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A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines.  


Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ?80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ?20% showed no specific staining, ?13% had staining in only one tissue, and ?25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (?50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

West, David B; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M; Engelhard, Eric K; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; Jong, Pieter J de; Lloyd, K C Kent



Measurement of Ligand-Induced Activation in Single Viable T Cells Using the lacZ Reporter Gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the bacterial ?-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a reporter gene for the rapid measurement of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of individual T cells. The reporter construct contained the lacZ gene under the control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) element of the human interleukin 2 enhancer [Fiering, S., Northrop, J. P., Nolan, G. P., Matilla, P., Crabtree, G. R. & Herzenberg, L. A. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1823-1834]. The activity of the intracellular lacZ enzyme was analyzed by flow cytometric measurement of fluorescein accumulation in cells loaded with the fluorogenic ?-galactosidase substrate fluorescein di-?-D-galactopyranoside. As a model system, the T-cell hybridoma BO4H9.1, which is specific for the lysozyme peptide (amino acids 74-88)/A^b complex, was transfected with the NF-AT-lacZ construct. lacZ activity was induced in 50-100% of the transfectant cells following exposure to pharmacological agents, to the physiological peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand, or to other TCR-specific stimuli. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of the stimulus increased the fraction of lacZ^+ cells, but not the level of lacZ activity per cell. Even under widely varying levels of stimulus, the level of lacZ activity in individual lacZ^+ cells remained within a remarkably narrow range. These results demonstrate that TCR-mediated activation can be readily measured in single T cells and strongly suggest that, once committed to activation, the level of NF-AT transcriptional activity in individual T cells is independent of the form or concentration of stimulus. This assay is likely to prove useful for the study of early activation events in individual T cells and of TCR ligands.

Karttunen, Jaana; Shastri, Nilabh



Targeting of lacZ reporter gene expression with radioiodine-labelled phenylethyl-beta- d-thiogalactopyranoside.  


There has recently been increasing interest in the development of radioprobes that specifically target proteins transcribed from expression of reporter genes of interest. The purpose of this study was to develop a radioprobe that targets one of the most widely used reporter genes, the bacterial lacZ gene. We synthesised and purified radioiodine-labelled phenylethyl-beta- d-thiogalactopyranoside (PETG), a competitive inhibitor specific against Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. We showed that [(125)I]iodo-PETG specifically binds to beta-galactosidase as verified by column chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after incubation of radiotracer with the protein. We also showed through enzyme kinetic studies that iodo-PETG retains inhibitory action against beta-galactosidase activity. COS-7 cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing the lacZ gene had viral titre-dependent enhancements in [(125)I]iodo-PETG uptake ( r(2)=0.897; P=0.001), which reached up to 642.5%+/-16.7% of control levels ( P<0.00001). Moreover, the level of uptake was highly correlated to luminescent measurements of beta-galactosidase activity ( r(2)=0.878; P<0.0001). These results confirm that radioiodine-labelled PETG specifically targets beta-galactosidase and that its uptake rates faithfully reflect levels of expression of the lacZ reporter gene. Further investigations were performed in nude mice bearing human neuroblastoma tumours transferred with the lacZ gene. Compared with control tumours, lacZ-expressing tumours were slightly better visualised on [(123)I]iodo-PETG images and had a modest increase in tumour to muscle count ratio (2.6+/-0.2 vs 1.9+/-0.1, P<0.05). The present results provide proof-of-principle for the potential of radiolabelled inhibitors as promising radiotracers to monitor lacZ gene expression levels. Future modifications to improve cell permeability should enhance in vivo contrast levels and may allow the use of radiolabelled beta-galactosidase inhibitors for non-invasive monitoring of lacZ gene expression. PMID:14745516

Lee, Kyung-Han; Byun, Sang Sung; Choi, Joon Hun; Paik, Jin-Young; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae



Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression  

E-print Network

protein enables whole body imaging of small animals, although at low spatial resolution due to multiplePhotoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo Li Li,a, Roger J. Zemp,a, Gina Lungu,b George- aging as a promising candidate for imaging gene expression in vivo by exploiting a new contrast

Wang, Lihong


Gene expression and cell fusion analyzed by lacZ complementation in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

Complementing reporter genes provide biological indicators of coincident expression of proteins in cells. We have adapted intracistronic complementation of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene for use in mammalian cells. Enzymatic activity detectable by quantitative biochemical assay, flow cytometry, or microscopy is produced upon convergent expression of two distinct mutant lacZ peptides within single cells, or upon fusion of cells expressing such mutants. A novel fluorescent substrate for beta-galactosidase (Fluor-X-Gal) increases detection and permits simultaneous microscopic visualization of other fluorescent markers. The enzymatic complementation described here should facilitate studies of cell fusion, cell lineage, and signal transduction, by producing activity only when two proteins are expressed at the same time and place in intact cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8901597

Mohler, W A; Blau, H M



Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain.  


IL-33 (previously known as NF from high endothelial venules) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals through the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, invariant NKT and NK cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and type 2 innate immune cells (natural helper cells, nuocytes, and innate helper 2 cells). Little is known about endogenous IL-33; for instance, the cellular sources of IL-33 in mouse tissues have not yet been defined. In this study, we generated an Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain (Il-33(Gt/Gt)) and used this novel tool to analyze expression of endogenous IL-33 in vivo. We found that the Il-33 promoter exhibits constitutive activity in mouse lymphoid organs, epithelial barrier tissues, brain, and embryos. Immunostaining with anti-IL-33 Abs, using Il-33(Gt/Gt) (Il-33-deficient) mice as control, revealed that endogenous IL-33 protein is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, including stratified squamous epithelia from vagina and skin, as well as cuboidal epithelium from lung, stomach, and salivary gland. Constitutive expression of IL-33 was not detected in blood vessels, revealing the existence of species-specific differences between humans and mice. Importantly, IL-33 protein was always localized in the nucleus of producing cells with no evidence for cytoplasmic localization. Finally, strong expression of the Il-33-LacZ reporter was also observed in inflamed tissues, in the liver during LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and in the lung alveoli during papain-induced allergic airway inflammation. Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues. PMID:22371395

Pichery, Mélanie; Mirey, Emilie; Mercier, Pascale; Lefrancais, Emma; Dujardin, Arnaud; Ortega, Nathalie; Girard, Jean-Philippe



Isolation and Characterization of Three Streptococcus pneumoniae Transformation-Specific Loci by Use of a lacZ Reporter Insertion Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although more than a dozen new proteins are produced when Streptococcus pneumoniae cells become com- petent for genetic transformation, only a few of the corresponding genes have been identified to date. To find genes responsible for the production of competence-specific proteins, a random lacZ transcriptional fusion library was constructed in S. pneumoniae by using the insertional lacZ reporter vector pEVP3.




Gene fusions with lacZ by duplication insertion in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans  

SciTech Connect

Deinococcus radiodurans is the most-studied species of a eubacterial family characterized by extreme resistance to DNA damage. We have focused on developing molecular biological techniques to investigate the genetics of this organism. We report construction of lacZ gene fusions by a method involving both in vitro splicing and the natural transformation of D. radiodurans. Numerous fusion strains were identified by expression of beta-galactosidase. Among these fusion strains, several were inducible by exposure to the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C, and four of the inducible fusion constructs were cloned in Escherichia coli. Hybridization studies indicate that one of the damage-inducible genes contains a sequence reiterated throughout the D. radiodurans chromosome. Survival measurements show that two of the fusion strains have increased sensitivity to mitomycin C, suggesting that the fusions within these strains inactivate repair functions.

Lennon, E.; Minton, K.W. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))



Fusion of Escherichia coli LacZ to the Cytochrome c Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid genes between the Escherichia coli lacZ gene and the iso-1-cytochrome c (CYC1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were constructed by recombination in vitro. Each of the hybrid genes encodes a chimeric protein with a cytochrome c moiety at the amino terminus and an active beta -galactosidase (beta -D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC moiety at the carboxy terminus. When these hybrids are

Leonard Guarente; Mark Ptashne



Dicistronic LacZ and alkaline phosphatase reporter constructs permit simultaneous histological analysis of expression from multiple transgenes.  


We report here the development of convenient dicistronic transgenic markers for the rapid and efficient simultaneous analysis of transgene activity in transgenic mice. Two sensitive histological markers, the beta-galactosidase (beta-gal)-encoding lacZ gene and the human placental alkaline phosphatase (hpAP) gene, have been fused to the internal ribosome entry sequence (IRES) from the encephalomyocarditis virus, which directs efficient mRNA cap-independent entry of the translation apparatus in mammalian cells. The IRES permits efficient translation of either lacZ or hpAP when placed anywhere within transgene exonic sequences, including both 5' and 3' untranslated regions. In addition, the production of constructs for transgenic analysis of DNA regulatory elements is greatly facilitated with IRES-lacZ or IRES-hpAP, since the IRES relieves the need for complicated in frame transgene protein fusions to produce a functional beta-gal or hpAP protein. PMID:9383553

Li, X; Wang, W; Lufkin, T



Use of ?-galactosidase (lacZ) gene ?-complementation as a novel approach for assessment of titanium oxide nanoparticles induced mutagenesis.  


The mutagenic potential of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs) of an average size 30.6nm was investigated using ?-galactosidase (lacZ) gene complementation in plasmid pUC19/lacZ(-)Escherichia coli DH5? system. Plasmid pUC19 was treated with varying concentrations of TiO(2)-NPs and allowed to transfect the CaCl(2)-induced competent DH5? cells. The data revealed loss in transformation efficiency of TiO(2)-NPs treated plasmids as compared to untreated plasmid DNA in DH5? host cells. Induction of multiple mutations in ?-fragment of lacZ gene caused synthesis of non-functional ?-galactosidase enzyme, which resulted in a significant number of white (mutant) colonies of transformed E. coli cells. Screening of mutant transformants based on blue:white colony assay and DNA sequence analysis of lacZ gene fragment clearly demonstrated TiO(2)-NPs induced mutagenesis. Multiple alignment of selectable marker lacZ gene sequences from randomly selected mutants and control cells provided a gene specific map of TiO(2)-NPs induced mutations. Mutational analysis suggested that all nucleotide changes were point mutations, predominantly transversions (TVs) and transitions (TSs). A total of 32 TVs and 6 TSs mutations were mapped within 296 nucleotides (nt) long partial sequence of lacZ gene. The region between 102 and 147nt within lacZ gene sequence was found to be most susceptible to mutations with nine detectable point mutations (8 TVs and 1 TSs). Guanine base was determined to be more prone to TiO(2)-NPs induced mutations. This study suggested the pUC19/E. coli DH5?lacZ gene ?-complementation system, as a novel genetic approach for determining the mutagenic potential, and specificity of manufactured NPs and nanomaterials. PMID:22705419

Ahmad, Javed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Alarifi, Saud; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed



Databases and software for the analysis of mutations in the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and the lacZ gene in transgenic rodents.  


We have created databases and software applications for the analysis of DNA mutations in the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and the rodent transgenic lacZ locus. The databases themselves are stand-alone dBase files and the software for analysis of the databases runs on IBM- compatible computers. The software created for these databases permits filtering, ordering, report generation and display of information in the database. In addition, a significant number of routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions. One method of obtaining the databases and software is via the World Wide Web (WWW). Open home page ml with a WWW browser. Alternatively, the databases and programs are available via public ftp from There is no password required to enter the system. The databases and software are found in subdirectory pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations. Two other programs are available at the WWW site, a program for comparison of mutational spectra and a program for entry of mutational data into a relational database. PMID:8594557

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R; Soussi, T



Lipofection of rabbit chondrocytes and long lasting expression of a lacZ reporter system in alginate beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Our aim was to investigate the maintenance of the transfection status of non-viral transfected chondrocytes in an alginate culture system.Design Chondrocytes harvested from rabbit knees were isolated by sequential digestion and cultivated in monolayer culture. At 60–70% cell density, chondrocytes were transfected with different transfection systems (FuGENE6™, CaCl2, Lipofectin™). Alac Z expression vector (pcDNA 3.1\\/Myc-His(+) lacZ) was used as

J. Stöve; J. Fiedler; K. Huch; K.-P. Günther; W. Puhl; R. Brenner



Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle vectors for operon and gene fusions to lacZ: the pJEM series.  

PubMed Central

A series of Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle plasmids for the isolation and study of gene regulatory sequences was constructed. These pJEM vectors contain an efficient transcription terminator and multiple cloning sites and allow either operon or gene fusions to lacZ. By constructing operon fusions with pJEM15, we assessed various previously characterized mycobacterial promoters in the fast-growing species Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing species M. bovis BCG. Our results suggest that M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG RNA polymerases do not share the same specificity. To isolate new mycobacterial promoters, an M. tuberculosis DNA library was generated, using pJEM13, and screened in M. smegmatis. Several Lac+ clones were isolated, and the beta-galactosidase activity was measured. Images PMID:7961429

Timm, J; Lim, E M; Gicquel, B



Regulation of RAD54- and RAD52-lacZ gene fusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

The RAD52 and RAD54 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in both DNA repair and DNA recombination. RAD54 has recently been shown to be inducible by X-rays, while RAD52 is not. To further investigate the regulation of these genes, we constructed gene fusions using 5' regions upstream of the RAD52 and RAD54 genes and a 3'-terminal fragment of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. Yeast transformants with either an integrated or an autonomously replicating plasmid containing these fusions expressed beta-galactosidase activity constitutively. In addition, the RAD54 gene fusion was inducible in both haploid and diploid cells in response to the DNA-damaging agents X-rays, UV light, and methyl methanesulfonate, but not in response to heat shock. The RAD52-lacZ gene fusion showed little or no induction in response to X-ray or UV radiation nor methyl methanesulfonate. Typical induction levels for RAD54 in cells exposed to such agents were from 3- to 12-fold, in good agreement with previous mRNA analyses. When MATa cells were arrested in G1 with alpha-factor, RAD54 was still inducible after DNA damage, indicating that the observed induction is independent of the cell cycle. Using a yeast vector containing the EcoRI structural gene fused to the GAL1 promoter, we showed that double-strand breaks alone are sufficient in vivo for induction of RAD54.

Cole, G.M.; Schild, D.; Lovett, S.T.; Mortimer, R.K.



Genetic analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 gene: isolation of a LacZ insertion mutant and expression in eukaryotic cells.  


HSV-1 host range mutants in complementation group 1-36 (hr27 and hr156) whose mutations map in the UL9 gene, encoding the origin binding protein, are unable to form plaques or synthesize viral DNA or late viral proteins when grown in nonpermissive Vero cells (Carmichael, E. P., Kosovsky, M. J., Weller, S. K., 1988, J. Virol. 62, 91-99). These defects are complemented efficiently by growth in the permissive cell line, S22, which contains the wild type version of several HSV genes including UL9. In this report the precise nature and location of the lesions in host range mutants hr27 and hr156 were determined by DNA sequencing; both mutants were found to contain identical single-base-pair substitutions at codons 309 and 311 in the UL9 open reading frame. This region lies within the putative helicase domain of the UL9 protein. The UL9 gene was disrupted by the insertion of an insertional mutagen ICP6::lacZ in which the Escherichia coli lacZ gene is expressed under control of the viral ICP6 promoter. Hr94, a viral mutant containing this insertion, does not form plaques or synthesize viral DNA when grown in Vero cells, although both defects are complemented efficiently on permissive cell lines. These results confirm that the UL9 gene product is essential for viral growth and DNA replication. Furthermore, since no detectable UL9 protein is synthesized in hr94-infected cells, this virus provides a useful genetic background for further structure-function analysis since no potentially interfering nonfunctional UL9 protein will be expressed. We have expressed the UL9 open reading frame under the control of the strong and inducible HSV-1 ICP6 promoter and have derived Vero cell lines containing variable copy numbers of the ICP6::UL9 construct. Cells whose copy number of this construct exceeded approximately 120 are unable to support efficient plaque formation by wild-type virus. Cell lines with low copy numbers of this construct are able to complement hr27, hr156, and hr94. PMID:1325702

Malik, A K; Martinez, R; Muncy, L; Carmichael, E P; Weller, S K



A Mutation Affecting the Regulation of a Seca-Lacz Fusion Defines a New Sec Gene  

PubMed Central

It was shown previously that the secA gene of Escherichia coli is derepressed in cells that have a defect in protein export. Here it is demonstrated that the ?-galactosidase produced by a secA-lacZ gene fusion strain is regulated in the same way. Studies on the fusion strain reveal that the promoter or a site involved in regulation of the secA gene is located considerably upstream from the structural gene. The properties of the fusion strain provide a new selection for mutants that are defective in protein export. Selection for increased lac expression of a secA-lacZ fusion strain yields mutations in three of the known sec genes, secA, secD and prlA/secY. In addition, mutations in several genes not previously known to affect secA expression were obtained. A mutation in one of these genes causes a pleiotropic defect in protein export and a cold-sensitive growth defect; this gene, which maps at approximately 90 min on the bacterial chromosome, has been named secE. PMID:3284784

Riggs, P. D.; Derman, A. I.; Beckwith, J.



Expression analysis of mouse Rhobtb3 using a LacZ reporter and preliminary characterization of a knockout strain.  


RhoBTB3 is an atypical member of the Rho family of small GTPases. It localizes at the Golgi apparatus and endosomes and is involved in vesicle trafficking and in targeting proteins for degradation in the proteasome. Previous studies using Northern blot analysis showed that Rhobtb3 is ubiquitously expressed in adult mice, but expression is particularly high in brain, heart and uterus. The gene is also expressed between embryonic days 11.5 and 17.5. To investigate the specific cell types that express this gene across tissues, both in the embryo and in the adult organism, we have made use of a gene trap mouse strain that expresses the LacZ gene under the transcriptional control of the endogenous Rhobtb3 promoter. Histochemical detection of ?-galactosidase expression revealed a profile characterized by nearly ubiquitous expression of Rhobtb3 in the embryo, but with particularly high levels in bone, cartilage, all types of muscle, testis and restricted areas of the nervous system. In the adult, expression persists at much lower levels in cardiac muscle, the tunica media of blood vessels and cartilage and at high levels in the seminiferous tubules. A general preliminary characterization of this gene trap mouse strain revealed reduced viability, a postnatal growth defect and reduced testis size. Our results should pave the way for future studies aimed at investigating the roles of RhoBTB3 in tissue development and in cardiac, vascular and testicular function. PMID:24923387

Lutz, Julia; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria S; Joshi, Pooja; Rivero, Francisco



Transcribing of Escherichia coli Genes with Mutant T7 RNA Polymerases: Stability of lacZ mRNA Inversely Correlates with Polymerase Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

When in Escherichia coli the host RNA polymerase is replaced by the 8-fold faster bacteriophage T7 enzyme for transcription of the lacZ gene, the beta-galactosidase yield per transcript drops as a result of transcript destabilization. We have measured the beta-galactosidase yield per transcript from T7 RNA polymerase mutants that exhibit a reduced elongation speed in vitro. Aside from very slow

Olga V. Makarova; Evgeny M. Makarov; Rui Sousa; Marc Dreyfus



Construction of new cloning, lacZ reporter and scarless-markerless suicide vectors for genetic studies in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.  


To elucidate the putative function of a gene, effective tools are required for genetic characterization that facilitate its inactivation, deletion or modification on the bacterial chromosome. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli/Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans shuttle vector pYGK was determined, allowing us to redesign and construct a new shuttle cloning vector, pJT4, and promoterless lacZ transcriptional/translational fusion plasmids, pJT3 and pJT5. Plasmids pJT4 and pJT5 contain the origin of replication necessary to maintain shuttle vector replication. In addition, a new suicide vector, pJT1, was constructed for the generation of scarless and markerless deletion mutations of genes in the oral pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans. Plasmid pJT1 is a pUC-based suicide vector that is counter-selectable for sucrose sensitivity. This vector does not leave antibiotic markers or scars on the chromosome after gene deletion and thus provides the option to combine several mutations in the same genetic background. The effectiveness of pJT1 was demonstrated by the construction of A. actinomycetemcomitans isogenic qseB single deletion (?qseB) mutant and lsrRK double deletion mutants (?lsrRK). These new vectors may offer alternatives for genetic studies in A. actinomycetemcomitans and other members of the HACEK (Haemophilus spp., A. actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23353051

Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Demuth, Donald R




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root colonization of oilseed rape by Pseudomonas alcaligenes A9(LacZ) in rhizosphere microcosms was investigated with the aid of the lacZ marker gene. Rape seeds were pelletized with A9(LacZ), an effective bacterial strain for promotion of rape seedling growth . Results indicated that A9(LacZ) popu...


Databases and software for the analysis of mutations in the human p53 gene, human hprt gene and both the lacI and lacZ gene in transgenic rodents.  


We have created databases and software applications for the analysis of DNA mutations at the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and both the rodent transgenic lacI and lacZ loci. The databases themselves are stand-alone dBASE files and the software for analysis of the databases runs on IBM-compatible computers with Microsoft Windows. Each database has a separate software analysis program. The software created for these databases permit the filtering, ordering, report generation and display of information in the database. In addition, a significant number of routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions. One method of obtaining the databases and software is via the World Wide Web. Open the following home page with a Web Browser: html . Alternatively, the databases and programs are available via public FTP from: There is no password required to enter the system. The databases and software are found beneath the subdirectory: pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations. Two other programs are available at the site, a program for comparison of mutational spectra and a program for entry of mutational data into a relational database. PMID:9399835

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R; Gorelick, N J; Hart, D W; Wilson, J D; Soussi, T



LacZ transgenic mice and immunoelectron microscopy: an ultrastructural method for dual localization of beta-galactosidase and horseradish peroxidase.  


Transgenic animals bearing the reporter gene, LacZ, encoding the histochemical enzyme, beta-galactosidase, are increasingly becoming available. Similarly, antibody conjugates consisting of specific IgGs coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are widely used for Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Here we provide a detailed fixation and histochemical protocol for the simultaneous electron microscopic visualization and discrimination of beta-galactosidase and peroxidase reaction products within mouse kidney. After incubation of transgenic LacZ tissues with IgG-HRP conjugates, samples were lightly fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde and 0.4% glutaraldehyde and processed for peroxidase histochemistry. Tissues underwent beta-galactosidase histochemistry, were refixed with glutaraldehyde, osmicated, and embedded. In Flk1/LacZ mice, we immunolocalized anti-laminin beta1 chain IgG-HRP specifically to developing glomerular basement membranes, whereas Flk1/LacZ was expressed only by glomerular endothelial cells. In Epas1/LacZ mice, we immunolocalized anti-platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 specifically to glomerular endothelial plasma membranes, whereas Epas1/LacZ was expressed by both glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells. This dual ultrastructural localization technique should be broadly applicable for immunoelectron microscopic studies in LacZ transgenic animals, particularly those where LacZ expression and antibody-HRP binding are both relatively abundant. PMID:17827164

St John, Patricia L; Abrahamson, Dale R



Synthesis of radioiodine-labeled 2-phenylethyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside for imaging of LacZ gene expression.  


A potent inhibitor of beta-galactosidase (EC, 2-phenylethyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PETG), was radioiodinated for noninvasive imaging of LacZ gene expression. In order to introduce radioiodine to the phenyl ring of PETG, 2-(4-bromophenyl)ethanethiol was prepared and attached to the C-1 position of beta-D-galactose pentaacetate under conditions that resulted in the exclusive formation of the beta anomer. The bromo group of PETG was converted to the tributylstannyl group where radioiododemetallation was carried out. Radioiodine-labeled PETG tetraacetate was purified by HPLC, which can be used as a prodrug for biological evaluation or hydrolyzed to 2-(4-[123I/125I]iodophenyl)ethyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside ([123I/125I]7) under basic conditions. The resulting radioiodine-labeled PETG was obtained in overall 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) and with specific activity of 46-74 GBq/micromol. PMID:12504378

Choi, Joon Hun; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Choi, Yong; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Byung-Tae



696 NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOL 17 JULY 1999 Since plants express endogenous b-galactosidase activity, lacZ can-  

E-print Network

of the 27 lysine residues in the E. coli protein are conserved in the other species and thus are likely. Mutated PCR products were ligated into the expression vector gusA-pBSD and transformed into E. coli. When endogenous b-galactosidase activity, lacZ can- not be employed as a reporter gene1. Instead, the Escherichia

Matsumura, Ichiro


Characterisation of Muta™Mouse ?gt10-lacZ transgene: evidence for in vivo rearrangements  

PubMed Central

The multicopy ?gt10-lacZ transgene shuttle vector of Muta™Mouse serves as an important tool for genotoxicity studies. Here, we describe a model for ?gt10-lacZ transgene molecular structure, based on characterisation of transgenes recovered from animals of our intramural breeding colony. Unique nucleotide sequences of the 47?513 bp monomer are reported with GenBank® assigned accession numbers. Besides defining ancestral mutations of the ?gt10 used to construct the transgene and the Muta™Mouse precursor (strain 40.6), we validated the sequence integrity of key ? genes needed for the Escherichia coli host-based mutation reporting assay. Using three polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based chromosome scanning and cloning strategies, we found five distinct in vivo transgene rearrangements, which were common to both sexes, and involved copy fusions generating ?10 defective copies per haplotype. The transgene haplotype was estimated by Southern hybridisation and real-time–polymerase chain reaction, which yielded 29.0 ± 4.0 copies based on spleen DNA of Muta™Mouse, and a reconstructed CD2F1 genome with variable ?gt10-lacZ copies. Similar analysis of commercially prepared spleen DNA from Big Blue® mouse yielded a haplotype of 23.5 ± 3.1 copies. The latter DNA is used in calibrating a commercial in vitro packaging kit for E.coli host-based mutation assays of both transgenic systems. The model for ?gt10-lacZ transgene organisation, and the PCR-based methods for assessing copy number, integrity and rearrangements, potentially extends the use of Muta™Mouse construct for direct, genomic-type assays that detect the effects of clastogens and aneugens, without depending on an E.coli host, for reporting effects. PMID:20724577

Shwed, Philip S.; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Douglas, George R.; Seligy, Vern L.



p53 deficiency alters the yield and spectrum of radiation-induced lacZ mutants in the brain of transgenic mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to heavy particle radiation in the galacto-cosmic environment poses a significant risk in space exploration and the evaluation of radiation-induced genetic damage in tissues, especially in the central nervous system, is an important consideration in long-term manned space missions. We used a plasmid-based transgenic mouse model system, with the pUR288 lacZ transgene integrated in the genome of every cell of C57Bl/6(lacZ) mice, to evaluate the genetic damage induced by iron particle radiation. In order to examine the importance of genetic background on the radiation sensitivity of individuals, we cross-bred p53 wild-type lacZ transgenic mice with p53 nullizygous mice, producing lacZ transgenic mice that were either hemizygous or nullizygous for the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Animals were exposed to an acute dose of 1 Gy of iron particles and the lacZ mutation frequency (MF) in the brain was measured at time intervals from 1 to 16 weeks post-irradiation. Our results suggest that iron particles induced an increase in lacZ MF (2.4-fold increase in p53+/+ mice, 1.3-fold increase in p53+/- mice and 2.1-fold increase in p53-/- mice) and that this induction is both temporally regulated and p53 genotype dependent. Characterization of mutants based on their restriction patterns showed that the majority of the mutants arising spontaneously are derived from point mutations or small deletions in all three genotypes. Radiation induced alterations in the spectrum of deletion mutants and reorganization of the genome, as evidenced by the selection of mutants containing mouse genomic DNA. These observations are unique in that mutations in brain tissue after particle radiation exposure have never before been reported owing to technical limitations in most other mutation assays.

Chang, P. Y.; Kanazawa, N.; Lutze-Mann, L.; Winegar, R. A.



Enhancer trap integrations in mouse embryonic stem cells give rise to staining patterns in chimaeric embryos with a high frequency and detect endogenous genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated mouse embryonic stem cell lines that carry lacZ enhancer trap constructs integrated in their genome. Fifty-nine cell lines were analysed for lacZ expression in undifferentiated stem cells and at day 7.5, 8.5 and 12.5 of development in chimaeric embryos obtained after blastocyst injection. In 13 cell lines the lacZ reporter gene was expressed in undifferentiated stem cells

R Korn; M Schoor; H Neuhaus; U Henseling; R Soininen; J Zachgo; A Gossler



Comparison of Three Nonviral Transfection Methods for Foreign Gene Expression in Early Chicken Embryos in Ovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using three nonviral transfection methods, i.e., microparticle bombardment, lipofection and electroporation, the transfection efficiency and the expression intensity of a lacZ reporter gene were compared in developing chicken embryosin ovo.Of the three transfection methods employed, electroporation conferred the strongest expression of the bacterial lacZ gene with similar transfection efficiency. The results suggest that as far as transient gene expression

Tatsuo Muramatsu; Yoshimoto Mizutani; Yasushige Ohmori; Jun-ichi Okumura



Ins1 Gene Up-Regulated in a ?-Cell Line Derived from Ins2 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

The authors have derived a new ?-cell line (?Ins2?/?lacZ) from Ins2?/? mice that carry the lacZ reporter gene under control of the Ins2 promoter. ?Ins2?/?lacZ cells stained positively using anti-insulin antibody, expressed ?-cell–specific genes encoding the transcription factor PDX-1, glucokinase, and Glut-2, retained glucose-responsiveness for insulin secretion, and expressed the lacZ gene. Analysis of Ins1 expression by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that Ins1 transcripts were significantly raised to compensate for the lack of Ins2 transcripts in ?Ins2?/?lacZ cells, as compared to those found in ?TC1 cells expressing both Ins1/Ins2. Thus, transcriptional up-regulation of the remaining functional insulin gene in Ins2?/? mice could potentially contribute to the ?-cell adaptation exhibited by these mutants, in addition to the increase in ?-cell mass that we previously reported.We have also shown that lacZ expression, as analyzed by determining ?-galactosidase activity, was up-regulated by incubating ?Ins2?/?lacZ cells with GLP-1 and/or IBMX, 2 known stimulators of insulin gene expression. These cells thus represent a new tool for testing of molecules capable of stimulating Ins2 promoter activity PMID:12745665

Leroux, Loďc; Durel, Béatrice; Autier, Valérie; Deltour, Louise; Bucchini, Danielle; Jami, Jacques



Databases and software for the analysis of mutations in the human p53 gene, the human hprt gene and both the lacI and lacZ gene in transgenic rodents.  


We have created databases and software applications for the analysis of DNA mutations at the humanp53gene, the humanhprtgene and both the rodent transgeniclacIandlacZlocus. The databases themselves are stand-alone dBASE files and the software for analysis of the databases runs on IBM-compatible computers. Each database has a separate software analysis program. The software created for these databases permit the filtering, ordering, report generation and display of information in the database. In addition, a significant number of routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions. One method of obtaining the databases and software is via the World Wide Web (WWW). Open the following home page with a Web Browser: ml . Alternatively, the databases and programs are available via public FTP from: . There is no password required to enter the system. The databases and software are found beneath the subdirectory: pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations. Two other programs are available at the site-a program for comparison of mutational spectra and a program for entry of mutational data into a relational database. PMID:9016522

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R; Dycaico, M J; Gorelick, N J; Provost, G S; Soussi, T



Mouse embryonic stem cells and reporter constructs to detect developmentally regulated genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy was devised for identifying regions of the mouse genome that are transcriptionally active in a temporally and spatially restricted manner during development. The approach is based on the introduction into embryonic stem cells of two types of lacZ reporter constructs that can be activated by flanking mouse genomic sequences. Embryonic stem cells containing the lacZ constructs were used

A Gossler; A L Joyner; J Rossant; W C Skarnes



An equine herpesvirus 1 mutant with a lacZ insertion between open reading frames 62 and 63 is replication competent and causes disease in the murine respiratory model.  


An equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) mutant was constructed by inserting a lacZ expression cassette into the intergenic region upstream of gene 62 (glycoprotein L; gL) and downstream of gene 63 (a homologue of the herpes simplex virus transcriptional activator ICP0). The recombinant lacZ62/63-EHV-1 had similar growth kinetics in cell culture to those of the parental wild type (wt) virus, with indistinguishable cytopathic effects and plaque morphology. Reverse transcriptase PCR confirmed that the lacZ insertion did not interfere with transcription of gL and immunoblot analysis indicated there was no modification to late gene expression as monitored by synthesis of EHV-1 glycoproteins C and D. The parental EHV-1 isolate HVS25A used here had almost identical nucleotide sequence to that published for isolate Ab4, in a 1200 bp region surrounding the insert, but lacked a HindIII site corresponding to Ab4 position 109,048. The lacZ62/63-EHV-1 caused respiratory disease in BALB/c mice with clinical signs, histopathology and virus titres in lungs throughout days 1-5 post infection similar to those induced by wt EHV-1. X-gal staining for beta-galactosidase expression in murine lungs clearly demonstrated EHV-1 infection in cells of the bronchiolar epithelium and pulmonary parenchyma, with a peak of infection evident at day 2 post infection, when up to 50% of bronchioles demonstrated blue-staining and thus virus-infected epithelial cells. The construction of this replication competent virus carrying a reporter gene identifies a site for insertion of foreign genes and will facilitate studies on the pathogenesis of EHV-1. PMID:9856103

Csellner, H; Walker, C; Love, D N; Whalley, J M



Nucleotide sequence of the iucD gene of the pColV-K30 aerobactin operon and topology of its product studied with phoA and lacZ gene fusions.  

PubMed Central

Gene iucD of the aerobactin operon of the Escherichia coli plasmid ColV-K30 encodes a membrane-bound enzyme synthesizing N6-hydroxylysine, the first product of the aerobactin biosynthesis pathway. The entire nucleotide sequence of the cloned iucD gene was determined, from which the primary and some aspects of the secondary structure of the encoded peptide were deduced. E. coli cells harboring multicopy plasmid pVLN12 (iucD+) hyperproduced an approximately 50-kilodalton peptide which was purified and identified as the product of the gene by examination of its amino-terminal sequence. Two iucD'-'lacZ gene fusions were constructed in vitro and four iucD'-'phoA gene fusions were generated in vivo by mutagenesis of iucD with transposon TnphoA (Tn5 IS50L::phoA). Analysis of the corresponding fusion proteins suggested at least two domains of attachment of the IucD protein to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. The first apparent membrane-bound domain was found within the first 25 amino acids of the protein and showed a sequence which resembled that of the signal peptides. Images PMID:3275632

Herrero, M; de Lorenzo, V; Neilands, J B



Improved FACS-Gal: flow cytometric analysis and sorting of viable eukaryotic cells expressing reporter gene constructs.  


The previously reported FACS-Gal assay (Nolan et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:2603-2607, 1988) measures E. coli lacZ-encoded beta-galactosidase activity in individual viable eukaryotic cells for a variety of molecular and cellular biological applications. Enzyme activity is measured by flow cytometry, using a fluorogenic substrate, which is hydrolyzed and retained intracellularly. In this system, lacZ serves both as a reporter gene to quantitate gene expression and as a selectable marker for the fluorescence-activated sorting of cells based on their lacZ expression level. This report details the following improvements of the original assay: 1) use of phenylethyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside, a competitive inhibitor, to inhibit beta-galactosidase activity; 2) reduction of false positives by two-color measurements; and 3) inhibition of interfering mammalian beta-galactosidases by the weak base chloroquine. We found an exponential relationship between fluorescence generated by beta-galactosidase in this assay and the intracellular concentration of beta-galactosidase molecules. Finally, we report conditions for optimal loading of the substrate (FDG) and retention of the product, fluorescein. Under these conditions, we found uniform loading of FDG in all cells of a clone in individual experiments. Together, these improvements make FACS-Gal an extremely powerful tool for investigation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. PMID:1905992

Fiering, S N; Roederer, M; Nolan, G P; Micklem, D R; Parks, D R; Herzenberg, L A



Systemic RNAi Delivery to the Muscles of ROSA26 Mice Reduces lacZ Expression  

PubMed Central

RNAi has potential for therapeutically downregulating the expression of dominantly inherited genes in a variety of human genetic disorders. Here we used the ROSA26 mouse, which constitutively expresses the bacterial lacZ gene in tissues body wide, as a model to test the ability to downregulate gene expression in striated muscles. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) were generated that express short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) able to target the lacZ mRNA. Systemic delivery of these rAAV6 vectors led to a decrease of ?-galactosidase expression of 30–50-fold in the striated muscles of ROSA26 mice. However, high doses of vectors expressing 21 nucleotide shRNA sequences were associated with significant toxicity in both liver and cardiac muscle. This toxicity was reduced in cardiac muscle using lower vector doses. Furthermore, improved knockdown in the absence of toxicity was obtained by using a shorter (19 nucleotide) shRNA guide sequence. These results support the possibility of using rAAV vectors to deliver RNAi sequences systemically to treat dominantly inherited disorders of striated muscle. PMID:25127128

Wei, Jessica; Chamberlain, Joel R.



Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus-Specific Enhancer of Ad4BP\\/SF1 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

nous gene expression from the fetal ventromedial diencephalon to the adult VMH. The VMH enhancer was characterized by the presence of suppressive and activating elements. Mutation of the former element resulted in ectopic lacZ reporter gene ex- pression in an area dorsal to the intrinsic expres- sion domain and in the ventricular zone, whereas mutations in the latter containing ATTA

Y. Shima; Mohamad Zubair; Satoru Ishihara; Yuko Shinohara; Sanae Ok; Shioko Kimura; Shiki Okamoto; Yasuhiko Minokoshi; Sachiyo Suit; Ken-ichirou Morohashi




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To search for Mycoplasma gallisepticum genes involved in colonization of the poultry respiratory tract, a transposon containing a promoterless lacZ gene was employed as a transcriptional reporter. The transposon was used to randomly mutagenize the chromosome of the M. gallisepticum S6 strain and a ...


Evidence for astrocyte heterogeneity: a distinct subpopulation of protoplasmic-like glial cells is detected in transgenic mice expressing Lmo1-lacZ.  


The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a large number of different cell types, which arise from the ventricular (VZ) and subventricular zones during embryonic development. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse expressing Lmo1-LacZ from a randomly inserted promoter/reporter gene construct to identify a glial subpopulation. LMO1 is an LIM domain-containing protein, thought to act in protein-protein interactions. We found first that in the adult transgenic CNS, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) was expressed in a specific subpopulation of protoplasmic-like cells, which did not express detectable levels of glial fibrilary acidic protein unless a lesion was produced. Secondly, during development, beta-gal(+) cells were found arising from discrete regions of the VZ. Taken together, these results identify a subpopulation of protoplasmic glial cells in the adult CNS and suggest that they arise from a restricted VZ region during CNS development. PMID:12898699

Scotti Campos, Lia



Transient gene transfer to neurons and glia: Analysis of adenoviral vector performance in the CNS and PNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a detailed protocol is presented for neuroscientists planning to start work on first generation recombinant adenoviral vectors as gene transfer agents for the nervous system. The performance of a prototype adenoviral vector encoding the bacterial lacZ gene as a reporter was studied, following direct injection in several regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. The distribution

Roman J. Giger; Anthony J. G. D. Holtmaat; Paul A. Dijkhuizen; Diane A. Houweling; Joost Verhaagen



A novel method to assay herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibodies using BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells.  


A novel method for determining neutralizing serum antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was developed based on reduction of infectivity in BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells; baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that have been genetically engineered to contain the Escherichia coli LacZ gene under the control of an inducible herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoter. The test has a semiautomated, colorimetric readout resulting in rapid, objective readings of infectivity reduction. Extent of neutralization is calculated against a calibration curve of virus infectivity generated in each run. HSV-2 neutralizing activity can be detected with serum dilutions in excess of 1:5120. PMID:9473152

Ashley, R L; Dalessio, J; Sekulovich, R E



Singlet oxygen-induced mutations in M13 lacZ phage DNA.  

PubMed Central

The mutagenic consequences of damages to M13 mp19 RF DNA produced by singlet oxygen have been determined in a forward mutational system capable of detecting all classes of mutagenic events. When the damaged M13 mp19 RF DNA is used to transfect competent E. coli JM105 cells, a 16.6-fold increase in mutation frequency is observed at 5% survivors when measured as a loss of alpha-complementation. The enhanced mutagenicity is largely due to single-nucleotide substitutions, frameshift events and double-mutations. The single-nucleotide substitutions occur in the regulatory and in the structural part of the lacZ gene under the predominant form of a G:C to T:A transversion. The spectrum of mutations detected among the M13 lacZ phages surviving the singlet oxygen treatment is totally different from those appearing spontaneously. SOS induction mediated through u.v.-irradiation of bacteria leads to an increase of the mutation frequency in the M13 surviving to the singlet oxygen treatment. The mutation spectrum in this case is a mixture between those observed with the spontaneous mutants and the mutants induced by singlet oxygen. Lesions introduced in the M13 mp19 RF DNA can be partly repaired by the enzymatic machinery of the bacteria. It turns out that excision-repair and SOS repair are probably involved in the removal of these lesions by singlet oxygen. PMID:3121306

Decuyper-Debergh, D; Piette, J; Van de Vorst, A



Characterization of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A Expression in Mouse Tissues Using a lacZ Knock-In Approach  

PubMed Central

Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene (Pdgfa) occurs widely in the developing mouse, where it is mainly localized to various epithelial and neuronal structures. Until now, in situ mRNA hybridization (ISH) has been the only reliable method to identify Pdgfa expression in tissue sections or whole mount preparations. Validated protocols for in situ detection of PDGF-A protein by immunohistochemistry is lacking. In particular, this has hampered understanding of Pdgfa expression pattern in adult tissues, where ISH is technically challenging. Here, we report a gene targeted mouse Pdgfa allele, Pdgfaex4COIN, which is a combined conditional knockout and reporter allele. Cre-mediated inversion of the COIN cassette inactivates Pdgfa coding while simultaneously activating a beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter under endogenous Pdgfa transcription control. The generated Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ allele can next be used to identify cells carrying a Pdgfa null allele, as well as to map endogenous Pdgfa expression. We evaluated the Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ allele as a reporter for endogenous Pdgfa expression patterns in mouse embryos and adults. We conclude that the expression pattern of Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ recapitulates known expression patterns of Pdgfa. We also report on novel embryonic and adult Pdgfa expression patterns in the mouse and discuss their implications for Pdgfa physiology. PMID:25166724

Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; He, Liqun; Betsholtz, Christer



Progressive Cerebellar, Auditory, and Esophageal Dysfunction Caused by Targeted Disruption of the frizzled-4 Gene  

E-print Network

the phenotype of mice car- rying a targeted deletion of the frizzled-4 ( fz4) gene. fz4( / ) mice exhibit three by loss of hair cells or other auditory neurons. As assayed using a lacZ knock-in reporter, fz4 is widely expressed within the CNS. In particular, fz4 is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells, esophageal skeletal

Ryugo, David K.


