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1

The beta-globin locus control region enhances transcription of but does not confer position-independent expression onto the lacZ gene in transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

The beta-globin locus control region (LCR) confers high levels of position-independent, copy number-dependent expression onto globin transgenes. Here > 40 independent transgenic mouse lines and founders that carried the LCR in cis with the beta-globin gene promoter driving a lacZ reporter gene were studied. Expression of the lacZ transgene was assayed by measuring beta-galactosidase enzyme activity in fetal liver extracts, the levels of which correlated with the quantity of lacZ mRNA determined using RNase protection assays. Unexpectedly, expression of the lacZ transgene was found to show strong position effects, varying as much as 700-fold per transgene copy. These position effects occurred even if the whole beta-globin gene was incorporated as part of the lacZ reporter gene. Moreover, DNase I-hypersensitive sites appeared in the transgene LCR in high expressing but not in low expressing lines, suggesting that the LCR itself was position dependent. In contrast, MEL cell clones, in which transcriptionally active integration sites were selected for, gave < 13-fold variation in expression per copy of an LCR-lacZ construct. These results show that the lacZ reporter affects the ability of the LCR to activate chromatin in mice and that culture cells are not an adequate model for position-independent gene expression studies. Images PMID:8670875

Guy, L G; Kothary, R; DeRepentigny, Y; Delvoye, N; Ellis, J; Wall, L

1996-01-01

2

Chimeric Proteins as Reporters of Intracellular Proteolysis: Starvation-Induc ed Catabolism of a lacZ Fusion Protein in Muscle Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product of an integrated transgene provides a convenient and cell-specific reporter of intracellular protein catabolism in 103 muscle cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The transgene is an in-frame fusion of a 58-region of the C. elegans unc-54 (muscle myosin heavy-chain) gene to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli (Fire and Waterston (1989): EMBO J 8:3419-3428), encoding a 146-kDa

Lisa A. Zdinak; Ian B. Greenberg; Nathaniel J. Szewczyk; Sami J. Barmada; Mark Cardamone-Rayner; James J. Hartman; Lewis A. Jacobson

3

Folding LacZ in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Targeted, translational LacZ fusions provided the initial support for the signal sequence hypothesis in prokaryotes and allowed for selection of the mutations that identified the Sec translocon. Many of these selections relied on the fact that expression of targeted, translational lacZ fusions like malE-lacZ and lamB-lacZ42-1 causes lethal toxicity as folded LacZ jams the translocation pore. However, there is another class of targeted LacZ fusions that do not jam the translocon. These targeted, nonjamming fusions also show toxic phenotypes that may be useful for selecting mutations in genes involved in posttranslocational protein folding and targeting; however, they have not been investigated to the same extent as their jamming counterparts. In fact, it is still unclear whether LacZ can be fully translocated in these fusions. It may be that they simply partition into the inner membrane where they can no longer participate in folding or assembly. In the present study, we systematically characterize the nonjamming fusions and determine their ultimate localization. We report that LacZ can be fully translocated into the periplasm, where it is toxic. We show that this toxicity is likely due to LacZ misfolding and that, in the absence of the periplasmic disulfide bond catalyst DsbA, LacZ folds in the periplasm. Using the novel phenotype of periplasmic ?-galactosidase activity, we show that the periplasmic chaperone FkpA contributes to LacZ folding in this nonnative compartment. We propose that targeted, nonjamming LacZ fusions may be used to further study folding and targeting in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. PMID:25002543

Dwyer, Robert S; Malinverni, Juliana C; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Silhavy, Thomas J

2014-09-01

4

Databases and software for the analysis of mutations in the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and the lacZ gene in transgenic rodents.  

PubMed

We have created databases and software applications for the analysis of DNA mutations in the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and the rodent transgenic lacZ locus. The databases themselves are stand-alone dBase files and the software for analysis of the databases runs on IBM- compatible computers. The software created for these databases permits filtering, ordering, report generation and display of information in the database. In addition, a significant number of routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions. One method of obtaining the databases and software is via the World Wide Web (WWW). Open home page http://sunsite.unc.edu/dnam/mainpage.ht ml with a WWW browser. Alternatively, the databases and programs are available via public ftp from anonymous@sunsite.unc.edu. There is no password required to enter the system. The databases and software are found in subdirectory pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations. Two other programs are available at the WWW site, a program for comparison of mutational spectra and a program for entry of mutational data into a relational database. PMID:8594557

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R; Soussi, T

1996-01-01

5

Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle vectors for operon and gene fusions to lacZ: the pJEM series.  

PubMed Central

A series of Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle plasmids for the isolation and study of gene regulatory sequences was constructed. These pJEM vectors contain an efficient transcription terminator and multiple cloning sites and allow either operon or gene fusions to lacZ. By constructing operon fusions with pJEM15, we assessed various previously characterized mycobacterial promoters in the fast-growing species Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing species M. bovis BCG. Our results suggest that M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG RNA polymerases do not share the same specificity. To isolate new mycobacterial promoters, an M. tuberculosis DNA library was generated, using pJEM13, and screened in M. smegmatis. Several Lac+ clones were isolated, and the beta-galactosidase activity was measured. Images PMID:7961429

Timm, J; Lim, E M; Gicquel, B

1994-01-01

6

Construction of new cloning, lacZ reporter and scarless-markerless suicide vectors for genetic studies in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed

To elucidate the putative function of a gene, effective tools are required for genetic characterization that facilitate its inactivation, deletion or modification on the bacterial chromosome. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli/Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans shuttle vector pYGK was determined, allowing us to redesign and construct a new shuttle cloning vector, pJT4, and promoterless lacZ transcriptional/translational fusion plasmids, pJT3 and pJT5. Plasmids pJT4 and pJT5 contain the origin of replication necessary to maintain shuttle vector replication. In addition, a new suicide vector, pJT1, was constructed for the generation of scarless and markerless deletion mutations of genes in the oral pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans. Plasmid pJT1 is a pUC-based suicide vector that is counter-selectable for sucrose sensitivity. This vector does not leave antibiotic markers or scars on the chromosome after gene deletion and thus provides the option to combine several mutations in the same genetic background. The effectiveness of pJT1 was demonstrated by the construction of A. actinomycetemcomitans isogenic qseB single deletion (?qseB) mutant and lsrRK double deletion mutants (?lsrRK). These new vectors may offer alternatives for genetic studies in A. actinomycetemcomitans and other members of the HACEK (Haemophilus spp., A. actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23353051

Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Demuth, Donald R

2013-05-01

7

Construction of new cloning, lacZ reporter and scarless-markerless suicide vectors for genetic studies in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the putative function of a gene, effective tools are required for genetic characterization that facilitate its inactivation, deletion or modification on the bacterial chromosome. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli/Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans shuttle vector pYGK was determined, allowing us to redesign and construct a new shuttle cloning vector, pJT4, and promoterless lacZ transcriptional/translational fusion plasmids, pJT3 and pJT5. Plasmids pJT4 and pJT5 contain the origin of replication necessary to maintain shuttle vector replication. In addition, a new suicide vector, pJT1, was constructed for the generation of scarless and markerless deletion mutations of genes in the oral pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans. Plasmid pJT1 is a pUC-based suicide vector that is counter-selectable for sucrose sensitivity. This vector does not leave antibiotic markers or scars on the chromosome after gene deletion and thus provides the option to combine several mutations in the same genetic background. The effectiveness of pJT1 was demonstrated by the construction of A. actinomycetemcomitans isogenic qseB single deletion (?qseB) mutant and lsrRK double deletion mutants (?lsrRK). These new vectors may offer alternatives for genetic studies in A. actinomycetemcomitans and other members of the HACEK (Haemophilus spp., A. actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23353051

Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Demuth, Donald R.

2013-01-01

8

RHIZOSPHERE COLONIZATION OF OILSEED RAPE BY PSEUDOMONAS ALCALIGENES A9(LACZ)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root colonization of oilseed rape by Pseudomonas alcaligenes A9(LacZ) in rhizosphere microcosms was investigated with the aid of the lacZ marker gene. Rape seeds were pelletized with A9(LacZ), an effective bacterial strain for promotion of rape seedling growth . Results indicated that A9(LacZ) popu...

9

Databases and software for the analysis of mutations in the human p53 gene, human hprt gene and both the lacI and lacZ gene in transgenic rodents.  

PubMed

We have created databases and software applications for the analysis of DNA mutations at the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and both the rodent transgenic lacI and lacZ loci. The databases themselves are stand-alone dBASE files and the software for analysis of the databases runs on IBM-compatible computers with Microsoft Windows. Each database has a separate software analysis program. The software created for these databases permit the filtering, ordering, report generation and display of information in the database. In addition, a significant number of routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions. One method of obtaining the databases and software is via the World Wide Web. Open the following home page with a Web Browser: http://sunsite.unc.edu/dnam/mainpage. html . Alternatively, the databases and programs are available via public FTP from: anonymous@sunsite.unc.edu. There is no password required to enter the system. The databases and software are found beneath the subdirectory: pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations. Two other programs are available at the site, a program for comparison of mutational spectra and a program for entry of mutational data into a relational database. PMID:9399835

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R; Gorelick, N J; Hart, D W; Wilson, J D; Soussi, T

1998-01-01

10

Specific expression of lacZ and cre recombinase in fetal thymic epithelial cells by multiplex gene targeting at the Foxn1 locus  

PubMed Central

Background Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) promote thymocyte maturation and are required for the early stages of thymocyte development and for positive selection. However, investigation of the mechanisms by which TECs perform these functions has been inhibited by the lack of genetic tools. Since the Foxn1 gene is expressed in all presumptive TECs from the early stages of thymus organogenesis and broadly in the adult thymus, it is an ideal locus for driving gene expression in differentiating and mature TECs. Results We generated two knock-in alleles of Foxn1 by inserting IRES-Cre or IRES-lacZ cassettes into the 3' UTR of the Foxn1 locus. We simultaneously electroporated the two targeting vectors to generate the two independent alleles in the same experiment, demonstrating the feasibility of multiplex gene targeting at this locus. Our analysis shows that the knockin alleles drive expression of Cre or lacZ in all TECs in the fetal thymus. Furthermore, the knockin alleles express Cre or lacZ in a Foxn1-like pattern without disrupting Foxn1 function as determined by phenotype analysis of Foxn1 knockin/Foxn1 null compound heterozygotes. Conclusion These data show that multiplex gene targeting into the 3' UTR of the Foxn1 locus is an efficient method to express any gene of interest in TECs from the earliest stage of thymus organogenesis. The resulting alleles will make possible new molecular and genetic studies of TEC differentiation and function. We also discuss evidence indicating that gene targeting into the 3' UTR is a technique that may be broadly applicable for the generation of genetically neutral driver strains. PMID:17577402

Gordon, Julie; Xiao, Shiyun; Hughes, Bernard; Su, Dong-ming; Navarre, Samuel P; Condie, Brian G; Manley, Nancy R

2007-01-01

11

Transgene-coded chimeric proteins as reporters of intracellular proteolysis: starvation-induced catabolism of a lacZ fusion protein in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The product of an integrated transgene provides a convenient and cell-specific reporter of intracellular protein catabolism in 103 muscle cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The transgene is an in-frame fusion of a 5'-region of the C. elegans unc-54 (muscle myosin heavy-chain) gene to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli [Fire and Waterston (1989): EMBO J 8:3419-3428], encoding a 146-kDa fusion polypeptide that forms active beta-galactosidase tetramers. The protein is stable in vivo in well-fed animals, but upon removal of the food source it is inactivated exponentially (t1/2 = 17 h) following an initial lag of 8 h. The same rate constant (but no lag) is observed in animals starved in the presence of cycloheximide, implying that inactivation is catalyzed by pre-existing proteases. Both the 146-kDa fusion polypeptide (t1/2 = 13 h) and a major 116-kDa intermediate (t1/2 = 7 h) undergo exponential physical degradation after a lag of 8 h. Degradation is thus paradoxically faster than inactivation, and a number of characteristic immunoreactive degradation intermediates, some less than one-third the size of the parent polypeptide, are found in affinity-purified (active) protein. Some of these intermediates are conjugated to ubiquitin. We infer that the initial proteolytic cleavages occur in the cytosol, possibly by a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway and do not necessarily inactivate the fusion protein tetramer. PMID:9328848

Zdinak, L A; Greenberg, I B; Szewczyk, N J; Barmada, S J; Cardamone-Rayner, M; Hartman, J J; Jacobson, L A

1997-10-01

12

p53 deficiency alters the yield and spectrum of radiation-induced lacZ mutants in the brain of transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to heavy particle radiation in the galacto-cosmic environment poses a significant risk in space exploration and the evaluation of radiation-induced genetic damage in tissues, especially in the central nervous system, is an important consideration in long-term manned space missions. We used a plasmid-based transgenic mouse model system, with the pUR288 lacZ transgene integrated in the genome of every cell of C57Bl/6(lacZ) mice, to evaluate the genetic damage induced by iron particle radiation. In order to examine the importance of genetic background on the radiation sensitivity of individuals, we cross-bred p53 wild-type lacZ transgenic mice with p53 nullizygous mice, producing lacZ transgenic mice that were either hemizygous or nullizygous for the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Animals were exposed to an acute dose of 1 Gy of iron particles and the lacZ mutation frequency (MF) in the brain was measured at time intervals from 1 to 16 weeks post-irradiation. Our results suggest that iron particles induced an increase in lacZ MF (2.4-fold increase in p53+/+ mice, 1.3-fold increase in p53+/- mice and 2.1-fold increase in p53-/- mice) and that this induction is both temporally regulated and p53 genotype dependent. Characterization of mutants based on their restriction patterns showed that the majority of the mutants arising spontaneously are derived from point mutations or small deletions in all three genotypes. Radiation induced alterations in the spectrum of deletion mutants and reorganization of the genome, as evidenced by the selection of mutants containing mouse genomic DNA. These observations are unique in that mutations in brain tissue after particle radiation exposure have never before been reported owing to technical limitations in most other mutation assays. PMID:11139594

Chang, P Y; Kanazawa, N; Lutze-Mann, L; Winegar, R A

2001-01-01

13

In Vivo Antagonism of AhR-Mediated Gene Induction by 3'Methoxy4'-nitroflavone in TCDD-Responsive lacZ Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated tran- scription factor that is a member of the bHLH-PAS family of proteins. The highest-affinity ligand of this receptor is 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which is a potent immuno- logical, reproductive, and developmental toxicant. The mecha- nism of TCDD-induced toxicity and the gene modulations that result in toxicity have not been fully defined. The

Daniel A. Nazarenko; Stephen D. Dertinger

2001-01-01

14

Databases and software for the analysis of mutations in the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and both the lacI and lacZ gene in transgenic rodents.  

PubMed

We have created databases and software applications for the analysis of DNA mutations at the humanp53gene, the humanhprtgene and both the rodent transgeniclacIandlacZlocus. The databases themselves are stand-alone dBASE files and the software for analysis of the databases runs on IBM-compatible computers. Each database has a separate software analysis program. The software created for these databases permit the filtering, ordering, report generation and display of information in the database. In addition, a significant number of routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions. One method of obtaining the databases and software is via the World Wide Web (WWW). Open the following home page with a Web Browser: http://sunsite.unc.edu/dnam/mainpage.ht ml . Alternatively, the databases and programs are available via public FTP from: anonymous@sunsite.unc.edu . There is no password required to enter the system. The databases and software are found beneath the subdirectory: pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations. Two other programs are available at the site-a program for comparison of mutational spectra and a program for entry of mutational data into a relational database. PMID:9016522

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R; Dycaico, M J; Gorelick, N J; Provost, G S; Soussi, T

1997-01-01

15

Position effects in mice carrying a lacZ transgene in cis with the beta-globin LCR can be explained by a graded model.  

PubMed Central

We studied transgenic mice carrying the lacZ reporter gene linked to the erythroid-specific beta-globin promoter and beta-globin locus control region (LCR). Previously, we had demonstrated that the total level of expression of beta-galactosidase enzyme, which is the product of the lacZ gene, varies widely between different transgenic mice due to position effects at the sites of transgene integration. Here, using the X-gal based in situ assay for beta-galactosidase activity, we found that the percent erythroid cells that expressed the transgene also varied widely between the mice. Moreover, a kinetic analysis showed that the average beta-galactosidase content per expressing cell varied both between samples of different transgenic descent and between erythroid cells within each sample, demonstrating that the variable expression of this lacZ transgene was being controlled in a graded manner. These results suggest that the beta-globin LCR enhancers function through a graded model, which is described, rather than the binary mechanism that has been proposed previously for other enhancers. PMID:9336475

Guy, L G; Kothary, R; Wall, L

1997-01-01

16

Mouse embryonic stem cells and reporter constructs to detect developmentally regulated genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy was devised for identifying regions of the mouse genome that are transcriptionally active in a temporally and spatially restricted manner during development. The approach is based on the introduction into embryonic stem cells of two types of lacZ reporter constructs that can be activated by flanking mouse genomic sequences. Embryonic stem cells containing the lacZ constructs were used

A Gossler; A L Joyner; J Rossant; W C Skarnes

1989-01-01

17

Activation of the Escherichia coli lacZ promoter by the Klebsiella aerogenes nitrogen assimilation control protein (NAC), a LysR family transcription factor.  

PubMed Central

A chimeric promoter with the nitrogen assimilation control protein binding site from hutUp of Klebsiella aerogenes fused to the lacZ core promoter from Escherichia coli was built and cloned in a lacZ reporter plasmid. This construct showed a 14-fold increase of beta-galactosidase activity upon nitrogen limitation. Primer extension experiments showed that the nitrogen assimilation control protein activates lacZp1 in a position-dependent manner. PMID:7642513

Pomposiello, P J; Bender, R A

1995-01-01

18

Acinetobacter baylyi Starvation-Induced Genes Identified through Incubation in Long-Term Stationary Phase? †  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter species encounter cycles of feast and famine in nature. We show that populations of Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1 remain dynamic for 6 weeks in batch culture. We created a library of lacZ reporters inserted into SalI sites in the genome and then isolated 30 genes with lacZ insertions whose expression was induced by starvation during long-term stationary phase compared with their expression during exponential growth. The genes encode metabolic, gene expression, DNA maintenance, envelope, and conserved hypothetical proteins. PMID:20511417

Lostroh, C. Phoebe; Voyles, Bruce A.

2010-01-01

19

Characterization of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A Expression in Mouse Tissues Using a lacZ Knock-In Approach  

PubMed Central

Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene (Pdgfa) occurs widely in the developing mouse, where it is mainly localized to various epithelial and neuronal structures. Until now, in situ mRNA hybridization (ISH) has been the only reliable method to identify Pdgfa expression in tissue sections or whole mount preparations. Validated protocols for in situ detection of PDGF-A protein by immunohistochemistry is lacking. In particular, this has hampered understanding of Pdgfa expression pattern in adult tissues, where ISH is technically challenging. Here, we report a gene targeted mouse Pdgfa allele, Pdgfaex4COIN, which is a combined conditional knockout and reporter allele. Cre-mediated inversion of the COIN cassette inactivates Pdgfa coding while simultaneously activating a beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter under endogenous Pdgfa transcription control. The generated Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ allele can next be used to identify cells carrying a Pdgfa null allele, as well as to map endogenous Pdgfa expression. We evaluated the Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ allele as a reporter for endogenous Pdgfa expression patterns in mouse embryos and adults. We conclude that the expression pattern of Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ recapitulates known expression patterns of Pdgfa. We also report on novel embryonic and adult Pdgfa expression patterns in the mouse and discuss their implications for Pdgfa physiology. PMID:25166724

Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; He, Liqun; Betsholtz, Christer

2014-01-01

20

An integrin-targeted non-viral vector for pulmonary gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy offers potential for the treatment of severe respiratory diseases. However, the vectors which are currently available have drawbacks limiting their therapeutic application. Here we report on an integrin-targeted, non-viral gene delivery system for pulmonary gene transfer. We demonstrate that this vector can deliver the lacZ reporter gene to the lung, transfecting bronchial epithelium and parenchymal cells with similar

R G Jenkins; S E Herrick; Q-H Meng; C Kinnon; G J Laurent; R J McAnulty; S L Hart

2000-01-01

21

Recombinant fowlpox virus for in vitro gene delivery to pancreatic islet tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using avipox virus as a vector for gene delivery to islet tissue (adult islets and fetal proislets) was examined using a recombinant fowlpox virus (FPV) engineered to express the reporter gene LacZ (FPV-LacZ). The efficiency of in vitro transduction was dose-dependent and influenced by the donor species and maturation status of the islet tissue. Reporter gene expression

Michelle F Solomon; Ian A Ramshaw; Charmaine J Simeonovic

2005-01-01

22

Dual 19F/1H MR gene reporter molecules for in vivo detection of ?-galactosidase  

PubMed Central

Increased emphasis on personalized medicine and novel therapies require the development of non-invasive strategies for assessing biochemistry in vivo. The detection of enzyme activity and gene expression in vivo is potentially important for the characterization of diseases and gene therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a particularly promising tool since it is non-invasive, and has no associated radioactivity, yet penetrates deep tissue. We now demonstrate a novel class of dual 1H/19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lacZ gene reporter molecule to specifically reveal enzyme activity in human tumor xenografts growing in mice. We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of six novel molecules and evaluation of the most effective reporter in mice in vivo. Substrates show a single 19F NMR signal and exposure to ?-galactosidase induces a large 19F NMR chemical shift response. In the presence of ferric ions the liberated aglycone generates intense proton MRI T2 contrast. The dual modality approach allows both the detection of substrate and imaging of product enhancing the confidence in enzyme detection. PMID:22352428

Yu, Jian-Xin; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Hallac, Rami R.; Liu, Li; Mason, Ralph P.

2012-01-01

23

Directed Chromosomal Integration and Expression of the Reporter Gene gusA3 in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic microbe that survives passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and interacts with the host epithelium and mucosal immune cells. The potential for L. acidophilus to express antigens at mucosal surfaces has been investigated with various antigens and plasmid expression vectors. Plasmid instability and antibiotic selection complicate the possibility of testing these constructs in human clinical trials. Integrating antigen encoding genes into the chromosome for expression is expected to eliminate selection requirements and provide genetic stability. In this work, a reporter gene encoding a ?-glucuronidase (GusA3) was integrated into four intergenic chromosomal locations. The integrants were tested for genetic stability and GusA3 activity. Two locations were selected for insertion downstream of constitutively highly expressed genes, one downstream of slpA (LBA0169), encoding a highly expressed surface-layer protein, and one downstream of phosphopyruvate hydratase (LBA0889), a highly expressed gene with homologs in other lactic acid bacteria. An inducible location was selected downstream of lacZ (LBA1462), encoding a ?-galactosidase. A fourth location was selected in a low-expression region. The expression of gusA3 was evaluated from each location by measuring GusA3 activity on 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-?-d-glucuronide (MUG). GusA3 activity from both highly expressed loci was more than three logs higher than the gusA3-negative parent, L. acidophilus NCK1909. GusA3 activity from the lacZ locus was one log higher in cells grown in lactose than in glucose. The differences in expression levels between integration locations highlights the importance of rational targeting with gene cassettes intended for chromosomal expression. PMID:21873486

Douglas, Grace L.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

2011-01-01

24

Development of DNA vaccines for fish: vector design, intramuscular injection and antigen expression using viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus genes as model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease control is one of the major concerns in the aquaculture industry. However, there are no vaccines available for the prevention of many piscine infectious diseases, especially those of viral and parasitic origin. DNA-based vaccination could circumvent several problems associated with traditional methods of immunization, but little is known on its efficacy in fish. The luciferase and lacZ reporter genes

JOËL HEPPELL; NIELS LORENZEN; NEIL K. ARMSTRONG; TONG WU; ELLEN LORENZEN; KATJA EINER-JENSEN; JOACHIM SCHORR; HEATHER L. DAVIS

1998-01-01

25

LacZ ?-galactosidase: Structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance  

PubMed Central

This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ ?-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize ?-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the “missing” N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of ?-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon. PMID:23011886

Juers, Douglas H; Matthews, Brian W; Huber, Reuben E

2012-01-01

26

4-Hydroxytamoxifen probes for light-dependent spatiotemporal control of Cre-ER mediated reporter gene expression.  

PubMed

The tamoxifen inducible Cre-ER/loxP system provides tissue specific temporal control of gene recombination events, and can be used to induce expression of reporter genes (e.g. GFP, LacZ) for lineage tracing studies. Cre enzyme fused with estrogen receptor (Cre-ER) is released upon tamoxifen binding, resulting in permanent activation of reporter genes within cells and their progeny. Tamoxifen and its active metabolite, hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) diffuses rapidly in vivo, making it difficult to restrict labeling to specific locations. In this study, we developed a photocaged 4OHT molecule by covalently attaching 4OHT to an ortho-nitrobenzyl (ONB1) group, rendering 4OHT inactive. Exposure to UV radiation cleaves the bond between ONB1 and 4OHT, freeing the 4OHT to bind Cre-ER to result in downstream genetic recombination and reporter activation. We show that caged ONB1-4OHT crosses the cell membrane and uncages after short UV exposure, resulting in Cre-driven genetic recombination that can be localized to specific regions or tissues. ONB1-4OHT can provide spatial control of reporter activation and be adapted with any existing Cre-ER/loxP based system. PMID:25502239

Faal, Tannaz; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Coulter, Alexa; Chen, Yumay; Tu, Christina H; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki; Inlay, Matthew A

2015-03-17

27

A Brain-Specific Homeobox Gene, Bsx, Is Essential for Proper Postnatal Growth and Nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate in vivo roles of a murine hypothalamic homeobox gene, Bsx, we generated and analyzed two mutant alleles, BsxHD and BsxlacZ. BsxHD lacks the homeodomain, and BsxlacZ is an insertion of a lacZ reporter gene. Bsx-lacZ expression was detected in the hypothalamus and pineal gland and reiterates Bsx expression. Bsx homozygous mutant mice were born at the expected Mendelian

Tara McArthur; Akihira Ohtoshi

2007-01-01

28

“Blue heart”: characterization of a mifepristone-dependent system for conditional gene expression in genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed characterization of a cardiac muscle-specific, ligand-regulated gene expression system was performed in transgenic mice using the inducing ligand mifepristone (MFP). Several lines of double transgenic mice were created that expressed a bacterial lacZ reporter gene in the heart, under the control of a MFP-activated transcription factor constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle. The transgenic mice, which were administered MFP

Philip Babij; George Psaltis; Di Song; John Kulik; Nevena Mollova; Ronald V. Abruzzese; Jeffrey L. Nordstrom

2003-01-01

29

A reporter gene assay for inhibitors of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system.  

PubMed

The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a key role in sugar uptake and metabolic regulation in bacteria. PTS proteins form a divergent phosphorylation cascade. Enzyme I (EI) is at the top of the cascade and mediates phosphoryl-transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate to the phosphoryl-carrier protein HPr, which then distributes the phosphoryl-groups to the different carbohydrate transporters. In addition, some PTS proteins have a regulatory function in catabolite repression, inducer exclusion and chemotaxis which is modulated by their degree of phosphorylation in response to the availability of substrates. Using as a reporter the IacZ gene under control of the bgl t2 transcriptional terminator and as an effector the transcriptional antiterminator LicT from B. subtilis, a two-plasmid reporter gene system was constructed in order to monitor PTS activity. LicT, when present at low concentration in E. coli, is inactivated by EI/HPr-dependent phosphorylation and conversely is active in a ptsl- mutant lacking El. Active LicT allows for transcriptional readthrough at bgl t2, resulting in a full-length lacZ transcript. Beta-galactosidase activities are increased 4-8-fold in a ptsl+ strain growing on PTS substrates relative to growth on non-PTS substrates and approximately 30-fold in a ptsl- mutant. This gain-of-function in response to dephosphorylation of El or lack of active El can be used to monitor changes of El activity caused by mutations and environmental factors and for screening and validation of inhibitors of the PTS as potentially novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:10943562

Hesterkamp, T; Erni, B

1999-11-01

30

Activation of the ADE Genes Requires the Chromatin Remodeling Complexes SAGA and SWI\\/SNF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of the ADE regulon genes requires the pair of transcription factors Bas1 and Pho2. In a genome-wide screen for additional regulators of the pathway, strains with mutations in multiple subunits of the chromatin remodeling complexes SAGA and SWI\\/SNF were uncovered. These mutants exhibited decreased expression of an ADE5,7-lacZ reporter and native ADE compared to the wild-type strains, but

Rebecca N. Koehler; Nicole Rachfall; Ronda J. Rolfes

2007-01-01

31

The mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is expressed primarily in the touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of the mec-7 beta-tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans lack the large diameter 15-protofilament microtubules normally found only in the set of six touch receptor neurons. Both a mec-7-lacZ reporter gene and affinity-purified anti-mec-7 antibodies were used to show that mec-7 is expressed primarily in the touch neurons. These data are consistent with a possible instructive role for the mec-7 tubulin in determining microtubule protofilament number. The antibodies and the mec-7-lacZ transgene were also used to examine mec-7 expression in mutants affecting the generation, differentiation or maintenance of the touch neurons. Decreased expression was observed in mutants of unc-86 and mec-3, genes that encode transcription factors essential for touch receptor neuron generation and differentiation, respectively. Images PMID:1639062

Hamelin, M; Scott, I M; Way, J C; Culotti, J G

1992-01-01

32

Exploring sRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms using artificial small RNAs derived from a natural RNA scaffold in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

An artificial small RNA (afsRNA) scaffold was designed from an Escherichia coli sRNA, SibC. Using the lacZ reporter system, the gene silencing effects of afsRNAs were examined to explore the sRNA-mediated gene-silencing mechanisms in E. coli. Substitution of the original target recognition sequence with a new sequence recognizing lacZ mRNA led to effective reduction of lacZ gene expression. Single-strandedness of the target recognition sequences in the scaffold was essential for effective gene silencing. The target recognition sequence was shortened to 10 nt without significant loss of gene silencing, although this minimal length was limited to a specific target mRNA sequence. In cases where afsRNAs had mismatched (forming internal loops) or unmatched (forming bulges) regions in the middle of the target recognition sequence, internal loop-forming afsRNAs were more effective in gene silencing than those that formed bulges. Unexpectedly, gene silencing by afsRNA was not decreased but increased on hfq disruption in E. coli, particularly when interactions between afsRNA and mRNA were weak, suggesting that Hfq is possibly involved in destabilization of the RNA–RNA duplex, rather than enhancement of base pairing. PMID:23393193

Park, Hongmarn; Bak, Geunu; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Younghoon

2013-01-01

33

Developmental regulation and complex organization of the promoter of the non-coding hsr(omega) gene of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The nucleus-limited large non-coding hsr(omega)-n RNA product of the 93D or the hsr(omega) gene of Drosophila melanogaster binds to a variety of RNA-binding proteins involved in nuclear RNA processing. We examined the developmental and heat shock induced expression of this gene by in situ hybridization of nonradioactively labelled riboprobe to cellular transcripts in intact embryos, larval and adult somatic tissues of wild type and an enhancer-trap line carrying the hsr(omega) 05241 allele due to insertion of a P-LacZ-rosy+ transposon at -130 bp position of the hsr(omega) promoter. We also examined LacZ expression in the enhancer-trap line and in two transgenic lines carrying different lengths of the hsr(omega) promoter upstream of the LacZ reporter. The hsr(omega) gene is expressed widely at all developmental stages; in later embryonic stages, its expression in the developing central nervous system was prominent. In spite of insertion of a big transposon in the promoter, expression of the hsr(omega) 05241 allele in the enhancer-trap line, as revealed by in situ hybridization to hsr(omega) transcripts in cells, was similar to that of the wild type allele in all the embryonic, larval and adult somatic tissues examined. Expression of the LacZ gene in this enhancer-trap line was similar to that of the hsr(omega) RNA in all diploid cell types in embryos and larvae but in the polytene cells, the LacZ gene did not express at all, neither during normal development nor after heat shock. Comparison of the expression patterns of hsr(omega) gene and those of the LacZ reporter gene under its various promoter regions in the enhancer-trap and transgenic lines revealed a complex pattern of regulation, which seems to be essential for its dynamically varying expression in diverse cell types. PMID:11255511

Lakhotia, S C; Rajendra, T K; Prasanth, K V

2001-03-01

34

Bone marrow and liver mutagenesis in lacZ transgenic mice treated with hexavalent chromium.  

PubMed

The mutagenic effects of the hexavalent chromium compound K2CrO4 in lacZ transgenic mice (Muta Mouse) were investigated at two sampling times. K2CrO4 was administered intraperitoneally to five male mice per treatment group at a single dose of 40 mg/kg. The animals were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the treatment. Mutant frequencies in the bone marrow and liver were analyzed by the positive selection method using Escherichia coli C (galE-) strain and phenyl beta-D-galactoside. K2CrO4 induced a significant increase in mutant frequency in the bone marrow on day 1, but not on day 7 after the treatment. In the liver, on the other hand, a significant induction in the mutant frequency was seen on day 7, whereas no induction was observed on day 1. The reason for the different responses to the mutagenic activity of K2CrO4 between these organs may be related to their cell turnover rates. The mutations induced by K2CrO4 in the bone marrow may have occurred in more differentiated cells than stem cells, and the rapid proliferative activity may have caused a rapid decrease in mutated cells by day 7. These results suggest that experiments on mutagenesis should be done with more than one sampling point, a short expression time in addition to a longer one, so as to detect mutations induced in organ with high cell proliferation. PMID:9508365

Itoh, S; Shimada, H

1998-01-13

35

Repression of retrovirus-mediated transgene expression by interferons: implications for gene therapy.  

PubMed Central

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer is commonly used in gene therapy protocols and has the potential to provide long-term expression of the transgene. Although expression of a retrovirus-delivered transgene is satisfactory in cultured cells, it has been difficult to achieve consistent and high-level expression in vivo. In this investigation, we explored the possibility of modulating transgene expression by host-derived cytokines. Normal human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were transduced with recombinant retroviruses expressing a reporter gene (lacZ). Treatment of transduced cells with a proinflammatory cytokine, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), significantly reduced lacZ expression to less than 25% of that of nontreated cells. The inhibition was concentration dependent (peak at 5 ng/ml) and time dependent (maximal at 16 h for transcript and 24 h for protein); expression remained repressed in the continued presence of IFN-gamma but returned to normal levels 24 h after IFN-gamma withdrawal. The decrease in beta-galactosidase activity appeared to result from decrease in steady-state lacZ mRNA levels. Inhibitors of transcription and translation blocked IFN-gamma-induced repression, suggesting involvement of newly synthesized protein intermediates. Similar results were obtained by treatment of transduced cells with IFN-alpha but not with other proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-1), IL-4, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Although the level of lacZ mRNA was reduced by >70% following IFN treatment, the rate of lacZ transcription was not significantly different from that for nontreated cells. These results suggest that IFN-mediated regulation of transgene expression is at a posttranscriptional level. Interestingly, IFN-gamma also suppressed transgene expression driven by a cellular promoter (involucrin) inserted in an internal position in the retroviral vector. The presence of the overlapping 3' untranslated regions in transcripts initiated from the internal promoter and the long terminal repeat is suggestive of a posttranscriptional regulation, likely at the level of RNA stabilization. These results provide direct evidence for modulatory effects of IFNs on retrovirus-mediated transgene expression and suggest that gene therapy results may be altered by host inflammatory responses. PMID:9371574

Ghazizadeh, S; Carroll, J M; Taichman, L B

1997-01-01

36

Sequence requirements for myosin gene expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Four Caenorhabditis elegans genes encode muscle-type specific myosin heavy chain isoforms: myo-1 and myo-2 are expressed in the pharyngeal muscles; unc-54 and myo-3 are expressed in body wall muscles. We have used transformation-rescue and lacZ fusion assays to determine sequence requirements for regulated myosin gene expression during development. Multiple tissue-specific activation elements are present for all four genes. For each of the four genes, sequences upstream of the coding region are tissue-specific promoters, as shown by their ability to drive expression of a reporter gene (lacZ) in the appropriate muscle type. Each gene contains at least one additional tissue-specific regulatory element, as defined by the ability to enhance expression of a heterologous promoter in the appropriate muscle type. In rescue experiments with unc-54, two further requirements apparently independent of tissue specificity were found: sequences within the 3' non-coding region are essential for activity while an intron near the 5' end augments expression levels. The general intron stimulation is apparently independent of intron sequence, indicating a mechanistic effect of splicing. To further characterize the myosin gene promoters and to examine the types of enhancer sequences in the genome, we have initiated a screen of C. elegans genomic DNA for fragments capable of enhancing the myo-2 promoter. The properties of enhancers recovered from this screen suggest that the promoter is limited to muscle cells in its ability to respond to enhancers. PMID:8244003

Okkema, P G; Harrison, S W; Plunger, V; Aryana, A; Fire, A

1993-10-01

37

The application of reporter gene assays for the determination of the toxic potency of diffuse air pollution.  

PubMed

Diffuse air pollution consists of a mixture of numerous compounds. It is emitted by many distributed sources and is omnipresent due to atmospheric transport. Risk assessment of the complex mixture of air pollutants on the basis of the toxicity of the individual compounds is not yet possible because the chemical identity and/or toxicity of the constituencies of a substantial fraction is unknown. In addition, no adequate procedures are available to integrate toxicity data of such complex mixtures, so that an individual risk assessment of the constituents of air pollution disregards possible combination effects. In the present study, an approach has been developed to assess the toxic potency by using in vitro bio-assay techniques. Genotoxicity was assessed in the umu-assay, a reporter gene assay using a strain of Salmonella typhimurium stably transfected with a plasmid (pSK1002) carrying the SOS-gene umuC fused to the reporter gene lacZ. Arylhydrocarbon-receptor activation was assessed in the DR-CALUX-assay, using a stably transfected H4IIE hepatoma cell line containing a plasmid for the luciferase gene under transcriptional control of dioxin-responsive elements. Samples of airborne particulate matter (APM) were collected with a high volume sampler next to a highway and in a natural conservation area. Both assays proved to be applicable to quantify genotoxicity and the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in small extracts from air-filter samples. Results indicate that PAHs from traffic exhausts seem to be largely responsible for an increased genotoxic activity of APM collected down-wind from the highway (western wind). APM collected at eastern wind directions seems to have a different composition of compounds, with a higher genotoxic activity that is less related to highway-emitted PAH-like compounds. At northern wind directions, APM is relatively less genotoxic and contains less PAHs than at other wind directions. Dioxin-like compounds contribute negligibly to the Ah-receptor agonistic potency of APM. Airborne pollutants with genotoxic and/or PAH-like characteristics form an undesired mutagenic risk, which will be evaluated in further in vivo studies. PMID:11059851

Hamers, T; van Schaardenburg; Felzel, E C; Murk, A J; Koeman, J H

2000-10-30

38

Examination of lacZ mutant induction in the liver and testis of Muta Mouse following injection of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons classified as human carcinogens.  

PubMed

Possible induction of lacZ mutation was examined in the liver and testis of Muta Mouse following the administration of carcinogenic halogenated compounds, namely 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), carbon tetrachloride, or 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Slight increases were observed on the mutant frequency in the testis DNA isolated from the mice 14 days after treatment with DBCP at 40 mg/kg or with DBE at 60 mg/kg but not in the liver. Further investigation was necessary to confirm the mutation induction by these chemicals in the testis including experiments with longer sampling intervals. No increase was detected in the frequency following DCE administration of single doses of up to 150 mg/kg or of consecutive injections of up to 280 mg/kg. Marginal but biologically insignificant responses were observed in the liver from the carbon tetrachloride exposed mice. The present results suggest that these carcinogenic chemicals are less efficient for induction of gene mutation in the liver of Muta Mouse. PMID:10812844

Hachiya, N; Motohashi, Y

2000-04-01

39

Construction of a reporter vector system for in vivo analysis of promoter activity in Propionibacterium freudenreichii.  

PubMed

A beta-galactosidase reporter system for the analysis of promoter elements in Propionibacterium freudenreichii was designed. The pTD210 in vivo reporter vector was constructed using a promoterless lacZ gene from Bifidobacterium longum cloned into the pAMT1 plasmid. The utility of the pTD210 reporter vector was demonstrated by an investigation of six predicted promoters in P. freudenreichii. The system produced accurate and reproducible measurements that facilitated both promoter identification and the quantification of promoter activities. PMID:18424545

Faye, Therese; Asebø, Anita; Salehian, Zhian; Langsrud, Thor; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders

2008-06-01

40

The biolistic method as a tool for testing the differential activity of putative silkmoth chorion gene promoters.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori unpaired early chorion gene copies 6F6.1,.2 and.3 are exceptions to the typical organization and distribution pattern of known early ErA/ErB, middle A/B and late HcA/HcB divergently transcribed gene pairs. Contrary to such pairs, the boundaries of the 6F6 regulatory sequences are not easily defined; moreover, they share common sequence elements with the regulatory sequences of middle and late genes. In order to perform a functional study of the tissue and temporal specificity of the 6F6 putative promoter region, we decided to apply biolistics. In the present work, use of a region from the 6F6.2 5' untranslated sequence, spanning nucleotides -138 to the cap site, gave an expected expression pattern of a lacZ reporter gene. Temporal specificity was further verified by control experiments using the cloned intergenic sequence of the late gene pair HcA/B.12, which resulted in lacZ expression in late choriogenic follicles. At present, despite the recent successful germinal transgenesis of Bombyx mori, the biolistic transient expression system seems to be the most rapid technique to pursue the functional study of the promoter region of early chorion genes, including the three unconventional early 6F6 genes. PMID:11222957

Kravariti, L; Thomas, J; Sourmeli, S; Rodakis, G C; Mauchamp, B; Chavancy, G; Lecanidou, R

2001-03-15

41

Mutagenesis induced by targeted alpha therapy using 213Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 in lacZ transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Targeted alpha therapy utilizes alpha-emitting radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to allow specific irradiation of cancer cells whilst sparing normal, healthy tissues. The mutagenic potential of (213)Bi conjugated to a human melanoma antigen-specific antibody (9.2.27) was examined using an in vivo transgenic mouse model containing multiple copies of a lacZ target gene in every cell, allowing the quantification and comparison of mutagenesis in different organs. Mice received an ip injection of 16.65 MBq of (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27, and were sacrificed at 24 h, 1 w and 4 w post-injection. Pharmacokinetic studies gave the absorbed and effective doses for each organ. The mutant frequency and mutant spectra were analysed for the brain, spleen and kidneys. The brain and spleen did not show significant increases in induced mutation frequencies compared to spontaneous background levels or changes in mutant spectra, these results being independent of p53 status. However, elevated mutation frequencies and persistent size change mutations were observed in the kidneys, but are not significant at the p = 0.05 level. The effect of p53 status was also evident, as p53 heterozygotes displayed higher mutation frequencies than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting a reduction in the p53 gene may lead to an increased susceptibility to mutagenesis. These effects were time dependent and levels returned to those of the controls at 4 w post-irradiation, albeit with a predominant residue of size mutations. These effects were observed at activities very much higher than those expected for the therapy of human patients. As such, the induction of secondary cancer with the (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 alpha immunoconjugate is not expected to be a significant problem in the clinic. PMID:19337032

Allen, Barry J; So, Trina; Abbas Rizvi, Syed M; Song, Emma Y; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lutz-Mann, Louise

2009-05-01

42

Efficient gene delivery to pig airway epithelia and submucosal glands using helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.  

PubMed

Airway gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat patients with life-threatening lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). However, this strategy has to be evaluated in large animal preclinical studies in order to translate it to human applications. Because of anatomic and physiological similarities between the human and pig lungs, we utilized pig as a large animal model to examine the safety and efficiency of airway gene delivery with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors. Helper-dependent vectors carrying human CFTR or reporter gene LacZ were aerosolized intratracheally into pigs under bronchoscopic guidance. We found that the LacZ reporter and hCFTR transgene products were efficiently expressed in lung airway epithelial cells. The transgene vectors with this delivery can also reach to submucosal glands. Moreover, the hCFTR transgene protein localized to the apical membrane of both ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells, mirroring the location of wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Aerosol delivery procedure was well tolerated by pigs without showing systemic toxicity based on the limited number of pigs tested. These results provide important insights into developing clinical strategies for human CF lung gene therapy.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e127; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.55; published online 8 October 2013. PMID:24104599

Cao, Huibi; Machuca, Tiago N; Yeung, Jonathan C; Wu, Jing; Du, Kai; Duan, Cathleen; Hashimoto, Kohei; Linacre, Virginia; Coates, Allan L; Leung, Kitty; Wang, Jian; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Hu, Jim

2013-01-01

43

Efficient Gene Delivery to Pig Airway Epithelia and Submucosal Glands Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors  

PubMed Central

Airway gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat patients with life-threatening lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). However, this strategy has to be evaluated in large animal preclinical studies in order to translate it to human applications. Because of anatomic and physiological similarities between the human and pig lungs, we utilized pig as a large animal model to examine the safety and efficiency of airway gene delivery with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors. Helper-dependent vectors carrying human CFTR or reporter gene LacZ were aerosolized intratracheally into pigs under bronchoscopic guidance. We found that the LacZ reporter and hCFTR transgene products were efficiently expressed in lung airway epithelial cells. The transgene vectors with this delivery can also reach to submucosal glands. Moreover, the hCFTR transgene protein localized to the apical membrane of both ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells, mirroring the location of wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Aerosol delivery procedure was well tolerated by pigs without showing systemic toxicity based on the limited number of pigs tested. These results provide important insights into developing clinical strategies for human CF lung gene therapy. PMID:24104599

Cao, Huibi; Machuca, Tiago N; Yeung, Jonathan C; Wu, Jing; Du, Kai; Duan, Cathleen; Hashimoto, Kohei; Linacre, Virginia; Coates, Allan L; Leung, Kitty; Wang, Jian; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Hu, Jim

2013-01-01

44

Simultaneous gene inactivation and promoter reporting in cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Determining spatiotemporal gene expression and analyzing knockout mutant phenotypes have become powerful tools in elucidating the function of genes; however, genetic approaches for simultaneously inactivating a gene and monitoring its expression have not been reported in the literature. In this study, we designed a dual-functional gene knockout vector pZR606 that contains a multiple cloning site (MCS) for inserting the internal fragment of a target gene, with a gfp gene as its transcriptional marker located immediately downstream of the MCS. By using this gene knockout system, we inactivated ava_2679 from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, as well as all2508, alr2887, alr3608, and all4388 from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The ava_2679 knockout mutant fails to grow diazotrophically. Morphological analysis of ava_2679 knockout mutant after nitrogen step-down revealed defective junctions between heterocysts and adjacent vegetative cells, and the heterocyst was 1.53-fold longer compared to wild-type heterocysts. The alr2887, all4388, and alr3608 mutant colonies turned yellow and showed lack of protracted growth when deprived of fixed nitrogen, consistent with the previous reports that alr2887, all4388, and alr3608 are Fox genes. The all2508 encodes a GTP-binding elongation factor (EF4/LepA), and its knockout mutant exhibited reduced diazotrophic growth. The heterocyst development of all2508 knockout was significantly delayed, and only about 4.0 % of vegetative cells differentiated to heterocysts after nitrogen deprivation for 72 h, decreased 49.6 % compared to wild-type. Thus, we discovered that All2508 may regulate heterocyst development spatiotemporally. Concurrently, the GFP reporter revealed that all five target gene expressions were up-regulated in response to nitrogen deprivation. We demonstrated that the pZR606-based specific gene knockout approach worked effectively for the five selected genes, including four previously identified Fox genes or Fox gene homolog, and a previously unknown function of gene all2508. Thus, gene expression and phenotypic analysis of mutants can be achieved simultaneously by targeted gene inactivation using the pZR606-based system. This combined approach for targeted gene inactivation and its promoter reporting with GFP may be broadly applicable to the study of gene function in other prokaryotic organisms. PMID:25434810

Chen, Kangming; Xu, Xinyi; Gu, Liping; Hildreth, Michael; Zhou, Ruanbao

2015-02-01

45

Luciferase as a reporter of gene activity in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since their development and introduction in the early days of plant genetic engineering, reporter genes have established a proven track record as effective tools for exploring the molecular underpinnings of gene regulation. When driven by appropriate genetic control systems (e.g. transcriptional pr...

46

Pag-3, a Caenorhabditis Elegans Gene Involved in Touch Neuron Gene Expression and Coordinated Movement  

PubMed Central

Mutations in a newly identified gene, pag-3, cause ectopic expression of touch neuron genes mec-7, mec-7lacZ and mec-4lacZ in the lineal sisters of the ALM touch neurons, the BDU neurons. pag-3 mutants also show a reverse kinker uncoordinated phenotype. The first pag-3 allele was isolated in a screen for mutants with altered immunofluorescence staining patterns. Two additional pag-3 alleles were identified in a noncomplementation screen of 38,000 haploid genomes. All of the pag-3 alleles were recessive to wild type and cause the same phenotypes. Two-factor crosses, deficiency mapping and three-factor crosses located pag-3 to the right arm of the X chromosome between unc-3 and unc-7. Because recessive mutations in pag-3 result in expression of several touch cell specific genes in the BDU neurons, pag-3(+) must directly or indirectly suppress expression of these genes in the BDU neurons. Although pag-3 mutants did not show mec-3lacZ expression in their BDU neurons, expression of mec-7lacZ and mec-4lacZ in the BDU neurons of pag-3 mutants required mec-3(+). PMID:8770591

Jia, Y.; Xie, G.; Aamodt, E.

1996-01-01

47

Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

1997-01-01

48

A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis  

SciTech Connect

A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

2005-01-05

49

The yeast SNF3 gene encodes a glucose transporter homologous to the mammalian protein.  

PubMed Central

The SNF3 gene is required for high-affinity glucose transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has also been implicated in control of gene expression by glucose repression. We report here the nucleotide sequence of the cloned SNF3 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence shows that SNF3 encodes a 97-kilodalton protein that is homologous to mammalian glucose transporters and has 12 putative membrane-spanning regions. We also show that a functional SNF3-lacZ gene-fusion product cofractionates with membrane proteins and is localized to the cell surface, as judged by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of the fusion protein is regulated by glucose repression. Images PMID:3281163

Celenza, J L; Marshall-Carlson, L; Carlson, M

1988-01-01

50

Ret 1, a cis-acting element of the rat opsin promoter, can direct gene expression in rod photoreceptors.  

PubMed

The Ret 1 element, located at -136 to -110 in the rat opsin promoter, binds developmentally regulated retinal nuclear proteins. A similar sequence is found up-stream of opsin genes, from humans to Drosophila, as well as many other photoreceptor-specific genes. The function of the Ret 1 element was tested both in vitro and in two sets of transgenic mice. A mutated Ret 1 element did not bind retinal nuclear proteins in vitro. The same mutations in an otherwise normal 1.9-kb rat opsin promoter failed to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in nine of 12 lines. In the three other lines, expression in photoreceptors was very faint. Four tandem copies of the Ret 1 element maintained the Ret 1 binding specificity in vitro and were able to direct expression of a lacZ transgene in photoreceptors of all nine mouse lines obtained. In two lines, expression was also detected in the ganglion cell layer and the ciliary epithelium. In three lines, a characteristic pattern of expression was found in the nervous system in addition to the normal retinal expression. These results indicate that Ret 1 can and is necessary to drive gene expression in rod photoreceptors. Furthermore, our results suggest that Ret 1-like elements may also be important in the developing nervous system. PMID:8931483

Yu, X; Leconte, L; Martinez, J A; Barnstable, C J

1996-12-01

51

Photoacoustic imaging of gene expression using tyrosinase as a reporter gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical reporter genes, such as green fluorescence protein, are powerful research tools that allow visualization of gene expression. We have successfully used tyrosinase as a reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging. Tyrosinase is the key regulatory enzyme in the production of melanin which has a broad optical absorption spectrum. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with tyrosinase under the control of an inducible promoter. For photoacoustic experiments, MCF-7 cells were resuspended at 108 cells/mL and injected in 700 ?m (inner diameter) plastic tubing. Photoacoustic signal of MCF-7 cells expressing tyrosinase were >20-fold greater than those of untransfected MCF-7 cells. Photoacoustic signal of tyrosinaseexpressing MCF-7 cells were approximately 2-fold lesser and greater than those of blood at 576 and 650 nm, respectively, suggesting that photoacoustic signal from blood and tyrosinase-expressing cells can be separated by dualwavelength analysis. Photoacoustic signal from tyrosinase-expressing MCF-7 cells covered by chicken tissue could even be detected at a laser penetration depth of 4 cm, suggesting that tyrosinase can be used to image gene expression in relatively deep tissues. The current data suggests that tyrosinase is a strong reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging.

