compared to red varieties. Lutein, a carotenoid, was similar for green and red lines. Total chlorophylls and lutein increased 2-fold under supplemental UV-B in green lines but decreased slightly under UV-B in red lines. Lettuce appears to be a valuable crop to use to study phytochemical-environment interactions.

  18. Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) pretreatment on UV-B stress tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Esringu, Aslıhan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Kara, Ayse Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that could influence plant growth, development, and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important plant growth regulator involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. In the present study, the possibility of enhancing UV-B stress tolerance of lettuce seedlings by the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was investigated. UV-B radiation increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene in seedlings, but the combination of SNP pretreatment and UV-B enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and PAL gene expression even more. Moreover, UV-B radiation significantly inhibited chlorophylls, carotenoid, gibberellic acid (GA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and increased the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•(-)) in lettuce seedlings. When SNP pretreatment was combined with the UV-B radiation, we observed alleviated chlorophylls, carotenoid, GA, and IAA inhibition and decreased content of ABA, SA, MDA, H2O2, and O2•(-) in comparison to non-pretreated stressed seedlings. PMID:26330324

  19. Assessment of the impact of Aluminum on germination, early growth and free proline content in Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major problem in crop production on acid soils. The use of industrial or municipal wastewaters, which may be contaminated with metals, for irrigation in agriculture is common over the world. This action can increase the concentration of these agents in the soil and decrease crops yields. In order to evaluate the toxicological effects of recommended Al levels in irrigation water, under acidic conditions, on lettuce, seeds of two cultivars ("cv Reine de Mai" and "cv White Boston") were exposed to five different Al concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 20mg/L) and germination percentage, root and shoot lengths were measured. Also, the germination rate and the vigor index were calculated, and the proline content was estimated for all concentrations. Results showed that seed germination was not negatively affected by Al, but the germination rate decreased in both cultivars. For the other factors analyzed, with the exception of 20mg/L concentration for "cv White Boston", Al induced, in general, negative effects including the content of proline that increased in the seeds that were exposed to this metal. The "cv Reine de Mai" was more sensitive for the analyzed concentrations than the other cultivar.. The results indicated that even recommended Al concentrations for irrigation, under acidic conditions, can interfere negatively in seed germination and seedling establishment and possibly with crop production. PMID:27229755

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment. PMID:26799209

  1. High-Throughput Growth Prediction for Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence in a Plant Factory with Artificial Lighting.

    PubMed

    Moriyuki, Shogo; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade plants at an early stage, using so-called seedlings diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing), a CF image of 7200 seedlings was captured every 4 h on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock. PMID:27242805

  2. Metabolomics to Detect Response of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to Cu(OH)2 Nanopesticides: Oxidative Stress Response and Detoxification Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Ortiz, Cruz; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Hu, Qirui; Zhou, Hongjun; Huang, Yuxiong; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-09-01

    There has been an increasing influx of nanopesticides into agriculture in recent years. Understanding the interaction between nanopesticides and edible plants is crucial in evaluating the potential impact of nanotechnology on the environment and agriculture. Here we exposed lettuce plants to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticides (1050-2100 mg/L) through foliar spray for one month. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results indicate that 97-99% (1353-2501 mg/kg) of copper was sequestered in the leaves and only a small percentage (1-3%) (17.5-56.9 mg/kg) was translocated to root tissues through phloem loading. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) based metabolomics combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) multivariate analysis revealed that Cu(OH)2 nanopesticides altered metabolite levels of lettuce leaves. Tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle and a number of amino acid-related biological pathways were disturbed. Some antioxidant levels (cis-caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, dehydroascorbic acid) were significantly decreased compared to the control, indicating that oxidative stress and a defense response occurred. Nicotianamine, a copper chelator, increased by 12-27 fold compared to the control, which may represent a detoxification mechanism. The up-regulation of polyamines (spermidine and putrescine) and potassium may mitigate oxidative stress and enhance tolerance. The data presented here provide a molecular-scale perspective on the response of plants to copper nanopesticides. PMID:27483188

  3. Metals in Ulva lactuca in Hong Kong intertidal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Y.B. )

    1990-07-01

    The levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Ulva lactuca collected from 24 intertidal sites around the Island of Hong Kong were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twelve of the sites are in the rural southern parts of the island where the coastal waters are relatively clean. The remaining 12 sites are located in the north and within Victoria Harbor which receives, apart from industrial effluents, untreated domestic sewage from a population of some 3.5 million. The mean levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in Ulva from the urban sites were respectively 4.0, 4.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.4, and 4.6 times those from the rural sites. However, somewhat similar levels of Cd were found in the alga among all the sites. Some locations of high levels of metal contamination have been identified in Victoria Harbor. Preliminary findings indicated that Ulva is a good indicator of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contamination due to its cosmopolitan distribution, simple morphology leading to ease of growth assessment, and its graded tolerance and response to pollutants. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

  5. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  6. Economics of static VAR compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.L.; DeMarco, C.; Jung, T.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    This project was initiated in anticipation of widened use of static VAR (volt-ampere-reactive) compensation on US bulk-power transmission systems to increase levels of secure power transfer. Project objectives were to deten-nine power system cost savings and reliability benefits resulting from such use. System operating cost and stability probabilities were compared with and without static VAR compensation, applying simulation techniques. For the particular system model studied, there was a 21.4 percent reduction in operating costs taking into account losses added by the static VAR compensator. A procedure was developed to compare instability probabilities for various loadings and static VAR compensator sizes on a power system. For the particular system model studied, the static VAR compensator provided a significant increase in stability but over a narrow range of loading. Static VAR compensation is one of a number of promising FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) technologies for handling the demands of increased power transfers on power systems where transmission lines cannot be built or as a short-term altemative to building additional lines.

  7. USE OF ULVA LACTUCA TO DISTINGUISH PH DEPENDENT TOXICANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) is a cosmopolitan marine attached green seaweed capable of sequestering high environmental levels of ammonia. Ammonia can be acutely toxic to marine organisms and is often found in dredged sediments from highly industrial areas or from areas with high c...

  8. Development of an assay for rapid detection of the lettuce downy mildew pathogen, Bremia lactucae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew of lettuce, caused by Bremia lactucae, causes chlorosis on leaves and adversely affects marketability. Though downy mildew on lettuce can be controlled by fungicide applications, it is costly to routinely apply fungicides to prevent the establishment of downy mildew. Repeated use of the...

  9. Ribosomal genes of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and var. farciminosum.

    PubMed

    Okeke, C N; Kappe, R; Zakikhani, S; Nolte, O; Sonntag, H G

    1998-11-01

    A total of 1704 basepairs of the 18S rDNA of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii (HCD, strain CBS175.57) and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF, strain CBS478.64) were sequenced (EMBL accession no. Z75306 and no. Z75307). The 18S rDNA of HCD was 100% identical to a published sequence of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum (HCC). The 18S rDNA of HCF showed one transversional point mutation at the nucleotide position 114 (ref. Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hybridization confirmed that, in the 18S rDNA of two out of five strains of HCF, guanine was substituted for cytosine at the nucleotide position 114. Furthermore, identical group 1C1 introns (403 bp) were found to be inserted after position 1165 in four out of five strains of HCF, including the two strains with point mutations in the 18S rDNA, and a slightly different group 1C1 intron (408 bp) was detected in one strain of HCC without this point mutation. Intraspecific sequence variability in the highly conserved 18S rDNA because of occurrence of introns and mutations as a possible source of error in molecular diagnostics is discussed. In addition, internal transcribed spacer regions between the 18S rDNA and the 5.8S rDNA (ITS1) of three strains of HCF, and one strain each of HCC and HCD showed significant sequence variability between varieties and strains of H. capsulatum. PMID:9916456

  10. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine. PMID:25993362

  11. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). PMID:23201525

  12. Production of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli cultured in extract from waste product alga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Rechtin, Tammy M; Hurst, Matthew; Potts, Tom; Hestekin, Jamie; Beitle, Robert; McLaughlin, John; May, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the potential for waste product alga, Ulva lactuca, to serve as a media component for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. To facilitate this investigation, U. lactuca harvested from Jamaica Bay was dried, and nutrients acid extracted for use as a growth media. The E. coli cell line BL21(DE3) was used to assess the effects on growth and production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP). This study showed that media composed of acid extracts without further nutrient addition maintained E. coli growth and recombinant protein production. Extracts made from dried algae lots less than six-months-old were able to produce two-fold more GFP protein than traditional Lysogeny Broth media. PMID:24799463

  13. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. PMID:27192480

  14. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    PubMed

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P < 0.05) on seminal and testicular characteristics of rams, more noticeably observed at the 5% DM inclusion rate than at 3%. These results were manifested by the inferior (P < 0.05) seminal quality, reduced (P < 0.05) testicular morphometry, changes (P < 0.05) in testicular histopathology, defective (P < 0.05) endocrine signaling, and increased (P < 0.05) seminal oxidative stress in rams fed diets supplemented with Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to

  15. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  16. Rice, Japonica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Main, Marcy; Frame, Bronwyn; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of rice, as a food crop, is reflected in the extensive global research being conducted in an effort to improve and better understand this particular agronomic plant. In regard to biotechnology, this has led to the development of numerous genetic transformation protocols. Over the years, many of these methods have become increasingly straightforward, rapid, and efficient, thereby making rice valuable as a model crop for scientific research and functional genomics. The focus of this chapter is on one such protocol that uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare with an emphasis on tissue desiccation. The explants consist of callus derived from mature seeds which are cocultivated on filter paper postinfection. Hygromycin selection is used for the recovery of subsequent genetically engineered events. PMID:25300839

  17. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  18. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  19. LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES RESULTING FROM TANNERY WASTE APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown on Willamette sil (Pachic Ultic Argixerolls) amended 1 and 2 yr earlier with chrome tannery wastes at rates up to 192 Mg ha to determine nutrient and trace element availability. Soils were sam...

  20. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed. PMID:22577334

  1. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed. PMID:22577334

  2. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  3. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  4. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting ofmore » python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.« less

  5. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    PubMed

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  6. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  7. The influence of solution chemistry on REE uptake by Ulva lactuca L. in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, John K., Jr.; Byrne, Robert H.

    1990-06-01

    Simultaneous uptake of Ce(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Yb(III), and Zn(II) by an organic substrate, Ulva lactuca L., was examined in seawater. REE behavior was observed to be strongly dependent on solution complexation. Over a range of carbonate ion concentrations between 10 -6 mol kg-soln -1 and 7 × 10 -3 mol kg-soln -1, the affinity of Ulva lactuca for Gd(III) decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude. The influence of carbonate complexation on REE solid/solution distributions was much larger for Yb(III) than for Gd(III) and was larger for Gd(III) than for Ce(III). At carbonate ion concentrations greater than about 6 × 10 -5molkg- soln-1, REE solid/solution partition coefficients, DT( M) = ( REEactivityg-1Ulva)/( REEactivityg-1seawater) exhibited the order Ce(III) > Eu(III) > Gd(III) > Yb(III). At carbonate ion concentrations less than about 3 × 10 =-5molkg- soln-1, the affinity of Ulva lactuca L. for REEs exhibited the order Eu( III) > Gd( III) > Ce( III) > Yb( III). Our partition coefficient observations are in general accord with shale-normalized REE abundance patterns in seawater. Adsorption by organic substrates can produce heavy REE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs, Gd(III) solution enrichments relative to Eu(III), and, at relatively low carbonate ion concentrations, enrichments of very light REEs compared to their immediate neighbors. The behavior of Zn(II) in our study differed considerably from the REEs. The partition of Zn(II) between Ulva and seawater is not strongly dependent on carbonate ion concentration.

  8. A LC-MS/MS methodology to determine furaltadone residues in the macroalgae Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2011-12-15

    Presently, the rise of new contaminants in the environment has widened the scope of pharmaceutical analyses as to face the demanding new challenges. An increasing tendency for the interconnection and overlap of research fields, such as ecology and biochemistry, is intensifying the demand for new methodologies to be applied to the survey of drugs in unconventional matrices. Integrated in this group are macrophytes, such as the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca, which are under study as to ascertain their ability as indicators of contamination for many substances. Nonetheless, methodologies for extraction and determination of drugs in such matrices are scarce and new studies on the subject are pressing. A new methodology for the determination of the antibiotic furaltadone in U. lactuca by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was developed, optimized and validated following the guidelines of the EC Decision 2002/657. The calibration curves showed linearity above 0.99 (R(2)). The relative standard deviations obtained for repeatability, expressed as CV, were between 15.3 and 20.5 and for reproducibility 25.3 and 28.2 whereas accuracy was in the interval of 88.9-95.5 (%). The limit of decision (CCα) and the detection capability (CCβ) were respectively 5.57 μg kg(-1) and 10.97 μg kg(-1). The method was successfully applied to experimental samples. PMID:22105023

  9. Optimization and kinetic studies on algal oil extraction from marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2012-03-01

    In this present investigation, kinetic studies on oil extraction were performed in marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at 5% moisture content, 0.12 mm particle size, 500 rpm stirrer speed, 55°C temperature, 140 min time and solvent-to-solid ratio as 6:1 with 1% diethyl-ether and 10% methylene chloride in n-hexane solvent mixture. After optimization, 10.88% (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from 30 g of algal biomass. The rate constant was obtained for the first order kinetic study by differential method. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated as 63.031 kJ/mol. From the results obtained in the investigation, U. lactuca biomass was proved to be a suitable source for the biodiesel production. PMID:22209436

  10. Role of Ulva lactuca extract in alleviation of salinity stress on wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Ali, Refaat M; Hemida, Khaulood A; Sayed, Makram A

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased with increasing the algal extract concentration while activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased with increasing concentration of algal extract more than 1% (w/v). The protein pattern of wheat seedling showed 12 newly formed bands as result of algal extract treatments compared with control. The bioactive components in U. lactuca extract such as ascorbic acid, betaine, glutathione, and proline could potentially participate in the alleviation of salinity stress. Therefore, algal presoaking is proved to be an effective technique to improve the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress conditions. PMID:25436231

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Govindaraju, M; Senthamilselvi, S; Premkumar, K

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca (seaweed) at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. UV spectral analysis showed peak at 430 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by silver nanoparticles. FT-IR studies reveal the presence of bioactive functional groups such as phenolic compounds, amines and aromatic ring are found to be the capping and stabilizing agents of nanoparticles. The morphology of silver nanoparticles was found to be spherical and ranges about 48.59 nm as confirmed by HR-SEM. Negative zeta potential value of -34 mV suggests that the nanoparticles are highly stable in colloidal solution. XRD patterns also suggest the occurrence of spherical shaped particles due to the presence of silver ions. Further, photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using U. lactuca was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange. PMID:23266074

  12. Role of Ulva lactuca Extract in Alleviation of Salinity Stress on Wheat Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Wael M.; Ali, Refaat M.; Hemida, Khaulood A.; Sayed, Makram A.

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased with increasing the algal extract concentration while activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased with increasing concentration of algal extract more than 1% (w/v). The protein pattern of wheat seedling showed 12 newly formed bands as result of algal extract treatments compared with control. The bioactive components in U. lactuca extract such as ascorbic acid, betaine, glutathione, and proline could potentially participate in the alleviation of salinity stress. Therefore, algal presoaking is proved to be an effective technique to improve the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress conditions. PMID:25436231

  13. North American Continent – A new source of wild Lactuca spp. germplasm variability for future lettuce breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the years 2002-2008, missions were undertaken in the USA and Canada to search for wild and weedy Lactuca species. Altogether, 16 states in the USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin a...

  14. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  15. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, D H; Pfeiffer, T J

    1990-01-01

    Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Images PMID:2199524

  16. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  17. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa (Gold-of-pleasure or false flax) has been cultivated as an oilseed crop for centuries, and has been used as both a fuel oil and an edible oil. Current research efforts centers on its exceptionally high levels of omega-3 fatty acids which is uncommon in vegetable oils, as well as ric...

  18. Economics of static VAR compensation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.L.; DeMarco, C.; Jung, T.H.

    1992-09-01

    This project was initiated in anticipation of widened use of static VAR (volt-ampere-reactive) compensation on US bulk-power transmission systems to increase levels of secure power transfer. Project objectives were to deten-nine power system cost savings and reliability benefits resulting from such use. System operating cost and stability probabilities were compared with and without static VAR compensation, applying simulation techniques. For the particular system model studied, there was a 21.4 percent reduction in operating costs taking into account losses added by the static VAR compensator. A procedure was developed to compare instability probabilities for various loadings and static VAR compensator sizes on a power system. For the particular system model studied, the static VAR compensator provided a significant increase in stability but over a narrow range of loading. Static VAR compensation is one of a number of promising FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) technologies for handling the demands of increased power transfers on power systems where transmission lines cannot be built or as a short-term altemative to building additional lines.

  19. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  20. Potential Antidepressant Constituents of Nigella sativa Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Elkhayat, Ehab S.; Alorainy, Mohammad S.; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M.; Fat’hi, Shawkat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs). Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,). Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg). However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents. SUMMARY Phytochemical and biological evaluation the antidepressant constituents in Nigella sativa using the tail suspension and forced swim methods afforded the isolation and identification of quercetin-3-O-α-L rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-7-O-β-D gluco pyranoside, tauroside E, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents in the polar extract of N. sativa. The isolated compounds were identified through extensive NMR analysis (1D, 2D, ESI MS). Abbreviations used: TST: Tail suspension test, FST: Forced swim test, OFT: An Open field test PMID:27041854

  1. Selection for resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 2 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. The pathogen exists as two races (races 1 and 2) in lettuce, and complete resistance to race 1 is known. Resistance to race 2 isolates has not been reported, and production of race 1 re...

  2. Raw and fungal-treated olive-mill wastewater effects on selected parameters of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth--the role of proline.

    PubMed

    Ouzounidou, Georgia; Ntougias, Spyridon; Asfi, Maria; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-01-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major agricultural waste stream for which disposal is associated with significant environmental repercussions. No data are available on the effects of biotreated OMW and of the protective role of exogenously provided proline on plant physiology. In the present study, OMW was administered, either raw or previously treated by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, with or without proline amendment, to lettuce plants growing in sterilized sand. Biotreated OMW and proline addition resulted in significant moderation of OMW adverse effects on plant biomass production and ascorbic acid content, while their synergistic action alleviated the severe negative impact on net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fo) invoked by the effluent. Moreover, biotreated OMW supplemented with proline, moderated the decrease in chlorophylls exerted by raw OMW, but it did not contribute at restoring carotenoids content. Restoration of plant transpiration was complete when biotreated OMW was used (with or without proline); proline alone mitigated the negative impact of OMW on photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm'). It seems that key photosynthetic parameters could be exploited as suitable evaluators of wastewater-induced plant toxicity, while plant fertigation with biotreated and/or supplemented OMW could be an interesting prospect in valorizing this effluent. PMID:22560036

  3. Heat and drought stress during growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) does not promote internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Beuchat, Larry R; Erickson, Marilyn C; Phelan, Vanessa H; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Studies were done to determine the effect of heat stress on internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lettuce subjected to different watering practices during growth. Iceberg and romaine lettuce were grown in sandy soil in an environmental chamber at 23 degrees C during the day and 7 degrees C at night, with a 12-h photoperiod. Thirty days after transplanting seedlings, potting soil was inoculated with a five-strain mixture of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 at populations of 4 and 6 log CFU/g of soil. Lettuce plants were exposed to one of two temperature stress regimes: 36 degrees C during the day and 15 degrees C at night for 2 days, or 32 degrees C during the day and 15 degrees C at night for 3 days, both with a 12-h photoperiod. Control plants were held at 23 degrees C during the day and 7 degrees C at night for 3 days. Plants were either watered daily or not watered during the heat stress and control treatments. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in all inoculated soil and rhizosphere samples from plants grown in inoculated soil. Less E. coli O157:H7 was detected in inoculated heat-stressed soil than in control soil. From inoculated pots, all leaf surfaces and macerated leaves that had been surface sanitized were negative for E. coli O157:H7. All surface-sanitized macerated roots from control samples and from 143 of 144 samples of inoculated samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Heat stress during growth of lettuce did not promote or enhance internalization of E. coli O157:H7, regardless of the moisture content in the soil. PMID:20003727

  4. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Eliandra M.; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H.; Tondo, Eduardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves’ stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  5. Influence of green, red and blue light emitting diodes on multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic activity under different light intensities in lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Eun Jeong; Park, Jeong Suk; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs) at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m-2 s-1 for blue LEDs) at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm), red (639 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m-2 s-1) and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70-80 μmol m-2 s-1). The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment. PMID:24642884

  6. Association analysis of bacterial leaf spot resistance and SNP markers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, is a devastating disease of lettuce worldwide. Since there are no chemicals available for effective control of the disease, host-plant resistance is highly desirable to protect lettuce production. A total of 179 lettuce ge...