Effect of methyl methanesulfonate on hsp70 expression and tissue damage in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9  

PubMed Central

Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an anti-carcinogenic drug and its toxicity has been reported in various experimental models. The hsp70s are a family of ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins. In the recent years, hsp70 has been considered to be one of the candidate genes for predicting cytotoxicity against environmental chemicals. Nowadays emphasis is given to the use of alternatives to mammals in testing, research and education. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) has recommended the use of Drosophila as an alternative model for scientific studies. Almost all living organisms possess proteins with a similar structure to that of hsp70s. In the present study, the toxicity of MMS was evaluated by quantifying hsp70 expression and tissue damage in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9, at different doses and hours of exposure. We studied the effect of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 µl/ml of MMS at 2, 4, 24 and 48 hours of exposure on hsp70 expression by using the soluble O-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) assay and on establishing the tissue damage by the Trypan blue exclusion assay in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hsp70 was observed at 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 µl/ml of MMS compared to the control. At the highest dose, i.e. 1.0 µl/ml of MMS, the activity of hsp70 was decreased due to tissue damage. PMID:22058658

Kumar, Vineet; Ara, Gulshan; Afzal, Mohammad; Siddique, Yasir Hasan



Construction of Tn5 lac, a Transposon That Fuses lacZ Expression to Exogenous Promoters, and Its Introduction into Myxococcus xanthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A promoterless trp-lac fusion fragment was inserted near one end of the bacterial transposon Tn5 in the correct orientation to fuse lacZ gene expression to promoters outside Tn5. The resulting transposon, Tn5 lac, retains the kanamycin-resistance gene of Tn5 and transposes in Escherichia coli at 6% the frequency of Tn5 to many different sites in a bacteriophage lambda target. Expression

Lee Kroos; Dale Kaiser



Visualization of b Galactosidase by Enzyme and Immunohistochemistry in the Olfactory Bulb of Transgenic Mice Carrying the LacZ Transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the olfactory bulb (OB) of a transgenic mouse line that carries the bacterial LacZ gene under the control of the 5 9 -regulatory region of the GAD67 gene, expression of the b -galactosidase was confined almost exclusively to the non-GABAergic mitral and tufted cells. By light microscopy, enzyme histochemistry showed strong staining in the cell bodies and faint

Gabriela Sekerková; Zoya Katarova; Ferenc Joó; Joachim R. Wolff; Simona Prodan; Gábor Szabó


Somatic and germ cell mutagenesis in lambda lacZ transgenic mice treated with acrylamide or ethylnitrosourea.  


The transgenic Muta Mouse in vivo mutagenesis assay was employed to determine the activity of acrylamide and ethylnitrosourea in liver and germ cells after 3, 10 and 100 days following treatment. Each cell of the Muta Mouse carries 80 copies of the lambda gt10 phage including the bacterial lacZ gene, which act as the target gene for the mutagenesis assay. Groups of Muta Mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 or 160 mg/kg ethylnitrosourea or 50 or 100 mg/kg acrylamide. The tissues were prepared 3, 10 or 100 days post treatment. The liver genomic DNA was extracted with the manufacturer's standard protocol, while the genomic germ cell DNA was extracted with 4 different methods due to problems encountered in DNA yields and packaging efficiency. The mutation analysis of the lacZ gene was carried out by the positive selective assay method [Gossen et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 7971-7975; Dean and Myhr (1994) Mutagenesis, 9, 183-185]. There was a slight increase due to treatment of the observed mutation frequencies in the acrylamide liver group for all three assay times. From the day 3 group to the day 100 group a time dependent decrease in all the absolute mutant frequencies was detectable. The ethylnitrosourea liver group showed a time- and dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequencies from day 3 to day 100. No meaningful results were obtained for the germ cell tissue assays due to the low amount of genomic DNA extracted which was not packageable in the lambda lacZ assay. At present for the mutagenesis assay of isolated spermatozoa in our laboratory we would be forced to pool tissues from animals to obtain enough DNA for an assay. Since 'jackpot'-animals may exist [Heddle et al. (1992) Mutation Res., 272, 195-203] the individual animals of such a pooled analysis group must be tested before pooling. PMID:9057886

Krebs, O; Favor, J



A Perspective of Gene Therapy in the Glaucomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy in the anterior and posterior segment tissues may have the potential to favorably influence aqueous hydrodynamics and retinal ganglion cell biology, thereby preventing, delaying, or minimizing glaucomatous damage to the optic nerve. We demonstrated the feasibility of using a herpes viral vector (ribonucleotide reductase defective HSV-1, hrR3) to deliver the lacZ reporter gene to living cat and rat

Paul L Kaufman; William W-G Jia; Jiren Tan; Zheng Chen; B’Ann T Gabelt; Virginia Booth; Frank Tufaro; Max Cynader



Cytogenetic mapping of lambda gt10 lacZ sequences in the transgenic mouse strain 40.6 (Muta Mouse).  


The transgenic mouse strain 40.6 (Muta Mouse) was developed for the detection of gene mutations induced in vivo. Strain 40.6 was constructed by microinjecting the shuttle vector lambda gt10 lacZ into the male pronucleus of a single cell embryo resulting from a CD2 (i.e. BALB/c x DBA/2)F1 x CD2F1 cross. Approximately 40 concatenated copies of the shuttle vector were integrated per haploid genome. The resulting mice were bred to disomy for the insert for use in mutagenicity studies. Ultimately, it is hoped that transgenic rodent model systems such as this one will play an important regulatory role in hazard identification. Despite the increasing use of this strain in toxicological studies, relatively little is known about the site of integration of the target gene into the mouse genome. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization and DAPI chromosome banding were combined to determine the location of the transgenic element in the mouse genome. The results indicate that the lambda sequences containing the lacZ gene are located in the B region of mouse chromosome 3. No other major chromosomal rearrangements were evident in the genome of this mouse strain. PMID:7603331

Blakey, D H; Douglas, G R; Huang, K C; Winter, H J



Isolation of behavioral mutants of Azospirillum brasilense by using Tn5 lacZ.  

PubMed Central

Tn5 lacZ mutants were generated with Azospirillum brasilense 7030 by mating that strain with Escherichia coli strains carrying suicide plasmid pCIB100 or pCIB110. Kanamycin-resistant Azospirillum colonies were obtained with a maximum frequency of 10(-6) per recipient cell. The potential of Tn5 lacZ for random transposon mutagenesis coupled to transcription analysis in A. brasilense 7030 was demonstrated. Sixty percent of all Kmr A. brasilense 7030 mutants expressed beta-galactosidase activity. Mutants affected in motility (Fla-) and general chemotaxis (Che-) were identified. Chromosomal insertions of Tn5 lacZ are involved, except for two Che- mutants. The latter che loci reside on a 90-megadalton plasmid. Expression of an acidic protein (Mr, 110,000) was abolished in these mutants. Images PMID:2160221

van Rhijn, P; Vanstockem, M; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R



cAMP target sequences enhCRE and CNRE sense low-salt intake to increase human renin gene expression in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess the role of cAMP target sequences enhancer cAMP response element (enhCRE) and cAMP and overlapping\\u000a negative response element (CNRE) in the control of human renin gene (REN) in vivo. enhCRE and CNRE were silenced by mutations\\u000a in a 12.2-kb human renin promoter fused to LacZ reporter gene. This construct was used to generate transgenic mice

Michael Desch; Sabine Harlander; Björn Neubauer; Melanie Gerl; Stephane Germain; Hayo Castrop; Vladimir T. Todorov



Tumor-specific Transgene Expression from the Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Enables Targeting of the Therapeutic Effects of the Bax Gene to Cancers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, which is highly active in immortalized cells and >85% of human cancers but is quiescent in most normal somatic cells. To test the feasibility of using the hTERT promoter to induce tumor-specific transgene expression in cancer gene therapy, we constructed an adenoviral vector expressing a LacZ reporter gene driven

Jian Gu; Shunsuke Kagawa; Masahiro Takakura; Satoru Kyo; Masaki Inoue; Jack A. Roth; Bingliang Fang


LacZ ?-galactosidase: Structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance  

PubMed Central

This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ ?-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize ?-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the “missing” N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of ?-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon. PMID:23011886

Juers, Douglas H; Matthews, Brian W; Huber, Reuben E



Activation of the ADE Genes Requires the Chromatin Remodeling Complexes SAGA and SWI\\/SNF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of the ADE regulon genes requires the pair of transcription factors Bas1 and Pho2. In a genome-wide screen for additional regulators of the pathway, strains with mutations in multiple subunits of the chromatin remodeling complexes SAGA and SWI\\/SNF were uncovered. These mutants exhibited decreased expression of an ADE5,7-lacZ reporter and native ADE compared to the wild-type strains, but

Rebecca N. Koehler; Nicole Rachfall; Ronda J. Rolfes



Integrated approach to the in vivo genotoxic effects of a titanium dioxide nanomaterial using LacZ plasmid-based transgenic mice.  


Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanomaterials (NMs) are widely used in a diversity of products including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, and inks, despite uncertainties surrounding the potential health risks that they pose to humans and the environment. Previous studies on the genotoxicity of TiO2 have reported discrepant or inconclusive findings in both in vitro and in vivo systems. This study explores the in vivo genotoxic potential of a well-characterized uncoated TiO2 NM with an average diameter of 22 nm (NM-102, from JRC repository) using several genotoxicity endpoints in the LacZ plasmid-based transgenic mouse model. Mice were exposed by intravenous injection to two daily doses of NM-102: 10 and 15 mg/kg of body weight/day. Micronuclei were analyzed in peripheral blood reticulocytes 42 hr after the last treatment. DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and gene mutations were determined in the spleens and livers of the same animals 28 days after the last treatment. Histopathological and cytological analyses were also performed in liver samples. Genotoxic effects were not detected in mice exposed to the nanosized TiO2 under the experimental conditions used, despite a moderate inflammatory response that was observed in the liver. Considering the biopersistence of TiO2 in mouse liver and the moderate inflammatory response, the possibility of a secondary genotoxic effect at higher doses and in conditions that result in a stronger inflammatory response, for example, within a longer time window, should be investigated further. PMID:24590610

Louro, Henriqueta; Tavares, Ana; Vital, Nádia; Costa, Pedro M; Alverca, Elsa; Zwart, Edwin; de Jong, Wim H; Fessard, Valérie; Lavinha, Joăo; Silva, Maria J



A reporter gene to analyse the hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes.  


The affinity maturation of antibodies is driven by somatic hypermutation which is localized to specific segments of the coding genes. The information available on this process derives from studies in vivo. With the intention of developing new approaches, we have constructed a fusion gene between a kappa chain and a selectable neomycin resistance gene, neor. The neor gene, which includes the SV40 small t intron and polyadenylation site, but not the upstream elements nor its first 12 amino acids, is an in-frame substitution of the FR2-CDR3 fragment of a rearranged V kappa OX1-J kappa 5 gene. Expression of neor activity is therefore dependent on the upstream immunoglobulin sequence. A stop codon was placed in the CDR1 region so that only mutants survive treatment with geneticin sulphate (G418). The effectiveness of the system was tested by transfecting the NS0 myeloma cell line and isolating spontaneous mutants. Neomycin-resistant clones arose at an estimated rate of 1 x 10(-8)/cell division, and over 90% were authentic structural mutants. Unlike the somatic hypermutations, the majority arose by in-frame deletions including the stop codon, although up to 30% involved a point mutation. The reporter gene was then modified by substituting all the sequences downstream of the J kappa 5 with others known to be required for full hypermutation in vivo. Different cell lines were transfected and G418-resistant clones analyzed. No significant increase in the rate of reversion or in the generation of point mutations versus deletions was detected, even using conditioned culture medium. In the presence of azacytidine however, a mutant involving multiple events (single base addition and deletion plus two point mutations) was detected. The reporter gene system therefore seems suitable to test culture conditions and modifications of the host cells aimed at the derivation of an in vitro assay of somatic hypermutation. PMID:7783211

Chui, Y L; Lozano, F; Jarvis, J M; Pannell, R; Milstein, C



Imaging of gene expression in vivo with photoacoustic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the post-genomic era, there is an increasing interest in visualizing the expression of functional genes in vivo. With the assistance of the reporter gene technique, various imaging modalities have been adopted for this purpose. In vivo gene expression imaging promises to provide biologists with a powerful tool for deepening our understanding of developmental biology, expanding our knowledge of the genetic basis of disease, and advancing the development of medicine. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging gene expression with photoacoustic imaging, which offers unique absorption contrast with ultrasonic resolution in vivo. We mark tumors in rats with the lacZ reporter gene. The lacZ gene encodes an enzyme ?-galactosidase, which yields a dark blue product when acting on a colorimetric assay called X-gal. Photoacoustic tomography at 650nm clearly visualizes the presence of this blue product. The spectroscopic method can also potentially improve specificity. Considering how many staining methods are used in traditional biology, we believe that photoacoustic techniques will revolutionize the field of molecular imaging. The further development of reporter gene systems with high absorbing products in the NIR region is needed.

Li, Li; Zemp, Roger J.; Lungu, Gina; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.



Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to rabbit synovium in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Currently, treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies is often ineffective in ameliorating the progression of the disease, particularly the invasive destruction of cartilage and bone by rheumatoid synovium. Multiple aspects of this inflammatory process are mediated by the synovial lining cells (synoviocytes). Genetic modification of these cells in vivo represents a potential method for the treatment of these conditions. In this report, we describe a novel technique for the genetic transduction of synovial lining cells in vivo using recombinant adenoviral vectors and intraarticular injection techniques. Purified high titer suspensions of a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the gene for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (AdCMVlacZ) were directly injected into the hind knees of New Zealand white rabbits. Synovial tissues were then examined for transgenic lacZ expression using a combination of in situ staining for beta-galactosidase activity, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy. High efficiency gene transfer and lacZ expression was observed in both type A and type B synoviocytes throughout the articular and periarticular synovium of the rabbit knee, with continued expression of transgenic lacZ detected for > or = 8 wk after infection. Images PMID:8349791

Roessler, B J; Allen, E D; Wilson, J M; Hartman, J W; Davidson, B L



The local repressor AcrR plays a modulating role in the regulation of acrAB genes of Escherichia coli by global stress signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genes acrAB encode a multidrug efflux pump in Escherichia coli. We have previously reported that transcription of acrAB is increased under general stress conditions (i.e. 4% ethanol, 0.5 M NaCl, and the stationary phase in Luria-Bertani medium). In this study, lacZ transcriptional fusions and an in vitro gel mobility shift assay have been utilized to study the mechanisms governing

Dzwokai Ma; Marie Alberti; Christy Lynch; Hiroshi Nikaido; John E. Hearst



Ex vivo adenovirus mediated gene transfection of human conjunctival epithelium  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate the efficacy of "ex vivo" adenoviral vector mediated gene transfection of human conjunctival epithelial cell as a possible route for gene therapy for the distribution of anti-inflammatory agents for the potential treatment of immune mediated ocular inflammatory disorders.?METHODS—Human conjunctival cells (HCs) were cultured with various concentrations of recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying a reporter gene LacZ, GFP, or an immunomodulating cytokine vIL-10. vIL-10 in culture supernatant was detected by sandwich ELISA and biological activity was assessed by suppression of ConA stimulated splenocyte proliferation. X-gal and GFP expression was assessed by histochemistry.?RESULTS—The extent of adenoviral vector mediated transfer of both reporter genes and vIL-10 was dose dependent. LacZ expression could be detected for at least 50 day after infection with multiple of infection (MOI) 200. Following AdCMVvIL-10 transduction, vIL-10 protein expression occurred between 4-6 days post-transduction, and was maintained at a detectable level for at least 1 month. Secreted vIL-10 showed biological activity, significantly inhibiting Con A induced splenocyte proliferation. Additionally, transfection of HCs with two Adv vectors, one carrying LacZ and the other carrying GFP, resulted in co-expression within a single cell.?CONCLUSION—These results confirm previous successful adenoviral vector mediated gene transfer to HCs and further show that expression can be maintained. Furthermore the data show HCs can secrete biologically active vIL-10 that could be developed as a strategy to suppress immune mediated disorders. The successful co-transduction of HCs as described for other tissues, opens avenues to develop a multiple target gene therapy locally.?? PMID:11423463

Shen, J.; Taylor, N.; Duncan, L.; Kovesdi, I.; Bruder, J.; Forrester, J.; Dick, A.



Cell Reports Frequent Recent Origination of Brain Genes  

E-print Network

evolution in Drosophila, new genes have frequently acquired neuronal expression, particularly first identified newly evolved genes with neuronal expression in Drosophila. Further characterizationCell Reports Article Frequent Recent Origination of Brain Genes Shaped the Evolution of Foraging

Luo, Liqun


Indexing TNF-? gene expression using a gene-targeted reporter cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current cell-based drug screening technologies utilize randomly integrated reporter genes to index transcriptional activity of an endogenous gene of interest. In this context, reporter expression is controlled by known genetic elements that may only partially capture gene regulation and by unknown features of chromatin specific to the integration site. As an alternative technology, we applied highly efficient gene-targeting with

Ziying Yan; Diana Lei-Butters; John F Engelhardt; Gregory H Leno



A set of lacZ mutations in Escherichia coli that allow rapid detection of each of the six base substitutions  

SciTech Connect

We describe the construction of six strains of Escherichia coli with different mutations at the same coding position in the lacZ gene, which specifies the active site glutamic acid residue at position 461 in beta'-galactosidase. Each strain is Lac- and reverts to Lac+ only by restoring the glutamic acid codon. The strains have been designed so that each reverts via one of the six base substitutions. The set of strains allows detection of each transition and transversion simply by monitoring the Lac- to Lac+ frequency, as demonstrated here with characterized mutagens and mutator alleles. These strains are useful for rapidly determining the mutagenic specificity of mutagens at a single site, for detecting low levels of stimulation of certain base substitutions, for monitoring specific base changes in response to various experimental conditions or strain backgrounds, and for isolating new mutator strains.

Cupples, C.G.; Miller, J.H.



Efficient and long-term intracardiac gene transfer in delta-sarcoglycan-deficiency hamster by adeno-associated virus-2 vectors.  


Intracardiac gene transfer and gene therapy have been investigated with different vector systems. Here we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver either a reporter gene or a therapeutic gene into the heart of golden Syrian hamsters. The method of gene delivery was direct infusion of the AAV2 vectors into the coronary artery ex vivo in a heterotopically transplanted heart. When an AAV2 vector carrying the Lac-Z gene driven by CMV promoter was delivered into the heart of healthy hamsters, effective gene transfer was achieved in up to 90% of the cardiomyocytes. Lac-Z gene expression persisted for more than 1 year without immune rejection or promoter shutoff. Furthermore, when an AAV2 vector carrying human delta-sarcoglycan gene was similarly delivered into the heart of Bio14.6 Syrian hamster, a congestive heart failure and limb girdle muscular dystrophy animal model, widespread therapeutic gene transfer was achieved in a majority of the cardiomyocytes. Efficient expression of the human delta-sarcoglycan gene in the dystrophic hamster hearts restored the entire sarcoglycan complex that was missing due to the primary deficiency of delta-sarcoglycan. Transgene expression persisted for 4 months (the duration of the study) without immune rejection or promoter shutoff. These results indicate that AAV is a promising vector system for cardiac gene therapy. PMID:12960970

Li, J; Wang, D; Qian, S; Chen, Z; Zhu, T; Xiao, X



Tissue-specific expression of a FMR1/beta-galactosidase fusion gene in transgenic mice.  


Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common genetic causes of mental retardation, yet the mechanisms controlling expression of the fragile X mental retardation gene FMR1 are poorly understood. To identify sequences regulating FMR1 transcription, transgenic mouse lines were established using a fusion gene consisting of an E.coli beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) linked to a 2.8 kb fragment spanning the 5'-region of FMR1. Five transgenic mouse lines showed lacZ expression in brain, in particular in neurons of the hippocampus and the granular layer of the cerebellum. Expression of the reporter gene was also detected in Leydig cells and spermatogonia in the testis, in many epithelia of adult mice, and in the two other steroidogenic cell types, adrenal cortex cells and ovarian follicle cells. Embryonic tissues which showed strong activity of the reporter gene included the telencephalon, the genital ridge, and the notochord. This expression pattern closely resembles the endogenous one, indicating that the 5' FMR1 gene promoter region used in this study contains most cis-acting elements regulating FMR1 transcription. PMID:7795588

Hergersberg, M; Matsuo, K; Gassmann, M; Schaffner, W; Lüscher, B; Rülicke, T; Aguzzi, A



Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  


As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia?coli ?-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. PMID:23241066

Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H



Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth-instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no E. coli ?-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body. However, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at all stages examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. PMID:23241066

TOTTEN, Daniel C.; VUONG, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; JINWAL, Umesh K.; GULIA-NUSS, Monika; HARRELL, Robert A.; BENEŠ, Helen



Database and software for the analysis of mutations at the lacZ locus in transgenic rodents.  


The use of transgenic rodents is becoming increasingly widespread in genetic toxicology. In an effort to centralize and standardize the information regarding mutations in rodents bearing the lacZ transgene, we have created a computerized database that contains published information about DNA sequence alterations on over 100 mutants. Information on the literature citation, mutagenic conditions, organs from specific animals, mutation frequency in each organ, specific mutation, amino acid change, and other data are provided for each mutant. We have also produced a software package for the analysis of the lacZ database. Routines have been developed for the analysis of single base substitutions, including programs to 1) determine whether two mutational spectra are statistically different, 2) determine whether mutations show a DNA strand bias, 3) determine the frequency of transitions and transversions, 4) display the number and kind of mutations observed at each base in the coding region, 5) perform nearest-neighbor analysis, and 6) display mutable amino acids in the lacZ protein. The software runs only on IBM-compatible machines running Microsoft Windows. The software and lacZ database are freely available via the Internet ( ml). These programs simplify the analysis of the rapidly increasing information about lacZ mutation. The programs permit the facile comparison between different lacZ data sets as well as the identification of mutational patterns that may be of importance to experimenters studying the mechanisms of mutation and mutational spectra in transgenic animals. PMID:8844996

Cariello, N F; Douglas, G R



Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene  

E-print Network

Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene Ron Chen1, Jesse J, Missouri Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non- invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies

Larson-Prior, Linda


Expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ Gene on a Plasmid Vector in a Cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biphasic plasmid vector was used to introduce the Escherichia coli K-12 lac operon into the unicellular cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6. The PR-6 transformants expressed beta -galactosidase at nearly as high a level as did Escherichia coli transformants. In order to accomplish this, it was necessary to obtain PR-6 mutants that could be transformed by plasmids with unmodified recognition sites

Jeffrey S. Buzby; Ronald D. Porter; S. Edward Stevens



Research Report Genetic interactions among cortical malformation genes that  

E-print Network

Research Report Genetic interactions among cortical malformation genes that influence consequences of decreasing the activity of nematode gene homologs within the LIS1 pathway that are associated with a human cortical malformation termed lissencephaly. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the nud-2 gene

Caldwell, Guy


Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo  

E-print Network

Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz Sarah J. Van microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz,a Sarah J. VanVickle-Chavez,b Junjie Yao for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical res

Wang, Lihong


Genomic structure and promoter activity of the human testis lactate dehydrogenase gene.  


The structure of the gene encoding the human testis-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has been characterized and a regulatory region identified by promoter activity. The single-copy ldh-c gene has two alternative 5' noncoding exons and seven coding exons comprising an approximately 40-kb locus. The gene does not contain the canonical TATA or CAAT promoter sequences, and ribonuclease protection experiments suggest multiple transcription start sites. In the present study an immortalized murine germ cell line was used to detect promoter activity driven by 5' sequence of human ldh-c with lacZ as the reporter gene. Reporter gene activity was nondetectable when promoter constructs were transfected into nongerminal cells. PMID:8318584

Cooker, L A; Brooke, C D; Kumari, M; Hofmann, M C; Millán, J L; Goldberg, E



Expression of lacZ from the Promoter of the Escherichia coli spc Operon Cloned into Vectors Carrying the W205 trp-lac Fusion  

PubMed Central

The expression of lacZ has been analyzed and compared in a series of promoter cloning vectors by measuring the amount of lacZ mRNA by hybridization and the amount of ?-galactosidase by standard enzymatic assay. Expression was driven by the promoter, Pspc, of the spc ribosomal protein operon. The vectors contained either the standard W205 trp-lac fusion with the trp operon transcription terminator, trpt, located in the lacZ leader sequence, or a deletion derivative that functionally inactivates trpt. In the presence of trpt, lacZ expression was temperature dependent so that increasing the growth temperature reduced the accumulation of lacZ mRNA and ?-galactosidase activity. The frequency of transcript termination at trpt was estimated to be near zero at 20°C and at about 45% at 37°C. The amount of Pspc-derived lacZ mRNA and the amount of ?-galactosidase produced per lacZ mRNA varied, depending on the mRNA 5? leader sequence between Pspc and lacZ. These results demonstrate that the quantitative assessment of promoter activities with promoter cloning vectors requires careful analysis and interpretation. One particular construct without trpt did not seem to contain fortuitous transcription or translation signals generated at the fusion junction. In this strain, lacZ expression from Pspc was compared at the enzyme activity and mRNA levels with a previously constructed strain in which lacZ was linked to the tandem P1 and P2 promoters of the rrnB operon. At any given growth rate, the different activities of ?-galactosidase in these two strains were found to reflect the same differences in their amounts of lacZ mRNA. Assuming that the promoter-lacZ fusions in these strains reflect the properties of the promoters in their normal chromosomal setting, it was possible to estimate the absolute transcription activity of Pspc and the relative translation efficiency of Pspc-lacZ mRNA at different growth rates. Transcription from the spc promoter was found to increase from about 10 transcripts per min at a growth rate of 1.0 doublings/h to a maximum plateau of about 23 transcripts per min at growth rates above 1.5 doublings/h. The translation frequency of lacZ mRNA expressed from Pspc was unaffected by growth rates. PMID:9829916

Liang, Sung-Tzu; Dennis, Patrick P.; Bremer, Hans



Efficient Gene Delivery to Pig Airway Epithelia and Submucosal Glands Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors  

PubMed Central

Airway gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat patients with life-threatening lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). However, this strategy has to be evaluated in large animal preclinical studies in order to translate it to human applications. Because of anatomic and physiological similarities between the human and pig lungs, we utilized pig as a large animal model to examine the safety and efficiency of airway gene delivery with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors. Helper-dependent vectors carrying human CFTR or reporter gene LacZ were aerosolized intratracheally into pigs under bronchoscopic guidance. We found that the LacZ reporter and hCFTR transgene products were efficiently expressed in lung airway epithelial cells. The transgene vectors with this delivery can also reach to submucosal glands. Moreover, the hCFTR transgene protein localized to the apical membrane of both ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells, mirroring the location of wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Aerosol delivery procedure was well tolerated by pigs without showing systemic toxicity based on the limited number of pigs tested. These results provide important insights into developing clinical strategies for human CF lung gene therapy. PMID:24104599

Cao, Huibi; Machuca, Tiago N; Yeung, Jonathan C; Wu, Jing; Du, Kai; Duan, Cathleen; Hashimoto, Kohei; Linacre, Virginia; Coates, Allan L; Leung, Kitty; Wang, Jian; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Hu, Jim



Simultaneous gene inactivation and promoter reporting in cyanobacteria.  


Determining spatiotemporal gene expression and analyzing knockout mutant phenotypes have become powerful tools in elucidating the function of genes; however, genetic approaches for simultaneously inactivating a gene and monitoring its expression have not been reported in the literature. In this study, we designed a dual-functional gene knockout vector pZR606 that contains a multiple cloning site (MCS) for inserting the internal fragment of a target gene, with a gfp gene as its transcriptional marker located immediately downstream of the MCS. By using this gene knockout system, we inactivated ava_2679 from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, as well as all2508, alr2887, alr3608, and all4388 from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The ava_2679 knockout mutant fails to grow diazotrophically. Morphological analysis of ava_2679 knockout mutant after nitrogen step-down revealed defective junctions between heterocysts and adjacent vegetative cells, and the heterocyst was 1.53-fold longer compared to wild-type heterocysts. The alr2887, all4388, and alr3608 mutant colonies turned yellow and showed lack of protracted growth when deprived of fixed nitrogen, consistent with the previous reports that alr2887, all4388, and alr3608 are Fox genes. The all2508 encodes a GTP-binding elongation factor (EF4/LepA), and its knockout mutant exhibited reduced diazotrophic growth. The heterocyst development of all2508 knockout was significantly delayed, and only about 4.0 % of vegetative cells differentiated to heterocysts after nitrogen deprivation for 72 h, decreased 49.6 % compared to wild-type. Thus, we discovered that All2508 may regulate heterocyst development spatiotemporally. Concurrently, the GFP reporter revealed that all five target gene expressions were up-regulated in response to nitrogen deprivation. We demonstrated that the pZR606-based specific gene knockout approach worked effectively for the five selected genes, including four previously identified Fox genes or Fox gene homolog, and a previously unknown function of gene all2508. Thus, gene expression and phenotypic analysis of mutants can be achieved simultaneously by targeted gene inactivation using the pZR606-based system. This combined approach for targeted gene inactivation and its promoter reporting with GFP may be broadly applicable to the study of gene function in other prokaryotic organisms. PMID:25434810

Chen, Kangming; Xu, Xinyi; Gu, Liping; Hildreth, Michael; Zhou, Ruanbao



Cell Reports A Resource for Manipulating Gene Expression  

E-print Network

central nervous system neurons, their gene expres- sion profile and function remain virtually unexploredCell Reports Resource A Resource for Manipulating Gene Expression and Analyzing cis is at its peak, and in older embryos where there is maximal neuronal diversity and the first neural circuits

Doe, Chris


A novel system for efficient gene expression and monitoring of bacteria in aquatic environments.  


In a previous study, we reported the identification of Escherichia coli genes with increased expression in an aquatic environment. Here, we describe the use of one of these genes, gapC, as an expression system in freshwater habitats. We have identified the transcriptional start site of gapC and analysed the synthesis of the GapC protein during incubation in aquatic medium. The promoter of gapC was used to construct fusions to the reporter genes lacZ and gfp. Analysis of these fusions indicates the potential of gapC as a valuable tool for the detection of E. coli in freshwater habitats, as well as for expressing other genes in aquatic environments. PMID:11207733

Espinosa-Urgel, M; Kolter, R



Pag-3, a Caenorhabditis Elegans Gene Involved in Touch Neuron Gene Expression and Coordinated Movement  

PubMed Central

Mutations in a newly identified gene, pag-3, cause ectopic expression of touch neuron genes mec-7, mec-7lacZ and mec-4lacZ in the lineal sisters of the ALM touch neurons, the BDU neurons. pag-3 mutants also show a reverse kinker uncoordinated phenotype. The first pag-3 allele was isolated in a screen for mutants with altered immunofluorescence staining patterns. Two additional pag-3 alleles were identified in a noncomplementation screen of 38,000 haploid genomes. All of the pag-3 alleles were recessive to wild type and cause the same phenotypes. Two-factor crosses, deficiency mapping and three-factor crosses located pag-3 to the right arm of the X chromosome between unc-3 and unc-7. Because recessive mutations in pag-3 result in expression of several touch cell specific genes in the BDU neurons, pag-3(+) must directly or indirectly suppress expression of these genes in the BDU neurons. Although pag-3 mutants did not show mec-3lacZ expression in their BDU neurons, expression of mec-7lacZ and mec-4lacZ in the BDU neurons of pag-3 mutants required mec-3(+). PMID:8770591

Jia, Y.; Xie, G.; Aamodt, E.



Angiographically guided utero-placental gene transfer in rabbits with adenoviruses, plasmid\\/liposomes and plasmid\\/polyethyleneimine complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the feasibility of gene transfer to rabbit placenta using adenoviruses, plasmid\\/liposomes and plasmid\\/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes. Pregnant New Zealand White rabbits (n = 17) were anesthetized and local gene transfer was done via a catheter inserted in uterine arteries under direct angiographic control. Either nuclear targeted LacZ adenoviruses (1.0 × 1010 p.f.u.), nuclear targeted LacZ plasmid (500 ?g)\\/liposome (DOTMA:DOPE

A Heikkilä; M O Hiltunen; M P Turunen; L Keski-Nisula; A-M Turunen; H Räsänen; T T Rissanen; V-M Kosma; H Manninen; S Heinonen; S Ylä-Herttuala



Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.



A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis  

SciTech Connect

A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul



Cellular/Molecular Characterization of an Enhancer Region of the Galanin Gene  

E-print Network

Cellular/Molecular Characterization of an Enhancer Region of the Galanin Gene That Directs galanin gene marked by LacZ. The 20 kb region upstream of the galanin gene recapitulates the endogenous-responsive genes demonstrated that the close proximity of putative Ets-, Stat-, and Smad-binding sites appears

Gaston, Kevin


Dual-modality gene reporter for in vivo imaging.  


The ability to track cells and their patterns of gene expression in living organisms can increase our understanding of tissue development and disease. Gene reporters for bioluminescence, fluorescence, radionuclide, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described but these suffer variously from limited depth penetration, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. We describe here a gene reporter, based on the organic anion transporting protein Oatp1a1, which mediates uptake of a clinically approved, Gd(3+)-based, hepatotrophic contrast agent (gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid). Cells expressing the reporter showed readily reversible, intense, and positive contrast (up to 7.8-fold signal enhancement) in T1-weighted magnetic resonance images acquired in vivo. The maximum signal enhancement obtained so far is more than double that produced by MRI gene reporters described previously. Exchanging the Gd(3+) ion for the radionuclide, (111)In, also allowed detection by single-photon emission computed tomography, thus combining the spatial resolution of MRI with the sensitivity of radionuclide imaging. PMID:24347640

Patrick, P Stephen; Hammersley, Jayne; Loizou, Louiza; Kettunen, Mikko I; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Hu, De-En; Tee, Sui-Seng; Hesketh, Robin; Lyons, Scott K; Soloviev, Dmitry; Lewis, David Y; Aime, Silvio; Fulton, Sandra M; Brindle, Kevin M



Dual-modality gene reporter for in vivo imaging  

PubMed Central

The ability to track cells and their patterns of gene expression in living organisms can increase our understanding of tissue development and disease. Gene reporters for bioluminescence, fluorescence, radionuclide, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described but these suffer variously from limited depth penetration, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. We describe here a gene reporter, based on the organic anion transporting protein Oatp1a1, which mediates uptake of a clinically approved, Gd3+-based, hepatotrophic contrast agent (gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid). Cells expressing the reporter showed readily reversible, intense, and positive contrast (up to 7.8-fold signal enhancement) in T1-weighted magnetic resonance images acquired in vivo. The maximum signal enhancement obtained so far is more than double that produced by MRI gene reporters described previously. Exchanging the Gd3+ ion for the radionuclide, 111In, also allowed detection by single-photon emission computed tomography, thus combining the spatial resolution of MRI with the sensitivity of radionuclide imaging. PMID:24347640

Patrick, P. Stephen; Hammersley, Jayne; Loizou, Louiza; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Hu, De-En; Tee, Sui-Seng; Hesketh, Robin; Lyons, Scott K.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Lewis, David Y.; Aime, Silvio; Fulton, Sandra M.; Brindle, Kevin M.



Photoacoustic imaging of gene expression using tyrosinase as a reporter gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical reporter genes, such as green fluorescence protein, are powerful research tools that allow visualization of gene expression. We have successfully used tyrosinase as a reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging. Tyrosinase is the key regulatory enzyme in the production of melanin which has a broad optical absorption spectrum. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with tyrosinase under the control of an inducible promoter. For photoacoustic experiments, MCF-7 cells were resuspended at 108 cells/mL and injected in 700 ?m (inner diameter) plastic tubing. Photoacoustic signal of MCF-7 cells expressing tyrosinase were >20-fold greater than those of untransfected MCF-7 cells. Photoacoustic signal of tyrosinaseexpressing MCF-7 cells were approximately 2-fold lesser and greater than those of blood at 576 and 650 nm, respectively, suggesting that photoacoustic signal from blood and tyrosinase-expressing cells can be separated by dualwavelength analysis. Photoacoustic signal from tyrosinase-expressing MCF-7 cells covered by chicken tissue could even be detected at a laser penetration depth of 4 cm, suggesting that tyrosinase can be used to image gene expression in relatively deep tissues. The current data suggests that tyrosinase is a strong reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging.

Paproski, Robert J.; Forbrich, Alexander; Harrison, Tyler; Hitt, Mary; Zemp, Roger J.



Ferritin reporter used for gene expression imaging by magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a minimally invasive way to provide high spatial resolution tomograms. However, MRI has been considered to be useless for gene expression imaging compared to optical imaging. In this study, we used a ferritin reporter, binding with biogenic iron, to make it a powerful tool for gene expression imaging in MRI studies. GL261 mouse glioma cells were over-expressed with dual-reporter ferritin-DsRed under {beta}-actin promoter, then gene expression was observed by optical imaging and MRI in a brain tumor model. GL261 cells expressing ferritin-DsRed fusion protein showed enhanced visualizing effect by reducing T2-weighted signal intensity for in vitro and in vivo MRI studies, as well as DsRed fluorescence for optical imaging. Furthermore, a higher contrast was achieved on T2-weighted images when permeating the plasma membrane of ferritin-DsRed-expressing GL261. Thus, a ferritin expression vector can be used as an MRI reporter to monitor in vivo gene expression.

Ono, Kenji; Fuma, Kazuya; Tabata, Kaori [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sawada, Makoto, E-mail: [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)



Repetitive, non-invasive imaging of the dopamine D2 receptor as a reporter gene in living animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reporter genes (eg ?-galactosidase, chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase, green fluorescent protein, luciferase) play critical roles in investigating mechanisms of gene expression in transgenic animals and in developing gene delivery systems for gene therapy. However, measuring expression of these reporter genes requires biopsy or death. We now report a procedure to image reporter gene expression repetitively and non-invasively in living animals with positron emission

D C MacLaren; S S Gambhir; N Satyamurthy; J R Barrio; S Sharfstein; T Toyokuni; L Wu; A J Berk; S R Cherry; M E Phelps; H R Herschman



Genetics in methylotrophic bacteria: Appendix. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research has focused primarily on promoters in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and in methanotrophic bacteria. In Methylobacterium extorquens work continued on the moxF promoter. The author constructed chromosomal lacZ fusions of this promoter to avoid the regulation problems of plasmid-borne fragments and has shown that this is regulated normally in the chromosome. She has constructed lacZ fusions to some of the mox genes involved in the synthesis of the cofactor, PQQ, in order to carry out similar analysis of transcription of PQQ genes. The author has continued to isolate mox genes in methanotrophs for the purpose of studying their promoters and transcriptional regulation.

Lidstrom, M.E.



Mutational analysis of the [phi] X174 E Gene  

E-print Network

-terminal deletions of gene J. These C-terminal deletions are terminated by a unique BamHI site within the coding region of the J gene. These plasmids have been described (Young and Young, 1982). 33 Several of these plasmids were sequenced in an attempt...Z. A fragment of the fusion vector pMLB1034 (Shapira et al. 1983), containing the C-terminal 1000 residues of lacZ, was inserted at the BamHI site of pKY120. In the resulting plasmid (referred to as pSM1) the coding sequences of J and lacZ were...

Morham, Scott Garton



Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals  

SciTech Connect

Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

Gambhir, Sanjiv (Portola Valley, CA); Pritha, Ray (Mountain View, CA)



Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals  


Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

Gambhir; Sanjiv (Portola Valley, CA), Pritha; Ray (Mountain View, CA)



Gene transfer into the mammalian inner ear using HSV-1 and vaccinia virus vectors  

E-print Network

Gene transfer into the mammalian inner ear using HSV-1 and vaccinia virus vectors Michael L. Derby type 1 (HSV-1), and vaccinia virus, bearing the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, we tested gene delivery to the guinea pig cochlea in vivo with L-galactosidase staining as an assay. The HSV-1 and vaccinia virus

Corey, David P.


Liposome mediated gene transfer into the rat oesophagus  

PubMed Central

Background—Cancer of the oesophagus has so far eluded every attempt at pharmacological treatment. The recent advent of somatic gene therapy offers a new therapeutic approach to malignant tumours. ?Aim—To investigate whether and how gene transfer into the oesophagus can be achieved. ?Methods—A LacZ reporter gene was used as marker and transferred into the oesophagus of rats using cationic liposomes. Gene transfer was achieved by either luminal instillation into a closed segment using a double balloon catheter, or by intramural injection through a needle. Expression of ?-galactosidase was monitored in the oesophagus and various control tissues by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR, and Southern blotting. ?Results—Up to 100 days after in vivo gene transfer ?-galactosidase activity could be demonstrated in the oesophagus. Following luminal application, the transgene was expressed in epithelial cells whereas intramural injection induced preferential expression in fibroblasts. ?Conclusion—In vivo gene transfer into the oesophagus is feasible and safe, and the route of administration largely determines cell type specificity. This novel approach will enable in vivo studies of growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation in the oesophagus, and may open new avenues to the confinement of oesophageal malignancies. ?? Keywords: oesophagus; gene transfer; gene therapy; liposomes; balloon catheter PMID:9391258

Schmid, R; Weidenbach, H; Draenert, G; Liptay, S; Luhrs, H; Adler, G



Regulation of HIS4-lacZ fusions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The beginning of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS4 gene has been fused to the structural gene for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. This construction, which contains HIS4 DNA from -732 to +30 relative to the translation initiation codon, has been integrated into the yeast genome at two chromosomal locations, HIS4 and URA3. At both locations, this 762-base-pair stretch of DNA is sufficient for initiating expression of beta-galactosidase activity in S. cerevisiae and confers upon this activity the regulatory response normally found for HIS4. Images PMID:6817079

Silverman, S J; Rose, M; Botstein, D; Fink, G R



Genetic engineering with a gene encoding a soybean storage protein. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in gene transfer experiments using the soybean seed storage protein gene. The sequencing of gene Gmg ..cap alpha..' 17.1 has been completed. Several deletion mutants of this gene are being prepared for experiments to transfer the gene into the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The purpose is to determine which, if any, of the upstream sequences are those which regulate the developmental expression of the gene. (ACR)

Beachy, R.N.



Translational autoregulation of the sgm gene from Micromonospora zionensis.  

PubMed Central

The sisomicin-gentamicin resistance methylase gene (sgm) from Micromonospora zionensis (the producer of antibiotic G-52 [6-N-methyl-sisomicin]) encodes an enzyme that modifies 16S rRNA and thereby confers resistance to 4,6-disubstituted deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides. Here, we report that this gene is regulated on the translational level. The Escherichia coli lacZ gene and operon fusion system was used, and it was shown that an extra copy of the sgm gene decreases the activity of the fusion protein. These results suggested that expression of the sgm gene is regulated by the translational autorepression because of binding of the methylase to its own mRNA. It was shown by computer analysis that the same hexanucleotide (CCGCCC) is present 14 bp before the ribosome-binding site and in the C-1400 region of 16S rRNA, i.e., the region in which most of the aminoglycosides act. A deletion that removes the hexanucleotide before the gene fusion is not prone to negative autoregulation. This mode of regulation of the sgm gene ensures that enough methylase molecules protect the cell from the action of its own antibiotic. On the other hand, if all of the ribosomes are modified, Sgm methylase binds to its own mRNA in an autorepressive manner. PMID:8808941

Kojic, M; Topisirovic, L; Vasiljevic, B



BCS1L gene mutation causing GRACILE syndrome: case report.  


GRACILE syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by fetal growth retardation, Fanconi type aminoaciduria, cholestasis, iron overload, profound lactic acidosis, and early death. It is caused by homozygosity for a missense mutation in the BCS1L gene. The BCS1L gene encodes a chaperone responsible for assembly of respiratory chain complex III. Here we report that a homozygous mutation c.296C > T (p.P99L), in the first exon of BCS1L gene found in an affected 2-month-old boy of asymptomatic consanguineous parents results in GRACILE syndrome. This genotype is associated with a severe clinical presentation. So far no available treatments have changed the fatal course of the disease, and the metabolic disturbance responsible is still not clearly identified. Therefore, providing prenatal diagnosis in families with previous affected infants is of major importance. Mitochondrial disorders are an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases sharing, in common, the fact that they all ultimately impair the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A clinical picture with fetal growth restriction, postnatal lactacidosis, aminoaciduria, hypoglycemia, coagulopathy, elevated liver enzymes, and cholestasis should direct investigations on mitochondrial disorder. PMID:24655110

Kasapkara, Çi?dem Seher; Tümer, Leyla; Ezgü, Fatih Suheyl; Küçükçongar, Aynur; Hasano?lu, Alev



Mutations in BTD gene causing biotinidase deficiency: a regional report.  


Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of biotin metabolism. Children with biotinidase deficiency cannot cleave biocytin and, therefore, cannot recycle biotin. Untreated individuals become secondarily biotin deficient, which in turn results in decreased activities of the biotin-dependent carboxylases and the subsequent accumulation of toxic metabolites causing clinical symptoms. Biotinidase deficiency is characterized by neurological, cutaneous manifestations and metabolic abnormalities. The worldwide incidence of profound biotinidase deficiency has been estimated at 1:112,271. The human biotinidase gene is located on chromosome 3p25 and consists of four exons with a total length of 1629 base pairs. To date, more than 100 mutations in the biotinidase gene known to cause biotinidase deficiency have been reported. The vast majority of mutations are homozygous or compound heterozygous. Finding known mutations can be correlated with the biochemical enzymatic results. This report summarizes the demographic features of patients identified as biotinidase deficient from August of 2012 through August of 2013 and mutation analysis results for 20 cases in the southeast region of Turkey. PMID:25423671

Kasapkara, Çi?dem Seher; Akar, Melek; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Tüzün, Heybet; Aldudak, Bedri; Baran, R?za Taner; Tanyalç?n, Tijen



Expression of a mouse metallothionein-Escherichia coli. beta. -galactosidase fusion gene (MT-. beta. gal) in early mouse embryos  

SciTech Connect

The authors have microinjected DNA containing the inducible mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) promoter, coupled to the structural gene for Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase (lacZ), into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. A qualitative histochemical assay, with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) as a substrate, was used to detect expression of lacZ at several preimplantation stages. They observed staining indicative of exogenous {beta}-galactosidase activity in 5-17% of DNA-injected embryos assayed at preimplantation stages after 16-24 h treatment with ZnSO{sub 4}. Thus, lacZ can be used as an indicator gene for promoter function during early mouse embryogenesis, and the incorporation of the MT-I promoter into fusion genes can be a useful means of controlling the expression of exogenous genes in preimplantation mouse embryos.

Stevens, M.E.; Meneses, J.J.; Pedersen, R.A. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))



(Genetic engineering with a gene encoding a soybean storage protein). Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on research directed toward introducing a gene (Gmg 17.1) encoding the ..cap alpha..'-subunit of ..beta..-conglycinin, a soybean seed protein, into petunia plants using gene transfer mechanisms. (ACR)

Beachy, R.N.



Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Two Genes for DNA polymerase delta were identified from the wild type Chinese hamster ovary cells. These genes were cloned via RT-PCR from mRNA prepared the Chinese hamster ovary cells using primers specific to conserved sequences of the DNA polymerase {delta} gene. The first gene encodes a PCNA dependent DNA polymerase {delta} gene whereas the second gene encodes a PCNA independent DNA polymerase {delta} gene. Methods were developed to clone these genes in expression vector and host systems. The role of the two genes in DNA replication and repair was determined.

Mishra, N.C.



Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994  

SciTech Connect

This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

Fields, C.A.



Multiple Elements and Auto-Repression Regulate Rox1, a Repressor of Hypoxic Genes in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The ROX1 gene encodes a heme-induced repressor of hypoxic genes in yeast. Using RNA blot analysis and a ROX1/lacZ fusion construct that included the ROX1 upstream region and only the first codon, we discovered that Rox1 represses its own expression. Gel-retardation experiments indicated that Rox1 was capable of binding to its own upstream region. Overexpression of Rox1 from the inducible GAL1 promoter was found to be inhibitory to cell growth. Also, we found that, as reported previously, Hap1 is partially responsible for heme-induction of ROX1, but, in addition, it also may play a role in ROX1 repression in the absence of heme. There is a second repressor of anaerobic ROX1 expression that requires the general repressor Tup1/Ssn6 for its function. PMID:7768429

Deckert, J.; Perini, R.; Balasubramanian, B.; Zitomer, R. S.



Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic tomography is a hybrid modality based on optical absorption excitation and ultrasonic detection. It is sensitive to melanin, one of the primary absorbers in skin. For cells that do not naturally contain melanin, melanin production can be induced by introducing the gene for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy was used in the ex vivo study reported here, where the signal from transfected cells increased by more than 10 times over wild-type cells. A subsequent in vivo experiment was conducted to demonstrate the capability of photoacoustic microscopy to spectrally differentiate between tyrosinase-catalyzed melanin and various other absorbers in tissue.

Krumholz, Arie; Vanvickle-Chavez, Sarah J.; Yao, Junjie; Fleming, Timothy P.; Gillanders, William E.; Wang, Lihong V.



Targeting Transgene Expression for Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an expression cassette for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy using control elements from the human cytokeratin 18 gene (KRT18, also known as K18). KRT18 is naturally expressed in a spatial pattern similar to that of CFTR, the gene mutated in CF. We delivered a KRT18-driven lacZ plasmid complexed with cationic liposomes intravenously to mice and examined expression

David R. Koehler; Vicky Hannam; Rosetta Belcastro; Brent Steer; Yanxia Wen; Martin Post; Gregory Downey; A. Keith Tanswell; Jim Hu



Identification of Circadian-Clock-Regulated Enhancers and Genes of Drosophila melanogaster by Transposon Mobilization and Luciferase Reporting of Cyclical Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new way was developed to isolate rhythmically expressed genes in Drosophila by modifying the classic enhancer-trap method. We constructed a P element containing sequences that encode firefly luciferase as a reporter for oscillating gene expression in live flies. After generation of 1176 autosomal insertion lines, bioluminescence screening revealed rhythmic reporter-gene activity in 6% of these strains. Rhythmically fluctuating reporter

Thomas Stempfl; Marion Vogel; Gisela Szabo; Corinna Wulbeck; Jian Liu; Jeffrey C. Hall; Ralf Stanewsky



Geko, a novel gene involved in olfaction in Drosophila melanogaster.  


To characterize genes involved in olfactory responses to chemical attractants, we screened 3000 P-element-tagged lines for their attraction to ethanol. Ten lines showed reduced levels of response, and revertants of these lines were obtained by excising the inserted P-element. The olfactory response of one line reverted to wild-type behavior compared to the original mutant line. The gene affected by this P-lacW insertion was named geko (gk). A 1.3-kb transcript was found to emanate from close to the P-insertion site, and the 5' upstream region was interrupted by the P-element. The amount of mRNA of gk gene in the P-lacW inserted line was about half that of the control strain. The response to ethanol of the gk(1) mutant was restored by transforming the genomic region containing this transcription unit. lacZ expression (stemming from this reporter-gene's presence in the transposon) was observed in the antenna and the antennal-maxillary complex (the olfactory organ of adults and larvae, respectively). gk mRNA was detected at the antenna and from other parts of the body. The deduced gk product showed no overall similarity to any reported amino-acid sequences. PMID:10992166

Shiraiwa, T; Nitasaka, E; Yamazaki, T



Sequences 5' of the basement membrane laminin beta 1 chain gene (LAMB1) direct the expression of beta-galactosidase during development of the mouse testis and ovary.  


The murine LAMB1 gene encoding laminin beta 1 is expressed in the developing male and female gonads and mesonephros. To identify the cis-acting elements regulating the expression of LAMB1, murine transgenic lines were generated by fusing regions of the LAMB1 gene to the Eschericia coli lacZ gene. The p3.9LAM beta gal construct contained approximately 4 kb of 5' flanking sequence and directed beta-galactosidase expression in many different organs including the kidney, mammary gland, and the male and female genital systems, the focus of this report. In male embryos, between gestational ages E 14.5 and birth beta-galactosidase was transiently expressed in the prospermatogonia cells of the testis and in the differentiating epithelial cells in the ductus deferens, ductus epididymis, and seminal vesicles. In female embryos, beta-galactosidase was not detected in the ovary until about 1 week after birth; at this time, beta-galactosidase was expressed by oocytes of primary and secondary follicles. In contrast, transgenic mice carrying the first 0.7 kb of LAMB1 fused to the lacZ gene expressed beta-galactosidase only in the prospermatogonia cells of the testis. Thus, the cis-acting element(s) necessary for the expression of the LAMB1 gene in prospermatogonia cells are located in the first 0.7 kb of LAMB1 5' flanking sequence; element(s) required for expression of the LAMB1 gene in oocytes and epithelial cells of the mesonephric ducts, mesonephric tubules, the ductus deferens, ductus epididymis, and seminal vesicles are located with 4 kb 5' of the transcription initiation site. PMID:9447707

Li, C; Gudas, L J



A screen for genes that function in leg disc regeneration in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Many diverse animal species regenerate parts of an organ or tissue after injury. However, the molecules responsible for the regenerative growth remain largely unknown. The screen reported here aimed to identify genes that function in regeneration and the transdetermination events closely associated with imaginal disc regeneration using Drosophila melanogaster. We screened a collection of 97 recessive lethal P-lacZ enhancer trap lines for two primary criteria: first, the ability to dominantly modify wg-induced leg-to-wing transdetermination and second, for the activation or repression of the lacZ reporter gene in the blastema during disc regeneration. Of the 97 P-lacZ lines, we identified six genes (Krüppelhomolog- 1, rpd3, jing, combgap, Aly and S6 kinase) that met both criteria. Five of these genes suppress, while one enhances, leg-to-wing transdetermination and therefore affects disc regeneration. Two of the genes, jing and rpd3, function in concert with chromatin remodeling proteins of the Polycomb Group (PcG) and trithorax Group (trxG) genes during Drosophila development, thus linking chromatin remodeling with the process of regeneration. PMID:18036784

McClure, Kimberly D.; Schubiger, Gerold



Integration of H-2Z1, a somatosensory cortex-expressed transgene, interferes with the expression of the Satb1 and Tbc1d5 flanking genes and affects the differentiation of a subset of cortical interneurons.  


H-2Z1 is an enhancer trap transgenic mouse line in which the lacZ reporter delineates the somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex where it is expressed in a subset of layer IV neurons. In the search of somatosensory specific genes or regulatory sequences, we mapped the H-2Z1 transgene insertion site to chromosome 17, 100 and 460 kb away from Tbc1d5 and Satb1 flanking genes. We show here that insertion of the H-2Z1 transgene results in three distinct outcomes. First, a genetic background-sensitive expression of lacZ in several brain and body structures. While four genes in a 1 Mb region around the insertion are expressed in the barrel cortex, H-2Z1 expression resembles more that of its two direct neighbors. Moreover, H-2Z1 closely reports most of the body and brain expression sites of the Satb1 chromatin remodeling gene including tooth buds, thymic epithelium, pontine nuclei, fastigial cerebellar nuclei, and cerebral cortex. Second, the H-2Z1 transgene causes insertional mutagenesis of Tbc1d5 and Satb1, leading to a strong decrease in their expressions. Finally, insertion of H-2Z1 affects the differentiation of a subset of cortical GABAergic interneurons, a possible consequence of downregulation of Satb1 expression. Thus, the H-2Z1 "somatosensory" transgene is inserted in the regulatory landscape of two genes highly expressed in the developing somatosensory cortex and reports for a subdomain of their expression profiles. Together, our data suggest that regulation of H-2Z1 expression results from local and remote genetic interactions. PMID:22623674

Narboux-Nęme, Nicolas; Goďame, Rosette; Mattéi, Marie-Genevičve; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel; Wassef, Marion



Visualization of ecdysteroid activity using a reporter gene in the crustacean, Daphnia.  


Ecdysone is a hormone known to play a pivotal role in crustaceans and insects. In order to evaluate the ecdysone activities in the environment and within the organism, we have developed a biomonitoring Daphnia strain by introducing a reporter gene. In this study, the ecdysone response element was inserted in the upstream region of a reporter gene, and the DNA construct was injected into Daphnia eggs. The expression of the reporter gene was detected during the early embryonic development stage. In addition, when the eggs expressing the reporter gene were exposed to ecdysone, there was enhanced expression of the reporter gene at detectable levels, while the presence of an antagonist led to its downregulation. These results suggested that this system could be potentially developed for monitoring ecdysone activities in media. PMID:24296240

Asada, Miki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime



Monitoring of Gene Expression in Bacteria during Infections Using an Adaptable Set of Bioluminescent, Fluorescent and Colorigenic Fusion Vectors  

PubMed Central

A family of versatile promoter-probe plasmids for gene expression analysis was developed based on a modular expression plasmid system (pZ). The vectors contain different replicons with exchangeable antibiotic cassettes to allow compatibility and expression analysis on a low-, midi- and high-copy number basis. Suicide vector variants also permit chromosomal integration of the reporter fusion and stable vector derivatives can be used for in vivo or in situ expression studies under non-selective conditions. Transcriptional and translational fusions to the reporter genes gfpmut3.1, amCyan, dsRed2, luxCDABE, phoA or lacZ can be constructed, and presence of identical multiple cloning sites in the vector system facilitates the interchange of promoters or reporter genes between the plasmids of the series. The promoter of the constitutively expressed gapA gene of Escherichia coli was included to obtain fluorescent and bioluminescent expression constructs. A combination of the plasmids allows simultaneous detection and gene expression analysis in individual bacteria, e.g. in bacterial communities or during mouse infections. To test our vector system, we analyzed and quantified expression of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence genes under laboratory conditions, in association with cells and during the infection process. PMID:21673990

Uliczka, Frank; Pisano, Fabio; Kochut, Annika; Opitz, Wiebke; Herbst, Katharina; Stolz, Tatjana; Dersch, Petra



Yeast excision-repair gene is inducible by DNA damaging agents  

SciTech Connect

Plasmids containing various RAD-lacZ gene fusions were integrated into the chromosome of haploid yeast cells. These integrant strains were tested for expression of Escherichia coli ..beta..-galactosidase after treatment with agents that damage DNA or interfere with normal DNA replication. The authors did not observe induction of single-copy RAD1-lacZ or RAD3-lacZ fusion genes under the experimental conditions used. However, exposure of cells containing an integrated RAD2-lacZ fusion gene to UV-radiation, ..gamma..-radiation, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, or nalidixic acid resulted in 4- to 6-fold enhanced expression of ..beta..-galactosidase. Induction of the RAD2 gene after treatment of untransformed cells with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide was confirmed by direct examination of RAD2 mRNA. Lower levels of induction (approx. = 50%) were observed after treatment of cells with other chemicals. Induction of the RAD2-lacZ fusion gene was also observed in cells transformed with single-copy and multicopy autonomously replicating plasmids.

Robinson, G.W.; Nicolet, C.M.; Kalainov, D.; Friedberg, E.C.



Efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into hepatocytes by liver asanguineous perfusion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient targeted gene delivery is essential for successful gene therapy. In this study, we examined the liver asanguineous perfusion method (LAP) for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to the liver from the standpoints of efficiency, tissue-specificity and safety. The adenoviral vector containing the E. coli LacZ gene driven by the CAG promoter was delivered to the livers of rats by LAP. This

Yasuro Futagawa; Tomoyoshi Okamoto; Toya Ohashi; Yoshikatsu Eto



Expression of Shigella flexneri gluQ-rs gene is linked to dksA and controlled by a transcriptional terminator  

PubMed Central

Background Glutamyl queuosine-tRNAAsp synthetase (GluQ-RS) is a paralog of the catalytic domain of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and catalyzes the formation of glutamyl-queuosine on the wobble position of tRNAAsp. Here we analyze the transcription of its gene in Shigella flexneri, where it is found downstream of dksA, which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in stress responses. Results The genomic organization, dksA-gluQ-rs, is conserved in more than 40 bacterial species. RT-PCR assays show co-transcription of both genes without a significant change in transcript levels during growth of S. flexneri. However, mRNA levels of the intergenic region changed during growth, increasing at stationary phase, indicating an additional level of control over the expression of gluQ-rs gene. Transcriptional fusions with lacZ as a reporter gene only produced ?-galactosidase activity when the constructs included the dksA promoter, indicating that gluQ-rs do not have a separate promoter. Using bioinformatics, we identified a putative transcriptional terminator between dksA and gluQ-rs. Deletion or alteration of the predicted terminator resulted in increased expression of the lacZ reporter compared with cells containing the wild type terminator sequence. Analysis of the phenotype of a gluQ-rs mutant suggested that it may play a role in some stress responses, since growth of the mutant was impaired in the presence of osmolytes. Conclusions The results presented here, show that the expression of gluQ-rs depends on the dksA promoter, and strongly suggest the presence and the functionality of a transcriptional terminator regulating its expression. Also, the results indicate a link between glutamyl-queuosine synthesis and stress response in Shigella flexneri. PMID:23035718



Sublinear response in lacZ mutant frequency of Muta(™) Mouse spermatogonial stem cells after low dose subchronic exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea.  


The transgenic rodent mutation assay was used to compare the dose-response relationship of lacZ mutant frequency (MF) in spermatogonial stem cells exposed acutely or subchronically to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Muta(™) Mouse males were exposed orally to 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg ENU for acute exposures and 0, 1, 2, or 5 mg/(kg day) for 28-day subchronic exposures. LacZ MF was measured in sperm collected 70 days post-exposure to target spermatogonial stem cells. Dose-response data were fit to linear, quadratic, exponential, or power models. Acute exposure resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MF that was significant (P?lacZ MF at the highest dose tested. Therefore, the subchronic no observable genotoxic effect level (NOGEL) was 2 mg/(kg day) (or 56 mg/kg total dose). The subchronic dose-response was best described by the exponential and power models, which were sublinear in the low dose range. Benchmark dose lower confidence limits (BMDLs) for acute and subchronic exposure were 3.0 and 1.0 mg/(kg day) (or 27.4 mg/kg total dose), respectively. These findings are supportive of a saturable DNA repair mechanism as the mutagenic mode of action for ENU in spermatogonia and imply that sufficiently low exposures would not cause appreciable genotoxic effects over background. This may have important implications for the quantitative risk assessment of germ cell mutagens. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:347-355, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25598316

O'Brien, Jason M; Walker, Mike; Sivathayalan, Ahalya; Douglas, George R; Yauk, Carole L; Marchetti, Francesco



A Bacterial Gene, mms6, as a New Reporter Gene for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Mammalian Cells.  


AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for noninvasive, deep tissue imaging with high spatial resolution, making it an attractive modality for in vivo cellular imaging. Since reporter genes can generate magnetic resonance (MR) contrast based on molecular activity, they offer a potentially powerful tool for cellular imaging. The mms6 gene was originally identified in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which is known to play a key role in magnetic crystal formation. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the possibility of using mms6 as an MR reporter gene. We established a transgenic mammalian cell line that stably expresses mms6. In vitro experiments show that mms6-expressing cells form clusters of nanoparticles within and outside membrane-enclosed structures and produce changes in MR contrast, most likely by increasing iron uptake of intracellular iron. Additionally, in vivo MRI experiments demonstrate that mms6-expressing tumors can be distinguished from parental tumors not expressing mms6, even in the absence of exogenous iron supplementation. Our results demonstrate that mms6 can function as an MR reporter gene with the potential to monitor gene expression and to visualize the proliferation, migration, and metastasis of tumor cells expressing it. PMID:25430958

Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Robledo, Brenda N; Harris, Steven S; Hu, Xiaoping P



Hazardous effects of effluent from the chrome plating industry: 70 kDa heat shock protein expression as a marker of cellular damage in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ).  

PubMed Central

Hazardous effects of an effluent from the chrome plating industry were examined by exposing transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) to various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 micro L/mL) of the effluent through diet. The emergence pattern of adult flies was affected, along with impaired reproductive performance at the higher dietary concentrations of the effluent. Interestingly, the effect of the effluent was more pronounced in male than in female flies. The effect of the effluent on development of adult flies was concurrent with the expression pattern of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70), both in larval tissues and in the reproductive organs of adult flies. We observed a dose- and time-dependent expression of hsp70 in third instar larvae exposed for different time intervals. Absence of hsp70 expression in larvae exposed to 0.1 micro L/mL of the effluent indicated that this is the highest nontoxic concentration for Drosophila. The stress gene assay in the reproductive organs of adult flies revealed hsp70 expression in the testis of male flies only. However, trypan blue dye exclusion tests in these tissues indicate tissue damage in the male accessory gland of adult flies, which was further confirmed by ultrastructural observations. In the present study we demonstrate the utility of transgenic Drosophila as an alternative animal model for evaluating hazardous effects of the effluent from the chrome plating industry and further reveal the cytoprotective role of hsp70 and its expression as an early marker in environmental risk assessment. PMID:14644668

Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Saxena, Daya Krishna; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar



Effect of Chemically-Induced, Cloned-Gene Expression on Protein Synthesis in Emcoh  

E-print Network

promoter than seen with p-lactamaseproduction in the elevated copy number system. Furthermore, r- producing system was also constructed; when RNA polymerase levels were reduced to 50% of a suitable control been investigated. A plasmid has been constructed which contains the lacZ gene under control of the tac

Wood, Thomas K.


Mapping and regulation of the cel genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal mutations of the celZ and celY genes which encode two different endoglucanases in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 were obtained by a three-step procedure: (i) in Escherichia coli, insertions of lacZ fusion-forming mini-Mu bacteriophages in the cel genes cloned on plasmids and screening of cel-lac fusions, (ii) Mu-mediated transduction in E. chrysanthemi of the plasmids carrying the fusions, (iii) recombinational exchange

Jean-Luc Aymeric; Annick Guiseppi; Marie-Claire Pascal; Marc Chippaux



Gene therapy for C-26 colon cancer using heparin-polyethyleneimine nanoparticle-mediated survivin T34A  

PubMed Central

Background Gene therapy provides a novel method for the prevention and treatment of cancer, but the clinical application of gene therapy is restricted, mainly because of the absence of an efficient and safe gene delivery system. Recently, we developed a novel nonviral gene carrier, ie, heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles for this purpose. Methods and results HPEI nanoparticles were used to deliver plasmid-expressing mouse survivin-T34A (ms-T34A) to treat C-26 carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. According to the in vitro studies, HPEI nanoparticles could efficiently transfect the pGFP report gene into C-26 cells, with a transfection efficiency of 30.5% ± 2%. Moreover, HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A could efficiently inhibit the proliferation of C-26 cells by induction of apoptosis in vitro. Based on the in vivo studies, HPEI nanoparticles could transfect the Lac-Z report gene into C-26 cells in vivo. Intratumoral injection of HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A significantly inhibited growth of subcutaneous C-26 carcinoma in vivo by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Conclusion This research suggests that HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A may have a promising role in C-26 colon carcinoma therapy. PMID:22072877

Zhang, Ling; Gao, Xiang; Men, Ke; Wang, BiLan; Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Jinfeng; Huang, Meijuan; Gou, MaLing; Huang, Ning; Qian, ZhiYong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan



Creation of immune ‘stealth’ genes for gene therapy through fusion with the Gly-Ala repeat of EBNA-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle in gene-therapy protocols is T-cell-mediated destruction of transgene-expressing cells. Therefore new approaches are needed to prevent rapid clearance of transduced cells. We exploited the Gly-Ala repeat (GAr) domain of the Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen-1, since the GAr prevents cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-epitope generation. Here we show that three different enzymes (viz. the E. coli LacZ gene encoded ?-galactosidase, firefly

M Ossevoort; B M J Visser; D J M van den Wollenberg; E I H van der Voort; R Offringa; C J M Melief; R E M Toes; R C Hoeben



Signal transduction pathways that regulate CAB gene expression. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have completed the initial genetic and phenotypic characterization of several classes of new mutants that affect CAB gene expression. The doc mutants (for dark overexpression of cab) are characterized by elevated levels of CAB gene expression in the dark; however, unlike the previously isolated de-etiolated mutants (also isolated in my lab), the doc mutants still appear etiolated. The doc alleles define 3 loci, each of which maps to a separate chromosome. The details of the mutant isolation scheme and the genetic and phenotypic description of these new mutants are described. The second class of mutants, the gun mutants (for genomes uncoupled) show accumulation of CAB mRNA in the absence of chloroplast gene expression and development. Thus, the normally tightly coordinated expression between the chloroplast and nuclear genes that encode chloroplast-destined proteins has been uncoupled. We have shown that the Arabidopsis HY3 locus encodes the type B phytochrome apoprotein gene and have characterized the phenotypes of null hy3 alleles to ascertain a role for this phytochrome in Arabidopsis development. We have also isolated and characterized a number of alleles of the phytochrome A gene.

Chory, J.



Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models. PMID:24104323

Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D.; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A.; Lazard, ZaWaunyka W.; Davis, Alan R.; Simpson, LaShan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.



Cellular and Molecular Factors in Flexor Tendon Repair and Adhesions: A Histological and Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Flexor tendon healing is mediated by cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis that contribute to the formation of scar tissue and adhesion. The biological mechanisms of flexor tendon adhesion formation has been linked to TGF-?. To elucidate the cellular and molecular events in this pathology, we implanted live FDL grafts from the reporter mouse Rosa26LacZ/+ in WT recipients, and used histological ?-galactosidase (?-gal) staining to evaluate the intrinsic versus extrinsic cellular origins of scar, and RT-PCR to measure gene expression of TGF-? and its receptors, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and MMPs and their regulators. Over the course of healing, graft cellularity and ?-gal activity progressively increased, and ?-gal-positive cells migrated out of the Rosa26LacZ/+ graft. In addition, there was evidence of influx of host cells (?-gal-negative) into the gliding space and the graft, suggesting that both graft and host cells contribute to adhesions. Interestingly, we observed a biphasic pattern in which Tgfb1 expression was highest in the early phases of healing and gradually decreased thereafter, whereas Tgfb3 increased and remained upregulated later. The expression of TGF-? receptors was also upregulated throughout the healing phases. In addition, type III collagen and fibronectin were upregulated during the proliferative phase of healing, confirming that murine flexor tendon heals by scar tissue. Furthermore, gene expression of MMPs showed a differential pattern in which inflammatory MMPs were highest early and matrix MMPs increased over time. These findings offer important insights into the complex cellular and molecular factors during flexor tendon healing. PMID:23586515

Juneja, Subhash C.; Schwarz, Edward M.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.



Research Report Gene array profiling of large hypothalamic CNS regions in lactating and  

E-print Network

Research Report Gene array profiling of large hypothalamic CNS regions in lactating and randomly during the transition from a non-maternal to a maternal, lactating state. In this study, we compared gene regions, and nucleus accumbens) between lactating (L) (postpartum Day 7) and randomly cycling virgin (V

Bronikowski, Anne


HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind  

E-print Network

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind Japan Society of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind" (HOPE GM) , is a program funded by the Japan Society in these meetings a beautiful example of Japanese hospitality. Prof. Matsuzawa was dedicating his precious time

Takada, Shoji


Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter  

PubMed Central

The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor



The plant mitochondrial mat-r gene/nad1 gene complex. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The authors have completed sequencing the segments (totalling 19 kb, both complementary strands) of the maize mtDNA molecule that encode the entire NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nadl) gene. They have identified nucleotides in mature transcripts of the nadl gene that are edited and have generated clones of cDNAs of entire mature (fully spliced) nadl transcripts. They have examined the relative rates of splicing in transcripts of the four nadl gene group II introns and begun examining nadl intron cDNAs to determine the extent and distribution of RNA edits in introns, in order to evaluate the possibility that intron excision and exon splicing might be editing independent.

Wolstenholme, D.R.



Inflammatory bowel disease gene discovery. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the human gene(s) responsible for the disorder known as IBD. The work was planned in two phases. The desired products resulting from Phase 1 were BAC clone(s) containing the genetic marker(s) identified by gene/Networks, Inc. as potentially linked to IBD, plasmid subclones of those BAC(s), and new genetic markers developed from these plasmid subclones. The newly developed markers would be genotyped by gene/Networks, Inc. to ascertain evidence for linkage or non-linkage of IBD to this region. If non-linkage was indicated, the project would move to investigation of other candidate chromosomal regions. Where linkage was indicated, the project would move to Phase 2, in which a physical map of the candidate region(s) would be developed. The products of this phase would be contig(s) of BAC clones in the region exhibiting linkage to IBD, as well as plasmic subclones of the BACs and further genetic marker development. There would also be continued genotyping with new polymorphic markers during this phase. It was anticipated that clones identified and developed during these two phases would provide the physical resources for eventual disease gene discovery.




Bioluminescent reporters for catabolic gene expression and pollutant bioavailability  

SciTech Connect

The application of visualized catabolic nah-gene expression using a luxCDABE gene fusion provides a valuable method to measure quantitatively and specifically naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability. It has been demonstrated that the physiological state of the test culture together with the intrinsic regulation mechanisms of the naphthalene degradation pathway as well as the physiological aspects of the lux gene fusion have to be taken into account. The method presented provides a high potential for in situ bioprocess monitoring. In addition, the results obtained with immobilized cells provide a basis for the development of biosensors for environmental applications in specific pollutant monitoring in waste streams and soil slurry systems but, as a general method, also for more conventional biotechnological process control. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Heitzer, A.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sayler, G.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology); Burlage, R.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))



A Novel Binary T-Vector with the GFP Reporter Gene for Promoter Characterization  

PubMed Central

Several strategies have been developed to clone PCR fragments into desired vectors. However, most of commercially available T-vectors are not binary vectors and cannot be directly used for Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. In this study, a novel binary T-vector was constructed by integrating two AhdI restriction sites into the backbone vector pCAMBIA 1300. The T-vector also contains a GFP reporter gene and thus, can be used to analyze promoter activity by monitoring the reporter gene. On the other hand, identification and characterization of various promoters not only benefit the functional annotation of their genes but also provide alternative candidates to be used to drive interesting genes for plant genetic improvement by transgenesis. More than 1,000 putative pollen-specific rice genes have been identified in a genome-wide level. Among them, 67 highly expressed genes were further characterized. One of the pollen-specific genes LOC_Os10g35930 was further surveyed in its expression patterns with more details by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Finally, its promoter activity was further investigated by analyzing transgenic rice plants carrying the promoter::GFP cassette, which was constructed from the newly developed T-vector. The reporter GFP gene expression in these transgenic plants showed that the promoter was active only in mature but not in germinated pollens. PMID:25197968

Jiang, Shu-Ye; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Bai, Yanan; Ramachandran, Srinivasan




EPA Science Inventory

Mammalian cell gene mutation assays have been used for many years and the diversity of the available systems attests to the varied methods found to grow mammalian dells and detect mutations. s part of the International Workshop on Standardization of Genotoxicity Test Procedures, ...


From disease genes to cellular pathways: a progress report  

E-print Network

and Visual Sciences, {Biomedical Engineering, }Biostatistics, }Statistics and kHuman Genetics, University of gene-based therapies; nonetheless, all of these diseases result in the same fate, i.e. the death of the photoreceptors. A number of innovative strategies have been employed with the objectives of slowing down

Hero, Alfred O.


Characterization of the Arxula adeninivorans AHOG1 gene and the encoded mitogen-activated protein kinase.  


Arxula adeninivorans is an osmo-resistant yeast species that can tolerate high levels of osmolytes like NaCl, PEG400 and ethylene glycol. As in other yeast species, this tolerance is elicited by components of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response pathway. In the present study, we isolated and characterized as a key component of this pathway the A. adeninivorans AHOG1 gene encoding the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Ahog1p, an enzyme of 45.9 kDa. The gene includes a coding sequence of 1,203 bp disrupted by a 57-bp intron. The identity of the gene was confirmed by complementation of a hog1 mutation in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain and the high degree of homology of the derived amino acid sequence with that of MAP kinases from other yeasts and fungi. Under stress-free conditions, the inactive Ahoglp is present in low levels. When exposed to osmotic stress, Ahoglp is rendered active by phosphorylation. In addition, AHOG1 expression is increased. Assessment of the AHOG1 promoter activity with a lacZ reporter gene confirmed its inducibility by osmolytes, a characteristic not observed in homologous HOG1 genes of other yeast species. This specific property could account for the fast adaptation and high osmo-resistance encountered in this species. PMID:15526205

Böer, Erik; Wartmann, Thomas; Dlubatz, Karen; Gellissen, Gerd; Kunze, Gotthard



Efficient photoreceptor-targeted gene expression in vivo by recombinant adeno-associated?virus  

PubMed Central

We describe a general approach for achieving efficient and cell type-specific expression of exogenous genes in photoreceptor cells of the mammalian retina. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors were used to transfer the bacterial lacZ gene or a synthetic green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) to mouse or rat retinas after injection into the subretinal space. Using a proximal murine rod opsin promoter (+86 to ?385) to drive expression, reporter gene product was found exclusively in photoreceptors, not in any other retinal cell type or in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. GFP-expressing photoreceptors typically encompassed 10–20% of the total retinal area after a single 2-?l injection. Photoreceptors were transduced with nearly 100% efficiency in the region directly surrounding the injection site. We estimate approximately 2.5 million photoreceptors were transduced as a result of the single subretinal inoculation. This level of gene transfer and expression suggests the feasibility of genetic therapy for retinal disease. The gfp-containing rAAV stock was substantially free of both adenovirus and wild-type AAV, as judged by plaque assay and infectious center assay, respectively. Thus, highly purified, helper virus-free rAAV vectors can achieve high-frequency tissue-specific transduction of terminally differentiated, postmitotic photoreceptor cells. PMID:9192666

Flannery, John G.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Vaquero, M. Isabel; LaVail, Matthew M.; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Hauswirth, William W.



Role of starvation genes in the survival of deep subsurface bacterial communities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The investigation dealt with several aspects of subsurface bacterial survival and their nature. Mutants of Pseudomonas putida, a common environmental bacterium with counterparts in the subsurface, were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. These mutants were highly sensitive to starvation stress. Reporter gene fusions also showed that these genes were starvation genes since they were induced several fold when the cultures were started. Since the regulatory religions (promoters) of starvation genes are of interest in bioremediation and in experiments designed to understand the roles of starvation genes in the maintenance of microbial community structure, the promoter of one of these genes (pstarv1, contained in strain MK107) was characterized in detail. As a preliminary to these studies, the growth characteristics of Pseudomonas putida MK1 and MK107 were compared for cells growing in batch cultures or as an attached monolayer in microstat cultures.

Matin, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology; Schmidt, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Caldwell, D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology



Development of a gene reporter system in moderately halophilic bacteria by employing the ice nucleation gene of Pseudomonas syringae.  


The expression of the ice nucleation gene inaZ of Pseudomonas syringae in several moderate halophiles was investigated to establish its utility as a reporter for promoter activity and gene expression studies in these biotechnologically and environmentally important bacteria. A promoterless version of inaZ was introduced in two different restriction sites and at both orientations in a recombinant plasmid able to replicate in moderate halophiles and, in particular, within the sequence of its pHE1 part, a native plasmid of Halomonas elongata. One orientation of both recombinant constructs expressed high levels of ice nucleation activity in H. elongata and Volcaniella eurihalina cells, indicating that inaZ was probably introduced in the correct orientation downstream of putative native promoters. A recombinant construct carrying a tandem duplication of inaZ at the same orientation gave significantly higher ice nucleation activity, showing that inaZ is appropriate for gene dosage studies. The ice nucleation gene was also expressed in H. elongata and V. eurihalina under the control of Pbla (the promoter of the beta-lactamase gene of Escherichia coli) and Ppdc (the promoter of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene of Zymomonas mobilis). One of the inaZ reporter plasmids expressing high levels of ice nucleation activity under the control of a native putative promoter was also transferred in Halomonas subglaciescola, Halomonas meridiana, Halomonas halodurans, and Deleya halophila. In all cases, Ice+ transconjugants were successfully isolated, demonstrating that inaZ is expressed in a wide spectrum of moderately halophilic species. PMID:8526492

Arvanitis, N; Vargas, C; Tegos, G; Perysinakis, A; Nieto, J J; Ventosa, A; Drainas, C



Novel SOST gene mutation in a sclerosteosis patient from Morocco: a case report.  


Sclerosteosis (OMIM 269500) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by increased bone density associated with syndactyly. It is linked to a genetic defect in the SOST gene coding for sclerostin. So far, seven different loss-of-function mutations in SOST have been reported in patients with sclerosteosis. Recently, two mutations in LRP4 gene underlying sclerosteosis were identified, reflecting the genetic heterogeneity of this disease. We report here a 30-years-old Moroccan man presented with typical clinical and radiological features of sclerosteosis who carries a novel homozygous mutation in the SOST gene, characterized as a nonsense mutation (c.79C > T; p.Gln27?) in exon 1 of the SOST gene. This is to our knowledge the first case of sclerosteosis reported from Morocco and North Africa. PMID:24594238

Belkhribchia, Mohamed Reda; Collet, Corinne; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Hassani, Redouane



Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The following is a review of research accomplished in the first two years of funding for the above mentioned project. The work performed is a molecular characterization of nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which are deficient in different stages in the post-transcriptional expression of a single chloroplast encoded polypeptide, the D2 protein of Photosystem II. Our long-term goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear gene products affect the expression of chloroplast genes. Specifically, we which to understand how specific nuclear gene products affect the turnover rate of the D2 encoding mRNA (psbD), how other nuclear encoded factors work to promote the translation of psbD mRNA and/or stabilize the D2 protein, and what the role of the D2 protein itself is in Photosystem II assembly and in the control of expression of other chloroplast genes. This progress report will be organized into four major sections concerning (I) The characterization of nuclear mutants affected in D2 translation/turnover, (II) The study of trans-acting factors which associate with the 5{prime} end of the psbD mRNA, (III) In vitro mutagenesis of the psbD gene, and (IV) Additional studies.

Kuchka, M.R.



Electrotransformation and Expression of Bacterial Genes Encoding Hygromycin Phosphotransferase and b-Galactosidase in the Pathogenic Fungus Histoplasma capsulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an efficient electrotransformation system for the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum and used it to examine the effects of features of the transforming DNA on transformation efficiency and fate of the transforming DNA and to demonstrate fungal expression of two recombinant Escherichia coli genes, hph and lacZ. Linearized DNA and plasmids containing Histoplasma telomeric sequences showed the greatest transformation



A Novel Mutator of Escherichia coli Carrying a Defect in the dgt Gene, Encoding a dGTP Triphosphohydrolase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel mutator locus in Escherichia coli was identified from a collection of random transposon insertion mutants. Several mutators in this collection were found to have an insertion in the dgt gene, encoding a previously characterized dGTP triphosphohydrolase. The mutator activity of the dgt mutants displays an unusual specificity. Among the six possible base pair substitutions in a lacZ reversion

Damian Gawel; Michael D. Hamilton; Roel M. Schaaper



Analysis of Gene Targeting & Nonhomologous End-joining. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Overall, we identified a number of new proteins that participate in nonhomologous end-joining and also in telomere addition to the ends of broken chromosomes. We showed that NHEJ is severely reduced in cells expressing both yeast mating-type genes and then went on to identify the NEJ1 gene that was under this control. We showed the epistasis relations among a set of mutations that impair telomere addition and we showed that there are in fact two pathways to repair broken chromosomes in the absence of telomerase. We characterized the DNA damage checkpoint pathway in response to a single broken chromosome and characterized especially the adaptation of cells arrested by an unrepaired DSB. We demonstrated that the DNA damage response is nuclear-limited. We showed adaptation defects for Tid1and Srs2 proteins and showed that Srs2 was also recovery-defective, even when DNA was repaired.

Haber, J. E.



Quantitative Analysis of Bacterial Gene Expression by Using the gusA Reporter Gene System  

PubMed Central

An Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 strain containing a plasmid-borne translational cytN-gusA fusion was grown in a continuous culture to quantitatively evaluate the influence of extracellular signals (such as O2) on expression of the cytNOQP operon. The dissolved oxygen concentration was shifted at regular time intervals before the steady state was reached. The measured ?-glucuronidase activity was used to monitor cytN gene expression. However, as the ?-glucuronidase activity in the experimental setup not only depended on altered transcription of the hybrid gene when the signal was varied but was also influenced by cellular accumulation, degradation, and dilution of the hybrid fusion protein, a mathematical method was developed to describe the intrinsic properties of the dynamic bioprocess. After identification and validation of the mathematical model, the apparent specific rate of expression of the fusion, which was independent of the experimental setup, could be deduced from the model and used to quantify gene expression regulated by extracellular environmental signals. In principle, this approach can be generalized to assess the effects of external signals on bacterial gene expression. PMID:11472903

Sun, Jun; Smets, Ilse; Bernaerts, Kristel; Van Impe, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Marchal, Kathleen



Construction and identification of the adenoviral vector with dual reporter gene for multimodality molecular imaging.  


In this study, the recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vector containing dual reporter gene [i.e. human transferrin receptor gene (TFRC) and firefly luciferase reporter gene] was constructed to provide a novel experimental tool for magnetic resonance (MR) and bioluminescence dual-modality molecular imaging. The cDNA of TFRC was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into the multiple cloning site of pShuttle-CMV-CMV-Luciferase vector. After identification by Sfi I digestion and sequencing, pShuttle-TFRC-Luciferase vector and the adenoviral backbone vector (pAdeno) were subjected to homologous recombination. The correct recombinant plasmid was then transfected into 293 packaging cells to produce adenoviral particles and confirmed by PCR. After infection of human colorectal cancer LOVO cells with Ad-TFRC-Luciferase, the expressions of transferrin receptor (TfR) and luciferase protein were detected respectively by Western blotting and bioluminescence imaging in vitro. The results showed that TFRC gene was successfully inserted into the adenoviral shuttle vector carrying luciferase gene. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the TFRC gene sequence in the shuttle plasmid was exactly the same as that reported in GenBank. The recombinant plasmid was identified correct by restriction digestion. Ad-TFRC-Luciferase recombinant adenovirus was constructed successfully, and the virus titer was 1.6×10(10) pfu/mL. Forty-eight h after dual reporter gene transfection, the expressions of TfR and luciferase protein were increased significantly (P<0.01). It was concluded that the recombinant adenovirus vector with dual reporter gene was successfully established, which may be used for in vivo tracing target cells in multimodality imaging. PMID:23904384

Wang, Yi-fan; Liu, Ting; Guo, Yu-lin; Gao, Fa-bao



Gene therapy for trigeminal pain in mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a single direct injection of viral vector encoding for encephalin to induce a widespread expression of the transgene and potential analgesic effect in trigeminal behavioral pain models in mice. After direct injection of HSV-1 based vectors encoding for human preproenkephalin (SHPE) or the lacZ reporter gene (SHZ.1, control virus) into the trigeminal ganglia in mice, we performed an orofacial formalin test and assessed the cumulative nociceptive behavior at different time points after injection of the viral vectors. We observed an analgesic effect on nociceptive behavior that lasted up to 8 weeks after a single injection of SHPE into the trigeminal ganglia. Control virus injected animals showed nociceptive behavior similar to naďve mice. The analgesic effect of SHPE injection was reversed/attenuated by subcutaneous naloxone injections, a ?-opioid receptor antagonist. SHPE injected mice also showed normalization in withdrawal latencies upon thermal noxious stimulation of inflamed ears after subdermal complete Freund’s adjuvans injection indicating widespread expression of the transgene. Quantitative immunohistochemistry of trigeminal ganglia showed expression of human preproenkephalin after SHPE injection. Direct injection of viral vectors proved to be useful for exploring the distinct pathophysiology of the trigeminal system and could also be an interesting addition to the pain therapists’ armamentarium. PMID:24572785

Tzabazis, Alexander Z.; Klukinov, Michael; Feliciano, David P.; Wilson, Steven P.; Yeomans, David C.



Use of a green fluorescent protein gene as a reporter in Zymomonas mobilis and Halomonas elongata.  