Paproski, Robert J.; Forbrich, Alexander; Harrison, Tyler; Hitt, Mary; Zemp, Roger J.

2011-03-01

52

Temporal regulation of single-minded target genes in the ventral midline of the Drosophila central nervous system.  

PubMed

Differentiation of a specific organ or tissue requires sequential activation of regulatory genes. However, little is known about how serial gene expression is temporally regulated. Here, we present evidence that differential expression of single-minded (sim) target genes can be attributed, in part, to the number of Sim and Tango (Tgo) heterodimer binding sites within their enhancer regions. The Sim, termed a master regulator, directs ventral midline differentiation of Drosophila central nervous system (CNS). According to data on the onset timing of ventral midline gene expression, sim target genes are classified into at least 2 groups (early and late). The sim and rhomboid (rho) genes are activated during early midline differentiation whereas orthodenticle (otd), CG10249, and slit (sli) genes undergo activation during later stages of midline differentiation. Germline transformation and in situ hybridization with transgenic embryos demonstrate that enhancers activating sim and rho expression contain 4 Sim-Tgo binding sites whereas only 1 Sim-Tgo binding site is found in an enhancer of sli. A mutagenized version of the rho enhancer lacking either 1, 2, or 3 Sim-Tgo binding sites mediated progressively more delayed expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the ventral midline. In contrast, a modified sli enhancer displayed progressively earlier onset of lacZ expression when 1, 2, or 3 more Sim-Tgo binding sites were added. Taken together, these results suggest that the number of Sim-Tgo-binding sites is decisive in determining the timing of gene expression in the developing ventral midline. We also discuss a combinatorial model accounting for the sequential expression of sim target genes. PMID:23701883

Hong, Joung-Woo; Park, Kye Won; Levine, Michael S

2013-08-15

53

Ferritin reporter used for gene expression imaging by magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a minimally invasive way to provide high spatial resolution tomograms. However, MRI has been considered to be useless for gene expression imaging compared to optical imaging. In this study, we used a ferritin reporter, binding with biogenic iron, to make it a powerful tool for gene expression imaging in MRI studies. GL261 mouse glioma cells were over-expressed with dual-reporter ferritin-DsRed under {beta}-actin promoter, then gene expression was observed by optical imaging and MRI in a brain tumor model. GL261 cells expressing ferritin-DsRed fusion protein showed enhanced visualizing effect by reducing T2-weighted signal intensity for in vitro and in vivo MRI studies, as well as DsRed fluorescence for optical imaging. Furthermore, a higher contrast was achieved on T2-weighted images when permeating the plasma membrane of ferritin-DsRed-expressing GL261. Thus, a ferritin expression vector can be used as an MRI reporter to monitor in vivo gene expression.

Ono, Kenji; Fuma, Kazuya; Tabata, Kaori [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sawada, Makoto, E-mail: msawada@riem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

2009-10-23

54

Repetitive, non-invasive imaging of the dopamine D2 receptor as a reporter gene in living animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reporter genes (eg ?-galactosidase, chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase, green fluorescent protein, luciferase) play critical roles in investigating mechanisms of gene expression in transgenic animals and in developing gene delivery systems for gene therapy. However, measuring expression of these reporter genes requires biopsy or death. We now report a procedure to image reporter gene expression repetitively and non-invasively in living animals with positron emission

D C MacLaren; S S Gambhir; N Satyamurthy; J R Barrio; S Sharfstein; T Toyokuni; L Wu; A J Berk; S R Cherry; M E Phelps; H R Herschman

1999-01-01

55

Regulation of the yeast SPS19 gene encoding peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase by the transcription factors Pip2p and Oaf1p: beta-oxidation is dispensable for Saccharomyces cerevisiae sporulation in acetate medium.  

PubMed

The yeast SPS19 gene encoding the peroxisomally targeted 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase shares its promoter region (291 bp) with the sporulation-specific gene SPS18. SPS19 is induced during sporulation in diploids but to a lesser extent than SPS18; under oleate induction conditions, SPS19, but not SPS18, is transcribed via an oleate response element (ORE) independently of ploidy or sporulation. The SPS19 ORE is the binding target of the Pip2p and Oaf1p transcription factors, and an SPS19-lacZ reporter gene, which is highly expressed in oleate-induced cells, is not activated in haploids devoid of either protein. We examined the expression of CYC1-lacZ reporter constructs carrying the SPS19 and CTA1 OREs in diploids propagated under sporulation conditions and have shown that OREs are not sufficient for heterologous expression during yeast development. In addition, diploids deleted at either PIP2 or OAF1 demonstrated abundant ascosporogenesis, indicating that these genes are not essential for sporulation. A deltapex6 strain lacking peroxisomal structures and one devoid of fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (deltapox1), the first step in fungal beta-oxidation, were both proficient for sporulation and, hence, beta-oxidation and the peroxisomal compartment containing it are dispensable for meiotic development. PMID:9427398

Gurvitz, A; Rottensteiner, H; Hiltunen, J K; Binder, M; Dawes, I W; Ruis, H; Hamilton, B

1997-11-01

56

Successful Transfection of Genes Using AAV-2/9 Vector in Swine Coronary and Peripheral Arteries  

PubMed Central

Background Gene therapy has attracted attention for its potential to treat several cardiovascular diseases. The use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to facilitate therapeutic gene transfer to suppress intimal hyperplasia is a promising concept. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vivo transduction of a novel recombinant AAV-2/9 vector with SM22? promoter, containing ?-galactosidase gene (Lac Z) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter genes, to the medial layer smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of swine coronary and peripheral arteries. Methods The AAV2/9 vector containing SM22? (1×1013 pfu) were administered into carotid/femoral/coronary arteries of domestic swine using irrigating balloon catheter-based gene delivery. Following gene transfer, cryosections of arteries were processed for X-Gal and GFP analysis. Fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting were done to analyze the GFP expression in the SMCs. Results LacZ mRNA expression was visualized in the medial layer 7 days after vector administration. The GFP expression was detected at 7th day and lasted for at least 2 months showing the longer-lasting expression of the AAV2/9-vector. Control arteries did not show any expression of GFP or LacZ. There was no significant effect of AAV2/9 viral transduction on serum amylase, fibrinogen and serum CRP levels. Conclusion These finding support the use of AAV2/9 as a vector to effectively transduce a gene in SMCs of coronary and peripheral arteries without causing inflammation. PMID:21529824

Pankajakshan, Divya; Makinde, Toluwalope O.; Gaurav, Rohit; Del Core, Michael; Hatzoudis, George; Pipinos, Iraklis; Agrawal, Devendra K.

2011-01-01

57

Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals  

DOEpatents

Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

Gambhir; Sanjiv (Portola Valley, CA), Pritha; Ray (Mountain View, CA)

2009-04-28

58

Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals  

DOEpatents

Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

Gambhir, Sanjiv (Portola Valley, CA); Pritha, Ray (Mountain View, CA)

2011-06-07

59

Application of lambda Red recombination system to Vibrio cholerae genetics: simple methods for inactivation and modification of chromosomal genes.  

PubMed

The lambda Red-based recombination system is very useful for genetic manipulation of some Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report simple procedures for the inactivation and modification of genes of interest on Vibrio cholerae chromosome using this recombination technique. For this purpose, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment carrying an antibiotic resistance cassette flanked by regions homologous to the target locus was electroporated into recipient V. cholerae strains expressing a highly proficient lambda Red recombination system. Two PCR procedures were tested to generate an amplification product carrying an antibiotic resistance cassette flanked by short (50 or 100 nt) or long (1000 nt) homologous extensions, which allowed successful disruption of four chromosomal loci (ctxB, toxT, lacZ, and recA). Our results suggest that 100-nt homology between the PCR product and the target gene is sufficient to stimulate the lambda Red-dependent recombination. To increase recombination efficiency, however, the PCR procedure should be used to generate a product with 1000-nt homologous extensions. Furthermore, we applied this gene replacement method to create lacZ reporter fusion to the target gene. Transcriptional fusion to the V. cholerae ctxA gene was constructed using a PCR product that contains the 100-nt homologous extension to ctxA on each side of the lacZ::cat cassette, and was shown to respond appropriately to a null mutation in the regulatory gene, toxT. Use of the techniques presented here should prompt rapid and efficient mutagenesis/modification of V. cholerae chromosomal genes. PMID:19268696

Yamamoto, Shouji; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Arakawa, Eiji; Watanabe, Haruo

2009-06-01

60

Identification of genes and gene products whose expression is activated during nitrogen-limited growth in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

The levels of urease and asparaginase were elevated 25- and 20-fold, respectively, in extracts of Bacillus subtilis cells grown in medium containing nitrogen sources that are poor sources of ammonium (NH4+) compared with the levels seen in extracts of cells grown in medium containing nitrogen sources that are good sources of NH4+. To determine whether a collection of genes whose expression responds to nitrogen availability could be isolated, a library of Tn917-lacZ insertions was screened for nitrogen-regulated beta-galactosidase expression. Two fusion strains were identified. beta-Galactosidase expression was 26- and 4,000-fold higher, respectively, in the nrg-21::Tn917-lacZ and the nrg-29::Tn917-lacZ insertion strains during NH4(+)-restricted growth than during growth on nitrogen sources that are good sources of NH4+. PBS1 transduction analysis showed that the nrg-21::Tn917-lacZ insertion mapped between gutB and purB and that the nrg-29::Tn917-lacZ insertion mapped between degSU and spoIID. The repression of expression of these four gene products during growth on good sources of NH4+ required the wild-type glutamine synthetase protein but not the glutamine synthetase regulatory protein, GlnR. PMID:1670935

Atkinson, M R; Fisher, S H

1991-01-01

61

Optimization of transfection mediated by calcium phosphate for plasmid rAAV-LacZ (recombinant adeno-associated virus-beta-galactosidase reporter gene) production in suspension-cultured HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells.  

PubMed

rAAV (recombinant adeno-associated virus) has become a very useful gene-delivery vector for gene therapy. However, it is very difficult to generate rAAV using triple transfection on a commercial scale, owing to its low productivity and inconveniently adhesive nature of its culture. An optimal suspension-culture transfection procedure was developed for rAAV-LacZ production in suspended HEK-293 cells mediated by calcium phosphate (lacZ, a reporter gene, codes for beta-galactosidase). The study showed that cytotoxicity of transfection complexes and cell aggregation in suspension culture were two key factors affecting high suspension-culture transfection efficiency. Cytotoxicity of transfection complexes was influenced effectively by mixture of Ca(2+) and plasmid DNA when their concentrations were decreased from 300 to 150 mM and from 3.0 to 1.5 microg/ml respectively, as manifested by a relatively higher cell viability after suspension-culture transfection. Moreover, the transfection efficiency was still less than 15%. In addition, we explored the disruption of cell aggregation and the control of transfection-complex size with 2.0 mM EGTA treatment for 30 min before transfection and the addition of 100 mM Mg(2+) during transfection respectively, procedures which enhanced transfection efficiency significantly, owing to more contact and endocytosis between cells and transfection complexes. Finally, the high transfection level and rAAV-LacZ titre achieved under optimized suspension-culture transfection conditions, namely 40% and 5 x 10(11) v.g. (vector genomes)/60 ml of medium respectively, is promising for the technique's application in the large-scale production of rAAV. PMID:17052245

Feng, Lei; Guo, Meijin; Zhang, Shuxiang; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

2007-02-01

62

Gene overexpression as a tool for identifying new trans-acting factors involved in translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, translation termination is dependent on the availability of both release factors, eRF1 and eRF3; however, the precise mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. In particular, the fact that the phenotype of release factor mutants is pleiotropic could imply that other factors and interactions are involved in translation termination. To identify unknown elements involved in this process, we performed a genetic screen using a reporter strain in which a leaky stop codon is inserted in the lacZ reporter gene, attempting to isolate factors modifying termination efficiency when overexpressed. Twelve suppressors and 11 antisuppressors, increasing or decreasing termination readthrough, respectively, were identified and analyzed for three secondary phenotypes often associated with translation mutations: thermosensitivity, G418 sensitivity, and sensitivity to osmotic pressure. Interestingly, among these candidates, we identified two genes, SSO1 and STU2, involved in protein transport and spindle pole body formation, respectively, suggesting puzzling connections with the translation termination process. PMID:12072456

Namy, Olivier; Hatin, Isabelle; Stahl, Guillaume; Liu, Hongmei; Barnay, Stephanie; Bidou, Laure; Rousset, Jean-Pierre

2002-01-01

63

Directed genomic integration, gene replacement, and integrative gene expression in Streptococcus thermophilus.  

PubMed Central

Several pGEM5- and pUC19-derived plasmids containing a selectable erythromycin resistance marker were integrated into the chromosome of Streptococcus thermophilus at the loci of the lactose-metabolizing genes. Integration occurred via homologous recombination and resulted in cointegrates between plasmid and genome, flanked by the homologous DNA used for integration. Selective pressure on the plasmid-located erythromycin resistance gene resulted in multiple amplifications of the integrated plasmid. Release of this selective pressure, however, gave way to homologous resolution of the cointegrate structures. By integration and subsequent resolution, we were able to replace the chromosomal lacZ gene with a modified copy carrying an in vitro-generated deletion. In the same way, we integrated a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene between the chromosomal lacS and lacZ genes of the lactose operon. The inserted cat gene became a functional part of the operon and was expressed and regulated accordingly. Selective pressure on the essential lacS and lacZ genes under normal growth conditions in milk ensures the maintenance and expression of the integrated gene. As there are only minimal repeated DNA sequences (an NdeI site) flanking the inserted cat gene, it was stably maintained even in the absence of lactose, i.e., when grown on sucrose or glucose. The methodology represents a stable system in which to express and regulate foreign genes in S. thermophilus, which could qualify in the future for an application with food. Images PMID:8331064

Mollet, B; Knol, J; Poolman, B; Marciset, O; Delley, M

1993-01-01

64

Photoacoustic molecular imaging of ferritin as a reporter gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of photoacoustic (PA) molecular imaging (PMI) of ferritin expressed in human melanoma cells (SK-24) was performed in vitro. Ferritin is a ubiquitously expressed protein which stores iron that can be detected by PA imaging, allowing ferritin to act as a reporter gene. To over-express ferritin, SK-24 cells were co-transfected with plasmid expressing Heavy chain ferritin (H-FT) and plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C1) using LipofectamineTM 2000. Non-transfected SK-24 cells served as a negative control. Fluorescent imaging of EGFP confirmed transfection and transgene expression in co-transfected cells. To detect iron accumulation in SK-24 cells, a focused high frequency ultrasonic transducer (60 MHz, f/1.5), synchronized to a pulsed laser (<20mJ/cm2), was used to scan the PA signal from 680 nm to 950 nm (in 10 nm increments) from the surface of the 6-well culturing plate. PA signal intensity from H-FT transfected SK-24 cells was not different from that of non-transfected SK-24 cells at wavelengths less than 770 nm, but was over 4 dB higher than non-transfected SK-24 cells at 850 ~ 950 nm. Fluorescent microscopy indicates significant accumulation of ferritin in H-FT transfected SK-24 cells, with little ferritin expression in non-transfected SK-24 cells. The PA spectral analysis clearly differentiates transfected SK-24 cells from nontransfected SK-24 cells with significantly increased iron signal at 850 ~ 950 nm, and these increased signals were associated with transfection of H-FT plasmid. As such, the feasibility of ferritin as a reporter gene for PMI has been demonstrated in vitro. The use of ferritin as a reporter gene represents a new concept for PA imaging, and may provide various opportunities for molecular imaging and basic science research.

Ha, S.; Carson, A.; Kim, K.

2012-02-01

65

A novel triple fusion reporter system for use in gene trap mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Gene trapping is an insertional mutagenesis strategy that allows for simultaneous gene identification and mutation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Gene trap vectors both disrupt coding sequence and report on the genes' endogenous expression. The most popular gene trap reporter to date combines beta-galactosidase expression with neomycin resistance in a fusion protein known as beta-geo. Here we describe a refinement to this reporter that also incorporates real time fluorescent readouts. We have constructed a series of gene trap vectors incorporating a novel tripartite fusion protein consisting of EGFP, beta-galactosidase, and the neomycin or hygromycin resistance activities. Our results indicate that these triple fusions can function efficiently as reporters of endogenous trapped gene expression and subcellular localization. We show that these fusion proteins constitute versatile gene trap reporters whose activity can be detected in real time by fluorescence and in fixed tissue with a sensitive enzymatic activity. PMID:17492751

Tsakiridis, Anestis; Tzouanacou, Elena; Larralde, Osmany; Watts, Tim M; Wilson, Valerie; Forrester, Lesley; Brickman, Joshua M

2007-06-01

66

Hazardous effects of effluent from the chrome plating industry: 70 kDa heat shock protein expression as a marker of cellular damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ).  

PubMed Central

Hazardous effects of an effluent from the chrome plating industry were examined by exposing transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) to various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 micro L/mL) of the effluent through diet. The emergence pattern of adult flies was affected, along with impaired reproductive performance at the higher dietary concentrations of the effluent. Interestingly, the effect of the effluent was more pronounced in male than in female flies. The effect of the effluent on development of adult flies was concurrent with the expression pattern of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70), both in larval tissues and in the reproductive organs of adult flies. We observed a dose- and time-dependent expression of hsp70 in third instar larvae exposed for different time intervals. Absence of hsp70 expression in larvae exposed to 0.1 micro L/mL of the effluent indicated that this is the highest nontoxic concentration for Drosophila. The stress gene assay in the reproductive organs of adult flies revealed hsp70 expression in the testis of male flies only. However, trypan blue dye exclusion tests in these tissues indicate tissue damage in the male accessory gland of adult flies, which was further confirmed by ultrastructural observations. In the present study we demonstrate the utility of transgenic Drosophila as an alternative animal model for evaluating hazardous effects of the effluent from the chrome plating industry and further reveal the cytoprotective role of hsp70 and its expression as an early marker in environmental risk assessment. PMID:14644668

Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Saxena, Daya Krishna; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

2003-01-01

67

Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994  

SciTech Connect

This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

Fields, C.A.

1994-09-01

68

Original Article NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on the  

E-print Network

alterations, as exemplified by haplo-insufficiencies in many human syndromes (e.g., Guris et al., 2006; Slager at the same time and in the same cells. In 1960, Franc¸ois Jacob and Jacques Monod showed that LacZ, Lac gene cluster (Jacob et al., 1960). Furthermore, these genes are transcribed as a single RNA molecule

Omiecinski, Curtis

69

Gene disruption of Mfsd8 in mice provides the first animal model for CLN7 disease.  

PubMed

Mutations in the major facilitator superfamily domain containing 8 (MFSD8) gene coding for the lysosomal CLN7 membrane protein result in CLN7 disease, a lysosomal storage disease of childhood. CLN7 disease belongs to a group of inherited disorders, called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL), which are characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent ceroid lipopigments, neuroinflammation, photoreceptor- and neurodegeneration. We have disrupted the Mfsd8 gene by insertion of a lacZ gene-trap cassette between exons 1 and 2 in mice and have analyzed the impact of Cln7 depletion on neuronal and visceral tissues. Analysis of lacZ reporter gene activity in heterozygous Mfsd8((wt/tm1a)) mice showed strong Mfsd8 mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex, in the hippocampus and in the kidney. Homozygous Mfsd8((tm1a/tm1a)) mice were viable and fertile and resembled biochemically the NCL-phenotype of human CLN7 patients including the accumulation of autofluorescent material in the brain and peripheral tissues and of subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase in the cerebellum and nuclei of distinct brain regions, and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Lysosomal storage was found in large neurons of the medulla, the hippocampus and in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in mutant mice. The ultrastructure of the storage material revealed dense lamellar bodies with irregular forms within cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. In the brain loss of Cln7 was accompanied by mild reactive microgliosis and subtle astrogliosis by 10months of age, respectively. In summary we have generated a mouse model which is partly valuable as some but not all neuropathological features of human CLN7 disease are recapitulated thus representing an animal model to study CLN7-specific disease mechanisms. PMID:24423645

Damme, Markus; Brandenstein, Laura; Fehr, Susanne; Jankowiak, Wanda; Bartsch, Udo; Schweizer, Michaela; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Storch, Stephan

2014-05-01

70

The peroxisomal transporter gene ANT1 is regulated by a deviant oleate response element (ORE): characterization of the signal for fatty acid induction.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae ANT1/YPR128c encodes the peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter that provides ATP for intra-peroxisomal activation of medium-chain fatty acids. A lacZ reporter construct comprising the ANT1 promoter was shown to be comparatively more highly expressed in a wild-type strain grown on oleic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, than in pip2Delta(oaf1)Delta mutant cells that are defective in fatty acid induction. The ANT1 promoter was demonstrated to contain a deviant oleate response element (ORE) that could bind the Pip2p-Oaf1p transcription factor and confer activation on a basal CYC1-lacZ reporter gene. Expression of Ant1p as well as other enzymes whose genes are known to be regulated by a canonical ORE was found to be increased in cells grown on lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid. We concluded that the signal for induction does not differentiate between long- and medium-chain fatty acids. This signal was independent of beta-oxidation or the biogenesis of the peroxisomal compartment where this process occurs, since a pox1Delta strain blocked in the first and rate-limiting step of beta-oxidation as well as various pex mutant cells devoid of intact peroxisomes produced sufficient amounts of Pip2p-Oaf1p for binding OREs in vitro and for expressing an ORE-driven reporter gene. The signal's durability was shown to be related to the concentration of fatty acids in the medium, since a pex6Delta strain expressed an ORE-driven reporter gene at high levels for a longer period than did isogenic wild-type cells. Generation of the signal was also independent of protein synthesis, as demonstrated by cycloheximide treatment. PMID:12071844

Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Palmieri, Luigi; Hartig, Andreas; Hamilton, Barbara; Ruis, Helmut; Erdmann, Ralf; Gurvitz, Aner

2002-07-01

71

The peroxisomal transporter gene ANT1 is regulated by a deviant oleate response element (ORE): characterization of the signal for fatty acid induction.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae ANT1/YPR128c encodes the peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter that provides ATP for intra-peroxisomal activation of medium-chain fatty acids. A lacZ reporter construct comprising the ANT1 promoter was shown to be comparatively more highly expressed in a wild-type strain grown on oleic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, than in pip2Delta(oaf1)Delta mutant cells that are defective in fatty acid induction. The ANT1 promoter was demonstrated to contain a deviant oleate response element (ORE) that could bind the Pip2p-Oaf1p transcription factor and confer activation on a basal CYC1-lacZ reporter gene. Expression of Ant1p as well as other enzymes whose genes are known to be regulated by a canonical ORE was found to be increased in cells grown on lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid. We concluded that the signal for induction does not differentiate between long- and medium-chain fatty acids. This signal was independent of beta-oxidation or the biogenesis of the peroxisomal compartment where this process occurs, since a pox1Delta strain blocked in the first and rate-limiting step of beta-oxidation as well as various pex mutant cells devoid of intact peroxisomes produced sufficient amounts of Pip2p-Oaf1p for binding OREs in vitro and for expressing an ORE-driven reporter gene. The signal's durability was shown to be related to the concentration of fatty acids in the medium, since a pex6Delta strain expressed an ORE-driven reporter gene at high levels for a longer period than did isogenic wild-type cells. Generation of the signal was also independent of protein synthesis, as demonstrated by cycloheximide treatment. PMID:12071844

Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Palmieri, Luigi; Hartig, Andreas; Hamilton, Barbara; Ruis, Helmut; Erdmann, Ralf; Gurvitz, Aner

2002-01-01

72

A fast-evolving human NPAS3 enhancer gained reporter expression in the developing forebrain of transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

The developmental brain gene NPAS3 stands out as a hot spot in human evolution because it contains the largest number of human-specific, fast-evolving, conserved, non-coding elements. In this paper we studied 2xHAR142, one of these elements that is located in the fifth intron of NPAS3. Using transgenic mice, we show that the mouse and chimp 2xHAR142 orthologues behave as transcriptional enhancers driving expression of the reporter gene lacZ to a similar NPAS3 expression subdomain in the mouse central nervous system. Interestingly, the human 2xHAR142 orthologue drives lacZ expression to an extended expression pattern in the nervous system. Thus, molecular evolution of 2xHAR142 provides the first documented example of human-specific heterotopy in the forebrain promoted by a transcriptional enhancer and suggests that it may have contributed to assemble the unique properties of the human brain. PMID:24218632

Kamm, Gretel B.; López-Leal, Rodrigo; Lorenzo, Juan R.; Franchini, Lucía F.

2013-01-01

73

Optical imaging of reporter gene expression using a positron-emission-tomography probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reporter gene/reporter probe technology is one of the most important techniques in molecular imaging. Lately, many reporter gene/reporter probe systems have been coupled to different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). It has been recently found that OI techniques could be used to monitor radioactive tracers in vitro and in living subjects. In this study, we further demonstrate that a reporter gene/nuclear reporter probe system [herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and 9-(4-18F-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl] butyl) guanine ([18F]FHBG)] could be successfully imaged by OI in vitro and in vivo. OI with radioactive reporter probes will facilitate and broaden the applications of reporter gene/reporter probe techniques in medical research.

Liu, Hongguang; Ren, Gang; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Chen, Luxi; Han, Peizhen; Cheng, Zhen

2010-11-01

74

Optical imaging of reporter gene expression using a positron-emission-tomography probe  

PubMed Central

Reporter gene?reporter probe technology is one of the most important techniques in molecular imaging. Lately, many reporter gene?reporter probe systems have been coupled to different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). It has been recently found that OI techniques could be used to monitor radioactive tracers in vitro and in living subjects. In this study, we further demonstrate that a reporter gene?nuclear reporter probe system [herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and 9-(4-18F-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl] butyl) guanine ([18F]FHBG)] could be successfully imaged by OI in vitro and in vivo. OI with radioactive reporter probes will facilitate and broaden the applications of reporter gene?reporter probe techniques in medical research. PMID:21198146

Liu, Hongguang; Ren, Gang; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Chen, Luxi; Han, Peizhen; Cheng, Zhen

2010-01-01

75

A novel element in the promoter of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SPS19 enhances ORE-dependent up-regulation in oleic acid and is essential for de-repression.  

PubMed

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown on oleic acid, genes encoding enzymes of beta-oxidation are induced by the interaction of a transcription factor composed of Pip2p and Oaflp with an oleate response element (ORE) in their promoters. The SPS19 gene, which encodes peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, an auxiliary beta-oxidation enzyme, has been shown previously to be up-regulated by a canonical ORE. To determine whether additional elements contribute to this transcriptional upregulation, deletion analysis of the SPS19 promoter was conducted using SPS19-lacZ reporter genes. In a reporter construct containing a deletion adjacent to the ORE, transcriptional activation of SPS19 in oleic acid medium was impaired. Together with an additional segment that overlaps a portion of the canonical ORE, this region forms a continuous element (termed UAS(SPS19)) that is essential for de-repression of SPS19 when glucose levels are low. The potentially bi-partite UAS(SPS19) element was able to initiate bi-directional transcription from a promoterless CYC1-lacZ reporter construct under de-repression conditions, whereas the canonical ORE was not. In oleic acid-containing medium, UAS(SPS19) stimulated transcription of the reporter gene 2.4-fold compared to the intact SPS19 ORE, but did so only in the presence of Pip2p and Oaf1p. UAS(SPS19), which is similar to a transcriptional enhancer in the promoter of the sporulation-specific gene SPS4, was shown specifically to bind several proteins, including Pip2p and Oaflp. We propose that UAS(SPS19) and other sequences like it are required to enhance the transcriptional effects mediated by more specific response elements. PMID:10589836

Gurvitz, A; Hamilton, B; Hartig, A; Ruis, H; Dawes, I W; Rottensteiner, H

1999-10-01

76

SHORT REPORT Open Access Methodology optimizing SAGE library tag-to-gene  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Methodology optimizing SAGE library tag-to-gene mapping: application in therapy and control. Several experimental approaches including SAGE (Serial analysis of gene expression. Usual SAGE tag-to-gene mapping techniques are inadequate because almost all tags are normally located

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

The application of luciferase as a reporter of environmental regulation of gene expression in mycobacteria.  

PubMed

This paper describes the construction of pSG10, the first mycobacterial promoter probe shuttle vector to use the structural gene of a bacterial luciferase as a reporter gene. To examine the utility of using bacterial luciferase to measure gene expression in mycobacteria, the authors have used this vector to monitor the induction of the acetamidase gene promoter of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Luciferase proved to be a rapid, sensitive and easily assayable reporter of changes in gene activity in response to environment in mycobacteria. PMID:7765445

Gordon, S; Parish, T; Roberts, I S; Andrew, P W

1994-11-01

78

Secreted Gaussia luciferase as a sensitive reporter gene for in vivo and ex vivo studies of airway gene transfer.  

PubMed

The cationic lipid GL67A is one of the more efficient non-viral gene transfer agents (GTAs) for the lungs, and is currently being evaluated in an extensive clinical trial programme for cystic fibrosis gene therapy. Despite conferring significant expression of vector-specific mRNA following transfection of differentiated human airway cells cultured on air liquid interfaces (ALI) cultures and nebulisation into sheep lung in vivo we were unable to detect robust levels of the standard reporter gene Firefly luciferase (FLuc). Recently a novel secreted luciferase isolated from Gaussia princeps (GLuc) has been described. Here, we show that (1) GLuc is a more sensitive reporter gene and offers significant advantages over the traditionally used FLuc in pre-clinical models for lung gene transfer that are difficult to transfect, (2) GL67A-mediated gene transfection leads to significant production of recombinant protein in these models, (3) promoter activity in ALI cultures mimics published in vivo data and these cultures may, therefore, be suitable to characterise promoter activity in a human ex vivo airway model and (4) detection of GLuc in large animal broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and serum facilitates assessment of duration of gene expression after gene transfer to the lungs. In summary, we have shown here that GLuc is a sensitive reporter gene and is particularly useful for monitoring gene transfer in difficult to transfect models of the airway and lung. This has allowed us to validate that GL67A, which is currently in clinical use, can generate significant amounts of recombinant protein in fully differentiated human air liquid interface cultures and the ovine lung in vivo. PMID:21239054

Griesenbach, Uta; Vicente, Catarina C; Roberts, Megan J; Meng, Cuixiang; Soussi, Samia; Xenariou, Stefania; Tennant, Peter; Baker, Alison; Baker, Eilidh; Gordon, Catherine; Vrettou, Christina; McCormick, Dominique; Coles, Rebecca; Green, Anne-Marie; Lawton, Anna E; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R; Collie, David D; McLachlan, Gerry; Alton, Eric W F W

2011-04-01

79

MRI Reporter Genes: Application to Imaging of Cell Survival, Proliferation, Migration, and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging strives to detect molecular events at the level of the whole organism. In some cases, the molecule of interest can be detected either directly, or through the use of targeted contrast media. However many genes and proteins, and particularly those located in intracellular compartments, are not accessible for targeted agents. The transcriptional regulation of these genes can never the less be detected, though indirectly, through the use of reporter genes encoding for readily detectable proteins. Such reporter proteins can be expressed in the tissue of interest by genetically introducing the reporter gene in the target cells. Imaging of reporter genes has become a powerful tool in modern biomedical research. Typically, expression of fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins, or the reaction product of expressed enzymes and exogenous substrates, are examined using in vitro histological methods, or in vivo whole body imaging methods. Recent advances in MRI reporter gene methods raise the possibility that MRI could become a powerful tool for concomitant high resolution anatomical and functional imaging and for imaging of reporter gene activity. An immediate application of MRI reporter gene methods is for monitoring gene expression patterns in gene therapy and for in vivo imaging of the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of pluripotent or multipotent cells used in cell based regenerative therapies for cancer, myocardial infarction, and neural degeneration. In this review, we characterize the variety of MRI reporter gene methods based on their applicability to report cell survival/proliferation, cell migration, and cell differentiation. In particular, we discuss which methods are best suited for translation to clinical use in regenerative therapies. PMID:23225197

Vandsburger, Moriel H; Radoul, Marina; Cohen, Batya; Neeman, Michal

2013-01-01

80

Organisation and expression of a cluster of yolk protein genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.  

PubMed

The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina is a major pest for the Australian and New Zealand sheep industries. With the long-term aim of making a strain of L. cuprina suitable for a genetic control program, we previously developed a tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic system in Drosophila. A key part of this system is a female-specific promoter from a yolk protein (yp) gene controlling expression of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator (tTA). Here we report the sequence of a 14.2 kb genomic clone from L. cuprina that contains a cluster of three complete yp genes and one partial yp gene. The Lcyp genes are specifically expressed in females that have received a protein meal. A bioinformatic analysis of the promoter of one of the yp genes (LcypA) identified several putative binding sites for DSX, a known regulator of yp gene expression in other Diptera. A transgenic strain of L. cuprina was made that contained the LcypA promoter driving the expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene. Transgenic females express high levels of ?-galactosidase after a protein meal. Thus the LcypA promoter could be used to obtain female-specific expression of tTA in transgenic L. cuprina. PMID:20844939

Scott, Maxwell J; Atapattu, Asela; Schiemann, Anja H; Concha, Carolina; Henry, Rebecca; Carey, Brandi-lee; Belikoff, Esther J; Heinrich, Jörg C; Sarkar, Abhimanyu

2011-01-01

81

Expression of Shigella flexneri gluQ-rs gene is linked to dksA and controlled by a transcriptional terminator  

PubMed Central

Background Glutamyl queuosine-tRNAAsp synthetase (GluQ-RS) is a paralog of the catalytic domain of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and catalyzes the formation of glutamyl-queuosine on the wobble position of tRNAAsp. Here we analyze the transcription of its gene in Shigella flexneri, where it is found downstream of dksA, which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in stress responses. Results The genomic organization, dksA-gluQ-rs, is conserved in more than 40 bacterial species. RT-PCR assays show co-transcription of both genes without a significant change in transcript levels during growth of S. flexneri. However, mRNA levels of the intergenic region changed during growth, increasing at stationary phase, indicating an additional level of control over the expression of gluQ-rs gene. Transcriptional fusions with lacZ as a reporter gene only produced ?-galactosidase activity when the constructs included the dksA promoter, indicating that gluQ-rs do not have a separate promoter. Using bioinformatics, we identified a putative transcriptional terminator between dksA and gluQ-rs. Deletion or alteration of the predicted terminator resulted in increased expression of the lacZ reporter compared with cells containing the wild type terminator sequence. Analysis of the phenotype of a gluQ-rs mutant suggested that it may play a role in some stress responses, since growth of the mutant was impaired in the presence of osmolytes. Conclusions The results presented here, show that the expression of gluQ-rs depends on the dksA promoter, and strongly suggest the presence and the functionality of a transcriptional terminator regulating its expression. Also, the results indicate a link between glutamyl-queuosine synthesis and stress response in Shigella flexneri. PMID:23035718

2012-01-01

82

Avoiding unscheduled transcription in shared promoters: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sum1p represses the divergent gene pair SPS18-SPS19 through a midsporulation element (MSE)  

PubMed Central

The sporulation-specific gene SPS18 shares a common promoter region with the oleic acid-inducible gene SPS19. Both genes are transcribed in sporulating diploid cells, albeit unevenly in favour of SPS18, whereas in haploid cells grown on fatty acids only SPS19 is highly activated. Here, SPS19 oleate-response element (ORE) conferred activation on a basal CYC1-lacZ reporter gene equally in both orientations, but promoter analysis using SPS18-lacZ reporter constructs with deletions identified a repressing fragment containing a midsporulation element (MSE) that could be involved in imposing directionality towards SPS19 in oleic acid-induced cells. In sporulating diploids, MSEs recruit the Ndt80p transcription factor for activation, whereas under vegetative conditions, certain MSEs are targeted by the Sum1p repressor in association with Hst1p and Rfm1p. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that in haploid sum1?, hst1?, or rfm1? cells, oleic acid-dependent expression of SPS18 was higher compared with the situation in wild-type cells, but in the sum1? mutant, this effect was diminished in the absence of Oaf1p or Pip2p. We conclude that SPS18 MSE is a functional element repressing the expression of both SPS18 and SPS19, and is a component of a stricture mechanism shielding SPS18 from the dramatic increase in ORE-dependent transcription of SPS19 in oleic acid-grown cells. PMID:19583587

Gurvitz, Aner; Suomi, Fumi; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Dawes, Ian W

2009-01-01

83

Infection by bacterial pathogens expressing type III secretion decreases luciferase activity: ramifications for reporter gene studies.  

PubMed

Pathogenic microbes influence gene regulation in eukaryotic hosts. Reporter gene studies can define the roles of promoter regulatory sequences. The effect of pathogenic bacteria on reporter genes has not been examined. The aim of this study was to identify which reporter genes are reliable in studies concerning host gene regulation by bacterial pathogens expressing type III secretory systems. Human intestinal epithelial cells, T84, Caco-2 and HT-29, were transfected with plasmids containing luciferase (luc), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) as reporter genes driven by the inducible interleukin-8 (IL-8) or constitutively active simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter. Cells were infected with enteropathogenic E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium, and the reporter activity was assessed. Luc activity significantly decreased following infection, regardless of the promoter. The activity of recombinant luc was nearly ablated by incubation with either EPEC or Salmonella in a cell-free system. Activity was partially preserved by protease inhibitors, and immunoblot analysis showed a decreased amount and molecular weight of recombinant luc, suggesting protein degradation. Neither beta-gal nor CAT activity was altered by infection. Disruption of type III secretion prevented the loss of luc activity. We conclude that CAT or beta-gal, but not luc, can be used as reliable reporter genes to assess the impact of pathogenic microbes, especially those expressing type III secretion on host cell gene regulation. PMID:10997265

Savkovic, S D; Koutsouris, A; Wu, G; Hecht, G

2000-09-01

84

In 1997, the maize gene tb1 was reported as the first domestication QTL to be cloned (4). tb1  

E-print Network

In 1997, the maize gene tb1 was reported as the first domestication QTL to be cloned (4). tb1, in addition to the two rice shattering genes, cloning of the wheat Q gene was reported (7). Q controls the chaff. A notable feature of this list of six domestica- tion genes is that five of the six encode

Forbes, Jeffrey

85

A versatile element for gene addition in bacterial chromosomes.  

PubMed

The increasing interest in genetic manipulation of bacterial host metabolic pathways for protein or small molecule production has led to a need to add new genes to a chromosome quickly and easily without leaving behind a selectable marker. The present report describes a vector and four-day procedure that enable site-specific chromosomal insertion of cloned genes in a context insulated from external transcription, usable once in a construction series. The use of rhamnose-inducible transcription from rhaBp allows regulation of the inserted genes independently of the commonly used IPTG and arabinose strategies. Using lacZ as a reporter, we first show that expression from the rhamnose promoter is tightly regulatable, exhibiting very low leakage of background expression compared with background, and moderate rhamnose-induced expression compared with IPTG-induced expression from lacp. Second, the expression of a DNA methyltransferase was used to show that rhamnose regulation yielded on-off expression of this enzyme, such that a resident high-copy plasmid was either fully sensitive or fully resistant to isoschizomer restriction enzyme cleavage. In both cases, growth medium manipulation allows intermediate levels of expression. The vehicle can also be adapted as an ORF-cloning vector. PMID:22123741

Sibley, Marion H; Raleigh, Elisabeth A

2012-02-01

86

Assessment of a novel, capsid-modified adenovirus with an improved vascular gene transfer profile  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery bypass graft failure and in-stent restenosis remain significant opportunities for the advancement of novel therapeutics that target neointimal hyperplasia, a characteristic of both pathologies. Gene therapy may provide a successful approach to improve the clinical outcome of these conditions, but would benefit from the development of more efficient vectors for vascular gene delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether a novel genetically engineered Adenovirus could be utilised to produce enhanced levels of vascular gene expression. Methods Vascular transduction capacity was assessed in primary human saphenous vein smooth muscle and endothelial cells using vectors expressing the LacZ reporter gene. The therapeutic capacity of the vectors was compared by measuring smooth muscle cell metabolic activity and migration following infection with vectors that over-express the candidate therapeutic gene tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Results Compared to Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), the novel vector Ad5T*F35++ demonstrated improved binding and transduction of human vascular cells. Ad5T*F35++ mediated expression of TIMP-3 reduced smooth muscle cell metabolic activity and migration in vitro. We also demonstrated that in human serum samples pre-existing neutralising antibodies to Ad5T*F35++ were less prevalent than Ad5 neutralising antibodies. Conclusions We have developed a novel vector with improved vascular transduction and improved resistance to human serum neutralisation. This may provide a novel vector platform for human vascular gene transfer. PMID:23937994

2013-01-01

87

A novel heterologous gene expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the isocitrate lyase gene promoter from Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that the upstream region of the isocitrate lyase gene (UPR-ICL) from the n-alkane-utilizing yeast Candida tropicalis was functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a novel promoter with non-fermentable carbon sources, such as oleic acid, acetate, ethanol, and glycerol\\/lactate. The expression of two foreign genes coding for #-galactosidase from Escherichia coli (LacZ) and glutamate decarboxylase from rat brain was

T. Kanai; H. Atomi; K. Umemura; H. Ueno; Y. Teranishi; M. Ueda; A. Tanaka

1996-01-01

88

First Report of the Multiresistance Gene cfr in Streptococcus suis  

PubMed Central

The multiresistance gene cfr was identified for the first time in streptococci, namely, in porcine Streptococcus suis isolate S10. The cfr gene was detected on the ?100-kb plasmid pStrcfr, where it was bracketed by two copies of the novel insertion sequence ISEnfa5, located in the same orientation. The detection of a cfr- and ISEnfa5-containing amplicon by inverse PCR suggests that ISEnfa5 may play a role in the dissemination of cfr. PMID:23733472

Wang, Yang; Li, Dexi; Song, Li; Liu, Yang; He, Tao; Liu, Hebing; Wu, Congming

2013-01-01

89

Gene therapy for C-26 colon cancer using heparin-polyethyleneimine nanoparticle-mediated survivin T34A  

PubMed Central

Background Gene therapy provides a novel method for the prevention and treatment of cancer, but the clinical application of gene therapy is restricted, mainly because of the absence of an efficient and safe gene delivery system. Recently, we developed a novel nonviral gene carrier, ie, heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles for this purpose. Methods and results HPEI nanoparticles were used to deliver plasmid-expressing mouse survivin-T34A (ms-T34A) to treat C-26 carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. According to the in vitro studies, HPEI nanoparticles could efficiently transfect the pGFP report gene into C-26 cells, with a transfection efficiency of 30.5% ± 2%. Moreover, HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A could efficiently inhibit the proliferation of C-26 cells by induction of apoptosis in vitro. Based on the in vivo studies, HPEI nanoparticles could transfect the Lac-Z report gene into C-26 cells in vivo. Intratumoral injection of HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A significantly inhibited growth of subcutaneous C-26 carcinoma in vivo by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Conclusion This research suggests that HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A may have a promising role in C-26 colon carcinoma therapy. PMID:22072877

Zhang, Ling; Gao, Xiang; Men, Ke; Wang, BiLan; Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Jinfeng; Huang, Meijuan; Gou, MaLing; Huang, Ning; Qian, ZhiYong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan

2011-01-01

90

Isolated-organ perfusion for local gene delivery: efficient adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into the liver.  

PubMed

Targeted gene delivery is essential for gene therapy involving in vivo gene transfer. In the present study we analyzed the efficiency and tissue-specificity of gene transfer into the liver with recombinant adenoviruses. Adenovirus vectors carrying the E. coli lacZ gene (Ad.RSV.beta-gal) and the firefly luciferase gene (AdCMV-luc) as reporters were administered to the liver of adult Wistar rats, either via infusion into the portal vein (intraportal infusion; IPI) or via perfusion of the vascularity isolated liver (isolated liver perfusion; ILP). Ex vivo liver perfusion experiments with Ad.RSV. beta-gal were used to optimize the conditions for hepatic gene transfer. Ex vivo perfusion of rat livers with 2 x 10(9) plaque forming units (p.f.u) Ad RSV.beta-gal was sufficient to infect about 20% of the liver parenchymal cells. Perfusion with chelating agents (1 mM EGTA, or 2 mM EDTA) prior to the administration of the vector increased the efficiency to at least 40%. Similar efficiencies were obtained in experiments with liver lobes of Rhesus monkeys. In vivo administration of AdCMV-luc via ILP resulted in a significantly more efficient (P = 0.028) and also more reproducible gene transfer when compared to IPI. Although detectable in both groups, extrahepatic luciferase expression was considerably reduced in the ILP group. Our data demonstrate that IPL can be used for efficient and reproducible liver-specific gene delivery. Therefore, we think that the perfusion of vascularly isolated organs is useful as a modality for the tissue-specific administration of recombinant adenovirus vectors. PMID:9068796

de Roos, W K; Fallaux, F J; Marinelli, A W; Lazaris-Karatzas, A; von Geusau, A B; van der Eb, M M; Cramer, S J; Terpstra, O T; Hoeben, R C

1997-01-01

91

Cellular and Molecular Factors in Flexor Tendon Repair and Adhesions: A Histological and Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Flexor tendon healing is mediated by cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis that contribute to the formation of scar tissue and adhesion. The biological mechanisms of flexor tendon adhesion formation has been linked to TGF-?. To elucidate the cellular and molecular events in this pathology, we implanted live FDL grafts from the reporter mouse Rosa26LacZ/+ in WT recipients, and used histological ?-galactosidase (?-gal) staining to evaluate the intrinsic versus extrinsic cellular origins of scar, and RT-PCR to measure gene expression of TGF-? and its receptors, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and MMPs and their regulators. Over the course of healing, graft cellularity and ?-gal activity progressively increased, and ?-gal-positive cells migrated out of the Rosa26LacZ/+ graft. In addition, there was evidence of influx of host cells (?-gal-negative) into the gliding space and the graft, suggesting that both graft and host cells contribute to adhesions. Interestingly, we observed a biphasic pattern in which Tgfb1 expression was highest in the early phases of healing and gradually decreased thereafter, whereas Tgfb3 increased and remained upregulated later. The expression of TGF-? receptors was also upregulated throughout the healing phases. In addition, type III collagen and fibronectin were upregulated during the proliferative phase of healing, confirming that murine flexor tendon heals by scar tissue. Furthermore, gene expression of MMPs showed a differential pattern in which inflammatory MMPs were highest early and matrix MMPs increased over time. These findings offer important insights into the complex cellular and molecular factors during flexor tendon healing. PMID:23586515

Juneja, Subhash C.; Schwarz, Edward M.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.

2013-01-01

92

Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models. PMID:24104323

Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D.; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A.; Lazard, ZaWaunyka W.; Davis, Alan R.; Simpson, LaShan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

93

Simultaneous deletion of floxed genes mediated by CaMKII?-Cre in the brain and in male germ cells: application to conditional and conventional disruption of Go?.  

PubMed

The Cre/LoxP system is a well-established approach to spatially and temporally control genetic inactivation. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKII?) promoter limits expression to specific regions of the forebrain and thus has been utilized for the brain-specific inactivation of the genes. Here, we show that CaMKII?-Cre can be utilized for simultaneous inactivation of genes in the adult brain and in male germ cells. Double transgenic Rosa26(+/stop-lacZ)::CaMKII?-Cre(+/Cre) mice generated by crossing CaMKII?-Cre(+/Cre) mice with floxed ROSA26 lacZ reporter (Rosa26(+/stop-lacZ)) mice exhibited lacZ expression in the brain and testis. When these mice were mated to wild-type females, about 27% of the offspring were whole body blue by X-gal staining without inheriting the Cre transgene. These results indicate that recombination can occur in the germ cells of male Rosa26(+/stop-lacZ)::CaMKII?-Cre(+/Cre) mice. Similarly, when double transgenic Gnao(+/f)::CaMKII?-Cre(+/Cre) mice carrying a floxed Go-alpha gene (Gnao(f/f)) were backcrossed to wild-type females, approximately 22% of the offspring carried the disrupted allele (Gnao(?)) without inheriting the Cre transgene. The Gnao(?/?) mice closely resembled conventional Go-alpha knockout mice (Gnao(-/-)) with respect to impairment of their behavior. Thus, we conclude that CaMKII?-Cre mice afford recombination for both tissue- and time-controlled inactivation of floxed target genes in the brain and for their permanent disruption. This work also emphasizes that extra caution should be exercised in utilizing CaMKII?-Cre mice as breeding pairs. PMID:24787734

Choi, Chan-Il; Yoon, Sang-Phil; Choi, Jung-Mi; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Young-Don; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung

2014-01-01

94

Simultaneous deletion of floxed genes mediated by CaMKII?-Cre in the brain and in male germ cells: application to conditional and conventional disruption of Go?  

PubMed Central

The Cre/LoxP system is a well-established approach to spatially and temporally control genetic inactivation. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKII?) promoter limits expression to specific regions of the forebrain and thus has been utilized for the brain-specific inactivation of the genes. Here, we show that CaMKII?-Cre can be utilized for simultaneous inactivation of genes in the adult brain and in male germ cells. Double transgenic Rosa26+/stop-lacZ::CaMKII?-Cre+/Cre mice generated by crossing CaMKII?-Cre+/Cre mice with floxed ROSA26 lacZ reporter (Rosa26+/stop-lacZ) mice exhibited lacZ expression in the brain and testis. When these mice were mated to wild-type females, about 27% of the offspring were whole body blue by X-gal staining without inheriting the Cre transgene. These results indicate that recombination can occur in the germ cells of male Rosa26+/stop-lacZ::CaMKII?-Cre+/Cre mice. Similarly, when double transgenic Gnao+/f::CaMKII?-Cre+/Cre mice carrying a floxed Go-alpha gene (Gnaof/f) were backcrossed to wild-type females, approximately 22% of the offspring carried the disrupted allele (Gnao?) without inheriting the Cre transgene. The Gnao?/? mice closely resembled conventional Go-alpha knockout mice (Gnao?/?) with respect to impairment of their behavior. Thus, we conclude that CaMKII?-Cre mice afford recombination for both tissue- and time-controlled inactivation of floxed target genes in the brain and for their permanent disruption. This work also emphasizes that extra caution should be exercised in utilizing CaMKII?-Cre mice as breeding pairs. PMID:24787734

Choi, Chan-Il; Yoon, Sang-Phil; Choi, Jung-Mi; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Young-Don; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung

2014-01-01

95

Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter  

PubMed Central

The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

2013-01-01

96

The plant mitochondrial mat-r gene/nad1 gene complex. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The authors have completed sequencing the segments (totalling 19 kb, both complementary strands) of the maize mtDNA molecule that encode the entire NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nadl) gene. They have identified nucleotides in mature transcripts of the nadl gene that are edited and have generated clones of cDNAs of entire mature (fully spliced) nadl transcripts. They have examined the relative rates of splicing in transcripts of the four nadl gene group II introns and begun examining nadl intron cDNAs to determine the extent and distribution of RNA edits in introns, in order to evaluate the possibility that intron excision and exon splicing might be editing independent.

Wolstenholme, D.R.