  7. Effects of biochar and alkaline amendments on cadmium immobilization, selected nutrient and cadmium concentrations of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in two contrasting soils.

    PubMed

    Woldetsadik, Desta; Drechsel, Pay; Keraita, Bernard; Marschner, Bernd; Itanna, Fisseha; Gebrekidan, Heluf

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of seven treatments including biochars produced from dried faecal matter and manures as stabilizing agents of cadmium (Cd)-spiked soils, lettuce was grown in glasshouse on two contrasting soils. The soils used were moderately fertile silty loam and less fertile sandy loam and the applied treatments were 7 % w/w. The reduction of bioavailable Cd (ammonium nitrate extractable) and its phytoavailability for lettuce were used as assessment criteria in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each treatment. Moreover, the agronomic values of the treatments were also investigated. Ammonium nitrate extraction results indicated that faecal matter biochar, cow manure biochar and lime significantly reduced bioavailable Cd by 84-87, 65-68 and 82-91 %, respectively, as compared to the spiked controls. Unpredictably, coffee husk biochar induced significant increment of Cd in NH4NO3 extracts. The immobilization potential of faecal matter biochar and lime were superior than the other treatments. However, lime and egg shell promoted statistically lower yield and P, K and Zn concentrations response of lettuce plants compared to the biochar treatments. The lowest Cd and highest P tissue concentrations of lettuce plants were induced by faecal matter and cow manure biochar treatments in both soils. Additionally, the greatest Cd phytoavailability reduction for lettuce was induced by poultry litter and cow manure biochars in the silty loam soil. Our results indicate that faecal matter and animal manure biochars have shown great potential to promote Cd immobilization and lettuce growth response in heavily contaminated agricultural fields. PMID:27047723

  8. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Eliandra M; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves' stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  9. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments. PMID:26940382

  10. Scopafungin, a Crystalline Antibiotic Produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. enhygrus var. nova

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, LeRoy E.; Dietz, Alma

    1971-01-01

    Scopafungin (U-29,479) is a crystalline, nonpolyenic antimicrobial agent obtained from the culture broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. enhygrus var. nova UC-2397. Scopafungin inhibits, in vitro, a variety of pathogenic fungi, yeasts, and gram-positive bacteria. PMID:4940870

  11. Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-11-15

    The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

  12. Inhibitory activities of Ulva lactuca polysaccharides on digestive enzymes related to diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    BelHadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hamden, Khaled

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alga Ulva lactuca polysaccharides (ULPS) on key enzymes related to diabetes and obesity. This marine natural product, ULPS, exerted potential inhibition on key enzymes related to starch digestion and absorption in both plasma and small intestine mainly α-amylase by 53% and 34% and maltase by 97 and 164% respectively, leading to a significant decrease in blood glucose rate by 297%. Moreover, ULPS potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption as lipase activity in both plasma and small intestine by 235 and 287% respectively, which led to a notable decrease of blood LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and in the counterpart an increase in HDL-cholesterol level in surviving diabetic rats. Additively, ULPS significantly protected the liver-kidney functions, by decreasing of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and creatinine, urea and albumin rates in plasma. PMID:23638862

  13. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Results We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis). Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and distinguished morphological types

  14. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars. PMID:26329384

  15. The Medicago sativa gene index 1.2: a web-accessible gene expression atlas for investigating expression differences between Medicago sativa subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the primary forage legume crop species in the United States and plays essential economic and ecological roles in agricultural systems across the country. Modern alfalfa is the result of hybridization between tetraploid M. sativa ssp. sativa and M. sativa ssp. falcata....

  16. Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin).

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Chen, Han-chun; Tania, Mousumi; Zhang, Dian-zheng

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa has been used as traditional medicine for centuries. The crude oil and thymoquinone (TQ) extracted from its seeds and oil are effective against many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, asthma, kidney disease etc. It is effective against cancer in blood system, lung, kidney, liver, prostate, breast, cervix, skin with much safety. The molecular mechanisms behind its anticancer role is still not clearly understood, however, some studies showed that TQ has antioxidant role and improves body's defense system, induces apoptosis and controls Akt pathway. Although the anti-cancer activity of N. sativa components was recognized thousands of years ago but proper scientific research with this important traditional medicine is a history of last 2∼3 decades. There are not so many research works done with this important traditional medicine and very few reports exist in the scientific database. In this article, we have summarized the actions of TQ and crude oil of N. sativa against different cancers with their molecular mechanisms. PMID:22754079

  17. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  18. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  19. VarSITI - SCOSTEP's scientific program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Katya; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    With the aim to promote international scientific activity in the different branches of solar terrestrial physics and its application for the benefit of humanity, SCOSTEP runs long-term (4-5 years) international interdisciplinary scientific programs. The current SCOSTEP's scientific program (2014-2018) is VarSITI - Variability of the Sun and Its Terrestrial Impacts. It has four scientific projects covering solar terrestrial problems all the way from the Sun through the interplanetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and down to the Earth's atmosphere. We will present the VarSITI's projects and activities, and will highlight some of the results so far and plans for the future.

  20. Seaweeds along KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa-3: elemental uptake by Ulva lactuca (Sea lettuce).

    PubMed

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, A; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2006-01-01

    The elemental uptake by Ulva lactuca (Sea lettuce), a marine macro-algae (chlorophyta, green alga) grown richly along KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The total elemental concentrations of seven important elements, namely manganese, iron, arsenic, boron, titanium, zinc and mercury, selected based on their abundance in U. lactuca were investigated for one year cycle (June 2002 to May 2003). The four selected sampling sites, Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure Beach and Park Ryrie are spread over 150 km wide along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline from North to South. The Ulva lectuca possess good manganese and arsenic accumulating ability and an excellent bio-indicator for most of the metals studied. A typical U. lectuca sample at Zinkwasi (in winter) recorded Mn (25.3 +/- 1.16 ppm), Fe (21.0 +/- 0.85 ppm), As (6.2 +/- 0.30 ppm), B (935 +/- 14 ppb), Ti (863 +/- 34 ppb), Zn (421 +/- 21 ppb), and Hg (61.3 +/- 1.2 ppb). The general trend found at all sites was high elemental concentrations in winter and a decrease in concentrations from winter to spring and summer. Iron uptake was lowest in summer and autumn at all sites. Ulva lactuca recorded highest mercury levels (>400 ppb) during the spring season at the Treasure Beach site near Durban. PMID:16760099

  1. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    PubMed

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17426770

  2. Chemical constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Si-Feng; Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Ke-Chun; Wang, Xi-Min; Yang, Yong-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model. PMID:19924077

  3. Static var compensators stabilize power voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, R.

    1996-06-01

    This article discusses the operation of a static var compensator as installed by Alabama Power near a steel mill with a large arc furnace load. This is expected to result in a number of benefits, including flicker reduction, dynamic power factor correction, harmonics filtering and a reduction in system losses.

  4. Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Vargas, Vanessa Mercee D; Hedreyda, Cynthia T

    2006-11-01

    The study presents evidence in support of the bacterial theory associated with the toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Bacterial endosymbionts from Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum strain Pbc MZRVA 042595 were isolated and identified via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Taxonomic diversity of the identified culturable intracellular microbiota associated with Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum was established to be limited to the Phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Major endosymbionts identified included Moraxella spp., Erythrobacter spp., and Bacillus spp., whereas Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus spp., and Dietzia maris were identified as minor isolates. All identified strains except D. maris, P. putida, and Micrococcus spp. were shown to contain either saxitoxin or neo saxitoxin or both at levels < or =73 ng/10(7) bacterial cells based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Paralytic shellfish poisoning-like physiologic reactions in test animals used in the mouse assay were recorded for the endosymbionts except for P. putida. The study is the first to elucidate the possible contribution of bacterial endosymbionts in the toxicity of P. bahamense var. compressum isolated in the Philippines. PMID:16944340

  5. Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats. Methods Female Wistar rats aged 12–14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca+2), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca+2, accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found

  6. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  7. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  8. Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Huang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans. After infection, inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases often develop. Still there are no effective drugs available against virus infection. Recently, extracts of algae have been shown to possess a broad range of biological activities including antivirus activity. In this study, we identified that the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca can inhibit JEV infection in Vero cells. Mechanistic studies further revealed that the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can block virus adsorption and thus make the virus unable to enter cells. The Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts also effectively decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the JEV-infected primary mixed glia cells. In an animal study, the JEV-infected C3H/HeN mice appeared to have neurobehavioral abnormalities on the fifth day and died on the seventh day post infection. However, the JEV-infected mice pretreated with the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can delay the onset of hind limb paralysis and thereby prevent mice from death. PMID:22193590

  9. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. PMID:23954716

  10. [Photosynthetic characteristics and coenological survey of Lactuca serriola in its invaded area].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shui-Liang; Fang, Fang; Ni, Liping; Chen, Wanlin; Shi, Laidi

    2006-12-01

    Lactuca serriola, a national class quarantine object, is a new invasive species in the coastal area of Southeast China. The coenological survey showed that because of its big individual, L. serriola could easily form dominant population in its invaded area, and its main accompany species were Conyza canadensis, C. bonarinisis, Bidentis bipinnata, Oenothera laciniata, Ipomoea hederacea, Setaria viridis, Daucus carota, Xanthium sibiricum, Erigeron annuus, L. indica, Humulus scandens, Solanum nigrum and Aster sublatus. The measurements with LCA-4 portable photosynthesis and transpiration system (ADC, England) revealed that the net photosynthetic rate of L. serriola was as high as 21.22 +/- 0.45 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), being slightly lower than that of E. annuus and C. bonarinisis, similar to that of C. canadensis, and higher than that of Chenopodium album, Plantago virginica and L. indica. Based on the photosynthesis-light response equation, the theoretic light compensation point of L. serriola was 37.58 micromol m(-2) x s(-1), its theoretic light saturation point was 1 480 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), and theoretic maximal net photosynthetic rate was 20.81 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1). A distinct "noon break" phenomenon was observed in L. serriola photosynthesis, which might result from the high stomatal resistance against high light intensity and temperature. The main factors affecting the net photosynthetic rate of L. serriola were leaf photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and leaf transpiration rate. PMID:17330472

  11. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

  12. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively. PMID:26026981

  13. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed. PMID:23615467

  14. Chemoprevention of Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats by Sulfated Polysaccharides and Aqueous Extract of Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Usama K; Mahmoud, Hamada M; Farrag, Asmaa G; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common cancers and lethal diseases worldwide. Both oxidative stress and chronic inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. Because of limited treatment options and a grave prognosis of HCC, preventive management has been emphasized. The marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca (Ulvaceae) is consumed by humans and livestock because of its nutritional value. Recent studies showed that various extracts of U. lactuca possess antiviral, antiplasmodial, antinephrotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited information is available on anticancer potential of U. lactuca with no reports on liver cancer chemopreventive efficacy of this marine algae. Accordingly, the present study was initiated to evaluate the possible antihepatocarcinogenic effects and antioxidant mechanisms of action of various U. lactuca extracts against a clinically relevant rodent model of HCC. Initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of dietary carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA, 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), followed by promotion with phenobarbital (0.05%) in drinking water. The rats were fed with daily oral dose (50 mg/kg) of polysaccharide sulfate or aqueous extract of U. lactuca for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. At these timepoints, blood samples were taken to measure hepatic injury markers, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and bilirubin. The liver tissue was harvested for measurement of hepatic oxidative indices, including lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Hepatic histopathology, immunohistochemical analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay were performed. Our results clearly indicate that sulfated polysaccharides of U. lactuca exert a marked chemoprevention of DENA

  15. Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Marwa, Naina; Mishra, Shashank K; Mishra, Jyoti; Verma, Praveen C; Rathaur, Sushma; Singh, Nandita

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid adversely affects plant growth in polluted areas. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of improving phytostablization of arsenic through application of new isolated strain Brevundimonas diminuta (NBRI012) in rice plant [Oryza sativa (L.) Var. Sarju 52] at two different concentrations [10ppm (low toxic) and 50ppm (high toxic)] of As. The plant growth promoting traits of bacterial strains revealed the inherent ability of siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase production which may be associated with increased biomass, chlorophyll and MDA content of rice and thereby promoting plant growth. The study also revealed the As accumulation property of NBRI012 strain which could play an important role in As removal from contaminated soil. Furthermore, NBRI012 inoculation significantly restored the hampered root epidermal and cortical cell growth of rice plant and root hair elimination. Altogether our study highlights the multifarious role of B. diminuta in mediating stress tolerance and modulating translocation of As in edible part of rice plant. PMID:26650422

  16. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb. PMID:27068721

  17. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  18. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  19. Weed control possibilities and harvest strategies for the Omega-3 fatty acid producing crop common purslane (Portulacca oleracea var. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common purslane is traditionally considered a weed. Recent literature suggests the potential human health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in flax seed oil (LNA) and fish oil (DHA and EPA), but the highest known producer of Omega-3 fatty acid in plant tissu...

  20. Glucose kinases from Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Villafán, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; Gosset, Guillermo; Sanchez, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    Glucose kinases (Glks) are enzymes of the glycolytic pathway involved in glucose phosphorylation. These enzymes can use various phosphoryl donors such as ATP, ADP, and polyphosphate. In several streptomycetes, ATP-glucose kinase (ATP-Glk) has been widely studied and regarded as the main glucose phosphorylating enzyme and is likely a regulatory protein in carbon catabolite repression. In cell extracts from the doxorubicin overproducing strain Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius, grown in glucose, a polyphosphate-dependent Glk (Pp-Glk) was detected by zymogram. Maximum activity was observed during the stationary growth phase (48 h) of cells grown in 100 mM glucose. No activity was detected when 20 mM glutamate was used as the only carbon source, supporting a role for glucose in inducing this enzyme. Contrary to wild-type strains of Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces lividans, and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus K-155, S. peucetius var. caesius produced 1.8 times more Pp-Glk than ATP-Glk. In addition, this microorganism produced five and four times more Pp-Glk and anthracyclines, respectively, than its wild-type S. peucetius parent strain, supporting a role for this enzyme in antibiotic production in the overproducer strain. A cloned 726-bp DNA fragment from S. peucetius var. caesius encoded a putative Pp-Glk, with amino acid identities between 83 and 87 % to orthologous sequences from the above-cited streptomycetes. The cloned fragment showed the polyphosphate-binding sequences GXDIGGXXIK, TXGTGIGSA, and KEX(4)SWXXWA. Sequences for the Zn-binding motif were not detected in this fragment, suggesting that Pp-Glk is not related to the Glk ROK family of proteins. PMID:24687748

  1. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g⁻¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ∼10⁵-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl⁺ through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K⁺ ion channels. PMID:23117203

  2. Effects of five antifouling biocides on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca L.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-10-01

    Antifouling biocides are found in the marine ecosystem were they can affect non-target organisms. In this study the effects of five antifouling biocides on the settlement and growth of Ulva lactuca zoospores were investigated. The biocides investigated were copper (Cu(2+)), 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP), tolylfluanid and medetomidine. Full concentration-response curves where determined for each compound. EC50 values were determined for copper, DCOIT, TPBP and tolylfluanid, all of which inhibited settlement and growth in a concentration dependent manner with the following toxicity ranking; tolylfluanid (EC50 80 nmol L(-1)) ~ DCOIT (EC50 83 nmol L(-1)) > TPBP (EC50 400 nmol L(-1)) > Cu(2+) (EC50 2,000 nmol L(-1)). Medetomidine inhibited settlement and growth only at the extreme concentration of 100,000 nmol L(-1) (93% effect). The low toxicity is possibly a consequence of a lack of receptors that medetomidine can bind to in the U. lactuca zoospores. PMID:23846394

  3. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive control and combined treatment of ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) and (140 ng/ml) Nigella sativa oil. The growth progression was monitored every 24 hours for 3 days. Results Macrophages showed reduced growth in comparison to monocytes 24 hours after treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The mean cell diameter was significantly different between untreated and treated condition in monocytes and macrophages (p < 0.001). Similarly, intracellular lipid accumulation was hindered in combined treatment with Nigella sativa oil. This was further supported by cell surface expression analysis, where CD11b was markedly reduced in cells treated with combination oxLDL and Nigella sativa oil compared to oxLDL alone. More cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells when monocytes were supplemented with oxidized LDL alone. Conclusions The finding provides preliminary evidence on regulation of cell growth and differentiation in monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages by Nigella sativa oil. Further investigations need to be conducted to explain its mechanism in human monocyte. PMID:22104447

  4. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. ); Geno, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  5. Nigella sativa: A Potential Antiosteoporotic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamed, Norazlina; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Othman, Faizah; Suhaimi, Farihah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Muhammad, Norliza; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Nigella sativa seeds (NS) has been used traditionally for various illnesses. The most abundant and active component of NS is thymoquinone (TQ). Animal studies have shown that NS and TQ may be used for the treatment of diabetes-induced osteoporosis and for the promotion of fracture healing. The mechanism involved is unclear, but it was postulated that the antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities may play some roles in the treatment of osteoporosis as this bone disease has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. This paper highlights studies on the antiosteoporotic effects of NS and TQ, the mechanisms behind these effects and their safety profiles. NS and TQ were shown to inhibit inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and 6 and the transcription factor, nuclear factor κB. NS and TQ were found to be safe at the current dosage for supplementation in human with precautions in children and pregnant women. Both NS and TQ have shown potential as antiosteoporotic agent but more animal and clinical studies are required to further assess their antiosteoporotic efficacies. PMID:22973403

  6. Comparative Proteomics of Cannabis sativa Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Raharjo, Tri J.; Widjaja, Ivy; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Comparative proteomics of leaves, flowers, and glands of Cannabis sativa have been used to identify specific tissue-expressed proteins. These tissues have significantly different levels of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids accumulate primarily in the glands but can also be found in flowers and leaves. Proteins extracted from glands, flowers, and leaves were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Over 800 protein spots were reproducibly resolved in the two-dimensional gels from leaves and flowers. The patterns of the gels were different and little correlation among the proteins could be observed. Some proteins that were only expressed in flowers were chosen for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprint database searching. Flower and gland proteomes were also compared, with the finding that less then half of the proteins expressed in flowers were also expressed in glands. Some selected gland protein spots were identified: F1D9.26-unknown prot. (Arabidopsis thaliana), phospholipase D beta 1 isoform 1a (Gossypium hirsutum), and PG1 (Hordeum vulgare). Western blotting was employed to identify a polyketide synthase, an enzyme believed to be involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, resulting in detection of a single protein. PMID:15190082

  7. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  8. Study of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherm of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution using green algae (Ulva lactuca) biomass.