We investigated the applicability of the green fluorescent protein of Aequorea victoria as a reporter for gene expression in the strictly fermentative Gram-negative ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis and in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata. We have succeeded to express a mutated gene of green fluorescent protein under the control of different promoters in Z. mobilis and H. elongata grown under various glucose or salt concentrations, respectively. Our results demonstrate that gfp can serve as an easily assayable reporter gene in both organisms. Maximum fluorescence was obtained in Z. mobilis grown aerobically and in H. elongata grown under elevated salt concentration in solid medium. For both bacteria the fluorescence obtained was higher when the gfp gene was placed under the control of a native promoter. PMID:11470365

Douka, E; Christogianni, A; Koukkou, A I; Afendra, A S; Drainas, C



Isolation and characterization of the lacA gene encoding beta-galactosidase in Bacillus subtilis and a regulator gene, lacR.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated transposon insertions in the lacA gene encoding an endogenous beta-galactosidase of Bacillus subtilis. Upstream of the putative operon containing lacA is a negative regulator, lacR, which encodes a product related to a family of regulators that includes the lactose repressor, lacI, of Escherichia coli. New strains with insertions in the lacA gene should be of use in studies using lacZ fusions in B. subtilis. PMID:9287030

Daniel, R A; Haiech, J; Denizot, F; Errington, J



Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2. Although fluorescence was observed, there were discrepancies between in vivo imaging and ex vivo imaging as well as between nuclear imaging and fluorescent imaging. Conclusion These studies showed that the SSTR2-EGFP fusion construct can be used for in vivo nuclear and optical imaging of gene transfer. PMID:20720053

Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.



Successive silencing of tandem reporter genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) over 5 years of vegetative propagation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Transgenic plants represent an excellent tool for experimental plant biology and are an important component of modern agriculture. Fully understanding the stability of transgene expression is critical in this regard. Most changes in transgene expression occur soon after transformation and thus unwanted lines can be discarded easily; however, transgenes can be silenced long after their integration. Methods To study the long-term changes in transgene expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the activity of two reporter genes, encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), was monitored in a set of 17 transgenic lines over 5 years of vegetative propagation in vitro. Key Results A decrease in transgene expression was observed mainly in lines with higher initial GFP expression and a greater number of T-DNA insertions. Complete silencing of the reporter genes was observed in four lines (nearly 25 %), all of which successively silenced the two reporter genes, indicating an interconnection between their silencing. The loss of GFP fluorescence always preceded the loss of kanamycin resistance. Treatment with the demethylation drug 5-azacytidine indicated that silencing of the NPTII gene, but probably not of GFP, occurred directly at the transcriptional level. Successive silencing of the two reporter genes was also reproduced in lines with reactivated expression of previously silenced transgenes. Conclusions We suggest a hypothetical mechanism involving the successive silencing of the two reporter genes that involves the switch of GFP silencing from the post-transcriptional to transcriptional level and subsequent spreading of methylation to the NPTII gene. PMID:20829194

Nocarova, Eva; Opatrny, Zdenek; Fischer, Lukas



An Approach for Treating the Hepatobiliary Disease of Cystic Fibrosis by Somatic Gene Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of epithelial cell ion transport that is associated with pathology in multiple organ systems, including lung, pancreas, and liver. As treatment of the pulmonary manifestations of CF has improved, management of CF liver disease has become increasingly important in adult patients. This report describes an approach for treating CF liver disease by somatic gene transfer. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry analysis of rat liver sections indicated that the endogenous CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is primarily expressed in the intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells. To specifically target recombinant genes to the biliary epithelium in vivo, recombinant adenoviruses expressing lacZ or human CFTR were infused retrograde into the biliary tract through the common bile duct. Conditions were established for achieving recombinant gene expression in virtually all cells of the intrahepatic bile ducts in vivo. Expression persisted in the smaller bile ducts for the duration of the experiment, which was 21 days. These studies suggest that it may be feasible to prevent CF liver disease by genetically reconstituting CFTR expression in the biliary tract, using an approach that is clinically feasible.

Yang, Yiping; Raper, Steven E.; Cohn, Jonathan A.; Engelhardt, John F.; Wilson, James M.



Robust Marking of Photoreceptor Cells and Pinealocytes with Several Reporters under Control of the Crx Gene  

PubMed Central

Crx is a member of the Otx family of homeobox genes with expression restricted to vertebrate retinal photoreceptor and bipolar cells as well as the pinealocytes of the pineal organ. To facilitate the visualization of Crx-expressing cells, we generated transgenic mice expressing several reporters under the control of the Crx regulatory sequences present within a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). These mice expand the transgenic mouse collection, which uses photoreceptor regulatory elements for reporter gene expression by providing a broader repertoire of reporter genes. In addition, since Crx is expressed very soon after a cell fated to be a photoreceptor cell becomes postmitotic, they provide a means for early identification of immature photoreceptor cells. PMID:19882727

Samson, Maria; Emerson, Mark M.; Cepko, Constance L.



A systemic lupus erythematosus gene expression array in disease diagnosis and classification: a preliminary report  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease diagnosed on the presence of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings. At the pathogenetic level, multiple factors using diverse biochemical and molecular pathways have been recognized. Succinct recognition and classification of clinical disease subsets, as well as the availability of disease biomarkers, remains largely unsolved. Based on information produced by the present authors’ and other laboratories, a lupus gene expression array consisting of 30 genes, previously claimed to contribute to aberrant function of T cells, was developed. An additional eight genes were included as controls. Peripheral blood was obtained from 10 patients (19 samples) with SLE and six patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as 19 healthy controls. T cell mRNA was subjected to reverse transcription and PCR, and the gene expression levels were measured. Conventional statistical analysis was performed along with principal component analysis (PCA) to capture the contribution of all genes to disease diagnosis and clinical parameters. The lupus gene expression array faithfully informed on the expression levels of genes. The recorded changes in expression reflect those reported in the literature by using a relatively small (5ml) amount of peripheral blood. PCA of gene expression levels placed SLE samples apart from normal and RA samples regardless of disease activity. Individual principal components tended to define specific disease manifestations such as arthritis and proteinuria. Thus, a lupus gene expression array based on genes previously claimed to contribute to immune pathogenesis of SLE may define the disease, and principal components of the expression of 30 genes may define patients with specific disease manifestations. PMID:21138984

Juang, Y-T; Peoples, C; Kafri, R; Kyttaris, VC; Sunahori, K; Kis-Toth, K; Fitzgerald, L; Ergin, S; Finnell, M; Tsokos, GC



Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Consistent with the long term goal of our research to understand the nature of the key enzymes in eukaryotic DNA replication we have characterized the properties of the wild type DNA polymerases of the {alpha}-family and their mutants. We have also provided evidence for the role of aphidicolin in the elongation process of the in vivo DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. We also developed a technology for planned prep from a large numbers of clones for direct screening by size or restriction digestion in order to facilitate our goals to clone the DNA polymerase gene.

Mishra, N.C.



Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane. PMID:24708613



The Myxococcus xanthus Two-Component System CorSR Regulates Expression of a Gene Cluster Involved in Maintaining Copper Tolerance during Growth and Development  

PubMed Central

Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling member of the ?–Proteobacteria that exhibits a complex developmental cycle upon starvation. Development comprises aggregation and differentiation into environmentally resistant myxospores in an environment that includes fluctuations in metal ion concentrations. While copper is essential for M. xanthus cells because several housekeeping enzymes use it as a cofactor, high copper concentrations are toxic. These opposing effects force cells to maintain a tight copper homeostasis. A plethora of paralogous genes involved in copper detoxification, all of which are differentially regulated, have been reported in M. xanthus. The use of in-frame deletion mutants and fusions with the reporter gene lacZ has allowed the identification of a two-component system, CorSR, that modulates the expression of an operon termed curA consisting of nine genes whose expression slowly increases after metal addition, reaching a plateau. Transcriptional regulation of this operon is complex because transcription can be initiated at different promoters and by different types of regulators. These genes confer copper tolerance during growth and development. Copper induces carotenoid production in a ?corSR mutant at lower concentrations than with the wild-type strain due to lack of expression of a gene product resembling subunit III of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This data may explain why copper induces carotenoid biosynthesis at suboptimal rather than optimal growth conditions in wild-type strains. PMID:23874560

Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Shimkets, Lawrence J.; Moraleda-Muńoz, Aurelio; Muńoz-Dorado, José



Pairing-dependent mislocalization of a Drosophila brown gene reporter to a heterochromatic environment.  


We describe the precise positioning of a reporter gene within heterochromatin where it may be silenced. A transposition of the 59E-60A region into pericentric heterochromatin ensnares distal 59E-60A via somatic pairing. The frequency with which a brown (bw) reporter gene in 59E is silenced is influenced by chromosomal configurations. Silencing occurs only when the bw+ reporter is unpaired due to heterozygosity with a deficiency, where the frequency of bw+ reporter expression is correlated with the extent of bw gene and flanking sequence present. Surprisingly, the frequency of pairing between the transposition in heterochromatin and distal 59E observed cytologically is indistinguishable from the frequency of pairing of homologous chromosomes at 59E in wild-type larval brains, regardless of configuration. Therefore, bringing a susceptible reporter gene into close proximity with heterochromatin does not necessarily affect its expression, but local pairing changes resulting from altered chromosomal configurations can lead to silencing. We also find that an ensnared distal copy of bw that is interrupted by a heterochromatic insertion enhances silencing. This demonstrates that bw can be simultaneously acted upon by pericentric and distal blocks of heterochromatin. PMID:10353902

Sass, G L; Henikoff, S



A muscle-specific intron enhancer required for rescue of indirect flight muscle and jump muscle function regulates Drosophila tropomyosin I gene expression  

SciTech Connect

The control of expression of the Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin I (TmI) gene has been investigated by P-element transformation and rescue of the flightless TmI mutant strain, Ifm(3)3. To localize cis-acting DNA sequences that control TmI gene expression, Ifm(3)3 flies were transformed with P-element plasmids containing various deletions and rearrangements of the TmI gene. The effects of these mutations on TmI gene expression were studied by analyzing both the extent of rescue of the Ifm(3)3 mutant phenotypes and determining TmI RNA levels in the transformed flies by primer extension analysis. The results of this analysis indicate that a region located within intron 1 of the gene is necessary and sufficient for directing muscle-specific TmI expression in the adult fly. This intron region has characteristics of a muscle regulatory enhancer element that can function in conjunction with the heterologous nonmuscle hsp70 promoter to promote rescue of the mutant phenotypes and to direct expression of an hsp70-Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene in adult muscle. The enhancer can be subdivided further into two domains of activity based on primer extension analysis of TmI mRNA levels and on the rescue of mutant phenotypes.

Schultz, J.A.; Gremke, L.; Storti, R.V. (University of Illinois of Medicine, Chicago (United States)); Tansey, T. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., VA (United States))



Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

Marton, L.



Oral contrast enhances the resolution of in-life NIS reporter gene imaging  

PubMed Central

NIS reporter gene imaging is an excellent technology for noninvasive cell fate determination in living animals unless the NIS-transduced cells reside in perigastric organs such as spleen, liver, diaphragm, omentum, pancreas, perigastric lymph nodes or perigastric tumor deposits. Here we report that orally administered barium sulfate enhances CT definition of the stomach, masks background gamma ray emissions from the stomach, and enhances signal detection from radiotracer uptake in NIS-transduced organs. PMID:24030210

Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Pham, Linh; McIvor, Scott; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye



Stem Cell Reports Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Reports Article Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human Germ of early PGCs. Furthermore, PRDM1 suppresses transcription of SOX2. Overexpression of SOX2 in hESCs under of neural or germline fates through repression of SOX2 during human development. INTRODUCTION Primordial

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang


Brief Genetics Report Fine-Mapping Gene-by-Diet Interactions on Chromosome  

E-print Network

Brief Genetics Report Fine-Mapping Gene-by-Diet Interactions on Chromosome 13 in a LG/J SM/J Murine of obesity in humans range as high as 70% based on twin studies (1). However, obesity in the developed world is increasing too rapidly to be caused by changes in genetic background (2). Moreover, some human geno- types

Hrbek, Tomas - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico


Brief Genetics Report Variation in the Calpain-10 Gene Affects Blood Glucose  

E-print Network

--tissues that play the key roles in con- trolling glucose homeostasis. Our data also suggest that variationBrief Genetics Report Variation in the Calpain-10 Gene Affects Blood Glucose Levels in the British resistance, and individuals with the G/G-genotype had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose and 2-h

Cox, Nancy J.


Circadian Rhythms in Prokaryotes: Luciferase as a Reporter of Circadian Gene Expression in Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a luciferase reporter gene and continuous automated monitoring of bioluminescence to demonstrate unequivocally that cyanobacteria exhibit circadian behaviors that are fundamentally the same as circadian rhythms of eukaryotes. We also show that these rhythms can be studied by molecular methods in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, a strain for which genetic transformation is well established. A promoterless segment of

Takao Kondo; Carl A. Strayer; Resham D. Kulkarni; Walter Taylor; Masahiro Ishiura; Susan S. Golden; Carl Hirschie Johnson



Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay on Human 5-HT Receptor: Which Response Element Should Be Chosen?  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are valuable molecular targets for antipsychotic drug discovery. Current reported methods for detecting 5-HT receptors, such as cAMP accumulation and calcium influx assay, are often demanding specialized instruments and inconvenient. The luciferase reporter gene assay, based on the responsible-element-regulated expression of luciferase, has been widely applied in the high-throughput functional assay for many targets because of its high sensitivity and reliability. However, 5-HT receptors couple to multiple G-proteins regulate respective downstream signalling pathways and are usually detected using different response elements. Hence, finding a suitable response element to fulfil the detection of different 5-HT receptors and make the results of luciferase reporter gene assays generalizable is very useful for active compounds screening. Here, we conducted three luciferase reporter assays using CRE, NFAT, and SRE response elements attached to 5-HT to detect the activation of different 5-HT receptors in CHO-K1 cells. The potencies and efficacies of the reported ligands (agonists and antagonists) were determined and compared. Our results indicate that CRE-luciferase reporter gene is sensitive and reliable to detect the activities of G protein-coupled 5-HT receptors. PMID:25622827

Chen, Yiming; Xu, Zhongyu; Wu, Dang; Li, Jian; Song, Cheng; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin



Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals.  


Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were cotransfected with the human androgen receptor expression vector and the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)2-luciferase vector using the new nonliposomal transfection reagent FuGene. Stimulation of the cells for 24 h with the synthetic androgen receptor agonist, R1881 (10 nM), resulted in a 30- to 60-fold induction of luciferase activity. The classical antiandrogenic compounds hydroxy-flutamide, bicalutamide, spironolactone, and cyproterone acetate together with the pesticide(metabolite)s, vinclozolin, p,p'-DDE, and procymidone all potently inhibited the response to 0.1 nM R1881. Compared to the traditional calcium phosphate transfection method, this method has the advantage of being more feasible, as the assay can be scaled down to the microtiter plate format. Furthermore, the transfection reagent is noncytotoxic, allowing its addition together with the test compounds thereby reducing the hands-on laboratory time. This assay is a powerful tool for the efficient and accurate determination and quantification of the effects of antiandrogens on reporter gene transcription. To extend the application of FuGene, the reagent was shown to be superior compared to Lipofectin for transfecting MCF7 human breast cancer cells with an estrogen response element-luciferase vector. Thus, FuGene may prove to be valuable in diverse reporter gene assays involving transient transfections for screening of potential endocrine disruptors for (anti)androgenic and (anti)estrogenic properties. PMID:10053169

Vinggaard, A M; Joergensen, E C; Larsen, J C



MyoD– lacZ transgenes are early markers in the neural retina, but MyoD function appears to be inhibited in the developing retinal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings suggest that eye and skeletal muscle development in vertebrates share the same regulatory network. In that network, Pax3 gene is apparently activated through Dach\\/Eya\\/Six feedback loop to mediate MyoD-driven myogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate previously reported MyoD–lacZ expression in the developing mouse neural retina and to gain insight into the potential role of MyoD

Boris Kablar



Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

Henderson, A.S.



Genetics and molecular biology of methanogen genes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Adenylate kinase has been isolated from four related methanogenic members of the Archaea. For each the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was similar to the temperature for optimal microbial growth and was approximately 30 C for Methanococcus voltage, 70 C for Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, 80 C for Methanococcus igneus and 80--90 C for Methanococcus jannaschii. The enzymes were sensitive to the adenylate kinase inhibitor, Ap{sub 5}A [P{sup 1}, P{sup 5}-di(adenosine-5{prime}) pentaphosphate], a property that was exploited to purify the enzymes by CIBACRON Blue affinity chromatography. The enzymes had an estimated molecular weight (approximately 23--25 kDa) in the range common for adenylate kinases. Each of the enzymes had a region of amino acid sequence close to its N-terminus that was similar to the canonical P-loop sequence reported for all adenylate kinases. However, the methanogen sequences lacked a lysine residue that has previously been found to be invariant in adenylate kinases including an enzyme isolated from the Archeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. If verified as a nucleotide binding domain, the methanogen sequence would represent a novel nucleotide binding motif. There was no correlation between amino acid abundance and the optimal temperature for enzyme activity.

Konisky, J.



Engineering an Enhanced, Thermostable, Monomeric Bacterial Luciferase Gene As a Reporter in Plant Protoplasts  

PubMed Central

The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The fused luxAB gene was mutated by error prone PCR or chemical mutagenesis and screened for enhanced luciferase activity utilizing decanal as substrate. Positive luxAB mutants with superior quantum yield were subsequently shuffled by DNase I digestion and PCR assembly for generation of recombinants with additional increases in luciferase activity in bacteria. The coding sequence of the best recombinant, called eluxAB, was then optimized further to conform to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) codon usage. A plant expression vector of the final, optimized eluxAB gene (opt-eluxAB) was constructed and transformed into protoplasts of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Luciferase activity was dramatically increased for opt-eluxAB compared to the original luxAB in Arabidopsis and maize cells. The opt-eluxAB driven by two copies of the 35S promoter expresses significantly higher than that driven by a single copy. These results indicate that the eluxAB gene can be used as a reporter in plant protoplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report to engineer the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase luxAB as a reporter by directed evolution which paved the way for further improving the luxAB reporter in the future. PMID:25271765

Song, Yunhong; Wei, Jinsong; Li, Changfu; Wang, Tietao; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Tianyong; Shen, Xihui



Construction and use of GFP reporter vectors for analysis of cell-type-specific gene expression in Nostoc punctiforme  

E-print Network

cloning site preceding a promoterless gfp gene using an Escherichia coli host. The ability of the selfConstruction and use of GFP reporter vectors for analysis of cell-type-specific gene expression Nostoc punctiforme using the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter. Both the ampicillin

Summers, Michael L.


MRI-based detection of alkaline phosphatase gene reporter activity using a porphyrin solubility switch  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The ability to map patterns of gene expression noninvasively in living animals could have impact in many areas of biology. Reporter systems compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be particularly valuable, but existing strategies tend to lack sensitivity or specificity. Here we address the challenge of MRI-based gene mapping using the reporter enzyme secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), in conjunction with a water soluble metalloporphyrin contrast agent. SEAP cleaves the porphyrin into an insoluble product that accumulates at sites of enzyme expression and can be visualized by MRI and optical absorbance. The contrast mechanism functions in vitro, in brain slices, and in animals. The system also provides the possibility of readout both in the living animal and by post mortem histology, and it notably does not require intracellular delivery of the contrast agent. The solubility switch mechanism used to detect SEAP could be adapted for imaging of additional reporter enzymes or endogenous targets. PMID:24613020

Westmeyer, Gil G.; Emer, Elena G.; Lintelmann, Jutta; Jasanoff, Alan




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD



Multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging of inducible tyrosinase reporter gene expression in xenograft tumors  

PubMed Central

Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid imaging technology capable of breaking through resolution limits of pure optical imaging technologies imposed by optical-scattering to provide fine-resolution optical contrast information in deep tissues. We demonstrate the ability of multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging to estimate relative gene expression distributions using an inducible expression system and co-register images with hemoglobin oxygen saturation estimates and micro-ultrasound data. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production, is used as a reporter gene owing to its strong optical absorption and enzymatic amplification mechanism. Tetracycline-inducible melanin expression is turned on via doxycycline treatment in vivo. Serial multi-wavelength imaging reveals very low estimated melanin expression in tumors prior to doxycycline treatment or in tumors with no tyrosinase gene present, but strong signals after melanin induction in tumors tagged with the tyrosinase reporter. The combination of new inducible reporters and high-resolution photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound technology is poised to bring a new dimension to the study of gene expression in vivo. PMID:24936769

Paproski, Robert J.; Heinmiller, Andrew; Wachowicz, Keith; Zemp, Roger J.



Post-transcriptional regulation of sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans: widespread expression of the sex-determining gene fem-1 in both sexes.  


The fem-1 gene of C. elegans is one of three genes required for all aspects of male development in the nematode. Current models of sex determination propose that the products of the fem genes act in a novel signal-transduction pathway and that their activity is regulated primarily at the post-translational level in somatic tissues. We analyzed the expression of fem-1 to determine whether it revealed any additional levels of regulation. Both XX hermaphrodites and XO males express fem-1 at approximately constant levels throughout development. Somatic tissues in hermaphrodites adopt female fates, but they nonetheless express fem-1 mRNA and FEM-1 protein, suggesting that the regulation of fem-1 activity is post-transcriptional and probably post-translational. A compact promoter directs functional expression of fem-1 transgenes, as assayed by their masculinizing activity in fem-1 mutants. Activity also requires any two or more introns, suggesting that splicing may enhance fem-1 expression. The minimal noncoding sequences required for activity of fem-1 transgenes suffice to direct expression of a fem-1::lacZ reporter gene in all somatic tissues in both sexes. Many fem-1 transgenes, including those that rescue male somatic development in fem-1 mutants, paradoxically feminize the germline. We suggest that they do so by interfering with the germline expression of the endogenous fem-1 gene. PMID:8862524

Gaudet, J; VanderElst, I; Spence, A M



Targeted gene expression without a tissue-specific promoter: creating mosaic embryos using laser-induced single-cell heat shock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a method to target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo to a specific cell without having a promoter that directs expression in that particular cell. Using a digitally enhanced imaging system to identify single cells within the living embryo, we apply a heat shock to each cell individually by using a laser microbeam. A 1- to 2-min laser treatment is sufficient to induce a heat-shock response but is not lethal to the heat-shocked cells. Induction of heat shock was measured in a variety of cell types, including neurons and somatic muscles, by the expression of beta-galactosidase from an hsp26-lacZ reporter construct or by expression of a UAS target gene after induction of hsGAL4. We discuss the applicability of this technique to ectopic gene expression studies, lineage tracing, gene inactivation studies, and studies of cells in vitro. Laser heat shock is a versatile technique that can be adapted for use in a variety of research organisms and is useful for any studies in which it is desirable to express a given gene in only a distinct cell or clone of cells, either transiently or constitutively, at a time point of choice.

Halfon, M. S.; Kose, H.; Chiba, A.; Keshishian, H.



Reporter Gene Imaging of Immune Responses to Cancer: Progress and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Immune responses to cancer are dynamic processes which take place through the concerted activity of innate and adaptive cell populations. In order to fully understand the efficacy of immune therapies for cancer, it is critical to understand how the treatment modulates the function of each cell type involved in the anti-tumor immune response. Molecular imaging is a versatile method for longitudinal studies of cellular localization and function. The development of reporter genes for tracking cell movement and function was a powerful addition to the immunologist's toolbox. This review will highlight the advances and challenges in the use of reporter gene imaging to track immune cell localization and function in cancer. PMID:22509199

Dubey, Purnima



Reporter gene transformation of the trunk disease pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and biological control agent Trichoderma harzianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economically important trunk disease pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora causes Petri disease in Vitis vinifera and is also associated with the Esca trunk disease complex. Not much is known about the pathogen’s epidemiology and interactions\\u000a with the grapevine host, other trunk disease pathogens and biological control agents such as Trichoderma harzianum. Reporter gene labelling of plant pathogens and biocontrol agents can

T. McLean; P. H. Fourie; A. McLeod



Detection of estrogenic activity in sediment-associated compounds using in vitro reporter gene assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments may be the ultimate sink for persistent (xeno-)estrogenic compounds released into the aquatic environment. Sediment-associated estrogenic potency was measured with an estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene (ER-CALUX) assay and compared with a recombinant yeast screen. The ER-CALUX assay was more sensitive to 17?-estradiol (E2) than the recombinant yeast screen, with an EC50 of 6 pM E2 compared to 100

Juliette Legler; Martine Dennekamp; A. Dick Vethaak; Abraham Brouwer; Jan H Koeman; Bart van der Burg; Albertinka J Murk



Final Report [Function of the Arabidopsis TIR1 gene in auxin response  

SciTech Connect

During this grant period substantial progress was made in the characterization of the TIR1 gene in Arabidopsis. Studies showed that the TIR1 protein is part of a protein complex that includes AtCUL1, ASK1 and RBX1. This complex, called SCF-TIR1, functions in the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway. Our work is the first report of an SCF complex in a plant system. The results of our studies are described in more detail in the report together with a publication resulting from this study.

Estelle, Mark



Potential usefulness of baculovirus-mediated sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene as non-invasively gene therapy monitoring in liver cancer cells: an in vitro evaluation.  


Primary liver cancer has one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, and the main current treatments have a poor prognosis. This study aims to examine the efficiency of baculovirus vectors for transducing target gene into liver cancer cells and to evaluate the feasibility of using baculovirus vectors to deliver the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter gene through co-vector administration approach to monitor the expression of the target therapeutic gene in liver cancer gene therapy. We constructed (green fluorescent protein) GFP- and NIS-expressing baculovirus vectors (Bac-GFP and Bac-NIS), and measured the baculovirus transduction efficiency in HepG2 cells and other tumor cells (A549, SW1116 and 8505C), and it showed that the transduction efficiency and target gene expression level rose with increasing viral multiplicity of infection (MOI) in HepG2 cells, and HepG2 cells had a significantly higher transduction efficiency (60.8% at MOI = 200) than other tumor cells. Moreover, the baculovirus transduction was not cytotoxic to HepG2 cells at a higher MOI (MOI 5 400). We also performed dynamic iodide uptake trials, and found that Bac-NIS-transduced HepG2 cells exhibited efficient iodide uptake which could be inhibited by sodium perchlorate (NaClO?). And we measured the correlation of fluorescent intensities and 125I uptake amount in HepG2 cells after co-vector administration with Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP at different MOIs, and found a high correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.8447), which provides a good basis for successfully evaluating the feasibility of baculovirus-mediated NIS reporter gene monitoring target gene expression in liver cancer therapy. Therefore, this study indicates that baculovirus vector is a potential vehicle for delivering therapeutic genes in studying liver cancer cells. And it is feasible to use a baculovirus vector to deliver NIS gene as a reporter gene to monitor the expression of target genes. It therefore provides an effective approach and a good basis for future baculovirus-mediated therapeutic gene delivering or therapeutic gene expression monitoring in liver cancer cells studies. PMID:23919394

Pan, Yu; Wu, Haifei; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiang; Yin, Hongyan; Li, Biao; Zhang, Yifan



The first report of the vanC 1 gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen  

PubMed Central

The vanC1 gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC1 gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC1 and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC1 gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC1 gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC1 gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC1 gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC1 gene from different species. PMID:25317698

Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhongju; Zhu, Xuhui; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ziyong



Paralogous stellate and Su(Ste) repeats: evolution and ability to silence a reporter gene.  


The X-linked Stellate repeats, encoding a putative regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2, are expressed in XO male testes. The Y-linked, testes-expressed paralogous Su(Ste) repeats are thought to be suppressors of Stellate transcription. The unique, testis-expressed euchromatic gene was suggested to be an ancestor of the both types of amplified paralogous repeats. A Su(Ste)-like orphon was localized on a Y chromosome, outside of the Su(Ste) cluster. Several diagnostic molecular markers peculiar for the both types of diverged Stellate and Su(Ste) units were detected in the orphon sequence. The orphon was suggested to be a close relative of the immediate ancestor of both types of paralogous repeats which initiated evolution on the Y chromosome. Selection pressure on the level of translation was shown as a driving force in the evolution of Su(Ste) repeats, which are considered as more ancient derivatives of the ancestor euchromatic gene than Stellate repeats. In a vicinity of 12E Stellate cluster the undamaged, recently originated euchromatic Stellate orphon was found at 12D, providing the poly(A) signal for the bendless gene. P-element mediated transformations reveal that the fragments of cloned Stellate and Su(Ste) clusters are able to induce variegation of a reporter mini-white gene. The observed variegation phenomenon has peculiar features: a significant increase of trans-activation of a reporter mini-white gene in homozygous state; absence of effects of several conventional modifiers of position effect variegation (PEV) and independence of a severity of variegation on a distance between insertion and centromere region. PMID:11293788

Gvozdev, V A; Kogan, G L; Tulin, A A; Aravin, A A; Naumova, N M; Shevelyov, Y Y



Transcriptional Regulation and Characteristics of a Novel N-Acetylmuramoyl-l-Alanine Amidase Gene Involved in Bacillus thuringiensis Mother Cell Lysis  

PubMed Central

In Bacillus thuringiensis, a novel N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase gene (named cwlB) was detected, and the CwlB protein was purified and characterized. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results indicated that cwlB and an upstream gene (named cwlA) formed one transcriptional unit. 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5?-RACE)-PCR and transcriptional fusions with the lacZ gene indicated that transcription of the operon was directed by a promoter, PcwlA, which is located upstream from the cwlA gene and that the transcription start site is a single 5?-end nucleotide residue T located 25 nucleotides (bp) upstream from the cwlA translational start codon. Moreover, the activity of PcwlA was controlled by ?K. Morphological analysis suggested that the mutation of cwlB could delay spore release compared to the timing of spore release in the wild-type strain. Western blot assay demonstrated that purified CwlB bound to the B. thuringiensis cell wall. Observations with laser confocal microscopy and a green fluorescent protein-based reporter system demonstrated that the CwlB protein localizes to the cell envelope. All results suggest that the CwlB protein is involved in mother cell lysis in B. thuringiensis. PMID:23603740

Yang, Jingni; Peng, Qi; Chen, Zhen; Deng, Chao; Shu, Changlong; Huang, Dafang



A screen for upstream components of the yeast protein kinase C signal transduction pathway identifies the product of the SLG1 gene.  


We employed the constitutive BCK1-20 allele of the gene for the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP-KKK) in the yeast Pkc signal transduction pathway to develop a genetic screen for mutants in genes encoding upstream components. Transposon mutagenesis yielded a mutant that was completely dependent on the active allele in the absence of osmotic stabilization. The transposon had integrated at the yeast SLG1 (HCS77) locus. This gene encodes a putative membrane protein. Haploid slg1 deletion strains are sensitive to caffeine, as expected for mutants in the Pkc pathway, as well as a variety of other drugs. The response to elevated temperatures and the dependence on osmotic stabilization depends on the genetic background. Thus, in the strain used for mutagenesis, disruption of SLG1 causes the cells to become non-viable in the absence of osmotic stabilization at both 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. In a different genetic background this phenotype was not observed. Sensitivity of the haploid deletion mutants to caffeine can be partially suppressed by overexpression of genes for other components of the Pkc pathway, such as PKC1, SLT2, ROM2, and STE20. In addition, a SLG1-lacZ reporter construct shows higher expression in the presence of caffeine or magnesium chloride in a wild-type diploid background. PMID:9613583

Jacoby, J J; Nilius, S M; Heinisch, J J



Phytoalexin detoxification genes and gene products: Implication for the evolution of host specific traits for pathogenicity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this research were to determine which differences among PDA genes were associated with different levels of virulence on pea and to clone and characterize a MAK gene. The authors also proposed to characterize the pisatin detoxifying system in pea pathogens in addition to N. haematococca to assess whether pathogens of a common host had evolved similar pathogenicity genes.

VanEtten, H.



Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Arabidopsis TCH genes, originally isolated as a consequence of their upregulation in response to the mechanical stimulus of touch, are also upregulated by a variety of seemingly disparate environmental and hormonal stimuli. To gain insight into the complexities of TCH gene regulation, a number of approaches were taken. Regulatory elements responsible for regulation were identified and characteristics of the regulation were evaluated. Reporter genes were used to monitor expression localization and dynamics. Microarray analyses of genome-wide expression behavior indicated that touch-inducible gene expression is more widespread than generally appreciated. Identification of all touch-regulated genes shed light on the types of cellular processes that may be altered in response to mechanical stress perturbations. Expression of the TCH2 gene, also called CML24, encoding a calmodulin (CaM)-like (CML) protein, was evaluated. CML24 shares over 40% amino acid sequence identity with CaM, has 4 EF hands and undergoes a Ca2+-dependent change in migration rate through denaturing gel electrophoresis, indicating that CML24 binds Ca2+ and, as a consequence, undergoes conformational changes. CML24 expression occurs in all major organs and is induced from 2- to 15-fold in plants subjected to touch, darkness, heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide, abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress, in regions undergoing growth, in vascular tissues and various floral organs and in stomata, trichomes and hydathodes. CML24 underexpressing transgenics are resistant to ABA inhibition of germination and seedling growth, defective in long-day induction of flowering, and have enhanced tolerance to CoCl2, molybdic acid, ZnSO4 and MgCl2. These data present evidence that CML24 encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that may function to enable responses to ABA, day length and presence of various salts. Further investigation of CML24 function and regulation led to the finding that CML24 has a critical role in nitric oxide regulation. Distinct tilling mutant alleles demonstrated that CML24 can act as a switch in the response to day length perception. Because of potential redundancy with the related CML23 gene, CML23 T-DNA insertion mutants were identified and characterized. Together, CML23 and CML24 impact the autonomous regulatory pathway of the transition to flowering. Nitric oxide levels are elevated in cml23/cml24 double mutants. Therefore, CML23 and CML24 are potential calcium sensors regulate nitric oxide accumulation. In collaboration with Drs. McCann and Carpita, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to assess, verify and classify wall architectural changes that occur as a result of single XTH insertion mutations. Thirty-four homozygous mutant lines of Arabidopsis representing 21 members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene family provided a set of mutants to characterize. Kohonen networks classified cell wall architectures of xth mutant lines and previously characterized cell wall mutants. The xth mutants were found to have chemical changes in their cell walls not detectable as phenotypic growth and development changes, consistent with the existence of feed-back loops that modify wall composition in response to a life-long deficiency of a cell wall enzyme. To gain insight into the potential physiological relevance of the distinct members of the XTH family, GUS reporter fusion genes were constructed, and plants expressing these transgenes were characterized to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of expression. In addition, Genevestigator sources were mined for comprehensive and comparative XTH expression regulation analysis. These data revealed that the Arabidopsis XTHs are likely expressed in every developmental stage from seed germination through flowering. All organs showed XTH::GUS expression and most, if not all, are found to express multiple XTH::GUS genes suggesting that XTHs may contribute to morphogenesis at every d

Braam, Janet



Herpes simplex virus vectors overexpressing the glucose transporter gene protect against seizure-induced neuron loss.  

PubMed Central

We have generated herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors vIE1GT and v alpha 4GT bearing the GLUT-1 isoform of the rat brain glucose transporter (GT) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus ie1 and HSV alpha 4 promoters, respectively. We previously reported that such vectors enhance glucose uptake in hippocampal cultures and the hippocampus. In this study we demonstrate that such vectors can maintain neuronal metabolism and reduce the extent of neuron loss in cultures after a period of hypoglycemia. Microinfusion of GT vectors into the rat hippocampus also reduces kainic acid-induced seizure damage in the CA3 cell field. Furthermore, delivery of the vector even after onset of the seizure is protective, suggesting that HSV-mediated gene transfer for neuroprotection need not be carried out in anticipation of neurologic crises. Using the bicistronic vector v alpha 22 beta gal alpha 4GT, which coexpresses both GT and the Escherichia coli lacZ marker gene, we further demonstrate an inverse correlation between the extent of vector expression in the dentate and the amount of CA3 damage resulting from the simultaneous delivery of kainic acid. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7638175

Lawrence, M S; Ho, D Y; Dash, R; Sapolsky, R M



Neuron-Specific Activation of Murine Cytomegalovirus Early Gene e1 Promoter in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

The brain is the main target in congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and immunocompromised patients. No definite evidence that a CMV has special affinity for the central nervous system (CNS) has been published. Here, we generated transgenic mice with an e1 promoter/enhancer region connected to the reporter gene lacZ. Surprisingly, expression of the transgene was completely restricted to the CNS in all lines of transgenic mice. The transgene was expressed in subpopulation of neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord in all of the lines. Non-neuronal cells in the CNS were negative for transgene expression. Activation of the transgene was first observed in neurons of mesencephalon in late gestation, and then the number of positive neurons increased in various parts of the brain as development proceeded. Upon infection of the transgenic mouse brains with MCMV, the location of the activated neurons became more extensive, and the number of such neurons increased. These results suggest that there are host factor(s) that directly activate the MCMV early gene promoter in neurons. This neuron-specific activation may be associated with persistent infection in the brain and may be responsible for the neuronal dysfunction and neuronal cell loss caused by CMV infection. PMID:12875983

Arai, Yoshifumi; Ishiwata, Mizuho; Baba, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Kosugi, Isao; Li, Ren-Yong; Tsuchida, Takashi; Miura, Katsutoshi; Tsutsui, Yoshihiro



A GFP-MAP4 reporter gene for visualizing cortical microtubule rearrangements in living epidermal cells  

PubMed Central

Microtubules influence morphogenesis by forming distinct geometrical arrays in the cell cortex, which in turn affect the deposition of cellulose microfibrils. Although many chemical and physical factors affect microtubule orientation, it is unclear how cortical microtubules in elongating cells maintain their ordered transverse arrays and how they reorganize into new geometries. To visualize these reorientations in living cells, we constructed a microtubule reporter gene by fusing the microtubule binding domain of the mammalian microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) gene with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and transient expression of the recombinant protein in epidermal cells of fava bean was induced. The reporter protein decorates microtubules in vivo and binds to microtubules in vitro. Confocal microscopy and time-course analysis of labeled cortical arrays along the outer epidermal wall revealed the lengthening, shortening, and movement of microtubules; localized microtubule reorientations; and global microtubule reorganizations. The global microtubule orientation in some cells fluctuates about the transverse axis and may be a result of a cyclic self-correcting mechanism to maintain a net transverse orientation during cellular elongation. PMID:9811799

Marc, J; Granger, CL; Brincat, J; Fisher, DD; Kao, Th; McCubbin, AG; Cyr, RJ



Identification of a novel delta9-fatty acid desaturase gene and its promoter from oil-producing fungus Rhizopus arrhizus.  


Reverse Transcriptional Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Rapid Amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE) and Thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR were used successfully to clone the open reading frame (1,377 bp) of delta9-fatty acid desaturase gene (named as RAD9) and its promoter region from oil-producing fungi Rhizopus arrhizus. Functional identification of the protein was done by sub-cloning RAD9 into the expression vector pYES2.0 to generate a recombinant plasmid pYRAD9, which was then subsequently transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae delta9-fatty acid desaturase mutation strain L8-14C to be expressed under the control of GAL1 promoter. The transformant containing RAD9 named as L8-14C-pYRAD9 could grow on the synthetic minimal medium plate with out oleic acid supplement. Fatty acid analysis also showed that the transformant contained 16:1 and 18:1. This indicated that pYRAD9 could successfully complement the mutation of L8-14C. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequence of RAD9 promoter showed several basic transcriptional elements including a CAAT box, a GC box, a CACCC box, two TATA boxes and also several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Preliminary functional analysis of this promoter in S. cerevisiae was done using lacZ report gene. PMID:17934871

Wei, Dongsheng; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Xinxin; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun



A single-vector EYFP reporter gene assay for G protein-coupled receptors.  


We here present an improved and simplified assay to study signal transduction of the Gs class of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The assay is based on a single plasmid combining the genes for any Gs protein-coupled GPCR and the cAMP response element-related expression of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. On transfection, stable human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell lines presented high assay sensitivity and an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio of up to 300, even in the absence of trichostatin A. The robustness of the assay was demonstrated through the cloning of reporter gene cell lines with melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), the human type I pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor (hPAC1), and the two vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2). PMID:25681566

Hald, Helle; Wu, Boqian; Bouakaz, Lamine; Meldal, Morten



Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage  

PubMed Central

We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. PMID:25063453

Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W.; Burt, David W.; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A.; Sang, Helen M.



Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage.  


We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. PMID:25063453

Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W; Burt, David W; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A; Sang, Helen M



A promoter for the first nine genes of the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes, including ftsI and ftsW.  

PubMed Central

We constructed a null allele of the ftsI gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli. It caused blockage of septation and loss of viability when expression of an extrachromosomal copy of ftsI was repressed, providing a final proof that ftsI is an essential cell division gene. In order to complement this null allele, the ftsI gene cloned on a single-copy mini-F plasmid required a region 1.9 kb upstream, which was found to contain a promoter sequence that could direct expression of a promoterless lacZ gene on a mini-F plasmid. This promoter sequence lies at the beginning of the mra cluster in the 2 min region of the E. coli chromosome, a cluster of 16 genes which, except for the first 2, are known to be involved in cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis. Disruption of this promoter, named the mra promoter, on the chromosome by inserting the lac promoter led to cell lysis in the absence of a lac inducer. The defect was complemented by a plasmid carrying a chromosomal fragment ranging from the mra promoter to ftsW, the fifth gene downstream of ftsI, but not by a plasmid lacking ftsW. Although several potential promoter sequences in this region of the mra cluster have been reported, we conclude that the promoter identified in this study is required for the first nine genes of the cluster to be fully expressed. PMID:9294438

Hara, H; Yasuda, S; Horiuchi, K; Park, J T



Detection of transformed cells in crown gall tumors using the GUS reporter gene and correlation of GUS stained cells with T-DNA gene activity  

SciTech Connect

Crown gall tumors are a mixture of transformed hormone producing cells and normal cells. Until now it has not been possible to directly visualize these cell types in situ. We have constructed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that carry the 35S-{beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in either wild type or mutant Ti plasmids. Using histochemical staining for GUS activity, blue (GUS positive) sectors are observed in tumor sections. In order to demonstrate that the blue sectors actually represent cells expressing other T-DNA genes, we have looked for T-DNA gene encoded enzyme activity in the stained and unstained sectors. The blue sectors accumulate octopine (a product of the octopine synthase gene on the T-DNA) while the white (GUS negative) sectors do not. We conclude that the use of the GUS reporter gene provides a sensitive and reliable method for visualizing transformation events in plant tissues. A comparison of the proportion of transformed and nontransformed cells in wild type tumors vs. tumors deficient in auxin or cytokinin encoding genes will be discussed.

Black, R.C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Media (USA)); Labriola, J.; Binns, A.N. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))



DST sequences, highly conserved among plant SAUR genes, target reporter transcripts for rapid decay in tobacco.  

PubMed Central

DST elements are highly conserved sequences located in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of a set of unstable soybean transcripts known as the small auxin-up RNAs (SAURs). To test whether DST sequences could function as mRNA instability determinants in plants, a model system was developed to facilitate the direct measurement of mRNA decay rates in stably transformed cells of tobacco. Initial experiments established that the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transcripts degraded with similar half-lives in this system. In addition, their decay kinetics mirrored the apparent decay kinetics of the corresponding transcripts produced in transgenic plants under the control of a regulated promoter (Cab-1). The model system was then used to measure the decay rates of GUS reporter transcripts containing copies of the DST sequence inserted into the 3'UTR. An unmodified CAT gene introduced on the same vector served as the internal reference. These experiments and a parallel set utilizing a beta-globin reporter gene demonstrated that a synthetic dimer of the DST sequence was sufficient to destabilize both reporter transcripts in stably transformed tobacco cells. The decrease in transcript stability caused by the DST sequences in cultured cells was paralleled by a coordinate decrease in transcript abundance in transgenic tobacco plants. The implications of these results for the potential function of DST sequences within the SAUR transcripts are discussed. PMID:8329900

Newman, T C; Ohme-Takagi, M; Taylor, C B; Green, P J



Development of fluorescent reporter tagged RIB gene cassettes for replicative transformation, early expression, and enhanced riboflavin production in Eremothecium ashbyi.  