1994-06-01

97

Bioluminescent reporters for catabolic gene expression and pollutant bioavailability  

SciTech Connect

The application of visualized catabolic nah-gene expression using a luxCDABE gene fusion provides a valuable method to measure quantitatively and specifically naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability. It has been demonstrated that the physiological state of the test culture together with the intrinsic regulation mechanisms of the naphthalene degradation pathway as well as the physiological aspects of the lux gene fusion have to be taken into account. The method presented provides a high potential for in situ bioprocess monitoring. In addition, the results obtained with immobilized cells provide a basis for the development of biosensors for environmental applications in specific pollutant monitoring in waste streams and soil slurry systems but, as a general method, also for more conventional biotechnological process control. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Heitzer, A.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sayler, G.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology); Burlage, R.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-01-01

98

A Novel Binary T-Vector with the GFP Reporter Gene for Promoter Characterization  

PubMed Central

Several strategies have been developed to clone PCR fragments into desired vectors. However, most of commercially available T-vectors are not binary vectors and cannot be directly used for Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. In this study, a novel binary T-vector was constructed by integrating two AhdI restriction sites into the backbone vector pCAMBIA 1300. The T-vector also contains a GFP reporter gene and thus, can be used to analyze promoter activity by monitoring the reporter gene. On the other hand, identification and characterization of various promoters not only benefit the functional annotation of their genes but also provide alternative candidates to be used to drive interesting genes for plant genetic improvement by transgenesis. More than 1,000 putative pollen-specific rice genes have been identified in a genome-wide level. Among them, 67 highly expressed genes were further characterized. One of the pollen-specific genes LOC_Os10g35930 was further surveyed in its expression patterns with more details by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Finally, its promoter activity was further investigated by analyzing transgenic rice plants carrying the promoter::GFP cassette, which was constructed from the newly developed T-vector. The reporter GFP gene expression in these transgenic plants showed that the promoter was active only in mature but not in germinated pollens. PMID:25197968

Jiang, Shu-Ye; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Bai, Yanan; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

2014-01-01

99

Analysis of Gene Targeting & Nonhomologous End-joining. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Overall, we identified a number of new proteins that participate in nonhomologous end-joining and also in telomere addition to the ends of broken chromosomes. We showed that NHEJ is severely reduced in cells expressing both yeast mating-type genes and then went on to identify the NEJ1 gene that was under this control. We showed the epistasis relations among a set of mutations that impair telomere addition and we showed that there are in fact two pathways to repair broken chromosomes in the absence of telomerase. We characterized the DNA damage checkpoint pathway in response to a single broken chromosome and characterized especially the adaptation of cells arrested by an unrepaired DSB. We demonstrated that the DNA damage response is nuclear-limited. We showed adaptation defects for Tid1and Srs2 proteins and showed that Srs2 was also recovery-defective, even when DNA was repaired.

Haber, J. E.

2002-11-30

100

Recombinant Hendra viruses expressing a reporter gene retain pathogenicity in ferrets  

PubMed Central

Background Hendra virus (HeV) is an Australian bat-borne zoonotic paramyxovirus that repeatedly spills-over to horses causing fatal disease. Human cases have all been associated with close contact with infected horses. Methods A full-length antigenome clone of HeV was assembled, a reporter gene (GFP or luciferase) inserted between the P and M genes and transfected to 293T cells to generate infectious reporter gene-encoding recombinant viruses. These viruses were then assessed in vitro for expression of the reporter genes. The GFP expressing recombinant HeV was used to challenge ferrets to assess the virulence and tissue distribution by monitoring GFP expression in infected cells. Results Three recombinant HeV constructs were successfully cloned and rescued; a wild-type virus, a GFP-expressing virus and a firefly luciferase-expressing virus. In vitro characterisation demonstrated expression of the reporter genes, with levels proportional to the initial inoculum levels. Challenge of ferrets with the GFP virus demonstrated maintenance of the fatal phenotype with disease progressing to death consistent with that observed previously with the parental wild-type isolate of HeV. GFP expression could be observed in infected tissues collected from animals at euthanasia. Conclusions Here, we report on the first successful rescue of recombinant HeV, including wild-type virus and viruses expressing two different reporter genes encoded as an additional gene cassette inserted between the P and M genes. We further demonstrate that the GFP virus retained the ability to cause fatal disease in a well-characterized ferret model of henipavirus infection despite the genome being an extra 1290 nucleotides in length. PMID:23521919

2013-01-01

101

Molecular cloning of a gene for indole-3-acetamide hydrolase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed Central

A pLAFR1 cosmid genomic library of wild-type Bradyrhizobium japonicum J1063 was constructed. A cosmid clone designated pBjJ4, containing a 26-kilobase (kb) DNA insert, was identified as being able to confer the ability to convert alpha-naphthaleneacetamide acid on B. japonicum J1B7 Rifr, which cannot perform this conversion. The gene coding for the enzyme that converts alpha-naphthaleneacetamide to alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid was localized in the 3.5-kb region of pBjJ4 by recloning in plasmid pSUP202. The gene coding for the enzyme was also mapped by Tn5 insertion mutagenesis to a region of ca. 2.3 kb. When the gene was placed behind the lacZ promoter and used to transform Escherichia coli, a high level of expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase activity was found. Since there have been no reports of this activity in E. coli, we have thus confirmed that the gene cloned here is a structural gene for indole-3-acetamide hydrolase and have designated it as the bam (Bradyrhizobium amidehydrolase) gene. Southern hybridization with the central region of the bam gene indicated that a high degree of similarity exists among the bam gene, the iaaH gene from Pseudomonas savastonoi, and the tms-2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The result suggests that there is a common origin for the gene that encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of indoleacetic acid. Images PMID:2646294

Sekine, M; Watanabe, K; Syono, K

1989-01-01

102

Molecular cloning of a gene for indole-3-acetamide hydrolase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed

A pLAFR1 cosmid genomic library of wild-type Bradyrhizobium japonicum J1063 was constructed. A cosmid clone designated pBjJ4, containing a 26-kilobase (kb) DNA insert, was identified as being able to confer the ability to convert alpha-naphthaleneacetamide acid on B. japonicum J1B7 Rifr, which cannot perform this conversion. The gene coding for the enzyme that converts alpha-naphthaleneacetamide to alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid was localized in the 3.5-kb region of pBjJ4 by recloning in plasmid pSUP202. The gene coding for the enzyme was also mapped by Tn5 insertion mutagenesis to a region of ca. 2.3 kb. When the gene was placed behind the lacZ promoter and used to transform Escherichia coli, a high level of expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase activity was found. Since there have been no reports of this activity in E. coli, we have thus confirmed that the gene cloned here is a structural gene for indole-3-acetamide hydrolase and have designated it as the bam (Bradyrhizobium amidehydrolase) gene. Southern hybridization with the central region of the bam gene indicated that a high degree of similarity exists among the bam gene, the iaaH gene from Pseudomonas savastonoi, and the tms-2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The result suggests that there is a common origin for the gene that encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of indoleacetic acid. PMID:2646294

Sekine, M; Watanabe, K; Syono, K

1989-03-01

103

Tyrosinase as a multifunctional reporter gene for Photoacoustic/MRI/PET triple modality molecular imaging  

PubMed Central

Development of reporter genes for multimodality molecular imaging is highly important. In contrast to the conventional strategies which have focused on fusing several reporter genes together to serve as multimodal reporters, human tyrosinase (TYR) – the key enzyme in melanin production – was evaluated in this study as a stand-alone reporter gene for in vitro and in vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Human breast cancer cells MCF-7 transfected with a plasmid that encodes TYR (named as MCF-7-TYR) and non-transfected MCF-7 cells were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Melanin targeted N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-18F-5-fluoropicolinamide was used as a PET reporter probe. In vivo PAI/MRI/PET imaging studies showed that MCF-7-TYR tumors achieved significant higher signals and tumor-to-background contrasts than those of MCF-7 tumor. Our study demonstrates that TYR gene can be utilized as a multifunctional reporter gene for PAI/MRI/PET both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23508226

Qin, Chunxia; Cheng, Kai; Chen, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Lan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yongxue; Liu, Hongguang; Xu, Yingding; Bu, Lihong; Su, Xinhui; Zhu, Xiaohua; Meng, Shuxian; Cheng, Zhen

2013-01-01

104

Human Protamine-1 as an MRI Reporter Gene Based on Chemical Exchange  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered reporters have revolutionized the understanding of many biological processes. MRI-based reporter genes can dramatically improve our ability to monitor dynamic gene expression and allow coregistration of subcellular genetic information with high-resolution anatomical images. We have developed a biocompatible MRI reporter gene based on a human gene, the human protamine-1 (hPRM1). The arginine-rich hPRM1 (47% arginine residues) generates high MRI contrast based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast mechanism. The 51 amino acid-long hPRM1 protein was fully synthesized using microwave-assisted technology, and the CEST characteristics of this protein were compared to other CEST-based contrast agents. Both bacterial and human cells were engineered to express an optimized hPRM1 gene and showed higher CEST contrast compared to controls. Live cells expressing the hPRM1 reporter gene, and embedded in three-dimensional culture, also generated higher CEST contrast compared to wild-type live cells. PMID:24138139

Bar-Shir, Amnon; Liu, Guanshu; Chan, Kannie W.Y.; Oskolkov, Nikita; Song, Xiaolei; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Walczak, Piotr; McMahon, Michael T.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.; Gilad, Assaf A.

2014-01-01

105

The naphthalene catabolic (nag) genes of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2: Evolutionary implications for two gene clusters and novel regulatory control  

SciTech Connect

Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2, found to be responsible for the degradation of naphthalene in situ at a coal tar waste-contaminated site, is able to grow on mineral salts agar media with naphthalene as the sole carbon source. Beginning from a 484-bp nagAc-like region, we used a genome walking strategy to sequence genes encoding the entire naphthalene degradation pathway and additional flanking regions. We found that the naphthalene catabolic genes in P. naphthalenivorans CJ2 were divided into one large and one small gene cluster, separated by an unknown distance. The large gene cluster is bounded by a LysR-type regulator (nagR). The small cluster is bounded by a MarR-type regulator (nagR2). The catabolic genes of P. naphthalenivorans CJ2 were homologous to many of those of Ralstonia U2, which uses the gentisate pathway to convert naphthalene to central metabolites. However, three open reading frames (nagY, nagM, and nagN), present in Ralstonia U2, were absent. Also, P. naphthalenivorans carries two copies of gentisate dioxygenase (nagI) with 77.4% DNA sequence identity to one another and 82% amino acid identity to their homologue in Ralstonia sp. strain U2. Investigation of the operons using reverse transcription PCR showed that each cluster was controlled independently by its respective promoter. Insertional inactivation and lacZ reporter assays showed that nagR2 is a negative regulator and that expression of the small cluster is not induced by naphthalene, salicylate, or gentisate. Association of two putative Azoarcus-related transposases with the large cluster and one Azoarcus-related putative salicylate 5-hydroxylase gene (ORF2) in the small cluster suggests that mobile genetic elements were likely involved in creating the novel arrangement of catabolic and regulatory genes in P. naphthalenivorans.

Jeon, C.O.; Park, M.; Ro, H.S.; Park, W.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

2006-02-15

106

Structural Explanation for Allolactose (lac Operon Inducer) Synthesis by lacZ ?-Galactosidase and the Evolutionary Relationship between Allolactose Synthesis and the lac Repressor  

PubMed Central

?-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. ?-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-?-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2?,2?-nitrilotriethanol) and l-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted ?-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795–803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of ?-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of ?-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

Wheatley, Robert W.; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J.; Dugdale, Megan L.; Huber, Reuben E.

2013-01-01

107

Conditional Gene Recombination by Adenovirus-Driven Cre in the Mouse Uterus  

PubMed Central

Summary Cre-mediated conditional gene targeting has been shown to be successful in many cell and tissue types. However, gene recombination in the uterus with heterogeneous cell types by Cre activation is not yet well established. Using recombinant adenoviruses expressing a functional Cre (ADV-Cre) and ROSA26 reporter mice, we show here that ADV-Cre infused intraluminally in a small volume (10 ?l) conditionally excises the loxP site, resulting in lacZ expression in uterine luminal epithelial cells without significantly affecting pregnancy. In contrast, a similar intraluminal infusion of ADV-Cre in a larger volume (50 ?l) damages the normal architecture and integrity of the luminal epithelium, inducing gene recombination in the underneath stromal cells, with disruption of pregnancy. Further, decidualizing stromal cells at the implantation sites can be targeted by ADV-Cre after intravenous administration on days 5–6. This route of administration also elicits Cre activity in other tissues, including the liver, spleen, ovary, and, more remarkably, in the adrenal cortex. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of achieving conditional expression or deletion of specific genes in uterine cells at desired times and physiological states. PMID:16416422

Wang, Haibin; Xie, Huirong; Zhang, Hao; Das, Sanjoy K.; Dey, Sudhansu K.

2014-01-01

108

The human eukaryotic initiation factor 4AI gene (EIF4A1) contains multiple regulatory elements that direct high-level reporter gene expression in mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

The gene encoding human eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A1) is located on chromosome 17p13, 667 bp upstream from the gene encoding the macrophage endosomal protein CD68. The EIF4AI gene contains 10 intervening sequences with the 1397-bp first intron containing a CpG-rich methylation-free island. Sequences capable of enhancing gene expression reside between positions -69 and -371 and positions -504 and -1100 of the EIF4AI 5' flanking sequence and within introns 1, 2, 3, 7, and 9. In macrophage cell lines, EIF4A1 expression vectors give sustained high-level reporter gene expression to levels 10 times higher than that obtained using the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter/enhancer. Sequences of the human EIF4AI gene may find application in the development of new vectors for gene therapy and genetic vaccination. PMID:10644445

Quinn, C M; Wiles, A P; El-Shanawany, T; Catchpole, I; Alnadaf, T; Ford, M J; Gordon, S; Greaves, D R

1999-12-15

109

Adaptation of a Luciferase Gene Reporter and lac Expression System to Borrelia burgdorferi? †  

PubMed Central

The development of new genetic systems for studying the complex regulatory events that occur within Borrelia burgdorferi is an important goal of contemporary Lyme disease research. Although recent advancements have been made in the genetic manipulation of B. burgdorferi, there still remains a paucity of basic molecular systems for assessing differential gene expression in this pathogen. Herein, we describe the adaptation of two powerful genetic tools for use in B. burgdorferi. The first is a Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase gene reporter that was codon optimized to enhance translation in B. burgdorferi. Using this modified reporter, we demonstrated an increase in luciferase expression when B. burgdorferi transformed with a shuttle vector encoding the outer surface protein C (OspC) promoter fused to the luciferase reporter was cultivated in the presence of fresh rabbit blood. The second is a lac operator/repressor system that was optimized to achieve the tightest degree of regulation. Using the aforementioned luciferase reporter, we assessed the kinetics and maximal level of isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-dependent gene expression. This lac-inducible expression system also was used to express the gene carried on lp25 required for borrelial persistence in ticks (bptA). These advancements should be generally applicable for assessing further the regulation of other genes potentially involved in virulence expression by B. burgdorferi. PMID:17220265

Blevins, Jon S.; Revel, Andrew T.; Smith, Alexandra H.; Bachlani, Gulnaz N.; Norgard, Michael V.

2007-01-01

110

Reporter gene approaches for mapping cell fate decisions by MRI: promises and pitfalls.  

PubMed

The central dogma of molecular biology, namely the process by which information encoded in the DNA serves as the template for transcriptional activation of specific mRNA resulting in temporal and spatial control of the translation of specific proteins, stands at the basis of normal and pathological cellular processes. Serving as the primary mechanism linking genotype to phenotype, it is clearly of significant interest for in vivo imaging. While classically, imaging revolutionized the ability to phenotype the anatomical and physiological impact of induction of changes in gene expression, the preceding molecular events remained invisible. Reporter gene-based imaging techniques provide a window for in vivo visualization of such transcriptional activation events. In addition to the widespread use of fluorescent and bioluminescent reporter genes and development of a number of reporter genes for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, there has been significant progress in the development of reporter genes for MRI. With the development of strategies for cellular based therapies, such imaging tools could become central components for personalized patient monitoring. PMID:24375898

Vande Velde, Greetje; Himmelreich, Uwe; Neeman, Michal

2013-01-01

111

Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane. PMID:24708613

2014-01-01

112

Ush1c gene expression levels in the ear and eye suggest different roles for Ush1c in neurosensory organs in a new Ush1c knockout mouse  

PubMed Central

Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of deaf-blindness in humans. Molecular characterization revealed that the USH gene products form a macromolecular protein network in hair cells of the inner ear and in photoreceptor cells of the retina via binding to PDZ domains in the scaffold protein harmonin encoded by the Ush1c gene in mice and humans. Although several mouse mutants for the Ush1c gene have been described, we generated a targeted null mutation Ush1c mouse model in which the first four exons of the Ush1c gene were replaced with a reporter gene. Here, we assessed the expression pattern of the reporter gene under control of Ush1c regulatory elements and characterized the phenotype of mice defective for Ush1c. These Ush1 knockout mice are deaf but do not recapitulate vision defects before 10 months of age. Our data show LacZ expression in multiple layers of the retina but in neither outer nor inner segments of the photoreceptor layers in mice bearing the knockout construct at 1–5 months of age. The fact that Ush1c expression is much higher in the ear than in the eye suggests a different role for Ush1c in ear function than in the eye and may explain why Ush1c mutant mice do not recapitulate vision defects. PMID:20211154

Tian, Cong; Liu, Xue Z.; Han, Fengchan; Yu, Heping; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Yang, Bin; Lu, Changjun; Yan, Denise; Zheng, Qing Y.

2010-01-01

113

A Toolkit and Robust Pipeline for the Generation of Fosmid-Based Reporter Genes in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering fluorescent proteins into large genomic clones, contained within BACs or fosmid vectors, is a tool to visualize and study spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in transgenic animals. Because these reporters cover large genomic regions, they most likely capture all cis-regulatory information and can therefore be expected to recapitulate all aspects of endogenous gene expression. Inserting tags at the target gene

Baris Tursun; Luisa Cochella; Inés Carrera; Oliver Hobert; Anne C. Hart

2009-01-01

114

Mesoscopic tomography imaging of reporter genes in thick printed tissue constructs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an application of Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography to 3D tissue engineering construct. Engineered thick tissue was hosting two 3D printed vasculatures. The channels were formed by live cells, expressing GFP and mCherry reporter genes, embedded in 3mm turbid media. Tissue and cells kept in a 3mm thick perfusion chamber during the entire imaging process which took less than 5 minutes.

Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Lee, Vivian K.; Zhao, Lingling; Dai, Guohoa; Intes, Xavier

2013-06-01

115

Imaging Adenoviral-Directed Reporter Gene Expression in Living Animals with Positron Emission Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing quantitative assays to repeatedly and noninvasively image expression of reporter genes in living animals, using positron emission tomography (PET). We synthesized positron-emitting 8-[18F]fluoroganciclovir (FGCV) and demonstrated that this compound is a substrate for the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase enzyme (HSV1-TK). Using positron-emitting FGCV as a PET reporter probe, we imaged adenovirus-directed hepatic expression of the

Sanjiv S. Gambhir; Jorge R. Barrio; Michael E. Phelps; Meera Iyer; Mohammad Namavari; Nagichettiar Satyamurthy; Lily Wu; Leeta A. Green; Eileen Bauer; Duncan C. MacLaren; Khoi Nguyen; Arnold J. Berk; Simon R. Cherry; Harvey R. Herschman

1999-01-01

116

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind  

E-print Network

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind Japan Society) Deutscherplatz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany anna.albiach@eva.mpg.de #12;INTRODUCTION The "Primate Origins of the Primate Research Institute (PRI, University of Kyoto, Japan), invited 3 senior researchers and 7

Takada, Shoji

117

Circadian Rhythms in Prokaryotes: Luciferase as a Reporter of Circadian Gene Expression in Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a luciferase reporter gene and continuous automated monitoring of bioluminescence to demonstrate unequivocally that cyanobacteria exhibit circadian behaviors that are fundamentally the same as circadian rhythms of eukaryotes. We also show that these rhythms can be studied by molecular methods in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, a strain for which genetic transformation is well established. A promoterless segment of

Takao Kondo; Carl A. Strayer; Resham D. Kulkarni; Walter Taylor; Masahiro Ishiura; Susan S. Golden; Carl Hirschie Johnson

1993-01-01

118

Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay on Human 5-HT Receptor: Which Response Element Should Be Chosen?  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are valuable molecular targets for antipsychotic drug discovery. Current reported methods for detecting 5-HT receptors, such as cAMP accumulation and calcium influx assay, are often demanding specialized instruments and inconvenient. The luciferase reporter gene assay, based on the responsible-element-regulated expression of luciferase, has been widely applied in the high-throughput functional assay for many targets because of its high sensitivity and reliability. However, 5-HT receptors couple to multiple G-proteins regulate respective downstream signalling pathways and are usually detected using different response elements. Hence, finding a suitable response element to fulfil the detection of different 5-HT receptors and make the results of luciferase reporter gene assays generalizable is very useful for active compounds screening. Here, we conducted three luciferase reporter assays using CRE, NFAT, and SRE response elements attached to 5-HT to detect the activation of different 5-HT receptors in CHO-K1 cells. The potencies and efficacies of the reported ligands (agonists and antagonists) were determined and compared. Our results indicate that CRE-luciferase reporter gene is sensitive and reliable to detect the activities of G protein-coupled 5-HT receptors. PMID:25622827

Chen, Yiming; Xu, Zhongyu; Wu, Dang; Li, Jian; Song, Cheng; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

2015-01-01

119

The fusion Vibrio campbellii luciferase as a eukaryotic gene reporter.  

PubMed

Bacterial luciferase from Vibrio campbellii is a thermostable enzyme with an in vitro thermal inactivation half-life of ~1020 min at 37°C. The enzyme also binds tightly to reduced FMN. In this study, a V. campbellii fusion luciferase construct in which the ? and ? subunits are linked with a decapeptide was made and characterized. In general, the overall enzymatic properties of the two enzymes are similar. Expression of the enzymes in Escherichia coli demonstrated that the V. campbellii fusion luciferase emits less light than the native luciferase, but still emits a much greater amount of light than native luciferase from Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium leiognathi TH1. The intensity of light emitted by the V. campbellii fusion luciferase was more than 80-fold greater than that from the V. harveyi native luciferase when expressed at 37°C. Biochemical characterization has shown that the V. campbellii fusion luciferase also retains a high binding affinity for reduced flavin mononucleotide and high thermostability. The levels of bioluminescence emitted by the V. campbellii fusion luciferase expressed in HEK293T cells reached ~1×10(6) Relative Light Units/mg total protein. These findings suggest that the V. campbellii fusion luciferase is a promising candidate for further development as a luciferase-based reporter for eukaryotic systems. PMID:23000378

Tinikul, Ruchanok; Thotsaporn, Kittisak; Thaveekarn, Wichit; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Chaiyen, Pimchai

2012-12-31

120

Genetics and molecular biology of methanogen genes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Adenylate kinase has been isolated from four related methanogenic members of the Archaea. For each the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was similar to the temperature for optimal microbial growth and was approximately 30 C for Methanococcus voltage, 70 C for Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, 80 C for Methanococcus igneus and 80--90 C for Methanococcus jannaschii. The enzymes were sensitive to the adenylate kinase inhibitor, Ap{sub 5}A [P{sup 1}, P{sup 5}-di(adenosine-5{prime}) pentaphosphate], a property that was exploited to purify the enzymes by CIBACRON Blue affinity chromatography. The enzymes had an estimated molecular weight (approximately 23--25 kDa) in the range common for adenylate kinases. Each of the enzymes had a region of amino acid sequence close to its N-terminus that was similar to the canonical P-loop sequence reported for all adenylate kinases. However, the methanogen sequences lacked a lysine residue that has previously been found to be invariant in adenylate kinases including an enzyme isolated from the Archeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. If verified as a nucleotide binding domain, the methanogen sequence would represent a novel nucleotide binding motif. There was no correlation between amino acid abundance and the optimal temperature for enzyme activity.

Konisky, J.

1997-10-07

121

Engineering an Enhanced, Thermostable, Monomeric Bacterial Luciferase Gene As a Reporter in Plant Protoplasts  

PubMed Central

The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The fused luxAB gene was mutated by error prone PCR or chemical mutagenesis and screened for enhanced luciferase activity utilizing decanal as substrate. Positive luxAB mutants with superior quantum yield were subsequently shuffled by DNase I digestion and PCR assembly for generation of recombinants with additional increases in luciferase activity in bacteria. The coding sequence of the best recombinant, called eluxAB, was then optimized further to conform to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) codon usage. A plant expression vector of the final, optimized eluxAB gene (opt-eluxAB) was constructed and transformed into protoplasts of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Luciferase activity was dramatically increased for opt-eluxAB compared to the original luxAB in Arabidopsis and maize cells. The opt-eluxAB driven by two copies of the 35S promoter expresses significantly higher than that driven by a single copy. These results indicate that the eluxAB gene can be used as a reporter in plant protoplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report to engineer the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase luxAB as a reporter by directed evolution which paved the way for further improving the luxAB reporter in the future. PMID:25271765

Song, Yunhong; Wei, Jinsong; Li, Changfu; Wang, Tietao; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Tianyong; Shen, Xihui

2014-01-01

122

Engineering an enhanced, thermostable, monomeric bacterial luciferase gene as a reporter in plant protoplasts.  

PubMed

The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The fused luxAB gene was mutated by error prone PCR or chemical mutagenesis and screened for enhanced luciferase activity utilizing decanal as substrate. Positive luxAB mutants with superior quantum yield were subsequently shuffled by DNase I digestion and PCR assembly for generation of recombinants with additional increases in luciferase activity in bacteria. The coding sequence of the best recombinant, called eluxAB, was then optimized further to conform to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) codon usage. A plant expression vector of the final, optimized eluxAB gene (opt-eluxAB) was constructed and transformed into protoplasts of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Luciferase activity was dramatically increased for opt-eluxAB compared to the original luxAB in Arabidopsis and maize cells. The opt-eluxAB driven by two copies of the 35S promoter expresses significantly higher than that driven by a single copy. These results indicate that the eluxAB gene can be used as a reporter in plant protoplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report to engineer the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase luxAB as a reporter by directed evolution which paved the way for further improving the luxAB reporter in the future. PMID:25271765

Cui, Boyu; Zhang, Lifeng; Song, Yunhong; Wei, Jinsong; Li, Changfu; Wang, Tietao; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Tianyong; Shen, Xihui

2014-01-01

123

Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery into neuronal precursors of the adult mouse brain.  

PubMed Central

Precursor cells found in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain can undergo cell division and migrate long distances before differentiating into mature neurons. We have investigated the possibility of introducing genes stably into this population of cells. Replication-defective adenoviruses were injected into the SVZ of the lateral ventricle of adult mice. The adenoviruses carried a cDNA for the LacZ reporter or the human p75 neurotrophin receptor, for which species-specific antibodies are available. Injection of the viruses into the SVZ led to efficient labeling of neuronal precursors. Two months after viral injection, infected cells were detected in the olfactory bulb, a significant distance from the site of injection. Labeled periglomerular and granular neurons with extensive dendritic arborization were found in the olfactory bulb. These results demonstrate that foreign genes can be efficiently introduced into neuronal precursor cells. Furthermore, adenovirus-directed infection can lead to long-term stable gene expression in progenitor cells found in the adult central nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8876247

Yoon, S O; Lois, C; Alvirez, M; Alvarez-Buylla, A; Falck-Pedersen, E; Chao, M V

1996-01-01

124

Transcriptional analysis of the bglP gene from Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Background An open reading frame encoding a putative antiterminator protein, LicT, was identified in the genomic sequence of Streptococcus mutans. A potential ribonucleic antitermination (RAT) site to which the LicT protein would potentially bind has been identified immediately adjacent to this open reading frame. The licT gene and RAT site are both located 5' to a beta-glucoside PTS regulon previously described in S. mutans that is responsible for esculin utilization in the presence of glucose. It was hypothesized that antitermination is the regulatory mechanism that is responsible for the control of the bglP gene expression, which encodes an esculin-specific PTS enzyme II. Results To localize the promoter activity associated with the bglP locus, a series of transcriptional lacZ gene fusions was formed on a reporter shuttle vector using various DNA fragments from the bglP promoter region. Subsequent beta-galactosidase assays in S. mutans localized the bglP promoter region and identified putative -35 and -10 promoter elements. Primer extension analysis identified the bglP transcriptional start site. In addition, a terminated bglP transcript formed by transcriptional termination was identified via transcript mapping experiments. Conclusion The physical location of these genetic elements, the RAT site and the promoter regions, and the identification of a short terminated mRNA support the hypothesis that antitermination regulates the bglP transcript. PMID:16630357

Cote, Christopher K; Honeyman, Allen L

2006-01-01

125

Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Access Excellence

2005-03-12

126

Multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging of inducible tyrosinase reporter gene expression in xenograft tumors  

PubMed Central

Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid imaging technology capable of breaking through resolution limits of pure optical imaging technologies imposed by optical-scattering to provide fine-resolution optical contrast information in deep tissues. We demonstrate the ability of multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging to estimate relative gene expression distributions using an inducible expression system and co-register images with hemoglobin oxygen saturation estimates and micro-ultrasound data. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production, is used as a reporter gene owing to its strong optical absorption and enzymatic amplification mechanism. Tetracycline-inducible melanin expression is turned on via doxycycline treatment in vivo. Serial multi-wavelength imaging reveals very low estimated melanin expression in tumors prior to doxycycline treatment or in tumors with no tyrosinase gene present, but strong signals after melanin induction in tumors tagged with the tyrosinase reporter. The combination of new inducible reporters and high-resolution photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound technology is poised to bring a new dimension to the study of gene expression in vivo. PMID:24936769

Paproski, Robert J.; Heinmiller, Andrew; Wachowicz, Keith; Zemp, Roger J.

2014-01-01

127

Transcriptional analysis of the multicopy hao gene coding for hydroxylamine oxidoreductase in Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.  

PubMed

The nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11 has three copies of the gene encoding hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (hao(1), hao(2), and hao(3)) on its genome. Broad-host-range reporter plasmids containing transcriptional fusion genes between hao copies and lacZ were constructed to analyze the expression of each hydroxylamine oxidoreductase gene (hao) copy individually and quantitatively. beta-Galactosidase assays of ENI-11 harboring reporter plasmids revealed that all hao copies were transcribed in the wild-type strain. Promoter analysis of hao copies revealed that transcription of hao(3) was highest among the hao copies. Expression levels of hao(1) and hao(2) were 40% and 62% of that of hao(3) respectively. Transcription of hao(1) was negatively regulated, whereas a portion of hao(3) transcription was read through transcription from the rpsT promoter. When energy-depleted cells were incubated in the growth medium, only hao(3) expression increased. This result suggests that it is hao(3) that is responsible for recovery from energy-depleted conditions in Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11. PMID:16926500

Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

2006-08-01

128

Molecular characterization of a maize regulatory gene. Progress report, July 1989--March 1990  

SciTech Connect

This progress report contains information concerning the characterization of the Maize regulatory gene. The findings of this research program have immediate significance. Firstly, it provides support for the notion that R proteins, produced by the regulatory gene, are functionally equivalent. Secondly, the success of these experiments provides a simple transient assay for either natural or constructed R protein mutations. The relative ease of this assay coupled with overnight results are important prerequisites to the proposed experiments involving a structure-function analysis of the R protein.

Wessler, S.

1990-12-31

129

Integration of Differential Gene-combination Search and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis: A General Approach Technical Report  

E-print Network

Integration of Differential Gene-combination Search and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis: A General-192 Keller Hall 200 Union Street SE Minneapolis, MN 55455-0159 USA TR 09-031 Integration of Differential Gene-combination Search and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis: A General Approach Gang Fang, Michael Steinbach, Chad L. Myers

Kumar, Vipin

130

Evaluation of a GFP Report Gene Construct for Environmental Arsenic Detection  

SciTech Connect

Detection of arsenic and other heavy metal contaminants in the environment is critical to ensuring safe drinking water and effective cleanup of historic activities that have led to widespread contamination of soil and groundwater. Biosensors have the potential to significantly reduce the costs associated with site characterization and long term environmental monitoring. By exploiting the highly selective and sensitive natural mechanisms by which bacteria and other living organisms respond to heavy metals, and fusing transcriptionally active components of these mechanisms to reporter genes, such as B-galactosidase, bacterial luciferase (lux), or green fluorescent protein (GFP) from marine jellyfish, it is possible to produce inexpensive, yet effective biosensors. This article describes the response to submicrogram quantities of arsenite and arsenate of a whole cell arsenic biosensor utilizing a GFP reporter gene.

Roberto, F.F.; Barnes, J.M.; Bruhn, D.F.

2002-03-28

131

Reporter gene transformation of the trunk disease pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and biological control agent Trichoderma harzianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economically important trunk disease pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora causes Petri disease in Vitis vinifera and is also associated with the Esca trunk disease complex. Not much is known about the pathogen’s epidemiology and interactions\\u000a with the grapevine host, other trunk disease pathogens and biological control agents such as Trichoderma harzianum. Reporter gene labelling of plant pathogens and biocontrol agents can

T. McLean; P. H. Fourie; A. McLeod

2009-01-01

132

Rational design of a triple reporter gene for multimodality molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Multimodality imaging using noncytotoxic triple fusion (TF) reporter genes is an important application for cell-based tracking, drug screening, and therapy. The firefly luciferase (fl), monomeric red fluorescence protein (mrfp), and truncated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase SR39 mutant (ttksr39) were fused together to create TF reporter gene constructs with different order. The enzymatic activities of TF protein in vitro and in vivo were determined by luciferase reporter assay, H-FEAU cellular uptake experiment, bioluminescence imaging, and micropositron emission tomography (microPET). The TF construct expressed in H1299 cells possesses luciferase activity and red fluorescence. The tTKSR39 activity is preserved in TF protein and mediates high levels of H-FEAU accumulation and significant cell death from ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug activation. In living animals, the luciferase and tTKSR39 activities of TF protein have also been successfully validated by multimodality imaging systems. The red fluorescence signal is relatively weak for in vivo imaging but may expedite FACS-based selection of TF reporter expressing cells. We have developed an optimized triple fusion reporter construct DsRedm-fl-ttksr39 for more effective and sensitive in vivo animal imaging using fluorescence, bioluminescence, and PET imaging modalities, which may facilitate different fields of biomedical research and applications. PMID:24809057

Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Hwu, Luen; Ke, Chien-Chih; Yeh, Skye Hsin-Hsien; Lin, Chien-Feng; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lin, Kang-Ping; Chen, Ran-Chou; Liu, Ren-Shyan

2014-01-01

133

Liposome mediated in vivo gene transfer into different tissues of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The possibility to transfer and express genetic material in mammalian cells represents a new approach to the treatment of genetic and acquired disorders. So far, most studies use in vitro techniques to introduce foreign DNA into cultured cells, followed by reintroduction of these genetically altered cells into living organisms. In the present study we demonstrate that the LacZ marker gene can be selectively delivered, by in vivo techniques, to various locations of the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic material was targeted to the stomach, the colon, the liver and the pancreas using cationic liposomes. For transfer into the stomach and colon an intraluminal application, in the liver a portal access and in the pancreas an intraductal infusion was chosen. 48 hours after administration, the LacZ gene product beta-galactosidase could be localized in these tissues by cytochemistry. These experiments suggest a new approach to study gastrointestinal physiology and may offer novel aspects for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:7871855

Schmid, R M; Weidenbach, H; Draenert, G F; Lerch, M M; Liptay, S; Schorr, J; Beckh, K H; Adler, G

1994-12-01

134

Using thermal energy produced by irradiation of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) for heat-inducible gene expression.  

PubMed

One of the main advantages of gene therapy over traditional therapy is the potential to target the expression of therapeutic genes in desired cells or tissues. To achieve targeted gene expression, we developed a novel heat-inducible gene expression system in which thermal energy generated by Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) was used to activate gene expression. MZF-NPs, obtained by co-precipitation method, were firstly surface modified with cation poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). Then thermodynamic test of various doses of MZF-NPs was preformed in vivo and in vitro. PEI-MZF-NPs showed good DNA binding ability and high transfection efficiency. In AMF, they could rise to a steady temperature. To analyze the heat-induced gene expression under an AMF, we combined P1730OR vector transfection with hyperthermia produced by irradiation of MZF-NPs. By using LacZ gene as a reporter gene and Hsp70 as a promoter, it was demonstrated that expression of a heterogeneous gene could be elevated to 10 to 500-fold over background by moderate hyperthermia (added 12.24 or 25.81 mg MZF-NPs to growth medium) in tissue cultured cells. When injected with 2.6 or 4.6 mg MZF-NPs, the temperature of tumor-bearing nude mice could rise to 39.5 or 42.8 degrees C, respectively, and the beta-gal concentration could increase up to 3.8 or 8.1 mU/mg proteins accordingly 1 day after hyperthermia treatment. Our results therefore supported hyperthermia produced by irradiation of MZF-NPs under an AMF as a feasible approach for targeted heat-induced gene expression. This novel system made use of the relative low Curie point of MZF-NPs to control the in vivo hyperthermia temperature and therefore acquired safe and effective heat-inducible transgene expression. PMID:18396332

Tang, Qiu-sha; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Cong, Xiao-ming; Wan, Mei-ling; Jin, Li-qiang

2008-06-01

135

Phytoalexin detoxification genes and gene products: Implication for the evolution of host specific traits for pathogenicity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this research were to determine which differences among PDA genes were associated with different levels of virulence on pea and to clone and characterize a MAK gene. The authors also proposed to characterize the pisatin detoxifying system in pea pathogens in addition to N. haematococca to assess whether pathogens of a common host had evolved similar pathogenicity genes.

VanEtten, H.

1997-06-01

136

Role of RNA splicing in mediating lineage-specific expression of the von Willebrand factor gene in the endothelium.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that the first intron of the human von Willebrand factor (vWF) is required for gene expression in the endothelium of transgenic mice. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that RNA splicing plays a role in mediating vWF expression in the vasculature. To address this question, we used transient transfection assays in human endothelial cells and megakaryocytes with intron-containing and intronless human vWF promoter-luciferase constructs. Next, we generated knockin mice in which LacZ was targeted to the endogenous mouse vWF locus in the absence or presence of the native first intron or heterologous introns from the human ?-globin, mouse Down syndrome critical region 1, or hagfish coagulation factor X genes. In both the in vitro assays and the knockin mice, the loss of the first intron of vWF resulted in a significant reduction of reporter gene expression in endothelial cells but not megakaryocytes. This effect was rescued to varying degrees by the introduction of a heterologous intron. Intron-mediated enhancement of expression was mediated at a posttranscriptional level. Together, these findings implicate a role for intronic splicing in mediating lineage-specific expression of vWF in the endothelium. PMID:23529929

Yuan, Lei; Janes, Lauren; Beeler, David; Spokes, Katherine C; Smith, Joshua; Li, Dan; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Oettgen, Peter; Aird, William C

2013-05-23

137

Transcriptional Regulation and Characteristics of a Novel N-Acetylmuramoyl-l-Alanine Amidase Gene Involved in Bacillus thuringiensis Mother Cell Lysis  

PubMed Central

In Bacillus thuringiensis, a novel N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase gene (named cwlB) was detected, and the CwlB protein was purified and characterized. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results indicated that cwlB and an upstream gene (named cwlA) formed one transcriptional unit. 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5?-RACE)-PCR and transcriptional fusions with the lacZ gene indicated that transcription of the operon was directed by a promoter, PcwlA, which is located upstream from the cwlA gene and that the transcription start site is a single 5?-end nucleotide residue T located 25 nucleotides (bp) upstream from the cwlA translational start codon. Moreover, the activity of PcwlA was controlled by ?K. Morphological analysis suggested that the mutation of cwlB could delay spore release compared to the timing of spore release in the wild-type strain. Western blot assay demonstrated that purified CwlB bound to the B. thuringiensis cell wall. Observations with laser confocal microscopy and a green fluorescent protein-based reporter system demonstrated that the CwlB protein localizes to the cell envelope. All results suggest that the CwlB protein is involved in mother cell lysis in B. thuringiensis. PMID:23603740

Yang, Jingni; Peng, Qi; Chen, Zhen; Deng, Chao; Shu, Changlong; Huang, Dafang

2013-01-01

138

Transcriptional regulation of the sulfate-starvation-induced gene sfnA by a sigma54-dependent activator of Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

The sigma(54)-dependent transcriptional regulator SfnR is essential for the use of dimethyl sulfone (DMSO(2)) as a sulfur source by Pseudomonas putida DS1. SfnR binds three SfnR-binding sites (sites 1, 2 and 3) within an intergenic region of the divergently transcribed sfnAB and sfnFG gene clusters. The site 1 region, proximal to the sfnF gene, is indispensable for the expression of the sfnFG operon, which encodes components of DMSO(2) monooxygenase. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of the sfnAB operon and possible functions of the sfnA gene. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the sfnAB gene cluster, which is similar to homologues of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, was transcribed as an operon, and its expression was regulated by SfnR under conditions of sulfate starvation. Deletion analyses using lacZ as a reporter demonstrated that the region up to at least -138 bp from the transcription start point of sfnA (containing sites 2 and 3) was necessary for the expression of the sfnAB operon. A growth test of the sfnA-disrupted mutant revealed the possibility that sfnA may be involved in the use of methanethiol as a sulfur source. PMID:17768252

Habe, Hiroshi; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Endoh, Takayuki; Omori, Toshio; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

2007-09-01

139

Transcriptional regulation and characteristics of a novel N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase gene involved in Bacillus thuringiensis mother cell lysis.  

PubMed

In Bacillus thuringiensis, a novel N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase gene (named cwlB) was detected, and the CwlB protein was purified and characterized. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results indicated that cwlB and an upstream gene (named cwlA) formed one transcriptional unit. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE)-PCR and transcriptional fusions with the lacZ gene indicated that transcription of the operon was directed by a promoter, P(cwlA), which is located upstream from the cwlA gene and that the transcription start site is a single 5'-end nucleotide residue T located 25 nucleotides (bp) upstream from the cwlA translational start codon. Moreover, the activity of P(cwlA) was controlled by ?(K). Morphological analysis suggested that the mutation of cwlB could delay spore release compared to the timing of spore release in the wild-type strain. Western blot assay demonstrated that purified CwlB bound to the B. thuringiensis cell wall. Observations with laser confocal microscopy and a green fluorescent protein-based reporter system demonstrated that the CwlB protein localizes to the cell envelope. All results suggest that the CwlB protein is involved in mother cell lysis in B. thuringiensis. PMID:23603740

Yang, Jingni; Peng, Qi; Chen, Zhen; Deng, Chao; Shu, Changlong; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Dafang; Song, Fuping

2013-06-01

140

Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Arabidopsis TCH genes, originally isolated as a consequence of their upregulation in response to the mechanical stimulus of touch, are also upregulated by a variety of seemingly disparate environmental and hormonal stimuli. To gain insight into the complexities of TCH gene regulation, a number of approaches were taken. Regulatory elements responsible for regulation were identified and characteristics of the regulation were evaluated. Reporter genes were used to monitor expression localization and dynamics. Microarray analyses of genome-wide expression behavior indicated that touch-inducible gene expression is more widespread than generally appreciated. Identification of all touch-regulated genes shed light on the types of cellular processes that may be altered in response to mechanical stress perturbations. Expression of the TCH2 gene, also called CML24, encoding a calmodulin (CaM)-like (CML) protein, was evaluated. CML24 shares over 40% amino acid sequence identity with CaM, has 4 EF hands and undergoes a Ca2+-dependent change in migration rate through denaturing gel electrophoresis, indicating that CML24 binds Ca2+ and, as a consequence, undergoes conformational changes. CML24 expression occurs in all major organs and is induced from 2- to 15-fold in plants subjected to touch, darkness, heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide, abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress, in regions undergoing growth, in vascular tissues and various floral organs and in stomata, trichomes and hydathodes. CML24 underexpressing transgenics are resistant to ABA inhibition of germination and seedling growth, defective in long-day induction of flowering, and have enhanced tolerance to CoCl2, molybdic acid, ZnSO4 and MgCl2. These data present evidence that CML24 encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that may function to enable responses to ABA, day length and presence of various salts. Further investigation of CML24 function and regulation led to the finding that CML24 has a critical role in nitric oxide regulation. Distinct tilling mutant alleles demonstrated that CML24 can act as a switch in the response to day length perception. Because of potential redundancy with the related CML23 gene, CML23 T-DNA insertion mutants were identified and characterized. Together, CML23 and CML24 impact the autonomous regulatory pathway of the transition to flowering. Nitric oxide levels are elevated in cml23/cml24 double mutants. Therefore, CML23 and CML24 are potential calcium sensors regulate nitric oxide accumulation. In collaboration with Drs. McCann and Carpita, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to assess, verify and classify wall architectural changes that occur as a result of single XTH insertion mutations. Thirty-four homozygous mutant lines of Arabidopsis representing 21 members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene family provided a set of mutants to characterize. Kohonen networks classified cell wall architectures of xth mutant lines and previously characterized cell wall mutants. The xth mutants were found to have chemical changes in their cell walls not detectable as phenotypic growth and development changes, consistent with the existence of feed-back loops that modify wall composition in response to a life-long deficiency of a cell wall enzyme. To gain insight into the potential physiological relevance of the distinct members of the XTH family, GUS reporter fusion genes were constructed, and plants expressing these transgenes were characterized to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of expression. In addition, Genevestigator sources were mined for comprehensive and comparative XTH expression regulation analysis. These data revealed that the Arabidopsis XTHs are likely expressed in every developmental stage from seed germination through flowering. All organs showed XTH::GUS expression and most, if not all, are found to express multiple XTH::GUS genes suggesting that XTHs may contribute to morphogenesis at every d

Braam, Janet

2008-10-28

141

Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four genes coding for small heat shock proteins (sHsps) were identified in the genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, one on the circular chromosome (hspC), one on the linear chromosome (hspL), and two on the pAT plasmid (hspAT1 and hspAT2). Induction of sHsps at elevated temperatures was revealed by immunoblot analyses. Primer extension experiments and translational lacZ fusions demonstrated that expres-

Sylvia Balsiger; Curdin Ragaz; Christian Baron; Franz Narberhaus

2004-01-01

142

The novel estrogen-induced gene EIG121 regulates autophagy and promotes cell survival under stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously identified a novel estrogen-induced gene, EIG121, as being differentially regulated in endometrioid and nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma. The function of EIG121 was unknown. Using a tetracycline-inducible system, we found that overexpression of EIG121, but not of LacZ, caused a profound suppression of cell growth. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluroscent labeling indicated that EIG121 was a transmembrane protein localized in the

L Deng; J Feng; R R Broaddus

2010-01-01

143

Naringenin Regulates Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Wall Synthesis in Herbaspirillum seropedicae?  

PubMed Central

Five thousand mutants of Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 carrying random insertions of transposon pTnMod-OGmKmlacZ were screened for differential expression of LacZ in the presence of naringenin. Among the 16 mutants whose expression was regulated by naringenin were genes predicted to be involved in the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and auxin. These loci are probably involved in establishing interactions with host plants. PMID:21257805

Tadra-Sfeir, M. Z.; Souza, E. M.; Faoro, H.; Müller-Santos, M.; Baura, V. A.; Tuleski, T. R.; Rigo, L. U.; Yates, M. G.; Wassem, R.; Pedrosa, F. O.; Monteiro, R. A.

2011-01-01

144

Real-Time Monitoring of Chloroplast Gene Expression by a Luciferase Reporter: Evidence for Nuclear Regulation of Chloroplast Circadian Period  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast-encoded genes, like nucleus-encoded genes, exhibit circadian expression. How the circadian clock exerts its control over chloroplast gene expression, however, is poorly understood. To facilitate the study of chloroplast circadian gene expression, we developed a codon-optimized firefly luciferase gene for the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a real-time bioluminescence reporter and introduced it into the chloroplast genome. The bioluminescence of the reporter strain correlated well with the circadian expression pattern of the introduced gene and satisfied all three criteria for circadian rhythms. Moreover, the period of the rhythm was lengthened in per mutants, which are phototactic rhythm mutants carrying a long-period gene in their nuclear genome. These results demonstrate that chloroplast gene expression rhythm is a bona fide circadian rhythm and that the nucleus-encoded circadian oscillator determines the period length of the chloroplast rhythm. Our reporter strains can serve as a powerful tool not only for analysis of the circadian regulation mechanisms of chloroplast gene expression but also for a genetic approach to the molecular oscillator of the algal circadian clock. PMID:16428442

Matsuo, Takuya; Onai, Kiyoshi; Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Minagawa, Jun; Ishiura, Masahiro

2006-01-01

145

The human lysozyme promoter directs reporter gene expression to activated myelomonocytic cells in transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

The 5' region of the human lysozyme gene from -3500 to +25 was fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene and three transgenic founder mice were obtained. All three transgenic lines showed the same pattern of CAT enzyme expression in adult mouse tissues that was consistent with the targeting of elicited, activated macrophages in tissues and developing and elicited granulocytes. In normal mice high CAT enzyme activity was found in the spleen, lung, and thymus, tissues rich in phagocytically active cells, but not in many other tissues, such as the gut and muscle, which contain resident macrophages. Cultured resident peritoneal macrophages and cells elicited 18 hr (granulocytes) and 4 days (macrophages) after injection of sterile thioglycollate broth expressed CAT activity. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection of transgenic mice resulted in CAT enzyme expression in the liver, which contained macrophage-rich granulomas, whereas the liver of uninfected mice did not have any detectable CAT enzyme activity. Although the Paneth cells of the small intestine in both human and mouse produce lysozyme, the CAT gene, under the control of the human lysozyme promoter, was not expressed in the mouse small intestine. These results indicate that the human lysozyme promoter region may be used to direct expression of genes to activated mouse myeloid cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643649

Clarke, S; Greaves, D R; Chung, L P; Tree, P; Gordon, S

1996-01-01

146

Analysis of the 5'-upstream region of mouse P/Q-type Ca2+ channel alpha1A subunit gene for expression in pancreatic islet beta cells using transgenic mice and HIT-T15 cells.  

PubMed

The omega-agatoxin-IVA-sensitive P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel plays a role in insulin release from the pancreatic islets of beta cells. To dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying beta cell expression of the P/Q-type channel, we characterized the 5'-upstream region of the mouse alpha(1A) subunit gene using transgenic mice and HIT insulinoma cells. The E. coli lacZ reporter gene was expressed in pancreatic acini and islets in transgenic mice carrying the 6.3 kb or 3.0 kb of the 5'-upstream region, although those with 1.5 kb or 0. 5 kb of the 5'-upstream region failed to show reporter expression on histological examination. As the expression of alpha(1A)subunit gene could not be detected in acini using RT-PCR analysis, the reporter expression in acini might have been ectopic expression. When linked to the placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene to examine promoter activity for beta cell expression, the 6.3 kb and 3.0 kb fragment of the 5'-upstream region, but not the smaller 1.5 kb fragment, were able to drive reporter gene expression in HIT cells. The sequence between 3.0 and 1.5 kb upstream of the start codon enhanced thymidine kinase promoter activity in HIT cells, but not in fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. These results suggested that the beta cell-specific elements of the alpha(1A) subunit gene are likely to be located in the distal upstream region (-3021 to-1563) of the 5'-upstream sequence and that the 6.3 kb fragment of the 5'-upstream region alone might be a lack of a negative cis-regulatory element(s) to suppress the alpha(1A) subunit gene expression in acini. PMID:10750023

Takahashi, E; Miyamoto, N; Nagasu, T

2000-04-01

147

Transcriptional Regulation of the Two Sterol Esterification Genes in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcribes two genes, ARE1 and ARE2, that contribute disproportionately to the esterification of sterols. Are2p is the major enzyme isoform in a wild-type cell growing aerobically. This likely results from a combination of differential transcription initiation and transcript stability. By using ARE1 and ARE2 promoter fusions to lacZ reporters, we demonstrated that transcriptional initiation from the ARE1 promoter is significantly reduced compared to that from the ARE2 promoter. Furthermore, the half-life of the ARE2 mRNA is approximately 12 times as long as that of the ARE1 transcript. We present evidence that the primary role of the minor sterol esterification isoform encoded by ARE1 is to esterify sterol intermediates, whereas the role of the ARE2 enzyme is to esterify ergosterol, the end product of the pathway. Accordingly, the ARE1 promoter is upregulated in strains that accumulate ergosterol precursors. Furthermore, ARE1 and ARE2 are oppositely regulated by heme. Under heme-deficient growth conditions, ARE1 was upregulated fivefold while ARE2 was down-regulated. ARE2 requires the HAP1 transcription factor for optimal expression, and both ARE genes are derepressed in a rox1 (repressor of oxygen) mutant genetic background. We further report that the ARE genes are not subject to end product inhibition; neither ARE1 nor ARE2 transcription is altered in an are mutant background, nor does overexpression of either ARE gene alter the response of the ARE-lacZ reporter constructs. Our observations are consistent with an important physiological role for Are1p during anaerobic growth when heme is limiting and sterol precursors may accumulate. Conversely, Are2p is optimally required during aerobiosis when ergosterol is plentiful. PMID:11489845

Jensen-Pergakes, Kristen; Guo, Zhongmin; Giattina, Mara; Sturley, Stephen L.; Bard, Martin

2001-01-01

148

Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report details the progress of the three tasks of this project. The tasks are: (1) develop genetic models and analytical methods; (2) molecular confirmation of major gene segregation; and (3) develop strategies for marker-assisted breeding.