    PubMed

    Asnaoui, H; Laaziri, A; Khalis, M

    2015-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption of hazardous cadmium onto low-cost algae biomass in aqueous solution with respect to concentration of adsorbate, adsorbent dosage, contact time, solution pH and temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of cadmium onto Ulva lactuca biomass. Experimental data were tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Cd(II) followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by Ulva lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The biosorption capacity of Ulva lactuca biomass for cadmium was found to be 3.02 mg/g at pH 5.60 min equilibrium time and 20 °C. The mean free energy which was calculated was 6.24 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, which shows that the adsorption is physical. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0) showed that the biosorption of Cd(II) onto Ulva lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. The results indicate that algae Ulva lactuca could be employed as a low-cost material for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution. PMID:26524441

  9. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.I.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  10. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. PMID:26104156

  11. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Rajaei, Ziba; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation. Materials and Methods: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone. Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove. Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages. PMID:27247917

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden Rocket)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing; Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Hu, Maolong; Guan, Rongzhan

    2014-01-01

    Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247 696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25157569

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yankun; Chu, Pu; Yang, Qing; Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Hu, Maolong; Guan, Rongzhan

    2014-01-01

    Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25157569

  14. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys. PMID:22700232

  15. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Zhan; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Fang-Le; Zhu, Chen-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Two new abietane diterpenoids, Gerardianin B (1) and Gerardianin C (2), one new lignan glycoside, Gerardianin D (3) and one new lupane-type triterpenoid, Gerardianol A (4), together with seven known abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activities of the nine diterpenoids were evaluated on human cancer cell lines. Compounds 6-11 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 from 4.68 to 9.43μM and HCF-8 cell lines with IC50 from 9.12 to 13.53μM. PMID:26608401

  16. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  17. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Hong; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-10-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4-D-Var. For infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow non-linearly and become non-Gaussian, 4-D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. If the model is imperfect, the 4-D-Var with long windows requires weak constraint. Similar results are obtained with a quasi-geostrophic channel model. EnKF experiments made with the primitive equations SPEEDY model provide comparisons with 3-D-Var and guidance on model error and `observation localization'. Results obtained using operational models and both simulated and real observations indicate that currently EnKF is becoming competitive with 4-D-Var, and that the experience acquired with each of these methods can be used to improve the other. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  18. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Easton, Cecilia; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

    2011-12-01

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH(2))(NH(3))(2)(+)) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2) in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. PMID:21908086

  19. Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2013-12-13

    Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100 mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500 mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67 ± 0.38) and (5.42 ± 0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30 µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60 µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p < 0.01) confirmed the anti-hepatotoxic and antioxidant property of crude polysaccharide against d-Gal-induced elevation of LPO and infiltration of inflammatory cells into liver tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Although our previous studies have reported on the protective role of ULP against liver toxicity, our present findings show that ULP improved the hepatic antioxidant defense system against d-Gal-induced DNA damage and necrosis in rats. PMID:24329421

  20. Polyamine effects on protein disulfide isomerase expression and implications for hypersalinity stress in the marine alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus(1).

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Chuan; Hsu, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Wu, Tzure-Meng; Sung, Ming-Shiuan; Cho, Chung-Lung; Lee, Tse-Min

    2013-12-01

    Full-length protein disulfide isomerase (UfPDI) cDNA was cloned from the intertidal macroalga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Modulation of UfPDI expression by stresses and polyamines (PA) was studied. UfPDI transcription and enzyme activity were increased by hypersalinity (90) or high light illumination (1,200 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ), decreased by the addition of 100 μM CuSO4 . An exposure to a salinity of 90 decreased PA contents. Treating with PA biosynthetic inhibitors, D-arginine (D-Arg) or α-methyl ornithine (α-MO), led to a further decrease and also inhibited UfPDI expression and recovery of the growth rate. These results suggest that PAs are required to activate UfPDI expression with hypersalinity, even PA contents are decreased at a salinity of 90. The induction of UfPDI expression by hypersalinity of 90 and tolerance to hypersalinity could be enhanced if internal PA contents rise. Sung et al. (2011b) showed that PA contents could be increased by pretreating with putrescine (Put, 1 mM), spermidine (Spd, 1 mM), or spermine (Spm, 1 mM) at a salinity of 30. Therefore, PA pretreatment effect on UfPDI expression was examined. Pretreatment with Spd and Spm, but not with Put, enhanced UfPDI expression after transferred to a salinity of 90 and restored the growth rate. In conclusion, induction of UfPDI expression by Spd or Spm before exposure to hypersaline conditions and continuous up-regulation after hypersalinity exposure are required for the acquisition of hypersalinity tolerance in the intertidal green macroalga U. lactuca. PMID:27007636

  1. Nitrate and phosphate regimes induced lipidomic and biochemical changes in the intertidal macroalga Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Puja; Kumar, Manoj; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to understand the lipid and biochemical alterations resulting from different nutritional regimes of nitrate and phosphate in Ulva lactuca. The algal thalli cultured in artificial seawater (ASW) showed higher levels of carbohydrates and non-polar lipids and increased phosphatase activities, accompanied by degradation of polar lipids, proteins and pigments. Further, higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicated reative oxygen species (ROS)-mediated non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation due to nutritional limitation-induced oxidative stress. Those thalli cultured in ASW supplemented with nitrate showed responses corresponding to nitrate addition, such as an increase in pigments, monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and nitrate reductase. In addition, these thalli showed partial induction of phosphatases, low phospholipids, and high sulfolipid and 1,2-diacylglyceryl-3-O-4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-homoserine (DGTS) due to phosphate limitation. Similarly, algal thalli cultured in ASW supplemented with phosphate showed down-regulation of phosphatases, an increase in phospholipids due to availability of phosphate as well as a decrease in nitrate reductase, pigment, monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and polyunsaturated fatty acids due to nitrate limitation. On the other hand, algal thalli cultured in ASW supplemented with both nitrate and phosphate showed recovery of lost pigments and proteins, a high monogalactosyldiacylglycerol/digalactosyldiacylglycerol ratio, high unsaturation and high oxylipin levels (both C18 and C20). Further, the accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid in nutrient-limited thalli and of kinetin and kinetin riboside in nutrient-supplemented thalli indicated their antagonistic roles under nutrient stress. Thus, U. lactuca copes with nitrate and phosphate nutritional stress by altering the metabolic pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis including a shift in lipid classes, fatty acids, oxylipins and indole-3

  2. 4D-Var or Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Ballabrera, J.

    2007-05-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or considered for operational implementation. We explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4D-Var, the variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage in both systems. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4D-Var, and for infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow nonlinearly and become non-Gaussian, 4D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. Results obtained with variations of EnKF using operational models and both simulated and real observations are reviewed. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARASPORAL INCLUSION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KYUSHUENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kyushuensis synthesizes an irregularly shaped parasporal inclusion during sporulation. lectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are composed of a relatively homogeneous appearing center surrounded by a thick, electron dense coating. urified incl...

  4. Weak bus-oriented optimal multi-objective VAR planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a weak bus-oriented criterion to determine the candidate buses for installing new VAR sources in the VAR planning problem. First, an efficient method, using a voltage collapse proximity indicator, is described for identifying weak buses. Then appropriate VAR planning in those weak buses can enhance the system security margin, in particular, to prevent voltage collapse. Next, the goal attainment (GA) method based on the Simulated Annealing (SA) approach is applied to solving general multi-objective VAR planning problems by assuming that the decisionmaker (DM) has goals for each of the objective functions. The presented method can both obtain a better final solution and reduce the solution space. Results of application of the proposed method to the AEP-14 bus system as well as to a large, actual-size system are also presented.

  5. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  6. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on Cyclosporine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, F. I.; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Muzaffar, Iqbal; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M.; Korashy, Hesham M.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Raish, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, and 24 hrs) from marginal ear vein. Cyclosporine was analyzed using UPLC/MS method. The coadministration of Nigella sativa significantly decreased the Cmax and AUC0−∞ of cyclosporine; the change was observed by 35.5% and 55.9%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Lepidium sativum did not produce any significant change in Cmax of cyclosporine, although its absorption was significantly delayed compared with control group. A remarkable change was observed in Tmax and AUC0−t of Lepidium sativum treated group. Our findings suggest that concurrent consumption of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum could alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine at various levels. PMID:23957013

  7. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies. PMID:20694927

  8. Genetic Isolation, Divergence And Gene Flow In O. sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge about the structure and evolutionary history of naturally occurring variation in crops and their wild relatives provides insights into the complex process of domestication and new opportunities for utilizing novel alleles in crop improvement. Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is co...

  9. WATER USE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR CAMELINA SATIVA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water use characteristics of Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop, were evaluated in an irrigation experiment in Maricopa, Arizona. Camelina (cv. Robinson) was grown between November 2006 and April 2007 in plots, each 10 by 17 m. Thirty-two of the field plots were replicated in a randomized block de...

  10. Aluminum resistance mechanisms in oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced aluminum (Al) resistance has been observed in several dicots over-expressing enzymes involved in organic acid synthesis; however, this method for improving Al resistance has not been investigated in cereal crops such as oat (Avena sativa L.). Oat is considered among the most Al resistant ce...

  11. Seasonal changes in nutrient limitation and nitrate sources in the green macroalga Ulva lactuca at sites with and without green tides in a northeastern Pacific embayment.

    PubMed

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L

    2016-02-15

    In Penn Cove, ulvoid green algal mats occur annually. To examine seasonal variation in their causes, nitrogen and carbon were measured in Ulva lactuca in May, July, and September and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were quantified in U. lactuca, Penn Cove seawater, upwelled water from Saratoga Passage, water near the Skagit River outflow, and effluents from wastewater treatment facilities. Ulvoid growth was nitrogen limited and the sources of nitrogen used by the algae changed during the growing season. Algal nitrogen concentrations were 0.85-4.55% and were highest in September and at sites where algae were abundant. Upwelled waters were the primary nitrogen source for the algae, but anthropogenic sources also contributed to algal growth towards the end of the growing season. This study suggests that small nitrogen inputs can result in crossing a "tipping point", causing the release of nutrient limitation and localized increases in algal growth. PMID:26725866

  12. δ(15)N variation in Ulva lactuca as a proxy for anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in coastal areas of Gulf of Gaeta (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Lucia; Bentivoglio, Flavia; Carlino, Pasquale; Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, David; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto

    2014-07-15

    We tested the capacity of Ulva lactuca to mark N sources across large marine areas by measuring variation in its δ(15)N at several sites in the Gulf of Gaeta. Comparisons were made with the macroalga Cystoseira amentacea. Variation of δ(15)N values was assessed also in the coastal waters off the Circeo Natural Park, where U. lactuca and C. amentacea were harvested, as these waters are barely influenced by human activities and were used as reference site. A small fragment from each frond was preserved before deployment in order to characterize the initial isotopic values. After 48 h of submersion, U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental variation and δ(15)N enrichment in the Gulf of Gaeta was observed. The spatial distribution of δ(15)N enrichment indicated that different macro-areas in the Gulf were affected by N inputs from different origins. Comparison of the δ(15)N values of fragments taken from the same transplanted frond avoided bias arising from natural isotopic variability. PMID:24923814

  13. The Medicago sativa Gene Index 1.2: A web-accessible expression atlas of two Medicago sativa sub-species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is an important crop, both financially and ecologically, in the agricultural system of the United States. Using Illumina RNA-seq technology we have developed a de-novo transcriptome assembly from two Medicago sativa sub-species, sativa (B47) and falcata (F56). These two genotypes have proven...

  14. Immunoelectrophoretic Analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Stone, S. S.; Razin, S.

    1973-01-01

    Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to show the similarities and differences in the membrane proteins of two vaccine and two virulent strains of Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides. Immunoelectrophoretic (IEP) analysis was also used to partially characterize the associated antigens. Antibody spectra to the antigens of M. mycoides differ in rabbit, pig, and cattle sera. Rabbits produce better precipitating antibody against the anodic migrating protein mycoplasma antigens than cattle and pigs as seen in IEP. However, rabbit anti-M. mycoides serum did not show precipitating antibody against the heat-stable carbohydrate antigen. As judged by IEP, the major carbohydrate antigen extracted from the media, or boiled whole organism, is similar to that present in the sera-infected cattle and knee joints of calves. This carbohydrate antigen has a cathodic migration in IEP at pH 8.6. Periodate oxidation, classically used to destroy carbohydrate, also destroys most of the protein antigens. Heating the antigens to 56 C for 10 min destroys many of the noncarbohydrate antigens and 100 C eliminates all but the carbohydrate antigen. Extraction of M. mycoides with chloroform-methanol, phenol, ethanol, or ethanol-acetone reduced or eliminated most of the protein antigens. Some of the isolated antigenic fractions of M. mycoides were tested to determine their activity in the diagnostic complement fixation test for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and their inhibitory effect in this test by using bovine anti-M. mycoides antisera having precipitating antibody and circulating antigen. The complement fixation antigen is not the galactan, cannot be extracted by chloroform-methanol, but is stable to boiling at 100 C and may be extracted by phenol and partially precipitated by ethanol-acetone. Images PMID:4577417

  15. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure.

    PubMed

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome structure of C. sativa surprisingly mirrors those of economically important amphidiploid Brassica crop species from lineage II as well as wheat and cotton. The three genomes of C. sativa show no evidence of fractionation bias and limited expression-level bias, both characteristics commonly associated with polyploid evolution. The highly undifferentiated polyploid genome of C. sativa presents significant consequences for breeding and genetic manipulation of this industrial oil crop. PMID:24759634

  16. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure

    PubMed Central

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E.; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J.; Links, Matthew G.; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E.; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome structure of C. sativa surprisingly mirrors those of economically important amphidiploid Brassica crop species from lineage II as well as wheat and cotton. The three genomes of C. sativa show no evidence of fractionation bias and limited expression-level bias, both characteristics commonly associated with polyploid evolution. The highly undifferentiated polyploid genome of C. sativa presents significant consequences for breeding and genetic manipulation of this industrial oil crop. PMID:24759634

  17. Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

    2013-06-15

    Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

  18. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status. PMID:26156861

  19. Proteomic characterization of copper stress response in Cannabis sativa roots.

    PubMed

    Bona, Elisa; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria; Berta, Graziella

    2007-04-01

    Cannabis sativa is an annual herb with very high biomass and capability to absorb and accumulate heavy metals in roots and shoots; it is therefore a good candidate for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with metals. Copper is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, it participates as an important redox component in cellular electron transport chains; but is extremely toxic to plants at high concentrations. The aim of this work was to investigate copper effects on the root proteome of C. sativa, whose genome is still unsequenced. Copper stress induced the suppression of two proteins, the down-regulation of seven proteins, while five proteins were up-regulated. The resulting differences in protein expression pattern were indicative of a plant adaptation to chronic stress and were directed to the reestablishment of the cellular and redox homeostasis. PMID:17352425

  20. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  1. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  2. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats ("EAE" group). 2- "N. sativa + EAE" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- "EAE + N. sativa" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE. PMID:26261504

  3. Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic /var phi//sub 4/ models

    SciTech Connect

    Soria, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    A collection of new and already known correlation inequalities is found for a family of two-component hypercubic /var phi//sub 4/ models, using techniques of duplicated variables, rotated correlation inequalities, and random walk representation. Among the interesting new inequalities are: rotated very special Dunlop-Newman inequality var phi//sub 1x//sup 2/; /var phi//sub 1z//sup 2/ + /var phi//sub 2z//sup 2/ greater than or equal to 0, rotated Griffiths I inequality var phi//sub 1x//var-phi//sub 1y/; /var phi//sub 1z//sup 2/ - /var phi//sub 2z//sup 2/> greater than or equal to 0, and anti-Lebowitz inequality u/sub 4//sup 1111/ greater than or equal to 0.

  4. Crude oil from the var'egansk field. [Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.K.; Krylova, S.M.; Mkhchiyan, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results from an investigation of a representative sample of the crude oil of the BV group (BV/sub 6/, BV/sub 7/, BV/sub 8/, and BV/sub 9/), taken at a central gathering point in the Tyumen Oblast. It indicates that Var'egansk crude is low-sulfur, medium-resin, and medium-wax. The Var'egansk field is a single-bed field, and its deposits are confined to the Jurassic and Cretaceous systems (Valanginian and Hauterivian-Barremian stages).

  5. BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Howell, S.

    2005-05-01

    Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

  6. New Record of Mariannaea elegans var. elegans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Longqing; Hyun, Min Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi Ho

    2012-03-01

    A Mariannaea fungus was isolated during investigation of an elm tree infested with unidentified beetles. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Mariannaea elegans var. elegans. Fungal growth was better on malt extract agar than on potato dextrose agar and oatmeal agar. Optimal temperature and pH for growth of the fungus were 30℃ and pH 7.0, respectively. The fungus was found to have the ability to produce extracellular enzymes such as amylase, β-glucosidase, cellulase, and protease. This is first report on M. elegans var. elegans in Korea. PMID:22783129

  7. The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Amy M.; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions. PMID:21393367

  8. GENETIC MAPPING FORAGE YIELD, PLANT HEIGHT, AND REGROWTH AT MULTIPLE HARVESTS IN TETRAPLOID ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between Medicago sativa subspecies falcata and sativa result in high levels of heterosis for alfalfa forage production. However, desirable alfalfa cultivars must have acceptable performance for other agronomic traits including regrowth following harvest and appropriate autumn dormancy. In ...

  9. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Jamie A.; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M.; Jackson, Stephen A.; Murphy, Jerry D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136

  10. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Jamie A; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Jackson, Stephen A; Murphy, Jerry D; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136

  11. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  12. [Experiment on polyploid induction of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    PubMed

    Peng, F; Zhou, R; Liu, J

    1999-12-01

    Colchicine solution was applied to the primary adventitious buds of Angelica dahurica var. formosana in vitro to induce the polyploid. Compared with non-treated plantlet, the morphology, microhisology, and chromosome number of treated plantlets are varied. It proved that the polyploid induction was effective. PMID:12571900

  13. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    PubMed

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus. PMID:26996015

  14. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  15. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  16. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats (“EAE” group). 2- “N. sativa + EAE” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- “EAE + N. sativa” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE. PMID:26261504

  17. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  18. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery in the Transcriptome of Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa ) has economic importance as a forage crop for livestock and potential for development as a biofuel feedstock. Advances in alfalfa breeding, genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex p...