Eremothecium ashbyi is a riboflavin overproducing filamentous fungus in which the metabolic pathways have not been genetically characterized. Two genes of the riboflavin biosynthetic (RIB) pathway, RIB1 and RIB3, which encode GTP-cyclohydrolase II (GCH II) and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate (DHBP) synthase respectively, were selected for the present study. The two RIB genes under their native promoters were obtained from Ashbya gossypii genomic library. Yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) and mCherry genes were tagged to the C-terminal ends of RIB1 and RIB3 genes to analyse the functionality of the RIB transgenes in E. ashbyi. Shuttle vectors with the reporter tagged RIB genes contained the Escherichia coli kan(R) gene and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS element. On transformation with these plasmids, the ARS element was found to be functional in E. ashbyi. The E. ashbyi transcription factors could recognize the Ashbya RIB gene promoters and express the reporter tagged RIB genes as cytoplasmic proteins, in early cell development. Replicative transformants carrying RIB1-mCherry plasmids showed 2.95 times more GCH II activity and 2.44 times more riboflavin production when compared to untransformed. This is the first report of genetic transformation of E. ashbyi and is of significance as the first step towards genetic engineering of this genus. PMID:23063183

Sengupta, Sudeshna; Kaufmann, Andreas; Chandra, T S



Malignant melanoma arising from a perianal fistula and harbouring a BRAF gene mutation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoma of the anal region is a very uncommon disease, accounting for only 0.2-0.3% of all melanoma cases. Mutations of the BRAF gene are usually absent in melanomas occurring in this region as well as in other sun-protected regions. The development of a tumour in a longstanding perianal fistula is also extremely rare. More frequent is the case of a tumour presenting as a fistula, that is, the fistula being a consequence of the cancerous process, although we have found only two cases of fistula-generating melanomas reported in the literature. Case Presentation Here we report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with a perianal fistula of four years of evolution. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract confirmed the presence of malignant melanoma. Due to the small size and the central location of the melanoma inside the fistulous tract, we believe the melanoma reported here developed in the epithelium of the fistula once the latter was already formed. Resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative and the patient, after going through a wide local excision, remains disease-free nine years after diagnosis. DNA obtained from melanoma tissue was analysed by automated direct sequencing and the V600E (T1799A) mutation was detected in exon 15 of the BRAF gene. Conclusion Since fistulae experience persistent inflammation, the fact that this melanoma harbours a BRAF mutation strengthens the view that oxidative stress caused by inflammatory processes plays an important role in the genesis of BRAF gene mutations. PMID:21827678



Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5` UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

Kuchka, M.R.



Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multi-level and interdisciplinary study. Progress report, February 1, 1992--January 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes gains made in three projects entitled (1) 3-Dimensional nuclear topography of genes and chromosomes in interphase nuclei, (2) Sequence specific identification and perturbation of the genomic DNA in living cells by nonionic oligonucleotide analogs (Matagen), and Resolution and isolation of specific DNA restriction fragments.(DT)

Ts`o, P.O.P.



Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

Fields, C.A.



Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.



Progressive cerebellar, auditory, and esophageal dysfunction caused by targeted disruption of the frizzled-4 gene.  


Wnt signaling has been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and in synapse formation during neural development, and these actions are presumed to be mediated by frizzled receptors. In this paper we report the phenotype of mice carrying a targeted deletion of the frizzled-4 (fz4) gene. fz4(-/-) mice exhibit three distinct defects: (1) progressive cerebellar degeneration associated with severe ataxia, (2) absence of a skeletal muscle sheath around the lower esophagus associated with progressive esophageal distension and dysfunction, and (3) progressive deafness caused by a defect in the peripheral auditory system unaccompanied by loss of hair cells or other auditory neurons. As assayed using a lacZ knock-in reporter, fz4 is widely expressed within the CNS. In particular, fz4 is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells, esophageal skeletal muscle, and cochlear inner hair cells, and the absence of Fz4 in these cells is presumed to account for the fz4(-/-) phenotype. In contrast to the early cell proliferation and patterning effects classically ascribed to Wnts, the auditory and cerebellar phenotypes of fz4(-/-) mice implicate Frizzled signaling in maintaining the viability and integrity of the nervous system in later life. PMID:11425903

Wang, Y; Huso, D; Cahill, H; Ryugo, D; Nathans, J



Toxicity profile of benzo[a]pyrene in the male LacZ transgenic mouse (MutaMouse) following oral administration for 5 consecutive days.  


The toxicity profile of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) was examined in the MutaMouse. The transgenic mouse integrated with lambda gt10 lacZ vectors is used worldwide as an experimental animal in in vivo mutagenesis testing systems. There are few toxicity studies including carcinogenicity in the MutaMouse, and so far only a few carcinogenicity studies of BP accompanied with hematological and plasma biochemical examinations have been conducted even in generic mice. Accordingly, male mice were orally administered BP at doses of 75 and 125 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, and complete autopsy was conducted together with pathological, hematological, and plasma biochemical examinations and measurement of organ weights 41 weeks after the last treatment. Squamous cell papilloma and hyperplasia in the forestomach were induced at incidences of 25 and 50%, respectively and were induced 26 weeks after the final treatment without any significant alterations in t he hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in mice of the 125 mg/kg/day BP-treated satellite group. Fourty-one weeks after the final treatments, 75 and 125 mg/kg/day BP induced squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, and hyperplasia in the forestomach at incidences of 18 and 18%, 36 and 45%, and 91 and 91%, respectively, and anemia possibly due to continuous hemorrhage from tumors in the forestomach. BP (125 mg/kg/day) also produced malignant lymphoma with an incidence of 18%, accompanied by a marked increase in leukocyte count and decrease in erythrocyte count and by a remarkable decrease in body weights 26 and 39 weeks after the last treatment. Moreover, administration of 75 and 125 mg/kg/day BP induced bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia in the lung at incidences of 18 and 9%, respectively. Slight increases were also observed in the weight of the liver and in the levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, and potassium ion in the plasma biochemical examinations, although no significant pathological alterations were found in the liver and kidney. This study provides new information about BP toxicity including carcinogenicity in the MutaMouse developed for in vivo mutational analysis. PMID:9693078

Hakura, A; Sonoda, J; Tsutsui, Y; Mikami, T; Imade, T; Shimada, M; Yaguchi, S; Yamanaka, M; Tomimatsu, M; Tsukidate, K



The Intracellular DNA Sensor IFI16 Gene Acts as Restriction Factor for Human Cytomegalovirus Replication  

PubMed Central

Human interferon (IFN)-inducible IFI16 protein, an innate immune sensor of intracellular DNA, modulates various cell functions, however, its role in regulating virus growth remains unresolved. Here, we adopt two approaches to investigate whether IFI16 exerts pro- and/or anti-viral actions. First, the IFI16 gene was silenced using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA) in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF) and replication of DNA and RNA viruses evaluated. IFI16-knockdown resulted in enhanced replication of Herpesviruses, in particular, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Consistent with this, HELF transduction with a dominant negative form of IFI16 lacking the PYRIN domain (PYD) enhanced the replication of HCMV. Second, HCMV replication was compared between HELFs overexpressing either the IFI16 gene or the LacZ gene. IFI16 overexpression decreased both virus yield and viral DNA copy number. Early and late, but not immediate-early, mRNAs and proteins were strongly down-regulated, thus IFI16 may exert its antiviral effect by impairing viral DNA synthesis. Constructs with the luciferase reporter gene driven by deleted or site-specific mutated forms of the HCMV DNA polymerase (UL54) promoter demonstrated that the inverted repeat element 1 (IR-1), located between ?54 and ?43 relative to the transcription start site, is the target of IFI16 suppression. Indeed, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that suppression of the UL54 promoter is mediated by IFI16-induced blocking of Sp1-like factors. Consistent with these results, deletion of the putative Sp1 responsive element from the HCMV UL44 promoter also relieved IFI16 suppression. Together, these data implicate IFI16 as a novel restriction factor against HCMV replication and provide new insight into the physiological functions of the IFN-inducible gene IFI16 as a viral restriction factor. PMID:22291595

Gariano, Grazia Rosaria; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Bronzini, Matteo; Gatti, Deborah; Luganini, Anna; De Andrea, Marco; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gariglio, Marisa; Landolfo, Santo



The mutY gene: a mutator locus in Escherichia coli that generates G.C----T.A transversions.  

PubMed Central

We have used a strain with an altered lacZ gene, which reverts to wild type via only certain transversions, to detect transversion-specific mutators in Escherichia coli. Detection relied on a papillation technique that uses a combination of beta-galactosides to reveal blue Lac+ papillae. One class of mutators is specific for the G.C----T.A transversion as determined by the reversion pattern of a set of lacZ mutations and by the distribution of forward nonsense mutations in the lacI gene. The locus responsible for the mutator phenotype is designated mutY and maps near 64 min on the genetic map of E. coli. The mutY locus may act in a similar but reciprocal fashion to the previously characterized mutT locus, which results in A.T----C.G transversions. Images PMID:3128795

Nghiem, Y; Cabrera, M; Cupples, C G; Miller, J H



Application of pheB as a Reporter Gene for Geobacillus spp., Enabling Qualitative Colony Screening and Quantitative Analysis of Promoter Strength  

PubMed Central

The pheB gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM6285 has been exploited as a reporter gene for Geobacillus spp. The gene product, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O), catalyzes the formation of 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which can be readily assayed. The reporter was used to examine expression from the ldh promoter associated with fermentative metabolism. PMID:22685159

Bartosiak-Jentys, Jeremy; Eley, Kirstin



Isolation, structure, and characterization of the RAD3 gene of the yeast  

SciTech Connect

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae excision of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA involves at least 10 genes. In this work, the RAD3 gene has been cloned, its nucleotide sequence determined, and some structural and functional features examined. The RAD3 gene codes for an mRNA of 2.5 kb. The RAD3 open reading frame is 2334 nucleotides long with an encoded protein of 89,779 daltons. Genomic deletions of the RAD3 gene are recessive lethal, demonstrating that it is an essential gene and suggesting that the RAD3 gene product plays a vital role in the cell in addition to its role in excision repair. To date, the RAD3 gene is the only RAD gene known to be essential for viability. It is known that the RAD1, RAD2, RAD4, RAD6, RAD7, RAD9, RAD10, RAD18, and RAD23 genes are not. A series of RAD3-lacZ fusions have been made across the N-terminal region of the RAD3 coding sequences and the subcellular localization of the fusion proteins determined. There exists an amino acid sequence within the first 32 RAD3 amino acids that allows for association of the RAD3-lacZ gene fusion with the nucleus. This region of the RAD3 protein shows no obvious similarity to any previously defined nuclear localization signal.

Higgins, D.R.



Cerebellar vermis aplasia: patient report and exclusion of the candidate genes EN2 and ZIC1.  


Cerebellar vermis aplasia (ACV, OMIM 117360) is a rare malformation of the cerebellum, with only few familial patients reported so far. Main clinical features of this rare disorder include floppiness and delayed milestones in early infancy, preceding mild cerebellar ataxia, non-progressive clinical course, normal or slightly delayed intelligence, and occasional nystagmus. Neuroimaging reveals selective involvement of the cerebellum, which is prominent in the vermis. Because of the large preponderance of female patients, X-linked dominant transmission was suggested by [Fenichel and Phillips (1989); Arch Neurol 46:582-583], and subsequent reports only concern female patients. Only one family with male-to-male transmission presenting with a generalized atrophy of the cerebellum rather than a more localized vermis aplasia has been reported so far. We report on a family in which father and son are affected by a mild form of ACV, thus confirming an autosomal mode of inheritance of the disease. Our patients showed a progressive improvement of their motor abilities, neurological examination of the father being actually normal except for a mild mental retardation. We also evaluated the potential role of two candidate genes, EN2 and ZIC1, responsible for abnormal cerebellar development in murine knock-out models. However, molecular analysis failed to reveal any causative mutation in the coding sequence of the two genes in our patients. The understanding of the genetic basis of autosomal dominant ACV would allow a better classification of isolate cerebellar malformations and might permit to understand cell differentiation and migration in the developing central nervous system. PMID:15940696

Titomanlio, Luigi; Pierri, Nicola Brunetti; Romano, Alfonso; Imperati, Floriana; Borrelli, Melissa; Barletta, Valentina; Diano, Alvaro Antonio; Castaldo, Imma; Santoro, Lucio; Del Giudice, Ennio



Can a bone marrow cell contribute to organ regeneration? In vivo analysis using transgenic rats with reporter genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although implantation of multipotent bone marrow–derived stem cells represents an attractive new cell therapy to repair damaged tissues, recent reports have raised serious concerns over the feasibility of using stem cells deriving from the bone marrow to promote cell transdifferentiation. We established transgenic (Tg) rats with reporter genes as specific molecular tags to examine the effect of bone marrow cells

Y. Sato; K. Matsui; T. Ajiki; Y. Igarashi; M. Takahashi; T. Murakami; Y. Hakamata; Y. Tabata; E. Kobayashi



Use of reporter-gene based bacteria to quantify phenanthrene biodegradation and toxicity in soil.  


A phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505 was used to construct two fluorescence-based reporter strains. Strain D harboring gfp gene was constructed to generate green fluorescence when the strain started to biodegrade phenanthrene. Strain S possessing gef gene was designed to die once phenanthrene biodegradation was initiated and thus to lose green fluorescence when visualized by a live/dead cell staining. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observation followed by image analysis demonstrates that the fluorescence intensity generated by strain D increased and the intensity by strain S decreased linearly at the phenanthrene concentration of up to 200 mg/L. Such quantitative increase and decrease of fluorescence intensity in strain D (i.e., from 1 to 11.90 ± 0.72) and strain S (from 1 to 0.40 ± 0.07) were also evident in the presence of Ottawa sand spiked with the phenanthrene up to 1000 mg/kg. The potential use of the reporter strains in quantitatively determining biodegradable or toxic phenanthrene was discussed. PMID:21093134

Shin, Doyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Lin, Chu-Ching; Barkay, Tamar; Nam, Kyoungphile



Development of tyrosinase-based reporter genes for preclinical photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to image stem cells in vivo in small animal models over extended periods of time is important to furthering our understanding of the processes involved in tissue regeneration. Photoacoustic imaging is suited to this application as it can provide high resolution (tens of microns) absorption-based images of superficial tissues (cm depths). However, stem cells are rare, highly migratory, and can divide into more specialised cells. Genetic labelling strategies are therefore advantageous for their visualisation. In this study, methods for the transfection and viral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells with reporter genes for the co-expression of tyrosinase and a fluorescent protein (mCherry). Initial photoacoustic imaging experiments of tyrosinase expressing cells in small animal models of tissue regeneration were also conducted. Lentiviral transduction methods were shown to result in stable expression of tyrosinase and mCherry in mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that photoacoustic imaging using reporter genes is suitable for the study of stem cell driven tissue regeneration in small animals.

Märk, Julia; Ruschke, Karen; Dortay, Hakan; Schreiber, Isabelle; Sass, Andrea; Qazi, Taimoor; Pumberger, Matthias; Laufer, Jan



Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with leukemic manifestation and ETV6 gene rearrangement: A case report  

PubMed Central

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare malignant tumor of the hemopoietic system that arises from plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors with a highly aggressive course. BPDCN frequently involves the skin, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and bone marrow. BPDCN is known to develop leukemic dissemination as a feature of myelomonocytic leukemia in the late phase of the disease, which leads to a poorer prognosis. In the present study, a case of BPDCN with leukemic manifestation without cutaneous involvement was reported. In addition, ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6) gene rearrangement was detected in the patient. The patient relapsed soon after complete remisson and had no response to further treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BPDCN with ETV6 rearrangement. Following chemotherapy treatment, the patient suffered from severe headache in the complete remission stage; however, brain CT scans showed no significant abnormalities. Several lumbar punctures and intrathecal chemotherapy were performed, and the patient recovered gradually. Therefore, the patient was considered to suffer from central nervous system leukemia. In conclusion, implementation of lumbar punctures and preventive intrathecal chemotherapy are required in BPDCN patients with leukemic manifestation during the remission stage.




Determination of effective rAAV-mediated gene transfer conditions to support chondrogenic differentiation processes in human primary bone marrow aspirates.  


The genetic modification of freshly aspirated bone marrow may provide convenient tools to enhance the regenerative capacities of cartilage defects compared with the complex manipulation of isolated progenitor cells. In the present study, we examined the ability and safety of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2 vectors to deliver various reporter gene sequences in primary human bone marrow aspirates over time without altering the chondrogenic processes in the samples. The results demonstrate that successful rAAV-mediated gene transfer and expression of the lacZ and red fluorescent protein marker genes were achieved in transduced aspirates at very high efficiencies (90-94%) and over extended periods of time (up to 125 days) upon treatment with hirudin, an alternative anticoagulant that does not prevent the adsorption of the rAAV-2 particles at the surface of their targets compared with heparin. Application of rAAV was safe, displaying neither cytotoxic nor detrimental effects on the cellular and proliferative activities or on the chondrogenic processes in the aspirates especially using an optimal dose of 0.5?mg?ml(-1) hirudin, and application of the potent SOX9 transcription factor even enhanced these processes while counteracting hypertrophic differentiation. The current findings demonstrate the clinical value of this class of vector to durably and safely modify bone marrow aspirates as a means to further develop convenient therapeutic approaches to improve the healing of cartilage defects. PMID:25338919

Rey-Rico, A; Frisch, J; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M



The effect of tea tree oil and antifungal agents on a reporter for yeast cell integrity signalling.  


Cell integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is ensured by a rigid cell wall whose synthesis is controlled by a highly conserved MAP kinase signal transduction cascade. Stress at the cell surface is detected by a set of sensors and ultimately transmitted through this cascade to the transcription factor Rlm1, which governs expression of many genes encoding enzymes of cell wall biosynthesis. We here report on a number of versatile reporter constructs which link activation of a hybrid, Rlm1-lexA, by the MAP kinase Mpk1/Slt2 to the expression of the bacterial lacZ gene. This system was adapted to automated microwell screening and shown to be activated by a number of compounds inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis or interfering with plasma membrane function. In addition, we tested tea tree oil and two of its purified constituents (alpha-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol) for their effects on growth and on cell integrity signalling using such reporter strains. Tea tree oil was found to inhibit growth of wild-type and slg1/wsc1 mutant cells at a threshold of approximately 0.1% v/v, with the purified compounds acting already at half these concentrations. A mid2 deletion displayed hyper-resistance. Tea tree oil also induces the signalling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:17397109

Straede, Andrea; Corran, Andy; Bundy, James; Heinisch, Jürgen J



In situ Detection of ? -Galactosidase in Lenses of Transgenic Mice with a ? -Crystallin/lacZ Gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic mice carrying the ? 2-crystallin promoter fused to the coding region of the bacterial lacZ gene were generated. The offspring of three founder mice expressed high levels of the enzyme solely in the central nuclear fiber cells of the lens as measured by an in situ assay for the detection of ? -galactosidase activity. These results suggest that ? 2-crystallin sequences between -759 to +45 contain essential information required for appropriate tissue-specific and temporal regulation of the mouse ? 2-crystallin gene. In a broader context, this study also demonstrates the utility of ? -galactosidase hybrid gene constructs for monitoring the activity of gene regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

Goring, D. R.; Rossant, J.; Clapoff, S.; Breitman, M. L.; Tsui, L.-C.



Characterization of the Cis-Regulatory Region of the Drosophila Homeotic Gene Sex Combs Reduced  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) controls the segmental identity of the labial and prothoracic segments in the embryo and adult. It encodes a sequence-specific transcription factor that controls, in concert with other gene products, differentiative pathways of tissues in which Scr is expressed. During embryogenesis, Scr accumulation is observed in a discrete spatiotemporal pattern that includes the labial and prothoracic ectoderm, the subesophageal ganglion of the ventral nerve cord and the visceral mesoderm of the anterior and posterior midgut. Previous analyses have demonstrated that breakpoint mutations located in a 75-kb interval, including the Scr transcription unit and 50 kb of upstream DNA, cause Scr misexpression during development, presumably because these mutations remove Scr cis-regulatory sequences from the proximity of the Scr promoter. To gain a better understanding of the regulatory interactions necessary for the control of Scr transcription during embryogenesis, we have begun a molecular analysis of the Scr regulatory interval. DNA fragments from this 75-kb region were subcloned into P-element vectors containing either an Scr-lacZ or hsp70-lacZ fusion gene, and patterns of reporter gene expression were assayed in transgenic embryos. Several fragments appear to contain Scr regulatory sequences, as they direct reporter gene expression in patterns similar to those normally observed for Scr, whereas other DNA fragments direct Scr reporter gene expression in developmentally interesting but non-Scr-like patterns during embryogenesis. Scr expression in some tissues appears to be controlled by multiple regulatory elements that are separated, in some cases, by more than 20 kb of intervening DNA. Interestingly, regulatory sequences that direct reporter gene expression in an Scr-like pattern in the anterior and posterior midgut are imbedded in the regulatory region of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz), which is normally located between 10 and 20 kb 5' of the Scr transcription start site. This analysis provides an entry point for the study of how Scr transcription is regulated at the molecular level. PMID:7713432

Gindhart-Jr., J. G.; King, A. N.; Kaufman, T. C.



The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) as an Imaging Reporter for Gene, Viral, and Cell-based Therapies  

PubMed Central

Preclinical and clinical tomographic imaging systems increasingly are being utilized for non-invasive imaging of reporter gene products to reveal the distribution of molecular therapeutics within living subjects. Reporter gene and probe combinations can be employed to monitor vectors for gene, viral, and cell-based therapies. There are several reporter systems available; however, those employing radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) or singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer the highest sensitivity and the greatest promise for deep tissue imaging in humans. Within the category of radionuclide reporters, the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has emerged as one of the most promising for preclinical and translational research. NIS has been incorporated into a remarkable variety of viral and non-viral vectors in which its functionality is conveniently determined by in vitro iodide uptake assays prior to live animal imaging. This review on the NIS reporter will focus on 1) differences between endogenous NIS and heterologously-expressed NIS, 2) qualitative or comparative use of NIS as an imaging reporter in preclinical and translational gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, and cell trafficking research, and 3) use of NIS as an absolute quantitative reporter. PMID:22263922

Penheiter, Alan R; Russell, Stephen J; Carlson, Stephanie K



Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the nuclear PET122 gene required for expression of the mitochondrial COX3 gene in S. cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The nuclear PET122 gene from S. cerevisiae is necessary for translation of a single mitochondrial mRNA that encodes subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. We report here the cloning and nucleotide sequence of PET122, and properties of the predicted protein product, which consists of 242 residues. Analysis of PET122-lacZ translational fusions confirms that the PET122 coding region is translated in vivo and indicates that the PET122 protein product is targeted to mitochondria. A 117 residue domain located in the carboxy-terminal half of the PET122 protein, at least part of which is shown by characterization of mutants to be critical for PET122 function, exhibits 24% identity and 59% similarity to a portion of the catalytic domain of E. coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase. However, pet122 mutants are not defective in mitochondrial translation per se, as would be expected if PET122 encoded a tRNA synthetase. Instead, the PET122 protein may carry out one or more activities in common with tRNA synthetases, such as binding of ATP or RNA. Images PMID:2849752

Ohmen, J D; Kloeckener-Gruissem, B; McEwen, J E



Tsf1 to Tsf6, Required for Silencing the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gal Genes, Are Global Regulatory Genes  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL1 and GAL10 genes are controlled in response to the availability of galactose and glucose by multiple activating and repressing proteins bound at adjacent or overlapping sites in UAS(G). Negative control elements in UAS(G), designated GAL operators GALO(1) to GALO(6), are required to silence basal level transcription of GAL1 and GAL10 when galactose is absent. We isolated and characterized recessive mutations in six nuclear genes, TSF1 to TSF6, that impair silencing of GAL1 and GAL10 gene expression. Surprisingly, the results of several experiments suggest that the TSF genes encode global regulatory factors. tsf1 to tsf6 mutations derepressed expression from yeast CYC-GAL hybrid promoters (fused to lacZ) that harbor a variety of operator sequences, and caused pleiotropic defects in cell growth, mating, and sporulation. S1 mapping and Northern blot results for tsf3 suggest that the molecular defect is at the transcriptional level. Mutant phenotypes were additive in certain combinations of tsf double mutants, implying that more than one silencing pathway is involved in TSF1 to TSF6 function. Most significantly, mutations in all six TSF1 to TSF6 genes activated expression from GAL1 and CYC1 promoters (fused to lacZ) lacking upstream activating sequences. Combined, the simplest interpretation of these results is that TSF1 to TSF6 encode factors that control the function of the basic RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery. PMID:8349104

Chen, S.; West-Jr, R. W.; Ma, J.; Johnson, S. L.; Gans, H.; Woldehawariat, G.



Gene transfer into enteric neurons of the rat small intestine in organ culture using a replication defective recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) vector, but not recombinant adenovirus vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed a system in which to test gene transfer into gut neurons consisting of an organ culture of neonatal rat small intestine. The tissue was exposed to herpes simplex- and adenovirus-derived vectors: (1) a temperature-sensitive herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1) vector (tsK-?gal) containing the lacZ gene encoding ?-galactosidase (?-gal), under the transcriptional control of the HSV1 immediate–early 3 (IE3)

OA Brown; RM Santer; AF Shering; AT Larregina; AE Morelli; TD Southgate; MG Castro; PR Lowenstein



Identification of the merR gene of R100 by using mer-lac gene and operon fusions.  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional (operon) and translational (gene) fusions between the R100 merR gene and lacZ were constructed in vitro in a pBR322 plasmid carrying the mer genes derived from plasmid R100. The translational fusions were oriented in the opposite direction to and divergently from the merTCAD genes. This shows that the reading frame previously thought to be merR was incorrect. Expression of the gene fusion was repressed in trans by a compatible plasmid carrying the R100 merR+ gene, as was a similarly oriented transcriptional fusion. In contrast, expression of beta-galactosidase by the lac fragment located at the same site but in the opposite orientation was at a lower level and was not repressed by merR+. Images PMID:2993235

Foster, T J; Brown, N L



The sea pansy Renilla reniformis luciferase serves as a sensitive bioluminescent reporter for differential gene expression in Candida albicans.  

PubMed Central

The infectious yeast Candida albicans progresses through two developmental programs which involve differential gene expression, the bud-hypha transition and high-frequency phenotypic switching. To understand how differentially expressed genes are regulated in this organism, the promoters of phase-specific genes must be functionally characterized, and a bioluminescent reporter system would facilitate such characterization. However, C. albicans has adopted a nontraditional codon strategy that involves a tRNA with a CAG anticodon to decode the codon CUG as serine rather than leucine. Since the luciferase gene of the sea pansy Renilla reinformis contains no CUGs, we have used it to develop a highly sensitive bioluminescent reporter system for C. albicans. When fused to the galactose-inducible promoter of GAL1, luciferase activity is inducible; when fused to the constitutive EF1 alpha 2 promoter, luciferase activity is constitutive; and when fused to the promoter of the white-phase-specific gene WH11 or the opaque-phase-specific gene OP4, luciferase activity is phase specific. The Renilla luciferase system can, therefore, be used as a bioluminescent reporter to analyze the strength and developmental regulation of C. albicans promoters. PMID:8550405

Srikantha, T; Klapach, A; Lorenz, W W; Tsai, L K; Laughlin, L A; Gorman, J A; Soll, D R



Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.  


Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 < MAF < 0.05) genetic variants associated with cancer. The marginal effects of most of these variants have been small (odds ratios: 1.1-1.4). There remain unanswered questions on how best to incorporate the joint effects of genes and environment, including gene-environment (G × E) interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a "Gene-Environment Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24123198

Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M



First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.  


This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system. PMID:22361112

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha




Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm-mediated gene transfer was used to produce transgenic rabbits that expressed the porcine growth hormone gene under the control of a metallothionein promoter. The gene that encodes the selectable marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted downstream of the transgene. After lipofectin-mediated gene transfer into sperm cells and after subsequent in vitro fertilization using the transfected sperm cells, 32% of

H. J. Wang; A. X. Lin; Z. C. Zhang; Y. F. Chen



Involvement of the BDNF gene in loneliness in adolescence: a report of opposite gene effects in boys and girls.  


Previous research has shown that loneliness has a heritable component and that genes within the serotonin-, dopamine-, and oxytocin systems are related to loneliness in adolescence. In the present study, the relation between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and loneliness in adolescent boys and girls was examined in a longitudinal study spanning five annual waves (N?=?305). Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used to examine the baseline level and the change in loneliness over time. The main finding was that the BDNF gene was not related to loneliness in the total sample. A BDNF by sex interaction was found, in that Met carrying girls had the highest levels of loneliness at baseline, whereas in boys the ValVal genotype was related to higher levels of loneliness. Our results underline the importance of sex-stratified analyses when examining effects of the BDNF genotype and the necessity of conducting gene studies to intermediate phenotypes of loneliness. PMID:24647525

Verhagen, Maaike; van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C M E



Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting  

PubMed Central

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting. PMID:24257515



Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase as an in vitro and in vivo reporter enzyme and stable transfection marker in the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed several protocols for the use of ?-galactosidase (?Gal) from Escherichia coli as a reporter enzyme in transfection studies of Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and as a readily screenable marker for stable transformation. Three Tg expression vectors with different promoters driving lacZ were constructed and shown in transient transfections to differ in their relative expression levels. Using a fluorescent

Frank Seeber; John C. Boothroyd



Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.  


Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I



Identification of Location and Kinetically Defined Mechanism of Cofactors and Reporter Genes in the Cascade of Steroid-regulated Transactivation*  

PubMed Central

A currently obscure area of steroid hormone action is where the component factors, including receptor and reporter gene, act. The DNA binding of factors can be precisely defined, but the location and timing of factor binding and action are usually not equivalent. These questions are addressed for several factors (e.g. glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reporter, TIF2, NCoR, NELF-A, sSMRT, and STAMP) using our recently developed competition assay. This assay reveals both the kinetically defined mechanism of factor action and where the above factors act relative to both each other and the equilibrium equivalent to the rate-limiting step, which we call the concentration limiting step (CLS). The utility of this competition assay would be greatly increased if the position of the CLS is invariant and if the factor acting at the CLS is known. Here we report that the exogenous GREtkLUC reporter acts at the CLS as an accelerator for gene induction by GRs in U2OS cells. This mechanism of reporter function at the CLS persists with different reporters, factors, receptors, and cell types. We, therefore, propose that the reporter gene always acts at the CLS during gene induction and constitutes a landmark around which one can order the actions of all other factors. Current data suggest that how and where GR and the short form of SMRT act is also constant. These results validate a novel and rational methodology for identifying distally acting factors that would be attractive targets for pharmaceutical intervention in the treatment of diseases involving GR-regulated genes. PMID:23055525

Blackford, John A.; Guo, Chunhua; Zhu, Rong; Dougherty, Edward J.; Chow, Carson C.; Simons, S. Stoney



Identification of evolutionarily conserved, functional noncoding elements in the promoter region of the sodium channel gene SCN8A  

PubMed Central

SCN8A is a major neuronal sodium channel gene expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Mutations of SCN8A result in movement disorders and impaired cognition. To investigate the basis for the tissue-specific expression of SCN8A, we located conserved, potentially regulatory sequences in the human, mouse, chicken, and fish genes by 5? RACE of brain RNA and genomic sequence comparison. A highly conserved 5? noncoding exon, exon 1c, is present in vertebrates from fish to mammals and appears to define the ancestral promoter region. The distance from exon 1c to the first coding exon increased tenfold during vertebrate evolution, largely by insertion of repetitive elements. The mammalian gene acquired three novel, mutually exclusive noncoding exons that are not represented in the lower vertebrates. Within the shared exon 1c, we identified four short sequence elements of 10-20 bp with an unusually high level of evolutionary conservation. The conserved elements are most similar to consensus sites for the transcription factors Pou6f1/Brn5, YY1, and REST/NRSF. Introduction of mutations into the predicted Pou6f1 and REST sites reduced promoter activity in transfected neuronal cells. A 470-bp promoter fragment containing all of the conserved elements directed brain-specific expression of the LacZ reporter in transgenic mice. Transgene expression was highest in hippocampal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells, consistent with the expression of the endogenous gene. The compact cluster of conserved regulatory elements in SCN8A provides a useful target for molecular analysis of neuronal gene expression. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-007-9059-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17924165

Drews, Valerie L.; Shi, Kehui; de Haan, Georgius



Amplification and expression of a salivary gland DNA puff gene in the prothoracic gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).  


The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene, located in DNA puff C4 of Bradysiahygida, is amplified and expressed in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar as a late response to the increase in 20-hydroxyecdysone titer that triggers metamorphosis. Functional studies revealed that the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 expression in the salivary gland are conserved in transgenic Drosophila. These studies also led to the identification of a cis-regulatory module that drives developmentally regulated expression of BhC4-1-lacZ in the prothoracic gland cells of the ring gland, a compound organ which in Drosophila results from the fusion of the prothoracic glands, the corpus allatum and the corpus cardiacum. Here we have investigated the occurrence of BhC4-1 expression in B. hygida prothoracic glands. We report the identification of the B. hygida prothoracic gland and demonstrate that it releases ecdysone. Using RT-qPCR, western blots and immunolocalization experiments, we demonstrate that the BhC4-1 mRNA and the BhC4-1 protein are both expressed in the B. hygida prothoracic glands at the same time that DNA puff C4 is formed in the salivary gland. We also show that BhC4-1 is concomitantly amplified 4.8-fold in the prothoracic gland and 23-fold in the salivary gland. Our results reveal the occurrence of stage specific expression of a DNA puff gene in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida, and extend previous studies that have shown that DNA puff genes expression is not restricted to the salivary gland. In addition, the description of stage specific gene amplification in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida constitutes the first demonstration that gene amplification in Diptera might occur concomitantly in two different tissues in the same developmental stage. PMID:25666977

Candido-Silva, Juliana Aparecida; Machado, Maiaro Cabral Rosa; Hartfelder, Klaus Hartmann; de Almeida, Jorge Cury; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Monesi, Nadia



Activity of a microinjected inducible murine hsp68 gene promoter depends on plasmid configuration and the presence of heat shock elements in mouse dictyate oocytes but not in two-cell embryos.  


After fertilization in the mouse, the zygotic genome is activated in two-cell embryos by the spontaneous expression, among other genes, of the major inducible heat shock gene, hsp68, in the absence of heat-inducibility of heat shock genes. To obtain information on this phenomenon, we have probed one- and two-cell embryo's ability to express microinjected reporter DNA constructs, containing the Escherichia coli lacZ gene driven by promoters from early SV40 genes, the human beta-actin gene, and the normal or HSE-deleted mouse hsp68 gene. Activity of these promoters was also tested in mouse granulosa cells and dictyate oocytes, as a function of circular/linear construct configuration and occurrence of heat shock. The hsp68 promoter was heat-inducible in both granulosa cells and oocytes. Its heat activation required the presence of HSEs and, in the oocytes, of construct linear configuration. In the embryos however, this promoter was expressed independently of the presence of HSEs and of construct configuration, and its activity was not affected by heat shock. When constructs with early SV40 and beta-actin promoters were injected into one-cell embryos, they appeared to be inactivated with the first embryonic cleavage, in agreement with previous observations [Wiekowski et al., 1992]. By contrast, both normal and HSE-deleted hsp68 promoters maintained their activity through the first cleavage, providing the first evidence of a gene escaping such transcriptional repression. Present results confirm previous findings on hsp68 expression during early mouse development, and suggest that this activation is mediated by a factor(s) other than HSF. PMID:8482021

Bevilacqua, A; Mangia, F



Gene therapy with iNOS provides long-term protection against myocardial infarction without adverse functional consequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protects against myocardial infarction at 3 days after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of iNOS gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and cardiac function are unknown. To address this issue, we used a recombinant adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector (Av3) with deletions of the E1, E2a, and E3 regions, which enables long-lasting recombinant gene expression for at least 2 mo due to lack of inflammation. Mice received intramyocardial injections in the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall of Av3/LacZ (LacZ group) or Av3/iNOS (iNOS group); 1 or 2 mo later, they were subjected to myocardial infarction (30-min coronary occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion). Cardiac iNOS gene expression was confirmed by immunoblotting and activity assays at 1 and 2 mo after gene transfer. In the iNOS group, infarct size (percentage of risk region) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) both at 1 mo (24.2 ± 3.4%, n = 6, vs. 48.0 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group) and at 2 mo (23.4 ± 3.1%, n = 8, vs. 36.6 ± 2.4%, n = 7). The infarct-sparing effects of iNOS gene therapy were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (23.1 ± 3.4%, n = 10). iNOS gene transfer had no effect on LV function or dimensions up to 8 wk later (echocardiography). These data demonstrate that iNOS gene therapy mediated by the Av3 vector affords long-term (2 mo) cardioprotection without inflammation or adverse functional consequences, a finding that provides a rationale for further preclinical testing of this therapy. PMID:16172153

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Tan, Wei; Stein, Adam B.; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Wu, Wen-Jian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Lu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xiaoming; Siddiqui, Tariq; Tiwari, Sumit; Bolli, Roberto



Temporal and spatial regulation of fliP, an early flagellar gene of Caulobacter crescentus that is required for motility and normal cell division.  

PubMed Central

In Caulobacter crescentus, the genes encoding a single polar flagellum are expressed under cell cycle control. In this report, we describe the characterization of two early class II flagellar genes contained in the orfX-fliP locus. Strains containing mutations in this locus exhibit a filamentous growth phenotype and fail to express class III and IV flagellar genes. A complementing DNA fragment was sequenced and found to contain two potential open reading frames. The first, orfX, is predicted to encode a 105-amino-acid polypeptide that is similar to MopB, a protein which is required for both motility and virulence in Erwinia carotovora. The deduced amino acid sequence of the second open reading frame, fliP, is 264 amino acids in length and shows significant sequence identity with the FliP protein of Escherichia coli as well as virulence proteins of several plant and mammalian pathogens. The FliP homolog in pathogenic organisms has been implicated in the secretion of virulence factors, suggesting that the export of virulence proteins and some flagellar proteins share a common mechanism. The 5' end of orfX-fliP mRNA was determined and revealed an upstream promoter sequence that shares few conserved features with that of other early Caulobacter flagellar genes, suggesting that transcription of orfX-fliP may require a different complement of trans-acting factors. In C. crescentus, orfX-fliP is transcribed under cell cycle control, with a peak of transcriptional activity in the middle portion of the cell cycle. Later in the cell cycle, orfX-fliP expression occurs in both poles of the predivisional cell. Protein fusions to a lacZ reporter gene indicate that FliP is specifically targeted to the swarmer compartment of the predivisional cell. PMID:7601828

Gober, J W; Boyd, C H; Jarvis, M; Mangan, E K; Rizzo, M F; Wingrove, J A



Highly conserved proximal promoter element harbouring paired Sox9-binding sites contributes to the tissue- and developmental stage-specific activity of the matrilin-1 gene  

PubMed Central

The matrilin-1 gene has the unique feature that it is expressed in chondrocytes in a developmental stage-specific manner. Previously, we found that the chicken matrilin-1 long promoter with or without the intronic enhancer and the short promoter with the intronic enhancer restricted the transgene expression to the columnar proliferative chondroblasts and prehypertrophic chondrocytes of growth-plate cartilage in transgenic mice. To study whether the short promoter shared by these transgenes harbours cartilage-specific control elements, we generated transgenic mice expressing the LacZ reporter gene under the control of the matrilin-1 promoter between ?338 and +67. Histological analysis of the founder embryos demonstrated relatively weak transgene activity in the developing chondrocranium, axial and appendicular skeleton with highest level of expression in the columnar proliferating chondroblasts and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Computer analysis of the matrilin-1 genes of amniotes revealed a highly conserved Pe1 (proximal promoter element 1) and two less-conserved sequence blocks in the distal promoter region. The inverted Sox motifs of the Pe1 element interacted with chondrogenic transcription factors Sox9, L-Sox5 and Sox6 in vitro and another factor bound to the spacer region. Point mutations in the Sox motifs or in the spacer region interfered with or altered the formation of nucleoprotein complexes in vitro and significantly decreased the reporter gene activity in transient expression assays in chondrocytes. In vivo occupancy of the Sox motifs in genomic footprinting in the expressing cell type, but not in fibroblasts, also supported the involvement of Pe1 in the tissue-specific regulation of the gene. Our results indicate that interaction of Pe1 with distal DNA elements is required for the high level, cartilage- and developmental stage-specific transgene expression. PMID:15804237



CYP27B1 null mice with LacZreporter gene display no 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase promoter activity in the skin.  


The hormonally active form of vitamin D(3),1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], is synthesized in the kidney through a tightly regulated reaction catalyzed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase), the product of the CYP27B1 gene. Through gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, we engineered a mouse strain in which the coding region of the 1alpha-hydroxylase gene is replaced by the genes for beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and neomycin resistance. Null mice produced no detectable 1alpha-hydroxylase transcript. The mice grew normally when maintained on a balanced diet containing 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) but rapidly developed rickets when phosphorus and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) were restricted. Rickets was curable through administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) but not its biological precursor, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3). Upon administration of a diet low in calcium and devoid of any form of vitamin D(3), beta-galactosidase activity was detected in the kidneys of the -/- and +/- mice and in placentas harvested from -/- females bred with -/- males. No beta-galactosidase activity was detected in skin sections or in primary keratinocyte cultures from -/- animals. Our results demonstrate we have generated 1alpha-hydroxylase null mice that display phenotypes characteristic of vitamin D-dependency rickets type I. From the histochemical analysis of reporter gene expression in these mice, we conclude that acute 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) deficiency in otherwise healthy animals does not stimulate local production of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the skin. These findings stand in contrast to previously published reports of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) production in keratinocytes. PMID:16371465

Vanhooke, Janeen L; Prahl, Jean M; Kimmel-Jehan, Christine; Mendelsohn, Monica; Danielson, Eric W; Healy, Kevin D; DeLuca, Hector F



In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated that, no ultradamages or changes for cell; membrane, organilles or any component of transfected fibroblast cell as a result of using laser microbeam compared with control cell.

Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.



A novel triple-modality reporter gene for whole-body fluorescent, bioluminescent, and nuclear noninvasive imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genetic reporter systems were developed for multimodality reporter gene imaging of different molecular-genetic processes using fluorescence, bioluminescence (BLI), and nuclear imaging techniques. The eGFP cDNA was fused at the N-terminus with HSV1-tk cDNA bearing a nuclear export signal from MAPKK (NES-HSV1-tk) or with truncation at the N-terminus of the first 45 amino acids (?45HSV1-tk) and with firefly luciferase at

Vladimir Ponomarev; Michael Doubrovin; Inna Serganova; Jelena Vider; Aleksander Shavrin; Tatiana Beresten; Anna Ivanova; Ludmila Ageyeva; Vilia Tourkova; Julius Balatoni; William Bornmann; Ronald Blasberg; Juri Gelovani Tjuvajev



The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Alkaline Nuclease is Not Essential for Viral DNA Synthesis: Isolation and Characterization of a lacZ Insertion Mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a novel enzyme activity, the alkaline nuclease, whose precise role in the viral replication cycle remains obscure. The alkaline nuclease gene corresponds to the UL12 open reading frame, which is predicted to encode a protein of 626 amino acid residues. We describe the isolation and characterization of a null mutant of the gene

S. K. Weller; M. Reza Seghatoleslami; Lei Shao; Debra Rowse; E. P. Carmichael



Organization of a pectate lyase gene family in Erwinia chrysanthemi.  