NONE

2000-02-15

149

Chromosome microarray analysis: a case report of infertile brothers with CATSPER gene deletion.  

PubMed

We present the case of two brothers who were referred to a male infertility clinic for infertility workup. Conventional chromosome analysis and Y chromosome microdeletions did not reveal any genetic alterations. We utilized the chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) to identify novel and common variations associated with this severely impaired spermatogenesis cases. CMA specific results showed a common deletion in the 15q15.3 region that harbors genes like CATSPER2, STRC and PPIP5K1 in both cases (M18 and M19). In addition we identified small duplication in X and 11 chromosomes of M19. This is the first familial case report from India on occurrence of CATSPER gene deletion in human male infertility. PMID:24690399

Jaiswal, Deepika; Singh, Vertika; Dwivedi, U S; Trivedi, Sameer; Singh, Kiran

2014-06-01

150

Vaccinia reporter viruses for quantifying viral function at all stages of gene expression.  

PubMed

Poxviruses are a family of double stranded DNA viruses that include active human pathogens such as monkeypox, molluscum contagiousum, and Contagalo virus. The family also includes the smallpox virus, Variola. Due to the complexity of poxvirus replication, many questions still remain regarding their gene expression strategy. In this article we describe the conceptualization and usage of recombinant vaccinia viruses that enable real-time measurement of single and multiple stages of viral gene expression in a high-throughput format. This is enabled through the use of spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins as reporters for each of three stages of viral replication. These viruses provide a high signal-to-noise ratio while retaining stage specific expression patterns, enabling plate-based assays and microscopic observations of virus propagation and replication. These tools have uses for antiviral discovery, studies of the virus-host interaction, and evolutionary biology. PMID:24894622

Rozelle, Daniel K; Filone, Claire Marie; Dower, Ken; Connor, John H

2014-01-01

151

Gene-Environment Interactions in Cancer Epidemiology: A National Cancer Institute Think Tank Report  

PubMed Central

Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF]>0.05) and less common (0.01genes and environment, including gene-environment interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a “Gene-Environment Think Tank” on January 10th–011th, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on: 1) the state of the science; 2) the goals of gene-environment interaction studies in cancer epidemiology; and 3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of gene-environment interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24123198

Hutter, Carolyn M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillander, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

152

Nonreplicating vaccinia vector efficiently expresses recombinant genes.  

PubMed Central

Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that has been safety tested in humans, was evaluated for use as an expression vector. MVA has multiple genomic deletions and is severely host cell restricted: it grows well in avian cells but is unable to multiply in human and most other mammalian cells tested. Nevertheless, we found that replication of viral DNA appeared normal and that both early and late viral proteins were synthesized in human cells. Proteolytic processing of viral structural proteins was inhibited, however, and only immature virus particles were detected by electron microscopy. We constructed an insertion plasmid with the Escherichia coli lacZ gene under the control of the vaccinia virus late promoter P11, flanked by sequences of MVA DNA, to allow homologous recombination at the site of a naturally occurring 3500-base-pair deletion within the MVA genome. MVA recombinants were isolated and propagated in permissive avian cells and shown to express the enzyme beta-galactosidase upon infection of nonpermissive human cells. The amount of enzyme made was similar to that produced by a recombinant of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve, which also had the lacZ gene under control of the P11 promoter, but multiplied to high titers. Since recombinant gene expression is unimpaired in nonpermissive human cells, MVA may serve as a highly efficient and exceptionally safe vector. Images PMID:1438287

Sutter, G; Moss, B

1992-01-01

153

Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage.  

PubMed

We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. PMID:25063453

Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W; Burt, David W; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A; Sang, Helen M

2014-08-01

154

The Interferon-Induced Gene Ifi27l2a is Active in Lung Macrophages and Lymphocytes After Influenza A Infection but Deletion of Ifi27l2a in Mice Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Infection  

PubMed Central

Interferons represent one of the first and essential host defense mechanisms after infection, and the activation of the IFN-pathway results in the transcriptional activation of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes. The alpha-inducible protein 27 like 2A (Ifi27l2a) gene (human synonym: ISG12) is strongly up-regulated in the lung after influenza A infection in mice and has been shown in gene expression studies to be highly correlated to other activated genes. Therefore, we investigated the role of Ifi27l2a for the host defense to influenza A infections in more detail. RT-PCR analyses in non-infected mice demonstrated that Ifi27l2a was expressed in several tissues, including the lung. Detailed analyses of reporter gene expression in lungs from Ifi27l2a-LacZ mice revealed that Ifi27l2a was expressed in macrophages and lymphocytes but not in alveolar cells or bronchiolar epithelium cells. The number of macrophages and lymphocyte strongly increased in the lung after infection, but no significant increase in expression levels of the LacZ reporter gene was found within individual immune cells. Also, no reporter gene expression was found in bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar cells or infiltrating neutrophils after infection. Thus, up-regulation of Ifi27l2a in infected lungs is mainly due to the infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes. Most surprisingly, deletion of Ifi27l2a in mouse knock-out lines did not result in increased susceptibility to infections with H1N1 or H7N7 influenza A virus compared to wild type C57BL/6N mice, suggesting a less important role of the gene for the host response to influenza infections than for bacterial infections. PMID:25184786

Dengler, Leonie; Kasnitz, Nadine; Weiß, Siegfried; Schughart, Klaus

2014-01-01

155

Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multi-level and interdisciplinary study. Progress report, February 1, 1992--January 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes gains made in three projects entitled (1) 3-Dimensional nuclear topography of genes and chromosomes in interphase nuclei, (2) Sequence specific identification and perturbation of the genomic DNA in living cells by nonionic oligonucleotide analogs (Matagen), and Resolution and isolation of specific DNA restriction fragments.(DT)

Ts`o, P.O.P.

1992-08-01

156

Sporadic Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Report of Further Mutations of CCM Genes in 40 Italian Patients  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions characterized by abnormally enlarged capillary cavities, affecting the central nervous system. CCMs can occur sporadically or as a familial autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression attributable to mutations in three different genes: CCM1 (K-Rev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1)), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10). CCMs occur as a single or multiple malformations that can lead to seizures, focal neurological deficits, hemorrhagic stroke, and headache. However, patients are frequently asymptomatic. In our previous mutation screening, performed in a cohort of 95 Italian patients, both sporadic and familial, we have identified several mutations in CCM genes, three of which in three distinct sporadic patients. In this study, representing further molecular screening of the three CCM genes, in a south Italian cohort of CCM patients enrolled by us in the last three years, we report the identification of other four new mutations in 40 sporadic patients with either single or multiple CCM. PMID:24058906

D'Angelo, Rosalia; Alafaci, Concetta; Scimone, Concetta; Ruggeri, Alessia; Salpietro, Francesco Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Tomasello, Francesco; Sidoti, Antonina

2013-01-01

157

Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

Fields, C.A.

1996-06-01

158

The mutY gene: a mutator locus in Escherichia coli that generates G.C----T.A transversions.  

PubMed Central

We have used a strain with an altered lacZ gene, which reverts to wild type via only certain transversions, to detect transversion-specific mutators in Escherichia coli. Detection relied on a papillation technique that uses a combination of beta-galactosides to reveal blue Lac+ papillae. One class of mutators is specific for the G.C----T.A transversion as determined by the reversion pattern of a set of lacZ mutations and by the distribution of forward nonsense mutations in the lacI gene. The locus responsible for the mutator phenotype is designated mutY and maps near 64 min on the genetic map of E. coli. The mutY locus may act in a similar but reciprocal fashion to the previously characterized mutT locus, which results in A.T----C.G transversions. Images PMID:3128795

Nghiem, Y; Cabrera, M; Cupples, C G; Miller, J H

1988-01-01

159

Development of tyrosinase-based reporter genes for preclinical photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to image stem cells in vivo in small animal models over extended periods of time is important to furthering our understanding of the processes involved in tissue regeneration. Photoacoustic imaging is suited to this application as it can provide high resolution (tens of microns) absorption-based images of superficial tissues (cm depths). However, stem cells are rare, highly migratory, and can divide into more specialised cells. Genetic labelling strategies are therefore advantageous for their visualisation. In this study, methods for the transfection and viral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells with reporter genes for the co-expression of tyrosinase and a fluorescent protein (mCherry). Initial photoacoustic imaging experiments of tyrosinase expressing cells in small animal models of tissue regeneration were also conducted. Lentiviral transduction methods were shown to result in stable expression of tyrosinase and mCherry in mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that photoacoustic imaging using reporter genes is suitable for the study of stem cell driven tissue regeneration in small animals.

Märk, Julia; Ruschke, Karen; Dortay, Hakan; Schreiber, Isabelle; Sass, Andrea; Qazi, Taimoor; Pumberger, Matthias; Laufer, Jan

2014-03-01

160

One of Two hemN Genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is Functional during Anaerobic Growth and in Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Previously, we screened the symbiotic gene region of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum chromosome for new NifA-dependent genes by competitive DNA-RNA hybridization (A. Nienaber, A. Huber, M. Göttfert, H. Hennecke, and H. M. Fischer, J. Bacteriol. 182:1472–1480, 2000). Here we report more details on one of the genes identified, a hemN-like gene (now called hemN1) whose product exhibits significant similarity to oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III dehydrogenases involved in heme biosynthesis in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. In the course of these studies, we discovered that B. japonicum possesses a second hemN-like gene (hemN2), which was then cloned by using hemN1 as a probe. The hemN2 gene maps outside of the symbiotic gene region; it is located 1.5 kb upstream of nirK, the gene for a Cu-containing nitrite reductase. The two deduced HemN proteins are similar in size (445 and 450 amino acids for HemN1 and HemN2, respectively) and share 53% identical (68% similar) amino acids. Expression of both hemN genes was monitored with the help of chromosomally integrated translational lacZ fusions. No significant expression of either gene was detected in aerobically grown cells, whereas both genes were strongly induced (?20-fold) under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions. Induction was in both cases dependent on the transcriptional activator protein FixK2. In addition, maximal anaerobic hemN1 expression was partially dependent on NifA, which explains why this gene had been identified by the competitive DNA-RNA hybridization approach. Strains were constructed carrying null mutations either in individual hemN genes or simultaneously in both genes. All mutants showed normal growth in rich medium under aerobic conditions. Unlike the hemN1 mutant, strains lacking a functional hemN2 gene were unable to grow anaerobically under nitrate-respiring conditions and largely failed to fix nitrogen in symbiosis with the soybean host plant. Moreover, these mutants lacked several c-type cytochromes which are normally detectable by heme staining of proteins from anaerobically grown wild-type cells. Taken together, our results revealed that B. japonicum hemN2, but not hemN1, encodes a protein that is functional under the conditions tested, and this conclusion was further corroborated by the successful complementation of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium hemF hemN mutant with hemN2 only. PMID:11157943

Fischer, Hans-Martin; Velasco, Leonardo; Delgado, Maria J.; Bedmar, Eulogio J.; Schären, Simon; Zingg, Daniel; Göttfert, Michael; Hennecke, Hauke

2001-01-01

161

Gene F of plasmid RSF1010 codes for a low-molecular-weight repressor protein that autoregulates expression of the repAC operon.  

PubMed

The repAC operon of plasmid RSF1010 consists of the genes for proteins E, F, RepA (DNA helicase), and RepC (origin-binding initiator protein) and is transcriptionally initiated by a promoter called P4. We have studied the expression of the repAC operon in vivo by using fusions to the lacZ reporter gene. The results show that the product of the second gene, F, autoregulates the operon by inhibiting transcription from P4. To verify its properties postulated from the in vivo studies and to initiate its biochemical characterization, we have purified the F protein from an overproducing E.coli strain constructed in vitro. Purification was based on a gel retardation assay for detection of P4-specific DNA binding. Subsequent DNase footprinting of the F binding sites showed clear protection around two partially symmetric P4 sequences of 16 bp, each of which matches the symmetric consensus sequence, GCGTGAGTACTCACGC, in at least 13 positions. The native repressor, as judged from gel filtration, velocity sedimentation and crosslinking studies, exists as a dimer in dilute solution; its monomeric subunit, as predicted from DNA sequence and N-terminal protein sequence data, consists of 68 amino acids and has a calculated M tau = 7,673. PMID:2243770

Maeser, S; Scholz, P; Otto, S; Scherzinger, E

1990-11-11

162

Determination of effective rAAV-mediated gene transfer conditions to support chondrogenic differentiation processes in human primary bone marrow aspirates.  

PubMed

The genetic modification of freshly aspirated bone marrow may provide convenient tools to enhance the regenerative capacities of cartilage defects compared with the complex manipulation of isolated progenitor cells. In the present study, we examined the ability and safety of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2 vectors to deliver various reporter gene sequences in primary human bone marrow aspirates over time without altering the chondrogenic processes in the samples. The results demonstrate that successful rAAV-mediated gene transfer and expression of the lacZ and red fluorescent protein marker genes were achieved in transduced aspirates at very high efficiencies (90-94%) and over extended periods of time (up to 125 days) upon treatment with hirudin, an alternative anticoagulant that does not prevent the adsorption of the rAAV-2 particles at the surface of their targets compared with heparin. Application of rAAV was safe, displaying neither cytotoxic nor detrimental effects on the cellular and proliferative activities or on the chondrogenic processes in the aspirates especially using an optimal dose of 0.5?mg?ml(-1) hirudin, and application of the potent SOX9 transcription factor even enhanced these processes while counteracting hypertrophic differentiation. The current findings demonstrate the clinical value of this class of vector to durably and safely modify bone marrow aspirates as a means to further develop convenient therapeutic approaches to improve the healing of cartilage defects. PMID:25338919

Rey-Rico, A; Frisch, J; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

2015-01-01

163

Long-Term Gene Delivery into the Livers of Immunocompetent Mice with E1\\/E4Defective Adenoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the in vitro and in vivo behaviors of a set of isogenic E1- and E1\\/E4-defective adenovi- ruses expressing the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli from the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. Infection of tumor-derived established cell lines of human origin with the doubly defective adenoviruses resulted in (i) a lower replication of the viral backbone that

JEAN-FRANCOIS DEDIEU; EMMANUELLE VIGNE; CHRISTOPHE TORRENT; CAROLE JULLIEN; IRENE MAHFOUZ; JEAN-MICHEL CAILLAUD; NATHALIE AUBAILLY; CECILE ORSINI; JEAN-MARC GUILLAUME; PAULE OPOLON; PIA DELAERE; MICHEL PERRICAUDET; PATRICE YEH

1997-01-01

164

Analysis of expression of the alpha-toxin gene (hla) of Staphylococcus aureus by using a chromosomally encoded hla::lacZ gene fusion.  

PubMed Central

The staphylococcal alpha-toxin (Hla) is a major virulence factor contributing to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. To elucidate the conditions influencing hla expression, the determinant was fused to lacZ, the reporter gene coding for beta-galactosidase. The hla::lacZ fusion was integrated into the chromosome of the wild-type S. aureus strain Wood 46, leading to the variant Wood 46-3. Alpha-toxin expression was found to be dependent on temperature, showing a maximum at 42 degrees C. Furthermore, the indicator strain showed a growth phase-dependent hla regulation which was influenced by temperature. At 37 degrees C, induction of hla::lacZ expression occurred in the late exponential phase of growth, whereas at 42 degrees C, a strong induction was observed as early as the mid-exponential phase. These observations were verified by Northern blot analysis of hla mRNA and by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of culture supernatants of strain Wood 46. It was additionally found that the induction of hla transcription at 42 degrees C was not coupled with higher concentrations of agr RNAIII, the effector molecule of the global regulator agr. Furthermore, expression of the alpha-toxin was repressed at a high osmolarity. It was also shown that oxygen is essential for hla expression and that cultivation of the S. aureus strain Wood 46-3 on solid medium and in the presence of carbon dioxide stimulated hla transcriptional activity. PMID:9284126

Ohlsen, K; Koller, K P; Hacker, J

1997-01-01

165

Development and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay.  

PubMed

Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics that are being developed for various medical indications, and more than 30 mAbs are already approved and in the market place. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important biological function attributed to the mechanism of action of several therapeutic antibodies, particularly oncology targeting mAbs. The ADCC assay is a complicated and highly variable assay. Thus, the use of an ADCC assay as a lot release test or a stability test for clinical trial batches of mAbs has been a substantial challenge to install in quality control laboratories. We describe here the development and validation of an alternate approach, an ADCC-reporter gene assay that is based on the key attributes of the PBMC-based ADCC assay. We tested the biological relevance of this assay using an anti-CD20 based model and demonstrated that this ADCC-reporter assay correlated well with standard ADCC assays when induced with the drugable human isotypes [IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgG4S > P (S228P) and IgG4PAA (S228P, F234A, L235A)] and with IgG1 isotype variants with varying amounts of fucosylation. This data demonstrates that the ADCC-reporter gene assay has performance characteristics (accuracy, precision and robustness) to be used not only as a potency assay for lot release and stability testing for antibody therapeutics, but also as a key assay for the characterization and process development of therapeutic molecules. PMID:22531445

Parekh, Bhavin S; Berger, Elaine; Sibley, Sharon; Cahya, Suntara; Xiao, Liqun; LaCerte, Melinda Ann; Vaillancourt, Peter; Wooden, Scott; Gately, Dennis

2012-01-01

166

Effect of promoter modification on mosquitocidal cryIVB gene expression in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.  

PubMed Central

The impact of promoter modification on the expression of the mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cryIVB gene when used to transform the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 has been examined. Maximal transcript and protein abundances were achieved by the addition of the lacZ promoter upstream of the cryIVB sequence. Replacement of the endogenous corresponding Bacillus sequences with the Synechococcus petF1 promoter, ribosome binding site, and initiation codon also resulted in increased expression of the cryIVB gene relative to the expression obtained with the Bacillus promoter alone but decreased expression relative to the expression achieved with the tandem array of the Bacillus and lacZ promoters. Synechococcus cells carrying plasmids in which the expression of the cryIVB gene was regulated by either the lacZ or the petF1 promoter were readily consumed by first-instar Culex restuans larvae and proved to be toxic for these organisms. Images PMID:7690220

Soltes-Rak, E; Kushner, D J; Williams, D D; Coleman, J R

1993-01-01

167

The effect of T-DNA copy number, position and methylation on reporter gene expression in tobacco transformants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-transformant variability in the expression of introduced genes was studied in the R1 and R2 generations of 10 tobacco transformants, produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In replicated and physiologically equivalent material, tranformants showed considerable variability in the expression of the reporter gene uidA as shown by transcript levels and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) activity. However, homozygous R2 material could be investigated for seven

Shaun L. A. Hobbs; Pascal Kpodar; Catherine M. O. DeLong

1990-01-01

168

Rapid detection of common mutations of the FGFR3 gene causing thanatophoric dysplasia type I: two case reports.  

PubMed

Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a relatively common lethal skeletal dysplasia. These malformations result from the mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which is located on the short arm of chromosome 4. Accurate diagnosis of fetal TD is important for patient counseling and to plan the management. A definite diagnosis can be established by molecular genetic analysis to find out the abnormal mutations in the FGFR3 gene. We reported on two cases of TD type I found by prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by molecular analysis of FGFR3 gene using high-resolution melting analysis. PMID:22414243

Yang, Yu; Liu, Ying-Na; Li, Dong-Zhi

2012-06-01

169

The sea pansy Renilla reniformis luciferase serves as a sensitive bioluminescent reporter for differential gene expression in Candida albicans.  

PubMed Central

The infectious yeast Candida albicans progresses through two developmental programs which involve differential gene expression, the bud-hypha transition and high-frequency phenotypic switching. To understand how differentially expressed genes are regulated in this organism, the promoters of phase-specific genes must be functionally characterized, and a bioluminescent reporter system would facilitate such characterization. However, C. albicans has adopted a nontraditional codon strategy that involves a tRNA with a CAG anticodon to decode the codon CUG as serine rather than leucine. Since the luciferase gene of the sea pansy Renilla reinformis contains no CUGs, we have used it to develop a highly sensitive bioluminescent reporter system for C. albicans. When fused to the galactose-inducible promoter of GAL1, luciferase activity is inducible; when fused to the constitutive EF1 alpha 2 promoter, luciferase activity is constitutive; and when fused to the promoter of the white-phase-specific gene WH11 or the opaque-phase-specific gene OP4, luciferase activity is phase specific. The Renilla luciferase system can, therefore, be used as a bioluminescent reporter to analyze the strength and developmental regulation of C. albicans promoters. PMID:8550405

Srikantha, T; Klapach, A; Lorenz, W W; Tsai, L K; Laughlin, L A; Gorman, J A; Soll, D R

1996-01-01

170

The Naphthalene Catabolic (nag) Genes of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2: Evolutionary Implications for Two Gene Clusters and Novel Regulatory Control  

PubMed Central

Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2, found to be responsible for the degradation of naphthalene in situ at a coal tar waste-contaminated site (C.-O. Jeon et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:13591-13596, 2003), is able to grow on mineral salts agar media with naphthalene as the sole carbon source. Beginning from a 484-bp nagAc-like region, we used a genome walking strategy to sequence genes encoding the entire naphthalene degradation pathway andadditional flanking regions. We found that the naphthalene catabolic genes in P. naphthalenivorans CJ2 were divided into one large and one small gene cluster, separated by an unknown distance. The large gene cluster (nagRAaGHAbAcAdBFCQEDJI?ORF1tnpA) is bounded by a LysR-type regulator (nagR). The small cluster (nagR2ORF2I"KL) is bounded by a MarR-type regulator (nagR2). The catabolic genes of P. naphthalenivorans CJ2 were homologous to many of those of Ralstonia U2, which uses the gentisate pathway to convert naphthalene to central metabolites. However, three open reading frames (nagY, nagM, and nagN), present in Ralstonia U2, were absent. Also, P. naphthalenivorans carries two copies of gentisate dioxygenase (nagI) with 77.4% DNA sequence identity to one another and 82% amino acid identity to their homologue in Ralstonia sp. strain U2. Investigation of the operons using reverse transcription PCR showed that each cluster was controlled independently by its respective promoter. Insertional inactivation and lacZ reporter assays showed that nagR2 is a negative regulator and that expression of the small cluster is not induced by naphthalene, salicylate, or gentisate. Association of two putative Azoarcus-related transposases with the large cluster and one Azoarcus-related putative salicylate 5-hydroxylase gene (ORF2) in the small cluster suggests that mobile genetic elements were likely involved in creating the novel arrangement of catabolic and regulatory genes in P. naphthalenivorans. PMID:16461653

Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Minjeong; Ro, Hyun-Su; Park, Woojun; Madsen, Eugene L.

2006-01-01

171

Conditional Gene Targeting in Mouse High Endothelial Venules  

PubMed Central

High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized blood vessels of secondary lymphoid organs composed of endothelial cells with a characteristic cuboidal morphology. Lymphocytes selectively adhere to and migrate across HEVs to initiate immune responses. In this study, we established a novel transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the gene encoding HEV-expressed sulfotransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GlcNAc6ST-2), using bacterial artificial chromosome recombineering. Crossing these transgenic mice with the ROSA26 reporter strain, which expresses lacZ following Cre-mediated recombination, and staining the resulting progeny with 5-bromo-4-chloro-5-indolyl-?-D-galactoside indicated that Cre recombinase was specifically expressed in mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in secondary lymphoid organs but not in any other blood vessels of the transgenic mice. The expression of Cre recombinase correlated with a developmental switch, from immature, mAb MECA367-reactive HEVs to mature, mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in neonatal lymph nodes. In addition to the HEVs, Cre recombinase was also strongly expressed in the colonic villi, which recapitulated the intrinsic expression of GlcNAc6ST-2 as confirmed in GlcNAc6ST-2GFP/GFP knock-in mice and by RT-PCR. Furthermore, treatment with an antimicrobial agent revealed that the colonic expression of Cre recombinase in the transgenic mice was regulated by commensal bacteria in the colon. In addition, Cre recombinase was expressed in a small subset of cells in the brain, testis, stomach, small intestine, and lung. In view of the restricted expression of Cre recombinase, this transgenic mouse line should be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene functions using the Cre/loxP system. PMID:19380794

Kawashima, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Jotaro; Tobisawa, Yuki; Fukuda, Minoru; Saga, Yumiko

2009-01-01

172

Green fluorescent protein/beta-galactosidase double reporters for visualizing Drosophila gene expression patterns.  

PubMed

We characterized 120 novel yeast Ga14-targeted enhancer trap lines in Drosophila using upstream activating sequence (UAS) reporter plasmids incorporating newly constructed fusions of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase genes. Direct comparisons of GFP epifluorescence and beta-galactosidase staining revealed that both proteins function comparably to their unconjugated counterparts within a wide variety of Drosophila tissues. Generally, both reporters accumulated in similar patterns within individual lines, but in some tissues, e.g., brain, GFP staining was more reliable than that of beta-galactosidase, whereas in other tissues, most notably tests and ovaries, the converse was true. In cases of weak enhancers, we occasionally could detect beta-galactosidase staining in the absence of discernible GFP fluorescence. This shortcoming of GFP can, in most cases, be alleviated by using the more efficient S65T GFP derivative. The GFP/beta-gal reporter fusion protein facilitated monitoring several aspects of protein accumulation. In particular, the ability to visualize GFP fluorescence enhances recognition of global static and dynamic patterns in live animals, whereas beta-galactosidase histochemistry affords sensitive high resolution protein localization. We present a catalog of Ga 14-expressing strains that will be useful for investigating several aspects of Drosophila melanogaster cell and developmental biology. PMID:9254908

Timmons, L; Becker, J; Barthmaier, P; Fyrberg, C; Shearn, A; Fyrberg, E

1997-01-01

173

An in vitro reporter gene assay method incorporating metabolic activation with human and rat S9 or liver microsomes.  

PubMed

A metabolic activation system with an S9 fraction or liver microsomes was applied to a reporter gene assay in vitro for the screening of estrogenicity of chemicals. The endpoint (luciferase) was luciferase induction in cells transfected with a reporter plasmid containing an estrogen-responsive element linked to the luciferase gene. Compounds were applied to the reporter gene assay system after pretreatment or simultaneous treatment with an S9 fraction or liver microsomes. Both trans-stilbene and methoxychlor themselves showed no or little estrogenicity, but when they were treated with an S9 fraction or liver microsomes, they demonstrated strong effects, indicating their metabolites to be estrogenic. When four pyrethroid insecticides were subjected to this assay system, however, they showed no estrogenicity even with liver microsome or S9 mix treatment. PMID:11162482

Sumida, K; Ooe, N; Nagahori, H; Saito, K; Isobe, N; Kaneko, H; Nakatsuka, I

2001-01-12

174

Involvement of the BDNF Gene in Loneliness in Adolescence: A Report of Opposite Gene Effects in Boys and Girls  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that loneliness has a heritable component and that genes within the serotonin-, dopamine-, and oxytocin systems are related to loneliness in adolescence. In the present study, the relation between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and loneliness in adolescent boys and girls was examined in a longitudinal study spanning five annual waves (N?=?305). Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used to examine the baseline level and the change in loneliness over time. The main finding was that the BDNF gene was not related to loneliness in the total sample. A BDNF by sex interaction was found, in that Met carrying girls had the highest levels of loneliness at baseline, whereas in boys the ValVal genotype was related to higher levels of loneliness. Our results underline the importance of sex-stratified analyses when examining effects of the BDNF genotype and the necessity of conducting gene studies to intermediate phenotypes of loneliness. PMID:24647525

Verhagen, Maaike; van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2014-01-01

175

Estrogenicity of fissure sealants and adhesive resins determined by reporter gene assay.  

PubMed

It is controversial whether the dental resinous materials containing 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA), which is synthesized from the estrogenic compound bisphenol A (BPA), include unreacted BPA and/or can mimic the effects of natural steroid hormones. In the present study, the estrogenic activities of 3 fissure sealants and 5 adhesive resins, which were all unpolymerized, were determined by means of a reporter gene assay, and the relevance of the components to the estrogenicity was investigated. Two commercially available sealants were confirmed to have estrogenic activity, although none of the tested materials contained BPA. In contrast, hydrophobic monomer bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BPA-DMA), which is also estrogenic, was found to be included in these estrogenic sealants in an amount greater than the minimum concentration to show estrogenicity. This suggests that the estrogenicity of the two proprietary sealants was associated with BPA-DMA rather than with BPA. PMID:11145352

Tarumi, H; Imazato, S; Narimatsu, M; Matsuo, M; Ebisu, S

2000-11-01

176

[Multiple paragangliomas associated to a SDHB gene mutation: report of one case].  

PubMed

Paragangliomas are tumors arising from sympathetic and parasympathetic tissues. The classic associated syndromes are neurofibromatosis type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and von Hippel-Lindau. Germline mutations of succinate dehydrogenase subunits genes, are associated with familial paraganglioma syndromes 1,2,3 and 4. We report a 29-year-old woman with a family background of pheochromocytoma and history of paroxysmal headache, nausea, sweating, palpitations, associated with severe hypertension. The patient had elevated plasma noradrenalin and urinary normetanephrines. Imaging studies revealed three retroperitoneal extra-adrenal masses. The clinical and laboratory study of classic syndromes associated with paraganglioma was negative. The patient was operated and the pathological study of the surgical specimen was consistent with paragangliomas. The genetic study showed a mutation in the SDHB succinate dehydrogenase gen, Exon 2 of CCTCA c.300_304 (p.P56delYfsX5). PMID:22446654

Díaz, René E; Utreras, Carlos; Ascuí, Rodrigo; Hidalgo, Fernando; Véliz, Jesús; Wohllk, Nelson

2011-11-01

177

Suppression of experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis by interleukin-10 gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression of experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis by interleukin-10 gene transfer.BackgroundInvestigated were effects of overexpression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) on the outcome and progression of crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats.MethodsRats were singly or simultaneously injected with antiglomerular basement membrane (a-GBM) antibody and adenoviral vector encoding rat IL-10 (Ad-rIL-10) or LacZ (Ad-LacZ) (3 × 1010 pfu\\/rat) intravenously, and were sacrificed at day 7.

Adel G. A. El-Shemi; HIDEHIKO FUJINAKA; ASAKO MATSUKI; JUNICHI KAMIIE; PAVEL KOVALENKO; ZHENYUN QU; VLADIMIR BILIM; GORO NISHIMOTO; EISHIN YAOITA; YUATKA YOSHIDA; IGNACIO ANEGON; TADASHI YAMAMOTO

2004-01-01

178

Gene therapy with iNOS provides long-term protection against myocardial infarction without adverse functional consequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protects against myocardial infarction at 3 days after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of iNOS gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and cardiac function are unknown. To address this issue, we used a recombinant adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector (Av3) with deletions of the E1, E2a, and E3 regions, which enables long-lasting recombinant gene expression for at least 2 mo due to lack of inflammation. Mice received intramyocardial injections in the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall of Av3/LacZ (LacZ group) or Av3/iNOS (iNOS group); 1 or 2 mo later, they were subjected to myocardial infarction (30-min coronary occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion). Cardiac iNOS gene expression was confirmed by immunoblotting and activity assays at 1 and 2 mo after gene transfer. In the iNOS group, infarct size (percentage of risk region) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) both at 1 mo (24.2 ± 3.4%, n = 6, vs. 48.0 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group) and at 2 mo (23.4 ± 3.1%, n = 8, vs. 36.6 ± 2.4%, n = 7). The infarct-sparing effects of iNOS gene therapy were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (23.1 ± 3.4%, n = 10). iNOS gene transfer had no effect on LV function or dimensions up to 8 wk later (echocardiography). These data demonstrate that iNOS gene therapy mediated by the Av3 vector affords long-term (2 mo) cardioprotection without inflammation or adverse functional consequences, a finding that provides a rationale for further preclinical testing of this therapy. PMID:16172153

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Tan, Wei; Stein, Adam B.; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Wu, Wen-Jian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Lu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xiaoming; Siddiqui, Tariq; Tiwari, Sumit; Bolli, Roberto

2013-01-01

179

Adr1p-dependent regulation of the oleic acid-inducible yeast gene SPS19 encoding the peroxisomal beta-oxidation auxiliary enzyme 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase.  

PubMed

The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adr1p was examined with respect to the transcriptional regulation of the SPS19 gene encoding the peroxisomal beta-oxidation auxiliary enzyme 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase. The SPS19 promoter contains both an oleate response element that binds the Pip2p-Oaf1p transcription factor as well as a canonical Adr1p-binding element, termed UAS1(SPS19). Northern analysis demonstrated that transcriptional up-regulation of SPS19 was abolished in cells devoid of Adr1p. Expression of an SPS19-lacZ reporter gene was shown to be quiescent in the adr1Delta mutant and abnormally elevated in cells containing multiple ADR1 copies. UAS1(SPS19) was able to compete for formation of a specific complex between recombinant Adr1p-LacZ and UAS1(CTA1) representing the corresponding Adr1p-binding element in the promoter of the catalase A gene, and to interact directly with this fusion protein. We conclude that in the presence of fatty acids in the medium transcription of SPS19 is directly regulated by both Pip2p-Oaf1p and Adr1p. PMID:11170837

Gurvitz, A; Wabnegger, L; Rottensteiner, H; Dawes, I W; Hartig, A; Ruis, H; Hamilton, B

2000-08-01

180

In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated that, no ultradamages or changes for cell; membrane, organilles or any component of transfected fibroblast cell as a result of using laser microbeam compared with control cell.

Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.

2009-02-01

181

Leydig cells express the myelin proteolipid protein gene and incorporate a new alternatively spliced exon.  

PubMed

Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (Plp1) is highly expressed in the central nervous system encoding the most abundant myelin protein in oligodendrocytes, it is also expressed in other tissues, including testis. Transgenic studies with mice that harbor Plp1-lacZ fusion genes suggest that Leydig cells are the source of Plp1 gene expression in testis. However, virtually nothing is known about Plp1 gene regulation in Leydig cells, which is the focus of this study. The first intron contains both positive and negative regulatory elements that are important in regulating Plp1 gene expression in oligodendrocytes. To test whether these elements are functional in Leydig cells, a battery of Plp1-lacZ fusion genes with partial deletion of Plp1 intron 1 sequence was transfected into the mouse Leydig cell line, TM3. Results presented here suggest that an enhancer, which is very potent in oligodendrocytes, is only nominally active in TM3 cells. The intron also contains several negative regulatory elements that are operative in TM3 cells. Moreover a new exon (exon 1.2) was identified within the first 'intron' resulting in novel splice variants in TM3 cells. Western blot analysis suggests that these splice variants, along with those containing another alternatively spliced exon (exon 1.1) derived from intron 1 sequence, give rise to multiple Plp1 gene products in the mouse testis. PMID:19232385

Li, Shenyang; Greuel, Brian T; Meng, Fanxue; Pereira, Glauber B; Pitts, Adria; Dobretsova, Anna; Wight, Patricia A

2009-05-01

182

Molecular Screening of "MECP2" Gene in a Cohort of Lebanese Patients Suspected with Rett Syndrome: Report on a Mild Case with a Novel Indel Mutation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked, dominant, neurodevelopment disorder represents 10% of female subjects with profound intellectual disability. Mutations in the "MECP2" gene are responsible for up to 95% of the classical RTT cases, and nearly 500 different mutations distributed throughout the gene have been reported. Methods: We report

Corbani, S.; Chouery, E.; Fayyad, J.; Fawaz, A.; El Tourjuman, O.; Badens, C.; Lacoste, C.; Delague, V.; Megarbane, A.

2012-01-01

183

Confirmation of TFAP2A gene involvement in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) and report of temporal bone anomalies.  

PubMed

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is an autosomal-dominant condition characterized by three main features, respectively: branchial defects, ocular anomalies, and craniofacial defects including cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). We report on one family with three affected, and two sporadic cases that have been found to carry missense mutations in the newly reported BOFS gene: TFAP2A. This report confirms the involvement of this transcription factor in this developmental syndrome with clinical variability. Moreover, we present CT scan temporal bone anomalies in the familial cases, related to branchial arch defects, highlighting the importance of radiological investigations for differential diagnosis. PMID:19764023

Stoetzel, C; Riehm, S; Bennouna Greene, V; Pelletier, V; Vigneron, J; Leheup, B; Marion, V; Hellé, S; Danse, J M; Thibault, C; Moulinier, L; Veillon, F; Dollfus, H

2009-10-01

184

Synthesis of a probe for monitoring HSV1-tk reporter gene expression using chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI  

PubMed Central

In experiments involving transgenic animals or animals treated with transgenic cells, it is important to have a method to monitor the expression of the relevant genes longitudinally and noninvasively. An MRI-based reporter gene enables monitoring of gene expression in the deep tissues of living subjects. This information can be co-registered with detailed high-resolution anatomical and functional information. We describe here the synthesis of the reporter probe, 5-methyl-5,6-dihydrothymidine (5-MDHT), which can be used for imaging of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene expression in rodents by MRI. The protocol also includes data acquisition and data processing routines customized for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast mechanisms. The dihydropyrimidine 5-MDHT is synthesized through a catalytic hydrogenation of the 5,6-double bond of thymidine to yield 5,6-dihydrothymidine, which is methylated on the C-5 position of the resulting saturated pyrimidine ring. The synthesis of 5-MDHT can be completed within 5 d, and the compound is stable for more than 1 year. PMID:24177294

Bar-Shir, Amnon; Liu, Guanshu; Greenberg, Marc M; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A

2013-01-01

185

Transfer of a plant chitinase gene into a nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum and study of its expression.  

PubMed

Azospirillum is used extensively in rice and other cereal crops as a biofertilizer. There is a substantial opportunity to improve the efficiency of this bacterium through the transfer of genes of agricultural importance from other organisms. Chitinases are antifungal proteins, and expression of chitinase genes in Azospirillum would help to develop strains with potential antifungal activities. So far there are no reports about transfer of plant genes into Azospirillum and their expression. The present study was aimed at expressing an antifungal gene (a rice chitinase) of plant origin in Azospirillum brasilense. A rice chitinase cDNA (RC 7) that codes for a 35 kDa protein was subcloned into a broad host range plasmid pDSK519 under the control of LacZ promoter. The plasmid was mobilized into the nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azospirillum brasilense strain SP51eFL1, through biparental mating. The conjugation frequency was in the range of 35-40 x 10(-6). The transconjugants grew in nitrogen-free media and fixed gaseous nitrogen in vitro. However, their growth and nitrogen-fixing ability were slightly less than those of the wild-type. Expression of the protein was demonstrated through western blotting of the total cell protein, which detected a 35 kDa band that was immuno-reactive to a barley chitinase antibody. The cell lysates also hydrolyzed various chitin substrates, which resulted in release of free sugars demonstrating the chitinase activity of transconjugants. The expressed protein also had antifungal activity as demonstrated by inhibition of growth of the plant pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:15381976

Jayaraj, Jayaraman; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Liang, George H

2004-07-01

186

Recommendations for analyzing and reporting TP53 gene variants in the high-throughput sequencing era.  

PubMed

The architecture of TP53, the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer, is more complex than previously thought. Using TP53 variants as clinical biomarkers to predict response to treatment or patient outcome requires an unequivocal and standardized procedure toward a definitive strategy for the clinical evaluation of variants to provide maximum diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. An intronic promoter and two novel exons have been identified resulting in the expression of multiple transcripts and protein isoforms. These regions are additional targets for mutation events impairing the tumor suppressive activity of TP53. Reassessment of variants located in these regions is needed to refine their prognostic value in many malignancies. We recommend using the stable Locus Reference Genomic reference sequence for detailed and unequivocal reports and annotations of germ line and somatic alterations on all TP53 transcripts and protein isoforms according to the recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society. This novel and comprehensive description framework will generate standardized data that are easy to understand, analyze, and exchange across various cancer variant databases. Based on the statistical analysis of more than 45,000 variants in the latest version of the UMD TP53 database, we also provide a classification of their functional effects ("pathogenicity"). PMID:24729566

Soussi, Thierry; Leroy, Bernard; Taschner, Peter E M

2014-06-01

187

Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of cervix with TFE3 gene rearrangement: a case report  

PubMed Central

In this study, we reported the first PEComa arising within the cervix with TFE3 gene rearrangement and aggressive biological behavior. Morphologically, the tumor showed infiltrative growth into the surrounding parenchyma. The majority of tumor cells were arrayed in sheets, alveolar structures, or nests separated by delicate fibrovascular septa. There was marked intratumoral hemorrhage, necrosis, and stromal calcifications. The tumor cells had abundant clear cytoplasm, focally containing finely granular dark brown pigment, morphologically considered to be melanin. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells demonstrated moderately (2+) or strongly (3+) positive staining for TFE3, HMB45, and Melan A but negative for CKpan, SMA, S100, PAX8, and PAX2. The presence of Ki-67 protein demonstrated a moderate proliferation rate, with a few Ki-67-positive nuclei. Using a recently developed TFE3 split FISH assay, the presence of TFE3 rearrangement was demonstrated. All these clinicopathologic features are suggestive of TFE3-rearranged PEComas of the cervix. Our results both expand the known characteristics of primary cervix PEComas and add to the data regarding TFE3 rearrangement-associated PEComas. PMID:25337301

Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Renya; Wang, Zi-Yu; Xia, Qiuyuan; Shen, Qin; Shi, Shanshan; Tu, Pin; Shi, Qunli; Zhou, Xiaojun; Rao, Qiu

2014-01-01

188

Site-Specific Recombination-Based Genetic System for Reporting Transient or Low-Level Gene Expression†  

PubMed Central

We report here the construction, characterization, and application of a plasmid-based genetic system that reports the expression of a target promoter by effecting an irreversible, heritable change in a bacterial cell. This system confers strong repression of the reporter gene gfp in the absence of target promoter expression and utilizes the site-specific recombination machinery of bacteriophage P22 to trigger high-level reporter gene expression in the original cell and its progeny after target gene induction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this genetic system by tailoring it to indicate the availability of arabinose to the biological control agent Enterobacter cloacae JL1157 in culture and in the barley rhizosphere. The presence of bioavailable arabinose triggered the production of P22 excisionase and integrase from the reporter plasmid pAraLHB in JL1157, and this led to excision of the cI repressor gene, which is flanked by att sites, and the subsequent irreversible expression of gfp in the original cell and in its progeny. In culture, nearly 100% of an E. cloacae JL1157(pAraLHB) population expressed gfp after exposure to 6.5 to 65 ?M arabinose for 3 h. We used this biosensor to demonstrate that arabinose was released from the seeds of several legumes and grass species during germination and from roots of barley seedlings grown hydroponically or in soil. When introduced into microcosms containing barley, the biosensor permitted the localization of arabinose along the roots. Arabinose was present near the root-seed junction and on the seminal roots but was not detected at the root tips. This recombination-based reporter system should be useful for monitoring bacterial exposure to transient or low levels of specific molecules directly in the environment. PMID:12089047

Casavant, N. Carol; Beattie, Gwyn A.; Phillips, Gregory J.; Halverson, Larry J.

2002-01-01

189

Brugada syndrome with a novel missense mutation in SCN5A gene: a case report from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Brugada syndrome is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia that follows autosomal dominant transmission and can cause sudden death. We report a case of Brugada syndrome in a 55-year-old male patient presented with recurrent palpitation, atypical chest pain and presyncope. ECG changes were consistent with type 1 Brugada. Gene analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in SCN5A gene with a genetic variation of D785N and a nucleotide change at 2353G-A. One of his children also had the same mutation. To our knowledge this is the first genetically proved case of Brugada syndrome in Bangladesh. PMID:24581105

Sayeed, Md Zahidus; Salam, Md Abdus; Haque, Md Zahirul; Islam, A K M Monwarul

2014-01-01

190

Spatial expression of the hsr-omega (93D) gene in different tissues of Drosophila melanogaster and identification of promoter elements controlling its developmental expression.  

PubMed

Developmental expression of the heat shock inducible non-protein coding hsr-omega gene in several larval and adult tissues of Drosophila melanogaster was examined by in situ hybridization to transcripts in intact organs and by X-gal staining in the germline transformants and carrying the lacZ reporter gene under the control of hsr-omega promoter. This gene is expressed in a specific spatial pattern in all the larval and adult tissue types examined; however, its transcripts were specifically absent in certain gonadal cell types like the male as well as female gonial cells and in follicle cells and oocytes in ovary. All polytenised tissues like the prothoracic and salivary glands, certain regions of larval gut and the Malpighian tubules showed a greater abundance of hsr-omega transcripts with a strong hybridization in nuclei. Our results with promoter deletion variant germline transformants suggest that a region between -346bp to -844bp upstream contains major regulatory elements for developmental expression of this gene in most of the larval and adult tissues examined; however, this region is not sufficient for its normal expression in male and female reproductive systems. An analysis of the base sequence of the hsr-omega promoter (upto - 844 bp) reveals putative ecdysone receptor element half-sites and two GAGA factor binding sites which may be involved in its developmental expression and its ready inducibility. The widespread expression in most tissue types and the known lethality associated with its homozygous deletion, suggest that the variety of non-protein coding transcripts of the hsr-omega gene have vital "house-keeping" functions. PMID:8641048

Mutsuddi, M; Lakhotia, S C

1995-01-01

191

Selection of available suicide vectors for gene mutagenesis using chiA (a chitinase encoding gene) as a new reporter and primary functional analysis of chiA in Lysobacter enzymogenes strain OH11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, three different suicide vectors were evaluated for the possibility of performing gene mutagenesis in strain OH11 using\\u000a the chiA gene (accession number: DQ888611) as a new reporter. Suicide vector pEX18GM was selected, and it was successfully applied\\u000a for disruption and in-frame deletions in the chiA gene in strain OH11, which was confirmed by PCR amplification and Southern hybridization. The

Yansheng Wang; Dongyu Qian; Jiaqin Fan; Baishi Hu; Fengquan Liu

192

Ferritin as an Endogenous MRI Reporter for Noninvasive Imaging of Gene Expression in C6 Glioma Tumors1  

PubMed Central

Abstract The heavy chain of murine ferritin, an iron storage molecule with ferroxidase activity, was developed as a novel endogenous reporter for the detection of gene expression by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Expression of both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and influenza hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged ferritin were tightly coregulated by tetracycline (TET), using a bidirectional expression vector. C6 cells stably expressing a TET-EGFP-HA-ferritin construct enabled the dynamic detection of TET-regulated gene expression by MRI, followed by independent validation using fluorescence microscopy and histology. MR relaxation rates were significantly elevated both in vitro and in vivo on TET withdrawal, and were consistent with induced expression of ferritin and increase in intracellular iron content. Hence, overexpression of ferritin was sufficient to trigger cellular response, augmenting iron uptake to a degree detectable by MRI. Application of this novel MR reporter gene that generates significant contrast in the absence of exogenously administered substrates opens new possibilities for noninvasive molecular imaging of gene expression by MRI. PMID:15802016

Cohen, Batya; Dafni, Hagit; Meir, Gila; Harmelin, Alon; Neeman, Michal

2005-01-01

193

Identical Mutation in SH3BP2 Gene Causes Clinical Phenotypes with Different Severity in Mother and Daughter – Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cherubism is a particular form of fibrous dysplasia of the jaws. Familial occurrence was reported in most cases. The condition is a rare hereditary disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, with complete penetrance in males and incomplete penetrance in females and variable expressivity. It is known to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding SH3-domain binding protein 2, SH3BP2 gene. Major diagnostic criteria are cherubic facial appearance, painless hard enlargement of the jaws, and frequently associated dental abnormalities. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and genetic features of cherubism in a family with 3 daughters in which the youngest one was affected. Clinical and radiographic examinations, hematological and biochemical evaluations and biopsy were performed. Molecular genetic analysis consisted of PCR amplification and direct sequencing of selected exons of the SH3BP2 gene. Cherubism was suspected based on clinical and radiographic examinations of the 9-year-old daughter. She presented asymmetrical enlargement of the mandible, speech and swallowing problems and dental abnormalities on the lower jaw. There was no history of similar clinical findings in any of the daughters or the parents of the affected girl. Abnormal results were obtained by genetic analysis. A c.1244G>A mutation was identified in exon 9 of the SH3BP2 gene in the asymptomatic mother and her affected daughter. The identified mutation in the SH3BP2 gene is probably disease-causing. The asymptomatic mother transmitted the gene mutation to her affected daughter. Our results confirm the reduced penetrance and variable expression of the gene mutation. PMID:21045962

Preda, L.; Dinca, O.; Bucur, A.; Dragomir, C.; Severin, E.

2010-01-01

194

On the Use of Gene Ontology Annotations to Assess Functional Similarity among Orthologs and Paralogs: A Short Report  

PubMed Central

A recent paper (Nehrt et al., PLoS Comput. Biol. 7:e1002073, 2011) has proposed a metric for the “functional similarity” between two genes that uses only the Gene Ontology (GO) annotations directly derived from published experimental results. Applying this metric, the authors concluded that paralogous genes within the mouse genome or the human genome are more functionally similar on average than orthologous genes between these genomes, an unexpected result with broad implications if true. We suggest, based on both theoretical and empirical considerations, that this proposed metric should not be interpreted as a functional similarity, and therefore cannot be used to support any conclusions about the “ortholog conjecture” (or, more properly, the “ortholog functional conservation hypothesis”). First, we reexamine the case studies presented by Nehrt et al. as examples of orthologs with divergent functions, and come to a very different conclusion: they actually exemplify how GO annotations for orthologous genes provide complementary information about conserved biological functions. We then show that there is a global ascertainment bias in the experiment-based GO annotations for human and mouse genes: particular types of experiments tend to be performed in different model organisms. We conclude that the reported statistical differences in annotations between pairs of orthologous genes do not reflect differences in biological function, but rather complementarity in experimental approaches. Our results underscore two general considerations for researchers proposing novel types of analysis based on the GO: 1) that GO annotations are often incomplete, potentially in a biased manner, and subject to an “open world assumption” (absence of an annotation does not imply absence of a function), and 2) that conclusions drawn from a novel, large-scale GO analysis should whenever possible be supported by careful, in-depth examination of examples, to help ensure the conclusions have a justifiable biological basis. PMID:22359495

Thomas, Paul D.; Wood, Valerie; Mungall, Christopher J.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Blake, Judith A.

2012-01-01

195

The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: characterization of ?-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.  

PubMed

Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 ?-defensin loci within 129?kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis. PMID:25372018

Lan, Hong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bei-Bing; Sun, Li; Ma, Mei-Ying; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Wan, Qiu-Hong

2014-01-01

196

Transcriptional reporters for genes activated by cell wall stress through a non-catalytic mechanism involving Mpk1 and SBF.  