  19. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. Methods: The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. Results: The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. Conclusions: AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:25337587

  20. Plasmodium falciparum var gene expression is modified by host immunity

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Keane, Thomas M.; Fegan, Gregory; Musyoki, Jennifer N.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.; Pain, Arnab; Berriman, Matthew; Marsh, Kevin; Bull, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a potentially important family of immune targets, which play a central role in the host–parasite interaction by binding to various host molecules. They are encoded by a diverse family of genes called var, of which there are ≈60 copies in each parasite genome. In sub-Saharan Africa, although P. falciparum infection occurs throughout life, severe malarial disease tends to occur only in childhood. This could potentially be explained if (i) PfEMP1 variants differ in their capacity to support pathogenesis of severe malaria and (ii) this capacity is linked to the likelihood of each molecule being recognized and cleared by naturally acquired antibodies. Here, in a study of 217 Kenyan children with malaria, we show that expression of a group of var genes “cys2,” containing a distinct pattern of cysteine residues, is associated with low host immunity. Expression of cys2 genes was associated with parasites from young children, those with severe malaria, and those with a poorly developed antibody response to parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigens. Cys-2 var genes form a minor component of all genomic var repertoires analyzed to date. Therefore, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the genomic var gene repertoire is organized such that PfEMP1 molecules that confer the most virulence to the parasite tend also to be those that are most susceptible to the development of host immunity. This may help the parasite to adapt effectively to the development of host antibodies through modification of the host–parasite relationship. PMID:20018734

  1. C.V. Riley’s lost aphids: Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata and Aphis rapae var. laevigata (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The syntypes of Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata Riley were rediscovered in the Aphidoidea collection of the United States of America National Museum of Natural History. Previously, S. fragariae immaculata was largely lost and forgotten. Through examination of the specimens, we hereby establ...

  2. Photosynthetic redox imbalance governs leaf sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana variegation mutants immutans, spotty, var1, and var2.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Dominic; Bode, Rainer; Li, Wenze; Krol, Marianna; Saccon, Diego; Wang, Shelly; Schillaci, Lori A; Rodermel, Steven R; Maxwell, Denis P; Hüner, Norman P A

    2009-11-01

    We hypothesized that chloroplast energy imbalance sensed through alterations in the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, measured as excitation pressure, governs the extent of variegation in the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nondestructive imaging technique and used it to quantify the extent of variegation in vivo as a function of growth temperature and irradiance. The extent of variegation was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.750) with an increase in excitation pressure irrespective of whether high light, low temperature, or continuous illumination was used to induce increased excitation pressure. Similar trends were observed with the variegated mutants spotty, var1, and var2. Measurements of greening of etiolated wild-type and immutans cotyledons indicated that the absence of IMMUTANS increased excitation pressure twofold during the first 6 to 12 h of greening, which led to impaired biogenesis of thylakoid membranes. In contrast with IMMUTANS, the expression of its mitochondrial analog, AOX1a, was transiently upregulated in the wild type but permanently upregulated in immutans, indicating that the effects of excitation pressure during greening were also detectable in mitochondria. We conclude that mutations involving components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, such as those present in immutans, spotty, var1, and var2, predispose Arabidopsis chloroplasts to photooxidation under high excitation pressure, resulting in the variegated phenotype. PMID:19897671

  3. Photosynthetic Redox Imbalance Governs Leaf Sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana Variegation Mutants immutans, spotty, var1, and var2[W

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Dominic; Bode, Rainer; Li, Wenze; Krol, Marianna; Saccon, Diego; Wang, Shelly; Schillaci, Lori A.; Rodermel, Steven R.; Maxwell, Denis P.; Hüner, Norman P.A.

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that chloroplast energy imbalance sensed through alterations in the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, measured as excitation pressure, governs the extent of variegation in the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nondestructive imaging technique and used it to quantify the extent of variegation in vivo as a function of growth temperature and irradiance. The extent of variegation was positively correlated (R2 = 0.750) with an increase in excitation pressure irrespective of whether high light, low temperature, or continuous illumination was used to induce increased excitation pressure. Similar trends were observed with the variegated mutants spotty, var1, and var2. Measurements of greening of etiolated wild-type and immutans cotyledons indicated that the absence of IMMUTANS increased excitation pressure twofold during the first 6 to 12 h of greening, which led to impaired biogenesis of thylakoid membranes. In contrast with IMMUTANS, the expression of its mitochondrial analog, AOX1a, was transiently upregulated in the wild type but permanently upregulated in immutans, indicating that the effects of excitation pressure during greening were also detectable in mitochondria. We conclude that mutations involving components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, such as those present in immutans, spotty, var1, and var2, predispose Arabidopsis chloroplasts to photooxidation under high excitation pressure, resulting in the variegated phenotype. PMID:19897671

  4. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossien

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa could be of therapeutic importance such as bronchodilation in asthma, vasodilation in hypertension and therapeutic effect on digestive or urogenital disorders. Therefore in the present article, the relaxant effects of N. sativa and its constituents on smooth muscles and its possible mechanisms as well as clinical application of this effect were reviewed. PMID:25859297

  5. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health.

    PubMed

    Al-Attass, Safia A; Zahran, Fat'heya M; Turkistany, Shereen A

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  6. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    PubMed Central

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  7. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinian, Sara; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Havakhah, Shahrzad; Shafiee, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The clinical use of cisplatin is highly restricted, because of its nephrotoxicity. In this study the protective effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: In the current study, the effects of the administration of aqueous-ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 and 200 mg/kg, BW) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW) against blood and urine biochemical alterations and kidney function in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. Cisplatin was injected at a dose of 6 mg/kg, BW, on the sixth day of the experiment. Results: The results indicated significant changes in serum urea and creatinine concentration, urine glucose concentration, and urine output in cisplatin group compared with control group. Serum urea and creatinine concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW) groups and also serum creatinine concentration in preventive+treatment N. sativa (100 mg/kg, BW) group significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group. Urine glucose concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa groups and urine output in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW) groups significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group.Osmolarity excretion rate in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive N. sativa groups was significantly higher than control group. Conclusions: The current study suggests that N. sativa extract and vitamin E in a dose- and time-dependent manner improved the serum and urine biochemical parameters and kidney function in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it needs more investigations to determine the mechanism of N. sativa action on cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity. PMID:27247921

  8. An in vivo and in vitro model of Plasmodium falciparum rosetting and autoagglutination mediated by varO, a group A var gene encoding a frequent serotype.

    PubMed

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Le Scanf, Cécile; Igonet, Sébastien; Petres, Stéphane; Juillerat, Alexandre; Badaut, Cyril; Nato, Farida; Schneider, Achim; Lavergne, Anne; Contamin, Hugues; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-12-01

    In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1alpha(1) (DBL1alpha(1)) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1alpha(1) recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1alpha(1)-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1alpha(1) domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology. PMID:18809668

  9. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  10. G-protein from Medicago sativa: functional association to photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Muschietti, J P; Martinetto, H E; Coso, O A; Farber, M D; Torres, H N; Flawia, M M

    1993-01-01

    G-protein subunits were characterized from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) seedlings. Crude membranes and GTP-Sepharose-purified fractions were electrophoresed on SDS/polyacrylamide gels and analysed by Western blotting with 9193 (anti-alpha common) and AS/7 (anti-alpha t, anti-alpha i1 and anti-alpha i2) polyclonal antibodies. These procedures led to the identification of a specific polypeptide band of about 43 kDa. Another polypeptide reacting with the SW/1 (anti-beta) antibody, of about 37 kDa, was also detected. The 43 kDa polypeptide bound specifically [alpha-32P]GTP by a photoaffinity reaction and was ADP-ribosylated by activated cholera toxin, but not by pertussis toxin. Irradiation of etiolated Medicago sativa protoplast preparations at 660 nm for 1 min produced a maximal increase in the guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[35S])-binding rate. After this period of irradiation, the binding rate tended to decrease. The effect of a red-light (660 nm) pulse on the binding rate was reversed when it was immediately followed by a period of far-red (> 730 nm) illumination. These results may suggest that activation of GTP[S]-binding rate was a consequence of conversion of phytochrome Pr into the Ptr form. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8484719

  11. Toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids on the green seaweed Ulva lactuca: oxidative stress and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Trivedi, Nitin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-21

    The green credentials of ionic liquids (ILs) are being increasingly questioned due to the growing evidence of their toxicity to aquatic ecosystems, although the mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. This study provides insights into the mechanism of toxicity and biological effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C(n)mim]Br (n = 4 to 16) on the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca. The cell viability of this alga during IL exposure was found to be negatively correlated to the chain length of the alkyl group. The IL ([C(12)mim]Br) exposure triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS viz. O(2)(•-), H(2)O(2), and OH(•)), damage of the membrane and DNA, and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the alga. The enhanced production of ROS and lipid peroxidation in the alga subjected to LC(50) concentration for 4 days was largely attributed to lipoxygenase (LOX) activity coupled with the induction of two LOX isoforms (~80 kDa and ~55 kDa). Pretreatment of the algal thallus with enzyme inhibitors such as diphenylene iodonium, sodium azide, cantharidin, and oxadiazoloquinoxalin-1-one, prior to [C(12)mim]Br exposure showed the regulation of ROS by the activation of membrane bound NADPH-oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. The IL exposure resulted in the accumulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 0.5 LC(50) concentration indicating the induction of desaturase enzymes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were enhanced by 1.3-2.0-fold, while glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) diminished, together with a higher regeneration rate of reduced ascorbate and glutathione. The isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, namely, Mn-SOD (~85 kDa), APX (~125 and 45 kDa), and GR (~135 kDa) regulated differentially to IL exposure. The comet assay performed for the first time for seaweeds revealed the significant induction of DNA damage (>50-70% increase in % tail DNA over control) in alga exposed

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns. PMID:25354144

  13. AI approach to optimal var control with fuzzy reactive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M.; Daneshdoost, M.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to the optimal reactive power (var) control problem. The method incorporates the reactive load uncertainty in optimizing the overall system performance. The artificial neural network (ANN) enhanced by fuzzy sets is used to determine the memberships of control variables corresponding to the given load values. A power flow solution will determine the corresponding state of the system. Since the resulting system state may not be feasible in real-time, a heuristic method based on the application of sensitivities in expert system is employed to refine the solution with minimum adjustments of control variables. Test cases and numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Simplicity, processing speed and ability to model load uncertainties make this approach a viable option for on-line var control.

  14. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  15. Differential var gene transcription in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with cerebral malaria compared to hyperparasitaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Helen M.; Stone, Graham N.; Challis, Richard J.; Raza, Ahmed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Koné, Abdoulaye K.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Rowe, J. Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum variant erythrocyte surface antigens known as PfEMP1, encoded by the var gene family, are thought to play a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis because they mediate adhesion to host cells and immuno-modulation. Var genes have been divided into three major groups (A, B and C) and two intermediate groups (B/A and B/C) on the basis of their genomic location and upstream sequence. We analysed expressed sequence tags of the var gene DBLα domain to investigate var gene transcription in relation to disease severity in Malian children. We found that P. falciparum isolates from children with cerebral malaria (unrousable coma) predominantly transcribe var genes with DBLα1-like domains that are characteristic of Group A or B/A var genes. In contrast, isolates from children with equally high parasite burdens but no symptoms or signs of severe malaria (hyperparasitaemia patients) predominantly transcribe var genes with DBLα0-like domains that are characteristic of the B and C-related var gene groups. These results suggest that var genes with DBLα1-like domains (Group A or B/A) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, while var genes with DBLα0-like domains promote less virulent malaria infections. PMID:16996149

  16. Dynamic simulation of Static Var Compensators in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koessler, R.J. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper is a system study guide for the correction of voltage dips due to large motor startups with Static Var Compensators (SVCs). The method utilizes time simulations, which are an important aid in the equipment design and specification. The paper illustrates the process of setting-up a computer model and performing time simulations. The study process is demonstrated through an example, the Shawnee feeder in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service area.

  17. Graft-related endocarditis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. spinosa.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, R C; de Repentigny, L; Chartrand, C; St Germain, G

    1992-01-01

    The first case of endocarditis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. spinosa is reported. The patient was a child who received a calf pericardium graft after removal of a previously inserted Dacron graft associated with deterioration of adjacent tissue. Copious vegetations removed from the heart were found to be composed of septate hyaline fungal filaments. The fungus was recognized in culture by its bivalved, winged, spiny ascospores, its Aspergillus fischerianus anamorph, and its thermotolerance. Images PMID:1624579

  18. Transient response of a static VAR shunt compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.A.; Zelaya-De La Parra, H.

    1996-05-01

    A typical static VAR shunt compensator has been analyzed so that the step response and steady-state errors can be identified. The results show that the steady-state error is dependent upon the error in the measurement of the currents` phase alone. They also show that an unstable condition can occur, though it should rarely arise in practice. All the theory was verified on a low power (240 V, 3 A) system.

  19. Biotransformation of patchoulol by Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangfang; Liao, Kangsheng; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Dean; Su, Ziren; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Biocatalysis of patchoulol (PA) was performed by the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans. Eight metabolites (1-8) including four new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as (5R,8S)-5,8 dihydroxypatchoulol (1), (5R*,9R*)-5,9 dihydroxypatchoulol (2), (6S*, 9S*)-6,9 dihydroxypatchoulol (3), and (4R*)-4 hydroxypatchoulol (4) by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:26778089

  20. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  1. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control. PMID:27118244

  2. Isulinotropic properties of Nigella sativa oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide diabetic hamster.

    PubMed

    Fararh, K M; Atoji, Y; Shimizu, Y; Takewaki, T

    2002-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the possible insulinotropic properties of Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa) oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus in hamsters. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitoneally 15min before injection of Streptozotocin intravenously. Oral treatment with N. sativa oil began 4 weeks after induction of diabetes. Serum insulin was measured by enzymeimmunoassay. Islets insulin was stained using anti-insulin monoclonal antibody. Significant decrease in blood glucose level together with significant increase in serum insulin level were observed after treatment with N. sativa oil for 4 weeks. Big areas with positive immuno-reactivity for the presence of insulin were observed in the pancreases from N. sativa oil-treated group compared to non-treated one using immunohistochemical staining. Therefore, our data show that the hypoglycemic effect of N. sativa oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide diabetic hamsters resulted, at least partly, from a stimulatory effect on beta cell function with consequent increase in serum insulin level. These results indicate that N. sativa oil has insulinotropic properties in type 2-like model. PMID:12443686

  3. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    PubMed

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  4. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5-2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg(-1) body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg(-1) body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg(-1) ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties. PMID:21792359

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parsa, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment). Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p<0.05) in different experiments. Conclusion: The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human. PMID:27247926

  6. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} and the {Delta}I=1/2 rule

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-07-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale {Lambda}{sub {chi}}{approx_equal}1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} and the {Delta}I=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N{sub c} approximation, the isospin amplitudes A{sub 0} and A{sub 2} are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}=23.6{sub {minus}7.8}{sup +12.4}{times}10{sup {minus}4}(Im{lambda}{sub t}/1.2{times}10{sup {minus}4}) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A{sub 0} and A{sub 2}, the ratio {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} is in favor of the values {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}=(20{+-}9){times}10{sup {minus}4}.

  7. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A. M.; Li, Tao; Sim, B. Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F.; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-01-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase. PMID:27070311

  8. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  9. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase. PMID:27070311

  10. Differential expression of var gene groups is associated with morbidity caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children.

    PubMed

    Rottmann, Matthias; Lavstsen, Thomas; Mugasa, Joseph Paschal; Kaestli, Mirjam; Jensen, Anja T R; Müller, Dania; Theander, Thor; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2006-07-01

    The var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum encodes the variant surface antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is considered an important pathogenicity factor in P. falciparum infection because it mediates cytoadherence to host cell endothelial receptors. var genes can be grouped into three major groups, A, B, and C, and the conserved var genes, var1-4, according to sequence similarities in coding and noncoding upstream regions. Using real-time quantitative PCR in a study conducted in Tanzania, the var transcript abundances of the different var gene groups were compared among patients with severe, uncomplicated, and asymptomatic malaria. Transcripts of var group A and B genes were more abundant in patients with severe malaria than in patients with uncomplicated malaria. In general, the transcript abundances of var group A and B genes were higher for children with clinical malaria than for children with asymptomatic infections. The var group C and var1-like transcript abundances were similar between the three sample groups. A transcript abundance pattern similar to that for var group A was observed for var2csa and var3-like genes. These results suggest that substantial and systematic differences in var gene expression exist between different clinical presentations. PMID:16790763

  11. Structural insight into epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Pernille; Nielsen, Morten A; Resende, Mafalda; Rask, Thomas S; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Theander, Thor; Lund, Ole; Salanti, Ali

    2008-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein of the PfEMP1 family, is the main parasite ligand for CSA binding, and identification of protective antibody epitopes is essential for VAR2CSA vaccine development. Attempts to determine the crystallographic structures of VAR2CSA or its domains have not been successful yet. In this study, we propose 3D models for each of the VAR2CSA DBL domains and we show that regions in the fold of VAR2CSA inter-domain 2 and a PfEMP1 CIDR domain seem to be homologous to the EBA-175 and Pk alpha-DBL fold. This suggests that ID2 could be a functional domain. We also identify regions of VAR2CSA present on the surface of native VAR2CSA by comparing reactivity of plasma containing anti-VAR2CSA antibodies in peptide array experiments before and after incubation with native VAR2CSA. By this method we identify conserved VAR2CSA regions targeted by antibodies that react with the native molecule expressed on infected erythrocytes. By mapping the data onto the DBL models we present evidence suggesting that the S1+S2 DBL sub-domains are generally surface-exposed in most domains, whereas the S3 sub-domains are less exposed in native VAR2CSA. These results comprise an important step towards understanding the structure of VAR2CSA on the surface of CSA-binding infected erythrocytes. PMID:18282103

  12. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Garvey, Edward P.; Hoekstra, William J.; Schotzinger, Robert J.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. PMID:26369977

  13. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. PMID:26369977

  14. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  15. The feasibility of converting Cannabis sativa L. oil into biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Yu; Stuart, James D; Li, Yi; Parnas, Richard S

    2010-11-01

    Cannabis sativa Linn, known as industrial hemp, was utilized for biodiesel production in this study. Oil from hemp seed was converted to biodiesel through base-catalyzed transesterification. The conversion is greater than 99.5% while the product yield is 97%. Several ASTM tests for biodiesel quality were implemented on the biodiesel product, including acid number, sulfur content, flash point, kinematic viscosity, and free and total glycerin content. In addition, the biodiesel has a low cloud point (-5 degrees C) and kinematic viscosity (3.48mm(2)/s). This may be attributed to the high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acid of hemp seed oil and its unique 3:1 ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:20624607

  16. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins. PMID:16600295

  17. Biochemical differences in Cannabis sativa L. depending on sexual phenotype.

    PubMed

    Truţa, Elena; Gille, Elvira; Tóth, Ecaterina; Maniu, Marilena

    2002-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a species considered as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination. Peroxidase and esterase isoenzymes in leaves of the two sexual phenotypes of hemp were studied. Significant differences in isoperoxidase and isoesterase patterns were found between male and female plants, both in the number and stain intensity of bands. For both esterase and peroxidase, the isoenzymatic spectrum is richer for staminate plants. Also, some differences are obvious between the two sexes concerning catalase and peroxidase activities, as well as the level of soluble protein. The quantitative analysis of flavones, polyholozides and polyphenols emphasized differences depending not only on sex, but also on tested organ. PMID:12441630

  18. Biologically Active Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Mohamed M.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Nine new cannabinoids (1–9) were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. Their structures were identified as (±)-4-acetoxycannabichromene (1), (±)-3″-hydroxy-Δ(4″,5″)-cannabichromene (2), (−)-7-hydroxycannabichromane (3), (−)-7R-cannabicoumarononic acid A (4), 5-acetyl-4-hydroxycannabigerol (5), 4-acetoxy-2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentylphenol (6), 8-hydroxycannabinol (7), 8-hydroxycannabinolic acid A (8), and 2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (9) through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known sterol β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-6′-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis. Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity. PMID:19344127

  19. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca2+. Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca2+. We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis. PMID:19704450

  20. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca(2+) is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca(2+). Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca(2+). We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis. PMID:19704450

  1. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Bastante, J; Ortega-Román, C; Pinzi, S; Lara-Raya, F R; Leiva-Candia, D E; Dorado, M P

    2015-06-01

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50°C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. PMID:25768413

  2. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Conclusions The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:22014239

  3. Identification and Characterization of ABA Receptors in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Hao, Qi; Li, Wenqi; Yan, Chuangye

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant stress responses. ABA receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPYLs) have been extensively investigated by structural, biochemical, and in vivo studies. In contrast, relatively little is known about the ABA signal transduction cascade in rice. Besides, the diversities of AtPYLs manifest that the information accumulated in Arabidopsis cannot be simply adapted to rice. Thus, studies on rice ABA receptors are compulsory. By taking a bioinformatic approach, we identified twelve ABA receptor orthologs in Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) (OsPYLs), named OsPYL1–12. We have successfully expressed and purified OsPYL1–3, 6 and 10–12 to homogeneity, tested the inhibitory effects on PP2C in Oryza sativa (OsPP2C), and measured their oligomerization states. OsPYL1–3 mainly exhibit as dimers and require ABA to inhibit PP2C’s activity. On the contrary, OsPYL6 retains in the monomer-dimer equilibrium state and OsPYL10–11 largely exist as monomers, and they all display an ABA-independent phosphatase inhibition manner. Interestingly, although OsPYL12 seems to be a dimer, it abrogates the phosphatase activity of PP2Cs in the absence of ABA. Toward a further understanding of OsPYLs on the ABA binding and PP2C inhibition, we determined the crystal structure of ABA-OsPYL2-OsPP2C06 complex. The bioinformatic, biochemical and structural analysis of ABA receptors in rice provide important foundations for designing rational ABA-analogues and breeding the stress-resistant rice for commercial agriculture. PMID:24743650

  4. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression. PMID:25691743

  5. Observations on the formation of [var epsilon] martensite in an Fe-23. 2%Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Akguen, I.; Durlu, T.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-11-15

    In Fe-Mn binary alloys the formation behavior of [var epsilon] martensite is quite sensitive to the Mn percentage and although both [var epsilon] and [alpha][prime] type martensites are formed in low Mn alloys, mostly [gamma] [yields] [var epsilon] transformation occur as the Mn concentration is increased. The present study was undertaken to examine the formation of thermally induced and also strain-induced [var epsilon] martensites, and their intersections in a Fe-23.2%Mn alloy by using transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  6. Effect of hydrothermal processing on antioxidant contents and capacities in pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple and red bran rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) are rich sources of antioxidants including lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologues and '-oryzanol), soluble phenolics (including anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins), and cell-wall-bound phenolics. This study investigated impacts of hydroth...