The pelA, pelD and pelE genes encode three of the five major pectate lyase (PL) isoenzymes (PLa, PLd and PLe) in Erwinia chrysanthemi strains B374 and 3937. These genes were previously isolated from genomic libraries or by in vivo cloning as R' factors promoted by the pULB113 plasmid. They are clustered near purE on the chromosomal map of E. chrysanthemi B374 [Van Gijsegem et al., EMBO J. 4 (1985) 787-792]. Genes pelA, pelD and pelE were subcloned separately into pBR322 derivatives, to test their individuality. It then became possible to select specific mutations in each separated gene. Such mutations were obtained using the transposable bacteriophage MudI1734 that allows the construction of lacZ gene fusions. Subcloning experiments and analysis of MudI1734 insertions permitted us to determine the length of each gene, the transcriptional orientation and the location of the promoter. We concluded that the three genes constitute three independent transcriptional units. They are clustered on a 5-kb DNA fragment, in the order: pelD-pelE-pelA. Genes pelD and pelE are transcribed in the same direction, while the transcription of pelA seems to be divergent. Organization of the pel region was very similar in the two strains B374 and 3937. Moreover, lacZ gene fusions were introduced by marker exchange into the chromosome of E. chrysanthemi B374, giving rise to three strains lacking PLa, PLd or PLe. These fusions allowed us to study the regulation of the mutagenized genes. PMID:3569916

Reverchon, S; Van Gijsegem, F; Rouve, M; Kotoujansky, A; Robert-Baudouy, J



Characterization of estrogen receptor ? activities in polychlorinated biphenyls by in vitro dual-luciferase reporter gene assay.  


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause adverse health effects, particularly endocrine disruption. However, results on the estrogenic activities of a large set of PCB congeners through hormone receptors have not been fully studied. In this study, we evaluated the anti/estrogenic effects of 20 PCBs using an in vitro dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. PCB 18, 28, 49, 52, 99, 101, 103, 110, and 128 exhibited estrogenic effects, whereas PCB 118, 138, 163, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199 and 203 behaved as anti-estrogens. In particular, PCB 30 and 44 exhibited both agonistic and antagonistic activities in the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. The results obtained from the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, yeast two-hybrid assay and E-SCREEN were compared, suggesting that the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay is a useful approach for high-throughput screening. We also predicted the possible relationship between the chemical structures and the estrogenic effects of PCBs. PMID:24675366

Zhang, Quan; Lu, Meiya; Wang, Cui; Du, Jie; Zhou, Peixue; Zhao, Meirong



Genotyping for polymorphisms in interferon-?, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and tumour necrosis factor-? genes: a technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphic variants of cytokine genes are associated with acute and chronic transplant rejection. In this technical report, the methods currently used in our centre to genotype individuals for interferon-?, interleukin-10, transforming growth facgor-?1 and tumour necrosis factor-? are described in detail. The DNA sequences of primers and probes, and conditions for polymerase chain reactions are given, and the allele and

Chris Perrey; Vera Pravica; Paul J Sinnott; Ian V Hutchinson



Leydig cells express the myelin proteolipid protein gene and incorporate a new alternatively spliced exon.  


Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (Plp1) is highly expressed in the central nervous system encoding the most abundant myelin protein in oligodendrocytes, it is also expressed in other tissues, including testis. Transgenic studies with mice that harbor Plp1-lacZ fusion genes suggest that Leydig cells are the source of Plp1 gene expression in testis. However, virtually nothing is known about Plp1 gene regulation in Leydig cells, which is the focus of this study. The first intron contains both positive and negative regulatory elements that are important in regulating Plp1 gene expression in oligodendrocytes. To test whether these elements are functional in Leydig cells, a battery of Plp1-lacZ fusion genes with partial deletion of Plp1 intron 1 sequence was transfected into the mouse Leydig cell line, TM3. Results presented here suggest that an enhancer, which is very potent in oligodendrocytes, is only nominally active in TM3 cells. The intron also contains several negative regulatory elements that are operative in TM3 cells. Moreover a new exon (exon 1.2) was identified within the first 'intron' resulting in novel splice variants in TM3 cells. Western blot analysis suggests that these splice variants, along with those containing another alternatively spliced exon (exon 1.1) derived from intron 1 sequence, give rise to multiple Plp1 gene products in the mouse testis. PMID:19232385

Li, Shenyang; Greuel, Brian T; Meng, Fanxue; Pereira, Glauber B; Pitts, Adria; Dobretsova, Anna; Wight, Patricia A



CYP27B1 null mice with LacZreporter gene display no 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase promoter activity in the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hormonally active form of vitamin D3,1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is synthesized in the kidney through a tightly regulated reaction catalyzed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase (1-hydroxylase), the product of the CYP27B1 gene. Through gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, we engineered a mouse strain in which the coding region of the 1-hydroxylase gene is replaced by the genes for -galactosidase (lacZ) and

Janeen L. Vanhooke; Jean M. Prahl; Christine Kimmel-Jehan; Monica Mendelsohn; Eric W. Danielson; Kevin D. Healy; Hector F. Deluca



Analysis of a novel gene and beta-galactosidase isozyme from a psychrotrophic Arthrobacter isolate.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a new psychrotrophic Arthrobacter isolate which produces beta-galactosidase isozymes. When DNA from this isolate was transformed into an Escherichia coli host, we obtained three different fragments, designated 12, 14, and 15, each encoding a different beta-galactosidase isozyme. The beta-galactosidase produced from fragment 12 was of special interest because the protein subunit was smaller (about 71 versus 116 kDa) than those typically encoded by the lacZ family. The isozyme encoded by fragment 12 was purified, and its activity and thermostability were examined. Although the enzyme is highly specific towards beta-D-galactoside substrates, its levels in the isolate do not increase in cells grown with lactose. Nucleotide sequence determination showed that the gene encoding isozyme 12 is not similar to the other members of the lacZ family but has regions similar to beta-galactosidase isozymes from Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. circulans. Addition of the isozyme 12 sequence to the database made it possible to examine these enzymes as possible members of a new, separate family. Our analysis of this new family showed some conserved amino acids corresponding to the lacZ acid-base catalytic region but no homology with the nucleophilic region. On the basis of these comparisons, we designated this a new lacG family. PMID:7721689

Gutshall, K R; Trimbur, D E; Kasmir, J J; Brenchley, J E



Improved lux reporters for use in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of luxABCDE (lux) offers certain advantages over other reporters, such as: lacZ and xylE. It is real time and its signal generation is produced without the requirement for any additional substrates. In some bacteria such as Staphylococcus spp, light production by luciferase is restricted because of a limited availability of endogenous substrates such as fatty acid aldehyde. We

Lili Rosana Mesak; Grace Yim; Julian Davies



An evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in the human dopamine receptor D4 gene supports reporter gene expression in primary cultures derived from the rat cortex  

PubMed Central

Background Detecting functional variants contributing to diversity of behaviour is crucial for dissecting genetics of complex behaviours. At a molecular level, characterisation of variation in exons has been studied as they are easily identified in the current genome annotation although the functional consequences are less well understood; however, it has been difficult to prioritise regions of non-coding DNA in which genetic variation could also have significant functional consequences. Comparison of multiple vertebrate genomes has allowed the identification of non-coding evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs), in which the degree of conservation can be comparable with exonic regions suggesting functional significance. Results We identified ECRs at the dopamine receptor D4 gene locus, an important gene for human behaviours. The most conserved non-coding ECR (D4ECR1) supported high reporter gene expression in primary cultures derived from neonate rat frontal cortex. Computer aided analysis of the sequence of the D4ECR1 indicated the potential transcription factors that could modulate its function. D4ECR1 contained multiple consensus sequences for binding the transcription factor Sp1, a factor previously implicated in DRD4 expression. Co-transfection experiments demonstrated that overexpression of Sp1 significantly decreased the activity of the D4ECR1 in vitro. Conclusion Bioinformatic analysis complemented by functional analysis of the DRD4 gene locus has identified a) a strong enhancer that functions in neurons and b) a transcription factor that may modulate the function of that enhancer. PMID:21599953



Analysis of expression of the actin gene family throughout the cell cycle of Physarum polycephalum  

E-print Network

Specific Actin Transcripts in the Cell Cycle 44 8. Analysis of Steady State Levels of Ard C Specific Actin Transcripts in the Cell Cycle 45 9. Plasmid Vector and Constructs of pTZ18 Containing Actin Gene Specific Sequences 47 10. RNase Protection... of pUC18 or 19 (respectively), the lacZ' gene and a phage T-7 promoter (adjacent to the multiple cloning site). The Ard plasmid DNAs, identified as pArd A, pArd B, and pArd C, were sent to us as an EtOH 16 precipitate, then resuspended in TE buffer...

Arellano, Olga Leticia



Molecular Screening of "MECP2" Gene in a Cohort of Lebanese Patients Suspected with Rett Syndrome: Report on a Mild Case with a Novel Indel Mutation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked, dominant, neurodevelopment disorder represents 10% of female subjects with profound intellectual disability. Mutations in the "MECP2" gene are responsible for up to 95% of the classical RTT cases, and nearly 500 different mutations distributed throughout the gene have been reported. Methods: We report

Corbani, S.; Chouery, E.; Fayyad, J.; Fawaz, A.; El Tourjuman, O.; Badens, C.; Lacoste, C.; Delague, V.; Megarbane, A.



Synthesis of a probe for monitoring HSV1-tk reporter gene expression using chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI  

PubMed Central

In experiments involving transgenic animals or animals treated with transgenic cells, it is important to have a method to monitor the expression of the relevant genes longitudinally and noninvasively. An MRI-based reporter gene enables monitoring of gene expression in the deep tissues of living subjects. This information can be co-registered with detailed high-resolution anatomical and functional information. We describe here the synthesis of the reporter probe, 5-methyl-5,6-dihydrothymidine (5-MDHT), which can be used for imaging of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene expression in rodents by MRI. The protocol also includes data acquisition and data processing routines customized for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast mechanisms. The dihydropyrimidine 5-MDHT is synthesized through a catalytic hydrogenation of the 5,6-double bond of thymidine to yield 5,6-dihydrothymidine, which is methylated on the C-5 position of the resulting saturated pyrimidine ring. The synthesis of 5-MDHT can be completed within 5 d, and the compound is stable for more than 1 year. PMID:24177294

Bar-Shir, Amnon; Liu, Guanshu; Greenberg, Marc M; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A



Gene Expression Noise in Spatial Patterning: hunchback Promoter Structure Affects Noise Amplitude and Distribution in Drosophila Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Positional information in developing embryos is specified by spatial gradients of transcriptional regulators. One of the classic systems for studying this is the activation of the hunchback (hb) gene in early fruit fly (Drosophila) segmentation by the maternally-derived gradient of the Bicoid (Bcd) protein. Gene regulation is subject to intrinsic noise which can produce variable expression. This variability must be constrained in the highly reproducible and coordinated events of development. We identify means by which noise is controlled during gene expression by characterizing the dependence of hb mRNA and protein output noise on hb promoter structure and transcriptional dynamics. We use a stochastic model of the hb promoter in which the number and strength of Bcd and Hb (self-regulatory) binding sites can be varied. Model parameters are fit to data from WT embryos, the self-regulation mutant hb14F, and lacZ reporter constructs using different portions of the hb promoter. We have corroborated model noise predictions experimentally. The results indicate that WT (self-regulatory) Hb output noise is predominantly dependent on the transcription and translation dynamics of its own expression, rather than on Bcd fluctuations. The constructs and mutant, which lack self-regulation, indicate that the multiple Bcd binding sites in the hb promoter (and their strengths) also play a role in buffering noise. The model is robust to the variation in Bcd binding site number across a number of fly species. This study identifies particular ways in which promoter structure and regulatory dynamics reduce hb output noise. Insofar as many of these are common features of genes (e.g. multiple regulatory sites, cooperativity, self-feedback), the current results contribute to the general understanding of the reproducibility and determinacy of spatial patterning in early development. PMID:21304932

Holloway, David M.; Lopes, Francisco J. P.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travençolo, Bruno A. N.; Golyandina, Nina; Usevich, Konstantin; Spirov, Alexander V.



Copper homeostasis-related genes in three separate transcriptional units regulated by CsoR in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  


In Corynebacterium glutamicum R, CsoR acts as a transcriptional repressor not only of the cognate copA-csoR operon but also of the copZ1-copB-cgR_0126 operon. It is predicted that copA and copB encode P-type ATPases for copper efflux and copZ1 encodes a metallochaperone. Here, a CsoR-binding motif was found upstream of another copZ-like gene, copZ2, and the in vitro binding of the CsoR protein to its promoter was confirmed. The monocistronic copZ2 transcript was upregulated by excess copper in a CsoR-dependent manner. Among the extended CsoR regulon, deletion of copA, but not of copB, copZ1, or copZ2, resulted in decreased resistance to copper, indicating a major role of the CopA copper exporter in the multilayered systems for copper homeostasis. A redundant role of copZ1 and copZ2 in copper resistance was also indicated by double deletion of these genes. The copper-dependent activation of the copA, copZ1, and copZ2 promoters was confirmed by lacZ reporter assays, consistent with the coordinated derepression of the three transcriptional units. The copZ1 promoter activity showed the highest responsiveness to copper and was also induced by excess zinc and nickel. Furthermore, zinc-inducible expression observed for the CsoR-regulated genes was independent of Zur, recently found to uniquely act as a transcriptional repressor of zinc efflux genes. These results implied complicated cross talk between homeostasis of multiple transition metals. PMID:25592736

Teramoto, Haruhiko; Yukawa, Hideaki; Inui, Masayuki



Herpes simplex virus infection selectively stimulates accumulation of beta interferon reporter gene mRNA by a posttranscriptional mechanism.  

PubMed Central

To study the mechanism of a novel herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity that stimulates expression of reporter genes containing beta interferon (IFN-beta)-coding sequences, we have established permanent DNA-transfected cell lines that each contain two distinct hybrid genes encoding mRNA species with different half-lives. These reporter genes comprised either the human IFN-beta- or bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-coding and 3' untranslated regions placed under the transcriptional control of the powerful major immediate-early promoter-enhancer region (IE94) from simian cytomegalovirus. Most of the dual-transfected cell lines yielded significant levels of steady-state IE94-CAT mRNA and abundant constitutive synthesis of CAT enzyme activity, whereas no accumulation of IE94-IFN mRNA could be detected. However, infection with HSV type 1 resulted in a 300-fold increase in IE94-IFN-specific mRNA transcripts, compared with no more than 3- to 5-fold stimulation of IE94-CAT-specific mRNA. In contrast, cycloheximide treatment increased stable mRNA levels and transcription initiation rates from both the IE94-IFN and IE94-CAT hybrid genes. Run-on transcription assays in isolated nuclei suggested that induction of IE94-IFN gene expression by HSV type 1 occurred predominantly at the posttranscriptional level. Enhancement of the unstable IFN mRNA species after HSV infection was also observed in cell lines containing a simian virus 40 enhancer-driven IFN gene (SV2-IFN). Similarly, in transient-transfection assays, both SV2-IFN and IE94-IFN gave only low basal mRNA synthesis, but superinfection with HSV again led to high-level accumulation of IFN mRNA. Finally, substitution of the SV2-IFN gene 3' region with poly(A) and splicing signals from the SV2-CAT gene cassette led to stabilization of the IFN mRNA even in the absence of HSV. Therefore, we conclude that HSV infection leads to selective accumulation of IFN-beta mRNA by a posttranscriptional mechanism that is reporter gene specific and promoter independent. Images PMID:1316484

Mosca, J D; Pitha, P M; Hayward, G S



Endocrine disrupting potential of fipronil and its metabolite in reporter gene assays.  


There is a rising concern about the ecological safety and potential health risks caused by pesticides that are commonly present in the environment. Previous studies have shown that metabolites of pesticides sometimes possess more potent endocrine activity than the parent compounds. However very little efforts had been devoted to evaluate the environmental risks of pesticide metabolites. In the present study, we evaluated the agonistic and antagonistic activities of fipronil and its metabolite, fipronil sulfone, and compared by in vitro reporter gene assays using CHO-K1 cells. For estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities, both fipronil and fipronil sulfone showed no agonistic activities but exhibited the similarly antagonistic activities via estrogen receptor ? (ER?), with the RIC20 of 6.4 × 10(-7)M and 9.8 × 10(-7)M, respectively. In the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) assay, only fipronil sulfone showed anti-thyroid hormone activity with the RIC20 of 8.2 × 10(-7)M. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed to support the results in TR assay with lower MolDock score for fipronil sulfone. Data provided here suggested that it is of great significance to study the endocrine-disrupting effects of pesticide's metabolites, especially those with persistence in environment and high toxicity to non-targeted organisms. PMID:25112704

Lu, Meiya; Du, Jie; Zhou, Peixue; Chen, Hao; Lu, Chensheng; Zhang, Quan



Recommendations for analyzing and reporting TP53 gene variants in the high-throughput sequencing era.  


The architecture of TP53, the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer, is more complex than previously thought. Using TP53 variants as clinical biomarkers to predict response to treatment or patient outcome requires an unequivocal and standardized procedure toward a definitive strategy for the clinical evaluation of variants to provide maximum diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. An intronic promoter and two novel exons have been identified resulting in the expression of multiple transcripts and protein isoforms. These regions are additional targets for mutation events impairing the tumor suppressive activity of TP53. Reassessment of variants located in these regions is needed to refine their prognostic value in many malignancies. We recommend using the stable Locus Reference Genomic reference sequence for detailed and unequivocal reports and annotations of germ line and somatic alterations on all TP53 transcripts and protein isoforms according to the recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society. This novel and comprehensive description framework will generate standardized data that are easy to understand, analyze, and exchange across various cancer variant databases. Based on the statistical analysis of more than 45,000 variants in the latest version of the UMD TP53 database, we also provide a classification of their functional effects ("pathogenicity"). PMID:24729566

Soussi, Thierry; Leroy, Bernard; Taschner, Peter E M



Evaluation of estrogenic activities of pesticides using an in vitro reporter gene assay.  


The estrogenic activities of 32 pesticides in agricultural products were evaluated using the E-CALUX assay system developed by Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc (North Carolina, USA). This system utilizes human ovarian carcinoma cells (BG1) stably transfected with an estrogen-responsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid. It was found that tolclofos-methyl, prothiofos, diazinon, Thiabenclazole (TBZ) and pyriproxyfen had estrogenic activity. Several pesticides are often present in agricultural products. Therefore the estrogenicity of the mixtures of two kinds of pesticides was evaluated. The activity of diazinon/tolclofos-methyl, pyriproxyfen/prothiofos and TBZ/o-phenylphenol (OPP) was increased up to 1.2-5.3 fold. On the other hand, chlorfluazuron, imazalil and chlorfenapyr had anti-estrogenic activity. Further, to evaluate the change in the estrogenic activity of pesticide metabolites, an experimental system was established using a rat S9 mixture. Metabolites of permethrin and OPP had no estrogenic activity, but they had weak activity after the metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolites of TBZ exhibited less estrogenic activity than the original compounds. PMID:16175743

Kojima, Mihoko; Fukunaga, Kenji; Sasaki, Mari; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tsuji, Motohiro; Nishiyama, Toshimasa



Inducible expression of photoacoustic reporter gene tyrosinase in cells using a single plasmid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated that tyrosinase is a reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging since tyrosinase is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of melanin, a pigment capable of producing strong photoacoustic signals. We previously created a cell line capable of inducible tyrosinase expression (important due to toxicity of melanin) by stably transfecting tyrosinase in MCF-7 Tet-OnR cell line (Clontech) which expresses a doxycycline-controlled transactivator. Unfortunately, Clontech provides few Tet-On Advanced cell lines making it difficult to have inducible tyrosinase expression in cell lines not provided by Clontech. In order to simplify the creation of cell lines with inducible expression of tyrosinase, we created a single plasmid that encodes both the transactivator as well as tyrosinase. PCR was used to amplify both the transactivator and tyrosinase from the Tet-OnR Advanced and pTRE-Tight-TYR plasmids, respectively. Both PCR products were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 plasmid and the newly created plasmid was transfected into ZR-75-1, MCF-7, and MIA PaCa-1 cells using lipofectamine. After several days, brown melanin was only observed in cells incubated with doxycycline, suggesting that the newly created single plasmid allowed inducible tyrosinase expression in many different cells lines.

Paproski, Robert J.; Zemp, Roger J.



Noninvasive Visualization of MicroRNA-16 in the Chemoresistance of Gastric Cancer Using a Dual Reporter Gene Imaging System  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated to play a central role in the development of drug resistance in a variety of malignancies. However, many studies were conducted at the in vitro level and could not provide the in vivo information on the functions of miRNAs in the anticancer drug resistance. Here, we introduced a dual reporter gene imaging system for noninvasively monitoring the kinetic expression of miRNA-16 during chemoresistance in gastric cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and firefly luciferase (Fluc) genes were linked to form hNIS/Fluc double fusion reporter gene and then generate human gastric cancer cell line NF-3xmir16 and its multidrug resistance cell line NF-3xmir16/VCR. Radioiodide uptake and Fluc luminescence signals in vitro correlated well with viable cell numbers. The luciferase activities and radioiodide uptake in NF-3xmir16 cells were remarkably repressed by exogenous or endogenous miRNA-16. The NF-3xmir16/VCR cells showed a significant increase of 131I uptake and luminescence intensity compared to NF-3xmir16 cells. The radioactivity from in vivo 99mTc-pertechnetate imaging and the intensity from bioluminescence imaging were also increased in NF-3xmir16/VCR compared with that in NF-3xmir16 tumor xenografts. Furthermore, using this reporter gene system, we found that etoposide (VP-16) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) activated miRNA-16 expression in vitro and in vivo, and the upregulation of miRNA-16 is p38MAPK dependent but NF-?B independent. This dual imaging reporter gene may be served as a novel tool for in vivo imaging of microRNAs in the chemoresistance of cancers, as well as for early detection and diagnosis in clinic. PMID:23613938

Li, Xiujuan; Xin, Jing; Wang, Shenxu; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing; Wu, Kaichun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Cao, Feng



SSTR2-based reporter expression after plasmid-based in vivo gene delivery to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Plasmids tend to have much lower expression than viruses. Assessing gene expression after systemic administration of plasmid vectors has not been assessed using SSTR2-based reporters. The purpose of this work was to identify gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing somatostatin receptor type-2 (SSTR2)-based reporter gene. Materials and Methods In vitro, Western blotting was performed after transient transfection with plasmids CMV-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2. SSTR2 is the reporter and TUSC2 is a therapeutic gene. Mice with A549 NSCLC lung tumors were injected intravenously with CMV-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2 plasmids in DOTAP:Cholesterol-liposomal nanoparticles. Two days later, mice were injected intravenously with 111In-octreotide. The next day, biodistribution was performed. The experiment was repeated including SPECT-CT imaging. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Results In vitro, SSTR2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-SSTR2 or CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2. TUSC2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-TUSC2 or CMV-TUSC2-SSTR2. Biodistribution demonstrated significantly greater 111In-octreotide uptake in tumors from mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 than control plasmid, CMV-TUSC2 (P<0.05). Gamma-camera and SPECT-CT imaging illustrated SSTR2 expression in tumors in mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 versus background with control plasmid. Immunohistochemistry corresponded with imaging. Conclusion SSTR2-based reporter imaging can visualize gene expression in lung tumors after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene or SSTR2 linked to a second therapeutic gene, such as TUSC2. PMID:23962694

Han, Lin; Ravoori, Murali; Wu, Guanglin; Sakai, Ryo; Yan, Shaoyu; Singh, Sheela; Xu, Kai; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin; Kundra, Vikas



Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection I: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences  

PubMed Central

The ultimate goal of prophylactic gene therapy is to confer permanent protection against ischemia. Although gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to protect against myocardial infarction at 3 days and up to 2 months, the long-term effects on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the iNOS gene (rAAV/iNOS), which enables long-lasting transgene expression. The ability of rAAV/iNOS to direct the expression of functional iNOS protein was confirmed in COS-7 cells before in vivo gene transfer. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ or rAAV/iNOS; 1 year later, they underwent a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). iNOS gene transfer resulted in elevated iNOS protein expression (+3-fold vs. the LacZ group, n = 6; P < 0.05) and iNOS activity (+4.4-fold vs. the LacZ group, n = 6; P < 0.05) 1 year later. Infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after iNOS gene transfer (13.5 ± 2.2%, n = 12, vs. 41.7 ± 2.9%, n = 10, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effect of iNOS gene therapy at 1 year was as powerful as that observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (19.3 ± 2.3%, n = 11; P < 0.05). Importantly, compared with the LacZ group (n = 11), iNOS gene transfer (n = 10) had no effect on LV dimensions or function for up to 1 year (at 1 year: FS 34.5 ± 2.0 vs. 34.6 ± 2.6%, EF 57.0 ± 2.0 vs. 59.7 ± 2.9%, LVEDD 4.3 ± 0.1 vs. 4.2 ± 0.2 mm, LVESD 2.8 ± 0.1 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2 mm) (echocardiography). These data demonstrate, for the first time, that rAAV-mediated iNOS gene transfer affords long-term, probably permanent (1 year), cardioprotection without adverse functional consequences, providing a strong rationale for further preclinical testing of prophylactic gene therapy. PMID:21779912

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Wu, Wen-Jian; Ou, Qinghui; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Chen, Ning; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; O’Brien, Erin



The neural restrictive silencer element can act as both a repressor and enhancer of L1 cell adhesion molecule gene expression during postnatal?development  

PubMed Central

The cell adhesion molecule L1 mediates axonal guidance during neural development and mutations in its gene result in severe neurological defects. In previous studies, we identified the promoter for the L1 gene and showed that a neural restrictive silencer element (NRSE) was critical for preventing ectopic expression of L1 during early embryonic development. In the present study, we have investigated the role of the NRSE in the regulation of L1 expression during postnatal development. In gel mobility shift experiments, the NRSE formed DNA–protein complexes with nuclear extracts prepared from the brains of postnatal mice. To examine the influence of the NRSE on postnatal patterns of L1 expression in vivo, we compared the expression of two lacZ transgene constructs, one containing the native L1 gene regulatory sequences (L1lacZ) and another (L1lacZ?N) lacking the NRSE. Newborn mice carrying the L1lacZ?N showed enhanced ?-galactosidase expression relative to L1lacZ in the brain and ectopic expression in nonneural tissues. In contrast to L1lacZ mice, however, L1lacZ?N mice showed an unexpected loss, during postnatal development and in the adult, of ?-galactosidase expression in several neural structures, including the neural retina, cerebellum, cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. These data support the conclusion that the NRSE not only plays a role in the silencing of L1 expression in nonneural tissues during early development but also can function as a silencer and an enhancer of L1 expression in the nervous system of postnatal and adult animals. PMID:9501246

Kallunki, Pekka; Edelman, Gerald M.; Jones, Frederick S.



Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001  

SciTech Connect

Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.



Effect of CaCl2 concentration on the rate of foreign gene transfer and expression by in vivo electroporation in the mouse ovary.  


We tested the effect of electroporation (EP) medium composition on the rate of gene transfer and expression in the mouse ovary in vivo. FITC labeled oligonucleotides were dissolved in a medium with varying levels of CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 250 mM, and transferred by in vivo EP. Gene transfer efficiency was assessed by examining fluorescence signal intensity with a fluorescent microscope at 3 h after in vivo EP. The results indicated that CaCl2 concentration at 50 mM gave the highest transfer efficiency of the oligonucleotides only in the presence of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Without PBS or CaCl2, the oligonucleotide transfer was negligible. A further increase in CaCl2 from 50 to 250 mM lowered the transfer efficiency. Little fluorescence signal was attained by substituting CaCl2 for MgCl2, NaCl or KCl. Addition of glycerol to the EP medium with 50 mM CaCl2 did not improve the transfer efficiency in the presence of PBS, although a marginal increase was observed in the absence of PBS. The stimulating effect of increased CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 50 mM was further evaluated by examining the intensity of reporter protein expression after transferring the bacterial lacZ gene. The results of X-gal staining demonstrated that CaCl2 with a range of 20 to 100 mM, showed enhanced gene expression in comparison with 0 mM. However, no remarkable difference was observed between the different CaCl2 concentrations, suggesting that the stimulating effect of CaCl2 on gene transfer and expression in the mouse ovary in vivo may not necessarily parallel in terms of the optimal concentration. PMID:12883653

Suzuki, Takayuki; Tsunekawa, Jun; Murai, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Tatsuo



TECHNOLOGY REPORT Case Studies of Ends-Out Gene Targeting in Drosophila  

E-print Network

the functional analysis of genes with no corresponding mutations. However, reverse genetics approaches also have-out; balancer; reverse genetics The great challenge of the postgenome era is to under- stand the functions for more than half of the genes from multicellu- lar model organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice (Jor

Quake, Stephen R.


BRIEF REPORT: Ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms and body size in children and adults  

E-print Network

,version1-20Aug2008 #12;Page 4 Introduction The growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a gene (GHSR receptor, body mass index, gene, growth, ALSPAC, Ely Study Word Count: 1899 words Author Disclosure inserm-00311659,version1-20Aug2008 #12;Page 3 Abstract Background: The growth hormone secretagogue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: characterization of ?-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.  


Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 ?-defensin loci within 129?kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis. PMID:25372018

Lan, Hong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bei-Bing; Sun, Li; Ma, Mei-Ying; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Wan, Qiu-Hong



Transcriptional reporters for genes activated by cell wall stress through a non-catalytic mechanism involving Mpk1 and SBF  

PubMed Central

The Mpk1 MAP kinase of the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) signaling pathway induces transcription of the FKS2 gene in response to cell wall stress through a non-catalytic mechanism that involves stable association of Mpk1 with the Swi4 transcription factor. This dimeric complex binds to a Swi4 recognition site in the FKS2 promoter. The Swi6 transcription factor is also required to bind this ternary complex for transcription initiation to ensue. In this context, the Mlp1 pseudokinase serves a redundant function with Mpk1. We have identified three additional genes, CHA1, YLR042c, and YKR013w that are induced by cell wall stress through the same mechanism. We report on the behavior of several promoter-lacZ reporter plasmids designed to detect cell wall stress transcription through this pathway. PMID:20641022

Kim, Ki-Young; Levin, David E.



Isolation and characterization of B-glucosidase gene and B-glucosidase of Trichoderma viride. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The goal is to clone and characterize each of the cellulase genes from Trichoderma. This report is principally concerned with B-glucosidase. The induction of the Trichoderma cellulase complex by cellulose and by the soluble inducer, sophorose, has been demonstrated. B-glucosidase has been isolated and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme contains significant amounts of carbohydrate and has a molecular weight greater than bovine serum albumin (68,000). (ACR)

Stafford, D.W.; Lundblad, R.L.



Two DNA repair and recombination genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, are induced during meiosis  

SciTech Connect

The DNA repair and recombination genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RAD52 and RAD54, were transcriptionally induced approximately 10- to 15-fold in sporulating MATa/{alpha} cells. Congenic MATa/a cells, which did not sporulate, did not show similar increases. Assays of {beta}-galactosidase activity in strains harboring either a RAD52- or RAD54-lacZ gene fusion indicated that this induction occurred at a time concomitant with a commitment to meiotic recombination, as measured by prototroph formation from his1 heteroalleles.

Cole, G.M.; Mortimer, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Schild, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))



Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes. Final report, May 1, 1988--April 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce and to clone and characterize disease resistance genes by transposon tagging. The majority of studies were conducted with the Ac/Ds System. Researchers made and tested several constructs as well as utilized constructions shown to be functional in other plant species. Researchers demonstrated movement of Ac and DS in lettuce; however, they transposed at much lower frequencies in lettuce than in other plant species. Therefore, further manipulation of the system, particularly for flower specific expression of transposase, is required before a routine transposon system is available for lettuce. Populations of lettuce were generated and screened to test for the stability of resistance genes and several spontaneous mutations were isolated. Researchers also identified a resistance gene mutant in plants transformed with a Ds element and chimeric transposase gene. This is currently being characterized in detail.

Michelmore, R.



Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae. Progress report, March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the {beta}-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate {beta}-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. {beta}-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for {beta}-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to {beta}-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.



Use of the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene as a reporter gene for analyzing promoters in lactic acid bacteria.  


A transcriptional fusion vector, designated pNZ272, based on the promoterless beta-glucuronidase gene (gusA) of Escherichia coli as a reporter gene, has been constructed for lactic acid bacteria. The replicon of pNZ272 was derived from the Lactococcus lactis plasmid pSH71, allowing replication in a wide range of gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. The applicability of pNZ272 and the expression of the gusA gene in L. lactis was demonstrated in shotgun cloning experiments with lactococcal chromosomal and bacteriophage DNA. In addition, three defined lactococcal promoters were inserted in pNZ272: the plasmid-derived lacA promoter, the chromosomal usp45 promoter, and a promoter from bacteriophage phi SK11G. The three resulting plasmids showed beta-glucuronidase activity in a gusA-deficient E. coli strain and in four species of lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The copy numbers of the gusA-expressing plasmids were similar within a single species of lactic acid bacteria. However, the specific beta-glucuronidase activity and the gusA mRNA levels varied considerably both within a single species and among different species of lactic acid bacteria. The transcriptional start site of all three promoters was determined and found to be identical in the different species. The results of this comparative promoter analysis indicate that the requirements for efficient transcription initiation differ among the lactic acid bacteria studied. PMID:8135517

Platteeuw, C; Simons, G; de Vos, W M



The PR/SET Domain Zinc Finger Protein Prdm4 Regulates Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells but Plays a Nonessential Role in the Developing Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A. J.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F.; Kessler, Benedikt M.



Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes. Progress report, May 1, 1988--1992  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to clone genes in lettuce determining resistance to downy mildew. One approach involves the mobilization of transposons into resistance genes to mutate and tag the target gene. Because transposons have yet to be isolated and characterized from lettuce, the majority of our experiments have involved Ac from corn as this is increasingly the best characterized transposon. Over the past several years, various labs have contributed to a detailed understanding of the biology of Ac in corn and heterologous plant species. We have collaborated closely with several of these labs, exchanged materials and incorporated their advances into our analysis of transposition in lettuce. The original proposal described the development of a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce and its subsequent use to tag disease resistance genes. The development phase involved characterization and manipulation of Ac transposition, identification of suitable whole plant selectable markers for the construction of chimeric non-autonomous elements, and investigation of the stability of resistance genes. Investigation of Ac transposition in lettuce has received the majority of our attention. Initially, we made a simple construct with wildtype Ac and introduced it into lettuce. No transposition was observed; although other labs demonstrated that the same construct was functional in tomato. We then focused on assaying for Ac transposition with constructs of increasing sophistication that had been demonstrated by others to be functional in other species. The latest constructs for transposon mutagenesis clearly demonstrated transposition in lettuce. This allowed us to generate seed stocks that we will start to screen for insertional inactivation of resistance genes this year.

Michelmore, R.



Inference of Quantitative Models of Bacterial Promoters from Time-Series Reporter Gene Data  

PubMed Central

The inference of regulatory interactions and quantitative models of gene regulation from time-series transcriptomics data has been extensively studied and applied to a range of problems in drug discovery, cancer research, and biotechnology. The application of existing methods is commonly based on implicit assumptions on the biological processes under study. First, the measurements of mRNA abundance obtained in transcriptomics experiments are taken to be representative of protein concentrations. Second, the observed changes in gene expression are assumed to be solely due to transcription factors and other specific regulators, while changes in the activity of the gene expression machinery and other global physiological effects are neglected. While convenient in practice, these assumptions are often not valid and bias the reverse engineering process. Here we systematically investigate, using a combination of models and experiments, the importance of this bias and possible corrections. We measure in real time and in vivo the activity of genes involved in the FliA-FlgM module of the E. coli motility network. From these data, we estimate protein concentrations and global physiological effects by means of kinetic models of gene expression. Our results indicate that correcting for the bias of commonly-made assumptions improves the quality of the models inferred from the data. Moreover, we show by simulation that these improvements are expected to be even stronger for systems in which protein concentrations have longer half-lives and the activity of the gene expression machinery varies more strongly across conditions than in the FliA-FlgM module. The approach proposed in this study is broadly applicable when using time-series transcriptome data to learn about the structure and dynamics of regulatory networks. In the case of the FliA-FlgM module, our results demonstrate the importance of global physiological effects and the active regulation of FliA and FlgM half-lives for the dynamics of FliA-dependent promoters. PMID:25590141

Stefan, Diana; Pinel, Corinne; Pinhal, Stéphane; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde



Regulation of mouse lens fiber cell development and differentiation by the Maf gene.  


Maf is a basic domain/leucine zipper domain protein originally identified as a proto-oncogene whose consensus target site in vitro, the T-MARE, is an extended version of an AP-1 site normally recognized by Fos and Jun. Maf and the closely related family members Neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl), L-Maf, and Krml1/MafB have been implicated in a wide variety of developmental and physiologic roles; however, mutations in vivo have been described only for Krml1/MafB, in which a loss-of-function causes abnormalities in hindbrain development due to failure to activate the Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes. We have used gene targeting to replace Maf coding sequences with those of lacZ, and have carried out a comprehensive analysis of embryonic expression and the homozygous mutant phenotype in the eye. Maf is expressed in the lens vesicle after invagination, and becomes highly upregulated in the equatorial zone, the site at which self-renewing anterior epithelial cells withdraw from the cell cycle and terminally differentiate into posterior fiber cells. Posterior lens cells in Maf(lacZ) mutant mice exhibit failure of elongation at embryonic day 11.5, do not express (&agr;)A- and all of the (beta)-crystallin genes, and display inappropriately high levels of DNA synthesis. This phenotype partially overlaps with those reported for gene targeting of Prox1 and Sox1; however, expression of these genes is grossly normal, as is expression of Eya1, Eya2, Pax6, and Sox2. Recombinant Maf protein binds to T-MARE sites in the (alpha)A-, (beta)B2-, and (beta)A4-crystallin promoters but fails to bind to a point mutation in the (alpha)A-crystallin promoter that has been shown previously to be required for promoter function. Our results indicate that Maf directly activates many if not all of the (beta)-crystallin genes, and suggest a model for coordinating cell cycle withdrawal with terminal differentiation. PMID:10603348

Ring, B Z; Cordes, S P; Overbeek, P A; Barsh, G S



Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome with mutation c.1074delT of the CMG2 gene: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and infantile systemic hyalinosis are variants of the same autosomal recessive syndrome; hyaline fibromatosis syndrome, characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, gingival hypertrophy, flexion contractures of joints, osteolytic bone lesions and stunted growth. Infantile systemic hyalinosis is distinguished from juvenile hyaline fibromatosis by its more severe phenotype, which includes hyaline deposits in multiple organs, recurrent infections and death within the first two years of life. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is due to mutations of the gene-encoding capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2). Cases have been reported in different countries but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported Moroccan patient with hyaline fibromatosis syndrome and carrying the CMG2 mutation. Case presentation We report the case of an eight-year-old Moroccan male patient with typical features of hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: multiple recurring subcutaneous tumors, gingival hypertrophy, joint contractures and other anomalies carrying a homozygous mutation in the CMG2 gene. The identification of the mutation in our patient allowed us to do a presymptomatic diagnosis in our patient’s sister, a two-day-old newborn, who is carrying the familial mutation in the heterozygous state. Early recognition of this condition is important for genetic counseling and early treatment. Conclusions Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome might be underdiagnosed. Molecular diagnosis will help clinicians and geneticists, firstly to conduct genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and early treatment, and secondly to gain better understanding of the disease and genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:25186005



Live-cell imaging of Pol II promoter activity to monitor gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters  

PubMed Central

We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time. PMID:24753407

Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit



Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters  

SciTech Connect

We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

Shin, Ilchung [Ames Laboratory; Ray, Judhajeet [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Vinayak [Iowa State University; Ilgu, Muslum [Ames Laboratory; Beasley, Jonathan [Iowa State University; Bendickson, Lee [Ames Laboratory; Mehanovic, Samir [Molecular Express; Kraus, George A. [Iowa State University; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit [Ames Laboratory



Comprehensive Luciferase-Based Reporter Gene Assay Reveals Previously Masked Up-Regulatory Effects of miRNAs  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the majority of the transcriptome at a post-transcriptional level. Because of this critical role, it is important to ensure that the assays used to determine their functionality are robust and reproducible. Typically, the reporter gene assay in cell-based systems has been the first-line method to study miRNA functionality. In order to overcome some of the potential errors in interpretation that can be associated with this assay, we have developed a detailed protocol for the luciferase reporter gene assay that has been modified for miRNAs. We demonstrate that normalization against the effect of the miRNA and cellular factors on the luciferase coding sequence is essential to obtain the specific impact of the miRNA on the 3'UTR (untranslated region) target. Our findings suggest that there is a real possibility that the roles for miRNA in transcriptome regulation may be misreported due to inaccurate normalization of experimental data and also that up-regulatory effects of miRNAs are not uncommon in cells. We propose to establish this comprehensive method as standard for miRNA luciferase reporter assays to avoid errors and misinterpretations in the functionality of miRNAs. PMID:25192285

Campos-Melo, Danae; Droppelmann, Cristian A.; Volkening, Kathryn; Strong, Michael J.



Host cell reactivation of gene expression for an adenovirus-encoded reporter gene reflects the repair of UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and methylene blue plus visible light-induced 8-oxoguanine  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have reported the use of a recombinant adenovirus (Ad)-based host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to examine nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UVC-induced DNA lesions in several mammalian cell types. The recombinant non-replicating Ad expresses the Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase (?-gal) reporter gene under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer region. We have also used methylene blue plus visible light (MB + VL) to induce the major oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the recombinant Ad-encoded reporter gene in order to study base excision repair (BER). The reported variability regarding 8-oxoG’s potential to block transcription by RNA polymerase II and data demonstrating that a number of factors play a role in transcriptional bypass of the lesion led us to examine the repair of 8-oxoG in the Ad reporter and its relationship to HCR for expression of the reporter gene. We have used Southern blotting to examine removal of UVC- and MB + VL-induced DNA damage by loss of endonuclease-sensitive sites from the Ad-encoded ?-gal reporter gene in human and rodent cells. We show that repair of MB + VL-induced 8-oxoG via BER and UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) via NER is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. We also show that HCR for expression of the MB + VL-damaged and the UVC-damaged reporter gene is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. The difference between the human and rodent cells in the removal of both 8-oxoG and CPDs from the damaged reporter gene was comparable to the difference in HCR for expression of the damaged reporter gene. These results suggest that the major factor for HCR of the MB + VL-treated reporter gene in mammalian cells is DNA repair in the Ad rather than lesion bypass. PMID:23793457

Rainbow, Andrew J.



Characterization of embryo-specific genes. Final report, April 1, 1987--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed research is to characterize the function and regulation of a set of embryonic genes which are expressed in the embryos, not in the plants. 22 cDNA clones were isolated from a cDNA library we constructed using mRNAS of -carrot somatic embryos. These cDNA clones identified mRNA species that are present in the somatic and zygotic embryos, but not in adult plants. The sequence of all 22cDNA clones were determined; genomic clones for three cDNA clones, DC8, DC59, and DC49 were isolated and gene sequences determined. DC8, DC49, and several other genes identified by the cDNA sequences belong to the category of late embryogenesis abundant protein genes, Lea. The function of these gens have not yet been determined, but they share common structural features, are regulated by ABA and are speculated to play a role in seed desiccation.