PubMed

The Mpk1 MAP kinase of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signalling pathway induces transcription of the FKS2 gene in response to cell wall stress through a non-catalytic mechanism that involves stable association of Mpk1 with the Swi4 transcription factor. This dimeric complex binds to a Swi4 recognition site in the FKS2 promoter. The Swi6 transcription factor is also required to bind this ternary complex for transcription initiation to ensue. In this context, the Mlp1 pseudokinase serves a redundant function with Mpk1. We have identified three additional genes, CHA1, YLR042c and YKR013w, that are induced by cell wall stress through the same mechanism. We report on the behaviour of several promoter-lacZ reporter plasmids designed to detect cell wall stress transcription through this pathway. PMID:20641022

Kim, Ki-Young; Levin, David E

2010-08-01

197

Dual regulation of genes involved in acetoin biosynthesis and motility/biofilm formation by the virulence activator AphA and the acetate-responsive LysR-type regulator AlsR in Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

AphA is a quorum sensing-regulated activator that initiates the virulence cascade in Vibrio cholerae by cooperating with the LysR-type regulator AphB at the tcpPH promoter on the Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI). To identify the ancestral chromosomal genes in V. cholerae regulated by AphA, we carried out a microarray analysis and show here that AphA influences the expression of 15 genes not associated with the VPI. One set of genes strongly repressed by AphA is involved in the biosynthesis of acetoin, a product synthesized by a variety of bacteria that plays a role in preventing intracellular acidification and which is essential for the viability of V. cholerae in the presence of glucose. Also present in this operon are two putative signal transduction proteins with EAL and GGDEF domains that oppositely influence motility and biofilm formation. Gel mobility shift assays show that AphA binds to a site upstream of the first gene in the acetoin operon. Transcriptional lacZ fusions indicate that at low cell density AphA represses the expression of the acetoin genes up to 15-fold. Voges Proskauer tests confirm that deletion of AphA increases the production of acetoin under non-inducing conditions and also that the LysR-type regulator AlsR divergently transcribed from the operon is required for its production. This is the first report of a specific repressor protein involved in the transcriptional control of acetoin production as well as the co-regulation of these genes with those that influence motility and biofilm formation. The results here provide a model for the dual regulation of these processes by acetate and quorum sensing through AlsR and AphA. PMID:15978075

Kovacikova, Gabriela; Lin, Wei; Skorupski, Karen

2005-07-01

198

A dual reporter gene based system to quantitate the cell fusion of avian influenza virus H5N1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fusion is central to the entry of influenza virus into host cells. To quantitatively determine the fusion activity\\u000a of hemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus H5N1, we established a cell fusion assay based on a dual luciferase reporter\\u000a gene. The HA fusion activity was assayed by measuring luciferase expression in fused cells, allowing a rapid, sensitive, and\\u000a quantitative comparison

Yan Su; Huaiyi Yang; Baojiang Zhang; Xiaoxuan Qi; Po Tien

2008-01-01

199

BMPR2 gene mutation in pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and pulmonary hypertension: a case report.  

PubMed

The transforming growth factor-? superfamily signaling pathway is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM). However, the association between bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) gene mutations and PAVM remains unclear. We present a case of concurrent PAVM and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with a deletion mutation in exon 6 and exon 7 of the BMPR2 gene. Drug treatment for PAH improved the patient's hemodynamics and exercise capacity, but worsened oxygenation. This case suggests that BMPR2 gene mutation may be associated with the complex presentation of PAVM combined with PAH. PMID:24853021

Handa, Tomohiro; Okano, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Norifumi; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Mishima, Michiaki

2014-05-01

200

Two DNA repair and recombination genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, are induced during meiosis  

SciTech Connect

The DNA repair and recombination genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, were transcriptionally induced approximately 10- to 15-fold in sporulating MATa/{alpha} cells. Congenic MATa/a cells, which did not sporulate, did not show similar increases. Assays of {beta}-galactosidase activity in strains harboring either a RAD52- or RAD54-lacZ gene fusion indicated that this induction occurred at a time concomitant with a commitment to meiotic recombination, as measured by prototroph formation from his1 heteroalleles.

Cole, G.M.; Mortimer, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Schild, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1989-07-01

201

[Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this research focuses on patterns of gene expression of ADPG-pyrophosphorylase in native and transgenic potato plants. To elucidate the mechanism controlling AGP expression during plant development, the expression of the potato tuber AGP small subunit (sAGP) gene was analyzed in transgenic potato plants using a promoter-{beta}-glucuronidase expression system. Part II evaluated the structure-function relationships of AGP.

Okita, T.W.

1999-04-01

202

First Report of a Deletion Encompassing an Entire Exon in the Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase Gene Causing Alkaptonuria  

PubMed Central

Alkaptonuria is often diagnosed clinically with episodes of dark urine, biochemically by the accumulation of peripheral homogentisic acid and molecularly by the presence of mutations in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGD). Alkaptonuria is invariably associated with HGD mutations, which consist of single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions. Surprisingly, the presence of deletions beyond a few nucleotides among over 150 reported deleterious mutations has not been described, raising the suspicion that this gene might be protected against the detrimental mechanisms of gene rearrangements. The quest for an HGD mutation in a proband with AKU revealed with a SNP array five large regions of homozygosity (5–16 Mb), one of which includes the HGD gene. A homozygous deletion of 649 bp deletion that encompasses the 72 nucleotides of exon 2 and surrounding DNA sequences in flanking introns of the HGD gene was unveiled in a proband with AKU. The nature of this deletion suggests that this in-frame deletion could generate a protein without exon 2. Thus, we modeled the tertiary structure of the mutant protein structure to determine the effect of exon 2 deletion. While the two ?-pleated sheets encoded by exon 2 were missing in the mutant structure, other ?-pleated sheets are largely unaffected by the deletion. However, nine novel ?-helical coils substituted the eight coils present in the native HGD crystal structure. Thus, this deletion results in a deleterious enzyme, which is consistent with the proband’s phenotype. Screening for mutations in the HGD gene, particularly in the Middle East, ought to include this exon 2 deletion in order to determine its frequency and uncover its origin. PMID:25233259

Habbal, Mohammad Zouheir; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Zhu, Jun; Owen, Renius; Chehab, Farid F.

2014-01-01

203

Characterization of a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) NAC family gene, CarNAC5, which is both developmentally- and stress-regulated.  

PubMed

It has been documented that the plant-specific NAC (for NAM, ATAF1,2 and CUC2) transcription factors play an important role in plant development and stress responses. In this study, a chickpea NAC gene CarNAC5 (for Cicer arietinum L. NAC gene 5) was isolated from a cDNA library from chickpea leaves treated by polyethylene glycol (PEG). CarNAC5, as a single/low copy gene, contained three exons and two introns within genomic DNA sequence and encoded a polypeptide with 291 amino acids. CarNAC5 protein had a conserved NAC domain in the N-terminus and showed high similarity to other NACs, especially ATAF subgroup members. The CarNAC5:GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells. Furthermore, CarNAC5 protein activated the reporter genes LacZ and HIS3 in yeast. The transactivation activity was mapped to the C-terminal region. The transcripts of CarNAC5 appeared in many chickpea tissues including seedling leaves, stems, roots, flowers, seeds and pods, but mostly accumulated in flowers. Meanwhile, CarNAC5 was strongly expressed during seed maturation and in embryos of the early germinating seeds. It was also significantly induced by drought, heat, wounding, salicylic acid (SA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatments. Our results suggest that CarNAC5 encodes a novel NAC-domain protein and acts as a transcriptional activator involved in plant developmental regulation and various stress responses. PMID:19800808

Peng, Hui; Cheng, Hui-Ying; Yu, Xin-Wang; Shi, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Li, Jian-Gui; Ma, Hao

2009-01-01

204

CD4+/CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm: report of a rare variant with a T-cell receptor gene rearrangement.  

PubMed

CD4+/CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm (HN), formerly known as a blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma, is a rare subtype of a cutaneous dendritic cell neoplasm notable for highly aggressive behavior. The characteristic features are: expression of the T-helper/inducer cell marker CD4 and the NK-cell marker CD56 in the absence of other T cell or NK-cell specific markers. In particular, CD3 (surface or cytoplasmic) and CD2 are not expressed. Although T-cell receptor (TCR) genes are generally reported to be in a germline configuration, we present an unusual variant of a CD4+/CD56+ HN with a clonal rearrangement of TCR genes. This feature of a CD4+/CD56+ HN has been only rarely reported. Recognition of the presence of clonal TCR gene rearrangements in a small subset of CD4+/CD56+ HN is important to avoid misdiagnosis of this entity as an unusual variant of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PMID:18005171

Stetsenko, Galina Y; McFarlane, Rob; Kalus, Andrea; Olerud, John; Cherian, Sindhu; Fromm, Jonathan; George, Evan; Argenyi, Zsolt

2008-06-01

205

Gene replacement without selection: regulated suppression of amber mutations in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

We have developed a method called "gene gorging" to make precise mutations in the Escherichia coli genome at frequencies high enough (1-15%) to allow direct identification of mutants by PCR or other screen rather than by selection. Gene gorging begins by establishing a donor plasmid carrying the desired mutation in the target cell. This plasmid is linearized by in vivo expression of the meganuclease I-SceI, providing a DNA substrate for lambda Red mediated recombination. This results in efficient replacement of the wild type allele on the chromosome with the modified sequence. We demonstrate gene gorging by introducing amber stop codons into the genes xylA, melA, galK, fucI, citA, ybdO, and lacZ. To compliment this approach we developed an arabinose inducible amber suppressor tRNA. Controlled expression mediated by the suppressor was demonstrated for the lacZ and xylA amber mutants. PMID:12853150

Herring, Christopher D; Glasner, Jeremy D; Blattner, Frederick R

2003-06-01

206

Development of a luciferase-based reporter of transcriptional gene silencing that enables bidirectional mutant screening in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Cytosine methylation is an important chromatin modification that maintains genome integrity and regulates gene expression through transcriptional gene silencing. Major players in de novo methylation guided by siRNAs (known as RNA-directed DNA methylation, or RdDM), maintenance methylation, and active demethylation have been identified in Arabidopsis. However, active demethylation only occurs at a subset of RdDM loci, raising the question of how the homeostasis of DNA methylation is achieved at most RdDM loci. To identify factors that regulate the levels of cytosine methylation, we aimed to establish a transgenic reporter system that allows for forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis. Results We introduced a dual 35 S promoter (d35S) driven luciferase reporter, LUCH, into Arabidopsis and isolated a line with a moderate level of luciferase activity. LUCH produced transgene-specific 24 nucleotide siRNAs and its d35S contained methylated cytosine in CG, CHG and CHH contexts. Treatment of the transgenic line with an inhibitor of cytosine methylation de-repressed luciferase activity. Mutations in several components of the RdDM pathway but not the maintenance methylation genes resulted in reduced d35S methylation, especially CHH methylation, and de-repression of luciferase activity. A mutation in MOM1, which is known to cooperate with RdDM to silence transposons, reduced d35S DNA methylation and de-repressed LUCH expression. A mutation in ROS1, a cytosine demethylation enzyme, increased d35S methylation and reduced LUCH expression. Conclusion We developed a luciferase-based reporter, LUCH, which reports both DNA methylation directed by small RNAs and active demethylation by ROS1 in Arabidopsis. The moderate basal level of LUCH expression allows for bi-directional genetic screens that dissect the mechanisms of DNA methylation as well as demethylation. PMID:22676624

2012-01-01

207

Inference of quantitative models of bacterial promoters from time-series reporter gene data.  

PubMed

The inference of regulatory interactions and quantitative models of gene regulation from time-series transcriptomics data has been extensively studied and applied to a range of problems in drug discovery, cancer research, and biotechnology. The application of existing methods is commonly based on implicit assumptions on the biological processes under study. First, the measurements of mRNA abundance obtained in transcriptomics experiments are taken to be representative of protein concentrations. Second, the observed changes in gene expression are assumed to be solely due to transcription factors and other specific regulators, while changes in the activity of the gene expression machinery and other global physiological effects are neglected. While convenient in practice, these assumptions are often not valid and bias the reverse engineering process. Here we systematically investigate, using a combination of models and experiments, the importance of this bias and possible corrections. We measure in real time and in vivo the activity of genes involved in the FliA-FlgM module of the E. coli motility network. From these data, we estimate protein concentrations and global physiological effects by means of kinetic models of gene expression. Our results indicate that correcting for the bias of commonly-made assumptions improves the quality of the models inferred from the data. Moreover, we show by simulation that these improvements are expected to be even stronger for systems in which protein concentrations have longer half-lives and the activity of the gene expression machinery varies more strongly across conditions than in the FliA-FlgM module. The approach proposed in this study is broadly applicable when using time-series transcriptome data to learn about the structure and dynamics of regulatory networks. In the case of the FliA-FlgM module, our results demonstrate the importance of global physiological effects and the active regulation of FliA and FlgM half-lives for the dynamics of FliA-dependent promoters. PMID:25590141

Stefan, Diana; Pinel, Corinne; Pinhal, Stéphane; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

2015-01-01

208

Inference of Quantitative Models of Bacterial Promoters from Time-Series Reporter Gene Data  

PubMed Central

The inference of regulatory interactions and quantitative models of gene regulation from time-series transcriptomics data has been extensively studied and applied to a range of problems in drug discovery, cancer research, and biotechnology. The application of existing methods is commonly based on implicit assumptions on the biological processes under study. First, the measurements of mRNA abundance obtained in transcriptomics experiments are taken to be representative of protein concentrations. Second, the observed changes in gene expression are assumed to be solely due to transcription factors and other specific regulators, while changes in the activity of the gene expression machinery and other global physiological effects are neglected. While convenient in practice, these assumptions are often not valid and bias the reverse engineering process. Here we systematically investigate, using a combination of models and experiments, the importance of this bias and possible corrections. We measure in real time and in vivo the activity of genes involved in the FliA-FlgM module of the E. coli motility network. From these data, we estimate protein concentrations and global physiological effects by means of kinetic models of gene expression. Our results indicate that correcting for the bias of commonly-made assumptions improves the quality of the models inferred from the data. Moreover, we show by simulation that these improvements are expected to be even stronger for systems in which protein concentrations have longer half-lives and the activity of the gene expression machinery varies more strongly across conditions than in the FliA-FlgM module. The approach proposed in this study is broadly applicable when using time-series transcriptome data to learn about the structure and dynamics of regulatory networks. In the case of the FliA-FlgM module, our results demonstrate the importance of global physiological effects and the active regulation of FliA and FlgM half-lives for the dynamics of FliA-dependent promoters. PMID:25590141

Stefan, Diana; Pinel, Corinne; Pinhal, Stéphane; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

2015-01-01

209

Molecular characterization of a maize regulatory gene. Annual progress report, November 1991--October 1992  

SciTech Connect

All aspects of this year`s work have converged on the central theme of post-transcriptional control of R gene expression. Unlike transcriptional control, relatively little is known about post-transcriptional regulation, especially in plants. We believe that three levels of post-transcriptional regulation have been identified: control of translation initiation as evidenced by the maize Lc gene; control of nuclear localization as evidenced by the Ds allele r-m9 of maize; and control of nuclear localization through alternative splicing of the rice R homolog.

Wessler, S.R.

1994-05-01

210

First Report of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr in Enterococcus faecalis of Animal Origin  

PubMed Central

The multiresistance gene cfr was identified for the first time in an Enterococcus faecalis isolate of animal origin. The 32,388-bp plasmid pEF-01, which carried the cfr gene, was sequenced completely. Three copies of the insertion sequence IS1216 were identified in pEF-01, and the detection of a cfr- and IS1216-containing amplicon by inverse PCR suggests that IS1216 may play a role in the dissemination of cfr by a recombination process. PMID:22203597

Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Wu, Congming; Shen, Zhangqi; Schwarz, Stefan; Du, Xiang-Dang; Dai, Lei; Zhang, Wanjiang

2012-01-01

211

Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters  

SciTech Connect

We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

Shin, Ilchung [Ames Laboratory; Ray, Judhajeet [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Vinayak [Iowa State University; Ilgu, Muslum [Ames Laboratory; Beasley, Jonathan [Iowa State University; Bendickson, Lee [Ames Laboratory; Mehanovic, Samir [Molecular Express; Kraus, George A. [Iowa State University; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit [Ames Laboratory

2014-04-20

212

Live-cell imaging of Pol II promoter activity to monitor gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters  

PubMed Central

We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time. PMID:24753407

Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

2014-01-01

213

Comprehensive Luciferase-Based Reporter Gene Assay Reveals Previously Masked Up-Regulatory Effects of miRNAs  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the majority of the transcriptome at a post-transcriptional level. Because of this critical role, it is important to ensure that the assays used to determine their functionality are robust and reproducible. Typically, the reporter gene assay in cell-based systems has been the first-line method to study miRNA functionality. In order to overcome some of the potential errors in interpretation that can be associated with this assay, we have developed a detailed protocol for the luciferase reporter gene assay that has been modified for miRNAs. We demonstrate that normalization against the effect of the miRNA and cellular factors on the luciferase coding sequence is essential to obtain the specific impact of the miRNA on the 3'UTR (untranslated region) target. Our findings suggest that there is a real possibility that the roles for miRNA in transcriptome regulation may be misreported due to inaccurate normalization of experimental data and also that up-regulatory effects of miRNAs are not uncommon in cells. We propose to establish this comprehensive method as standard for miRNA luciferase reporter assays to avoid errors and misinterpretations in the functionality of miRNAs. PMID:25192285

Campos-Melo, Danae; Droppelmann, Cristian A.; Volkening, Kathryn; Strong, Michael J.

2014-01-01

214

Pseudotyped AAV Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer in a Human Fetal Trachea Xenograft Model: Implications for In Utero Gene Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Lung disease including airway infection and inflammation currently causes the majority of morbidities and mortalities associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), making the airway epithelium and the submucosal glands (SMG) novel target cells for gene therapy in CF. These target cells are relatively inaccessible to postnatal gene transfer limiting the success of gene therapy. Our previous work in a human-fetal trachea xenograft model suggests the potential benefit for treating CF in utero. In this study, we aim to validate adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) gene transfer in a human fetal trachea xenograft model and to compare transduction efficiencies of pseudotyping AAV2 vectors in fetal xenografts and postnatal xenograft controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Human fetal trachea or postnatal bronchus controls were xenografted onto immunocompromised SCID mice for a four-week engraftment period. After injection of AAV2/2, 2/1, 2/5, 2/7 or 2/8 with a LacZ reporter into both types of xenografts, we analyzed for transgene expression in the respiratory epithelium and SMGs. At 1 month, transduction by AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 in respiratory epithelium and SMG cells was significantly greater than that of AAV2/1, 2/5, and 2/7 in xenograft tracheas. Efficiency in SMG transduction was significantly greater in AAV2/8 than AAV2/2. At 3 months, AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 transgene expression was >99% of respiratory epithelium and SMG. At 1 month, transduction efficiency of AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 was significantly less in adult postnatal bronchial xenografts than in fetal tracheal xenografts. Conclusions/Significance Based on the effectiveness of AAV vectors in SMG transduction, our findings suggest the potential utility of pseudotyped AAV vectors for treatment of cystic fibrosis. The human fetal trachea xenograft model may serve as an effective tool for further development of fetal gene therapy strategies for the in utero treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:22937069

Leung, Alice; Katz, Anna B.; Lim, Foong-Yen; Habli, Mounira; Jones, Helen N.; Wilson, James M.; Crombleholme, Timothy M.

2012-01-01

215

16 genes by positional approaches was reported (20). Retrospective analysis shows that 44% (7  

E-print Network

of structural and func- tional genomics, to comparative biology, and to the isolation of human disease genes, 339 (1996). The GB4 RH panel consists of 93 hamster cell lines, each retaining about 32% of the human RH panel consists of 83 hamster lines with a 16% retention freq

Terrace, Herbert S.

216

Transgene-based anthocyanin hyper-pigmentation as a visual reporter of gene silencing in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Co-suppression” associated loss of flower pigmentation in transgenic petunia plants was one of the first clear indicators of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing in plants. We have been exploring the use of genetically engineered anthocyanin over-production in vegetative tissues as...

217

Traits, Genes, Particles and Information: Re-Visiting Students' Understandings of Genetics. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study of 10 German students aged 15-19, using problem-centred interviews, suggest that many students hold an 'everyday' conception of genes as small, trait-bearing, particles. Analysis of this notion identified a number of ways in which such a view might restrict the ability of students to develop an understanding of the scientific…

Lewis, Jenny; Kattmann, Ulrich

2004-01-01

218

Host cell reactivation of gene expression for an adenovirus-encoded reporter gene reflects the repair of UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and methylene blue plus visible light-induced 8-oxoguanine  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have reported the use of a recombinant adenovirus (Ad)-based host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to examine nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UVC-induced DNA lesions in several mammalian cell types. The recombinant non-replicating Ad expresses the Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase (?-gal) reporter gene under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer region. We have also used methylene blue plus visible light (MB + VL) to induce the major oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the recombinant Ad-encoded reporter gene in order to study base excision repair (BER). The reported variability regarding 8-oxoG’s potential to block transcription by RNA polymerase II and data demonstrating that a number of factors play a role in transcriptional bypass of the lesion led us to examine the repair of 8-oxoG in the Ad reporter and its relationship to HCR for expression of the reporter gene. We have used Southern blotting to examine removal of UVC- and MB + VL-induced DNA damage by loss of endonuclease-sensitive sites from the Ad-encoded ?-gal reporter gene in human and rodent cells. We show that repair of MB + VL-induced 8-oxoG via BER and UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) via NER is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. We also show that HCR for expression of the MB + VL-damaged and the UVC-damaged reporter gene is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. The difference between the human and rodent cells in the removal of both 8-oxoG and CPDs from the damaged reporter gene was comparable to the difference in HCR for expression of the damaged reporter gene. These results suggest that the major factor for HCR of the MB + VL-treated reporter gene in mammalian cells is DNA repair in the Ad rather than lesion bypass. PMID:23793457

Rainbow, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

219

UMG Lenti: Novel Lentiviral Vectors for Efficient Transgene- and Reporter Gene Expression in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Lentiviral vectors are widely used to investigate the biological properties of regulatory proteins and/or of leukaemia-associated oncogenes by stably enforcing their expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In these studies it is critical to be able to monitor and/or sort the infected cells, typically via fluorescent proteins encoded by the modified viral genome. The most popular strategy to ensure co-expression of transgene and reporter gene is to insert between these cDNAs an IRES element, thus generating bi-cistronic mRNAs whose transcription is driven by a single promoter. However, while the product of the gene located upstream of the IRES is generally abundantly expressed, the translation of the downstream cDNA (typically encoding the reporter protein) is often inconsistent, which hinders the detection and the isolation of transduced cells. To overcome these limitations, we developed novel lentiviral dual-promoter vectors (named UMG-LV5 and –LV6) where transgene expression is driven by the potent UBC promoter and that of the reporter protein, EGFP, by the minimal regulatory element of the WASP gene. These vectors, harboring two distinct transgenes, were tested in a variety of human haematopoietic cell lines as well as in primary human CD34+ cells in comparison with the FUIGW vector that contains the expression cassette UBC-transgene-IRES-EGFP. In these experiments both UMG-LV5 and UMG–LV6 yielded moderately lower transgene expression than FUIGW, but dramatically higher levels of EGFP, thereby allowing the easy distinction between transduced and non-transduced cells. An additional construct was produced, in which the cDNA encoding the reporter protein is upstream, and the transgene downstream of the IRES sequence. This vector, named UMG-LV11, proved able to promote abundant expression of both transgene product and EGFP in all cells tested. The UMG-LVs represent therefore useful vectors for gene transfer-based studies in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, as well as in non-hematopoietic cells. PMID:25502183

Chiarella, Emanuela; Carrà, Giovanna; Scicchitano, Stefania; Codispoti, Bruna; Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Pelaggi, Daniela; Marafioti, Maria G.; Aloisio, Annamaria; Giordano, Marco; Nappo, Giovanna; Spoleti, Cristina B.; Grillone, Teresa; Giovannone, Emilia D.; Spina, Raffaella; Bernaudo, Francesca; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Bond, Heather M.; Mesuraca, Maria; Morrone, Giovanni

2014-01-01

220

Characterization of Three mnp Genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and Report of Additional Class II Peroxidases in the Order Hymenochaetales ? †  

PubMed Central

We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.13) containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only. PMID:20675443

Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L.; Hibbett, David S.

2010-01-01

221

Cell Reports Resource Expanding the Repertoire of Optogenetically Targeted Cells with an Enhanced Gene Expression System  

E-print Network

Optogenetics has been enthusiastically pursued in recent neuroscience research, and the causal relationship between neural activity and behavior is becoming ever more accessible. Here, we established knockin-mediated enhanced gene expression by improved tetracycline-controlled gene induction (KENGE-tet) and succeeded in generating transgenic mice expressing a highly light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 mutant at levels sufficient to drive the activities of multiple cell types. This method requires two lines of mice: one that controls the pattern of expression and another that determines the protein to be produced. The generation of new lines of either type readily expands the repertoire to choose from. In addition to neurons, we were able to manipulate

Kenji F. Tanaka; Ko Matsui; Takuya Sasaki; Hiromi Sano; Shouta Sugio; Kai Fan; René Hen; Akihiro Yamanaka Division Of Neurobiology; Division Of Cell Signaling

222

[Iron regulation of gene expression in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybean symbiosis]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We wish to address the question of whether iron plays a regulatory role in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybeam symbiosis. Iron may be an important regulatory signal in planta as the bacteria must acquire iron from their plant hosts and iron-containing proteins figure prominently in all nitrogen-fixing symbioses. For example, the bacterial partner is believed to synthesize the heme moiety of leghemoglobin, which may represent as much as 25--30% of the total soluble protein in an infected plant cell. For this reason, we have focused our attention on the regulation by iron of the first step in the bacterial heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme which catalyzes this step, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase, is encoded by the hemA gene which we had previously cloned and sequenced. Specific objectives include: to define the cis-acting sequences which confer iron regulation on the B. japonicum hemA gene; to identify trans-acting factors which regulate the expression of hemA by iron; to identify new loci which are transcriptionally responsive to changes in iron availability; and to examine the effects of mutations in various known regulatory genes for their effect on the expression of hemA.

Guerinot, M.L.

1992-06-01

223

(Structure and expression of nuclear genes encoding rubisco activase): Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Our first year's activities include: (1) completing a survey of the basic characteristics of activase gene expression in barley; and (2) isolating and structurally characterizing cDNA and genomic DNA sequences encoding activase from barley. Our goal was to determine whether activase mRNA and protein accumulation are coordinated with those of the rubisco subunits. We utilized the first leaves of barley as an experimental system for these studies because they can be used in two ways to study the expression of leaf genes: by following the naturally occurring differentiation of leaf cells, which occurs acropetally along the barley leaf; and by following the photomorphogenesis of etiolated barley seedlings. In the acropetal gradient of leaf cell differentiation, activase mRNA and mRNA and polypeptide expression is tightly coordinated with rubisco subunit mRNA and polypeptide expression. Although we have not measured their precise stoichiometry at each stage of leaf differentiation, activase protein is expressed at the level of about one polypeptide per rubisco holoenzyme in mature regions of the leaf. Coordination of the expression of activase mRNAs and polypeptides indicates that in the barley leaf gradient, activase gene expression is largely controlled at the level of transcription. However, translational controls may play a role in regulating activase expression on a short term basis.

Not Available

1989-01-01

224

Gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in eNOS-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) is absent in aortas from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-deficient (eNOS -/-) mice. We hypothesized that gene transfer of eNOS would restore relaxation to ACh and A-23187 in eNOS -/- mice. Aortic rings from eNOS -/- and eNOS +/+ mice were exposed in vitro to vehicle or adenoviral vectors encoding beta-galactosidase (lacZ) or eNOS. Histochemical staining for beta-galactosidase and eNOS demonstrated transduction of endothelial cells and adventitia. Vehicle-treated vessels from eNOS -/- mice did not relax to ACh or A-23187 compared with eNOS +/+ mice. In contrast, relaxation to nitroprusside (NP) was significantly greater in eNOS -/- mice than in eNOS +/+ mice. Gene transfer of eNOS, but not lacZ, to vascular rings of eNOS -/- mice restored relaxation to ACh and A-23187. In vessels from eNOS -/- mice that were transduced with eNOS, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (10(-4) M) inhibited relaxation to ACh and A-23187 but not NP. Thus vascular function can be significantly improved by gene transfer in vessels where a major relaxation mechanism is genetically absent. PMID:10444505

Lake-Bruse, K D; Faraci, F M; Shesely, E G; Maeda, N; Sigmund, C D; Heistad, D D

1999-08-01

225

Rapid isolation of gene homologs across taxa: Efficient identification and isolation of gene orthologs from non-model organism genomes, a technical report  

PubMed Central

Background Tremendous progress has been made in the field of evo-devo through comparisons of related genes from diverse taxa. While the vast number of species in nature precludes a complete analysis of the molecular evolution of even one single gene family, this would not be necessary to understand fundamental mechanisms underlying gene evolution if experiments could be designed to systematically sample representative points along the path of established phylogenies to trace changes in regulatory and coding gene sequence. This isolation of homologous genes from phylogenetically diverse, representative species can be challenging, especially if the gene is under weak selective pressure and evolving rapidly. Results Here we present an approach - Rapid Isolation of Gene Homologs across Taxa (RIGHT) - to efficiently isolate specific members of gene families. RIGHT is based upon modification and a combination of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). It allows targeted isolation of specific gene family members from any organism, only requiring genomic DNA. We describe this approach and how we used it to isolate members of several different gene families from diverse arthropods spanning millions of years of evolution. Conclusions RIGHT facilitates systematic isolation of one gene from large gene families. It allows for efficient gene isolation without whole genome sequencing, RNA extraction, or culturing of non-model organisms. RIGHT will be a generally useful method for isolation of orthologs from both distant and closely related species, increasing sample size and facilitating the tracking of molecular evolution of gene families and regulatory networks across the tree of life. PMID:21362165

2011-01-01

226

Molecular characterization of a maize regulatory gene. Annual progress report, March 1990--November 1991  

SciTech Connect

Based on initial bombardment studies we have previously concluded that promoter diversity was responsible for the diversity of naturally occurring R alleles. During this period we have found that R is controlled at the level of translation initiation and intron 1 is alternatively spliced. The experiments described in Sections 1 and 2 sought to quantify these effects and to determine whether they contribute to the tissue specific expression of select R alleles. This study was done because very little is understood about the post-transcriptional regulation of plant genes. Section 3 and 4 describe experiments designed to identify important structural components of the R protein.

Wessler, S.R.

1991-12-01

227

Gene-enzyme telationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) chemistry of the arogenate molecule; (2) plant enzymology at the organismal level; (3) isolation of regulatory mutants in tobacco; and (4) stability of the haploid state in Nicotiana sylvestris.

Jensen, R. A.

1980-04-21

228

Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene.  

PubMed

To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. (125)I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and (125)I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. (131)I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2015-01-01

229

Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene  

PubMed Central

To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2015-01-01

230

Extragenic Suppressors of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Prp4 Mutations Identify a Negative Regulator of Prp Genes  

PubMed Central

The PRP4 gene encodes a protein that is a component of the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle and is necessary for both spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. To identify genes whose products interact with the PRP4 gene or gene product, we isolated second-site suppressors of temperature-sensitive prp4 mutations. We limited ourselves to suppressors with a distinct phenotype, cold sensitivity, to facilitate analysis of mutants. Ten independent recessive suppressors were obtained that identified four complementation groups, spp41, spp42, spp43 and spp44 (suppressor of prp4, numbers 1-4). spp41-spp44 suppress the pre-mRNA splicing defect as well as the temperature-sensitive phenotype of prp4 strains. Each of these spp mutations also suppresses prp3; spp41 and spp42 suppress prp11 as well. Neither spp41 nor spp42 suppresses null alleles of prp3 or prp4, indicating that the suppression does not occur via a bypass mechanism. The spp41 and spp42 mutations are neither allele- nor gene-specific in their pattern of suppression and do not result in a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. Thus the SPP41 and SPP42 gene products are unlikely to participate directly in mRNA splicing or interact directly with Prp3p or Prp4p. Expression of PRP3-lacZ and PRP4-lacZ gene fusions is increased in spp41 strains, suggesting that wild-type Spp41p represses expression of PRP3 and PRP4. SPP41 was cloned and sequenced and found to be essential. spp43 is allelic to the previously identified suppressor srn1, which encodes a negative regulator of gene expression. PMID:8005438

Maddock, J. R.; Weidenhammer, E. M.; Adams, C. C.; Lunz, R. L.; Woolford-Jr., J. L.

1994-01-01

231

Integrative vectors for constructing single-copy transcriptional fusions between Bacillus subtilis promoters and various reporter genes encoding heat-stable enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report on the construction of three integrative plasmids for Bacillus subtilis (Bs) allowing in vitro construction of transcriptional fusions. These plasmids contain a neomycin- or tetracycline-resistance cassette and one of three promoterless genes: bgaB (encoding ?-galactosidase), cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase), or xylE (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase). All cassettes are flanked by the 3?- and 5?-ends of the amyE gene (encoding f?-amylase)

Axel Mogk; Richard Hayward; Wolfgang Schumann

1996-01-01

232

FGFR3 Mutations and the Skin: Report of a Patient with a FGFR3 Gene Mutation, Acanthosis Nigricans, Hypochondroplasia and Hyperinsulinemia and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene mutations in the germline are well-known causes of skeletal syndromes. Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements. We present a 14-year-old girl with mild hypochondroplasia who developed acanthosis nigricans. The report of a K650Q mutation in the FGFR3 gene in a similar case prompted

M. Blomberg; E. M. Jeppesen; F. Skovby; E. Benfeldt

2010-01-01

233

Pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) due to microdeletion in the SRY gene: a case report.  

PubMed

Abstract 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is a rare cause of disorder of sexual development. This syndrome is caused by a defect in the determination of sex during embryogenesis and is characterised with female external genitalia, normal or rudimentary uterus, and streak gonads, despite the presence of the 46,XY karyotype. Most of the studied cases presented with leak of secondary sex characteristics and primary amenorrhea during adolescence. Laboratory findings reveal hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Herein we present the case of a female with a 46,XY karyotype who was admitted with delayed puberty and detected to have a microdeletion in the SRY gene and diagnosed to have Swyer syndrome. We highlight the importance of karyotype analysis in patients with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Once the diagnosis of 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is established, early laparoscopic removal of the dysgenetic gonads is crucial to prevent the development of gonadal malignancy. PMID:25153220

Mutlu, Gül Yesiltepe; K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Ayd?n, Hatip; Çetiner, Handan; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Celayir, Ay?enur Cerrah

2015-01-01

234

Recurrent astrocytoma in a child: a report of cytogenetics and TP53 gene mutation screening.  

PubMed Central

An 8-year-old girl presented with a cerebral tumor and 3 recurrences within 15 months. The primary tumor was a low-grade astrocytoma, but the recurrences showed progressively malignant phenotypes with increasing mitotic activity and MIB-1 labeling indices. Radiotherapy was given between the first and the second recurrences. Cytogenetic analysis of the first and the second recurrences showed abnormal karyotypes. There seemed to be 2 common breakpoints in these 2 recurrences. TP53 gene mutation screening, using comprehensive denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, revealed among others a possibly causative mutation of exon 5 in 3 of 4 tumor samples. The meaning of TP53 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas is still unclear, but the highly abnormal karyotypes, which are unusual in these tumors, probably provide genetic evidence for the unexpected aggressive behavior of the tumor in this patient. PMID:11302339

Dam, A.; Fock, J. M.; Hayes, V. M.; Molenaar, W. M.; van den Berg, E.

2000-01-01

235

A novel hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated viral vector-mediated radionuclide reporter gene imaging system for stem cells transplantation monitoring.  

PubMed

Hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated virus (BV-AAV) containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene or human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) derived from AAV (BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR and BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR) were constructed and used to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid BV-AAV transgenic vector to mediate hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transplantation therapy as a novel biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging. The results showed that the infection efficiency of BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR in BM-MSCs reached 84.25?±?1.38 %, and there were no obvious adverse effects on BM-MSCs. The (125)I(-) and (99m)TcO4 (-) uptake assays showed that the radionuclide accumulation induced by BA-AAV-mediated hNIS was highly efficient in infected BM-MSCs. Furthermore, there was a robust correlation between the infected BM-MSCs cell number and the (125)I(-) accumulation amount (R (2)?=?0.9026). The micro-SPECT/CT imaging showed that BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR-infected BM-MSCs accumulated radioiodine efficiently in vivo, exhibiting obvious radiotracer accumulation in transplantation sites. Further quantitative analysis revealed that 30 min might be the optimal imaging time point. Moreover, the revealed high target/individual organ background ratios also supported the feasibility of BV-AAV-mediated hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring BM-MSCs transplantation in most of commonly used transplantation sites, thus highlighting this promise biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging for stem cell transplantation therapy. PMID:25345809

Pan, Yu; Yin, Hongyan; Lv, Jing; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Yifan

2015-02-01

236

Hepatitis B Virus Gene Mutations in Liver Diseases: A Report from New Delhi  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study was designed to characterize the surface, core promoter, precore/core region sequences for the presence of mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated with different liver diseases. Methods 567 HBV associated patients with different liver diseases were enrolled in this study. All samples were analyzed for HBV surface, core promoter, precore/core region mutations and genotypes using PCR and direct sequencing. Results HBV genotype D (72.8%) was the predominant type followed by genotype A (27.2%). The serum viral load of HBV was highest in HBsAg carriers group and lowest in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. 17.9% patients with cirrhosis and 24.6% hepatocellular carcinoma cases were ADV-resistant with rtA181T/V mutations in the S-gene. A1896T was found more frequently in fulminant hepatic failure compared to acute viral hepatitis patients (p?=?0.038). T1753V mutation was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis of liver (34.6%) than in chronic hepatitis (18.9%) and hepatocellular carcinoma patients (21.2%; p?=?0.001). T1762/A1764 mutation was observed in all the groups. C1914G core gene mutation was associated with the hepatocellular carcinoma (32.2%) compared to other groups. HBV genotype D predominated in comparison to genotype A. An increased frequency of precore mutation and BCP double mutations amongst the population studied was also observed. Conclusion Mutations such as T1762/A1764, T1753V and C1914G were usually associated with advanced forms of liver disease and had an increased risk of HCC. The nucleotide variability in the basal core promoter and precore regions possibly plays a role in the progression of HBV disease. Prospective studies on the sequence variations of the preC/C region of the HBV genome and the molecular mechanisms in relation to progression of liver disease would aid in better understanding of the biological significance of HBV strains in India. PMID:22720023

Malik, Abdul; Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Kar, P.

2012-01-01

237

A dynamic FRET reporter of gene expression improved by functional screening.  

PubMed

Here, we describe a reporter system that consists of a FRET biosensor and its corresponding aptamer. The FRET biosensor employs the synthetic aptamer binding peptide Rsg1.2 sandwiched between mutants of the Green Fluorescent Protein and undergoes FRET when binding its corresponding Rev Responsive Element (RRE) RNA aptamer. We developed a novel approach to engineer FRET biosensors by linker extension and screening to improve signal strength of the biosensor which we called VAmPIRe (Viral Aptamer binding Peptide based Indicator for RNA detection). We demonstrate that the system is quantitative, reversible and works with high specificity in vitro and in vivo in living bacteria and mammalian cells. Thus, VAmPIRe may become valuable for RNA localizations and as a dynamic RNA-based reporter for live cell imaging. Moreover, functional screening of large libraries as demonstrated here may become applicable to optimize some of the many FRET biosensors of cellular signaling. PMID:22946509

Schifferer, Martina; Griesbeck, Oliver

2012-09-19

238

Application of a rapid, simple and accurate Adenovirus-based method to compare PET reporter gene/PET reporter probe systems  

PubMed Central

Purpose To use a simple, quantitative method to compare the HSV1sr39TK/18F-FHBG PET reporter gene/PET reporter probe (PRG/PRP) system with PRGs derived from human nucleoside kinases. Procedures The same adenovirus vector is used to express alternative PRGs. Equal numbers of vectors are injected intravenously into mice. After PRP imaging, quantitative hepatic PET signals are normalized for transduction by measuring hepatic viral genomes. Results The same adenovirus vector was used to express equivalent amounts of HSV1sr39TK, mutant human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2-DM), and mutant human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK-A100VTM) in mouse liver. HSV1sr39TK expression was measured with 18F-FHBG; TK2-DM and dCK-A100VTM with 18F-L-FMAU. TK2-DM/18F-L-FMAU and HSV1sr39TK/18F-FHBG had equivalent sensitivities; dCK-A100VTM/18F-L-FMAU was twice as sensitive as HSV1sr39TK/18F-FHBG. Conclusions The human PRG/PRP sensitivities are comparable and/or better than HSV1sr39TK/18F-FHBG. However, for clinical use, identification of the best PRP substrate for each enzyme, characterization of probe distribution, and consequences of over-expressing nucleoside kinases must be evaluated. PMID:23054556

Gil, Jose S.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Campbell, Dean O.; McCracken, Melissa; Radu, Caius; Witte, Owen; Herschman, Harvey R.

2013-01-01

239

Expression of the Nitroarene Dioxygenase Genes in Comamonas sp. Strain JS765 and Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 Is Induced by Multiple Aromatic Compounds  

PubMed Central

This work reports a genetic analysis of the expression of nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) in Comamonas sp. strain JS765 and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase (2NTDO) in Acidovorax sp. strain JS42. Strains JS765 and JS42 possess identical LysR-type regulatory proteins, NbzR and NtdR, respectively. NbzR/NtdR is homologous to NahR, the positive salicylate-responsive transcriptional activator of the naphthalene degradation genes in Pseudomonas putida G7. The genes encoding NBDO and 2NTDO in each strain are cotranscribed, and transcription starts at the same site within identical promoter regions for each operon. Results from a lacZ reporter gene fusion demonstrated that expression of NBDO and 2NTDO is induced by multiple aromatic compounds, including an array of nitroaromatic compounds (nitrobenzene, 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrotoluene, 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and aminodinitrotoluenes), as well as salicylate and anthranilate. The nitroaromatic compounds appear to be the actual effector molecules. Analysis of ?-galactosidase and 2NTDO activities with strain JS42 demonstrated that NtdR was required for induction by all of the inducing compounds, high basal-level expression of 2NTDO, and complementation of a JS42 ntdR null mutant. Complementation with the closely related regulators NagR (from Ralstonia sp. strain U2) and NahR restored only induction by the archetype inducers, salicylate or salicylate and anthranilate, respectively, and did not restore the high basal level of expression of 2NTDO. The mechanism of 2NTDO gene regulation in JS42, and presumably that of NBDO gene regulation in JS765, appear similar to that of NahR-regulated genes in Pseudomonas putida G7. However, NbzR and NtdR appear to have evolved a broader specificity in JS42 and JS765, allowing for recognition of nitroaromatic compounds while retaining the ability to respond to salicylate and anthranilate. NtdR is also the first example of a nitroarene-responsive LysR-type transcriptional activator. PMID:12813084

Lessner, Daniel J.; Parales, Rebecca E.; Narayan, Shakti; Gibson, David T.

2003-01-01

240

Mu-lac insertion-directed mutagenesis in a pectate lyase gene of Erwinia chrysanthemi.  

PubMed Central

The pelC gene, which encodes one of the five major pectate lyase (PL) isoenzymes in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, designated PLc, was subcloned from a hybrid lambda phage into a pBR322 derivative and mutagenized with a mini-Mu-lacZ transposable element able to form fusions to the lacZ gene. One plasmid (pAD1) which had an inactivated pelC gene and a Lac+ phenotype was selected in Escherichia coli. This plasmid was introduced into Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the pelC::mini-Mu insertion was substituted for the chromosomal allele by homologous recombination. This strain lacks the PLc isoenzyme. This Erwinia chrysanthemi strain has a Lac+ phenotype that is inducible by polygalacturonate, as are the wild-type PL activities. Images PMID:2993251

Diolez, A; Coleno, A

1985-01-01

241

Griscelli syndrome: report of the first peripheral blood stem cell transplant and the role of mutations in the RAB27A gene as an indication for BMT.  

PubMed

Griscelli syndrome is characterized by partial albinism with variable immunodeficiency. Two different gene loci are responsible for this rare, autosomal recessive disease: the myosin Va gene and the RAB27A gene. As recently reported, only patients with mutations of the RAB27A gene suffer from immunodeficiency and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Thus, only patients who suffer from the Griscelli syndrome with mutations of the RAB27A gene should receive BMT/PBSCT, which is the only curative therapy. Due to the risk of early relapse or severe infections, BMT/PBSCT should be carried out as soon as possible; if patients do not have HLA-identical family members, valuable time may be lost by searching for an HLA-identical unrelated donor. We report the first peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) with T cell depletion in a 6-month-old girl with Griscelli syndrome, and a deletion of the RAB27A gene. The donor was her phenotypically HLA-identical mother. Conditioning included busulfan, VP16 and cyclophosphamide. The patient was transfused with 15.4 x 10(6)CD34-positive cells/kg and 17.6 x 10(3) CD3-positive cells/kg recipient weight. Three months after the transplant, a curable lymphoproliferative syndrome occurred. 26 months after the transplant, the patient is doing well with stable mixed chimerism (52% donor cells). PMID:11571516

Schuster, F; Stachel, D K; Schmid, I; Baumeister, F A; Graubner, U B; Weiss, M; Haas, R J; Belohradsky, B H

2001-08-01

242

An IRE-Like AGC Kinase Gene, MtIRE, Has Unique Expression in the Invasion Zone of Developing Root Nodules in Medicago truncatula1[OA  

PubMed Central

The AGC protein kinase family (cAMP-dependent protein kinases A, cGMP-dependent protein kinases G, and phospholipid-dependent protein kinases C) have important roles regulating growth and development in animals and fungi. They are activated via lipid second messengers by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase coupling lipid signals to phosphorylation of the AGC kinases. These phosphorylate downstream signal transduction protein targets. AGC kinases are becoming better studied in plants, especially in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where specific AGC kinases have been shown to have key roles in regulating growth signal pathways. We report here the isolation and characterization of the first AGC kinase gene identified in Medicago truncatula, MtIRE. It was cloned by homology with the Arabidopsis INCOMPLETE ROOT HAIR ELONGATION (IRE) gene. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that, unlike its Arabidopsis counterpart, MtIRE is not expressed in uninoculated roots, but is expressed in root systems that have been inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti and are developing root nodules. MtIRE expression is also found in flowers. Expression analysis of a time course of nodule development and of nodulating root systems of many Medicago nodulation mutants shows MtIRE expression correlates with infected cell maturation during nodule development. During the course of these experiments, nine Medicago nodulation mutants, including sli and dnf1 to 7 mutants, were evaluated for the first time for their microscopic nodule phenotype using S. meliloti constitutively expressing lacZ. Spatial localization of a pMtIRE-gusA transgene in transformed roots of composite plants showed that MtIRE expression is confined to the proximal part of the invasion zone, zone II, found in indeterminate nodules. This suggests MtIRE is useful as an expression marker for this region of the invasion zone. PMID:17237187

Pislariu, Catalina I.; Dickstein, Rebecca

2007-01-01

243

Validation of an interferon stimulatory response element reporter gene assay for quantifying type I interferons.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to develop a virus-free, cell-based interferon (IFN) bioassay and determine the utility of this assay on biological samples that contained IFN-?, the trophoblast-secreted maternal recognition of pregnancy factor in ruminants. Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells were transduced with lentiviral particles that contained a firefly luciferase reporter construct driven by an IFN stimulatory response element (ISRE). Stably transduced cells were selected with the use of puromycin resistance. A linear, dose-responsive response was detected with human IFN-? and ovine IFN-?. Interferon activity was detected in conditioned media from bovine trophoblast cells and uterine flushes collected from sheep and cattle. Activity also was detected in media collected after individual or small group culture of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts at day 8 to 10 after fertilization. In summary, this IFN stimulatory response element-reporter assay may be used as an alternative to virus-dependent, cytopathic assays. It contains a similar sensitivity to IFNs and can be completed in a shorter time than cytopathic assays and does not require heightened biosafety conditions after cell transduction. PMID:24484651

McCoski, S R; Xie, M; Hall, E B; Mercadante, P M; Spencer, T E; Lonergan, P; Ealy, A D

2014-04-01

244

Application of P450 reporter gene system (RGS) in the analysis of sediments near pulp and paper mills.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction in fish and other animals has been reported following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluent. Dioxins and furans as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known inducers of CYP1A and have been found in sediments near pulp and paper mills. Retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), an alkyl-substituted phenanthrene, has been recently associated with effluent and found to induce CYP1A in fish. This study utilized an in vitro assay, P450 Reporter Gene System (RGS), to assess the transcriptional activation of human CYP1A by retene after short (6 h) and long (16 h) exposures. Retene was as potent as benzo[a]pyrene in inducing RGS, but was not as readily biotransformed by the cells. Extracts of sediments collected near a pulp and paper mill were analysed, and RGS-derived toxic equivalencies (TEQ) were strongly correlated with Chemical TEQ analysis of dioxins and furans determined by EPA Method 8290 using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RGS 6-h responses indicated the presence of PAH in the extracts, which was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. Retene was detected at considerably higher concentrations than other PAH. These data support the use of the RGS assay to detect the presence of CYP1Ainducing compounds, including retene as well as dioxins and furans, in sediments near pulp mills. PMID:23886312

M Jones Jack W Anderson Joe V Wiegel Robert H Tukey, J

2001-01-01

245

Associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and self-reported aggressive behavior and anger: Interactions with alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Oxytocin has been implicated in the regulation of social as well as aggressive behaviors, and in a recent study we found that the effect of alcohol on aggressive behavior was moderated by the individual's genotype on an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (Johansson et al., 2012). In this study we wanted to deepen and expand the analysis by exploring associations between three (rs1488467, rs4564970, rs1042778) OXTR polymorphisms and aggressive behavior, trait anger as well as anger control in a population-based sample of Finnish men and women (N=3577) aged between 18 and 49 years (M=26.45 years, SD=5.02). A specific aim was to investigate if the polymorphisms would show interactive effects with alcohol consumption on aggressive behavior and trait anger, as well as to explore whether these polymorphisms affect differences in anger control between self-reported sober and intoxicated states. The results showed no main effects of the polymorphisms, however, three interactions between the polymorphisms and alcohol consumption were found. The effect of alcohol consumption on aggressive behavior was moderated by the genotype of the individual on the rs4564970 polymorphism, in line with previous results (Johansson et al., 2012). For trait anger, both the rs1488467 and the rs4564970 polymorphisms interacted with alcohol consumption. It appears that the region of the OXTR gene including both the rs4564970 and the rs1488467 polymorphisms may be involved in the regulation of the relationship between alcohol and aggressive behavior as well as between alcohol and the propensity to react to situations with elevated levels of anger. PMID:22421562

Johansson, Ada; Westberg, Lars; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Jern, Patrick; Salo, Benny; Santtila, Pekka

2012-09-01

246

Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PXR activation may affect energy metabolism as well as the endocrine and immune systems. In this study, we characterized and compared the agonistic activities of a variety of pesticides against human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR). We tested the hPXR and mPXR agonistic activity of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 12 acid amides, 7 triazines, 7 ureas, and 44 others) by reporter gene assays using COS-7 simian kidney cells. Of the 200 pesticides tested, 106 and 93 activated hPXR and mPXR, respectively, and a total of 111 had hPXR and/or mPXR agonistic activity with greater or lesser inter-species differences. Although all of the pyrethroids and most of the organochlorines and acid amides acted as PXR agonists, a wide range of pesticides with diverse structures also showed hPXR and/or mPXR agonistic activity. Among the 200 pesticides, pyributicarb, pretilachlor, piperophos and butamifos for hPXR, and phosalone, prochloraz, pendimethalin, and butamifos for mPXR, acted as particularly potent activators at low concentrations in the order of 10??-10?? M. In addition, we found that several organophosphorus oxon- and pyributicarb oxon-metabolites decreased PXR activation potency compared to their parent compounds. These results suggest that a large number of structurally diverse pesticides and their metabolites possess PXR-mediated transcriptional activity, and their ability to do so varies in a species-dependent manner in humans and mice. PMID:21115097

Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sata, Fumihiro; Takeuchi, Shinji; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Nagai, Tadanori

2011-02-27

247

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection in a Young Man with a Factor V Leiden Gene Mutation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial ischemia in young adults, especially in women. We report a case of spontaneous coronary dissection in a young healthy man who was also a carrier of the factor V Leiden gene mutation. PMID:24436622

Khan, Tahir; Danyi, Peter; Topaz, On; Ali, Asghar; Jovin, Ion S.