  7. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR) and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ), which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26604923

  8. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR) and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ), which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26604923

  9. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  10. Optimized analysis and quantification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds by reverse-phase liquid chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gold-of-pleasure or false flax (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) presscake contains three relatively unique glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl) nonylglucosinolate)glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate. Using defatted seed material...

  11. Analysis of chloramphenicol residues in the macroalgae Ulva lactuca through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Nunes, Margarida; Barbosa, Jorge; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-02-15

    Antibiotic use is a well-described practice to promote animal health whether for prevention or treatment. Nonetheless, it can also cause a number of potentially harmful effects that dictate the need to implement regulation to assure a reduction of hazards to the consumers and the environment. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial excluded from use in animal food production but despite this, reports of illegal use still persist. More recently, awareness has risen that the surrounding natural ecosystems can potentially be contaminated by pharmaceuticals and the extent of their effects in non-target organisms is already under the scope of researchers. To face the demanding new challenges a methodology for the determination of CAP in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed, optimized and fully validated following the guidelines of the EC Decision 2002/657. PMID:25579630

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of the Lactuca Alliance (Cichorieae Subtribe Lactucinae, Asteraceae) with Focus on Their Chinese Centre of Diversity Detects Potential Events of Reticulation and Chloroplast Capture

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze-Huan; Peng, Hua; Kilian, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The first comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of the Cichorieae subtribe Lactucinae is provided. Sequences for two datasets, one of the nuclear rDNA ITS region, the other of five concatenated non-coding chloroplast DNA markers including the petD region and the psbA-trnH, 5′trnL(UAA)-trnF, rpl32-trnL(UAG) and trnQ(UUG)-5′rps16 spacers, were, with few exceptions, newly generated for 130 samples of 78 species. The sampling spans the entire subtribe Lactucinae while focusing on its Chinese centre of diversity; more than 3/4 of the Chinese Lactucinae species are represented. The nuclear and plastid phylogenies inferred from the two independent datasets show various hard topological incongruences. They concern the internal topology of major lineages, in one case the placement of taxa in major lineages, the relationships between major lineages and even the circumscription of the subtribe, indicating potential events of ancient as well as of more recent reticulation and chloroplast capture in the evolution of the subtribe. The core of the subtribe is clearly monophyletic, consisting of the six lineages, Cicerbita, Cicerbita II, Lactuca, Melanoseris, Notoseris and Paraprenanthes. The Faberia lineage and the monospecific Prenanthes purpurea lineage are part of a monophyletic subtribe Lactucinae only in the nuclear or plastid phylogeny, respectively. Morphological and karyological support for their placement is considered. In the light of the molecular phylogenetic reconstruction and of additional morphological data, the conflicting taxonomies of the Chinese Lactuca alliance are discussed and it is concluded that the major lineages revealed are best treated at generic rank. An improved species level taxonomy of the Chinese Lactucinae is outlined; new synonymies and some new combinations are provided. PMID:24376566

  13. Insecticide residues in head lettuce, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and broccoli grown in fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao-Fan; Chen, Jung-Fang; Syu, Jing-Jing; Pei, Chi; Chien, Hsiu-Pao

    2014-04-23

    The residues of four insecticides belonging to different families were studied on head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linn. var. capitata DC.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Skeels), and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) after pesticide application. To reduce application variability, a tank mix of acetamiprid 20% SP, chlorpyrifos 22.5% EC, deltamethrin 2.4% SC, and methomyl 40% SP was applied at recommended and double doses. Initial deposits of all pesticides on head lettuce were higher than those of the other three crops. The residues of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at recommended preharvest intervals (PHIs) on head lettuce and Chinese broccoli treated with higher doses. The residues of methomyl on head lettuce also showed the same phenomenon. PMID:24684565

  14. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations. PMID:27247919

  15. Immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on rat splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Three different concentrations of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) ethanolic extract, thymoquinone (TQ), dexamethasone, and saline were examined to see whether they had any effects on cell viability, proliferation, and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in non-stimulated, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concavaline A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. In PHA and Con A-stimulated splenocytes, cell viability and proliferation were increased and Con A shifted cytokine profile towards Th2 balance. Dexamethasone treatment showed a suppression in viability, IFNγ and IL-4 secretion in non-stimulated and stimulated splenocytes. Extract and TQ reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of stimulated and non-stimulated splenocytes concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of N. sativa (1000 mg/ml) and TQ (5 and 10 mg/ml) reduced the secretion of IL-4 in stimulated cells. Two higher concentrations of N. sativa had decreased IFNγ secretion in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells. In non-stimulated cells, only the highest and in Con A-stimulated cells, all TQ concentrations had inhibited IFNγ secretion. The highest concentration of N. sativa increased IFNγ/IL-4 ratio in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells while higher concentrations of TQ only had the same effect on stimulated cells. N. sativa and TQ showed cytotoxic inhibitory effect on rat splenocytes and on Th1/Th2 cytokines concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of extract and TQ increased cytokines balance in Th1/Th2. PMID:26342766

  16. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W

    2015-09-01

    Many herbal products are now used as remedies to treat various infectious and non-infectious conditions. Even though the use of herbs and natural products is much more evident in the Eastern world, their use in Western cultures is continuously increasing. Although the immunomodulatory effects of some herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of many herbs and various spices is relatively scarce. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, and its major active ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ). This review article focuses on analyzing in vitro and in vivo experimental findings that were reported with regard to the ability of N. sativa and TQ to modulate inflammation, cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses, and Th1/Th2 paradigm. The reported capability of N. sativa to augment the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells is also emphasized. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of N. sativa and TQ are highlighted. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways implicated in the immunoregulatory functions of N. sativa and TQ are underscored. Experimental evidence suggests that N. sativa extracts and TQ can potentially be employed in the development of effective therapeutic agents towards the regulation of immune reactions implicated in various infectious and non-infectious conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:26117430

  17. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

    PubMed Central

    Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 μg/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 μg/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment. PMID:24082629

  18. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations. PMID:27247919

  19. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n = 19) or placebo groups (n = 18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

  20. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  1. Regulation of Sugar Transport Systems in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogélio L.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1990-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum var. lini (ATCC 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (Ks, about 10 mM) when grown under repressed conditions. Under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (Ks, about 40 μM) active system. The maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. The high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. When lactose was the only carbon source in the medium, a facilitated diffusion system for lactose was found (Ks, about 30 mM). PMID:16348256

  2. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  3. [Study on chemical constituents of Drosera peltata var. multisepala].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Huang, Jin; Xu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Peizhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigatation of Drosera peltata var. multisepala led to the isolation of eleven compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as isoshinanolone-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), isoshinanolone (2), epi-isoshinanolone (3), plumbagin (4), droserone (5), droserone-5-O-glucoside (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol (8) , gossypetin-8-O-glucoside (9), 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (10), and ellagic acid (11) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3, 8, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22737855

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Scaldaferro, M A; Prina, A R; Moscone, E A; Kwasniewska, J

    2013-09-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. "Cayenne", with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. PMID:23747514

  5. A new jacaranone derivative from Senecio scandens var. incisus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Shu; Lu, Peng; Duan, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jin-Chao

    2010-03-01

    A new jacaranone derivative, 2-(1,6-dihydroxy-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl) acetic acid (1), has been isolated from the whole plants of Senecio scandens var. incisus, together with three known compounds: 2'-(p-hydroxyl-cinnamoyl)-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2'-caffeoyl-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (3) and kampferol-3-rhamnoside (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with the related known compounds. Cytotoxic activities of 1 against three human tumour cell lines have been evaluated by the MTT method. PMID:20221943

  6. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Jung; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Lee, Sanghyun; Choi, Ran Joo; Chung, Ha Sook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik

    2012-01-01

    Six new germacranolides, zawadskinolides A-F (1-6), and a new eudesmane glucoside, chrysantiloboside (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum, along with thirteen known constituents. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence. Bioassay showed that flavonoids such as apigenin (9), (-)-eriodictyol (10) and nepetin (12), as well as the sesquiterpene lactone, zawadskinolide F (6), inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 66.15, 132.55, 35.44, and 91.32 μM, respectively. PMID:22382409

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  8. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  9. Minimization of the Risk of Diabetic Microangiopathy in Rats by Nigella sativa

    PubMed Central

    Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Yusuksawad, Mariem; Keelawat, Somboon; Thongruay, Sirima; Poumsuk, Ubon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microangiopathy is a chronic diabetic complication resulting from metabolic derangements, oxidative stress, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Nigella sativa Linn. is used as an herbal medicine that exerts hypoglycemic, antilipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Objective: To examine the effects of N. sativa extract on cutaneous microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the following four groups: Untreated and N. sativa-treated normal controls and untreated and N. sativa-treated rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. A cold-pressed N. sativa extract was then orally administered (1000 mg/kg/day). After 8 weeks of treatment, the glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), insulin levels, and lipid profile were determined in cardiac blood. Dermal capillary wall thickness was measured in tail skin sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. Endothelial apoptosis was morphologically evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Diabetes significantly reduced the circulating insulin and low-density lipoprotein levels and caused elevations in the glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, accompanied by a slight increase in total cholesterol levels and no change in the high-density lipoprotein and TNF-α levels. Capillary basement membrane thickening and a decreased capillary luminal diameter despite no evidence of endothelial cell apoptosis were also observed. N. sativa treatment of diabetic rats reduced the mean HbA1c concentration by 1.4%, enlarged the capillary lumens, and tended to attenuate dermal capillary basement membrane thickening without affecting the lipid profile or TNF-α level. Conclusion: Our results indicate that N. sativa may be used to minimize the risk of diabetic microangiopathy, potentially due in part to its glycemic control activity. SUMMARY Diabetes causes dermal capillary basement

  10. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  11. A well-conserved Plasmodium falciparum var gene shows an unusual stage-specific transcript pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kyes, Sue A.; Christodoulou, Zoe; Raza, Ahmed; Horrocks, Paul; Pinches, Robert; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Newbold, Chris I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The var multicopy gene family encodes Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) variant antigens, which, through their ability to adhere to a variety of host receptors, are thought to be important virulence factors. The predominant expression of a single cytoadherent PfEMP1 type on an infected red blood cell, and the switching between different PfEMP1 types to evade host protective antibody responses, are processes thought to be controlled at the transcriptional level. Contradictory data have been published on the timing of var gene transcription. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data suggested that transcription of the predominant var gene occurs in the later (pigmented trophozoite) stages, whereas Northern blot data indicated such transcripts only in early (ring) stages. We investigated this discrepancy by Northern blot, with probes covering a diverse var gene repertoire. We confirm that almost all var transcript types were detected only in ring stages. However, one type, the well-conserved varCSA transcript, was present constitutively in different laboratory parasites and does not appear to undergo antigenic variation. Although varCSA has been shown to encode a chondroitin sulphate A (CSA)-binding PfEMP1, we find that the presence of full-length varCSA transcripts does not correlate with the CSA-binding phenotype. PMID:12787360

  12. Generation of Antigenic Diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by Structured Rearrangement of Var Genes During Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D.; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7–72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle. PMID:25521112

  13. A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezcua, Javier; Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2016-04-01

    4DEnsembleVar is a hybrid data assimilation method which, besides making use of flow-dependent ensemble covariance information, avoids the computation of tangent-linear and adjoint models for the evolution and observation operators. In this method, the information from the observation time is communicated to the initial time via 4D cross-time covariances. Large systems require localisation of covariance matrices to suppress long-distance spurious elements. In a 4D covariance, however, using static localisation matrices (as it is done in practice) can eliminate the effect of observations if their location (at observational time) is far from that of the variable they are influencing (at the initial time). In lack of time-dependent localisation functions, in this work we propose a simpler option to ameliorate this problem. We exploit the presence of model error to spread the information of observations to more time steps, introducing a weak-constrained 4DEnsembleVar. The benefits of this method are illustrated in the Korteweg-de-Vries system, the Lorenz 1996 system, and a modified shallow water system with simulated convection.

  14. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  15. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  16. Impact of EnVar hybrid assimilation using EnKF ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Performance of an EnVar hybrid data assimilation system based on 3D Var NGFS (NCMRWF Global Forecast System) of T574 configuration and Ensemble Kalman Filter is investigated. The experiment is conducted during the Indian monsoon season (June-September) 2015 and compared against operational GSI 3D Var system. Two way coupled dual resolution hybrid system with 80 member ensemble of T254L64 configuration are used and forecasts are done for 10days. In hybrid experiment 75% weight is given to ensemble covariance and 25% for static covariance. The forecast skill of experiments over different spatial domains is compared against observations and respective analysis. The hybrid experiment produced significant improvement in forecasts compared to 3D Var in all fields except lower level temperature over tropical regions. Improvement is also seen in the prediction of extreme rainfall events. The prediction of monsoon onset and track of cyclone Ashobaa with hybrid and 3D var system is discussed.

  17. Use of incremental analysis updates in 4D-Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Banglin; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Sippel, Jason; Ma, Zaizhong

    2015-12-01

    The four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation systems used in most operational and research centers use initial condition increments as control variables and adjust initial increments to find optimal analysis solutions. This approach may sometimes create discontinuities in analysis fields and produce undesirable spin ups and spin downs. This study explores using incremental analysis updates (IAU) in 4D-Var to reduce the analysis discontinuities. IAU-based 4D-Var has almost the same mathematical formula as conventional 4D-Var if the initial condition increments are replaced with time-integrated increments as control variables. The IAU technique was implemented in the NASA/GSFC 4D-Var prototype and compared against a control run without IAU. The results showed that the initial precipitation spikes were removed and that other discontinuities were also reduced, especially for the analysis of surface temperature.

  18. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  19. Occurrence of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; González-Armas, Rogelio

    2011-03-01

    As part of a continuing toxic microalgae monitoring program, 22 phytoplankton samples were collected from July to November 2010 at several sampling stations along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula. For the first time, the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum was found along the southeastern and southwestern coasts of the peninsula. P. bahamense var. bahamense was first observed off San José del Cabo, which is an extension of the range of this variety. Both varieties occur as solitary cells. P. bahamense var. compressum occurred at temperatures ranging between 24.5°C and 31°C, whereas var. P.bahamense occurred at 28.5°C to 29°C, indicating its tropical and subtropical nature. Occurrence of P. bahamense var. compressum along this coastline may be related to El Niño 2009-2010. PMID:21276986

  20. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Hayatul; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Salman, Mohammad Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5th day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. Conclusion: During germination, especially in 5th day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination. PMID:26109765

  1. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples. PMID:26616932

  2. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug.

    PubMed

    Zuardi, A W; Crippa, J A S; Hallak, J E C; Moreira, F A; Guimarães, F S

    2006-04-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated. PMID:16612464

  3. Sequence analysis and homology modeling of peroxidase from Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    Hooda, Vinita; Gundala, Prasada babu; Chinthala, Paramageetham

    2012-01-01

    Plant peroxidases are one of the most extensively studied group of enzymes which find applications in the environment, health, pharmaceutical, chemical and biotechnological processes. Class III secretary peroxidase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been characterized using bioinformatics approach Physiochemical properties and topology of alfalfa peroxidase were compared with that of soybean and horseradish peroxidase, two most popular commercially available peroxidase preparations. Lower value of instability index as predicted by ProtParam and presence of extra disulphide linkages as predicted by Cys_REC suggested alfalfa peroxidase to be more stable than either of the commercial preparations. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) with other functionally similar proteins revealed the presence of highly conserved catalytic residues. Three dimensional model of alfalfa peroxidase was constructed based on the crystal structure of soybean peroxidase (PDB Id: 1FHF A) by homology modelling approach. The model was checked for stereo chemical quality by PROCHECH, VERIFY 3D, WHAT IF, ERRAT, 3D MATCH AND ProSA servers. The best model was selected, energy minimized and used to analyze structure function relationship with substrate hydrogen peroxide by Autodock 4.0. The enzyme substrate complex was viewed with Swiss PDB viewer and one residue ASP43 was found to stabilize the interaction by hydrogen bonds. The results of the study may be a guiding point for further investigations on alfalfa peroxidase. PMID:23275690

  4. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. PMID:26189495

  5. Cannabinoid Ester Constituents from High-Potency Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Safwat A.; Ross, Samir A.; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Zulfiqar, Fazila; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Eleven new cannabinoid esters, together with three known cannabinoid acids and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be β-fenchyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (1), epi-bornyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (2), α-terpenyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (3), 4-terpenyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (4), α-cadinyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (5), γ-eudesmyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (6), γ-eudesmyl cannabigerolate (7), 4-terpenyl cannabinolate (8), bornyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (9), α-fenchyl Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate (10), α-cadinyl cannabigerolate (11), Δ9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA), cannabinolic acid A (CBNA), and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). Compound 8 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 with an IC50 value of 8.5 μg/mL. CB-1 receptor assay indicated that the esters, as well as the parent acids, are not active. PMID:18303850

  6. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

  7. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Kessmann, Helmut; Edwards, Robert; Geno, Paul W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with l-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures. PMID:16667691

  8. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Safwat A.; Ross, Samir A.; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC–MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ9-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ8-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ6a,10a-THC, and 1′S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26093324

  9. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26093324

  10. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general development of C. sativa should

  11. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Hammad; Ahmad, Asif; Masud, Tariq; Kaleem, Muhammad

    2014-12-01

    Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:25859300

  12. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. PMID:23646296

  13. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury. PMID:25859299

  14. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Hammad; Ahmad, Asif; Masud, Tariq; Kaleem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:25859300

  15. Analyses of Old “Prokaryotic” Proteins Indicate Functional Diversification in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anupama; Jethva, Minesh; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani; Kushwaha, Hemant R.