Sung, R.



First report of a tetracycline-inducible gene expression system for mollicutes.  


Inducible promoter systems are powerful tools for studying gene function in prokaryotes but have never been shown to function in mollicutes. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the tetracycline-inducible promoter Pxyl/tetO(2) from Bacillus subtilis in controlling gene expression in two mollicutes, the plant pathogen Spiroplasma citri and the animal pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae. An S. citri plasmid carrying the spiralin gene under the control of the xyl/tetO(2) tetracycline-inducible promoter and the TetR repressor gene under the control of a constitutive spiroplasmal promoter was introduced into the spiralin-less S. citri mutant GII3-9a3. In the absence of tetracycline, expression of TetR almost completely abolished expression of spiralin from the xyl/tetO(2) promoter. Adding tetracycline (>50 ng ml(-1)) to the medium induced high-level expression of spiralin. Interestingly, inducible expression of spiralin was also detected in vivo: in S. citri-infected leafhoppers fed on tetracycline-containing medium and in S. citri-infected plants watered with tetracycline. A similar construct was introduced into the M. agalactiae chromosome through transposition. Tetracycline-induced expression of spiralin proved the TetR-Pxyl/tetO(2) system to be functional in the ruminant pathogen, suggesting that this tetracycline-inducible promoter system might be of general use in mollicutes. PMID:19797362

Breton, Marc; Sagné, Evelyne; Duret, Sybille; Béven, Laure; Citti, Christine; Renaudin, Joël



REPORTS Efficacy of Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutation Carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In women with a family history of breast cancer, bilateral pro- phylactic mastectomy is associated with a decreased risk of subsequent breast cancer of approximately 90%. We ex- amined the association between bilat- eral prophylactic mastectomy and breast cancer risk in women at high risk for breast cancer who also had mu- tations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Methods:

Lynn C. Hartmann; Thomas A. Sellers; Daniel J. Schaid; Thomas S. Frank; Cheryl L. Soderberg; Diana L. Sitta; Marlene H. Frost; Clive S. Grant; John H. Donohue; John E. Woods; Shannon K. McDonnell; Catherine Walsh Vockley; Amie Deffenbaugh; Fergus J. Couch; Robert B. Jenkins


Yeast Sequencing Report A 38 kb segment containing the cdc2 gene from the  

E-print Network

Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, PO Box 100, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA 4 Department, act1 and mei4. Among 11 coding sequences (CDSs) predicted by the gene ®nding software INTRON.PLOT programs, includ- ing INTRON.PLOT (Zhang and Marr, 1994) and Pombe (Chen and Zhang, 1998)


Traits, Genes, Particles and Information: Re-Visiting Students' Understandings of Genetics. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study of 10 German students aged 15-19, using problem-centred interviews, suggest that many students hold an 'everyday' conception of genes as small, trait-bearing, particles. Analysis of this notion identified a number of ways in which such a view might restrict the ability of students to develop an understanding of the scientific…

Lewis, Jenny; Kattmann, Ulrich



UMG Lenti: novel lentiviral vectors for efficient transgene- and reporter gene expression in human early hematopoietic progenitors.  


Lentiviral vectors are widely used to investigate the biological properties of regulatory proteins and/or of leukaemia-associated oncogenes by stably enforcing their expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In these studies it is critical to be able to monitor and/or sort the infected cells, typically via fluorescent proteins encoded by the modified viral genome. The most popular strategy to ensure co-expression of transgene and reporter gene is to insert between these cDNAs an IRES element, thus generating bi-cistronic mRNAs whose transcription is driven by a single promoter. However, while the product of the gene located upstream of the IRES is generally abundantly expressed, the translation of the downstream cDNA (typically encoding the reporter protein) is often inconsistent, which hinders the detection and the isolation of transduced cells. To overcome these limitations, we developed novel lentiviral dual-promoter vectors (named UMG-LV5 and -LV6) where transgene expression is driven by the potent UBC promoter and that of the reporter protein, EGFP, by the minimal regulatory element of the WASP gene. These vectors, harboring two distinct transgenes, were tested in a variety of human haematopoietic cell lines as well as in primary human CD34+ cells in comparison with the FUIGW vector that contains the expression cassette UBC-transgene-IRES-EGFP. In these experiments both UMG-LV5 and UMG-LV6 yielded moderately lower transgene expression than FUIGW, but dramatically higher levels of EGFP, thereby allowing the easy distinction between transduced and non-transduced cells. An additional construct was produced, in which the cDNA encoding the reporter protein is upstream, and the transgene downstream of the IRES sequence. This vector, named UMG-LV11, proved able to promote abundant expression of both transgene product and EGFP in all cells tested. The UMG-LVs represent therefore useful vectors for gene transfer-based studies in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, as well as in non-hematopoietic cells. PMID:25502183

Chiarella, Emanuela; Carrŕ, Giovanna; Scicchitano, Stefania; Codispoti, Bruna; Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Pelaggi, Daniela; Marafioti, Maria G; Aloisio, Annamaria; Giordano, Marco; Nappo, Giovanna; Spoleti, Cristina B; Grillone, Teresa; Giovannone, Emilia D; Spina, Raffaella; Bernaudo, Francesca; Moore, Malcolm A S; Bond, Heather M; Mesuraca, Maria; Morrone, Giovanni



UMG Lenti: Novel Lentiviral Vectors for Efficient Transgene- and Reporter Gene Expression in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Lentiviral vectors are widely used to investigate the biological properties of regulatory proteins and/or of leukaemia-associated oncogenes by stably enforcing their expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In these studies it is critical to be able to monitor and/or sort the infected cells, typically via fluorescent proteins encoded by the modified viral genome. The most popular strategy to ensure co-expression of transgene and reporter gene is to insert between these cDNAs an IRES element, thus generating bi-cistronic mRNAs whose transcription is driven by a single promoter. However, while the product of the gene located upstream of the IRES is generally abundantly expressed, the translation of the downstream cDNA (typically encoding the reporter protein) is often inconsistent, which hinders the detection and the isolation of transduced cells. To overcome these limitations, we developed novel lentiviral dual-promoter vectors (named UMG-LV5 and –LV6) where transgene expression is driven by the potent UBC promoter and that of the reporter protein, EGFP, by the minimal regulatory element of the WASP gene. These vectors, harboring two distinct transgenes, were tested in a variety of human haematopoietic cell lines as well as in primary human CD34+ cells in comparison with the FUIGW vector that contains the expression cassette UBC-transgene-IRES-EGFP. In these experiments both UMG-LV5 and UMG–LV6 yielded moderately lower transgene expression than FUIGW, but dramatically higher levels of EGFP, thereby allowing the easy distinction between transduced and non-transduced cells. An additional construct was produced, in which the cDNA encoding the reporter protein is upstream, and the transgene downstream of the IRES sequence. This vector, named UMG-LV11, proved able to promote abundant expression of both transgene product and EGFP in all cells tested. The UMG-LVs represent therefore useful vectors for gene transfer-based studies in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, as well as in non-hematopoietic cells. PMID:25502183

Chiarella, Emanuela; Carrŕ, Giovanna; Scicchitano, Stefania; Codispoti, Bruna; Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Pelaggi, Daniela; Marafioti, Maria G.; Aloisio, Annamaria; Giordano, Marco; Nappo, Giovanna; Spoleti, Cristina B.; Grillone, Teresa; Giovannone, Emilia D.; Spina, Raffaella; Bernaudo, Francesca; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Bond, Heather M.; Mesuraca, Maria; Morrone, Giovanni



A gene trap approach to isolate mammalian genes involved in the cellular response to genotoxic stress.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of cells with DNA damaging agents leads to induction of a variety of genes involved in different cellular processes. We have applied a lacZ-based gene trap strategy to search for new mammalian genes induced by genotoxic stress. A population of 32 x 10(3) neo r clones stably transfected with a gene trap vector was obtained, stained with fluorescein di-beta-d-galactopyranoside and analyzed by flow activated cell sorting and replica plating. This strategy allowed isolation of 30 neo r 'putative inducible' cell lines expressing lacZ only after a DNA damaging treatment. For three clones the site of integration and the degree of inducibility after UV treatment were determined by Southern blot and beta-galactosidase measurement respectively. One cell line (clone VI) showed a single integration site and a reproducible 3-fold induction of beta-galactosidase activity following UV irradiation. Fused transcripts were isolated from induced cells and a portion of the trapped gene was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis and comparison with available gene and protein databanks revealed that the gene was novel. PMID:9365260

Menichini, P; Viaggi, S; Gallerani, E; Fronza, G; Ottaggio, L; Comes, A; Ellwart, J W; Abbondandolo, A



Characterization of Three mnp Genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and Report of Additional Class II Peroxidases in the Order Hymenochaetales ? †  

PubMed Central

We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only. PMID:20675443

Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L.; Hibbett, David S.



Q289P mutation in the FGFR2 gene: first report in a patient with type 1 Pfeiffer syndrome.  


When normal development and growth of the calvarial sutures is disrupted, craniosynostosis (premature calvarial suture fusion) may result. Classical craniosynostosis syndromes are autosomal dominant traits and include Apert, Pfeiffer, Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Saethre-Chotzen syndromes. In these conditions, there is premature fusion of skull bones leading to an abnormal head shape, ocular hypertelorism with proptosis, and midface hypoplasia. It is known that mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3 cause craniosynostosis. We report on a child with a clinically diagnosed Pfeiffer syndrome that shows the missense point mutation Q289P in exon 8 of the FGFR2 gene. This is a mutation not previously described in the Pfeiffer syndrome but reported in the Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Saethre-Chotzen syndromes. In this paper, we propose the concept that these disorders may represent one genetic condition with phenotypic variability. PMID:19066959

Piccione, Maria; Antona, Vincenzo; Niceta, Marcello; Fabiano, Carmelo; Martines, Manuela; Bianchi, Alberto; Corsello, Giovanni



[Iron regulation of gene expression in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybean symbiosis]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We wish to address the question of whether iron plays a regulatory role in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybeam symbiosis. Iron may be an important regulatory signal in planta as the bacteria must acquire iron from their plant hosts and iron-containing proteins figure prominently in all nitrogen-fixing symbioses. For example, the bacterial partner is believed to synthesize the heme moiety of leghemoglobin, which may represent as much as 25--30% of the total soluble protein in an infected plant cell. For this reason, we have focused our attention on the regulation by iron of the first step in the bacterial heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme which catalyzes this step, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase, is encoded by the hemA gene which we had previously cloned and sequenced. Specific objectives include: to define the cis-acting sequences which confer iron regulation on the B. japonicum hemA gene; to identify trans-acting factors which regulate the expression of hemA by iron; to identify new loci which are transcriptionally responsive to changes in iron availability; and to examine the effects of mutations in various known regulatory genes for their effect on the expression of hemA.

Guerinot, M.L.



Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the pancreas: case report with documentation of KIT gene mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir, mesenchymal tumors of the pancreas are exceedingly rare, accounting for less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors, and most of them have been reported in small series or as single case reports. This group of pancreatic tumors includes leiomyosarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma,hemangiopericytoma,schwannomaandsolitary fibrous tumor. In the gut, mesenchymal tumors are more common,

Ondrej Daum; Jiri Klecka; Jiri Ferda; Vladimir Treska; Tomas Vanecek; Radek Sima; Petr Mukensnabl; Michal Michal



Recombinant receptor/reporter gene bioassays for assessing the estrogenic and dioxin-like activities of xenobiotics and complex mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to naturally occurring or synthetic substances that possess sex steroid and/or dioxin-like activity may have long range effects on human health, reproductive fitness and environmental quality. Results from recent epidemiological studies have suggested that xenobiotics with sex steroid activity may contribute to the development of hormone-dependent cancers and disorders in the male reproductive tract as well as attenuate sperm production. However, most of these compounds, which are referred to as endocrine disruptors, are structurally dissimilar to sex steroids. Yet, based upon ambiguous assays, it has been conceded that the effects of these compounds are mediated by receptors. The authors have taken advantage of the mechanism of action of these compounds to develop recombinant receptor/reporter gene bioassays for environmental estrogens and dioxin-like compounds. The assays use an easily measurable enzyme activity (i.e. firefly luciferase), exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity and are amenable to automation. Data will be presented demonstrating that phytoestrogens (e.g. genistein) and xenobiotics such as pesticides (e.g. DDT, Kepone), nonionic surfactants (e.g. p-nonylphenol), and precursors used in the manufacture of plastics (e.g. Bisphenol A) exhibit estrogenic activity. In addition, the assays have been used to detect estrogenic and dioxin-like activity in complex mixtures such as pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent. These results demonstrate the utility of recombinant receptor/reporter gene bioassays for identifying substances or complex mixtures with estrogenic and/or dioxin-like activity.

Zacharewski, T. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology



Structure-guided engineering of human thymidine kinase 2 as a positron emission tomography reporter gene for enhanced phosphorylation of non-natural thymidine analog reporter probe.  


Positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging can be used to non-invasively monitor cell-based therapies. Therapeutic cells engineered to express a PET reporter gene (PRG) specifically accumulate a PET reporter probe (PRP) and can be detected by PET imaging. Expanding the utility of this technology requires the development of new non-immunogenic PRGs. Here we describe a new PRG-PRP system that employs, as the PRG, a mutated form of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and 2'-deoxy-2'-18F-5-methyl-1-?-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-18F-FMAU) as the PRP. We identified L-18F-FMAU as a candidate PRP and determined its biodistribution in mice and humans. Using structure-guided enzyme engineering, we generated a TK2 double mutant (TK2-N93D/L109F) that efficiently phosphorylates L-18F-FMAU. The N93D/L109F TK2 mutant has lower activity for the endogenous nucleosides thymidine and deoxycytidine than wild type TK2, and its ectopic expression in therapeutic cells is not expected to alter nucleotide metabolism. Imaging studies in mice indicate that the sensitivity of the new human TK2-N93D/L109F PRG is comparable with that of a widely used PRG based on the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase. These findings suggest that the TK2-N93D/L109F/L-18F-FMAU PRG-PRP system warrants further evaluation in preclinical and clinical applications of cell-based therapies. PMID:22074768

Campbell, Dean O; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S; Su, Ying; Lee, Jason T; Auerbach, Martin S; Herschman, Harvey; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Czernin, Johannes; Lavie, Arnon; Radu, Caius G



Structure-guided Engineering of Human Thymidine Kinase 2 as a Positron Emission Tomography Reporter Gene for Enhanced Phosphorylation of Non-natural Thymidine Analog Reporter Probe*  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging can be used to non-invasively monitor cell-based therapies. Therapeutic cells engineered to express a PET reporter gene (PRG) specifically accumulate a PET reporter probe (PRP) and can be detected by PET imaging. Expanding the utility of this technology requires the development of new non-immunogenic PRGs. Here we describe a new PRG-PRP system that employs, as the PRG, a mutated form of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and 2?-deoxy-2?-18F-5-methyl-1-?-l-arabinofuranosyluracil (l-18F-FMAU) as the PRP. We identified l-18F-FMAU as a candidate PRP and determined its biodistribution in mice and humans. Using structure-guided enzyme engineering, we generated a TK2 double mutant (TK2-N93D/L109F) that efficiently phosphorylates l-18F-FMAU. The N93D/L109F TK2 mutant has lower activity for the endogenous nucleosides thymidine and deoxycytidine than wild type TK2, and its ectopic expression in therapeutic cells is not expected to alter nucleotide metabolism. Imaging studies in mice indicate that the sensitivity of the new human TK2-N93D/L109F PRG is comparable with that of a widely used PRG based on the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase. These findings suggest that the TK2-N93D/L109F/l-18F-FMAU PRG-PRP system warrants further evaluation in preclinical and clinical applications of cell-based therapies. PMID:22074768

Campbell, Dean O.; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S.; Su, Ying; Lee, Jason T.; Auerbach, Martin S.; Herschman, Harvey; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Czernin, Johannes; Lavie, Arnon; Radu, Caius G.



The Drosophila gene escargot encodes a zinc finger motif found in snail-related genes.  


Two independent P-element enhancer detection lines were obtained that express lacZ in a pattern of longitudinal stripes early in germband elongation. In this paper, molecular and genetic characterization of a gene located near these transposons is presented. Sequence analysis of a cDNA clone from the region reveals that this gene has a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila snail gene (Boulay et al., 1987). The sequence similarity extends over 400 nucleotides, and includes a region encoding five tandem zinc finger motifs (72% nucleotide identity; 76% amino acid identity). This region is also conserved in the snail homologue from Xenopus laevis (76% nucleotide identity; 83% amino acid identity) (Sargent and Bennett, 1990). We have named the Drosophila snail-related gene escargot (esg), and the region of sequence conservation common to all three genes the 'snailbox'. A number of Drosophila genomic DNA fragments cross-hybridize to a probe from the snailbox region suggesting that snail and escargot are members of a multigene family. The expression pattern of escargot is dynamic and complex. Early in germband elongation, escargot RNA is expressed in a pattern of longitudinal stripes identical to the one observed in the two enhancer detection lines. Later in development, escargot is expressed in cells that will form the larval imaginal tissues, escargot is allelic with l(2)35Ce, an essential gene located near snail in the genome. PMID:1571289

Whiteley, M; Noguchi, P D; Sensabaugh, S M; Odenwald, W F; Kassis, J A



Report on the second international workshop on the CCN family of genes  

PubMed Central

For the second time, researchers from leading laboratories in the CCN field gathered in Saint-Malo, France, to participate in the Second International Workshop on the CCN family of genes. In addition to the regular research communications, meeting highlights included the inauguration of the first CCN newsletter ( and the recognition of the International CCN Society ( as an important medium for the exchange of scientific knowledge and resources in the CCN field. Once more, the high quality of scientific communications and individual interactions set the stage for an extremely fruitful meeting. PMID:12665625

Perbal, B; Brigstock, D R; Lau, L F



A gene trap knockout of the Tiam-1 protein results in malformation of the early embryonic brain.  


Tiam-1 has been implicated in the development of the central nervous system. However, the in vivo function of Tiam-1 has not been fully determined in the developing mouse brain. In this study, we generated Tiam-1 knockout mice using a Tiam-1 gene-trapped embryonic stem cell line. Insertion of a gene trap vector into a genomic site downstream of exon 5 resulted in a mutant allele encoding a truncated protein fused with the ?-geo LacZ gene. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Tiam-1 revealed a significant decrease in Rac activity and cell proliferation. In addition, whole-mount embryonic LacZ expression analysis demonstrated that Tiam-1 is specifically expressed in regions of the developing brain, such as the caudal telencephalon and rostral diencephalon. More importantly, mouse embryos deficient in Tiam-1 gene expression displayed a severe defect in embryonic brain development, including neural tube closure defects or a dramatic decrease in brain size. These findings suggest that embryonic Tiam-1 expression plays a critical role during early brain development in mice. PMID:22661025

Yoo, Sooyeon; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Haeryung; Park, Sungjeong; Park, Soochul



Sol-gel-derived materials for production of pin-printed reporter gene living-cell microarrays.  


We report the fabrication of three-dimensional living-cell microarrays via pin-printing of soft sol-gel-derived silica materials containing bacterial cells. Bacterial cells entrapped in the silica-glycerol microarray spots can express reporter genes and produce strong fluorescence signals. The signals responded to the presence and concentration of inducers or repressors as expected, indicating that the entrapped cells remained metabolically active. Microscopic imaging of individual microarray spots at different culture times suggests that the entrapped cells can grow and divide, phenomena further confirmed by experiments in bulk sol-gel materials that demonstrated the increases of entrapped cell density and fluorescence during incubation in culture media. The cell microarrays can also be printed into 96-well glass bottom microtiter plates in a multiplexed manner, and the fluorescence signals generated were able to quantitatively and selectively respond to the concentration of inducers, thus demonstrating the potential for multitarget biosensing and high-throughput/high-content cell-based screening. The signal levels of bacterial cells in silica were significantly higher than those in alginate arrays, presumably due to viability of the entrapped cells in silica sol-gels. Microarray stability assays proved that the entrapped cells retained their physiological activity after storage for four weeks. Given that a large number of fluorescent and luminescent protein-based cell assays have been developed, the reporter gene living-cell microarrays demonstrated in this paper are expected to be applicable to a wide variety of research areas ranging from bioanalysis and chemical biology to drug discovery and probing of cell-material interactions. PMID:24279880

Ge, Xin; Eleftheriou, Nikolas M; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Brennan, John D



Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene  

PubMed Central

To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key



FGFR3 Mutations and the Skin: Report of a Patient with a FGFR3 Gene Mutation, Acanthosis Nigricans, Hypochondroplasia and Hyperinsulinemia and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene mutations in the germline are well-known causes of skeletal syndromes. Somatic FGFR3 mutations have been found in malignant neoplasms and more recently in several cutaneous elements. We present a 14-year-old girl with mild hypochondroplasia who developed acanthosis nigricans. The report of a K650Q mutation in the FGFR3 gene in a similar case prompted

M. Blomberg; E. M. Jeppesen; F. Skovby; E. Benfeldt



Brief Report: High Frequency of Biochemical Markers for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: No Association with the Mitochondrial Aspartate\\/Glutamate Carrier SLC25A12 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we confirm the previously reported high frequency of biochemical markers of mitochondrial dysfunction,\\u000a namely hyperlactacidemia and increased lactate\\/pyruvate ratio, in a significant fraction of 210 autistic patients. We further\\u000a examine the involvement of the mitochondrial aspartate\\/glutamate carrier gene (SLC25A12) in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with autism. We found no evidence of association of the SLC25A12 gene with

Catarina Correia; Ana M. Coutinho; Luísa Diogo; Manuela Grazina; Carla Marques; Teresa Miguel; Assunçăo Ataíde; Joana Almeida; Luís Borges; Catarina Oliveira; Guiomar Oliveira; Astrid M. Vicente



Type and position of promoter elements in retroviral vectors have substantial effects on the expression level of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Although gene transfer with retroviral vectors has already been applied to patients as part of clinical protocols, low expression\\u000a of transgenes in target cells still remains a problem. Therefore, we compared various retroviral vectors using different promoters\\u000a and backbones for expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene in fibroblasts and CD34+ cells. Methods: The N2A retroviral

M. Flasshove; W. Bardenheuer; A. Schneider; G. Hirsch; P. Bach; C. Bury; T. Moritz; S. Seeber; B. Opalka



Imprinted genes and transpositions: epigenomic targets for low dose radiation effects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall hypothesis of this grant application is that low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) elicits adaptive responses in part by causing heritable DNA methylation changes in the epigenome. This novel postulate was tested by determining if the level of DNA methylation at the Agouti viable yellow (A{sup vy}) metastable locus is altered, in a dose-dependent manner, by low dose radiation exposure (<10 cGy) during early gestation. This information is particularly important to ascertain given the increased use of CT scans in disease diagnosis, increased number of people predicted to live and work in space, and the present concern about radiological terrorism. We showed for the first time that LDIR significantly increased DNA methylation at the A{sup vy} locus in a sex-specific manner (p=0.004). Average DNA methylation was significantly increased in male offspring exposed to doses between 0.7 cGy and 7.6 cGy with maximum effects at 1.4 cGy and 3.0 cGy (p<0.01). Offspring coat color was concomitantly shifted towards pseudoagouti (p<0.01). Maternal dietary antioxidant supplementation mitigated both the DNA methylation changes and coat color shift in the irradiated offspring (p<0.05). Thus, LDIR exposure during gestation elicits epigenetic alterations that lead to positive adaptive phenotypic changes that are negated with antioxidants, indicating they are mediated in part by oxidative stress. These findings provide evidence that in the isogenic Avy mouse model epigenetic alterations resulting from LDIR play a role in radiation hormesis, bringing into question the assumption that every dose of radiation is harmful. Our findings not only have significant implications concerning the mechanism of hormesis, but they also emphasize the potential importance of this phenomenon in determining human risk at low radiation doses. Since the epigenetic regulation of genes varies markedly between species, the effect of LDIR on other epigenetically labile genes (e.g. imprinted genes) in animals and humans needs to be defined.

Jirtle, Randy L.



Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection II: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with heme oxygenase-1 limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences  

PubMed Central

Extensive evidence indicates that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts potent cytoprotective effects in response to stress. Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with HO-1 protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury for up to 8 weeks after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of HO-1 gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the HO-1 gene (rAAV/HO-1) that enables long-lasting transgene expression. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ (LacZ group) or rAAV/HO-1 (HO-1 group); 1 year later, they were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). Cardiac HO-1 gene expression was confirmed at 1 month and 1 year after gene transfer by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. In the HO-1 group, infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after gene transfer (11.2 ± 2.1%, n = 12, vs. 44.7 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effects of HO-1 gene therapy at 1 year were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic PC (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (15.0 ± 1.7%, n = 10). There were no appreciable changes in LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction, or LV end-diastolic or end-systolic diameter at 1 year after HO-1 gene transfer as compared to the age-matched controls or with the LacZ group. Histology showed no inflammation in the myocardium 1 year after rAAV/HO-1-mediated gene transfer. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that rAAV-mediated HO-1 gene transfer confers long-term (1 year), possibly permanent, cardioprotection without adverse functional consequences, providing proof of principle for the concept of achieving prophylactic cardioprotection (i.e., “immunization against infarction”). PMID:21785893

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Wu, Wen-Jian; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N.



Enzymatic reporting of peste des petits ruminants virus genes ligating two specific probes on nanoparticles.  


An alternative strategy for the detection of nucleic acid derived from peste des petits ruminants virus was developed omitting amplification. The assay is based on two probes complementary to the target sequences, one conjugated to magnetic microparticles the second to gold nanoparticles labeled with horseradish peroxidase. In the presence of target gene the two particles ligate via the probes and the complex can be magnetically separated. Applying substrate and chromogen a color reaction results for a positive case. Under optimized conditions, the approach had a linear detection range from 10 fM to 1 ?M for ssDNA corresponding to an RNA low detection limit of 17.6 ng/?l. The quick performance (45 min) and not requiring expensive instrumentations offer a new way of detecting nucleic acids for the clinical diagnosis in our case for peste des petits ruminants virus. PMID:23247567

Tao, Chunai; Li, Gang; Wang, Yong; Huang, Huaxin



Pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) due to microdeletion in the SRY gene: a case report.  


46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is a rare cause of disorder of sexual development. This syndrome is caused by a defect in the determination of sex during embryogenesis and is characterised with female external genitalia, normal or rudimentary uterus, and streak gonads, despite the presence of the 46,XY karyotype. Most of the studied cases presented with leak of secondary sex characteristics and primary amenorrhea during adolescence. Laboratory findings reveal hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Herein we present the case of a female with a 46,XY karyotype who was admitted with delayed puberty and detected to have a microdeletion in the SRY gene and diagnosed to have Swyer syndrome. We highlight the importance of karyotype analysis in patients with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Once the diagnosis of 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is established, early laparoscopic removal of the dysgenetic gonads is crucial to prevent the development of gonadal malignancy. PMID:25153220

Mutlu, Gül Yesiltepe; K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Ayd?n, Hatip; Çetiner, Handan; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Celayir, Ay?enur Cerrah



The lexA gene product represses its own promoter.  

PubMed Central

The products of the lexA and recA genes of Escherichia coli regulate the cellular response to DNA damage (the SOS response). Here we describe the cloning of the wild-type lexA gene and the identification of its 24,000-dalton protein product. We also describe construction, by recombination in vitro, of a phage that bears the lexA promoter fused to the lacZ gene. Experiments with this fusion phage and with multicopy plasmids that carry the lexA gene showed that the lexA gene product represses of its own promoter. This repression occurs even if the cell has no recA gene, showing that the lexA protein need not be complexed to the recA protein for activity. Moreover, the presence of multicopy plasmids that carry the lexA gene blocks expression of all SOS responses tested. This presumably results from two effects: (i) repression of the recA gene, the product of which is required to activate many of these responses; and (ii) direct repression of other functions involved in the SOS response. Images PMID:6990417

Brent, R; Ptashne, M



Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in the United States: report from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study.  

PubMed Central

The major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia is mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The known mutations have been identified primarily in European patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of mutations responsible for PAH deficiency in the United States. One hundred forty-nine patients enrolled in the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study were subjects for clinical and molecular investigations. PAH gene mutations associated with phenylketonuria (PKU) or mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) were identified on 279 of 294 independent mutant chromosomes, a diagnostic efficiency of 95%. The spectrum is composed of 71 different mutations, including 47 missense mutations, 11 splice mutations, 5 nonsense mutations, and 8 microdeletions. Sixteen previously unreported mutations were identified. Among the novel mutations, five were found in patients with MHP, and the remainder were found in patients with PKU. The most common mutations were R408W, IVS12nt1g-->a, and Y414C, accounting for 18.7%, 7.8%, and 5.4% of the mutant chromosomes, respectively. Thirteen mutations had relative frequencies of 1%-5%, and 55 mutations each had frequencies < or = 1%. The mutational spectrum corresponded to that observed for the European ancestry of the U.S. population. To evaluate the extent of allelic variation at the PAH locus within the United States in comparison with other populations, we used allele frequencies to calculate the homozygosity for 11 populations where >90% ascertainment of mutations has been obtained. The United States was shown to contain one of the most heterogeneous populations, with homozygosity values similar to Sicily and ethnically mixed sample populations in Europe. The extent of allelic heterogeneity must be a major determining factor in the choice of mutation-detection methodology for molecular diagnosis in PAH deficiency. Images Figure 1 PMID:8659548

Guldberg, P.; Levy, H. L.; Hanley, W. B.; Koch, R.; Matalon, R.; Rouse, B. M.; Trefz, F.; de la Cruz, F.; Henriksen, K. F.; Güttler, F.



Comparison and Calibration of Different Reporters for Quantitative Analysis of Gene Expression  

E-print Network

regulation; thermodynamic models; beta- galactosidase; fluorescent protein; absolute calibration; fold-change in expression using the fluorescent protein EYFP and the enzymatic reporter -galactosidase. We determine 10 molecules per cell) and interference with cellular growth on the high end for -galactosidase (at

Phillips, Rob


Tomato ringspot virus coat protein binds to ARGONAUTE 1 and suppresses the translation repression of a reporter gene.  


RNA silencing regulates plant gene expression and antiviral defenses and functions by cleaving target RNAs or repressing translation. As a counter defense, many plant viruses encode suppressor proteins that sequester small RNAs or inactivate Argonaute (AGO) proteins. All known plant virus silencing suppressor activities eventually inhibit the degradation of target mRNAs. Using a transiently expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene, we show that Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) coat protein (CP) is a suppressor of RNA silencing that enhances GFP expression but does not prevent the degradation of the GFP mRNA or the accumulation of GFP small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Coexpression of the CP with GFP resulted in increased association of residual GFP mRNAs with polysome fractions and reduced association of GFP siRNAs with monosome fractions. AGO1 was co-immunoprecipitated with the CP and CP expression destabilized AGO1. A WG motif within the CP was critical for the enhanced GFP expression, AGO1 interaction, and AGO1 destabilization, suggesting that the ToRSV CP acts as an AGO-hook protein and competes for AGO binding with a plant cellular GW/WG protein involved in translation repression. PMID:24804809

Karran, Rajita A; Sanfaçon, Hélčne



Highly efficient production of the staphylococcal nuclease reporter in Lactobacillus bulgaricus governed by the promoter of the hlbA gene.  


Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of two genes that encode histone-like HU proteins (hlbA and hlbB) showing extensive similarity to other bacterial homologues. These genes were found to be extremely conserved among several L. bulgaricus strains. The hlbA gene was shown to be constitutively transcribed from a unique promoter (phlbA) during normal growth, whereas hlbB did not seem to be expressed under usual laboratory conditions. Using a reporter cassette in which the staphylococcal nuclease was fused at its N-terminus to the lactococcal signal peptide Usp45 (SP Usp45), we have demonstrated that phlbA promotes high expression of the reporter in L. bulgaricus, which correlated with an abundant secretion of the mature nuclease in the supernatant fraction. Quantification of the exported enzyme reveals a secretion level approximately threefold higher when the expression of the reporter was under the control of phlbA compared with the lactococcal usp45 promoter. Together, these results indicate that phlbA is suitable for gene expression in L. bulgaricus, that SP Usp45 is functionally recognized and processed by the L. bulgaricus secretion machinery and that the nuclease reporter gene can be used for the identification of exported products in this bacterium. PMID:19243442

Chouayekh, Hichem; Serror, Pascale; Boudebbouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle



A novel hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated viral vector-mediated radionuclide reporter gene imaging system for stem cells transplantation monitoring.  


Hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated virus (BV-AAV) containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene or human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) derived from AAV (BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR and BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR) were constructed and used to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid BV-AAV transgenic vector to mediate hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transplantation therapy as a novel biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging. The results showed that the infection efficiency of BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR in BM-MSCs reached 84.25?±?1.38%, and there were no obvious adverse effects on BM-MSCs. The (125)I(-) and (99m)TcO?(-) uptake assays showed that the radionuclide accumulation induced by BA-AAV-mediated hNIS was highly efficient in infected BM-MSCs. Furthermore, there was a robust correlation between the infected BM-MSCs cell number and the (125)I(-) accumulation amount (R(2)?=?0.9026). The micro-SPECT/CT imaging showed that BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR-infected BM-MSCs accumulated radioiodine efficiently in vivo, exhibiting obvious radiotracer accumulation in transplantation sites. Further quantitative analysis revealed that 30 min might be the optimal imaging time point. Moreover, the revealed high target/individual organ background ratios also supported the feasibility of BV-AAV-mediated hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring BM-MSCs transplantation in most of commonly used transplantation sites, thus highlighting this promise biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging for stem cell transplantation therapy. PMID:25345809

Pan, Yu; Yin, Hongyan; Lv, Jing; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Yifan



Otx genes in evolution: are they involved in instructing the vertebrate brain morphology?  

PubMed Central

Previous mouse models have indicated that Otx1 and Otx2 play an important role in brain and sense organ development and, together with the Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) gene, they share a high degree of reciprocal functional equivalence. Interestingly, mouse models replacing the same region of the Otx2 locus with Otx1, otd or lacZ genes have revealed the existence of a differential post-transcriptional control between the visceral endoderm (VE) and epiblast cells. Indeed Otx1, otd or lacZ mRNA were transcribed in both tissues but translated only in the VE. Embryos lacking OTX1 or OTD proteins in the epiblast and derived tissues, such as the neuroectoderm and axial mesendoderm (AME), fail to maintain the anterior identity and result in a headless phenotype. This finding leads us to hypothesise that, during evolution, the specification of the vertebrate-type brain may have required epiblast cells to translate Otx2 mRNA in order to establish maintenance properties. The establishment of this regulatory control might have been reflected into a remarkable reorganisation of the rostral CNS architecture and might have represented an important event in the evolution of the vertebrate head. Current data suggest that the Otx2 replaced region and in particular the 3? untranslated region (UTR), may contain regulatory element(s) necessary to translate and/or stabilise Otx2 mRNA in epiblast and its derivatives. PMID:11523829




Expression of the yeast PHR1 gene is induced by DNA-damaging agents  

SciTech Connect

The PHR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a photolyase which repairs specifically and exclusively pyrimidine dimers, the most frequent lesions induced in DNA by far-UV radiation. We have asked whether expression of PHR1 is modulated in response to UV-induced DNA damage and to DNA-damaging agents that induce lesions structurally dissimilar to pyrimidine dimers. Using a PHR1-lacZ fusion gene in which expression of beta-galactosidase is regulated by PHR1 5' regulatory elements, we found that exposure of cells to 254-nm light, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, methyl methanesulfonate, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced synthesis of increased amounts of fusion protein. In contrast to these DNA-damaging agents, neither heat shock nor exposure to photoreactivating light elicited a response. Induction by far-UV radiation was evident both when the fusion gene was carried on a multicopy plasmid and when it replaced the endogenous chromosomal copy of PHR1, and it was accompanied by an increase in the steady-state concentration of PHR1-lacZ mRNA. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of PHR1 mRNA encoded by the chromosomal locus was consistent with either enhanced transcription of PHR1 after DNA damage or stabilization of the transcripts. Neither the intact PHR1 or RAD2 gene was required for induction. Comparison of the region of PHR1 implicated in regulation of its expression with other damage-inducible genes from yeast cells revealed a common conserved sequence that is present in the PHR1, RAD2, and RNR2 genes and is required for damage inducibility of the latter two genes. These sequences may constitute elements of a damage-responsive regulon in S. cerevisiae.

Sebastian, J.; Kraus, B.; Sancar, G.B. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))



Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 ?l s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 ?l of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony



SAMY, a novel mammalian reporter gene derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillusstearothermophilus ?-amylase (amyS) is a heat-stable monomeric exoenzyme which catalyses random hydrolysis of 1,4-?-glucosidic linkages in polyglucosans. The Bacillus ?-amylase was engineered for use as an intracellular (AmyS?S) as well as a secreted reporter protein (SAMY; secreted ?-amylase) in mammalian cells. The 5? end of amyS containing the prokaryotic secretion signal was either deleted (amyS?S) or replaced by a

Stefan Schlatter; Markus Rimann; Jens Kelm; Martin Fussenegger



Analysis of 60 reported glioma risk SNPs replicates published GWAS findings but fails to replicate associations from published candidate-gene studies.  


Genomewide association studies (GWAS) and candidate-gene studies have implicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in at least 45 different genes as putative glioma risk factors. Attempts to validate these associations have yielded variable results and few genetic risk factors have been consistently replicated. We conducted a case-control study of Caucasian glioma cases and controls from the University of California San Francisco (810 cases, 512 controls) and the Mayo Clinic (852 cases, 789 controls) in an attempt to replicate previously reported genetic risk factors for glioma. Sixty SNPs selected from the literature (eight from GWAS and 52 from candidate-gene studies) were successfully genotyped on an Illumina custom genotyping panel. Eight SNPs in/near seven different genes (TERT, EGFR, CCDC26, CDKN2A, PHLDB1, RTEL1, TP53) were significantly associated with glioma risk in the combined dataset (P < 0.05), with all associations in the same direction as in previous reports. Several SNP associations showed considerable differences across histologic subtype. All eight successfully replicated associations were first identified by GWAS, although none of the putative risk SNPs from candidate-gene studies was associated in the full case-control sample (all P values > 0.05). Although several confirmed associations are located near genes long known to be involved in gliomagenesis (e.g., EGFR, CDKN2A, TP53), these associations were first discovered by the GWAS approach and are in noncoding regions. These results highlight that the deficiencies of the candidate-gene approach lay in selecting both appropriate genes and relevant SNPs within these genes. PMID:23280628

Walsh, Kyle M; Anderson, Erik; Hansen, Helen M; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matt L; Kollmeyer, Thomas; Rice, Terri; Zheng, Shichun; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Chang, Jeffrey S; McCoy, Lucie S; Bracci, Paige M; Wiemels, Joe L; Pico, Alexander R; Smirnov, Ivan; Lachance, Daniel H; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Wiencke, John K; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R



A New Pyrimidine-Specific Reporter Gene: A Mutated Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Suitable for PET During Treatment with Acycloguanosine-Based Cytotoxic Drugs  

PubMed Central

In this article, we describe a series of new human-derived reporter genes based on human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) suitable for clinical PET. Methods Native dCK and its mutant reporter genes were tested in vitro and in vivo for their phosphorylation of pyrimidine- and acycloguanosine-based radiotracers including 2?-deoxy-2?-fluoroarabinofuranosylcytosine, 2?-fluoro-2?-deoxyarabinofuranosyl-5-ethyluracil (FEAU), penciclovir, and 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine (FHBG) and clinically applied antiviral and anticancer drugs. Results Cells transduced with dCK mutant reporter genes showed high in vitro and in vivo uptake of pyrimidine-based radiopharmaceuticals (18F-FEAU) comparable to that of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk)–transduced cells. These mutants did not phosphorylate acycloguanosine-based radiotracers (18F-FHBG) or antiviral drugs (ganciclovir). Furthermore, the mutants displayed suicidal activation of clinically used pyrimidine-based prodrugs (cytarabine, gemcitabine). Conclusion The mutants of human dCK can be used as pyrimidine-specific PET reporter genes for imaging with 18F-FEAU during treatment with acycloguanosine-based antiviral drugs. Additionally, the prosuicidal activity of these reporters with pyrimidine-based analogs will allow for the safe elimination of transduced cells. PMID:20810757

Likar, Yury; Zurita, Juan; Dobrenkov, Konstantin; Shenker, Larissa; Cai, Shangde; Neschadim, Anton; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Sadelain, Michel; Hricak, Hedvig; Ponomarev, Vladimir



Evolution of echinoderms may not have required modification of the ancestral deuterostome HOX gene cluster: first report of PG4 and PG5 Hox orthologues in echinoderms.  


Is the extreme derivation of the echinoderm body plan reflected in a derived echinoderm Hox genotype? Building on previous work, we exploited the sequence conservation of the homeobox to isolate putative orthologues of several Hox genes from two asteroid echinoderms. The 5-peptide motif (LPNTK) diagnostic of PG4 Hox genes was identified immediately downstream of one of the partial homeodomains from Patiriella exigua. This constitutes the first unequivocal report of a PG4 Hox gene orthologue from an echinoderm. Subsequent screenings identified genes of both PG4 and PG4/5 in Asterias rubens. Although in echinoids only a single gene (PG4/5) occupies these two contiguous cluster positions, we conclude that the ancestral echinoderm must have had the complete deuterostome suite of medial Hox genes, including orthologues of both PG4 and PG4/5 (=PG5). The reported absence of PG4 in the HOX cluster of echinoids is therefore a derived state, and the ancestral echinoderm probably had a HOX cluster not dissimilar to that of other deuterostomes. Modification of the ancestral deuterostome Hox genotype may not have been required for evolution of the highly derived echinoderm body plan. PMID:13680225

Long, Suzanne; Martinez, Pedro; Chen, Wei-Chung; Thorndyke, Michael; Byrne, Maria



Mu-lac insertion-directed mutagenesis in a pectate lyase gene of Erwinia chrysanthemi.  