2013-01-01

248

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a young man with a factor v leiden gene mutation: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial ischemia in young adults, especially in women. We report a case of spontaneous coronary dissection in a young healthy man who was also a carrier of the factor V Leiden gene mutation. PMID:24436622

Khan, Tahir; Danyi, Peter; Topaz, On; Ali, Asghar; Jovin, Ion S

2013-12-01

249

Brief Report: High Frequency of Biochemical Markers for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: No Association with the Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier "SLC25A12" Gene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we confirm the previously reported high frequency of biochemical markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, namely hyperlactacidemia and increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, in a significant fraction of 210 autistic patients. We further examine the involvement of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier gene ("SLC25A12") in…

Correia, Catarina; Coutinho, Ana M.; Diogo, Luisa; Grazina, Manuela; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa; Ataide, Assuncao; Almeida, Joana; Borges, Luis; Oliveira, Catarina; Oliveira, Guiomar; Vicente, Astrid M.

2006-01-01

250

GATA suppresses erythropoietin gene expression through GATA site in mouse erythropoietin gene promoter.  

PubMed

The promoter and enhancer elements of the mouse erythropoietin (mEpo) gene, which have high homology with those of the human erythropoietin (hEpo) gene, were fused with luciferase. The construct was transfected into erythropoietin-producing hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) cells by lipofectin with lacZ as an internal standard. The wild type (TGATA) showed a 39.5-fold increase in induction by hypoxia. Mouse GATA-2 inhibited the hypoxic induction of the wild-type (m3), promoterluciferase construct but not the hypoxic induction of the mutant (m4, 5) promoter-luciferase constructs. N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA) inhibited the hypoxic induction of the m3 promoter-luciferase construct, but this inhibition was recovered by L-arginine. H2O2 also inhibited the hypoxic induction of the m3 promoter-luciferase construct, but this inhibition was recovered by catalase. Gel shift assays performed on nuclear extracts of 293 cells overexpressing mGATA-1, -2, and -3 revealed that mGATA-1, -2, and -3 bind to the TGATA element of the mEpo promoter. These results indicate that mGATA binds to the TGATA site of the mEpo promoter and negatively regulates mEpo gene expression. Negative regulation of mEpo gene by GATA transcriptional factors is discussed. PMID:12041667

Imagawa, Shigehiko; Suzuki, Norio; Ohmine, Ken; Obara, Naoshi; Mukai, Harumi Y; Ozawa, Keiya; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasawa, Toshiro

2002-05-01

251

A Novel, Photosynthesis-Associated Thioredoxin-Like Gene: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Many aspects of the biosynthesis and physiological regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae and cyanobacteria remain to be understood, and are likely to involve yet-unidentified proteins that carry out oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions. TxlA from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 and its homologues from other cyanobacteria and plants, including Sll1980 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, are likely to be among these proteins. In fact, the homologue of TxlA in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, HCF164, may be required for synthesis of the cytochrome b6f complex that transfers electrons between the two photosynthetic reaction centers. TxlAs share an N-terminal hydrophobic domain, a central thioredoxin-like domain, and a unique C-terminal hydrophilic domain. Plant and algal TxlAs are nuclear-encoded and have an additional N-terminal domain that targets them to the chloroplast. We have found that the common N-terminal domain of TxlA anchors it to a membrane, probably the thylakoid (photosynthetic) membrane (where HCF164 is also localized, with its thioredoxin-like domain in the thylakoid lumen). We have also found that the thioredoxin-like domain is likely to assume the conformation typical of thioredoxins and possesses thioredoxin-like redox activity in vitro, and that the C-terminal domain is important to the structure and function of the thioredoxin-like domain both in vivo and in vitro. These data show that TxlAs have the cellular location and enzymatic activity expected of a protein involved in the biosynthesis of redox components or redox regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus. We were unable to inactivate the thioredoxin-like domain of TxlA in either PCC 7942 or PCC 6803, under either photosynthetic or heterotrophic growth conditions. We also found that expression of antisense txlA mRNA from an IPTG-regulated promoter in PCC 7942 was lethal, most likely because it effectively inactivated txlA by ''RNA silencing''. These results are consistent with a role for TxlA in the synthesis of the cytochrome b6f complex, which is required for both photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport in cyanobacteria. In contrast, our PCC 7942 mutants in which the C-terminal domain of TxlA was removed are viable and appear to have normal cytochrome content, but have a subtle pigmentation phenotype (increased content of phycocyanin relative to chlorophyll) that depends on both light and CO2 availability. We have also found that PCC 6803 Sll1980 inactivation mutant merodiploids have a similar pigmentation phenotype to the PCC 7942 C-terminal truncation mutants when grown photoautotrophically. In addition, when grown heterotrophically the PCC 6803 Sll1980 inactivation mutant merodiploids remain green instead of turning a golden color like the wild-type, and they are more sensitive to the b6f complex inhibitor DBMIB than is wild type PCC 6803. That the PCC 6803 Sll1980 inactivation mutant merodiploids have these phenotypes despite the fact that they still contain normal copies of the sll1980 gene suggests that the presence of truncated Sll1980 protein interferes with the function of normal Sll1980 protein. Together, these physiological data suggest that TxlA has an essential redox role in cyanobacteria, perhaps a biosynthetic one, and may also have a nonessential regulatory role reflected in the phenotypes of the PCC 7942 C-terminal truncation mutants and the PCC 6803 Sll1980 inactivation mutant merodiploids.

Collier, Jackie, L

2005-09-13

252

The PBP 5 synthesis repressor ( psr) gene of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 is substantially longer than previously reported  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reexamination of the nucleotide sequence of the psr gene of Enterococcus hirae revealed the presence of two additional nucleotides at residues 1190 and 1191. As a result, instead of a stop codon after 148 aa, the psr gene product would contain 293 aa residues. The revised size of the gene product was confirmed by subsequently cloning and expressing the

Orietta Massidda; Olivier Dardenne; Michael B. Whalen; Willy Zorzi; jacques Coyette; Gerald D. Shockman; Lolita Daneo-moore

1998-01-01

253

An Alternative Promoter of the Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Is Expressed Specifically in Leydig Cells  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a modulatory role in the biology of a variety of neuroendocrine tissues and is especially relevant to gonadal function. We have previously reported the cloning and characterization of a variant of the nNOS protein, termed testis nNOS (TnNOS), the mRNA for which was restricted in expression to male gonadal tissues. To examine the cell-specificity of the testis-specific NOS regulatory regions we defined patterns of ?-galactosidase expression of an insertional transgene in which the reporter gene lacZ was under the transcriptional control of the human TnNOS promoter. ?-galactosidase activity was detected exclusively in the interstitial cells of the testis in transgenic mice. These cells also evidenced positive staining for nNOS protein and were identified as androgen-producing Leydig cells by staining with the Leydig cell marker, P450scc. Expression of the promoter was absent in cells of the seminiferous tubules, specifically germline cells of different stages and Sertoli cells. In contrast to the male gonad, ?-galactosidase activity was not detected in ovaries of adult female mice. Activity was also not evident in organs known to express full-length nNOS, such as skeletal muscle, kidney, or cerebellum. The same pattern of ?-galactosidase staining was observed in independent transgenic founders and was distinct from that observed for an endothelial NOS promoter/reporter transgene. In the testis of male adult eNOS promoter-reporter transgenic mice, ?-galactosidase activity was expressed only in endothelial cells of large- and medium-sized arterial blood vessels. Transcriptional activity of the human TnNOS promoter could not be detected in a variety of cell types, including Leydig cells, using episomal promoter-reporter constructs suggesting that a nuclear environment and higher order genomic complexity are required for appropriate promoter function. The restricted expression pattern of an nNOS variant in Leydig cells of the male gonad suggests an important role in the regulation of testosterone release and represents an intriguing model with which to dissect the molecular basis of Leydig cell-specific gene expression. PMID:11786430

Wang, Yang; Newton, Derek C.; Miller, Tricia L.; Teichert, Anouk-Martine; Phillips, M. James; Davidoff, Michail S.; Marsden, Philip A.

2002-01-01

254

Mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography of reporter genes in bioprinted thick tissue  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Three-dimensional imaging of thick tissue constructs is one of the main challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Optical methods are the most promising as they offer noninvasive, fast, and inexpensive solutions. Herein, we report the use of mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography (MFMT) to image function and structure of thick bioprinted tissue hosted in a 3-mm-thick bioreactor. Collagen-based tissue assembled in this study contains two vascular channels formed by green fluorescent protein- and mCherry-expressing cells. Transfected live cell imaging enables us to image function, whereas Flash Red fluorescent bead perfusion into the vascular channel allows us to image structure. The MFMT optical reconstructions are benchmarked with classical microscopy techniques. MFMT and wide-field fluorescence microscopy data match within 92% in area and 84% in location, validating the accuracy of MFMT reconstructions. Our results demonstrate that MFMT is a well-suited imaging modality for fast, longitudinal, functional imaging of thick, and turbid tissue engineering constructs. PMID:24091624

Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Lee, Vivian K.; Zhao, Lingling; Dai, Guohao; Intes, Xavier

2013-01-01

255

Mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography of reporter genes in bioprinted thick tissue.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional imaging of thick tissue constructs is one of the main challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Optical methods are the most promising as they offer noninvasive, fast, and inexpensive solutions. Herein, we report the use of mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography (MFMT) to image function and structure of thick bioprinted tissue hosted in a 3-mm-thick bioreactor. Collagen-based tissue assembled in this study contains two vascular channels formed by green fluorescent protein- and mCherry-expressing cells. Transfected live cell imaging enables us to image function, whereas Flash Red fluorescent bead perfusion into the vascular channel allows us to image structure. The MFMT optical reconstructions are benchmarked with classical microscopy techniques. MFMT and wide-field fluorescence microscopy data match within 92% in area and 84% in location, validating the accuracy of MFMT reconstructions. Our results demonstrate that MFMT is a well-suited imaging modality for fast, longitudinal, functional imaging of thick, and turbid tissue engineering constructs. PMID:24091624

Ozturk, Mehmet S; Lee, Vivian K; Zhao, Lingling; Dai, Guohao; Intes, Xavier

2013-10-01

256

[Integration and expression of ALV type retroviral vectors in bird embryos: implications for the cartography of cell lineage and in vivo gene transfer].  

PubMed

Retroviruses are, until now, the only efficient method to transfer genes in birds. However, little is known about their integration and expression patterns in the embryo. Embryos were infected with lacZ carrying non-replicative retroviral vectors. Integration and expression patterns appeared strongly correlated in the heart and the skin while they did not coincide for the liver and stomach. We used different viral subgroups. The A subgroup infects both chick and quail while the B and E are efficient only in chick and quail respectively. These results are discussed in relation with different studies aiming to study either cell lineages or transgenesis in birds. PMID:8019913

Jaffredo, T; Dieterlen-Lièvre, F

1993-01-01

257

Use of optical reporter genes to assess sublethal cellular damage following skin ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous medical procedures utilize pulsed lasers to remove unwanted biological tissue. Mid-infrared wavelengths which preferentially target protein absorption bands ablate tissue more efficiently than wavelengths targeting water absorption. However, the mechanism responsible for this finding has not been established. In this report, we combine optical imaging and conventional techniques to assess lethal and sublethal collateral damage after ablative surgery with a Free Electron Laser (FEL). Heat shock protein expression was used to evaluate tissue damage in a transgenic mouse strain, with the hsp70 promoter driving luciferase and GFP expression (hsp70A1-L2G). To examine wavelength-dependence in the mid-IR, laser surgery was conducted on the hsp70A1-L2G mouse model using wavelengths targeting protein (amide II band, 6.45 ?m), both water and protein (amide I band, 6.10 ?m) and water (2.94 ?m). Hsp70-driven luciferase activity was used as a quantitative biomarker for intracellular damage, and histological analyses were conducted to measure the depth of thermal damage. For all of the wavelengths tested, the bioluminescent data showed that the magnitude of hsp70 expression was dose-dependent. Tissues treated at 6.45 µm had approximately 2x higher hsp70 expression than tissues treated at 6.10 ?m. Histology showed that immediate tissue injury at the 6.45 ?m wavelength was ~2x deeper than at 6.10 ?m. The 6.10 ?m wavelength generated the least amount of epidermal hyperplasia. Overall, the data suggests that 6.10 ?m is a superior wavelength for cutaneous laser ablation procedures.

Wilmink, Gerald J.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Jansen, E. Duco

2008-02-01

258

Visualization of gene expression in the live subject using the Na/I symporter as a reporter gene: applications in biotherapy  

PubMed Central

Biotherapies involve the utilization of antibodies, genetically modified viruses, bacteria or cells for therapeutic purposes. Molecular imaging has the potential to provide unique information that will guarantee their biosafety in humans and provide a rationale for the future development of new generations of reagents. In this context, non-invasive imaging of gene expression is an attractive prospect, allowing precise, spacio-temporal measurements of gene expression in longitudinal studies involving gene transfer vectors. With the emergence of cell therapies in regenerative medicine, it is also possible to track cells injected into subjects. In this context, the Na/I symporter (NIS) has been used in preclinical studies. Associated with a relevant radiotracer (123I-, 124I-, 99mTcO4-), NIS can be used to monitor gene transfer and the spread of selectively replicative viruses in tumours as well as in cells with a therapeutic potential. In addition to its imaging potential, NIS can be used as a therapeutic transgene through its ability to concentrate therapeutic doses of radionuclides in target cells. This dual property has applications in cancer treatment and could also be used to eradicate cells with therapeutic potential in the case of adverse events. Through experience acquired in preclinical studies, we can expect that non-invasive molecular imaging using NIS as a transgene will be pivotal for monitoring in vivo the exact distribution and pharmacodynamics of gene expression in a precise and quantitative way. This review highlights the applications of NIS in biotherapy, with a particular emphasis on image-guided radiotherapy, monitoring of gene and vector biodistribution and trafficking of stem cells. This article is part of a themed section on Imaging in Pharmacology. To view the editorial for this themed section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00685.x PMID:19814733

Baril, Patrick; Martin-Duque, Pilar; Vassaux, Georges

2010-01-01

259

Genes and Gene Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

260

Regulation of the Alternative Oxidase Aox1 Gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Role of the Nitrogen Source on the Expression of a Reporter Gene under the Control of the Aox1 Promoter1  

PubMed Central

In higher plants, various developmental and environmental conditions enhance expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX), whereas its induction in fungi is mainly dependent on cytochrome pathway restriction and triggering by reactive oxygen species. The AOX of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is encoded by two different genes, the Aox1 gene being much more transcribed than Aox2. To analyze the transcriptional regulation of Aox1, we have fused its 1.4-kb promoter region to the promoterless arylsulfatase (Ars) reporter gene and measured ARS enzyme activities in transformants carrying the chimeric construct. We show that the Aox1 promoter is generally unresponsive to a number of known AOX inducers, including stress agents, respiratory inhibitors, and metabolites, possibly because the AOX activity is constitutively high in the alga. In contrast, the Aox1 expression is strongly dependent on the nitrogen source, being down-regulated by ammonium and stimulated by nitrate. Inactivation of nitrate reductase leads to a further increase of expression. The stimulation by nitrate also occurs at the AOX protein and respiratory levels. A deletion analysis of the Aox1 promoter region demonstrates that a short upstream segment (?253 to +59 with respect to the transcription start site) is sufficient to ensure gene expression and regulation, but that distal elements are required for full gene expression. The observed pattern of AOX regulation points to the possible interaction between chloroplast and mitochondria in relation to a potential increase of photogenerated ATP when nitrate is used as a nitrogen source. PMID:12644691

Baurain, Denis; Dinant, Monique; Coosemans, Nadine; Matagne, René F.

2003-01-01

261

Construction and real-time RT-PCR validation of Candida albicans PALS-GFP reporter strains and their use in flow cytometry analysis of ALS gene expression in budding and filamenting cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) was placed under control of ALS gene promoters in Candida albicans. The PALS-GFP reporter strains were validated using various techniques including a new real-time RT-PCR assay to quantify ALS gene expression. The PALS-GFP reporter strains were grown in media that promoted yeast or germ tube forms, and the resulting fluorescence was measured

Clayton B. Green; Xiaomin Zhao; Kathleen M. Yeater; Lois L. Hoyer

2005-01-01

262

Passage of Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus through the Midgut Epithelium of Spodoptera exigua Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special recombinant of Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) was designed to study the early histopathological events of baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua larvae. This recombinant contained a Drosophila melanogaster heat shock 70 promoter driving an Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase (Lac-Z) reporter gene to monitor the presence of early viral gene expression and a second reporter gene, the E.

J. T. M. Flipsen; J. W. M. Martens; M. M. Van Oers; J. M. Vlak; J. W. M. Van LENT

1995-01-01

263

Identification of two classes of Rhizobium phaseoli genes required for melanin synthesis, one of which is required for nitrogen fixation and activates the transcription of the other.  

PubMed

The symbiotic plasmid pRP2JI of Rhizobium phaseoli strain 8002 was shown to contain two separate regions of DNA which are required and sufficient for the synthesis of the pigment melanin. One of these regions containing the class II mel gene(s) was located to other genes involved in nodulation and in nitrogen fixation. Mutations in this region abolished both the ability to synthesize melanin and to fix nitrogen in Phaseolus bean root nodules. Mutations in the other, unlinked region, containing class I mel gene(s), also abolished melanin synthesis but did not affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Transcriptional fusions between the class I mel gene and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were constructed and it was demonstrated that the class II mel gene(s) activated their transcription in free-living culture. Further, strains containing the cloned regulatory class II gene(s) synthesized melanin when growing in minimal medium, in contrast to wild-type strains which became pigmented only in complete medium containing yeast extract and tryptone. It was shown by hybridization experiments that the regulatory mel gene was closely linked to or may correspond to the regulatory nifA gene; a fragment of R. phaseoli DNA which included the class II gene(s) of R. phaseoli hybridized to a previously identified nifA-like gene of R. leguminosarum, the species that nodulates peas. PMID:3474493

Borthakur, D; Lamb, J W; Johnston, A W

1987-04-01

264

[Organization and regulation of the genes for nitrogen fixation in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata]. Progress report, [June 5, 1989--June 4, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In prior support periods we identified, cloned and sequenced three genes involved in the regulation of nif gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. These were called nifRI, nifR2 and nifR4; they turn out to be homologue of the ntrC, ntrB and ntrA genes of enterobacteria. We subsequently found that mutations in an additional gene, nifR5. render R. capsulatus nif genes constitutive with respect to ammonia. The nifR5 gene was shown to be similar to glnB of enteric bacteria, encoding the regulatory protein PII, and furthering the intersection of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation cascade with the control of nif gene transcription. In pursuit of the mechanism of 0{sub 2} control of nif gene expression, we constructed and analyzed the topology of a small plasmid in R. capsulatus as a function of 0{sub 2} concentration. We also cloned and obtained partial sequence data for two genes encoding the B subunit of DNA gyrase. The nucleotide sequence of the rpoB gene encoding RNA polymerase was nearly completed. A method for isolation of genes expressed differentially, developed for cyanobacteria, was applied successfully to R. capsulatus. Several genes that depend on nifR4 for their transcription were isolated. A transcription start site for a nifA gene was identified and the promoter sequence was analyzed. A physical map of the R calsulatus SB1003 chromosome was prepared, based on pulsed-field electrophoresis of XbaI and AseI fragments and hybridization with a gridded cosmid library, using a device that permits 864 cosmids to be hybridized at one time with a labeled chromosomal fragment.

Not Available

1991-12-31

265

Targeted Deletion of the Antisilencer/Enhancer (ASE) Element from Intron 1 of the Myelin Proteolipid Protein Gene (Plp1) in Mouse Reveals that the Element Is Dispensable for Plp1 Expression in Brain during Development and Remyelination  

PubMed Central

Myelin proteolipid protein gene (Plp1) expression is temporally regulated in brain, which peaks during the active myelination period of CNS development. Previous studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice demonstrated that (mouse) Plp1 intron 1 DNA is required for high levels of expression in oligodendrocytes. Deletion-transfection analysis revealed the intron contains a single positive regulatory element operative in the N20.1 oligodendroglial cell line, which was named ASE (antisilencer/enhancer) based on its functional properties in these cells. To investigate the role of the ASE in vivo, the element was deleted from the native gene in mouse using a Cre/lox strategy. While removal of the ASE from Plp1-lacZ constructs profoundly decreased expression in transfected oligodendroglial cell lines (N20.1 and Oli-neu), the element was dispensable to achieve normal levels of Plp1 gene expression in mouse during development (except perhaps at postnatal day 15) and throughout the remyelination period following cuprizone-induced (acute) demyelination. Thus, it is possible that the ASE is nonfunctional in vivo, or that loss of the ASE from the native gene in mouse can be compensated for by the presence of other regulatory elements within the Plp1 gene. PMID:23157328

Pereira, Glauber B.; Meng, Fanxue; Kockara, Neriman T.; Yang, Baoli; Wight, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

266

Baculovirus as an Ideal Radionuclide Reporter Gene Vector: A New Strategy for Monitoring the Fate of Human Stem Cells In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radionuclide reporter gene imaging holds promise for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted stem cells. Thus, the feasibility of utilizing recombinant baculoviruses carrying the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene in monitoring stem cell therapy by radionuclide imaging was explored in this study. Methods Recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes (Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP) were constructed and used to infect human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). Infection efficiency, total fluorescence intensity and duration of transgene expression were determined by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity/proliferative effects of baculovirus on hUCB-MSCs were assessed using CCK-8 assays. 125I uptake and perchlorate inhibition assays were performed on Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs. Radionuclide imaging of mice transplanted with Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs was performed by NanoSPECT/CT imaging. Results Infection efficiencies of recombinant baculovirus in hESCs, hiPSCs and hUCB-MSCs increased with increasing MOIs (27.3%, 35.8% and 95.6%, respectively, at MOI?=?800). Almost no cytotoxicity and only slight effects on hUCB-MSCs proliferation were observed. Obvious GFP expression (40.6%) remained at 8 days post-infection. The radioiodide was functionally accumulated by NIS gene products and specifically inhibited by perchlorate (ClO4-). Radioiodide uptake, peaking at 30 min and gradually decreasing over time, significantly correlated with hUCB-MSCs cell number (R2?=?0.994). Finally, radionuclide imaging showed Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs effectively accumulated radioiodide in vivo, which gradually weakened over time. Conclusion Baculovirus as transgenic vector of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technology is a promising strategy for monitoring stem cell transplantation therapy. PMID:23596521

Wu, Haifei; Lv, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yifan

2013-01-01

267

Organ-specific gene expression in maize: The P-wr allele. Final report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate aim of our work is to understand how a regulatory gene produces a specific pattern of gene expression during plant development. Our model is the P-wr gene of maize, which produces a distinctive pattern of pigmentation of maize floral organs. We are investigating this system using a combination of classical genetic and molecular approaches. Mechanisms of organ-specific gene expression are a subject of intense research interest, as it is the operation of these mechanisms during eukaryotic development which determine the characteristics of each organism Allele-specific expression has been characterized in only a few other plant genes. In maize, organ-specific pigmentation regulated by the R, B, and Pl genes is achieved by differential transcription of functionally conserved protein coding sequences. Our studies point to a strikingly different mechanism of organ-specific gene expression, involving post-transcriptional regulation of the regulatory P gene. The novel pigmentation pattern of the P-wr allele is associated with differences in the encoded protein. Furthermore, the P-wr gene itself is present as a unique tandemly amplified structure, which may affect its transcriptional regulation.

Peterson, T.A.

1997-06-01

268

Optic atrophy and a Leigh-like syndrome due to mutations in the c12orf65 gene: report of a novel mutation and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency type 7 (COXPD7) is a rare disorder of mitochondrial metabolism that results in optic atrophy and Leigh syndrome-like disease. We describe 2 siblings with compound heterozygous mutations in the recently identified C12orf65 gene who presented with optic atrophy and mild developmental delays and subsequently developed bilateral, symmetric lesions in the brainstem reminiscent of Leigh syndrome. Repeat neuroimaging demonstrated reversibility of the findings in 1 sibling and persistent metabolic stroke in the other. This article highlights the phenotypic manifestations from a novel mutation in the C12orf65 gene and reviews the clinical presentation of the 5 other individuals reported to date who carry mutations in this gene. PMID:24284555

Heidary, Gena; Calderwood, Laurel; Cox, Gerald F; Robson, Caroline D; Teot, Lisa A; Mullon, Jennifer; Anselm, Irina

2014-03-01

269

[Radiation biology of structurally different drosophila genes. Report IV. The black gene: sequencing of the "point" mutations and recombination mechanisms of their processing].  

PubMed

As it has been ascertained in our large-scale experiments with Drosophila specific five-loci test [1], the radio- mutability of the black gene is unusual at lest in two respects: 1) fission neutrons are strangely more efficient than ?-rays in the gene/point mutation induction and 2) a lot of gene/point black mutations have the DNA alterations not detected by PCR (so-called PCR(+)-mutants). To verify the hypothesis that neutrons induce more efficiently than ?-rays the small structural DNA changes which fail to notice the PCR, sequence ana- lysis of 8 neutron-, 8 ?-ray-induced and 3 spontaneous (from instable D32 line) black gene/point PCR(+)-mutations was performed. As controls, sequences of the test-allele black1, as well as irradiated black(+32) and black(+18) alleles were analyzed. In black1 the replacement of four bases (ATCC) by an insertion (TACCTACC) at position +530 (exon 1) results in a frameshift. There were also 27 single base pair substitutions compared to the control black(+32) or black(+18) sequence. Further, 6 ?-ray- and one neutron-induced black mutants displayed the small deletions/insertions and transversion (G --> T) which led to the stop-codon in one case. These nucleotide changes thought to be the result of ?-ray-induced processing by the NHEJ, SSA or MMR repair pathways which act in the early zygote ahead of the first (gonomeric) nuclear division. Remarkably, 3 spontaneous, 2 ?-ray- and 7 neutron-induced black mutants were found to have the sequence alterations intrinsic to the black allele showing that interallelic recombination (gene conversion) seems to be a major pathway of processing of the gross DNA lesions by acting of the HR, SDSA or BIR repair systems in zygote after the gonomeric division. Substantially, the frequency of conversion events for the neutron-induced DNA lesions was found to be 3.5 time as high as for ?-ray-induced ones. The genetic impact of the radiation-induced conversion events in zygotic nucleus leading to the mutant allele homozygosity (reconstitution of homozygosity, ROH) is discussed. PMID:25427368

Davkova, L N; Aleksandrova, M V; Aleksandrov, I D

2013-01-01

270

[Radiation biology of structurally different drosophila genes. Report IV. The black gene: sequencing of the "point" mutations and recombination mechanisms of their processing].  

PubMed

As it has been ascertained in our large-scale experiments with Drosophila specific five-loci test [1], the radio- mutability of the black gene is unusual at lest in two respects: 1) fission neutrons are strangely more efficient than ?-rays in the gene/point mutation induction and 2) a lot of gene/point black mutations have the DNA alterations not detected by PCR (so-called PCR(+)-mutants). To verify the hypothesis that neutrons induce more efficiently than ?-rays the small structural DNA changes which fail to notice the PCR, sequence ana- lysis of 8 neutron-, 8 ?-ray-induced and 3 spontaneous (from instable D32 line) black gene/point PCR(+)-mutations was performed. As controls, sequences of the test-allele black1, as well as irradiated black(+32) and black(+18) alleles were analyzed. In black1 the replacement of four bases (ATCC) by an insertion (TACCTACC) at position +530 (exon 1) results in a frameshift. There were also 27 single base pair substitutions compared to the control black(+32) or black(+18) sequence. Further, 6 ?-ray- and one neutron-induced black mutants displayed the small deletions/insertions and transversion (G --> T) which led to the stop-codon in one case. These nucleotide changes thought to be the result of ?-ray-induced processing by the NHEJ, SSA or MMR repair pathways which act in the early zygote ahead of the first (gonomeric) nuclear division. Remarkably, 3 spontaneous, 2 ?-ray- and 7 neutron-induced black mutants were found to have the sequence alterations intrinsic to the black allele showing that interallelic recombination (gene conversion) seems to be a major pathway of processing of the gross DNA lesions by acting of the HR, SDSA or BIR repair systems in zygote after the gonomeric division. Substantially, the frequency of conversion events for the neutron-induced DNA lesions was found to be 3.5 time as high as for ?-ray-induced ones. The genetic impact of the radiation-induced conversion events in zygotic nucleus leading to the mutant allele homozygosity (reconstitution of homozygosity, ROH) is discussed. PMID:25507618

2013-01-01

271

Analysis of CFTR Gene Mutations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis, First Report from North-East of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): More than 1500 registered mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for dysfunction of an ion channel protein and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study was performed to investigate the frequency of a number of well-known CFTR mutations in North Eastern Iranian CF patients. Material and Methods: A total number of 56 documented CF patients participated in this study. Peripheral blood was obtained and DNA extraction was done by the use of routin methods. Three steps were taken for determining the target mutations: ARMS-PCR was performed for common CFTR mutations based on previous reports in Iran and neighboring countries. PCR-RFLP was done for detection of R344W and R347P, and PCR-Sequencing was performed for exon 11 in patients with unidentified mutation throughout previous steps. Samples which remained still unknown for a CFTR mutation were sequenced for exon 12. Results: Among 112 alleles, 24 mutated alleles (21.42%) were detected: ?F508 (10.71%), 1677delTA (3.57%), S466X (3.57%), N1303K (0.89%), G542X (0.89%), R344W (0.89%), L467F (0.89%). Eight out of 56 individuals analyzed, were confirmed as homozygous and eight samples showed heterozygous status. No mutations were detected in exon 12 of sequenced samples. Conclusion: Current findings suggest a selected package of CFTR mutations for prenatal, neonatal and carrier screening along with diagnosis and genetic counseling programs in CF patients of Khorasan. PMID:24106596

Mehdizadeh Hakkak, Atieh; Keramatipour, Mohammad; Talebi, Saeid; Brook, Azam; Tavakol Afshari, Jalil; Raazi, Amin; Kianifar, Hamid Reza

2013-01-01

272

Simultaneous Analysis of Bacterioferritin Gene Expression and Intracellular Iron Status in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by Using a Rapid Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual luciferase reporter (DLR) system utilizing firefly and Renilla luciferases was developed and tested in a model rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida KT2440. The DLR was applied to simultaneously analyze ex- pression of three putative bacterioferritin genes (bfr, bfr, and bfr) and assess the cellular iron status of strain KT2440 by monitoring expression of the Fur-regulated fepA-fes promoter. The DLR proved

Shicheng Chen; William F. Bleam; William J. Hickey

2009-01-01

273

Schizophrenia and the androgen receptor gene: Report of a sibship showing co-segregation with Reifenstein Syndrome but no evidence for linkage in 23 multiply affected families  

SciTech Connect

Crow et al. have reported excess sharing of alleles by male sibling pairs with schizophrenia, at a triplet repeat marker within the androgen receptor gene, indicating that mutations at or near this gene may be a risk factor for males. In this report, we describe a pair of male siblings concordant for both schizophrenia and Reifenstein syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in this gene. This provides support for the hypothesis that the androgen receptor may contribute to liability to develop schizophrenia. Because of this, we have examined a collection of 23 pedigrees multiply affected by schizophrenia for linkage to the androgen receptor. We have found no evidence for linkage by both the LOD score and affected sibling-pair methods, under a range of genetic models with a broad and narrow definition of phenotype, and when families with male-to-male transmission are excluded. However, because of the small number of informative male-male pairs in our sample, we cannot confirm or refute the excess allele sharing for males reported by Crow. 35 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Arranz, M.; Sharma, T.; Sham, P.; Kerwin, R. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-10-09

274

Regulation and sequence of the structural gene for cytochrome c552 from Escherichia coli: not a hexahaem but a 50 kDa tetrahaem nitrite reductase.  

PubMed

The structural gene, nrfA, for cytochrome c552, which is the terminal reductase of the formate-dependent pathway for nitrite reduction to ammonia, has been located at co-ordinate 4366 on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The DNA sequence of nrfA encodes a tetrahaem c-type cytochrome with a predicted M(r) for the unprocessed product of 53,788. Cleavage of the putative signal peptide at Ala-26 would result in a mature, periplasmic cytochrome of M(r) 50,580 rather than a larger hexahaem cytochrome, as has been widely reported previously. A cytochrome of this size was detected by staining SDS-polyacrylamide gels for covalently bound haem. This cytochrome was partially purified by anion exchange chromatography and confirmed to be cytochrome c552 by difference spectroscopy. Similar cytochromes were detected in five other E. coli strains including strain ST 249, which was used previously to purify and characterize the protein. A plasmid with an in-phase deletion within nrfA directed the synthesis of a truncated haemoprotein of the predicted mass. In-phase translational fusions to lacZ were used to locate the nrfA translation start, and the transcription start site was found by S1 mapping. Expression from the FNR-dependent nrfA promoter was almost totally repressed during aerobic growth, partially induced during anaerobic growth in the absence of nitrite or in the presence of nitrate, but fully induced only during anaerobic growth in the presence of nitrite. No nitrate repression was detected in a narL mutant, but nitrite induction was unaffected, indicating that the nitrite-sensing mechanism is independent of the NarL protein. Expression from the nrfA promoter was subject to glucose repression but regulation was independent of the CRP-cAMP complex. PMID:7934939

Darwin, A; Hussain, H; Griffiths, L; Grove, J; Sambongi, Y; Busby, S; Cole, J

1993-09-01

275

First Report of a Clinical, Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolate Coharboring Fosfomycin Resistance Gene fosA3 and Carbapenemase Gene blaKPC-2 on the Same Transposon, Tn1721.  

PubMed

In order to understand the genetic background and dissemination mechanism of carbapenem resistance and fosfomycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates, we studied a clinical Escherichia coli strain HS102707 isolate and an Enterobacter aerogenes strain HS112625 isolate, both of which were resistant to carbapenem and fosfomycin and positive for the blaKPC-2 and fosA3 genes. In addition, a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain HS092839 isolate which was resistant to carbapenem was also studied. A 70-kb plasmid was successfully transferred to recipient E. coli J53 by a conjugation test. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that blaKPC-2 was located on this plasmid. The complete sequence of pHS102707 showed that this plasmid belongs to the P11 subfamily (IncP1) and has a replication gene, several plasmid-stable genes, an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster, and a composite transposon Tn1721-Tn3 that harbored blaKPC-2. Interestingly, a composite IS26 transposon carrying fosA3 was inserted in the Tn1721-tnpA gene in pHS102707 and pHS112625, leading to the disruption of Tn1721-tnpA and the deletion of Tn1721-tnpR. However, only IS26 with a truncated Tn21-tnpR was inserted in pHS092839 at the same position. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fosA3 and blaKPC-2 colocated in the same Tn1721-Tn3-like composite transposon on a novel IncP group plasmid. PMID:25367902

Li, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Dexi; Shen, Pinghua; Ai, Fuqi; Liu, Hong; Tian, Yueru; Ma, Yiming; Wang, Bei; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Xiaofei

2015-01-01

276

Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene. Progress report, [April 15, 1988--April 14, 1989  

SciTech Connect

During this period researchers have been successful in determining the structure of the rice pyrophosphorylase gene. Potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylse purification and structure studies were carried out as well as recombinant DNA studies. Evidence suggests that the tuber form is made up of subunits with similar molecular weights and immunological relatedness. In contrast, the spinach leaf enzyme and presumably the maize endosperm species is composed of two dissimilar sununits encoded by different genes.

Okita, T.W.

1989-12-31

277

Construction of a cytosolic firefly luciferase reporter cassette for use in PCR-mediated gene deletion and fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Monitoring promoter response to environmental changes using reporter systems has provided invaluable information regarding cellular state. With the development of in vivo luciferase reporter systems, inexpensive, sensitive and accurate promoter assays have been developed without the variability reported between in vitro samplings. Current luciferase reporter systems, however, are largely inflexible to modifications to the promoter of interest. To overcome problems in flexibility and stability of these expression vectors, we report the creation of a novel vector system which introduces a cytosol-localized Photinus pyralis luciferase [LUC*(-SKL)] capable of one-step, in vivo measurements into a promoter-reporter system via PCR-based gene deletion and fusion. After introduction of the reporter under HUG1 promoter control, cytosolic localization was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The dose-response of this novel construct was then compared with that of a similar HUG1?::yEGFP1 promoter-reporter system and shown to give a similar response pattern. PMID:23172625

Ainsworth, W B; Rome, C M; Hjortsø, M A; Benton, M G

2012-12-01

278

Suicidal Behavior and Haplotypes of the Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Alcohol Dependence – Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,- we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects) including a subgroup of individuals (n?=?61) who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p?=?0.006). It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:25415204

Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Ma?ecka, Iwona; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Anna

2014-01-01

279

PAX5 fusion genes in t(7;9)(q11.2;p13) leukemia: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by recurrent genetic alterations including chromosomal translocations. The transcription factor PAX5, which is pivotal for B-cell commitment and maintenance, is affected by rearrangements, which lead to the expression of in-frame fusion genes in about 2.5% of the cases. Results Using conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular methods, an additional case with a der(9)t(7;9)(q11.23;p13) resulting in the expression of a PAX5-ELN fusion gene was identified. Furthermore, a general review of leukemia harboring a t(7;9)(q11.2;p13) or der(9)t(7;9)(q11.2;p13), which occurs more often in children than in adults and shows a remarkably high male preponderance, is given. These cytogenetically highly similar translocations lead to the expression of one of three different in frame PAX5-fusions, namely with AUTS2 (7q11.22), ELN (7q11.23), or POM121 (7q11.23), which constitute the only currently known cluster of PAX5 partner genes. Conclusion Our report underlines the recurrent involvement of PAX5 in different fusion genes resulting either from t(7;9)(q11.2;p13) or der(9)t(7;9)(q11.2;p13), which cannot be distinguished cytogenetically and whose discrimination requires molecular analysis. PMID:24507461

2014-01-01

280

Cloning and sequencing of a plasmid-borne gene (opd) encoding a phosphotriesterase.  

PubMed Central

Plasmid pCMS1 was isolated from Pseudomonas diminuta MG, a strain which constitutively hydrolyzes a broad spectrum of organophosphorus compounds. The native plasmid was restricted with PstI, and individual DNA fragments were subcloned into pBR322. A recombinant plasmid transformed into Escherichia coli possessed weak hydrolytic activity, and Southern blotting with the native plasmid DNA verified that the DNA sequence originated from pCMS1. When the cloned 1.3-kilobase fragment was placed behind the lacZ' promoter of M13mp10 and retransformed into E. coli, clear-plaque isolates with correctly sized inserts exhibited isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible whole-cell activity. Sequence determination of the M13 constructions identified an open reading frame of 975 bases preceded by a putative ribosome-binding site appropriately positioned upstream of the first ATG codon in the open reading frame. An intragenic fusion of the opd gene with the lacZ gene produced a hybrid polypeptide which was purified by beta-galactosidase immunoaffinity chromatography and used to confirm the open reading frame of opd. The gene product, an organophosphorus phosphotriesterase, would have a molecular weight of 35,418 if the presumed start site is correct. Eighty to ninety percent of the enzymatic activity was associated with the pseudomonad membrane fractions. When dissociated by treatment with 0.1% Triton and 1 M NaCl, the enzymatic activity was associated with a molecular weight of approximately 65,000, suggesting that the active enzyme was dimeric. Images PMID:2834339

McDaniel, C S; Harper, L L; Wild, J R

1988-01-01

281

Use of DEAD-box polypeptide-4 (Ddx4) gene promoter-driven fluorescent reporter mice to identify mitotically active germ cells in post-natal mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

Several laboratories have independently isolated mitotically active germ cells, termed female germline stem cells or oogonial stem cells (OSCs), from adult mouse ovaries. However, a recent study using Ddx4-Cre;Rosa26 reporter mice concluded that such germ cells do not exist. Given the disparity in conclusions drawn in this study compared with others, we felt it was important to re-assess the utility of Ddx4-Cre;Rosa26 reporter mice for identification of OSCs in adult mouse ovaries. Transgenic Ddx4-Cre mice were crossed with Rosa26(tdTm/tdTm) mice to drive restricted tomato red (tdTm) gene expression in cells in which the Ddx4 gene promoter has been activated. Crude dispersion of ovaries from recombined offspring generated cell fractions containing tdTm-positive immature oocytes, which are incapable of proliferation and thus probably represent the uncharacterized reporter-positive ovarian cells identified in the paper Zhang et al. (2012) as being mitotically inactive. Dispersed ovaries further subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting yielded a large population of non-germline tdTm-positive cells, indicative of promoter 'leakiness' in the Ddx4-Cre mouse line. Nonetheless, a small percentage of these tdTm-positive cells exhibited externalized (extracellular, ec) expression of Ddx4 protein (ecDdx4-positive), expressed markers of primitive germ cells but not of oocytes, and actively proliferated in culture, all of which are characteristic features of OSCs. Thus, crude dispersion of ovaries collected from Ddx4 gene promoter-driven reporter mice is not, by itself, a reliable approach to identify OSCs, whereas the same ovarian dispersates further subjected to cell sorting strategies yield purified OSCs that can be expanded in culture. PMID:25147160

Park, Eun-Sil; Tilly, Jonathan L

2015-01-01

282

Gene expression profiles of fatigued fibromyalgia patients with different categories of pain and catastrophizing: A preliminary report  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition characterized by diffused musculoskeletal pain and overwhelming fatigue. Purpose To compare the gene expression profiles of fatigued FM women with different levels of pain and catastrophizing. Methods Nine FM women enrolled in an active Medstar Research Institute protocol were included in the gene expression analyses of peripheral blood RNA using Affymetrix GeneChip® human genome U133 Plus 2.0 array. Scores from Brief Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory categorized the 9 participants into pain (high, n = 3; low, n = 6) and catastrophizing groups (high, n = 5; low, n = 4). Discussion Differential expression of 107 genes between the high and low pain groups and 139 genes between the high and low catastrophizing groups (over 2.0-fold change, p < 0.05) were observed. Network analyses showed interferon signaling and interferon regulatory activation factor pathways distinguished between the pain groups while dendritic cell maturation delineated between the catastrophizing groups. Conclusion Findings provide preliminary evidence that specific physiological pathways may possibly delineate pain and catastrophizing mechanisms. Further investigation using larger and more homogenous sample is warranted. PMID:23684314

Lukkahatai, Nada; Majors, Benjamin; Reddy, Swarnalatha; Walitt, Brian; Saligan, Leorey N.

2013-01-01

283

Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase genes. Progress report, [April 15, 1990--April 14, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The long term goal of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as cereal seeds and tubers, starch biosynthesis is primarily regulated by the gene activation, expression, and allosteric regulation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, as well as starch synthase, and branching enzyme. During the last year we have elucidated the structure of both subunits which compose this tetrameric enzyme and determined the temporal and spatial expression of the genes encoding each subunit as well as their correlation to starch biosynthesis. Genomic clones to both subunits have also been isolated and the gene structure of the small subunit determined. Transgenic potato plants have been produced containing deletions of the small subunit promoter. Currently, cis acting elements and their involvement in spatial and temporal expression are under investigation.

Okita, T.W.

1990-12-31

284

Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene. Progress report, [April 15, 1987--April 14, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Many agronomically important crops are viewed as significant resources of renewable energy. Overall crop productivity could be increased if the efficiency of photoassimilate conversion into dry matter such as starch were improved in storage tissues. Starch production is controlled by the catalytic activity of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the first step of starch biosynthesis. This research focuses on the genetic structure and molecular mechanisms by which it is controlled during plant development and how it is affected by environmental and hormonal conditions. The current goal is to isolate the genes for this enzyme present in both cereal endosperm and potato tuber tissues, and to elucidate its structure and the controlling sequences responsible for gene expression. The long term goal is the improvement of starch production in storage organs by manipulating this gene so that it encodes an enzyme refractive to inorganic phosphate inhibition.

Okita, T.W.

1988-12-31

285

Association of a novel in-frame deletion mutation of the MYH9 gene with end-stage renal failure: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

MYH9 disorders are autosomal dominant diseases characterized by giant platelets, thrombocytopenia, and granulocyte inclusion bodies. These diseases are caused by mutations in the MYH9 gene that encodes nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA. We describe the case of a 27-year-old male who presented with macrothrombocytopenia and leukocyte inclusion bodies. Chronic kidney disease, probably due to progressive glomerulosclerosis, and high-tone sensorineural deafness were evident. Although deterioration of renal function necessitated renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis, we reconsidered the etiology of the kidney disease due to the patient's clinical history. We identified an in-frame deletion mutation in exon 24 of the MYH9 gene that resulted in the removal of 21 nucleotides. The patient was diagnosed with an MYH9 disorder. We report this novel abnormality of the nucleotide sequence and compare it with previous cases and their associated phenotypes. PMID:22541678

Ishida, Mami; Mori, Yasukiyo; Ota, Noriyoshi; Inaba, Toru; Kunishima, Shinji

2013-09-01

286

Evaluation of microprojectile-mediated DNA delivery and reporter genes for genetic transformation of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonal-suspensor tissue (EST) of Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) was tested for microprojectile-DNA delivery (by the PDS-1000\\/He device) for different subculture periods (9, 15, and\\u000a 21 days) using the plasmid vectors pRT99GUS [containing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) genes, and the CaMV 35S promoter], pBI426 (with a GUS::NPT II\\u000a fusion gene under the control of a duplicated

M. Lambardi; D. Lachance; A. Séguin; P. J. Charest

1998-01-01

287

A Case Report of Familial Benign Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia: A Mutation in the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene  

PubMed Central

Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FBHH) is an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance, clinically manifestating a relatively benign, lifelong, persistent hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria without hypercalcemic related complications. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in the regulation of PTH secretion and calcium metabolism. Here we present a family with FBHH of an autosomal dominant inheritance. A heterozygous mutation of E297K (GAG?AAG, exon 4) of CaSR gene was found in 3 family members. To our knowledge, it is the first confirmed case of FBHH with CaSR gene mutation in Korea. PMID:16642557

Woo, Seong Ill; Song, Hyunju; Song, Kyung Eun; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan Woo; Kim, Se Joong

2006-01-01

288

A case report of familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene.  

PubMed

Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FBHH) is an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance, clinically manifesting a relatively benign, lifelong, persistent hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria without hypercalcemic related complications. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in the regulation of PTH secretion and calcium metabolism. Here we present a family with FBHH of an autosomal dominant inheritance. A heterozygous mutation of E297K (GAG --> AAG, exon 4) of CaSR gene was found in 3 family members. To our knowledge, it is the first confirmed case of FBHH with CaSR gene mutation in Korea. PMID:16642557

Woo, Seong Ill; Song, Hyunju; Song, Kyung Eun; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan Woo; Kim, Se Joong; Chung, Yoon-Sok

2006-04-30

289

MER1, a yeast gene required for chromosome pairing and genetic recombination, is induced in meiosis.  

PubMed Central

The yeast MER1 gene is required for the production of viable meiotic products and for meiotic recombination. Cytological analysis of chromosome spreads from a mer1 mutant indicates that the MER1 gene product is also required for normal chromosome pairing. mer1 strains make axial elements, precursors to the synaptonemal complex; however, the chromosomes in most nuclei do not become fully synapsed. The DNA sequence of the MER1 coding region was determined; the MER1 open reading frame encodes a 270-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 31.1 kilodaltons. The MER1 protein shows limited sequence similarity to calmodulin. Expression of the MER1 gene was examined by RNA blot hybridization analysis and through the construction and analysis of mer1::lacZ fusion genes. Expression of the MER1 gene is meiotically induced and required the IME1 gene product. Thus, expression of the MER1 gene early in meiosis is required for proper chromosome pairing and meiotic recombination. Images PMID:2183032

Engebrecht, J; Roeder, G S

1990-01-01

290

Development of a Site-Directed Integration Plasmid for Heterologous Gene Expression in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Deciphering the molecular basis of the interactions between the parasite Mycoplasma gallisepticum and its avian hosts suffers from the lack of genetic tools available for the pathogen. In the absence of well established methods for targeted disruption of relevant M. gallisepticum genes, we started to develop suicide vectors and equipped them with a short fragment of M. gallisepticum origin or replication (oriCMG). We failed to create a disruption vector, although by adding a further short fragment of the M. gallisepticum tufB upstream region we created a “Trojan horse” plasmid. This is fully integrated into the genomic DNA of M. gallisepticum, always at the same site, oriCMG, and is able to carry and express any gene of interest in the genetic background of M. gallisepticum. Successful expression of a heterologous gene was shown with the lacZ gene of E. coli. When used for gene complementation or expression of hybrid genes in M. gallisepticum, a site-specific combined integration/expression vector constitutes an improvement on randomly integrating transposons, which might have unexpected effects on the expression of chromosomal genes. PMID:24278444

Indikova, Ivana; Szostak, Michael P.

2013-01-01

291

Differential gene expression in Neurospora crassa cell types: heterogeneity and amplification of rRNA genes. Progress report, July 1980-June 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The significant results obtained during 1980-1981 year of the current research program are as follows: I. Studies on heterogeneity of multiple copies of rDNAs from N. crassa cell types are being continued, such as: (1) Autoradiographs of Southern transfers of EcoR/sub 1/ restricted fragments of nuclear DNA from conidia, germinated conidia (sprouts) and mycelia of N. crassa were compared after hybridization with /sup 32/P-rDNA probe. The nuclear DNA of two hours sprout and of 16 hours mycelia gave similar hybridization patterns with EcoR/sub 1/ digest, but no such hybridization pattern was evident in conidial DNA digest; (2) Procedure for concentration of rDNAs from Neurospora species and cell types was standardized; restriction analysis of purified rDNAs is being done; (3) 35S total rDNA clone, 17S rDNA clone and 26S rDNA subclone are being used to see gross differences in the precursor rRNAs of different cell types; (4) Comparison of DNA:DNA homologies of rRNA genes with different Neurospora species. II. Post-mitochondrial DNAs of N. crassa are found to be rDNA-like and were further characterized by electron microscopic studies and are found to be approximately twice the size of SV-40 DNAs. These N. crassa post-mitochondrial DNAs hybridized with /sup 32/P-labeled N. crassa nuclear DNAs. III. Previous studies on differential RNase sensitive DNA polymerase activity in N. Crassa cell types and on evolution of sexual morphogenesis in the genus Neurospora are completed and published. RNase sensitive DNA polymerase activity is found to be in the post-mitochondrial fraction. Heterothallism in the genus Neurospora is evolved from homothallism.

Dutta, S.K.