    2016-01-01

    During evolution, various processes such as duplication, divergence, recombination, and many other events leads to the evolution of new genes with novel functions. These evolutionary events, thus significantly impact the evolution of cellular, physiological, morphological, and other phenotypic trait of organisms. While evolving, eukaryotes have acquired large number of genes from the earlier prokaryotes. This work is focused upon identification of old “prokaryotic” proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genome, further highlighting their possible role(s) in the two genomes. Our results suggest that with respect to their genome size, the fraction of old “prokaryotic” proteins is higher in Arabidopsis than in Oryza sativa. The large fractions of such proteins encoding genes were found to be localized in various endo-symbiotic organelles. The domain architecture of the old “prokaryotic” proteins revealed similar distribution in both Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genomes showing their conserved evolution. In Oryza sativa, the old “prokaryotic” proteins were more involved in developmental processes, might be due to constant man-made selection pressure for better agronomic traits/productivity. While in Arabidopsis, these proteins were involved in metabolic functions. Overall, the analysis indicates the distinct pattern of evolution of old “prokaryotic” proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa. PMID:27014324

  16. Radioprotection by Macerated Extract of Nigella sativa in Normal Tissues of Fibrosarcoma Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Velho-Pereira, Reelma; Kumar, A.; Pandey, B. N.; Mishra, K. P.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of a macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds in normal as well as in tumour bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage to normal tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting where in, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analysed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole body irradiated mice following pretreatment with macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg/kg), using alkaline comet assay, and also estimating biochemical and blood parameters such as levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation in organs such as spleen, liver, brain and intestine haemoglobin and total leucocyte count, respectively. The results showed that the macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected the liver, spleen, brain and intestines both in normal as well as tumour bearing mice. This study concludes that macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds has protective effects against radiation-induced damage and biochemical alterations which could be attributed to the ability to scavenge free radicals and its antioxidant properties. Hence macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds, could be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress in normal tissues and improving the quality of life of cancer patients by mitigating unwanted side effects of radiation in normal tissues. PMID:23716868

  17. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-05-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. PMID:23646296

  18. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Salarinia, Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Oliaee, Davood; Gul Ghasemi, Sima; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa), which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle) or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation). Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells. Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells. PMID:27247929

  19. Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oils on Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Abu El Ezz, Nadia M T

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of two oils had been carried out either prior to infection or postinfection respectively in rats. Each rat in either case was orally administered with N. sativa oil or A. cepa oil in a dose 5 mg/kg body weight/day for 2 weeks. Assessment of results was by: (1) adult worm count in the intestine on 7th and 20th day post infection. (2) larval count in the muscles on the 60th day post infection. (3) Index of reproductive capacity. (4) Detection of antibodies against T. spiralis larvae by using ELISA. The results showed that, N. sativa oil as prophylactic treatment prior to T. spiralis infection is more effective than A. cepa oil on both adult worms and muscle larval count. While, A. cepa oil was showed more effectiveness than N. sativa on decline number of adult worms and muscle larvae when used as therapeutic treatment post infection. The level of antibody was recorded early in the groups that treated with N. sativa oil. In conclusion, N. sativa and A. cepa oils have anthelmintic effect in the rats infected with T. spiralis infection and increased the production of antibodies generated during life cycle of this parasite. PMID:16083064

  20. [Effects of Sedum plumbizincicola--Oryza sativa rotation and phosphate amendment on Cd and Zn uptake by O. sativa].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-bo; Wu, Long-hua; Tan, Wei-na; Han, Xiao-ri; Luo, Yong-ming; Ouyang, You-nan; Jin, Qian-yu; Jiang, Yu-gen

    2010-11-01

    In a pot experiment, hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and low-cadmium accumulating Oryza sativa cultivar "Zhongxiang No. 1" were planted in rotation on a heavy metals-polluted soil, and calcium magnesium phosphate (Ca-P) and rock phosphate (P-R) were amended, aimed to study the effects of the rotation and phosphate amendment on the growth of the two plants and the zinc- and cadmium accumulation in their shoots. After the amendment of 50 g P-R x kg(-1), the Zn and Cd uptake by S. plumbizincicola was 11.5 mg x pot(-1) and 0 x 79 mg x pot(-1), respectively, being significantly higher than that after the amendment of 4 g Ca-P x kg(-1). After the planting of S. plumbizincicola, the Zn and Cd concentrations in "Zhongxiang No. 1" increased, but the amendment of Ca-P decreased the accumulation of Zn and Cd in rice shoot significantly. The rotation with S. plumbizincicola and the amendment of Ca-P and P-R could immobilize the Zn and Cd in the contaminated soil as indicated by the quantitative change of NH4OAc-extractable Cd and Zn, and the efficiency of amendment with Ca-P was better than that of amendment with P-R. Field trial showed that amendment with Ca-P could not only increase the rice yield, but also reduce the Zn and Cd accumulation in rice shoot to a certain extent. PMID:21361023

  1. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  2. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  3. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. PMID:26165967

  4. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

    PubMed

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition. PMID:25036570

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  6. Antimicrobial phenolic derivatives from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2007-11-01

    A phytochemical study on the root of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura, using a series of silica gel column chromatography and reversed phase C-18 HPLC chromatography, led to the isolation of (1S, 2S)-1, 2, 3-trihydroxy-1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane (1), 4-methoxycinnamic acid (2), acacetin (3) and caffeic acid methyl ester (4). The structures of these compounds were determined using spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRTOFMS and NMR), with comparison of their spectral data with previously reported values. Compound 1 was isolated for the first time, with compounds 2 and 4 from this plant reported for the first time. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the isolated compounds were measured using the disc diffusion method. Also, their cytotoxicities against the cancer cell lines, A549, B16F1 and SK-Mel-2, and brine shrimp lethalities were evaluated. PMID:18087803

  7. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae. PMID:26119117

  8. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) μg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) μg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) μg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

  9. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched

  10. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (<0.22 μm) were corrected for the effect of colloid-bound YREEs (>3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ∼ 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding

  11. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with

  12. [Analysis and identification of Liriomyza sativae-attractants from cowpea and kidney bean volatiles].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming; Deng, Xiaojun; Du, Jiawei

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the volatiles from cowpea and kidney bean, the main host plants of American leafminer Liriomyza sativae, were collected and extracted by a self-designed device and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the volatiles from the two beans had the same components mainly consisted of 2-hexenal, 3-Hexen-1-ol, 2-Hexen-1-ol, 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-Hexenol acetate, alpha-Ionone and beta-Ionone. The lure made of the seven components was attractive to L. sativae in field trapping trials. Detailed analyses indicated that alpha-Ionone and beta-Ionone might play important roles in the searching behavior of L. sativae for host plants. PMID:16110669

  13. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus on antimicrobial effects, different extracts of N. sativa as well as TQ, have a broad antimicrobial spectrum including Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, parasites, schistosoma and fungi. The effectiveness of N. sativa seeds and TQ is variable and depends on species of target microorganisms. The present review paper tries to describe all antimicrobial activities that have been carried out by various researchers. PMID:25859296

  14. The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, Etienne P M; Bagatta, Manuela; Carboni, Andrea; Crucitti, Paola; Moliterni, V M Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo; Mandolino, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Four crosses were made between inbred Cannabis sativa plants with pure cannabidiol (CBD) and pure Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chemotypes. All the plants belonging to the F(1)'s were analyzed by gas chromatography for cannabinoid composition and constantly found to have a mixed CBD-THC chemotype. Ten individual F(1) plants were self-fertilized, and 10 inbred F(2) offspring were collected and analyzed. In all cases, a segregation of the three chemotypes (pure CBD, mixed CBD-THC, and pure THC) fitting a 1:2:1 proportion was observed. The CBD/THC ratio was found to be significantly progeny specific and transmitted from each F(1) to the F(2)'s derived from it. A model involving one locus, B, with two alleles, B(D) and B(T), is proposed, with the two alleles being codominant. The mixed chemotypes are interpreted as due to the genotype B(D)/B(T) at the B locus, while the pure-chemotype plants are due to homozygosity at the B locus (either B(D)/B(D) or B(T)/B(T)). It is suggested that such codominance is due to the codification by the two alleles for different isoforms of the same synthase, having different specificity for the conversion of the common precursor cannabigerol into CBD or THC, respectively. The F(2) segregating groups were used in a bulk segregant analysis of the pooled DNAs for screening RAPD primers; three chemotype-associated markers are described, one of which has been transformed in a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker and shows tight linkage to the chemotype and codominance. PMID:12586720

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26446086

  16. Lipid analysis of developing Camelina sativa seeds and cultured embryos.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Mike; Martin, Tina M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-10-01

    Camelina sativa is a cultivated oilseed rich in triacylglycerols containing oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and eicosenoic acids. As it holds promise as a model species, its lipid synthesis was characterized in vivo and in culture. Lipid accumulates at a maximum rate of about 26 μg/day/seed (11.5 mg lipid/day/g fresh seed weight), a rate comparable with other oilseeds. Noteworthy is a late stage surge in α-linolenic acid accumulation. Small amounts of unusual epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids are also present in the triacylglycerols. These include 15,16-epoxy- and 15-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids and homologous series of ω7-hydroxy-alk-ω9-enoic and ω9/10-hydroxy-alkanoic acids. Mid-maturation embryos cultured in vitro have growth and lipid deposition rates and fatty acid compositions that closely match that of seeds, but extended culture periods allow these rates to rise and surpass those observed in planta. Optimized thin layer chromatography systems for characterization of labeled products from acetate or glycerol labeling are described. Glycerol label is only found in acylglycerols, largely as the intact glyceryl backbone, but acetate can label acyl groups and sterols, the latter to a much higher relative specific activity. This presumably occurs because mevalonic acid precursor is derived from the non-plastid pool of acetyl-CoA that is also the source for malonyl-CoA to drive FAE1-dependent chain elongation. Particular attention has been paid to the separation of sterols and diacylglycerols, and to hydrogenation of triacylglycerols to simplify their analysis. These improved methods will allow more accurate analyses of the fluxes of lipid metabolism in cultured plant embryos. PMID:26262674

  17. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  18. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Drucker-Colín, René

    2006-08-01

    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two major constituents of Cannabis sativa. Delta(9)-THC modulates sleep, but no clear evidence on the role of CBD is available. In order to determine the effects of CBD on sleep, it was administered intracerebroventricular (icv) in a dose of 10 microg/5 microl at the beginning of either the lights-on or the lights-off period. We found that CBD administered during the lights-on period increased wakefulness (W) and decreased rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). No changes on sleep were observed during the dark phase. Icv injections of CBD (10 microg/5microl) induced an enhancement of c-Fos expression in waking-related brain areas such as hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). Microdialysis in unanesthetized rats was carried out to characterize the effects of icv administration of CBD (10 microg/5 microl) on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) within the nucleus accumbens. CBD induced an increase in DA release. Finally, in order to test if the waking properties of CBD could be blocked by the sleep-inducing endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA), animals received ANA (10 microg/2.5 microl, icv) followed 15 min later by CBD (10 microg/2.5 microl). Results showed that the waking properties of CBD were not blocked by ANA. In conclusion, we found that CBD modulates waking via activation of neurons in the hypothalamus and DRD. Both regions are apparently involved in the generation of alertness. Also, CBD increases DA levels as measured by microdialysis and HPLC procedures. Since CBD induces alertness, it might be of therapeutic value in sleep disorders such as excessive somnolence. PMID:16844117

  19. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  20. Comparing Nigella sativa Oil and Fish Oil in Treatment of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Khalili, Ali; Rokhafrooz, Darioush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the autoimmune skin diseases that destroy the melanocytes of the skin. Moreover, its prevalence varies in different countries and regions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Nigella sativa and fish oil on vitiligo lesions of the patients referred to a dermatology clinic. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted in the dermatology clinic of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Ahvaz, Iran, from June to December 2011. We used a randomized simple sampling. From 96 patients with vitiligo, 52 eligible patients were selected and allocated to two groups with equal size. The study medications were applied twice a day by patients on their lesions. After six months, the improvement rate of lesions was assessed by the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI). Data were analyzed using SPSS v. 15; P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After six months, a mean score of VASI decreased from 4.98 to 3.75 in patients applying topical Nigella sativa and from 4.98 to 4.62 in those using topical fish oil. Most of the percent improvement observed in upper extremities, trunk, head, and neck of those who received Nigella sativa and head, neck, trunk, and feet of those who received fish oil. No adverse effect was reported by the patients. Conclusions: Nigella sativa oil and fish oil were effective in reduction the size of patient’s lesions; however, Nigella sativa was more effective in comparison to the fish oil. Therefore, using Nigella sativa with the major drugs in the treatment of vitiligo is recommended. PMID:25068060

  1. Nigella sativa seed decreases endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Niazmand, Saeed; Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events. The great percent of morbidity in patients with diabetes is due to endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on contractile and dilatation response of isolated aorta in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic, and N. sativa hydroalcholic extract or metformin-treated diabetic rats). Treated rats received N. sativa extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or metformin (300 mg/kg) by gavage, daily for 6 weeks. Isolated rat thoracic rings were mounted in an organ bath system then contractile and dilatation responses induced by phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were evaluated in different situations. Results: The lower concentrations of N. sativa seed extract (DE 100 and DE 200) and metformin significantly reduced the contractile responses to higher concentrations of PE (10-6 - 10-5 M) compared to diabetic group (p<0.05 to p<0.01). The relaxation response to Ach 10-8 M, was increased in DE 200 and metformin groups compared to diabetic group (p<0.05). The relaxation responses to Ach 10-7 - 10-5 M were significantly higher in all treated groups compared to diabetic group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: Chronic administration of N. sativa seed extract has a significant hypoglycemic effect and improves aortic reactivity to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27247923

  2. Mechanisms of the antihypertensive effects of Nigella sativa oil in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Foong, Wai Dic; Yeoh, Min Hui; Kamarul, Zaman Yusoff Nik; Qodriyah, Haji Mohd Saad; Azman, Abdullah; Zuhair, Japar Sidik Fadhlullah; Juliana, Abdul Hamid; Kamisah, Yusof

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers. METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into 4 groups. One group served as the control (group 1), whereas the other three groups (groups 2-4) were administered L-NAME (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Groups 3 and 4 were given oral nicardipine daily at a dose of 3 mg/kg and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks, respectively, concomitantly with L-NAME administration. RESULTS Nigella sativa oil prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure in the L-NAME-treated rats. The blood pressure reduction was associated with a reduction in cardiac lipid peroxidation product, NADPH oxidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and plasma nitric oxide, as well as with an increase in heme oxygenase-1 activity in the heart. The effects of Nigella sativa on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation product, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme were similar to those of nicardipine. In contrast, L-NAME had opposite effects on lipid peroxidation, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO. CONCLUSION: The antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa oil appears to be mediated by a reduction in cardiac oxidative stress and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, an increase in cardiac heme oxygenase-1 activity and a prevention of plasma nitric oxide loss. Thus, Nigella sativa oil might be beneficial for controlling hypertension. PMID:26602523

  3. N-glycan transition of the early developmental stage in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Risa; Hirotsu, Naoki; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu

    2016-08-26

    N-Glycosylation is one of the post-translational modifications. In animals, N-glycans linked to proteins function in cell-cell recognition, sorting, transport, and other biological phenomena. However, in plants, N-glycan-mediated biological functions remain obscure. In a previous study, we showed that the main type of N-glycan transition is from the paucimannosidic to complex type before and after germination in Oryza sativa, suggesting that transitions of N-glycan, including those of glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases, are closely associated with plant growth. To further elucidate the relationship between N-glycan structure and plant growth, we analyzed the structures of N-glycans expressed in O. sativa seedlings grown under light conditions and performed comparative analyses of the structures in the shoot and root. The analyses show that fundamental N-glycan structures are common to the shoot and root, whereas paucimannosidic-type N-glycans dramatically decreased in the root grown under light conditions. Further, to investigate the effects of light on N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings, we analyzed N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings grown in the dark. Understandably, N-glycan expression in the root was almost unaffected by light. However, despite a marked difference in phenotype, N-glycan expression in the shoot was also unaffected by light. This result suggests that the shoot and root of O. sativa have different glycoproteins and distinct N-glycan synthetic systems. Thus, we propose that the N-glycan synthetic system of the O. sativa shoot is almost unaffected by light conditions and that many photosynthesis-related proteins are not modified by N-glycans. PMID:27320861

  4. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Aboelhadid, Shawky Mohamed; Mahran, Hesham A; El-Hariri, Hazem M; Shokier, Khalid Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study. Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or absolute ethyl alcohol only), 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions), 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa) preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions), and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions). The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials. Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% concentration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic preparations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol) resulted in no mortality. All differences were statistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5%) and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%). The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%. Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20%) that could achieve the highest lethal (100%) effect in shortest time (12 hours). Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae. PMID:27308273

  5. [Responses of Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens seedlings growth and water use to soil moisture regime].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingcheng; Shan, Lun; Li, Fengmin

    2005-12-01

    In the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, seasonal drought often occurs during the vegetative stage of grass plants, leading to the subsequent serious reduction of their yield. Aimed to study the responses of the seedlings growth and water use of two perennial leguminous grasses Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens to different soil moisture regimes, a pot experiment was installed with five treatments, i.e., adequate water supply (HW), moderate water stress (LW), soil drying gradually from HW (DHW) and LW (DLW), and refilling water to LW after soil drying from LW (RWL). The results showed that under HW, the seedlings of both M. sativa and A. adsurgens had the highest biomass and transpiration water use efficiency (TWUE), and M. sativa had a significantly higher biomass than A. adsurgens (P < 0.05). When the soil moisture content declined, M. sativa had a higher reduction rate in biomass and TWUE than A. adsurgens, and after the soil moisture regime changed from LW and DLW to RWL, the biomass of M. sativa and A. adsurgens was reduced by 47.8% and 27.9%, respectively, as compared to LW (P < 0.05). At the same time, the root/shoot ratio (R/S) of M. sativa and its water consumption per unit root increased significantly, while the TWUE decreased significantly (P < 0.05); but for A. adsurgens, its R/S decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while the TWUE and the water consumption per unit root had no significant change. PMID:16515181

  6. Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria inoculation on cadmium (Cd) uptake by Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-06-01

    Microbe-assisted phyto-remediation approach is widely applied and appropriate choice to reduce the environmental risk of heavy metals originated from contaminated soils. The present study was designed to screen out the nested belongings of Eruca sativa plants and Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 39213) at varying cadmium (Cd) levels and their potential to deal with Cd uptake from soils. We carried out pot trial experiment by examining the soil containing E. sativa seedlings either treated with P. putida and/or untreated plants subjected to three different levels (ppm) of Cd (i.e., 150, 250, and 500). In all studied cases, we observed an increase in Cd uptake for E. sativa plants inoculated with P. putida than those of un-inoculated plants. Cd toxicity was assessed by recording different parameters including stunted shoot growth, poor rooting, and Cd residual levels in the plants that were not inoculated with P. putida. Significant difference (p < 0.05) of different growth parameters for inoculated vs non-inoculated plants was observed at all given treatments. However, among the different treatments, E. sativa exhibited increased values for different growth parameters (except proline contents) at lower Cd levels than those of their corresponding higher levels, shoot length (up to 27 %), root length (up to 32 %), whole fresh plant (up to 40 %), dry weight (up to 22 %), and chlorophyll contents (up to 26 %). Despite the hyperaccumulation of Cd in whole plant of E. sativa, P. putida improved the plant growth at varying levels of Cd supply than those of associated non-inoculated plants. Present results indicated that inoculation with P. putida enhanced the Cd uptake potential of E. sativa and favors the healthy growth under Cd stress. PMID:25592913

  7. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    PubMed

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  8. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile, Jania rubens, and Dictyota dichotoma from Rabta Bay, Jijel (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Laib, Essaid; Leghouchi, Essaid

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in algae samples collected from the Rabta Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Algeria. The levels of heavy metals in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Dictyota dichotoma (brown algae) recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Zn was the most predominant metal in the seaweeds. The obtained HM contents indicate that different species demonstrate various degree of metal accumulation and the obtained higher values in site 1 of the studied zone can be attributed to the discharge influence of two rivers (Mouttas and Larayeche Rivers), entering the Mediterranean Sea and local pollutant emissions. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the macroalgae samples was found in the order below: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd from the studied zone. The highest amounts of heavy metals in algae samples were Cd, Cu, and Pb in brown algae, and Cr and Zn in green and brown algae from the studied zone (Rabta Bay). PMID:21755430

  9. Effects of methanolic macroalgae extracts from Caulerpa sertularioides and Ulva lactuca on Litopenaeus vannamei survival in the presence of Vibrio bacteria.

    PubMed

    Esquer-Miranda, Edgard; Nieves-Soto, Mario; Rivas-Vega, Martha Elisa; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Piña-Valdez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that are useful for the development of new functional ingredients. This study was conducted to determine whether methanolic extracts from Caulerpa sertularioides and Ulva lactuca macroalgae might be possible alternatives for the prevention of shrimp vibriosis, which is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Macroalgae extracts prepared with methanol as the solvent were evaluated for antibacterial activity with the microplate method. The extracts' effects on the mortality of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated at doses of 150 and 300 mg L(-1). Two independent assays for V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were performed. The methanolic extract of C. sertularioides exhibited activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, and it had minimal inhibitory concentrations of <1000 and < 1500 μg mL(-1), respectively. L. vannamei mortality in the presence of both The methanolic extract of C. sertularioides exhibited activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, and it had minimal inhibitory concentrations of <1000 and <1500 μg mL(-1), respectively. and V. alginolyticus bacteria significantly decreased after treatment with 300 mg L(-1) C. sertularioides methanolic extract. PMID:26915309

  10. Study on O2 generation and CO2 absorption capability of four co-cultured salad plants in an enclosed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Shen, Yunze; Qin, Lifeng; Ma, Jialu; Zhu, Jingtao; Ren, Jin

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate O2 and absorb CO2 of several co-cultured vegetable plants in an enclosed system was studied to provide theoretical reference for the future man-plant integrated tests. Four kinds of salad plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. Dasusheng, Lactuca sativa L. var. Youmaicai, Gynura bicolor and Cichorium endivia L.) were grown in the CELSS Integration Test Platform (CITP). The environmental factors including O2 and CO2 concentration were continuously monitored on-line and the plant biomass was measured at the end of the test. The changing rules of O2 and CO2 concentration in the system were basically understood and it was found that the O2 generated by the plants could satisfy the respiratory needs of 1.75 persons by calculation. It was also found that the plants could absorb the CO2 breathed out by 2 persons when the light intensity was raised to 550 mmol m-2 s-1 PPF. The results showed that the co-cultured plants hold good compatibility and excellent O2-generating and CO2-absorbing capability. They could also supply some fresh edible vegetable for a 2-person crew.

  11. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., which must restrict to a limited number of specified people those who have the ability to alter or... VAR period, the total volume in gallons of transfers from the facility of unadditized base...

  12. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  13. ClinVar: public archive of relationships among sequence variation and human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Landrum, Melissa J.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Riley, George R.; Jang, Wonhee; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Church, Deanna M.; Maglott, Donna R.

    2014-01-01

    ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) provides a freely available archive of reports of relationships among medically important variants and phenotypes. ClinVar accessions submissions reporting human variation, interpretations of the relationship of that variation to human health and the evidence supporting each interpretation. The database is tightly coupled with dbSNP and dbVar, which maintain information about the location of variation on human assemblies. ClinVar is also based on the phenotypic descriptions maintained in MedGen (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen). Each ClinVar record represents the submitter, the variation and the phenotype, i.e. the unit that is assigned an accession of the format SCV000000000.0. The submitter can update the submission at any time, in which case a new version is assigned. To facilitate evaluation of the medical importance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions with the same variation/phenotype combination, adds value from other NCBI databases, assigns a distinct accession of the format RCV000000000.0 and reports if there are conflicting clinical interpretations. Data in ClinVar are available in multiple formats, including html, download as XML, VCF or tab-delimited subsets. Data from ClinVar are provided as annotation tracks on genomic RefSeqs and are used in tools such as Variation Reporter (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/variation/tools/reporter), which reports what is known about variation based on user-supplied locations. PMID:24234437

  14. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P. fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides. PMID:25814589

  15. A Framework to Quantify the Economic Impact from Local VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Tolbert, Leon M; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that reactive power (or Var) compensation will bring benefits for utilities and industrial customers by providing local voltage and power factor support. However, there is a lack of a systematic approach to quantitatively identify the economic benefit. In addition, with deregulation and restructuring, it is important to indicate the amount of benefit that each market participant may potentially receive given the right price signals. If such information can be easily obtained and presented, it will be more convenient for decision-markers to determine the cost benefit sharing of installing a Var compensator. The vision of this paper is to lay out a possible method for quantitatively evaluating the benefits from local reactive power compensation. The approach is to quantify the benefits into several categories such as reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer. The calculation of these benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus power system model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow to calculate the benefits. Simulation on the more complex system is conducted with seven buses in two areas. The simulation results show that the possible economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payments to central generators or payment of power factor penalties applied by utilities. The potential economic value of local Var compensation may give various parties in electricity supply, delivery and end-use consumption a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation installation. Sensitivity analysis is also provided to illustrate that the benefits may not be monotonically increasing. Also, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers or other way to encourage load Var capability, since local Var benefit is significant.

  16. A Framework to Quantify the Economic Benefit from Local VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Tolbert, Leon M; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2008-01-01

    Abstract It is generally accepted that reactive power (or Var) compensation will bring benefits for utilities and industrial customers by providing local voltage and power factor support. However, there is a lack of a systematic approach to quantitatively identify the economic benefit. In addition, with the deregulation and restructuring, it is important to indicate the amount of benefit that each market participant may potentially receive given the right price signals. If such information can be easily obtained and presented, it will be more convenient for decision-markers to determine the cost benefit sharing of installing a Var compensator. This vision of this paper is to lay out a possible method for quantitatively evaluating the benefits from local reactive power compensation. The approach is to quantify the benefits into several categories such as reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer. The calculation of these benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus power system model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow to calculate the benefits. Simulation on the more complex system is conducted with seven buses in two areas. The simulation results show that the possible economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payments to central generators or payment of power factor penalties applied by utilities. The potential economic value of local Var compensation may give various parties in electricity supply, delivery and end-use consumption a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation installation. Sensitivity analysis is also provided to illustrate that the benefits may not be monotonically increasing. Also, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers or other way to encourage load Var capability, since local Var benefit is significant.

  17. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum can result in several different syndromes with severe clinical consequences for the about 200 million individuals infected each year. During pregnancy, women living in endemic areas become susceptible to malaria due to lack of antibodies against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies. In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. Methods All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested for surface reactivity against infected erythrocytes expressing FCR3 VAR2CSA and for the ability to inhibit FCR3CSA parasite adhesion to CSA. The fine specificity of the immune sera was analysed by VAR2CSA peptide arrays. Results Inhibitory antibodies were induced by immunization with DBL3-HB3 T1 and DBL1-3D7. However, unlike the previously characterised DBL4-FCR3 response the inhibitory response against DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 was poorly reproduced in the second rounds of immunizations. Conclusion It is possible to induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies when immunizing with a number of different VAR2CSA domains. This indicates that the CSA binding site in VAR2CSA is comprised of epitopes from different domains. PMID:20064234

  18. Four-dimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation for the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, N.; Bojarova, J.

    2014-07-01

    A four-dimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation has been developed for a limited area model. The integration of tangent linear and adjoint models, as applied in standard 4D-Var, is replaced with the use of an ensemble of non-linear model states to estimate four-dimensional background error covariances over the assimilation time window. The computational costs for 4D-En-Var are therefore significantly reduced in comparison with standard 4D-Var and the scalability of the algorithm is improved. The flow dependency of 4D-En-Var assimilation increments is demonstrated in single simulated observation experiments and compared with corresponding increments from standard 4D-Var and Hybrid 4D-Var ensemble assimilation experiments. Real observation data assimilation experiments carried out over a 6-week period show that 4D-En-Var outperforms standard 4D-Var as well as Hybrid 4D-Var ensemble data assimilation with regard to forecast quality measured by forecast verification scores.

  19. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Yong Ki; Jee, Hyeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions), L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions), L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions), L. saligna (2 accessions), and L. serriola (1 accession); majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×107 conidia/ml) of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease. PMID:25288990

  20. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  1. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. PMID:25261494

  2. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  3. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  4. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  5. The role of CPSF30 in 3’ RNA processing of Medicago sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CPSF30 is a component in 3’ RNA processing that has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study the gene for CPSF30 has been cloned out of Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa. A large region within the gene exhibits significant conservation between A. thaliana and both Medicag...

  6. Adding B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. to the genome of Avena sativa L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B-chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes described in hundreds of animal and plant species, including maize (Zea mays L.). However, Bs have not been reported to exist in hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.). In order to transfer maize Bs sexually from maize to oat genomes, we used as ...

  7. Ractopamine uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in t...

  8. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)-induced photosensitization in goats and horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa is a European biennial weed that was inadvertently introduced and has subsequently spread through many parts of North America. Though it is generally considered a nuisance as it displaces beneficial forages. It has also been sporadically associated with photosensitiza...

  9. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  10. Unraveling the complex trait of harvest index with association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest index is a measure of success in partitioning assimilated photosynthate. An improvement of harvest index means an increase of economic portion of the plants. Our objective was to identify the markers associated with harvest index and its correlated traits using 203 O. sativa accessions. The ...

  11. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  12. Use of Harvested Rice (Oryza Sativa) Fields for Diazinon Runoff Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In landscapes defined by intensive agriculture, management practices are often needed to abate effects of potential non-point source pollution. Innovative research focuses on using rice (Oryza sativa), a wetland cereal crop, for pesticide mitigation both pre- and post-harvest. Because rice fields ...

  13. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Mégarbane, Bruno; Rezaee, Ramin; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone. PMID:27247918

  14. Optimizing Sativa and Falcata Alfalfa Subspecies Ratios for Leafcutter Bee Pollination to Maximize Hybrid Seed Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing seed production schemes which capture and maintain desired alfalfa (Medicago sativa) heterosis for utilization by growers has been problematic. The semi-hybrid seed production scheme is one proposed means of capturing heterosis in alfalfa cultivars. This scheme proposes mixing equal qua...

  15. Analysis and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa essential oil formulated in microemulsion system.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Hamdy A; Sadek, Zainab; Edris, Amr E; Saad-Hussein, Amal

    2015-01-01

    The Essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa (black cumin) was extracted from the crude oil and the volatile constituents were characterized using gas chromatographic analysis. The EO was formulated in water-based microemulsion system and its antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. This activity was compared with two other well known biologically active natural and synthetic antimicrobials namely eugenol and Ceftriaxone(®). Results showed that N. sativa EO microemulsion was highly effective against S. aureus, B. cereus and S. typhimurium even at the lowest tested concentration of that EO in the microemulsion (100.0 μg/well). Interestingly, the EO microemulsion showed higher antibacterial activity than Ceftriaxone solution against S. typhimurium at 400.0 μg/well and almost comparable activity against E. coli at 500.0 μg/well. No activity was detected for the EO microemulsion against L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa. Eugenol which was also formulated in microemulsion was less effective than N. sativa EO microemulsion except against P. aeruginosa. The synthetic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) was effective against most of the six tested bacterial strains. This work is the first report revealing the formulation of N. sativa EO in microemulsion system and investigating its antibacterial activity. The results may offer potential application of that water-based microemulsion in controlling the prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25748382

  16. Using Genomic Analysis to Trace the Introduction of Oryza sativa to Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    O. sativa is widely cultivated in various countries throughout Africa with the largest acreage being in West, West Central, and East Africa. It has largely supplanted the locally domesticated African rice (O. glaberrima). O. glaberrima cultivation never spread beyond West Africa, so in the other r...

  17. INTERSEEDING MEDICAGO SATIVA SSP. FALCATA INTO RANGELANDS TO ENHANCE CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND FORAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands of the U.S. Great Plains can generally be characterized as having low nitrogen levels, which along with water, are considered the major limiting factors in forage production. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of interseeding Medicago sativa ssp. falcata on native range...

  18. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:26265495

  19. Construction of six Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon Chromosome Segment Substitution Line (CSSL) Libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgressive variation has been observed in rice (Oryza sativa) as an increase in grain yield and attributed to the ancestral parent, O. rufipogon, in mapping populations developed from several adapted rice varieties crossed with a single O. rufipogon accession. To explore this phenomenon of transg...

  20. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  1. Genome-wide association mapping reveals rich genetic architecture of complex traits in Oryza sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domesticated Asian rice, Oryza sativa, is a cultivated, inbreeding species that feeds over half of the world’s population. Understanding the genetic basis of diverse physiological, developmental, and morphological traits provides the basis for improving yield, quality and sustainability. Here, we pr...

  2. Alternatively spliced transcripts of Pi-ta blast resistance gene in Oryza sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae containing its cognate avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Pi-ta is a single-copy gene belonging to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) genes. In the present study, w...

  3. Genetic diversity of weedy red rice (Oryza sativa) in Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a problematic weed in rice. About 50% of US rice is produced in Arkansas and 60% of these fields have some red rice infestation. Red rice populations are morphologically and phenologically diverse. We hypothesize that red rice in Arkansas has high genetic diversit...

  4. Exploring the Potential Use of Camelina sativa as a Biofuel crop for Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharjee, Tapas Chandra

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of using Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. To establish it as a potential biofuel crop in Nevada, C. sativa seeds were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and twenty-five randomly selected lines of an M3 generation EMS population were evaluated for fatty acid composition. Increased variation in fatty acid composition was observed when compared with the control, wildtype cultivar. Most importantly, lines demonstrated putative decreases in relative linolenic acid content, a desirable outcome for biodiesel quality. To select the best variety of C. sativa for local production, an analysis of oil content, germination rate, 1000 seed weight was performed among different varieties and significant differences in seed quality was observed. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativa was performed using 454 pyrosequencing to characterize expressed genes in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and developing seeds of mature plants subjected to drought, cold and high salinity stress Some contig assemblies corresponding to stress-inducible gene and genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were observed in this study.

  5. EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ORYZA SATIVA METAL HOMEOSTASIS GENES IN DIFFERENT RICE CULTIVARS USING CDNA MACROARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) has shaped the cultures, diets and economies of billions of people; unfortunately, rice is a poor source of many essential micronutrients and vitamins. Deficiencies in these micronutrients are common in developing countries, especially where rice is the staple food. In order to i...

  6. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) oil as a biofuels feedstock: Golden opportunity or false hope?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) is a promising sustainable alternative energy crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family with several favorable agronomic characteristics that has potential to significantly enhance domestic biofuels production. With high seed oil content as well as high yield of ...

  7. Effect of Three Insecticides and Two Herbicides on Rice (Oryza sativa) Seedling Germination and Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. However, it is also a valuable tool in assessing toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. For more than twenty years, it has been an approved species for standardized phytotoxicity experiments. The objective of this stu...

  8. Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz is under development as a novel oil-seed crop, yet bioefficacy of camelina phytochemicals is unknown. Defatted camelina seed meal contains two major aliphatic glucosinolates (GSL), glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonylglucosinolate; GSL 9) and glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfi...

  9. Transfer of crown rust resistance from diploid oat Avena strigosa into hexaploid cultivated oat A. sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New sources of resistance to crown rust, Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Eriks.), the major fungal disease of cultivated oat, Avena sativa L. (2n = 6x = 42), are constantly needed due to frequent, rapid shifts in the virulence pattern of the pathogen. Crown rust resistance identified in the diploid...

  10. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27169925

  11. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Mégarbane, Bruno; Rezaee, Ramin; Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone. PMID:27247918

  12. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. PMID:26740078

  13. In vitro propagation of Dioscorea alata var. purpurae.

    PubMed

    Shah, Heena J; Lele, S S

    2012-07-01

    Dioscorea alata var. purpurae (Indian purple yam) is an important source of diosgenin, a triterpenoid that is used as a raw material in the synthesis of corticosteroid hormones. These drugs are used for the treatment of pharmacological conditions such as arthritis. This paper reports in vitro propagation of explants of various parts of Dioscorea-tuber, leaves, and nodes. Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with hormones and additives was used to get maximum callus initiation and shoot/root induction. All the cultures were maintained at 25 ± 2 °C under cool-white fluorescent tubes with 16-h photoperiod. Callus initiation was observed from 8th to 11th day of inoculation, and subsequent root/shoot was initiated in nodal callus after 21 days. Hormones such as kinetin, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, α-naphthalene acetic acid, and thiadizuron did not show significant enhancement. Also, there was no need for supplementing additives (silver nitrate, glutamine, L-: asparagine monohydrate, polyethylene glycol). Combination of 6-benzylaminopurine (0.2 ppm) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2 ppm) hormones gave the best results, and all parts of the plants gave similar callus induction. PMID:22476929

  14. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population. PMID:8367671

  15. Reduced order POD/DEIM 4-D Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Michael; Stefanescu, Razvan

    2014-05-01

    The computational cost of realistic ensemble and hybrid variational/ensemble data assimilation is typically dominated by the cost of ensemble forecasting. The high computational cost of ensemble forecasting limits the number of ensembles, eventually creating a severe rank reduction. Consequently, the efficiency and quality of ensemble-based data assimilation are greatly reduced. With the ever-increasing spatiotemporal resolution and complexity of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the room for ensemble forecasting is getting even smaller, creating a paradox: Although the NWP generally benefits from increased resolution and complexity of the models, the quality of their data assimilation is getting worse due to additional computational restrictions. We propose POD model order reduction substantially improving computational efficiency of NWP models. We present recent advances in this domain and the state-of the art of hyper reduction addressing issues of turbulence closure and nonlinearities allowing CPU speed -ups of orders of magnitude, reduced order 4-D VAR and future prospects of implementation to operational NMP models.

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  18. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  19. Foam Separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, R. B.; Wang, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 μeq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, or MgSO4 produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 × 105 up to 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 107 cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 × 107 to 4.8 × 107 cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 μeq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 × 104 to about 4.0 × 105 cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis. PMID:4961933

  20. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow. PMID:23179714

  1. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  2. Antiplasmodial sesquiterpenes from the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis.