1981-01-01

292

Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

2012-01-01

293

Successful living donor kidney transplantation in a patient with prothrombin gene mutation: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with known prothrombin gene mutation and a history of prior vascular events, who underwent living donor kidney transplantation. Given the presumed elevated risk of complication from known prothrombin mutation, clinical management was directed towards optimizing living donor allograft function. PMID:24574607

Shen, Edward; Uemura, Tadahiro; Kadry, Zakiyah; Sathishkumar, Subramanian

2014-01-01

294

Replication-Deficient Adenovirus Vector Transfer of gfpReporter Gene into Supraoptic Nucleus and Subfornical Organ Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies used defined cells of the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as model systems to demonstrate the efficacy of replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) for gene transfer. The studies investigated the effects of both direct transfection of the SON and indirect transfection (i.e., via retrograde transport) of SFO neurons. The SON of rats

Elisardo C. Vasquez; Ralph F. Johnson; Terry G. Beltz; Ronald E. Haskell; Beverly L. Davidson; Alan Kim Johnson

1998-01-01

295

GenePRIMP: A GENE PRediction IMprovement Pipeline for Prokaryotic genomes  

SciTech Connect

We present 'gene prediction improvement pipeline' (GenePRIMP; http://geneprimp.jgi-psf.org/), a computational process that performs evidence-based evaluation of gene models in prokaryotic genomes and reports anomalies including inconsistent start sites, missed genes and split genes. We found that manual curation of gene models using the anomaly reports generated by GenePRIMP improved their quality, and demonstrate the applicability of GenePRIMP in improving finishing quality and comparing different genome-sequencing and annotation technologies.

Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

2010-04-01

296

Bacterial beta-galactosidase and human dystrophin genes are expressed in mouse skeletal muscle fibers after ballistic transfection.  

PubMed

Ballistic transfection, based on cell and tissue bombardment by the tungsten and gold microparticles covered with the gene DNA, was used for the delivery of a bacterial beta-galactosidase and a full-length cDNA copy of the human dystrophin genes into mouse skeletal muscles. CMV-lacZ, SV40-lacZ, LTR-lacZneo and full-length cDNA dystrophin (pDMD-1, approximately 16 kb) in eukaryotic expression vector pJ OMEGA driven by mouse leukaemia virus promotor (pMLVDy) were used throughout the studies. Musculus glutaeus superficialis of C57BL/6J and quadriceps femoris of mdx male mice were opened surgically under anesthesia and bombarded by means of the gene-gun technique originally developed by us. Different mixtures of gold and tungsten particles at ratios of 4:1, 1:1, 1:4 were applied. X-gal assay revealed marked beta-gal activity, both in total muscles and whole muscle fibers on histological sections, up to three months after transfection. The most intensive staining was observed after SV40-lacZ delivery. No staining was detected with LTR-lacZneo DNA as well as in untreated muscles. The higher tungsten particle concentration in the bombardment mixture correlated with more intense X-gal staining. At the gold/tungsten ratio of 1:4 the microparticles penetrated the musculus glutaeus superficialis and transfected the underlying musculus glutaeus medius as well. Immuno-cytochemical assay for human dystrophin revealed dystrophin positive myofibers (DPM) in the bombarded area up to two months after transfection. The proportion of DMP varied from 2.5% on day 17 up two 5% on day 60 after bombardment compared to only 0.5% in the control mdx mice. These results suggest the applicability of particle bombardment for gene delivery into muscle fibers. PMID:9315710

Zelenin, A V; Kolesnikov, V A; Tarasenko, O A; Shafei, R A; Zelenina, I A; Mikhailov, V V; Semenova, M L; Kovalenko, D V; Artemyeva, O V; Ivaschenko, T E; Evgrafov, O V; Dickson, G; Baranovand, V S

1997-09-01

297

A novel ?-globin gene mutation (HBD: c.323G>A) masking the diagnosis of ?-thalassemia: a first report from India.  

PubMed

An elevated HbA(2) (?2?2) level (>3.5%) is a well-established diagnostic test for heterozygous ?-thalassemia. Mutations in the ?-globin gene can cause decreased expression of HbA(2), resulting in heterozygous ?-thalassemia with normal levels of HbA(2). In this report, we describe a novel missense mutation in ?-globin (HBD: c.323G>A, Gly > Asp) in an Indian family with heterozygous ?-thalassemia with normal HbA(2) levels. PMID:22477537

Jain, Sachin; Edison, Eunice S; Mathews, Vikram; Shaji, R V

2012-05-01

298

Positive Darwinian Selection after Gene Duplication in Primate Ribonuclease Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary mechanisms of origins of new gene function have been a subject of long-standing debate. Here we report a convincing case in which positive Darwinian selection operated at the molecular level during the evolution of novel function by gene duplication. The genes for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in primates belong to the ribonuclease gene family, and

Jianzhi Zhang; Helene F. Rosenberg; Masatoshi Nei

1998-01-01

299

LuSens: a keratinocyte based ARE reporter gene assay for use in integrated testing strategies for skin sensitization hazard identification.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis can develop following repeated exposure to allergenic substances. To date, hazard identification is still based on animal studies as non-animal alternatives have not yet gained global regulatory acceptance. Several non-animal methods addressing key-steps of the adverse outcome pathway (OECD, 2012) will most likely be needed to fully address this effect. Among the initial cellular events is the activation of keratinocytes and currently only one method, the KeratinoSens™, has been formally validated to address this event. In this study, a further method, the LuSens assay, that uses a human keratinocyte cell line harbouring a reporter gene construct composed of the antioxidant response element (ARE) of the rat NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene and the luciferase gene. The assay was validated in house using a selection of 74 substances which included the LLNA performance standards. The predictivity of the LuSens assay for skin sensitization hazard identification was comparable to other non-animal methods, in particular to the KeratinoSens™. When used as part of a testing battery based on the OECD adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization, a combination of the LuSens assay, the DPRA and a dendritic cell line activation test attained predictivities similar to that of the LLNA. PMID:25172300

Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Mehling, Annette; Kolle, Susanne N; Wruck, Christoph J; Teubner, Wera; Eltze, Tobias; Aumann, Alexandra; Urbisch, Daniel; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

2014-12-01

300

Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a meta-analysis of reported mutations in the first decade following the discovery of the EPM2A and NHLRC1 genes.  

PubMed

Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive and fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. LD patients manifest myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures, visual hallucinations, and progressive neurologic deterioration beginning at 12 to 15 years of age. The two genes known to be associated with LD are EPM2A and NHLRC1. Mutations in at least one other as yet unknown gene also cause LD. The EMP2A encodes a protein phosphatase and NHLRC1 encodes an ubiquitin ligase. These two proteins interact with each other and, as a complex, are thought to regulate critical neuronal functions. Nearly 100 distinct mutations have been discovered in the two genes in over 200 independent LD families. Nearly half of them are missense mutations, and the deletion mutations account for one-quarter. Several reports have provided functional data for the mutant proteins and a few also provide genotype-phenotype correlations. In this review we provide an update on the spectrum of EPM2A and NHLRC1 mutations, and discuss their distribution in the patient population, genotype-phenotype correlations, and on the possible effect of disease mutations on the cellular functions of LD proteins. PMID:19267391

Singh, Shweta; Ganesh, Subramaniam

2009-05-01

301

(Endogenous retrotransposable gene elements af human genome in high incidence cancers): Foreign trip report, December 6, 1988--March 6, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The traveler worked full time for 3 months at the new biomedical research institute of Academia Sinica to investigate the presence of mobile gene elements (retrotransposons and/or endogenous retroviral genes) in Chinese patient-derived hepatomas, nasopharyngeal cancers and cervical cancers. The research project, taking advantage of the traveler's unique expertise in this field of research and the collections of unique cancer cell/tissue materials at IBMS, is important for the development of a unique research project of human genome studies at ORNL. The traveler was successful in preparing five cDNA libraries of the Chinese patient origin (two from hepatomas and one each from nasopharyngeal cancer, cervical cancer and pituitary tumor); in obtaining preliminary results of human cancer cell poly(A) RNAs with tRNA primer binding and reverse transcription activities; in collecting cancer and normal chromosomal DNA materials from Chinese patients; and in establishing contacts for possible collaborative clinical and epidemiological investigation.

Yang, Wen K.

1989-03-17

302

[Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Progress report, [March 15, 1989--April 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The long term aim of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate into starch via manipulation of the gene that encodes for ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, a key regulatory enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as cereal seeds and tubers, starch biosynthesis is regulated by the gene activation and expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, branching enzyme and other ancillary starch modifying enzymes, as well as the allosteric-controlled behavior of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity. During the last two years we have obtained information on the structure of this enzyme from both potato tuber and rice endosperm, using a combination of biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Moreover, we present evidence that this enzyme may be localized at discrete regions of the starch grain within the amyloplast, and plays a role in controlling overall starch biosynthesis in potato tubers.

Okita, T.W.

1990-12-31

303

Use of a transposon with luciferase as a reporter to identify environmentally responsive genes in a cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

Anabaena, a filamentous cyanobacterium, is of developmental interest because, when deprived of fixed nitrogen, it shows patterned differentiation of N2-fixing cells called heterocysts. To help elucidate its early responses to a decrease in nitrogen, we used a derivative of transposon Tn5 to generate transcriptional fusions of promoterless bacterial luciferase genes, luxAB, to the Anabaena genome. Genes that responded to removal of fixed nitrogen or to other environmental shifts by increased or decreased transcription were identified by monitoring the luminescence of colonies from transposon-generated libraries. The Tn5 derivative transposed in Anabaena at ca. 1-4 x 10(-5) per cell and permitted high-resolution mapping of its position and orientation in the genome and facile cloning of contiguous genomic DNA. Images PMID:11607193

Wolk, C P; Cai, Y; Panoff, J M

1991-01-01

304

In vitro expression and mutagenesis of a gene for corticotropin releasing factor. Annual report, November 1988-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

The specific goals of this proposal are to: (1) create a recombinant gene for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), (2) express that gene by in vitro transcription and translation, (3) test the function of this recombinant protein by receptor binding assay and agonist-induced release of ACTH from cultured pituitary cells and (4) create and test mutants of the CRF molecule (starting at the level of the DNA). The author have accomplished the first two of these goals and partially completed the third. He has have synthesized the CRF gene, expressed it and characterized the recombinant protein. This protein is active when applied to pituitary cells, but the in vitro translation extract contains substances which partially interfere with that activity. He is are presently purifying the recombinant protein from the translation extract. In a related area, he is are conducting experiments to characterize the stress non-responsive period (SNRP) in the neonatal rat. It has been found find that the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is not entirely subject to this quiescent adrenocortical period (during the first two weeks of neonatal life) when compared with the normotensive control animal. This difference is not caused by alterations in the levels of circulating (or stored) ACTH, implying that there are differences in the responsiveness of the adrenal cortex.

Vrana, K.E.

1989-10-31

305

The Y specific growth gene(s): how does it promote stature?  

PubMed Central

Although the presence of a Y specific growth gene(s) (Y growth gene(s) on Yq has widely been accepted, it remains unknown how this gene promotes stature. In this report, we discuss the growth pattern in normal boys and girls and in patients with growth disorders informative for the Y growth gene(s). The results suggest that the Y growth gene(s) augments statural growth by controlling the sex steroid independent childhood growth pattern. PMID:9138158

Ogata, T; Matsuo, N

1997-01-01

306

Radiation improves gene delivery by a novel transferrin-lipoplex nanoparticle selectively in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Selective gene transfer to tumor is critical in cancer gene therapy. We previously used ionizing radiation to improve adenovirus uptake in intrahepatic tumors but liver cytotoxicity associated with the viral administration still occurred. Here, we explore the potential of radiation for improving gene delivery by a virus-mimicking nanoparticle, transferrin (Tf)-cationic liposome-DNA complex (Tf-lipoplex). Transduction by Tf-lipoplex was highly efficient in various cell lines and further increased by radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This radiation induction, which was associated with an increase in Tf-lipoplex uptake (3- to 4-folds in hepatocytes WB and lung cancer cells, LLC1), was absent when a Tf-deficient complex was used or abolished by the presence of free Tf, suggesting that Tf receptor (TfR) interaction is required for radiation induction. Radiation (10–20 Gy) markedly induced transgene (LacZ) expression in LLC1 xenografts (3.5- to 7.4-folds), correlating with increased plasmid content and TfR expression in irradiated tumors. Moreover, Tf-lipoplex-mediated gene expression was not observed in the liver or other normal tissues regardless of radiation treatment. We conclude that radiation improves Tf-lipoplex gene delivery selectively to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may provide insight in developing ligand-specific lipoplex for molecularly targeted cancer gene therapy. PMID:18483503

Abela, RA; Qian, J; Xu, L; Lawrence, TS; Zhang, M

2010-01-01

307

Radiation improves gene delivery by a novel transferrin-lipoplex nanoparticle selectively in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Selective gene transfer to tumor is critical in cancer gene therapy. We previously used ionizing radiation to improve adenovirus uptake in intrahepatic tumors but liver cytotoxicity associated with the viral administration still occurred. Here, we explore the potential of radiation for improving gene delivery by a virus-mimicking nanoparticle, transferrin (Tf)-cationic liposome-DNA complex (Tf-lipoplex). Transduction by Tf-lipoplex was highly efficient in various cell lines and further increased by radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This radiation induction, which was associated with an increase in Tf-lipoplex uptake (3- to 4-folds in hepatocytes WB and lung cancer cells, LLC1), was absent when a Tf-deficient complex was used or abolished by the presence of free Tf, suggesting that Tf receptor (TfR) interaction is required for radiation induction. Radiation (10-20 Gy) markedly induced transgene (LacZ) expression in LLC1 xenografts (3.5- to 7.4-folds), correlating with increased plasmid content and TfR expression in irradiated tumors. Moreover, Tf-lipoplex-mediated gene expression was not observed in the liver or other normal tissues regardless of radiation treatment. We conclude that radiation improves Tf-lipoplex gene delivery selectively to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may provide insight in developing ligand-specific lipoplex for molecularly targeted cancer gene therapy. PMID:18483503

Abela, R A; Qian, J; Xu, L; Lawrence, T S; Zhang, M

2008-08-01

308

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of the alpha-2 tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Alpha tubulin isotypes are encoded by at least four genes designated alpha-1 to alpha-4 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We describe here, molecular cloning of the alpha-2 tubulin gene, located on chromosome I, that encodes a protein of 449 amino acids that has high homology to human, mouse and Drosophila alpha tubulins, but relatively lower homology to the yeast alpha tubulins. The alpha-2 tubulin gene is trans-spliced to the SL1 leader sequence. Northern analysis shows that the gene is increasingly transcribed during the early (L1-L3) larval stages but has a lower level of transcription in L4 L4 larvae, adults, and embryos. Using an alpha-2-lacZ fusion gene expression in transgenic animals, we show that the gene is expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the intestine, pharyngeal muscle cells, and a subset of neurons which include a class of DB and VB motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord, posterior touch receptor neurons, PLML, PLMR, in the lumbar ganglia; PVT in the pre-anal ganglion, and ALA in the dorsal ganglion in the head. Our results support the notion that tubulin structure may contribute to the functional specialization of microtubules. PMID:8263934

Fukushige, T; Yasuda, H; Siddiqui, S S

1993-12-20

309

Bioimaging real-time PXR-dependent mdr1a gene regulation in mdr1a.fLUC reporter mice.  

PubMed

The MDR1 gene encodes P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane drug efflux transporter that confers multidrug resistance in cancer cells and affects drug pharmacokinetics by virtue of its expression in the liver, kidney, and colon. Nuclear receptors human steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are possible master regulators of xenobiotic-inducible MDR1 expression in drug processing organs, but the mechanism of MDR1 regulation has yet to be directly demonstrated in vivo. Moreover, it has previously been impossible to determine the sustained or cumulative effect of repeated doses of xenobiotics on in vivo MDR1 expression. We previously reported a mouse model containing firefly luciferase (fLUC) knocked into the mdr1a genomic locus, allowing noninvasive bioimaging of intestinal mdr1a gene expression in live animals. In the current study, we crossed mdr1a.fLUC mice into the pxr knockout (pxr(-/-)) genetic background and injected mice with pregnenolone-16?-carbonitrile (PCN), a strong mouse pregnane X receptor (PXR) ligand, and two therapeutically relevant taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel. All three agents induced mdr1a.fLUC expression (bioluminescence), but only PCN and docetaxel appeared to act primarily via PXR. Luminescence returned to baseline by 24-48 hours after drug injection and was reinducible over two additional rounds of drug dosing in pxr(+/+) mice. TCPOBOP, a CAR ligand, modestly induced mdr1a.fLUC in pxr(+/+) and pxr(-/-) strains, consistent with CAR's minor role in mdr1a regulation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the mdr1a.fLUC bioimaging model can capture changes in mdr1 gene expression under conditions of repeated xenobiotic treatment in vivo and that it can be used to probe the mechanism of gene regulation in response to different xenobiotic agents. PMID:23532932

Gu, Long; Chen, Jasmine; Synold, Timothy W; Forman, Barry M; Kane, Susan E

2013-06-01

310

Report of a Novel Mutation in MLH1 Gene in a Hispanic Family from Puerto Rico Fulfilling Classic Amsterdam Criteria for Lynch Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In Puerto Rico, colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the second leading cause of cancer in men and women. Familial CRC accounts for 10–15% of the total CRC cases, while Lynch syndrome accounts for approximately 2–4% of cases. Limited information is available about the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and genetic mutations of hereditary CRC in US Hispanic individuals. In this paper we report a novel mutation in the hMLH1 gene in a Puerto Rican Hispanic family with Lynch syndrome recruited through the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (PURIFICAR). Our proband was identified by applying Amsterdam and Bethesda criteria for Lynch syndrome, analysis of protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and genetic sequencing of the mismatch repair genes. A novel mutation at c.2044_2045 in hMLH1 consisting of the deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (AT) at exon 18 was identified. This deletion causes a frameshift in the protein coding sequence at p.682 resulting in premature termination and a truncated MLH1 protein. To our knowledge, this mutation has not been previously reported in the literature. The detection of this novel mutation in MLH1 further emphasizes the need for genetic testing in at-risk patients for hereditary CRC from various ethnic and racial backgrounds. PMID:25389437

Marqués-Lespier, Juan M.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria

2014-01-01

311

A novel TRPS1 gene mutation causing trichorhinophalangeal syndrome with growth hormone responsive short stature: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The role of growth hormone (GH) and its therapeutic supplementation in the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (TRPS I) is not well delineated. TRPS I is a rare congenital syndrome, characterized by craniofacial and skeletal malformations including short stature, sparse, thin scalp hair and lateral eyebrows, pear-shaped nose, cone shaped epiphyses and hip dysplasia. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and caused by haploinsufficiency of the TRPS1 gene. We report a family (Mother and 3 of her 4 children) with a novel mutation in the TRPS1 gene. The diagnosis was suspected only after meeting all family members and comparing affected and unaffected siblings since the features of this syndrome might be subtle. The eldest sibling, who had neither GH deficiency nor insensitivity, improved his growth velocity and height SDS after 2 years of treatment with exogenous GH. No change in growth velocity was observed in the untreated siblings during this same period. This report emphasizes the importance of examining all family members when suspecting a genetic syndrome. It also demonstrates the therapeutic effect of GH treatment in TRPS I despite normal GH-IGF1 axis. A review of the literature is included to address whether TRPS I is associated with: a) GH deficiency, b) GH resistance, or c) GH-responsive short stature. More studies are needed before recommending GH treatment for TRPS I but a trial should be considered on an individual basis. PMID:25177352

2014-01-01

312

Ferritin as a reporter gene for MRI: Chronic liver over expression of h-Ferritin during dietary iron supplementation and aging  

PubMed Central

The iron storage protein, ferritin, provides an important endogenous MRI contrast that can be used to determine the level of tissue iron. In recent years the impact of modulating ferritin expression on MRI contrast and relaxation rates was evaluated by several groups, using genetically modified cells, viral gene transfer and transgenic animals. This paper report the follow-up of transgenic mice that chronically over-expressed the heavy chain of ferritin (h-ferritin) in liver hepatocytes (liver-hfer mice) over a period of 2 years, with the aim of investigating the long-term effects of elevated level of h-ferritin on MR signal and on the well-being of the mice. Analysis revealed that aging liver-hfer mice, exposed to chronic elevated expression of h-ferritin, have increased R2 values compared to WT. As expected for ferritin, R2 difference was strongly enhanced at high magnetic field. Histological analysis of these mice did not reveal liver changes with prolonged over expression of ferritin, and no differences could be detected in other organs. Furthermore, dietary iron supplementation significantly affected MRI contrast, without affecting animal wellbeing, for both wildtype and ferritin over expressing transgenic mice. These results suggest the safety of ferritin over-expression, and support the use of h-ferritin as a reporter gene for MRI. PMID:20175142

Ziv, Keren; Meir, Gila; Harmelin, Alon; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Eugenia; Neeman, Michal

2013-01-01

313

Efficient generation of knock-in transgenic zebrafish carrying reporter/driver genes by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering  

PubMed Central

The type II bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system is rapidly becoming popular for genome-engineering due to its simplicity, flexibility, and high efficiency. Recently, targeted knock-in of a long DNA fragment via homology-independent DNA repair has been achieved in zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 system. This raised the possibility that knock-in transgenic zebrafish could be efficiently generated using CRISPR/Cas9. However, how widely this method can be applied for the targeting integration of foreign genes into endogenous genomic loci is unclear. Here, we report efficient generation of knock-in transgenic zebrafish that have cell-type specific Gal4 or reporter gene expression. A donor plasmid containing a heat-shock promoter was co-injected with a short guide RNA (sgRNA) targeted for genome digestion, a sgRNA targeted for donor plasmid digestion, and Cas9 mRNA. We have succeeded in establishing stable knock-in transgenic fish with several different constructs for 4 genetic loci at a frequency being exceeding 25%. Due to its simplicity, design flexibility, and high efficiency, we propose that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in will become a standard method for the generation transgenic zebrafish. PMID:25293390

Kimura, Yukiko; Hisano, Yu; Kawahara, Atsuo; Higashijima, Shin-ichi

2014-01-01

314

Stable reporter gene assay based on Gal4-vitamin D receptor ? fusion proteins in medaka (Oryzias latipes), and its transactivational properties.  

PubMed

The transactivational property of natural and synthetic chemicals via medaka vitamin D receptor ? subtype (VDR?) was investigated after the development of a stable cell line expressing a Gal4-VDR? fusion protein for reporter gene assay. Members of vitamin D class, including 1?, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3) were specifically detected as agonists in our system. Although other steroids and chemicals used in the present estimation induced no agonistic response, 10 compounds displayed antagonistic or synergistic activity. Spironolactone, which is an antagonist of corticoid receptors in mammals, competitively inhibited the transactivity of 1,25VD3 by over 80% in a dose dependent manner. Mifepristone and cyproterone acetate were also detected as antagonists, but they significantly acted only at 10µ. Pregnenolone and raloxifene dose-dependently enhanced the activity of 1,25VD3 at EC50 to the maximum level. Diethylstilbestrol, 17?-ethynylestradiol, genistein, and stanozolol were also synergists, but their potency was low. Interestingly, dibutyltin dichloride, which is used as a stabilizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride plastics, produced greater response than maximum effect of 1,25VD3 although the concentration-response curve was not typically sigmoidal. In the present study, we successfully developed a stable reporter gene assay, which allows assessment of the vitamin D-like chemicals toward the medaka VDR?. PMID:24694221

Tanago, Atsushi; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka

2014-04-01

315

Cloning of a phenazine biosynthetic locus of Pseudomonas aureofaciens PGS12 and analysis of its expression in vitro with the ice nucleation reporter gene.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aureofaciens PGS12 produces three phenazine antibiotics, in addition to siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, pyrrolnitrin, and indoleacetic acid. Tn5-259.7 transposon mutagenesis was carried out to identify and clone a chromosomal locus involved in phenazine biosynthesis. Three classes of mutants were obtained: mutants deficient in phenazine production (Phz-), mutants deficient in hydrogen cyanide production (HCN-), and mutants deficient in the production of both compounds. EcoRI DNA fragments that contained the transposon and flanking regions were cloned from three mutants with single-transposon insertions, one from each phenotypic class. Phenazine and hydrogen cyanide production was restored by complementation of Phz- or HCN- mutants with selected cosmids from a PGS12 genomic library. No cosmids that complemented the doubly deficient Phz-HCN- mutant were obtained. A promoterless ice nucleation reporter gene was inserted in a phenazine biosynthetic locus by Tn3-spice transposon mutagenesis of a cosmid which complemented a phenazine-minus mutant. Reporter gene fusions that expressed the ice nucleation phenotype and no longer complemented phenazine production were introduced into the PGS12 chromosome by marker exchange. The expression of this locus was then monitored under different culture conditions. Expression decreased at pH levels below 7, and it was not affected by iron. Shikimic acid and phenylalanine favored higher expression levels. Expression was reduced in media with low substrate concentrations, indicating the importance of nutrient availability. PMID:8085830

Georgakopoulos, D G; Hendson, M; Panopoulos, N J; Schroth, M N

1994-01-01

316

I. Purpose: Provide containment requirements for use of adenoviral vectors in Laboratory Rats, Laboratory Mice and Laboratory Rabbits.  

E-print Network

a biological safety cabinet under biosafety level 2 (BL2) conditions. Safer, engineered needles or needle less Reporter genes (e.g., green fluorescent protein, LacZ) BL1-N Genes with biological activity BL2-N for first hours, reduces the risk of exposure to shed virus and allows for a sensible safety factor. D. Exceptions

Paulsson, Johan

317

Genetic tool development for a new host for biotechnology, the thermotolerant bacterium Bacillus coagulans.  

PubMed

Bacillus coagulans has good potential as an industrial production organism for platform chemicals from renewable resources but has limited genetic tools available. Here, we present a targeted gene disruption system using the Cre-lox system, development of a LacZ reporter assay for monitoring gene transcription, and heterologous d-lactate dehydrogenase expression. PMID:20400555

Kovács, Akos T; van Hartskamp, Mariska; Kuipers, Oscar P; van Kranenburg, Richard

2010-06-01

318

Transgenic mice containing intestinal fatty acid-binding protein-human growth hormone fusion genes exhibit correct regional and cell-specific expression of the reporter gene in their small intestine.  

PubMed Central

The rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) gene exhibits cell-specific as well as regional differences in its expression within the continuously regenerating small intestinal epithelium. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we linked portions of its 5' nontranscribed domain to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene and analyzed expression of the hGH reporter in transgenic mice by RNA blot, solution hybridization, and immunocytochemical techniques. Sequences located within 277 nucleotides of the start site of I-FABP transcription are sufficient to limit hGH expression to the intestine. Although the absolute levels of hGH mRNA in the duodenum and proximal jejunum of these transgenic mice were similar to those of I-FABP mRNA, steady-state hGH mRNA concentrations were approximately 100 times lower in their distal small intestine. Addition of nucleotides -278 to -1178 of the I-FABP gene "restored" hGH mRNA concentrations in the distal jejunum and ileum to levels comparable to murine I-FABP mRNA. Serum hGH levels were 1000 times lower in the "short promoter" transgenic mice compared to animals with the "long promoter" transgene, indicating that efficient distal small intestinal hGH expression is required to produce elevated hGH concentrations in serum. The distribution of hGH in villus-associated enterocytes and goblet cells and its lack of expression in the crypts of Lieberkuhn mimicked that of the endogenous I-FABP gene product in all transgenic pedigrees. However, bands of hGH-negative cells extending from the base to the tips of villi were frequently observed in mice that were heterozygous for the short promoter transgene. This mosaic staining was not observed for I-FABP. These data suggest that (i) different cis-acting sequences may be required for complete expression of proximal-distal I-FABP gradients than for recapitulation of its normal crypt-villus tip distribution; (ii) differences may exist in the export pathways of secreted proteins within enterocytes located in various regions of the small intestine; and (iii) there may be subtle genetic differences among various crypt stem cells that can be detected in vivo by observing mosaic patterns of transgene expression along the villus epithelium. Images PMID:3200846

Sweetser, D A; Hauft, S M; Hoppe, P C; Birkenmeier, E H; Gordon, J I

1988-01-01

319

Replication-deficient adenovirus vector transfer of gfp reporter gene into supraoptic nucleus and subfornical organ neurons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present studies used defined cells of the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as model systems to demonstrate the efficacy of replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) for gene transfer. The studies investigated the effects of both direct transfection of the SON and indirect transfection (i.e., via retrograde transport) of SFO neurons. The SON of rats were injected with Ad (2 x 10(6) pfu) and sacrificed 1-7 days later for cell culture of the SON and of the SFO. In the SON, GFP fluorescence was visualized in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells while only neurons in the SFO expressed GFP. Successful in vitro transfection of cultured cells from the SON and SFO was also achieved with Ad (2 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(8) pfu). The expression of GFP in in vitro transfected cells was higher in nonneuronal (approximately 28% in SON and SFO) than neuronal (approximately 4% in SON and 10% in SFO) cells. The expression of GFP was time and viral concentration related. No apparent alterations in cellular morphology of transfected cells were detected and electrophysiological characterization of transfected cells was similar between GFP-expressing and nonexpressing neurons. We conclude that (1) GFP is an effective marker for gene transfer in living SON and SFO cells, (2) Ad infects both neuronal and nonneuronal cells, (3) Ad is taken up by axonal projections from the SON and retrogradely transported to the SFO where it is expressed at detectable levels, and (4) Ad does not adversely affect neuronal viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using adenoviral vectors to deliver genes to the SFO-SON axis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

Vasquez, E. C.; Johnson, R. F.; Beltz, T. G.; Haskell, R. E.; Davidson, B. L.; Johnson, A. K.

1998-01-01

320

Cytokine gene associations with self-report ratings of morning and evening fatigue in oncology patients and their family caregivers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate for differences in variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between participants who were classified as having low and high levels of morning and evening fatigue and to evaluate for differences in phenotypic characteristics between these two groups. In a sample of 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their family caregivers, growth mixture modeling was used to identify latent classes of individuals based on ratings of morning and evening fatigue obtained prior to, during, and for 4 months following completion of radiation therapy. Differences in single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in 15 cytokine genes were evaluated between the latent classes. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics on morning and evening fatigue class membership. Associations were found between morning fatigue and number of comorbidities as well as variations in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) rs1800629 and rs3093662. Evening fatigue was associated with caring for children at home and variations in interleukin 4 (IL4) rs2243248 and TNFA rs2229094. Younger age and lower performance status were associated with both morning and evening fatigue. These findings suggest that inflammatory mediators are associated with the development of morning and evening fatigue. However, because different phenotypic characteristics and genomic markers are associated with diurnal variations in fatigue, morning and evening fatigue may be distinct but related symptoms. PMID:24872120

Dhruva, Anand; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Cooper, Bruce; Paul, Steven M; Dodd, Marylin; West, Claudia; Wara, William; Lee, Kathryn; Dunn, Laura B; Langford, Dale J; Merriman, John D; Baggott, Christina; Cataldo, Janine; Ritchie, Christine; Kober, Kord M; Leutwyler, Heather; Miaskowski, Christine

2015-03-01

321

Genes and gene regulation  

SciTech Connect

Genetics has long been a central topic for biologists, and recent progress has captured the public imagination as well. This book addresses questions that are at the leading edge of this continually advancing discipline. In tune with the increasing emphasis on molecular biology and genetic engineering, this text emphasizes the molecular aspects of gene expression, and the evolution of gene sequence organization and control. It reviews the genetic material of viruses, bacteria, and of higher organisms. Cells and organisms are compared in terms of gene numbers, their arrangements within a cell, and the control mechanisms which regulate the activity of genes.

MacLean, N.

1988-01-01

322

Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

PubMed Central

Four genes coding for small heat shock proteins (sHsps) were identified in the genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, one on the circular chromosome (hspC), one on the linear chromosome (hspL), and two on the pAT plasmid (hspAT1 and hspAT2). Induction of sHsps at elevated temperatures was revealed by immunoblot analyses. Primer extension experiments and translational lacZ fusions demonstrated that expression of the pAT-derived genes and hspL is controlled by temperature in a regulon-specific manner. While the sHsp gene on the linear chromosome turned out to be regulated by RpoH (?32), both copies on pAT were under the control of highly conserved ROSE (named for repression of heat shock gene expression) sequences in their 5? untranslated region. Secondary structure predictions of the corresponding mRNA strongly suggest that it represses translation at low temperatures by masking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The hspC gene was barely expressed (if at all) and not temperature responsive. PMID:15466035

Balsiger, Sylvia; Ragaz, Curdin; Baron, Christian; Narberhaus, Franz

2004-01-01

323

Primary malignant lymphoma of the rectum with diagnostic problems. Report of two cases with an analysis of gene rearrangement.  

PubMed

We present two similar cases of rectal B-cell lymphoma with diagnostic problems. Grossly, both tumors appeared as a well demarcated polypoid mass with eroded mucosa. In spite of their histologic resemblance to reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, including the presence of lymph follicles, fibrosis and polyclonal plasma cells, both cases were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma of low-grade malignancy because of the full-thickness involvement of the rectum with diffusely infiltrated small or medium-sized lymphoid cells showing rare mitoses. In one case, clonal proliferation of differentiated B cells was demonstrated by analysis of gene rearrangement. Therapeutic problems related to low-grade malignant lymphoma in the rectum are also discussed. PMID:1750359

Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Iwashita, A; Ichikawa, M; Kajiwara, S; Ohtoshi, M

1991-08-01

324

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Lin-12 Expression during C. Elegans Hermaphrodite Development  

PubMed Central

The lin-12 gene encodes a receptor that mediates certain cell-cell interactions during Caenorhabditis elegans development. We have examined the expression of a lin-12::lacZ reporter gene in individual cells during the development of C. elegans hermaphrodites. lin-12::lacZ is expressed in a discrete spatial and temporal pattern during development and the lin-12::lacZ reporter gene will provide a useful marker for other studies, particularly of somatic gonadal and vulval development. In general, the cells that express lin-12::lacZ correspond to cells whose fates are known to be altered in lin-12 mutants implying that restriction of lin-12 expression may be an important regulatory mechanism; the exceptions to this statement may reveal the cellular defects that underlie aspects of the lin-12 phenotype that have not been previously explained. For decisions that are not naturally variable, lin-12::lacZ expression does not appear to change before or upon commitment to a cell fate implying that in these cases posttranscriptional regulation of lin-12 activity may control cell fate specification. PMID:8647389

Wilkinson, H. A.; Greenwald, IVA.

1995-01-01

325

Studying Genes  

MedlinePLUS

NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many of ...

326

Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer technology. Final report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Genetic manipulation of plants often involves the introduction of homologous or partly homologous genes. Ectropic introduction of homologous sequences into plant genomes may trigger epigenetic changes, making expression of the genes unpredictable. The main project objective was to examine the feasibility of using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer for homologous gene targeting in plants.

Marton, L.

1996-02-01

327

Extra nuchal-type fibroma associated with elastosis, traumatic neuroma, a rare APC gene missense mutation, and a very rare MUTYH gene polymorphism: a case report and review of the literature*.  

PubMed

We report a case of an extra nuchal-type fibroma in a 51-year-old male suspected to have attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (Gardner's syndrome), who presented with a longstanding buttock mass excised due to enlargement and pain. Histopathologically, lobules of haphazard, hypocellular, hyalinized collagen bundles replaced the dermis and subcutis and entrapped nerve bundles, mimicking Morton neuroma. Ramifying nerve twigs found around larger nerve fascicles showed the co-existence of traumatic neuroma. Elastic tissue stain revealed elastosis characterized by large, arborizing fibers lying between and within the hyalinized collagen bundles. Modified Masson's trichrome stain showed light blue staining of collagen bundles producing the hyalinized nodules with irregular, light red staining of collagen bundles at their periphery and within tumor collagen. Compression and/or degeneration of collagen and secondary elastosis with later entrapment by tumor collagen could explain this microscopic phenotype. By immunohistochemistry, tumor spindle cells expressed nuclear ?-catenin and cyclin D1, mostly within regions of fibrosis implicating activation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-Wnt pathway. Genetic analysis showed a missense mutation in APC gene (c.7504G>A, p.G2502S in exon 15) and a functional homozygous polymorphism in the MUTYH gene (c.36+325G>C, (IVS1+5G/C)). Nuchal-type fibroma has been associated with Gardner's syndrome and trauma. In this patient, genetic predisposition coupled with repetitive, localized trauma and collagen degeneration may have provided the stimulus for the development of extra nuchal-type fibroma. PMID:21752055

Linos, Konstantinos; Sedivcová, Monika; Cerna, Katerina; Sima, Radek; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Nazeer, Tipu; Glazyrin, Alexey; Valerian, Brian T; Carlson, J Andrew

2011-11-01

328

Pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines as inhibitors of firefly luciferase: their Cu-mediated synthesis and evaluation as false positives in a reporter gene assay.  

PubMed

2-Substituted pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines having free NH were prepared directly from 3-alkynyl-2-chloroquinoxalines in a single pot by using readily available and inexpensive methane sulfonamide (or p-toluene sulfonamide) as an ammonia surrogate. The reaction proceeded in the presence of Cu(OAc)(2) affording the desired product in moderate yield. The crystal structure analysis of a representative compound and its supramolecular interactions are presented. Some of the compounds synthesized exhibited inhibitory activities against luciferase that was supported by the predictive binding mode of these compounds with luciferase enzyme through molecular docking studies. The key observations disclosed here can alert users of luciferase reporter gene assays for possible false positive results due to the direct inhibition of luciferase. PMID:22981335

Nakhi, Ali; Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Kishore, Ravada; Meda, Chandana Lakshmi T; Deora, Girdhar Singh; Parsa, Kishore V L; Pal, Manojit

2012-10-15

329

Harnessing Gene Expression Networks to Prioritize Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy Genes  

PubMed Central

We apply a novel gene expression network analysis to a cohort of 182 recently reported candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes to identify those most likely to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. These candidate genes were identified as having single variants of likely pathogenic significance discovered in a large-scale massively parallel sequencing study. Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes were prioritized according to their co-expression with 29 known Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. We utilized developing brain and adult brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) and compared this to data from Celsius: a large, heterogeneous gene expression data warehouse. We show replicable prioritization results using these three independent gene expression resources, two of which are brain-specific, with small sample size, and the third derived from a heterogeneous collection of tissues with large sample size. Of the nineteen genes that we predicted with the highest likelihood to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, two (GNAO1 and GRIN2B) have recently been independently reported and confirmed. We compare our results to those produced by an established in silico prioritization approach called Endeavour, and finally present gene expression networks for the known and candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. This highlights sub-networks of gene expression, particularly in the network derived from the adult AHBA gene expression dataset. These networks give clues to the likely biological interactions between Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, potentially highlighting underlying mechanisms and avenues for therapeutic targets. PMID:25014031

Oliver, Karen L.; Lukic, Vesna; Thorne, Natalie P.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie

2014-01-01

330

A Putatively Functional Polymorphism in the HTR2C Gene is Associated with Depressive Symptoms in White Females Reporting Significant Life Stress  

PubMed Central

Psychosocial stress is well known to be positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Cortisol response to stress may be one of a number of biological mechanisms that links psychological stress to depressive symptoms, although the precise causal pathway remains unclear. Activity of the x-linked serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor has also been shown to be associated with depression and with clinical response to antidepressant medications. We recently demonstrated that variation in a single nucleotide polymorphism on the HTR2C gene, rs6318 (Ser23Cys), is associated with different cortisol release and short-term changes in affect in response to a series of stress tasks in the laboratory. Based on this observation, we decided to examine whether rs6318 might moderate the association between psychosocial stress and subsequent depressive symptoms. In the present study we use cross-sectional data from a large population-based sample of young adult White men (N?=?2,366) and White women (N?=?2,712) in the United States to test this moderation hypothesis. Specifically, we hypothesized that the association between self-reported stressful life events and depressive symptoms would be stronger among homozygous Ser23 C females and hemizygous Ser23 C males than among Cys23 G carriers. In separate within-sex analyses a genotype-by-life stress interaction was observed for women (p?=?.022) but not for men (p?=?.471). Homozygous Ser23 C women who reported high levels of life stress had depressive symptom scores that were about 0.3 standard deviations higher than female Cys23 G carriers with similarly high stress levels. In contrast, no appreciable difference in depressive symptoms was observed between genotypes at lower levels of stress. Our findings support prior work that suggests a functional SNP on the HTR2C gene may confer an increased risk for depressive symptoms in White women with a history of significant life stress. PMID:25514629

Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A.; Williams, Redford B.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Jiang, Rong; Kraus, William E.; Singh, Abanish; Costa, Paul T.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Siegler, Ilene C.

2014-01-01

331

Novel Genes Involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 Motility and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

AdnA in Pseudomonas fluorescens, an ortholog of FleQ in P. aeruginosa, regulates both motility and flagellum-mediated attachment to various surfaces. A whole-genome microarray determined the AdnA transcriptome by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild-type Pf0-1 to that of Pf0-2x (adnA deletion mutant) in broth culture. In the absence of AdnA, expression of 92 genes was decreased, while 11 genes showed increased expression. Analysis of 16 of these genes fused to lacZ confirmed the microarray results. Several genes were further evaluated for their role in motility and biofilm formation. Two genes, Pfl01_1508 and Pfl01_1517, affected motility and had different effects on biofilm formation in Pf0-1. These two genes are predicted to specify proteins similar to the glycosyl transferases FgtA1 and FgtA2, which have been shown to be involved in virulence and motility in P. syringae. Three other genes, Pfl01_1516, Pfl01_1572, and Pfl01_1573, not previously associated with motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas had similar effects on biofilm formation in Pf0-1. Deletion of each of these genes led to different motility defects. Our data revealed an additional level of complexity in the control of flagellum function beyond the core genes known to be required and may yield insights into processes important for environmental persistence of P. fluorescens Pf0-1. PMID:22492452

Mastropaolo, Matthew D.; Silby, Mark W.; Nicoll, Julie S.

2012-01-01

332

Regulation of the mec-3 gene by the C.elegans homeoproteins UNC-86 and MEC-3.  

PubMed Central

The mec-3 gene encodes a homeodomain protein with LIM repeats that is required for the specification of touch cell fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Previous experiments suggested that mec-3 expression requires the product of the unc-86 gene, a POU-type homeoprotein, and mec-3 itself. We have analyzed the control of mec-3 expression by identifying potential cis regulatory elements in the mec-3 gene (by conservation in a related nematode and by DNase I footprinting using unc-86 and mec-3 proteins) and testing their importance by transforming C.elegans with mec-3lacZ fusions in which these sites have been mutagenized in vitro. Both unc-86 and mec-3 proteins bind specifically to the promoter of the mec-3 gene, suggesting that both proteins may be directly involved in the regulation of the mec-3 gene. In addition, the footprint pattern with mec-3 protein is altered in the presence of unc-86 protein. In vivo transformation experiments reveal that some of the binding regions of the two proteins are needed for general positive control and maintenance of mec-3 expression while others have no detectable, unique function. Interestingly, the unc-86 gene appears to be required not only to initiate mec-3 expression but also to maintain it. Images PMID:1361171

Xue, D; Finney, M; Ruvkun, G; Chalfie, M

1992-01-01

333

Polymorphisms in Stromal Genes and Susceptibility to Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among Caucasians were estimated with odds ratios (OR) among 397 cases and 920 controls in two U.S.-based studies (discovery set), 436 cases and 1,098 controls in Australia (replication set 1) and a consortium of 15 studies comprising 1,668 cases and 4,249 controls (replication set 2). The discovery set and replication set 1 (833 cases and 2,013 controls) showed statistically homogeneous (Pheterogeneity?0.48) decreased risks of sEOC at four variants: DCN rs3138165, rs13312816 and rs516115, and LUM rs17018765 (OR?=?0.6 to 0.9; Ptrend?=?0.001 to 0.03). Results from replication set 2 were statistically homogeneous (Pheterogeneity?0.13) and associated with increased risks at DCN rs3138165 and rs13312816, and LUM rs17018765: all ORs?=?1.2; Ptrend?0.02. The ORs at the four variants were statistically heterogeneous across all 18 studies (Pheterogeneity?0.03), which precluded combining. In post-hoc analyses, interactions were observed between each variant and recruitment period (Pinteraction?0.003), age at diagnosis (Pinteraction?=?0.04), and year of diagnosis (Pinteraction?=?0.05) in the five studies with available information (1,044 cases, 2,469 controls). We conclude that variants in DCN and LUM are not directly associated with sEOC, and that confirmation of possible effect modification of the variants by non-genetic factors is required. PMID:21637745

Amankwah, Ernest K.; Wang, Qinggang; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dale, Laura C.; Lambrechts, Diether; Amant, Frederic; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Paul, James; Bützow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana M.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vermeulen, Sita H. H. M.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Cook, Linda S.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vachon, Celine M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Kelemen, Linda E.

2011-01-01

334

Polymorphisms in stromal genes and susceptibility to serous epithelial ovarian cancer: a report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.  

PubMed

Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among Caucasians were estimated with odds ratios (OR) among 397 cases and 920 controls in two U.S.-based studies (discovery set), 436 cases and 1,098 controls in Australia (replication set 1) and a consortium of 15 studies comprising 1,668 cases and 4,249 controls (replication set 2). The discovery set and replication set 1 (833 cases and 2,013 controls) showed statistically homogeneous (P(heterogeneity)?0.48) decreased risks of sEOC at four variants: DCN rs3138165, rs13312816 and rs516115, and LUM rs17018765 (OR?=?0.6 to 0.9; P(trend)?=?0.001 to 0.03). Results from replication set 2 were statistically homogeneous (P(heterogeneity)?0.13) and associated with increased risks at DCN rs3138165 and rs13312816, and LUM rs17018765: all ORs?=?1.2; P(trend)?0.02. The ORs at the four variants were statistically heterogeneous across all 18 studies (P(heterogeneity)?0.03), which precluded combining. In post-hoc analyses, interactions were observed between each variant and recruitment period (P(interaction)?0.003), age at diagnosis (P(interaction)?=?0.04), and year of diagnosis (P(interaction)?=?0.05) in the five studies with available information (1,044 cases, 2,469 controls). We conclude that variants in DCN and LUM are not directly associated with sEOC, and that confirmation of possible effect modification of the variants by non-genetic factors is required. PMID:21637745

Amankwah, Ernest K; Wang, Qinggang; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J; Fridley, Brooke L; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E; Webb, Penelope M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dale, Laura C; Lambrechts, Diether; Amant, Frederic; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M; Kaye, Stanley B; Paul, James; Bützow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana M; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Massuger, Leon F A G; van Altena, Anne M; Vermeulen, Sita H H M; Le, Nhu D; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Cook, Linda S; Phelan, Catherine M; Cunningham, Julie M; Vachon, Celine M; Vierkant, Robert A; Iversen, Edwin S; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L; Sellers, Thomas A; Kelemen, Linda E

2011-01-01

335

Induction of Rhizobium meliloti nodC gene by Alnus incana compounds.  

PubMed

An expression of nodC promoter of R. meliloti 1021, cloned in front of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, was used to study the presence of R. meliloti nodC gene-inducing compound(s) in extracts and exudates of A. incana seeds and roots. The regulatory gene nodD was expressed at comparable level in bacterial culture of R. meliloti with and without the studied plant extracts and exudates, whereas the nodC-lacZ fusion expression was increased 4 times by seed exudates of grey alder and 2 times by seed extracts and root ingredients in comparison to the nodC-lacZ fusion expression in R. meliloti grown in a medium free of plant compounds. Induction of R. meliloti nodC gene expression by A. incana substances was also supported in plant test. Sterile filtrate of coculture of R. meliloti with seed exudates of A. incana induced root hair deformations and nodule-like structures on Medicago sativa. PMID:8914264

Ma?ek, W

1996-01-01

336

Search for Proteins Required for Accurate Gene Expression under Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

In aerobically growing cells, in which reactive oxygen species are produced, the guanine base is oxidized to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, which can pair with adenine as well as cytosine. This mispairing causes alterations in gene expression, and cells possess mechanisms to prevent such outcomes. In Escherichia coli, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine-related phenotypic suppression of lacZ amber is enhanced by mutations in genes related to the prevention of abnormal protein synthesis under oxidative stress. A genome-wide search for the genes responsible, followed by DNA sequence determination, revealed that specific amino acid changes in guanylate kinase and in the ? and ?? subunits of RNA polymerase cause elevated levels of phenotypic suppression, specifically under aerobic conditions. The involvement of the DnaB, DnaN, and MsbA proteins, which are involved in DNA replication and in preserving the membrane structure, was also noted. Interactions of these proteins with each other and also with other molecules may be important for preventing errors in gene expression. PMID:24097971

Inokuchi, Hachiro; Ito, Riyoko; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo

2013-01-01

337

Cancer gene therapy  

E-print Network

Cancer gene therapy can be defined as transfer of nucleic acids into tumor or normal cells with aim to eradicate or reduce tumor mass by direct killing of cells, immunomodulation or correction of genetic errors, and reversion of malignant status. Initially started with lots of optimism and enthusiasm, cancer gene therapy has shown limited success in treatment of patients. This review highlights current limitations and almost endless possibilities of cancer gene therapy. The major difficulty in advancing gene therapy technology from the bench to the clinical practice is problem with gene delivery vehicles (so called vectors) needed to ferry genetic material into a cell. Despite few reports of therapeutic responses in some patients, there is still no proof of clinical efficacy of most cancer gene therapy approaches, primarily due to very low transduction and expression efficacy in vivo of available vectors. An ãidealÒ gene therapy vector should be administrated through a noninvasive route and should be targeted not only to primary tumor mass but also to disseminated tumor cells and micrometastases; it should also carry therapeutic gene with tumor-restricted, time-regulated, and sustained expression. Current strategies for combating the cancer with gene therapy can be divided into four basic concepts: (1) replacement of missing tumor suppressor gene and/or blocking of oncogenes or pro-inflammatory genes, (2)

Arch Oncol; Tatjana Mitroviæ

338

Periluminal expression of a secreted transforming growth factor-? type II receptor inhibits in-stent neointima formation following adenovirus-mediated stent-based intracoronary gene transfer.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has been shown unequivocally to enhance neointima formation in carotid and ileo-femoral arteries. In our previous studies, however, TGF-?1 expression in coronary arteries actually reduced neointima formation without affecting luminal loss postangioplasty, while expression of a TGF-?1 antagonist (RIIs) in balloon-injured coronary arteries reduced luminal loss without affecting neointima formation. These observed effects may be a consequence of the mode of coronary artery gene transfer employed, but they may also represent differences in the modes of healing of coronary, carotid, and ileo-femoral arteries after endoluminal injury. To help clarify whether a gene therapy strategy to antagonize TGF-? might have application within the coronary vasculature, we have investigated the effect of high-level periluminal expression of RIIs using stent-based adenovirus-mediated intracoronary gene transfer. Porcine coronary arteries were randomized to receive a custom-made CoverStent preloaded with saline only, or with 1×10(9) infectious units of adenovirus expressing RIIs or ?-galactosidase (lacZ). Vessels were analyzed 28 days poststenting, at which time angiographic in-stent diameter was significantly greater in RIIs-treated arteries, and in-stent luminal loss significantly reduced. Computerized morphometric minimum in-stent lumen area was ~300% greater in RIIs-exposed vessels than in lacZ or saline-only groups. This was because of significantly reduced neointima formation in the RIIs group. RIIs had no demonstrable effect on cellular proliferation or apoptosis, but greater normalized neointimal/medial collagen content was observed in RIIs-exposed arteries. These data highlight the qualitatively similar effect of TGF-? antagonism on neointima formation in injured coronary and noncoronary arteries, and suggest that since cellular proliferation is unaffected, TGF-?1 antagonism might prevent in-stent restenosis without the delayed healing that is associated with drug-eluting stents in current clinical use. PMID:24483849

Appleby, Clare E; Ranjzad, Parisa; Williams, Paul D; Kakar, Salik J; Driessen, Anita; Tijsma, Edze; Fernandes, Brian; Heagerty, Anthony M; Kingston, Paul A

2014-05-01

339

Gene Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers the utilization of gene cloning to isolate and copy a specific gene of interest. The transformation of bacteria with plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes to make gene libraries and the selection of bacteria colonies that contain the specific gene of interest are described.