    PubMed

    Mba'ning, Brice M; Lenta, Bruno N; Noungoué, Diderot T; Antheaume, Cyril; Fongang, Yanick F; Ngouela, Silvère A; Boyom, Fabrice F; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2013-12-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenoid derivatives, salaterpene A (1) (1α,2β,8β-triacetoxy-6β,9β-dibenzoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran), salaterpene B (2) (1α,2β,8β-triacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxy-6β-cinnamoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran), salaterpene C (3) (1α,2β-diacetoxy-6β,9β-dibenzoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran) and salaterpene D (4) (2β-acetoxy-1α,6β-dibenzoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-9β-nicotinoyloxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran) together with two known compounds (5 and 6). The structures of the compounds were established by means of NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 and 6 were tested in vitro for their antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2. All the tested compounds exhibited a moderate potency with IC50 below 2.7 μM. PMID:23863332

  3. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  4. Global genomic diversity of Oryza sativa varieties revealed by comparative physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kudrna, David A; Pan, Yonglong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lin; Lin, Haiyan; Zhang, Jianwei; Song, Xiang; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Zhang, Qifa; Luo, Meizhong

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical maps embedding a large number of BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated for Oryza sativa ssp. indica varieties Minghui 63 (MH63) and Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and were compared with the genome sequences of O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Nipponbare and O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11. The comparisons exhibited substantial diversities in terms of large structural variations and small substitutions and indels. Genome-wide BAC-sized and contig-sized structural variations were detected, and the shared variations were analyzed. In the expansion regions of the Nipponbare reference sequence, in comparison to the MH63 and ZS97 physical maps, as well as to the previously constructed 93-11 physical map, the amounts and types of the repeat contents, and the outputs of gene ontology analysis, were significantly different from those of the whole genome. Using the physical maps of four wild Oryza species from OMAP (http://www.omap.org) as a control, we detected many conserved and divergent regions related to the evolution process of O. sativa. Between the BESs of MH63 and ZS97 and the two reference sequences, a total of 1532 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 71,383 SNPs, 1767 multiple nucleotide polymorphisms, 6340 insertions, and 9137 deletions were identified. This study provides independent whole-genome resources for intra- and intersubspecies comparisons and functional genomics studies in O. sativa. Both the comparative physical maps and the GBrowse, which integrated the QTL and molecular markers from GRAMENE (http://www.gramene.org) with our physical maps and analysis results, are open to the public through our Web site (http://gresource.hzau.edu.cn/resource/resource.html). PMID:24424778

  5. Comparison of Nigella sativa- and exercise-induced models of cardiac hypertrophy: structural and electrophysiological features.

    PubMed

    Al-Asoom, Lubna Ibrahim; Al-Shaikh, Basil Abdulrahman; Bamosa, Abdullah Omar; El-Bahai, Mohammad Nabil

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapeutic intervention for heart failure, due to its ability to induce physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In parallel, supplementation with Nigella sativa (N. sativa) was found to enhance myocardial function and induce cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we aim to compare the morphological and electrophysiological changes associated with these patterns of cardiac hypertrophy and the possible changes upon administration of N. sativa to exercise-trained animals. Fifty-six adult Wistar rats were divided into: control, Nigella-treated (N), exercise-trained (E), and Nigella-treated-exercise-trained (NE) rats. Daily 800 mg/kg N. sativa was administered orally to N and NE. E and NE ran on treadmill, 2 h/day. At the end of 8 weeks ECG, body weight (BW), heart weight (HW), and left ventricular weight (LVW) were recorded. Hematoxylin and Eosin and periodic acid-Schiff sections were prepared to study the histology of left ventricles and to measure diameter of cardiomyocytes (Cdia). HW/BW, LVW/BW, and mean Cdia were significantly higher in all experimental animals compared to the controls. Histology showed normal cardiomyocytes with no fibrosis. ECG showed significantly lower heart rates, higher QRS amplitude, and ventricular specific potential in NE group compared to control group. Supplementation of N. sativa demonstrated a synergistic effect with exercise training as Nigella-exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy had lower heart rate and well-matched electrical activity of the heart to its mass. Therefore, this model of cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment for heart failure with superior advantages to exercise training. PMID:24448711

  6. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation*

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Ung, Ying Chian; Hussein, Sobri; Harun, Abdul Rahim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshihiro, Hase

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. Methods: In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, followed by in-vitro germination under controlled conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. Results: The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.11±0.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85% to 58.32% higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyll content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38% to 9.98% higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Conclusions: Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics. PMID:24302713

  7. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. PMID:25081105

  8. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from prunella vulgaris var. lilacina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Methods Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. Results The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced

  9. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    PubMed

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. PMID:24511710

  10. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Warhurst, David C.; Craig, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  11. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    PubMed

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  12. Stabilization of the HCP [var epsilon] phase in an Fe-21%Mn alloy subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, T.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. )

    1993-07-01

    Cathodic hydrogen charging induces some phase transformation in the surface layer of FCC iron alloys. Such a hydrogen-induced phase transformation has extensively been studied for austenitic stainless steels, where the FCC [gamma] phase transforms partially into an HCP [var epsilon][sub H] phase. The formation of the [var epsilon][sub H] phase has also been found in FCC Fe-Mn alloys and Fe-Ni-Mn alloys. The [var epsilon][sub H] phase is unstable in the absence of hydrogen and decomposes to an [var epsilon] martensite in the metastable FCC alloys. In order to make clear the nature of the [var epsilon][sub H] phase, it is necessary to reveal the stability of the [var epsilon] phase in FCC iron alloys during cathodic hydrogen charging. In the present study, the authors employed an Fe-21%Mn alloy which consisted of a mixture of the [gamma] and [var epsilon] phases in an as-quenched state. For this two-phase alloy, the [var epsilon] [r arrow] [gamma] transformation has so far been examined by a high-pressure equilibration method in a hydrogen-gas atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to compare the stability of the [gamma] phases in the two-phase alloy subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging in an aqueous solution. The influence of hydrogen on the [var epsilon] phase stability will be discussed, including the transformation in a hydrogen-gas atmosphere.

  13. A Novel Saponin Hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Manabu; Sumida, Naomi; Yanai, Koji; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We isolated a soybean saponin hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta PF1225, a filamentous fungus that can degrade soybean saponin and generate soyasapogenol B. This enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of about 77 kDa and a glycoprotein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the corresponding gene (sdn1) indicated that this enzyme consisted of 612 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 65,724 Da, in close agreement with that of the apoenzyme after the removal of carbohydrates. The sdn1 gene was successfully expressed in Trichoderma viride under the control of the cellobiohydrolase I gene promoter. The molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme, about 69 kDa, was smaller than that of the native enzyme due to fewer carbohydrate modifications. Examination of the degradation products obtained by treatment of soyasaponin I with the recombinant enzyme showed that the enzyme hydrolyzed soyasaponin I to soyasapogenol B and triose [α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl (1→2)-d-glucuronopyranoside]. Also, when soyasaponin II and soyasaponin V, which are different from soyasaponin I only in constituent saccharides, were treated with the enzyme, the ratio of the reaction velocities for soyasaponin I, soyasaponin II, and soyasaponin V was 2,680:886:1. These results indicate that this enzyme recognizes the fine structure of the carbohydrate moiety of soyasaponin in its catalytic reaction. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme predicted from the DNA sequence shows no clear homology with those of any of the enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of carbohydrates. PMID:14766566

  14. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Oryza rufipogon strains and their relations to Oryza sativa strains by insertion polymorphism of rice SINEs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Chaoyang; Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Ohtsubo, Hisako; Ohtsubo, Eiichi

    2007-06-01

    Oryza rufipogon, the progenitor of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa, is known by its wide intraspecific variation. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analyses of O. rufipogon strains and their relationships to O. sativa strains by using 26 newly identified p-SINE1 members from O. rufipogon strains, in addition to 23 members previously identified from O. sativa strains. A total of 103 strains of O. rufipogon and O. sativa were examined for the presence and absence of each of the p-SINE1 members at respective loci by PCR with a pair of primers that hybridize to the regions flanking each p-SINE1 member. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of the insertion polymorphism of p-SINE1 members showed that O. rufipogon and O. sativa strains are classified into three groups. The first group consisted of O. rufipogon perennial strains mostly from China and O. sativa ssp. japonica strains, which included javanica strains forming a distinct subgroup. The second group consisted of almost all the O. rufipogon annual strains, a few O. rufipogon perennial strains and O. sativa ssp. indica strains. These groupings, in addition to other results, support the previous notion that annual O. rufipogon originated in the O. rufipogon perennial population, and that O. sativa originated polyphyletically in the O. rufipogon populations. The third group consisted of the other perennial strains and intermediate-type strains of O. rufipogon, in which the intermediate-type strains are most closely related to a hypothetical ancestor with no p-SINE1 members at the respective loci and to those belonging to the other rice species with the AA genome. This suggests that O. rufipogon perennial strains are likely to have originated from the O. rufipogon intermediate-ecotype population. PMID:17660692

  16. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  17. Characteristic odorants from bailingu oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis) and summer oyster mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the characteristic odorants of the volatile oils from Pleurotus species (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 52 and 54 components (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus, respectively) were identified, representing about 98.8% and 85.1% of the volatile oils, respectively. The main components of the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil were palmitic acid (82, 38.0%), oleic acid (86, 25.0%) and linoleic acid (85, 9.7%). The main components of the P. cystidiosus oil, palmitic acid (82, 25.8%), indole (54, 9.1%) and myristic acid (77, 5.3%). Regarding the aroma components, 16 and 13 components were identified in the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus oils respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that methional, 1-octen-3-ol and nonanal are the main aroma-active components of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil. On the other hands, dimethyl trisulfide and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of the P. cystidiosus oil. PMID:24919476

  18. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. PMID:27010411

  19. VarMod: modelling the functional effects of non-synonymous variants.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Morena; Wass, Mark N

    2014-07-01

    Unravelling the genotype-phenotype relationship in humans remains a challenging task in genomics studies. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean there are now thousands of sequenced human genomes, revealing millions of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). For non-synonymous SNVs present in proteins the difficulties of the problem lie in first identifying those nsSNVs that result in a functional change in the protein among the many non-functional variants and in turn linking this functional change to phenotype. Here we present VarMod (Variant Modeller) a method that utilises both protein sequence and structural features to predict nsSNVs that alter protein function. VarMod develops recent observations that functional nsSNVs are enriched at protein-protein interfaces and protein-ligand binding sites and uses these characteristics to make predictions. In benchmarking on a set of nearly 3000 nsSNVs VarMod performance is comparable to an existing state of the art method. The VarMod web server provides extensive resources to investigate the sequence and structural features associated with the predictions including visualisation of protein models and complexes via an interactive JSmol molecular viewer. VarMod is available for use at http://www.wasslab.org/varmod. PMID:24906884

  20. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  1. Genetic diversity in wild diploid wheats Triticum monococcum var. boeoticum and T. urartu (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Smith-Huerta, N L; Huerta, A J; Barnhart, D; Waines, J G

    1989-08-01

    The genetic diversity of two wild diploid wheat species, Triticum monococcum var. boeoticum and T. urartu, was assessed using starch gel electrophoresis. Genetic diversity is uniformly low in both species. Number of alleles per locus was very low with a mean of 1.22 for T. monococcum var. boeoticum and 1.19 in T. urartu. Percentage of polymorphic loci was also low, with a mean of 19.71 for T. monococcum var. boeoticum and a mean of 18.35 for T. urartu. Mean gene diversity was low with a mean of 0.052 in populations of T. monococcum var. boeoticum and a mean of 0.040 in populations of T. urartu. Genetic affinities of the species and of populations were computed using Nei's identity index (NI). Overall genetic affinities of the two species are NI=0.697. The genetic affinities of different populations of a species are uniformly high with NIs ranging from 0.894 to 1.000 in T. monococcum var. boeoticum and from 0.898 to 1.000 in T. urartu. PMID:24227153

  2. A new approach for optimal VAR sources planning in large scale electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yingtung Hsiao; Chunchang Liu; Yuanlin Chen . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Hsiodong Chiang )

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach for contingency-constrained optimal reactive volt amper (VAR) sources planning in large-scale power systems. Features distinguishing the proposed approach from many of the existing methods include that it allows a more realistic problem formulation, and that it can find the (global) optimal solution. The new problem formulation takes into consideration practical aspects of VAR sources; the load constraints and operational constraints at different load levels. This solution methodology based on simulated annealing determines (1) the location to install VAR sources; (2) the types and sizes of VAR sources to be installed; and (3) the settings of VAR sources at different loading conditions. In order to speed up the solution algorithm, this paper makes a slight modification of the fast decoupled load flow and incorporates it into the solution algorithm. This method is suitable for large-scale power systems and has been tested on several power systems with promising results. Simulation results on the IEEE 30 buses system and the Tai-power 358 buses system are presented.

  3. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei. PMID:25345060

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  6. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  7. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Stevens, Mikel R; Johnson, Leigh A; Robbins, Matthew D; Anderson, Chris D; Ricks, Nathan J; Farley, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  8. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Robbins, Matthew D.; Anderson, Chris D.; Ricks, Nathan J.; Farley, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  9. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  10. Volt-VAR Optimization on American Electric Power Feeders in Northeast Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2012-05-10

    In 2007 American Electric Power launched the gridSMART® initiative with the goals of increasing efficiency of the electricity delivery system and improving service to the end-use customers. As part of the initiative, a coordinated Volt-VAR system was deployed on eleven distribution feeders at five substations in the Northeast Columbus Ohio Area. The goal of the coordinated Volt-VAR system was to decrease the amount of energy necessary to provide end-use customers with the same quality of service. The evaluation of the Volt-VAR system performance was conducted in two stages. The first stage was composed of simulation, analysis, and estimation, while the second stage was composed of analyzing collected field data. This panel paper will examine the analysis conducted in both stages and present the estimated improvements in system efficiency.

  11. A novel, high-frequency, per-phase static var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, N.; Kamath, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Static var compensators are being used to provide voltage control, var compensation, damping of oscillations, and improved transient stability in power systems. Conventional SVCs which consist of thyristor-switched capacitors and thyristor controlled inductors suffer from disadvantages of size and slow dynamic response. This makes it unsuitable for applications such as controlling the voltage flicker due to arc furnace loads. Advanced SVCs (STATCON or STATCOM) eliminate the above disadvantages. However, they have a disadvantage due to the presence of a large line-frequency transformer. In this paper, a novel, high-frequency, per-phase static var compensator is proposed, which has all the advantages of the advanced SVC. Various related topologies and control strategies are also enumerated and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  12. FlyVar: a database for genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Jiang, Lichun; Chen, Yong; Haelterman, Nele A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    FlyVar is a publicly and freely available platform that addresses the increasing need of next generation sequencing data analysis in the Drosophila research community. It is composed of three parts. First, a database that contains 5.94 million DNA polymorphisms found in Drosophila melanogaster derived from whole genome shotgun sequencing of 612 genomes of D. melanogaster. In addition, a list of 1094 dispensable genes has been identified. Second, a graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented to allow easy and flexible queries of the database. Third, a set of interactive online tools enables filtering and annotation of genomic sequences obtained from individual D. melanogaster strains to identify candidate mutations. FlyVar permits the analysis of next generation sequencing data without the need of extensive computational training or resources. Database URL: www.iipl.fudan.edu.cn/FlyVar. PMID:26289428

  13. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Kabir, Nurul; Abbas, Ghulam; Draman, Suhaimi; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory. The possible use of this seed's extract or compounds isolated from it, such as thymoquinone, for treating damaged brain neural tissue is discussed. The evidence presented in this paper appears to be supporting the hypothesis that this plant and/or its bioactive constituents can enhance learning and memory in health and disease in animals and humans. PMID:27022403

  14. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Kabir, Nurul; Abbas, Ghulam; Draman, Suhaimi; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory. The possible use of this seed's extract or compounds isolated from it, such as thymoquinone, for treating damaged brain neural tissue is discussed. The evidence presented in this paper appears to be supporting the hypothesis that this plant and/or its bioactive constituents can enhance learning and memory in health and disease in animals and humans. PMID:27022403

  15. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  16. Recent advances in Cannabis sativa research: biosynthetic studies and its potential in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-08-01

    Cannabinoids, consisting of alkylresorcinol and monoterpene groups, are the unique secondary metabolites that are found only in Cannabis sativa. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC) are well known cannabinoids and their pharmacological properties have been extensively studied. Recently, biosynthetic pathways of these cannabinoids have been successfully established. Several biosynthetic enzymes including geranylpyrophosphate:olivetolate geranyltransferase, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) synthase and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) synthase have been purified from young rapidly expanding leaves of C. sativa. In addition, molecular cloning, characterization and localization of THCA synthase have been recently reported. THCA and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), its substrate, were shown to be apoptosis-inducing agents that might play a role in plant defense. Transgenic tobacco hairy roots expressing THCA synthase can produce THCA upon feeding of CBGA. These results open the way for biotechnological production of cannabinoids in the future. PMID:17691992

  17. Data for global lysine-acetylation analysis in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yehui; Zhang, Kai; Cheng, Zhongyi; Wang, Guo-Liang; Liu, Wende

    2016-06-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human consumption and is a staple food for over half of the world׳s population (Yu et al., 2002) [1]. A systematic identification of the lysine acetylome was performed by our research (Xiong et al., 2016) [2]. Rice plant samples were collected from 5 weeks old seedlings (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare). After the trypsin digestion and immunoaffinity precipitation, LC-MS/MS approach was used to identify acetylated peptides. After the collected MS/MS data procession and GO annotation, the InterProScan was used to annotate protein domain. Subcellular localization of the identified acetylated proteins was predicted by WoLF PSORT. The KEGG pathway database was used to annotate identified acetylated protein interactions, reactions, and relations. The data, supplied in this article, are related to "A comprehensive catalog of the lysine-acetylation targets in rice (O. sativa) based on proteomic analyses" by Xiong et al. (2016) [2]. PMID:26977447

  18. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  19. A computer package for optimal multi-objective VAR planning in large scale power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.D. . School of Electrical Engineering); Liu, C.C.; Chen, Y.L. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Hsiao, Y.T.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a simulated annealing based computer package for multi-objective, VAR planning in large scale power systems - SAMVAR. This computer package has three distinct features. First, the optimal VAR planning is reformulated as a constrained, multi-objective, non-differentiable optimization problem. The new formulation considers four different objective functions related to system investment, system operational efficiency, system security and system service quality. The new formulation also takes into consideration load, operation and contingency constraints. Second, it allows both the objective functions and equality and inequality constraints to be non-differentiable; making the problem formulation more realistic. Third, the package employs a two-stage solution algorithm based on an extended simulated annealing technique and the [var epsilon]-constraint method. The first-stage of the solution algorithm uses an extended simulated annealing technique to find a global, non-inferior solution. The results obtained from the first stage provide a basis for planners to prioritize the objective functions such that a primary objective function is chosen and tradeoff tolerances for the other objective functions are set. The primary objective function and the trade-off tolerances are then used to transform the constrained multi-objective optimization problem into a single-objective optimization problem with more constraints by employing the [var epsilon]-constraint method. The second-stage uses the simulated annealing technique to find the global optimal solution. A salient feature of SAMVAR is that it allows planners to find an acceptable, global non-inferior solution for the VAR problem. Simulation results indicate that SAMVAR has the ability to handle the multi-objective VAR planning problem and meet with the planner's requirements.

  20. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengran; Huang, Chenyang; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Xiangli; Qu, Jibin; Zhang, Jinxia

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted). At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei’s gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei’s gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794) was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively), which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus. PMID:24349475