340

Correlation of the Taq1 dopamine D2 receptor gene and percent body fat in obese and screened control subjects: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

While there is a considerable body of literature correlating the role of dopaminergic genes and obesity, body mass index, body type, overeating, carbohydrate binging, energy expenditure and low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) receptor density, there is a paucity of research concerning the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variants and percent body fat. We report here the potential association of DRD2 genotypes and the percent fat phenotype. In this study we genotyped 122 obese/overweight (O/OW) Caucasian subjects and 30 non-obese Caucasian controls, screened to exclude substance abuse. The subjects were assessed for weight, body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and percent body fat using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The sample was separated into two independent groups; those with the Taq1 A1 allele (A1/A1 or A1/A2) and those without the A1 allele (A2/A2). The controls had a normal range of body fat (25-31% for females and 18-25% for males). The O/OW subjects had a percent body fat value of over 32% for females and over 25% for males. For the O/OW subjects, the mean BMI was 29.3 ± 6.25 kg m(-2), mean body fat was 42.1 ± 7.5% and mean weight was 82.7 ± 21.7 kg. The DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele was present in 67% of the O/OW subjects compared to 3.3% of super controls (A group), 33.3% of screened (for drug abuse and obesity) controls (B group) and unscreened literature controls 29.4% (P? 0.001). Comparing all cases with more than 34% body fat, utilizing logistic regression analysis, the DRD2 A1 allele accounts for 45.9% of the variance, which is statistically significant (?(2) = 43.47, degrees of freedom (df) = 1, P < 0.0001). These results are consistent with a role for the DRD2 gene in obesity, as measured by percent body fat as well as by weight and BMI. PMID:22051885

Chen, Amanda L C; Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas J H; Giordano, John; Downs, B William; Han, David; Barh, Debmalya; Braverman, Eric R

2012-01-01

341

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma - a report of two cases with cytogenetic analysis of FUS gene rearrangement by FISH technique.  

PubMed

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Recently, a link has been suggested between SEF and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) on the basis of the finding of the characteristic translocation t(7;16) (FUS-CREB3L2) of LGFMS in a small number of studied cases of SEF. The frequency of this translocation in SEF is still unknown. We present 2 cases of SEF with cytogenetic analysis for FUS rearrangement. The tumors occurred in 12 and 58 year old patients, respectively and consisted of a well to partially circumscribed, non-encapsulated mass, comprising monomorphic, polygonal cells arranged in aggregates, cords and single file arrays in a variably sclerotic stroma. The cells exhibited minimal nuclear atypia with moderate amount of clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm and rare mitotic figures. One case also showed bland spindle cell areas with myxoid change, as seen in LGFMS. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), the tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin, focally for S-100 in 1 case and negative for cytokeratin (CK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), HMB-45, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), H-caldesmon, Myo D-1, CD34 and CD 168. By fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique, the case with mixed SEF and LGFMS histology was positive for FUS rearrangement. Our study reinforces the previously reported relationship between SEF and LGFMS, and suggests that SEF may represent a variant of LGFMS in at least some cases, rather than an entirely distinct fibrosarcoma variant. PMID:20499220

Rekhi, Bharat; Folpe, Andrew L; Deshmukh, Mahesh; Jambhekar, Nirmala Ajit

2011-03-01

342

Intravital Fluorescence Imaging of Small Interfering RNA–Mediated Gene Repression in a Dual Reporter Melanoma Xenograft Model  

PubMed Central

Development of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of effective and efficient means of delivery. Reliable model systems for screening and optimizing delivery of RNAi-based agents in vivo are crucial for preclinical research aimed at advancing nucleic acid-based therapies. We describe here a dual fluorescent reporter xenograft melanoma model prepared by intradermal injection of human A375 melanoma cells expressing tandem tomato fluorescent protein (tdTFP) containing a small interfering RNA (siRNA) target site as well as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), which is used as a normalization control. Intratumoral injection of a siRNA specific to the incorporated siRNA target site, complexed with a cationic lipid that has been optimized for in vivo delivery, resulted in 65%±11% knockdown of tdTFP relative to EGFP quantified by in vivo imaging and 68%±10% by reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No effect was observed with nonspecific control siRNA treatment. This model provides a platform on which siRNA delivery technologies can be screened and optimized in vivo. PMID:23098239

Hickerson, Robyn P.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Vlassov, Alexander V.; Li, Mu; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Contag, Christopher H.

2012-01-01

343

Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of a gene coding for a. beta. -mannanase from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldocellum saccharolyticum  

SciTech Connect

A {lambda} recombinant phage expressing {beta}-mannanase activity in Escherichia coli has been isolated from a genomic library of the extremely thermophilic anaerobe Caldocellum saccharolyticum. The gene was cloned into pBR322 on a 5-kb BamHI fragment, and its location was obtained by deletion analysis. The sequence of a 2.1-kb fragment containing the mannanase gene has been determined. One open reading frame was found which could code for a protein of M{sub r} 38,904. The mannanase gene (manA) was overexpressed in E. coli by cloning the gene downstream from the lacZ promoter of pUC18. The enzyme was most active at pH 6 and 80 C and degraded locust bean gum, guar gum, Pinus radiata glucomannan, and konjak glucomannan. The noncoding region downstream from the mannanase gene showed strong homology to celB, a gene coding for a cellulase from the same organism, suggesting that the manA gene might have been inserted into its present position on the C. saccharolyticum genome by homologous recombination.

Luethi, E.; Jasmat, N.B.; Grayling, R.A.; Love, D.R.; Bergquist, P.L. (Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand))

1991-03-01

344

Regulation of Gene Expression by PrrA in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: Role of Polyamines and DNA Topology?  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we show in vitro binding of PrrA, a global regulator in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1, to the PrrA site 2, within the RSP3361 locus. Specific binding, as shown by competition experiments, requires the phosphorylation of PrrA. The binding affinity of PrrA for site 2 was found to increase 4- to 10-fold when spermidine was added to the binding reaction. The presence of extracellular concentrations of spermidine in growing cultures of R. sphaeroides gave rise to a twofold increase in the expression of the photosynthesis genes pucB and pufB, as well as the RSP3361 gene, under aerobic growth conditions, as shown by the use of lacZ transcriptional fusions, and led to the production of light-harvesting spectral complexes. In addition, we show that negative supercoiling positively regulates the expression of the RSP3361 gene, as well as pucB. We show the importance of supercoiling through an evaluation of the regulation of gene expression in situ by supercoiling, in the case of the former gene, as well as using the DNA gyrase inhibitor novobiocin. We propose that polyamines and DNA supercoiling act synergistically to regulate expression of the RSP3361 gene, partly by affecting the affinity of PrrA binding to the PrrA site 2 within the RSP3361 gene. PMID:19411327

Eraso, Jesus M.; Kaplan, Samuel

2009-01-01

345

Characterization of a bacteriocinogenic plasmid from Clostridium perfringens and molecular genetic analysis of the bacteriocin-encoding gene.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriocinogenic plasmid pIP404 from Clostridium perfringens was isolated and cloned in Escherichia coli, and its physical map was deduced. Expression of the bcn gene, encoding bacteriocin BCN5, is inducible by UV irradiation of C. perfringens and thus resembles the SOS-regulated bacteriocin genes of enteric bacteria. The location of bcn on pIP404 was established by a dot-blot procedure, using specific hybridization probes to analyze mRNA samples from induced and uninduced cultures. From the nucleotide sequence of its gene, the molecular weight of BCN5 was deduced to be 96,591, and a protein of this size was secreted by bacteriocin-producing cultures of C. perfringens. The primary structure of the protein suggests that it may function as an ionophore, since a hydrophobic domain, resembling those of the ionophoric colicins, is present at the COOH terminus. No bacteriocin activity could be detected in E. coli harboring plasmids bearing the bcn gene, even when the transcriptional and translational signals were replaced by those of lacZ. A possible explanation may be found in the unusual codon usage of the adenine-thymine-rich bcn gene, as this shows a preference for codons with a high adenine-plus-thymine content, especially in the wobble position. Many of the frequently used codons correspond to those recognized by minor tRNA species in E. coli. Consequently, bcn expression might be limited by tRNA availability in this bacterium. Images PMID:2877971

Garnier, T; Cole, S T

1986-01-01

346

Drosophila Immunity: Analysis of Larval Hemocytes by P-Element-Mediated Enhancer Trap  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to identify new genes involved in the cellular aspects of defense mechanisms of Drosophila, as well as in melanotic tumor formation processes that are linked to blood cell disregulation. We have screened 1341 enhancer detector fly lines for expression of the lacZ reporter gene in larval hemocytes at the end of the third instar. We have selected 21 lines in which we observed a reproducible lacZ expression in blood cells. These lines were classified according to the subsets of hemocytes in which lacZ was expressed, and we identified five lines that can be used as lamellocyte markers. Three lines were selected for further analysis. The first exhibited strong lacZ expression in all lamellocytes. The second expressed lacZ in plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and exhibited a melanotic tumor phenotype in larvae homozygous for the insertion. A third line showed a striking insertion-linked phenotype of melanized lymph glands (the hematopoietic organ), which resulted in the total absence of circulating hemocytes in the mutant larvae. We anticipate that this mutation, which we named domino, will prove a useful tool in the analysis of the role of hemocytes during the various aspects of immune response and melanotic tumor formation. PMID:9335599

Braun, A.; Lemaitre, B.; Lanot, R.; Zachary, D.; Meister, M.

1997-01-01

347

Gene Concepts, Gene Talk, and Gene Patents  

E-print Network

Since the existence of a discrete unit of heredity was first proposed by Gregor Mendel, scientific concepts of the “gene” have undergone rapid evolution. Beyond obvious epistemic and operational importance to the scientific community, changing gene...

Torrance, Andrew W.

2010-01-01

348

First report of Bluetongue virus isolation in the Republic of Korea and analysis of the complete coding sequence of the segment 2 gene.  

PubMed

This study investigated the possible presence of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Cell cultures were used to test blood samples collected from abattoirs throughout the country. Testing identified a single BTV isolate, which was characterized as BTV serotype 1 based on a nucleotide sequence analysis of the segment 2 gene. This report therefore indicates that BTV serotype 1 is present in the ROK. The potential importance of BTV in the ROK has been overlooked because cattle are mostly unaffected by the virus and because sheep, the most severely infected hosts, are uncommon in the ROK. However, as recent BTV serotype 8 outbreaks in Europe have demonstrated, certain BTV strains have the potential to cause severe disease in cattle. Additionally, with climate change continuously expanding the regions in which Culicoides vectors are able to survive, there is an increased need to study BTV in the Far East and ROK. To better prepare for future outbreaks of BTV, a sustained and effective level of surveillance for BTV in livestock will need to be established. PMID:25384537

Seo, Hyun-Ji; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

2014-11-11

349

REVIEW Open Access Epithelial to mesenchymal transition as a biomarker  

E-print Network

epithelial cells aberrantly expressing fibroblast-specific protein (FSP)1 in a model of mouse anti bearing the reporter gene lacZ massively contributed to the pool of intersti- tial fibroblasts (up to 36 stems from observations of epithelial cells undergoing phenotypic changes reminiscent of fibroblasts

Boyer, Edmond

350

Synergistic induction of the heat shock response in Escherichia coli by simultaneous treatment with chemical inducers.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli strains carrying transcriptional fusions of four sigma 32-controlled E. coli heat shock promoters to luxCDABE or lacZ reporter genes were stressed by chemicals added singly or in pairs. Much more than additive induction resulted from combinations of cadmium chloride, copper sulfate, ethanol, formamide, 4-nitrophenol, and pentachlorophenol. PMID:7592357

Van Dyk, T K; Reed, T R; Vollmer, A C; LaRossa, R A

1995-10-01

351

Control of developmental gene expression by cell-to-cell interactions in Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed Central

The ssbA mutants of Myxococcus xanthus behave as if they are unable to produce a cell-to-cell signal required for normal development. They are unable to form fruiting bodies or spores on developmental medium. They do sporulate, however, if allowed to develop in mixtures with wild-type cells. Fusions of developmentally induced promoters of M. xanthus to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were used to characterize the effect of the ssbA mutations on developmental gene expression. Each of the five independent fusions tested was found to be dependent upon the ssbA+ allele for full expression. The ssbA mutants were able to express each of these fusions if the mutants were allowed to develop in mixtures with wild-type (Lac-) cells. These results cannot be explained on the basis of genetic exchange. The data are consistent with regulation of gene expression mediated by cell-to-cell interactions. Images PMID:3093463

Gill, R E; Cull, M G

1986-01-01

352

Specificity of expression of the GUS reporter gene (uidA) driven by the tobacco ASA2 promoter in soybean plants and tissue cultures.  

PubMed

Twelve independent lines were transformed by particle bombardment of soybean embryogenic suspension cultures with the tobacco anthranilate synthase (ASA2) promoter driving the uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene. ASA2 appears to be expressed in a tissue culture specific manner in tobacco (Song H-S, Brotherton JE, Gonzales RA, Widholm JM. Tissue culture specific expression of a naturally occurring tobacco feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase. Plant Physiol 1998;117:533-43). The transgenic lines also contained the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene and were selected using hygromycin. All the selected cultures or the embryos that were induced from these cultures expressed GUS measured histochemically. However, no histochemical GUS expression could be found in leaves, stems, roots, pods and root nodules of the plants formed from the embryos and their progeny. Pollen from some of the plants and immature and mature seeds and embryogenic cultures initiated from immature cotyledons did show GUS activity. Quantitative 4-methylumbelliferyl-glucuronide (MUG) assays of the GUS activity in various tissues showed that all with observable histochemical GUS activity contained easily measurable activities and leaves and stems that showed no observable histochemical GUS staining did contain very low but measurable MUG activity above that of the untransformed control but orders of magnitude lower than the constitutive 35S-uidA controls used. Low but clearly above background levels of boiling sensitive GUS activity could be observed in the untransformed control immature seeds and embryogenic cultures using the MUG assay. Thus in soybean the ASA2 promoter drives readily observable GUS expression in tissue cultures, pollen and seeds, with only extremely low levels seen in vegetative tissues of the plants. The ASA2 driven expression seen in mature seed was, however, much lower than that seen with the constitutive 35S promoter; less than 2% in seed coats and less than 0.13% in cotyledons and embryo axes. The predominate tissue culture specific expression pattern of the ASA2 promoter may be useful for genetic transformation of crops. PMID:17223226

Inaba, Yoshimi; Zhong, Wei Qun; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Widholm, Jack M

2007-07-01

353

Expression of Runx2 transcription factor in non-skeletal tissues, sperm and brain  

PubMed Central

Runx2 is a master transcription factor for chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However expression of Runx2 (by RT-PCR), has been reported in non-skeletal tissues such as breast, T cells and testis. To better define Runx2 activity in non-skeletal tissues, we examined transgenic (Tg) mice expressing LacZ gene under control of 3.0 kb (3 Kb Tg) or 1.0 kb (1 Kb Tg) of the Runx2 distal (P1) promoter, Runx2 LacZ knock-in (Runx2+/LacZ) and Runx2/P1 LacZ knock-in (Runx2/P+/LacZ). In the Runx2 3 Kb Tg mouse, ?-galactosidase (?-gal) expression appeared in various non-skeletal tissues including testis, skin, adrenal gland and brain. ?-gal expression from both 3 Kb and 1 Kb Tg, reflecting activity of the Runx2 promoter, was readily detectable in seminiferous tubules of the testis and the epididymis. At the single cell level, ?-gal was detected in spermatids and mature sperms not in sertoli or Leydig cells. We also detected a positive signal from the Runx2+/LacZ and Runx2/P1+/LacZ mice. Indeed, Runx2 expression was observed in isolated mature sperms, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Runx2, however, was not related to sex determination and sperm motility. Runx2 mediated ?-gal activity is also found robustly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe of the brain in Runx2+/LacZ. Collectively, these results indicate that Runx2 is expressed in several non-skeletal tissues particularly sperms of testis and hippocampus of brain. It suggests that Runx2 may play an important role in male reproductive organ testis and brain. PMID:18636555

Jeong, Jae-Hwan; Jin, Jung-Sook; Kim, Hyun-Nam; Kang, Sang-Min; Liu, Julie C.; Lengner, Christopher J.; Otto, Florian; Mundlos, Stefan; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Choi, Je-Yong

2008-01-01

354

Tissue specific promoters improve specificity of AAV9 mediated transgene expression following intra-vascular gene delivery in neonatal mice.  

PubMed

The AAV9 capsid displays a high natural affinity for the heart following a single intravenous (IV) administration in both newborn and adult mice. It also results in substantial albeit relatively lower expression levels in many other tissues. To increase the overall safety of this gene delivery method we sought to identify which one of a group of promoters is able to confer the highest level of cardiac specific expression and concurrently, which is able to provide a broad biodistribution of expression across both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The in vivo behavior of five different promoters was compared: CMV, desmin (Des), alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC), myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2) and cardiac troponin C (cTnC). Following IV administration to newborn mice, LacZ expression was measured by enzyme activity assays. Results showed that rAAV2/9-mediated gene delivery using the alpha-MHC promoter is effective for focal transgene expression in the heart and the Des promoter is highly suitable for achieving gene expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle following systemic vector administration. Importantly, these promoters provide an added layer of control over transgene activity following systemic gene delivery. PMID:18811960

Pacak, Christina A; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Thattaliyath, Bijoy D; Mah, Cathryn S; Byrne, Barry J

2008-01-01

355

The Effect of Osteoprotegerin Gene Modification on Wear Debris Induced Osteolysis in a Murine Model of Knee Prosthesis Failure  

PubMed Central

Using an in vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated gene transfer technique, this study evaluated the therapeutic effects of an Osteoprotegerin (OPG) transgene against orthopaedic wear debris–induced osteolysis in a long-term murine model. A titanium pin was surgically implanted into proximal tibia of Balb/c mice to mimic a weight-bearing knee arthroplasty, followed by an intra-articular challenge with Ti-particles to provoke periprosthetic inflammation and osteolysis. rAAV-hOPG or AAV-LacZ vectors were injected into the prosthetic joint at 3 weeks post-op. The tissues were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after transfection for histological and molecular analyses. Successful transgene expression at the local site was confirmed by real-time PCR and ELISA. Inflammatory pseudo-membranes were ubiquitously presence at the interface between the Ti implant and the surrounding bone in both LacZ and virus-free control groups, while soft tissue was only observed sporadically at the bone-implant interface in the OPG group. A significant reduction in TRAP+ osteoclast numbers was observed in the OPG treatment group. MicroCT assessment indicated a marked reversal in the loss of peri-implant bone mineral density (BMD) in the OPG-transduced group, when compared with the LacZ and virus-free controls. Further, OPG gene modification appeared to reduce local bone collagen loss by a mean of 40%. Real time PCR examination confirmed that in vivo OPG gene transfer dramatically influenced the periprosthetic tissue gene expression profiles by diminishing the mRNA expression of TNF, IL-1, CPK and RANKL. There were no transgene-associated toxic effects apparent during the experiment, and the PCR detection of transgenes in remote organs such as lungs, kidneys, liver, and muscle of contralateral limb were consistently negative. Overall, rAAV-mediated OPG gene transfer effectively reversed Ti-particle induced bone resorption in this experimental model. The therapeutic effects may be due to the blockage of local osteoclastogenesis and possibly the down-regulation of RANKL expression. PMID:19665222

Zhang, Tao; Yu, Haiying; Gong, Weiming; Zhang, Laibo; Jia, Tanghong; Wooley, Paul H.; Yang, Shang-You

2009-01-01

356

Mapping Self-Reports of Working Memory Deficits to Executive Dysfunction in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 ("FMR1") Gene Premutation Carriers Asymptomatic for FXTAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fragile X Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by the silencing of a single gene on the X chromosome, the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 ("FMR1") gene. In recent years, the premutation ("carrier") status has received considerable attention and there is now an emerging consensus that despite intellectual functioning being within…

Kogan, Cary S.; Cornish, Kim M.

2010-01-01

357

Expression of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) promoter-reporter fusion genes in multiple tissues of transgenic mice does not replicate normal patterns of expression indicating complexity of CA II regulation in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Although the proximal, 5{prime} 115 bp of the human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) gene was sufficient for expression of a reporter gene in some transfected cell lines, we found previously that 1100 bp of this promoter (or 500 bp of the mouse CA II promoter) was not sufficient for expression in transgenic mice. We have now studied the expression of linked reporter genes in mice transgenic for either (1) 11 kb of the human 5{prime} promoter or (2) 8 kb of the human 5{prime} promoter with mouse sequences from the first exon, part of the first intron (since a CpG island spans this region), and the 3{prime} sequences of the gene. Expression was found in both cases, but the tissue specificity was not appropriate for CA II. Although there was a difference in the sensitivity of the assays used, the first construct led to expression in many tissues, while the second construct was expressed only in spleen. These findings indicate considerable complexity of DNA control regions for in vivo CA II expression. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Erickson, R.P.; Grimes, J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Venta, P.J.; Tashian, R.E. [Univ. of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-01

358

Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter  

PubMed Central

Purpose The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123I-iodide, 131I-iodide and 99mTc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. Methods [18F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF4? with [18F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. Results [18F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV?=?72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. Conclusion [18F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1523-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20577737

Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; Banga, Jasvinder Paul; O’Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Clarke, Susan E. M.; Ballinger, James R.; Szanda, Istvan; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

2010-01-01

359

A clp Gene Homologue Belonging to the Crp Gene Family Globally Regulates Lytic Enzyme Production, Antimicrobial Activity, and Biological Control Activity Expressed by Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3†  

PubMed Central

Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3, a biological control agent for plant diseases, produces multiple extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and displays antimicrobial activity against various fungal and oomycetous species. However, little is known about the regulation of these enzymes or their roles in antimicrobial activity and biocontrol. A study was undertaken to identify mutants of strain C3 affected in extracellular enzyme production and to evaluate their biocontrol efficacy. A single mini-Tn5-lacZ1-cat transposon mutant of L. enzymogenes strain C3 that was globally affected in a variety of phenotypes was isolated. In this mutant, 5E4, the activities of several extracellular lytic enzymes, gliding motility, and in vitro antimicrobial activity were reduced. Characterization of 5E4 indicated that the transposon inserted in a clp gene homologue belonging to the Crp gene family of regulators. Immediately downstream was a second open reading frame similar to that encoding acetyltransferases belonging to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, which reverse transcription-PCR confirmed was cotranscribed with clp. Chromosomal deletion mutants with mutations in clp and between clp and the acetyltransferase gene verified the 5E4 mutant phenotype. The clp gene was chromosomally inserted in mutant 5E4, resulting in complemented strain P1. All mutant phenotypes were restored in P1, although the gliding motility was observed to be excessive compared with that of the wild-type strain. clp mutant strains were significantly affected in biological control of pythium damping-off of sugar beet and bipolaris leaf spot of tall fescue, which was partially or fully restored in the complemented strain P1. These results indicate that clp is a global regulatory gene that controls biocontrol traits expressed by L. enzymogenes C3. PMID:15640196

Kobayashi, Donald Y.; Reedy, Ralph M.; Palumbo, Jeffrey D.; Zhou, Jun-Ma; Yuen, Gary Y.

2005-01-01

360

Genetic complementation analysis of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB operon: virB2 through virB11 are essential virulence genes.  

PubMed Central

The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB gene products are proposed to assemble into a transport system capable of exporting complexes of DNA and protein across the bacterial envelope en route to plant cells. Nonpolar null mutations were constructed in each of the 11 virB genes of the A. tumefaciens pTiA6NC plasmid. In tumorigenicity assays, delta virB1 mutants exhibited severely attenuated virulence and delta virB2 through delta virB11 mutants exhibited avirulence. NdeI restriction sites introduced at the predicted translational start sites of the virB genes were used to subclone each of the virB genes downstream of the lacZ or virB promoter on broad-host-range plasmids. virB gene expression plasmids were used to define promoter and general sequence requirements for genetic complementation of the deletion mutations. Whereas virB1 and virB2 complemented delta virB1 and delta virB2, respectively, only when expressed in trans from the virB promoter, virB3 through virB11 complemented the corresponding deletion mutations when expressed in trans from either the lacZ or virB promoter. Several virB genes required additional upstream or downstream sequences for complementation: (i) virB2 complemented the delta virB2 mutation only when the complementing plasmid coexpressed virB1 and virB2, (ii) virB6 and virB9 complemented the delta virB6 and delta virB9 mutations only when the complementing plasmids carried at most 55 and 230 bp of sequences residing 5' of these genes, respectively, and (iii) virB7 and virB8 complemented the delta virB7 and delta virB8 mutations only when the complementing plasmid coexpressed virB7 and virB8. These studies established that virB1 is an accessory virulence determinant and virB2 through virB11 are absolutely essential for the A. tumefaciens infection process. Images PMID:8206843

Berger, B R; Christie, P J

1994-01-01

361

Identification of regulatory regions in the DNA puff BhC4-1 promoter.  

PubMed

The mechanisms that control DNA puff BhC4-1 expression in the salivary gland of sciarid late larvae have been shown to be conserved in Drosophila. By analysing Drosophila transformed with constructs carrying progressive deletions of the BhC4-1 promoter fragment (-3314/+40) fused to the lacZ reporter gene we show that the elements required for the correct BhC4-1-lacZ developmental regulation in prepupal salivary glands are contained in a 226 bp fragment (-186/+40). Also, interestingly, this study identified a 67 bp fragment (-253/-187) that activates BhC4-1-lacZ expression specifically in the ring gland. PMID:12752658

Monesi, N; Basso, L R; Paçó-Larson, M L

2003-06-01

362

Broad-Complex, E74, and E75 early genes control DNA puff BhC4-1 expression in prepupal salivary glands.  

PubMed

The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene of the sciarid Bradysia hygida is induced in salivary glands prior to the pupal molt as a secondary response to the increase in ecdysone titers. Previous studies demonstrated that the BhC4-1 promoter is activated in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands as a late response to the ecdysone peak that triggers metamorphosis, revealing that this aspect of BhC4-1 transcriptional regulation is conserved in the Drosophila background. To identify regulators of BhC4-1 expression, we utilized a candidate gene approach and tested the roles of the ecdysone-induced genes BR-C, E74, and E75. Our results reveal that the BR-C Z3 isoform is essential for BhC4-1-lacZ induction in prepupal salivary glands and constitute the first demonstration of the participation of early genes products on DNA puff genes regulation. PMID:17083105

Basso, L R; de C Neves, M; Monesi, N; Paçó-Larson, M L

2006-11-01

363

Involvement of the 5'-untranslated region in cold-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.  

PubMed Central

Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this cold-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280

Sato, N; Nakamura, A

1998-01-01

364

Abh and AbrB Control of Bacillus subtilis Antimicrobial Gene Expression?  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus subtilis abh gene encodes a protein whose N-terminal domain has 74% identity to the DNA-binding domain of the global regulatory protein AbrB. Strains with a mutation in abh showed alterations in the production of antimicrobial compounds directed against some other Bacillus species and gram-positive microbes. Relative to its wild-type parental strain, the abh mutant was found deficient, enhanced, or unaffected for the production of antimicrobial activity. Using lacZ fusions, we examined the effects of abh upon the expression of 10 promoters known to be regulated by AbrB, including five that transcribe well-characterized antimicrobial functions (SdpC, SkfA, TasA, sublancin, and subtilosin). For an otherwise wild-type background, the results show that Abh plays a negative regulatory role in the expression of four of the promoters, a positive role for the expression of three, and no apparent regulatory role in the expression of the other three promoters. Binding of AbrB and Abh to the promoter regions was examined using DNase I footprinting, and the results revealed significant differences. The transcription of abh is not autoregulated, but it is subject to a degree of AbrB-afforded negative regulation. The results indicate that Abh is part of the complex interconnected regulatory system that controls gene expression during the transition from active growth to stationary phase. PMID:17720793

Strauch, Mark A.; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Cavanagh, John; Yao, Fude; Wilson, Angelo; Le Breton, Yoann

2007-01-01

365

Gene Regions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the three gene coding regions. This is the fourth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Cloning. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Modification.)

366

Heat shock proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi: identification and localization of HSP70 and HSP60 proteins and structure of HSP60 genes (brief report).  

PubMed

To identify the members of the HSP70 and HSP60 families of Trypanosoma cruzi, we analysed 35S methionine epimastigote cells by two dimensional Western blot. At 29 degrees C, an HSP70 monoclonal antibody (anti-D. melanogaster) recognized eight isotypes. At least five of these were heat-induced. Polyclonal antibody against the 65 KDa antigen (anti-M. tuberculosis) recognized three isotypes with identical molecular weights, but different microliters. Only one isoform was heat induced. The cellular distribution of HSP70 and HSP60 was studied by immunoelectron microscopy. Anti-HSP70 reactive protein was localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus, while anti-HSP60 protein was found in the mitochondrion and in close association with the kinetoplast. To characterize the HSP60 gene and its proteins, we isolated a genomic T. cruzi clone encoding the HSP60 gene. T. cruzi HSP60 genes could be shown to be organized in 2100 nt tandem arrays. RELP in the HSP60 genes revealed that at least three different types of HSP60 genes were encoded in the T cruzi genome. The predicted open reading frame measured exhibits about 50% identity to other HSP60 described. Expression of these HSP60 genes could not be induced by 2 hours heat shock at 37 degrees C. Post-transcriptional mechanisms may be responsible for HSP60 induction in T. cruzi. PMID:7670543

de Marval, M G; Souto-Padron, T; Gottesdiener, K; Silva, R; van der Ploeg, L H; Rondinelli, E

1993-01-01

367

Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11)

Huolin Luo; Sumei Chen; Hongjian Wan; Fadi Chen; Chunsun Gu; Zhaolei Liu

2010-01-01

368

Heat-induced Gene Expression as a Novel Targeted Cancer Gene Therapy Strategy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main advantages of gene therapy over traditional therapy is the potential to target the expression of therapeutic genes in desired cells or tissues. To achieve targeted gene expression, we experimented with a new approach based on the long-established phenomenon of the heat shock response. By using the green fluorescence protein as a reporter gene, it was demonstrated

Qian Huang; Jim K. Hu; Frank Lohr; Li Zhang; Rod Braun; Jennifer Lanzen; John B. Little; Mark W. Dewhirst; Chuan-Yuan Li

2000-01-01

369

A Chitinase Encoding Gene (chit1 Gene) from the Entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae: Isolation and Characterization  

E-print Network

A Chitinase Encoding Gene (chit1 Gene) from the Entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae: Isolation. There are no reports to date of entire gene sequences coding for chitinolytic enzymes from entomopathogenic fungi, even-length cDNAcopies of the regulated gene (chit1) coding one of the chitinases produced by the biocontrol

Eizirik, Eduardo

370

Cloning of the Xenopus laevis aldolase C gene and analysis of its promoter function in developing Xenopus embryos and A6 cells.  

PubMed

A Xenopus aldolase C gene (XAClambda3-1), much longer (9.6 kb) than human and rat genes (3.7-3.6 kb), was isolated and characterized, and expression studies were performed using Xenopus embryos and A6 cells, a kidney cell line constitutively expressing aldolase C gene. The Xenopus gene contained nine exons, and in its proximal 5'-upstream region a GC box and a 16 bp long aldolase C-specific element (ACSE), and in addition, a CCAAT box and a TATA-like element, both missing in mammalian genes. The lacZ gene connected to the 5'-upstream region (1.6 kb) of the aldolase gene containing many potentially regulative sequence elements was expressed in embryos temporally and spatially like the endogenous aldolase C gene. Deletion experiments using embryos and A6 cells suggested that this 5'-upstream DNA contained in its distal part a region which negatively affected on its expression in embryos, but not in A6 cells. The proximal-most region contained a basal promoter (68 bp) essential for expression in both embryos and A6 cells. Deletion experiments using A6 cells failed to detect such regulative regions within the first intron (spanning ca. 4 kb). Analyses with mutated promoters in A6 cells revealed that the GC box was the crucial element in the basal promoter, although the TATA-like element appeared to have a slightly stimulative effect on the GC box functioning. Gel retardation and foot-printing assays revealed the occurrence in A6 cells of a nuclear factor(s) that binds specifically to the GC box. Since Xenopus aldolase C gene has several unique structural features, we expect that it will provide an interesting material for studying the evolution and developmental control of the aldolase C gene. PMID:9804954

Yatsuki, H; Outida, M; Atsuchi, Y; Mukai, T; Shiokawa, K; Hori, K

1998-11-01

371

Transcriptional termination control of a novel ABC transporter gene involved in antibiotic resistance in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

In members of one of the subfamilies of the bacterial ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, the two nucleotide binding domains are fused as a single peptide and the proteins have no membrane-spanning domain partners. Most of the ABC efflux transporters of this subfamily have been characterized in actinomycetes, producing macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotics. Among 40 ABC efflux transporters of Bacillus subtilis, five proteins belong to this subfamily. None of these proteins has been functionally characterized. We examined macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotic resistance in insertional disruptants of the genes that encode these proteins. It was found that only a disruptant of vmlR (formerly named expZ) showed hypersensitivity to virginiamycin M and lincomycin. Expression of the vmlR gene was induced by the addition of these antibiotics in growth medium. Primer extension analysis revealed that transcription of the vmlR gene initiates at an adenosine residue located 225 bp upstream of the initiation codon. From the analysis of the vmlR and lacZ fusion genes, a 52-bp deletion from +159 to +211 resulted in constitutive expression of the vmlR gene. In this region, a typical rho-independent transcriptional terminator was found. It was suggested that the majority of transcription ends at this termination signal in the absence of antibiotics, whereas under induced conditions, RNA polymerase reads through the terminator, and transcription continues to the downstream vmlR coding region, resulting in an increase in vmlR expression. No stabilization of vmlR mRNA occurred under the induced conditions. PMID:16109936

Ohki, Reiko; Tateno, Kozue; Takizawa, Teruaki; Aiso, Toshiko; Murata, Makiko

2005-09-01

372

Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery to hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vasopressin is synthesized by magnocellular neurons in supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei and released by their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis (NH). With its actions as an antidiuretic hormone and vasoactive agent, vasopressin plays a pivotal role in the control of body fluids and cardiovascular homeostasis. Because of its well-defined neurobiology and functional importance, the SON/PVN-NH system is ideal to establish methods for gene transfer of genetic material into specific pathways in the mouse central nervous system. In these studies, we compared the efficiency of transferring the gene lacZ, encoding for beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), versus a gene encoding for green fluorescent protein by using replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors in adult mice. Transfection with viral concentrations up to 2 x 10(7) plaque-forming units per coverslip of NH, PVN, and SON in dissociated, cultured cells caused efficient transfection without cytotoxicity. However, over an extended period of time, higher levels (50% to 75% of the cells) of beta-gal expression were detected in comparison with green fluorescent protein (5% to 50% of the cells). With the use of a stereotaxic approach, the pituitary glands of mice were injected with Ad (4 x 10(6) plaque-forming units). In material from these animals, we were able to visualize the expression of the beta-gal gene in the NH and in magnocellular neurons of both the PVN and SON. The results of these experiments indicate that Ad-Rous sarcoma virus promoter-beta-gal is taken up by nerve terminals at the injection site (NH) and retrogradely transported to the soma of the neurons projecting to the NH. We conclude that the application of these experimental approaches will provide powerful tools for physiological studies and potential approaches to deliver therapeutic genes to treat diseases.

Vasquez, E. C.; Beltz, T. G.; Meyrelles, S. S.; Johnson, A. K.

1999-01-01

373

Mutation c.1190-1delG/N in intron 8 and c.1708G>C/N in exon 12 not reported in the IDUA gene developed a clinical phenotype of Scheie syndrome.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of enzymes catalyzing the degradation of glycosaminoglycans. Mucopoly-saccharidosis I can present a wide range of phenotypic characteristics with three major recognized clinical entities: Hurler and Scheie syndromes represent phenotypes at the severe and mild ends of the clinical spectrum, respectively, and the Hurler-Scheie syndrome is intermediate in phenotypic expression. These are caused by the deficiency or absence of alpha-L-iduronidase, essential to the metabolism of both dermatan and heparan sulfate, and it is encoded by the lDUA gene. We report the case of a 34-year-old male patient with enzymatic deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase, accumulation of its substrate and a previously unreported mutation in the IDUA gene that developed a phenotype of Scheie syndrome. PMID:25558755

Delgado Luengo, Wilmer N; Miranda Contreras, Luis E; Chávez, Carlos J; Solis-Añez, Ernesto; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco

2014-12-01

374

Prevalence of ?-Lactamase-Encoding Genes among Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia Isolates Collected in 26 U.S. Hospitals: Report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2010)  

PubMed Central

Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia isolates (n = 195; 6.4% overall) collected from 26 U.S. hospitals located in 20 states were screened for various ?-lactamase classes. A total of 175 isolates carried one to eight acquired ?-lactamase genes of 44 types that were detected in 55 combinations. Eighty-five (43.6%) strains carried blaCTX-M, and blaCTX-M-15 was the most prevalent (33.8%). Genes encoding OXA-1/30 (often associated with blaCTX-M-15), CMY-2, SHV extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBLs), and TEM-1 were also prevalent. Among 33 carbapenem-resistant strains, 28 carried blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 (17 and 11 strains, respectively), and those were recovered mostly in the New York City area (16 strains) and Houston, TX (9 strains). Fourteen new SHV variants were identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates carrying one or multiple SHV alleles, three carrying G238S and/or E240K amino acid alterations that confer ESBL activity. Only two of eight K. oxytoca isolates carried acquired ?-lactamases, but most had mutations on the blaOXY promoter region, and three new OXY-encoding genes were characterized. Concordance between a commercial nucleic acid-based microarray (Check-MDR CT101) and reference methods was noted for 105/109 (97.2%) strains. Thirty-two strains having genes that are not targeted by the commercial system were detected (OXA ESBLs, PER, PSE, or intrinsic genes). Overall, a great variety of enzymes were observed, with numerous strains carrying multiple genes. Rates of CTX-M-producing strains appear to be increasing in U.S. hospitals (26.6% in 2007 to 43.8% for 2010) participating in the SENTRY Program. Furthermore, the Check-Points system seems to be a reliable, robust, and user-friendly assay for detection of enzyme-mediated resistance. PMID:23587957

Farrell, Sarah E.; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M.; Mendes, Rodrigo E.; Jones, Ronald N.

2013-01-01

375

Gene Trapping Using Gal4 in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Large clutch size and external development of optically transparent embryos make zebrafish an exceptional vertebrate model system for in vivo insertional mutagenesis using fluorescent reporters to tag expression of mutated genes. Several laboratories have constructed and tested enhancer- and gene-trap vectors in zebrafish, using fluorescent proteins, Gal4- and lexA- based transcriptional activators as reporters 1-7. These vectors had two potential drawbacks: suboptimal stringency (e.g. lack of ability to differentiate between enhancer- and gene-trap events) and low mutagenicity (e.g. integrations into genes rarely produced null alleles). Gene Breaking Transposon (GBTs) were developed to address these drawbacks 8-10. We have modified one of the first GBT vectors, GBT-R15, for use with Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter and added UAS:eGFP as the secondary reporter for direct detection of gene trap events. Application of Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter provides two main advantages. First, it increases sensitivity for genes expressed at low expression levels. Second, it enables researchers to use gene trap lines as Gal4 drivers to direct expression of other transgenes in very specific tissues. This is especially pertinent for genes with non-essential or redundant functions, where gene trap integration may not result in overt phenotypes. The disadvantage of using Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter is that genes coding for proteins with N-terminal signal sequences are not amenable to trapping, as the resulting Gal4-VP16 fusion proteins are unlikely to be able to enter the nucleus and activate transcription. Importantly, the use of Gal4-VP16 does not pre-select for nuclear proteins: we recovered gene trap mutations in genes encoding proteins which function in the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. PMID:24121167

Balciuniene, Jorune; Balciunas, Darius

2013-01-01

376

Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product  

SciTech Connect

The aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli contains two terminal oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of ubiquinol-8 and the reduction of oxygen to water. They are the cytochrome o oxidase complex encoded by cyoABCDE and the cytochrome d oxidase complex encoded by cydAB. To determine how these genes are regulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, including oxygen, we examined their expression by using lacZ protein fusions in wild-type and fnr mutant strains of E. coli. Based on the pattern of anaerobic cydAB expression observed, we propose the existence of a second, as yet unidentified, regulatory element that must function either to activate cydAB expression as oxygen becomes limiting or to repress cydAB expression aerobically. Whereas cytochrome o oxidase encoded by cyoABCDE appears to be produced only under oxygen-rich growth conditions, in keeping with its biochemical properties, cytochrome d oxidase is expressed moderately aerobically and is elevated yet further when oxygen becomes limiting so that the organism can cope better under oxygen starvation conditions. We also examined cyoABCDE and cydAB expression in response to growth on alternative carbon compounds and to changes in the culture medium pH and osmolarity.

Cotter, P.A.; Gunsalus, R.P. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Chepuri, V.; Gennis, R.B. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-11-01

377

Gene Modifications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene is constructed to eventually produce a protein in a Bt corn plant. This is the fifth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Regions. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Gun.)

378

First Report in China of Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates Coharboring blaNDM-1 and blaIMP-4 Drug Resistance Genes.  

PubMed

Aims: To describe the identification of two carbapenem-resistant, NDM-1 and IMP-4, carbapenemases coproducing Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from hospitalized patients in China. Both Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates (Kpn922 and Kpn9599) were resistant to meropenem and imipenem and were subjected to additional antibiotic susceptibility testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analyses were used to characterize bacterial carbapenemase resistance genes, extended-spectrum ?-lactamases, plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes, quinolone resistance, and 16s RNA methylase. Genetic relatedness was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Plasmids were analyzed by S1-PFGE and Southern blot. Results: PCR analyses revealed that the Kpn922 isolate carried blaNDM-1, blaIMP-4, blaTEM-1, and blaSHV-1 genes, while Kpn9599 carried blaNDM-1, blaIMP-4, blaTEM-1, and blaSHV-12 genes. MLST determined that the two isolates were ST1043 and ST571 sequence types. Southern blot analyses revealed that metallo-?-lactamase genes were plasmid borne in both isolates. Plasmids ?300?kb simultaneously carried blaNDM-1 and blaIMP-4. Conclusions: Coexistence of blaNDM-1 and blaIMP-4 in these clinical isolates may herald the emergence of a new pattern of drug resistance. Surveillance of carbapenemases, particularly metallo-?-lactamases, in Enterobacteriaceae is urgently needed to control and prevent the spread of these resistance determinants in China. PMID:25389598

Chen, Zhongju; Wang, Yue; Tian, Lei; Zhu, Xuhui; Li, Li; Zhang, Bei; Yan, Shaozhen; Sun, Ziyong

2014-11-12

379

Preparation and biological evaluation of 2-amino-6-( 18F)fluoro-9- (4-hydroxy-3-hydroxy-methylbutyl) purine (6-( 18F)FPCV) as a novel PET probe for imaging HSV1-tk reporter gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: 2-Amino-6-(18F)fluoro-9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxy-methylbutyl) purine (6-(18F)FPCV) was prepared via a one-step nucleophilic substitution and evaluated as a novel probe for imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene. Methods: Log P of 6-(18F)FPCV was calculated in octanol\\/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Stability studies were performed in PBS and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Cell uptake was performed at various

Hancheng Caia; Duanzhi Yin; Lan Zhang; Xiaofeng Yang; Xiaoyan Xu; Weiguo Liu; Xuesheng Zheng; Jing Wang; Yuhong Xu; Dengfeng Cheng; Mingqiang Zheng; Yanjiang Han; Mingxing Wu; Yongxian Wang

380

The two authentic methionine aminopeptidase genes are differentially expressed in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Background Two putative methionine aminopeptidase genes, map (essential) and yflG (non-essential), were identified in the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis. We investigated whether they can function as methionine aminopeptidases and further explored possible reasons for their essentiality or dispensability in B. subtilis. Results In silico analysis of MAP evolution uncovered a coordinated pattern of MAP and deformylase that did not correlate with the pattern of 16S RNA evolution. Biochemical assays showed that both MAP (MAP_Bs) and YflG (YflG_Bs) from B. subtilis overproduced in Escherichia coli and obtained as pure proteins exhibited a methionine aminopeptidase activity in vitro. Compared with MAP_Bs, YflG_Bs was approximately two orders of magnitude more efficient when assayed on synthetic peptide substrates. Both map and yflG genes expressed in multi-copy plasmids could complement the function of a defective map gene in the chromosomes of both E. coli and B. subtilis. In contrast, lacZ gene transcriptional fusions showed that the promoter activity of map was 50 to 100-fold higher than that of yflG. Primer extension analysis detected the transcription start site of the yflG promoter. Further work identified that YvoA acted as a possible weak repressor of yflG expression in B. subtilis in vivo. Conclusion Both MAP_Bs and YflG_Bs are functional methionine aminopeptidases in vitro and in vivo. The high expression level of map and low expression level of yflG may account for their essentiality and dispensality in B. subtilis, respectively, when cells are grown under laboratory conditions. Their difference in activity on synthetic substrates suggests that they have different protein targets in vivo. PMID:16207374

You, CongHui; Lu, HongYan; Sekowska, Agnieszka; Fang, Gang; Wang, YiPing; Gilles, Anne-Marie; Danchin, Antoine

2005-01-01

381

Structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HO gene and analysis of its upstream regulatory region.  

PubMed Central

The HO gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a site-specific endonuclease that initiates mating type interconversion. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a 3,129-base-pair (bp) segment containing HO. The segment contains a single long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 586 amino acids, which has unusual (unbiased) codon usage and is preceded by 762 bp of upstream region. The predicted HO protein is basic (16% lysine and arginine) and is calculated to have a secondary structure that is 30% helical. The corresponding transcript is initiated approximately 50 nucleotides prior to the presumed initiation codon. Insertion of an Escherichia coli lacZ gene fragment into the putative HO coding segment inactivated HO and formed a hybrid HO-lacZ gene whose beta-galactosidase activity was regulated by the mating type locus in the same manner as HO (repressed by a 1-alpha 2). Upstream regions of 1,360 and 762 bp conferred strong repression; 436 bp led to partial constitutivity and 301 bp to full constitutivity. Thus, DNA sequences that confer repression of HO by a1-alpha 2 are at least 250 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start point and are within 436 nucleotides of the HO initiation codon. The progressive loss of repression suggests that both the -762 to -436 and the -436 to -301 intervals contain sites for regulation by a1-alpha 2. The HO gene contains two distinct regions that promote autonomous replication of plasmids in S. cerevisiae. These regions contain sequences that are homologous to the two conserved sequences that are associated with ARS activity. Images PMID:3025649

Russell, D W; Jensen, R; Zoller, M J; Burke, J; Errede, B; Smith, M; Herskowitz, I

1986-01-01

382

Gene Gun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the gene gun works to transform cells with new DNA. This is thesixth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of cropgenetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Modification. To go to the next animation, go to Backcross Breeding.)

383

Gene Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basic depiction of the steps in gene cloning. This is the third of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to DNA and DNA Extraction. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Regions.)

384

Trichoderma genes  

DOEpatents

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

2012-06-19

385

Gene Puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will examine a fictional pedigree and determine which gene is responsible for a given trait. The genetic information for individuals is depicted as a jigsaw puzzle. Without delving into a complicated explanation of the process, the activity in this lesson will help students build an understanding of how offspring inherit genes from their parents.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

386

[Gene therapy].  

PubMed

In the last years there has been much progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of disease. In this review we provide an overview of gene therapy, its most actualized techniques for gene delivery, and we give specific examples of laboratory and clinical achievements to date. The development of methods for delivering genes to mammalian cells has stimulated great interest in the possibility of treating human disease by gene-based therapies. As a result, concepts and methods that would have been considered purely science fiction 50 years ago are now used in the treatment of diseases. The widespread application of gene therapy technology to many diseases is already breaking down the traditional boundaries of modern medicine. However, despite its progress, several key technical drawbacks need to be overcome before gene therapy can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings. Technological developments, particularly in the areas of gene delivery and cell transplantation, will be critical for the successful practice of gene therapy. PMID:9527700

Rodríguez-Fragoso, L

1997-01-01

387

Coronary restenosis and gene therapy.  

PubMed Central

Restenosis continues to limit the efficacy of coronary angioplasty, despite the various mechanical and pharmaceutical interventions that have been employed. The migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production by vascular smooth muscle cells are processes integral to restenosis, and sustained local delivery of drugs at high concentration should curtail these vascular responses to balloon angioplasty. Our laboratory and others are exploring the potential of using somatic cell gene therapy to provide such treatment and thereby prevent restenosis. However, conventional methods of gene transfer fail to produce physiologic levels of recombinant protein in vivo. This obstacle might be overcome by using adenoviral vectors to mediate efficient direct gene transfer. Herein we summarize these developments and focus upon our laboratory's progress towards evaluating adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in porcine coronary arteries. Recombinant adenoviruses directing the expression of the beta-galactosidase and luciferase reporter genes were evaluated in cultured coronary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in porcine coronary arteries in vivo. Following percutaneous transluminal gene transfer in vivo, recombinant adenoviruses were shown to produce 70- to 240-fold more reporter protein than that produced by Lipofectin-DNA complexes. Furthermore, the high levels of adenovirus-mediated gene expression were shown to persist for at least 14 days following catheterization. Additional histologic studies will be required to determine the cellular distribution of gene expression and to elucidate potential interactions between adenovirus and the host's immune system, but recombinant adenovirus appears to be a promising vector for evaluating gene therapy against coronary restenosis. PMID:8180504

Mazur, W; Ali, N M; Raizner, A E; French, B A

1994-01-01

388

Horizontal gene transfer as adaptive response to heavy metal stress in subsurface microbial communities. Final report for period October 15, 1997 - October 15, 2000  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal gene transfer as adaptive response to heavy metal stress in the presence of heavy metal stress was evaluated in oligotrophic subsurface soil laboratory scale microcosms. Increasing levels of cadmium (10, 100 and 1000 mM) were applied and an E. coli donor was used to deliver the target plasmids, pMOL187 and pMOL222, which contained the czc and ncc operons, and the helper plasmid RP4. Plasmid transfer was evaluated through monitoring of the heavy metal resistance and presence of the genes. The interactive, clearly revealed, effect of biological and chemical external factors on the extent of plasmid-DNA propagation in microbial communities in contaminated soil environments was observed in this study. Additionally, P.putida LBJ 415 carrying a suicide construct was used to evaluate selective elimination of a plasmid donor.

Smets, B. F.

2001-12-21

389

A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Disorders of calcium metabolism are very common in the elderly, and they can coexist with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in affected families. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an Irish family with hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria. The proband, an 80-year-old

Wael F Elamin; Olivier de Buyl

2010-01-01

390

A 338-bp proximal fragment of the glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) promoter drives reporter gene expression in the pancreatic islets of transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high Km glucose transporter GLUT2 is a membrane protein expressed in tissues involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis, and in cells where glucose-sensing is necessary. In many experimental models of diabetes, GLUT2 gene expression is decreased in pancreatic ?-cells, which could lead to a loss of glucose-induced insulin secretion. In order to identify factors involved in pancreatic ?-cell specific expression

Gérard Waeber; Thierry Pedrazzini; Olivier Bonny; Christophe Bonny; Myriam Steinmann; Pascal Nicod; Jacques-Antoine Haefliger

1995-01-01

391

Tagging a Vibrio cholerae El Tor candidate vaccine strain by disruption of its hemagglutinin\\/protease gene using a novel reporter enzyme: Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The celA gene encoding Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A was expressed in Vibrio cholerae on its own promoter and used to tag a candidate El Tor biotype cholera vaccine strain. Colonies of the tagged strain could be unequivocally distinguished by overlaying them with CM-cellulose indicator agar and Congo Red staining. Expression of celA did not affect growth of V. cholerae in

Alma Robert; Anisia Silva; Jorge A. Benitez; Boris L. Rodriguez; Rafael Fando; Javier Campos; Dilip K. Sengupta; Mary Boes