PubMed Central

The pelC gene, which encodes one of the five major pectate lyase (PL) isoenzymes in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, designated PLc, was subcloned from a hybrid lambda phage into a pBR322 derivative and mutagenized with a mini-Mu-lacZ transposable element able to form fusions to the lacZ gene. One plasmid (pAD1) which had an inactivated pelC gene and a Lac+ phenotype was selected in Escherichia coli. This plasmid was introduced into Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the pelC::mini-Mu insertion was substituted for the chromosomal allele by homologous recombination. This strain lacks the PLc isoenzyme. This Erwinia chrysanthemi strain has a Lac+ phenotype that is inducible by polygalacturonate, as are the wild-type PL activities. Images PMID:2993251

Diolez, A; Coleno, A



An IRE-Like AGC Kinase Gene, MtIRE, Has Unique Expression in the Invasion Zone of Developing Root Nodules in Medicago truncatula1[OA  

PubMed Central

The AGC protein kinase family (cAMP-dependent protein kinases A, cGMP-dependent protein kinases G, and phospholipid-dependent protein kinases C) have important roles regulating growth and development in animals and fungi. They are activated via lipid second messengers by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase coupling lipid signals to phosphorylation of the AGC kinases. These phosphorylate downstream signal transduction protein targets. AGC kinases are becoming better studied in plants, especially in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where specific AGC kinases have been shown to have key roles in regulating growth signal pathways. We report here the isolation and characterization of the first AGC kinase gene identified in Medicago truncatula, MtIRE. It was cloned by homology with the Arabidopsis INCOMPLETE ROOT HAIR ELONGATION (IRE) gene. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that, unlike its Arabidopsis counterpart, MtIRE is not expressed in uninoculated roots, but is expressed in root systems that have been inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti and are developing root nodules. MtIRE expression is also found in flowers. Expression analysis of a time course of nodule development and of nodulating root systems of many Medicago nodulation mutants shows MtIRE expression correlates with infected cell maturation during nodule development. During the course of these experiments, nine Medicago nodulation mutants, including sli and dnf1 to 7 mutants, were evaluated for the first time for their microscopic nodule phenotype using S. meliloti constitutively expressing lacZ. Spatial localization of a pMtIRE-gusA transgene in transformed roots of composite plants showed that MtIRE expression is confined to the proximal part of the invasion zone, zone II, found in indeterminate nodules. This suggests MtIRE is useful as an expression marker for this region of the invasion zone. PMID:17237187

Pislariu, Catalina I.; Dickstein, Rebecca



Disruption of the pdhB Pyruvate Dehyrogenase Gene Affects Colony Morphology, In Vitro Growth and Cell Invasiveness of Mycoplasma agalactiae  

PubMed Central

The utilization of available substrates, the metabolic potential and the growth rates of bacteria can play significant roles in their pathogenicity. This study concentrates on Mycoplasma agalactiae, which causes significant economic losses through its contribution to contagious agalactia in small ruminants by as yet unknown mechanisms. This lack of knowledge is primarily due to its fastidious growth requirements and the scarcity of genetic tools available for its manipulation and analysis. Transposon mutagenesis of M. agalactiae type strain PG2 resulted in several disruptions throughout the genome. A mutant defective in growth in vitro was found to have a transposon insertion in the pdhB gene, which encodes a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This growth difference was quite significant during the actively dividing logarithmic phase but a gradual recovery was observed as the cells approached stationary phase. The mutant also exhibited a different and smaller colony morphology compared to the wild type strain PG2. For complementation, pdhAB was cloned downstream of a strong vpma promoter and upstream of a lacZ reporter gene in a newly constructed complementation vector. When transformed with this vector the pdhB mutant recovered its normal growth and colony morphology. Interestingly, the pdhB mutant also had significantly reduced invasiveness in HeLa cells, as revealed by double immunofluorescence staining. This deficiency was recovered in the complemented strain, which had invasiveness comparable to that of PG2. Taken together, these data indicate that pyruvate dehydrogenase might be an important player in infection with and colonization by M. agalactiae. PMID:25799063

Hegde, Shivanand; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini



Familial migraine: Exclusion of the susceptibility gene from the reported locus of familial hemiplegic migraine on 19p  

SciTech Connect

Genetic isolates are highly useful in analyses of the molecular background of complex diseases since the enrichment of a limited number of predisposing genes can be predicted in representative families or in specific geographical regions. It has been suggested that the pathophysiology and etiology of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and typical migraine with aura are most probably the same. Recent assignment of FHM locus to chromosome 19p in two French families makes it now possible to test this hypothesis. We report here linkage data on four families with multiple cases of migraine disorder originating from the genetically isolated population of Finland. We were interested to discover whether the migraine in these families would also show linkage to the markers on 19p. We could exclude a region of 50 cM, flanking the reported FHM locus, as a site of migraine locus in our four families. It seems evident that locus heterogeneity exists between different diagnostic classes of migraine spectrum of diseases and also between different ethnic groups. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hovatta, I.; Peltonen, L. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kallela, M.; Faerkkilae, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)] [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)



The maize GapC4 promoter confers anaerobic reporter gene expression and shows homology to the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1.  


The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapC) gene family of maize is differentially expressed in response to anaerobic stress. While GapCl and GapC2 are downregulated, GapC3 and GapC4 are anaerobically induced. We have sequenced and analyzed a 3073 bp promoter fragment of GapC4. The promoter confers anaerobic induction of a reporter gene construct in a transient gene expression system in maize. Deletion analysis of the GapC4 promoter revealed a 270 bp long DNA region required for anaerobic induction. This region contains sequence motifs resembling the cis-acting sequences of the anaerobically induced maize Adh1 and Adh2 genes. Furthermore, the 3073 bp GapC4 promoter fragment displays homology to long terminal repeats of maize retrotransposons and to the 3' region of the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1. PMID:8616225

Köhler, U; Liaud, M F; Mendel, R R; Cerff, R; Hehl, R



Double-hit mantle cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangement or amplification: a report of four cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Mature B-cell lymphomas with both BCL2 and MYC translocations are known as “double hit” lymphomas. These lymphomas are aggressive and show high proliferation rate due to the growth advantages provided by MYC and BCL2 translocation and overexpression. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a neoplasm of mature B-lymphocytes with characteristic t(11;14) and subsequent Cyclin D1 overexpression. Secondary cytogenetic changes are frequent in MCL, but MYC translocation has only been rarely reported. In this study, we report four cases of MCL with MYC translocation or MYC gene amplification detected by conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, and determined the clinicopathologic features. Our study provides further evidence supporting the concept of “double hit” MCL with co-involvement of MYC gene rearrangement and/or amplification and CCND1 gene rearrangement. PMID:23330001

Setoodeh, Reza; Schwartz, Stuart; Papenhausen, Peter; Zhang, Ling; Sagatys, Elizabeth M; Moscinski, Lynn C; Shao, Haipeng



Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a young man with a factor v leiden gene mutation: a case report and review of the literature.  


Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial ischemia in young adults, especially in women. We report a case of spontaneous coronary dissection in a young healthy man who was also a carrier of the factor V Leiden gene mutation. PMID:24436622

Khan, Tahir; Danyi, Peter; Topaz, On; Ali, Asghar; Jovin, Ion S



Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection in a Young Man with a Factor V Leiden Gene Mutation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial ischemia in young adults, especially in women. We report a case of spontaneous coronary dissection in a young healthy man who was also a carrier of the factor V Leiden gene mutation. PMID:24436622

Khan, Tahir; Danyi, Peter; Topaz, On; Ali, Asghar; Jovin, Ion S.



Brief Report: High Frequency of Biochemical Markers for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: No Association with the Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier "SLC25A12" Gene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we confirm the previously reported high frequency of biochemical markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, namely hyperlactacidemia and increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, in a significant fraction of 210 autistic patients. We further examine the involvement of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier gene ("SLC25A12") in…

Correia, Catarina; Coutinho, Ana M.; Diogo, Luisa; Grazina, Manuela; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa; Ataide, Assuncao; Almeida, Joana; Borges, Luis; Oliveira, Catarina; Oliveira, Guiomar; Vicente, Astrid M.



Metal ions induced heat shock protein response by elevating superoxide anion level in HeLa cells transformed by HSE-SEAP reporter gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to define the relationship between heat shock protein (HSP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells exposed to different concentrations of metal ions, and to evaluate a new method for tracing the dynamic levels of cellular reactive oxygen species using a HSE-SEAP reporter gene. The expression of heat shock protein was measured using

Zhanjiang Yu; Xiaoda Yang; Kui Wang



Long-term in vivo monitoring of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cell engraftment with a human positron emission tomography reporter gene  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) reporter genes allow noninvasive whole-body imaging of transplanted cells by detection with radiolabeled probes. We used a human deoxycytidine kinase containing three amino acid substitutions within the active site (hdCK3mut) as a reporter gene in combination with the PET probe [18F]-L-FMAU (1-(2-deoxy-2-18fluoro-?-L-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil) to monitor models of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. These mutations in hdCK3mut expanded the substrate capacity allowing for reporter-specific detection with a thymidine analog probe. Measurements of long-term engrafted cells (up to 32 wk) demonstrated that hdCK3mut expression is maintained in vivo with no counter selection against reporter-labeled cells. Reporter cells retained equivalent engraftment and differentiation capacity being detected in all major hematopoietic lineages and tissues. This reporter gene and probe should be applicable to noninvasively monitor therapeutic cell transplants in multiple tissues. PMID:23319634

McCracken, Melissa N.; Gschweng, Eric H.; Nair-Gill, Evan; McLaughlin, Jami; Cooper, Aaron R.; Riedinger, Mireille; Cheng, Donghui; Nosala, Christopher; Kohn, Donald B.; Witte, Owen N.



Long-term in vivo monitoring of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cell engraftment with a human positron emission tomography reporter gene.  


Positron emission tomography (PET) reporter genes allow noninvasive whole-body imaging of transplanted cells by detection with radiolabeled probes. We used a human deoxycytidine kinase containing three amino acid substitutions within the active site (hdCK3mut) as a reporter gene in combination with the PET probe [(18)F]-L-FMAU (1-(2-deoxy-2-(18)fluoro-?-L-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil) to monitor models of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. These mutations in hdCK3mut expanded the substrate capacity allowing for reporter-specific detection with a thymidine analog probe. Measurements of long-term engrafted cells (up to 32 wk) demonstrated that hdCK3mut expression is maintained in vivo with no counter selection against reporter-labeled cells. Reporter cells retained equivalent engraftment and differentiation capacity being detected in all major hematopoietic lineages and tissues. This reporter gene and probe should be applicable to noninvasively monitor therapeutic cell transplants in multiple tissues. PMID:23319634

McCracken, Melissa N; Gschweng, Eric H; Nair-Gill, Evan; McLaughlin, Jami; Cooper, Aaron R; Riedinger, Mireille; Cheng, Donghui; Nosala, Christopher; Kohn, Donald B; Witte, Owen N



Simultaneous evaluation of human CYP3A4 and ABCB1 induction by reporter assay in LS174T cells, stably expressing their reporter genes.  


The bioavailability of orally administered therapies are often significantly limited in the human intestine by the metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Predicting whether candidate compounds induce CYP3A4 and P-gp is a crucial stage in the drug development process, as drug-drug interactions may result in the induction of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp. However, the assay systems needed to evaluate both CYP3A4 and P-gp induction in the intestine are yet to be established. To address this urgent requirement, LS174T cells were used to create two stable cell lines expressing the CYP3A4 or ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1, encoding P-gp) reporter genes. First, these stable cells were tested by treatment with 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) that induce CYP3A4 and P-gp in the intestines. All these compounds significantly increased both CYP3A4 and ABCB1 reporter activities in the stable cell lines. To simultaneously assess the induction of CYP3A4 and ABCB1, both stable cells were co-cultivated to measure their reporter activities. The mixed cells showed a significant increase in the CYP3A4 and ABCB1 reporter activities following treatment with 1,25(OH)2 D3 , ATRA, and 9-cis RA. These activity levels were maintained after passaging more than 20 times and following multiple freeze-thaw cycles. These results demonstrate that our established cell lines can be used to evaluate simultaneously CYP3A4 and ABCB1 induction in the intestines, providing a valuable in vitro model for the evaluation of future drug candidates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25410880

Inami, Keita; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nagata, Kiyoshi



Transcriptional analysis of a superoxide dismutase gene of Borrelia burgdorferi.  


A single superoxide dismutase (Sod) gene was identified in Borrelia burgdorferi strains, Borrelia afzelii Ple and Borrelia garinii Pbi. Recombinant enzymatic activity was detected only when sod expression was controlled by the lacZ promoter in the cloning vector. Northern blot analysis with sod- or secA-specific probes identified a common 3.7-kb transcript. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis confirmed that secA and sod constitute a single transcriptional unit in B. burgdorferi. A transcriptional start site of this operon, containing -10 and -35 regions of a sigma(70)-type promoter, was mapped to 100 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of secA. PMID:10650199

Nichols, T L; Whitehouse, C A; Austin, F E



An alternative promoter of the human neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene is expressed specifically in Leydig cells.  


Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a modulatory role in the biology of a variety of neuroendocrine tissues and is especially relevant to gonadal function. We have previously reported the cloning and characterization of a variant of the nNOS protein, termed testis nNOS (TnNOS), the mRNA for which was restricted in expression to male gonadal tissues. To examine the cell-specificity of the testis-specific NOS regulatory regions we defined patterns of beta-galactosidase expression of an insertional transgene in which the reporter gene lacZ was under the transcriptional control of the human TnNOS promoter. beta-galactosidase activity was detected exclusively in the interstitial cells of the testis in transgenic mice. These cells also evidenced positive staining for nNOS protein and were identified as androgen-producing Leydig cells by staining with the Leydig cell marker, P(450)scc. Expression of the promoter was absent in cells of the seminiferous tubules, specifically germline cells of different stages and Sertoli cells. In contrast to the male gonad, beta-galactosidase activity was not detected in ovaries of adult female mice. Activity was also not evident in organs known to express full-length nNOS, such as skeletal muscle, kidney, or cerebellum. The same pattern of beta-galactosidase staining was observed in independent transgenic founders and was distinct from that observed for an endothelial NOS promoter/reporter transgene. In the testis of male adult eNOS promoter-reporter transgenic mice, beta-galactosidase activity was expressed only in endothelial cells of large- and medium-sized arterial blood vessels. Transcriptional activity of the human TnNOS promoter could not be detected in a variety of cell types, including Leydig cells, using episomal promoter-reporter constructs suggesting that a nuclear environment and higher order genomic complexity are required for appropriate promoter function. The restricted expression pattern of an nNOS variant in Leydig cells of the male gonad suggests an important role in the regulation of testosterone release and represents an intriguing model with which to dissect the molecular basis of Leydig cell-specific gene expression. PMID:11786430

Wang, Yang; Newton, Derek C; Miller, Tricia L; Teichert, Anouk-Martine; Phillips, M James; Davidoff, Michail S; Marsden, Philip A



The PBP 5 synthesis repressor ( psr) gene of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 is substantially longer than previously reported  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reexamination of the nucleotide sequence of the psr gene of Enterococcus hirae revealed the presence of two additional nucleotides at residues 1190 and 1191. As a result, instead of a stop codon after 148 aa, the psr gene product would contain 293 aa residues. The revised size of the gene product was confirmed by subsequently cloning and expressing the

Orietta Massidda; Olivier Dardenne; Michael B. Whalen; Willy Zorzi; jacques Coyette; Gerald D. Shockman; Lolita Daneo-moore



Comparative Pathogenesis of Autographa californica M Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus in Larvae of Trichoplusia ni and Heliothis virescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared early viral pathogenesis and dose mortality relationships for larvae of two highly susceptible hosts, Trichoplusia ni and Heliothis virescens, using a construct of AcMNPV containing the lacZ reporter gene. Larvae were inoculated either as newly molted fourth instars (40) or 15 hr after the molt (415). In 40-inoculated larvae, first lacZ expression was detected in the midgut epithelium

Jan O. Washburn; Bruce A. Kirkpatrick; Loy E. Volkman



Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Pig Carrying a DsRed-Monomer Reporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Background Pigs are an optimal animal for conducting biomedical research because of their anatomical and physiological resemblance to humans. In contrast to the abundant resources available in the study of mice, few fluorescent protein-harboring porcine models are available for preclinical studies. In this paper, we report the successful generation and characterization of a transgenic DsRed-Monomer porcine model. Methods The transgene comprised a CMV enhancer/chicken-beta actin promoter and DsRed monomeric cDNA. Transgenic pigs were produced by using pronuclear microinjection. PCR and Southern blot analyses were applied for identification of the transgene. Histology, blood examinations and computed tomography were performed to study the health conditions. The pig amniotic fluid progenitor/stem cells were also isolated to examine the existence of red fluorescence and differentiation ability. Results Transgenic pigs were successfully generated and transmitted to offspring at a germ-line transmission rate of 43.59% (17/39). Ubiquitous expression of red fluorescence was detected in the brain, eye, tongue, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, spleen, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, testis, and muscle; this was confirmed by histology and western blot analyses. In addition, we confirmed the differentiation potential of amniotic fluid progenitor stem cells isolated from the transgenic pig. Conclusions This red fluorescent pig can serve as a host for other fluorescent-labeled cells in order to study cell-microenvironment interactions, and can provide optimal red-fluorescent-labeled cells and tissues for research in developmental biology, regenerative medicine, and xenotransplantation. PMID:25187950

Wu, Mei-Han; Yang, Cho-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kui; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Lin, Yao-Ping



Identification of genes in a KG? phenotype of Lactococcus garvieae , a fish pathogenic bacterium, whose proteins react with antiKG? rabbit serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different clones (SA1B05, SA1B10, SA2F01, SA8A11 and SA9H10) were isolated from the gene library of the Lactococcus garvieae SA8201 (KG?) strain by immunological screening using rabbit serum against L. garvieae (KG?) phenotype cells. A Western blot analysis indicated that the molecular sizes of immunologically detected proteins of SA1B05, SA1B10, SA2F01, SA8A11 and SA9H10, which were fused with LacZ protein,

Ikuo Hirono; Hideki Yamashita; Chan Il Park; Terutoyo Yoshida; Takashi Aoki



Corneal gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy to the cornea can potentially correct inherited and acquired diseases of the cornea. Factors that facilitate corneal gene delivery are the accessibility and transparency of the cornea, its stability ex vivo and the immune privilege of the eye. Initial corneal gene delivery studies characterized the relationship between intraocular modes of administration and location of reporter gene expression. The

Eytan A. Klausner; Dan Peer; Robert L. Chapman; Richard F. Multack; Shridhar V. Andurkar



Induction of SOS genes of Escherichia coli by chromium compounds  

SciTech Connect

The induction of several SOS genes of Escherichia coli such as recA, umuC, and sfiA by hexavalent (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, and CrO/sub 3/) and trivalent (CrCl/sub 3/, Cr(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, and (CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 3/Cr) compounds of chromium was studied. Induction was measured as ..beta..-galactosidase activity, using lacZ gene fusions under the control region of different SOS genes. The hexavalent chromium forms induced the genes responsible for massive synthesis of RecA protein, error-prone repair, and inhibition of cell division. On the other hand, the trivalent chromium compounds were unable to induce any of the SOS genes tested. Individual assay of hexavalent chromium compounds showed that K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ was a stronger inducing agent of those three SOS genes tested than K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, which, in turn, was stronger than CrO/sub 3/. All this data led to the conclusion that hexavalent chromium compounds, but not trivalent, are proficient agents of induction of the SOS system and can produce indirect mutagenesis in Escherichia coli.

Llagostera, M.; Garrido, S.; Guerrero, R.; Barbe, J.



The Vibrio cholerae Fatty Acid Regulatory Protein, FadR, Represses Transcription of plsB, the Gene Encoding the First Enzyme of Membrane Phospholipid Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Glycerol-3-phosphate (sn-glycerol-3-P, G3P) acyltransferase catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids, the acylation of G3P to form 1-acyl G3P (lysophosphatidic acid). The paradigm G3P acyltransferase is the Escherichia coli plsB gene product which acylates position-1 of G3P using fatty acids in thioester linkage to either acyl carrier protein (ACP) or CoA as acyl-donors. Although the Escherichia coli plsB gene was discovered about 30 years ago, no evidence for transcriptional control of its expression has been reported. However Kazakov and coworkers (Kazakov, A. E. et al. (2009) J Bacteriol, 191, 52–64) reported the presence of a putative FadR-binding site upstream of the candidate plsB genes of V. cholerae and three other Vibrio species suggesting that plsB might be regulated by FadR, a GntR-family transcription factor thus far known only to regulate fatty acid synthesis and degradation. We report that the V. cholerae plsB homologue restored growth of E. coli strain BB26-36 which is a G3P auxotroph due to an altered G3P acyltransferase activity. The plsB promoter was also mapped and the predicted FadR-binding palindrome was found to span positions -19 to -35, upstream of the transcription start site. Gel shift assays confirmed that both V. cholerae FadR and E. coli FadR bound the V. cholerae plsB promoter region and binding was reversed upon addition of long chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesters. The expression level of the V. cholerae plsB gene was elevated 2–3 fold in an E. coli fadR null mutant strain indicating that FadR acts as a repressor of V. cholerae plsB expression. In both E. coli and V. cholerae the ?-galactosidase activity of transcriptional fusions of the V. cholerae plsB promoter to lacZ increased 2–3 fold upon supplementation of growth media with oleic acid. Therefore, V. cholerae coordinates fatty acid metabolism with 1-acyl G3P synthesis. PMID:21771112

Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E.



Genes and Gene Therapy  


... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...


Comparison of [ 18 F]FHBG and [ 14 C]FIAU for imaging of HSV1-tk reporter gene expression: adenoviral infection vs stable transfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies involving comparison of different reporter probes have shown conflicting results between pyrimidine nucleosides [e.g., 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-ß-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (FIAU)] and acycloguanosine derivatives [e.g., penciclovir (PCV), 9-(4-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine (FHBG)]. We hypothesized that this reported discrepancy may be related to how the reporter gene is delivered to the cells—stably transfected vs adenoviral infection. We directly compared the uptake characteristics of [ 18F]FHBG, [ 3H]PCV,

Jung-Jun Min; Meera Iyer; Sanjiv S. Gambhir



Passage of Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus through the Midgut Epithelium of Spodoptera exigua Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special recombinant of Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) was designed to study the early histopathological events of baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua larvae. This recombinant contained a Drosophila melanogaster heat shock 70 promoter driving an Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase (Lac-Z) reporter gene to monitor the presence of early viral gene expression and a second reporter gene, the E.

J. T. M. Flipsen; J. W. M. Martens; M. M. Van Oers; J. M. Vlak; J. W. M. Van LENT



A dual reporter screening system identifies the amino acid at position 82 in Flp site-specific recombinase as a determinant for target specificity  

PubMed Central

We have developed a dual reporter screen in Escherichia coli for identifying variants of the Flp site-specific recombinase that have acquired reactivity at an altered target site (mFRT). In one reporter, the lacZ? gene segment is flanked by mFRTs in direct orientation. In the other, the red fluorescence protein (RFP) gene is flanked by the native FRTs. Hence, the color of a colony on an X-gal indicator plate indicates the recombination potential of the variant Flp protein expressed in it: blue if no recombination or only FRT recombination occurs, red if only mFRT recombination occurs and white if both FRT and mFRT recombinations occur. The scheme was validated by identification and in vivo characterization of Flp variants that show either relaxed specificity (active on FRT and mFRT) or moderately shifted specificity toward mFRT. We find that alteration of Lys-82 to Met, Thr, Arg or His enables the corresponding Flp variants to recombine FRT sites as well as altered FRT sites containing a substitution of G-C by C-G at position 1 of the Flp binding element (mFRT11). In contrast, wild-type Flp has no detectable activity on mFRT11. When Lys-82 is replaced by Tyr, the resulting Flp variant shows a small but reproducible preference for mFRT11 over FRT. However, this preference for mFRT11 is nearly lost when Tyr-82 is substituted by Phe. PMID:11917027

Voziyanov, Yuri; Stewart, A. Francis; Jayaram, Makkuni



Validation and application of a reporter gene assay for the determination of estrogenic endocrine disruptor activity in milk.  


Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to interfere with the endocrine system by disturbing the action or pathways of natural hormones which may lead to infertility or cancer. Our diet is considered to be one of the main exposure routes to EDs. Since milk and dairy products are major components of our diet they should be monitored for ED contamination. Most assays developed to date utilise targeted, chromatography based methods which lack information on the biological activity and mixture effects of the monitored compounds. A biological reporter gene assay (RGA) was developed to assess the total estrogen hormonal load in milk. It has been validated according to EU decision 2002/657/EC. Analytes were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by clean up on a HLB column which yielded good recovery and small matrix effects. The method has been shown to be estrogen specific, repeatable and reproducible, with covariance values below 20%. In conclusion, this method enables the detection of low levels of estrogen hormonal activity in milk with a detection capability of 36 pg g(-)(1) EEQ and has been successfully applied in testing a range of milk samples. PMID:24769019

Wielogorska, E; Elliott, C T; Danaher, M; Connolly, L



An In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Reporter Gene/Probe System hERL/18F-FES  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a reporter gene/probe system, namely the human estrogen receptor ligand binding domain (hERL)/16?-[18F] fluoro-17?-estradiol (18F-FES), for monitoring gene and cell therapy. Methods The recombinant adenovirus vector Ad5-hERL-IRES-VEGF (Ad-EIV), carrying a reporter gene (hERL) and a therapeutic gene (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF165) through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), was constructed. After transfection of Ad-EIV into bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-EIV-MSCs), hERL and VEGF165 mRNA and protein expressions were identified using Real-Time qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The uptake of 18F-FES was measured in both Ad-EIV-MSCs and nontransfected MSCs after different incubation time. Micro-PET/CT images were obtained at 1 day after injection of Ad-EIV-MSCs into the left foreleg of the rat. The right foreleg was injected with nontransfected MSCs, which served as self-control. Results After transfection with Ad-EIV, the mRNA and protein expression of hERL and VEGF165 were successfully detected in MSCs, and correlated well with each other (R2?=?0.9840, P<0.05). This indicated the reporter gene could reflect the therapeutic gene indirectly. Ad-EIV-MSCs uptake of 18F-FES increased with incubation time with a peak value of 9.13%±0.33% at 150 min, which was significantly higher than that of the control group. A far higher level of radioactivity could be seen in the left foreleg on the micro-PET/CT image than in the opposite foreleg. Conclusion These preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that hERL/18F-FES might be used as a novel reporter gene/probe system for monitoring gene and cell therapy. This imaging platform may have broad applications for basic research and clinical studies. PMID:23593502

Qin, Chunxia; Lan, Xiaoli; He, Jiang; Xia, Xiaotian; Tian, Yueli; Pei, Zhijun; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Yongxue



Characterization of a psychrotrophic Arthrobacter gene and its cold-active beta-galactosidase.  

PubMed Central

Enzymes with high specific activities at low temperatures have potential uses for chemical conversions when low temperatures are required, as in the food industry. Psychrotrophic microorganisms which grow at low temperatures may be a valuable source of cold-active enzymes that have higher activities at low temperatures than enzymes found for mesophilic microorganisms. To find cold-active beta-galactosidases, we isolated and characterized several psychrotrophic microorganisms. One isolate, B7, is an Arthrobacter strain which produces beta-galactosidase when grown in lactose minimal media. Extracts have a specific activity at 30 degrees C of 2 U/mg with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate. Two isozymes were detected when extracts were subjected to electrophoresis in a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and stained for activity with 5-bromo-4-chloro-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal). When chromosomal DNA was prepared and transformed into Escherichia coli, three different genes encoding beta-galactosidase activity were obtained. We have subcloned and sequenced one of these beta-galactosidase genes from the Arthrobacter isolate B7. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, the gene was found to have probable catalytic sites homologous to those from the E. coli lacZ gene. The gene encoded a protein of 1,016 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 111 kDa. The enzyme was purified and characterized. The beta-galactosidase from isolate B7 has kinetic properties similar to those of the E. coli lacZ beta-galactosidase but has a temperature optimum 20 degrees C lower than that of the E. coli enzyme. Images PMID:7811090

Trimbur, D E; Gutshall, K R; Prema, P; Brenchley, J E



Adenoviral reporter gene transfer to the human trabecular meshwork does not alter aqueous humor outflow. Relevance for potential gene therapy of glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstruction of the aqueous humor outflow from the anterior chamber of the eye leads to an elevation of intraocular pressure in glaucoma, the second major cause of blindness worldwide. Our goal is to be able to modulate aqueous humor outflow resistance by gene transfer to the cells of the trabecular meshwork (TM). We have previously shown that adenoviral vectors are

T Borrás; L L Rowlette; S C Erzurum; D L Epstein



[Organization and regulation of the genes for nitrogen fixation in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata]. Progress report, [June 5, 1989--June 4, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In prior support periods we identified, cloned and sequenced three genes involved in the regulation of nif gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. These were called nifRI, nifR2 and nifR4; they turn out to be homologue of the ntrC, ntrB and ntrA genes of enterobacteria. We subsequently found that mutations in an additional gene, nifR5. render R. capsulatus nif genes constitutive with respect to ammonia. The nifR5 gene was shown to be similar to glnB of enteric bacteria, encoding the regulatory protein PII, and furthering the intersection of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation cascade with the control of nif gene transcription. In pursuit of the mechanism of 0{sub 2} control of nif gene expression, we constructed and analyzed the topology of a small plasmid in R. capsulatus as a function of 0{sub 2} concentration. We also cloned and obtained partial sequence data for two genes encoding the B subunit of DNA gyrase. The nucleotide sequence of the rpoB gene encoding RNA polymerase was nearly completed. A method for isolation of genes expressed differentially, developed for cyanobacteria, was applied successfully to R. capsulatus. Several genes that depend on nifR4 for their transcription were isolated. A transcription start site for a nifA gene was identified and the promoter sequence was analyzed. A physical map of the R calsulatus SB1003 chromosome was prepared, based on pulsed-field electrophoresis of XbaI and AseI fragments and hybridization with a gridded cosmid library, using a device that permits 864 cosmids to be hybridized at one time with a labeled chromosomal fragment.

Not Available



Targeted Deletion of the Antisilencer/Enhancer (ASE) Element from Intron 1 of the Myelin Proteolipid Protein Gene (Plp1) in Mouse Reveals that the Element Is Dispensable for Plp1 Expression in Brain during Development and Remyelination  

PubMed Central

Myelin proteolipid protein gene (Plp1) expression is temporally regulated in brain, which peaks during the active myelination period of CNS development. Previous studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice demonstrated that (mouse) Plp1 intron 1 DNA is required for high levels of expression in oligodendrocytes. Deletion-transfection analysis revealed the intron contains a single positive regulatory element operative in the N20.1 oligodendroglial cell line, which was named ASE (antisilencer/enhancer) based on its functional properties in these cells. To investigate the role of the ASE in vivo, the element was deleted from the native gene in mouse using a Cre/lox strategy. While removal of the ASE from Plp1-lacZ constructs profoundly decreased expression in transfected oligodendroglial cell lines (N20.1 and Oli-neu), the element was dispensable to achieve normal levels of Plp1 gene expression in mouse during development (except perhaps at postnatal day 15) and throughout the remyelination period following cuprizone-induced (acute) demyelination. Thus, it is possible that the ASE is nonfunctional in vivo, or that loss of the ASE from the native gene in mouse can be compensated for by the presence of other regulatory elements within the Plp1 gene. PMID:23157328

Pereira, Glauber B.; Meng, Fanxue; Kockara, Neriman T.; Yang, Baoli; Wight, Patricia A.



Spectrum of MECP2 gene mutations in a cohort of Indian patients with Rett syndrome: report of two novel mutations.  


Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting females and characterized by developmental regression, epilepsy, stereotypical hand movements, and motor abnormalities. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10,000 female births. Rett syndrome is caused by mutations within methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Over 270 individual nucleotide changes which cause pathogenic mutations have been reported. However, eight most commonly occurring missense and nonsense mutations account for almost 70% of all patients. We screened 90 individuals with Rett syndrome phenotype. A total of 19 different MECP2 mutations and polymorphisms were identified in 27 patients. Of the 19 mutations, we identified 7 (37%) frameshift, 6 (31%) nonsense, 14 (74%) missense mutations and one duplication (5%). The most frequent pathogenic changes were: missense p.T158M (11%), p.R133C (7.4%), and p.R306C (7.4%) and nonsense p.R168X (11%), p.R255X (7.4%) mutations. We have identified two novel mutations namely p.385-388delPLPP present in atypical patients and p.Glu290AlafsX38 present in a classical patient of Rett syndrome. Sequence homology for p.385-388delPLPP mutation revealed that these 4 amino acids were conserved across mammalian species. This indicated the importance of these 4 amino acids in structure and function of the protein. A novel variant p.T479T has also been identified in a patient with atypical Rett syndrome. A total of 62 (69%) patients remained without molecular genetics diagnosis that necessitates further search for mutations in other genes like CDKL5 and FOXG1 that are known to cause Rett phenotype. The majority of mutations are detected in exon 4 and only one mutation was present in exon 3. Therefore, our study suggests the need for screening exon 4 of MECP2 as first line of diagnosis in these patients. PMID:23262346

Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Raha, Sarbani; Sanghavi, Daksha; Maitra, Anurupa; Udani, Vrajesh



Optic atrophy and a Leigh-like syndrome due to mutations in the c12orf65 gene: report of a novel mutation and review of the literature.  


Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency type 7 (COXPD7) is a rare disorder of mitochondrial metabolism that results in optic atrophy and Leigh syndrome-like disease. We describe 2 siblings with compound heterozygous mutations in the recently identified C12orf65 gene who presented with optic atrophy and mild developmental delays and subsequently developed bilateral, symmetric lesions in the brainstem reminiscent of Leigh syndrome. Repeat neuroimaging demonstrated reversibility of the findings in 1 sibling and persistent metabolic stroke in the other. This article highlights the phenotypic manifestations from a novel mutation in the C12orf65 gene and reviews the clinical presentation of the 5 other individuals reported to date who carry mutations in this gene. PMID:24284555

Heidary, Gena; Calderwood, Laurel; Cox, Gerald F; Robson, Caroline D; Teot, Lisa A; Mullon, Jennifer; Anselm, Irina



[Homozygous E387K (1159G>A) mutation of the CYP1B1 gene in a Roma boy affected with primary congenital glaucoma. Case report].  


Primary congenital glaucoma was diagnosed in a son (born in 2009) of a healthy, non-consanguineous Roma couple. This couple terminated their next two pregnancies because of the 25% recurrence risk of this autosomal recessive ophthalmological abnormality. Molecular genetic analysis showed the homozygote E387K mutation of the CYP1B1 gene in the proband and the presence of this gene mutation in heterozygous form in both parents. This gene mutation is characteristic for Slovakian Roma population. There are two objectives of this case report. On one hand this finding indicates the genetic relationship of Slovakian and Hungarian Romas. On the other hand, the couple plans to have further pregnancies, and prenatal genetic test may help to assess the possible recurrence risk of this hereditary disease. PMID:25109919

Vogt, Gábor; Kádasi, ?udevit Lajos; Czeizel, Endre



Molecular Study of Three Lebanese and Syrian Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome and Report of Novel Mutations in the EDNRB and MITF Genes.  


Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized primarily by depigmentation of the skin and hair, heterochromia of the irides, sensorineural deafness, and sometimes by dystopia canthorum, and Hirschsprung disease. WS presents a large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Four different types have been individualized and linked to 5 different genes. We report 2 cases of WS type II and 1 case of WS type IV from Lebanon and Syria. The genetic studies revealed 2 novel mutations in the MITF gene of the WS type II cases and 1 novel homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene of the WS type IV case. This is the first molecular study of patients from the Arab world. Additional cases will enable a more detailed description of the clinical spectrum of Waardenburg syndrome in this region. PMID:21373256

Haddad, N M; Ente, D; Chouery, E; Jalkh, N; Mehawej, C; Khoueir, Z; Pingault, V; Mégarbané, A



Insertions in the gG Gene of Pseudorabies Virus Reduce Expression of the Upstream Us3 Protein and Inhibit Cell-to-Cell Spread of Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The alphaherpesvirus Us4 gene encodes glycoprotein G (gG), which is conserved in most viruses of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. In the swine pathogen pseudorabies virus (PRV), mutant viruses with internal deletions and insertions in the gG gene have shown no discernible phenotypes. We report that insertions in the gG locus of the attenuated PRV strain Bartha show reduced virulence in vivo and are defective in their ability to spread from cell to cell in a cell-type-specific manner. Similar insertions in the gG locus of the wild-type PRV strain Becker had no effect on the ability of virus infection to spread between cells. Insertions in the gG locus of the virulent NIA-3 strain gave results similar to those found with the Bartha strain. To examine the role of gG in cell-to-cell spread, a nonsense mutation in the gG signal sequence was constructed and crossed into the Bartha strain. This mutant, PRV157, failed to express gG yet had cell-to-cell spread properties indistinguishable from those of the parental Bartha strain. These data indicated that, while insertions in the gG locus result in decreased cell-to-cell spread, the phenotype was not due to loss of gG expression as first predicted. Analysis of gene expression upstream and downstream of gG revealed that expression of the upstream Us3 protein is reduced by insertion of lacZ or egfp at the gG locus. By contrast, expression of the gene immediately downstream of gG, Us6, which encodes glycoprotein gD, was not affected by insertions in gG. These data indicate that DNA insertions in gG have polar effects and suggest that the serine/threonine kinase encoded by the Us3 gene, and not gG, functions in the spread of viral infection between cells. PMID:11602726

Demmin, Gretchen L.; Clase, Amanda C.; Randall, Jessica A.; Enquist, L. W.; Banfield, Bruce W.



New Single Nucleotide Deletion In the SMPD1 Gene Causes Niemann Pick Disease Type A in a Child from Southwest Iran: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective Niemann Pick disease (NPD) type A (NPA: MIM #257200) is a lipid storage disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance and occurrs by defect of the SMPD1 gene encoding sphingomyelinase. Disruption of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of sphingomyelin in brain and liver, which in turn causes dysfunction or damage of tissue. Methods We report firstly a 2.5 year old boy with NPA in southwest Iran. Initially, the diagnosis was resulted on the basis of clinical symptoms. The genomic DNA of the suspected individual was subjected to exon sequencing of the SMPD1 gene. According to the human reference sequence NM_000543.4, a novel single guanine deletion resulting in a frameshift mutation (p.Gly247Alafs*9) was observed in the SMPD1 gene that might be causative for the outcome of the disease. Findings The present report is the first molecular genetics diagnosis of the NPA in southwest Iran. The detected deletion in the SMPD1 gene is remarkable because of its novelty. Conclusion Despite similar morbidity SGA infants exhibited higher lethal complication rates following delayed meconium passage compared to AGA infants. PMID:23724191

Galehdari, Hamid; Tangestani, Raheleh; Ghasemian, Sepideh



Use of bgaH as a reporter gene for studying translation initiation in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii  

E-print Network

The bgaH gene isolated from Haloferax lucentensis codes for P-galactosidase. To study the function of initiator tRNAs in translation initiation in Haloferax volcanii, the initiator AUG codon of the bgaH gene was mutated ...

Sullivan, Eric L., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Inferring candidate genes for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) assessed by the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The present study tests the psychometric properties and validity of the German version of the World Health Organization Adult\\u000a Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS), which is a short screening instrument for use in\\u000a the general population. Furthermore, two candidate genes for ADHD, the COMT VAL158MET and the 5-HT2a T102C polymorphisms,\\u000a were tested for associations with the ASRS

M. Reuter; P. Kirsch; J. Hennig



983. Human Derived Dual Reporter\\/Suicide Gene System for Simultaneous Pet Imaging of Independent Molecular-Biological Processes In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To develop a non-immunogenic human derived dual reporter gene system for simultaneous imaging of different molecular-genetic processes in humans using nuclear imaging techniques (PET) with potential suicide capabilities.Methods. Human mitochondrial thymidine kinase type 2 (hTK2) and human mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase (hdGK) cDNAs, truncated at the N-terminal, were expressed with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in U87 human glioma cell line

Vilia Tourkova; Malgorzata Dabrovska; Michael Doubrovin; Inna Serganova; Jelena Vider; Tatiana Beresten; Shangive Cai; Ronald Finn; Juri Gelovani Tjuvajev; Vladimir Ponomarev



Schizophrenia and the androgen receptor gene: Report of a sibship showing co-segregation with Reifenstein Syndrome but no evidence for linkage in 23 multiply affected families  

SciTech Connect

Crow et al. have reported excess sharing of alleles by male sibling pairs with schizophrenia, at a triplet repeat marker within the androgen receptor gene, indicating that mutations at or near this gene may be a risk factor for males. In this report, we describe a pair of male siblings concordant for both schizophrenia and Reifenstein syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in this gene. This provides support for the hypothesis that the androgen receptor may contribute to liability to develop schizophrenia. Because of this, we have examined a collection of 23 pedigrees multiply affected by schizophrenia for linkage to the androgen receptor. We have found no evidence for linkage by both the LOD score and affected sibling-pair methods, under a range of genetic models with a broad and narrow definition of phenotype, and when families with male-to-male transmission are excluded. However, because of the small number of informative male-male pairs in our sample, we cannot confirm or refute the excess allele sharing for males reported by Crow. 35 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Arranz, M.; Sharma, T.; Sham, P.; Kerwin, R. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others



Mutations Altering the Predicted Secondary Structure of a Chloroplast 59 Untranslated Region Affect Its Physical and Biochemical Properties as Well as Its Ability To Promote Translation of Reporter mRNAs Both in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplast and in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random mutations were generated in the sequence for the 5* untranslated region (5*UTR) of the Chlamy- domonas reinhardtii chloroplast rps7 mRNA by PCR, the coding sequence for the mutant leaders fused upstream of the lacZ* reporter in pUC18, and transformed into Escherichia coli, and white colonies were selected. Twelve single base pair changes were found at different positions in the




First report of a clinical, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolate coharboring fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 and carbapenemase gene blaKPC-2 on the same transposon, Tn1721.  


In order to understand the genetic background and dissemination mechanism of carbapenem resistance and fosfomycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates, we studied a clinical Escherichia coli strain HS102707 isolate and an Enterobacter aerogenes strain HS112625 isolate, both of which were resistant to carbapenem and fosfomycin and positive for the bla(KPC-2) and fosA3 genes. In addition, a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain HS092839 isolate which was resistant to carbapenem was also studied. A 70-kb plasmid was successfully transferred to recipient E. coli J53 by a conjugation test. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that bla(KPC-2) was located on this plasmid. The complete sequence of pHS102707 showed that this plasmid belongs to the P11 subfamily (IncP1) and has a replication gene, several plasmid-stable genes, an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster, and a composite transposon Tn1721-Tn3 that harbored bla(KPC-2). Interestingly, a composite IS26 transposon carrying fosA3 was inserted in the Tn1721-tnpA gene in pHS102707 and pHS112625, leading to the disruption of Tn1721-tnpA and the deletion of Tn1721-tnpR. However, only IS26 with a truncated Tn21-tnpR was inserted in pHS092839 at the same position. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fosA3 and bla(KPC-2) colocated in the same Tn1721-Tn3-like composite transposon on a novel IncP group plasmid. PMID:25367902

Li, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Dexi; Shen, Pinghua; Ai, Fuqi; Liu, Hong; Tian, Yueru; Ma, Yiming; Wang, Bei; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Xiaofei



Dual promoter expression system with insulator ensures a stringent tissue-specific regulation of two reporter genes in the transgenic fish.  


The precise control of spatiotemporal expression of target genes is crucial when establishing transgenic animals, and the introduction of genes for fluorescent marker proteins is inevitable for accelerating research at molecular levels. To assist this, we constructed a novel dual promoter expression vector for two independent reporter genes, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (mCherry). Their expression is designed under the control of two distinct tissue-specific promoters, e.g. zebrafish cardiac muscle-specific promoter (cmlc2) and medaka skeletal muscle-specific promoter (myl2) derived from the myosin light chain 2 genes, and they are placed in a head-to-head orientation. After microinjecting the dual promoter expression vector into fertilized eggs of medaka, the developing fish embryos and the resulting transgenic fish lines showed strong GFP signal in the whole body (skeletal muscle) and mCherry signal in the heart (cardiac muscle). However, weak GFP signal was observed in the heart, indicating a leakiness of the skeletal muscle promoter. To improve the stringency of dual promoter expression, we inserted two chicken-derived insulators, e.g. tandem copies of the core sequence (250 bp) of cHS4 (5'-hypersensitive site-4 chicken beta-globin insulator), in the boundary of two promoters. The dual promoter expression vector with insulator now ensured the stringent tissue-specific expression in the transgenic fish lines. Thus, our dual promoter expression system with insulator is compatible to the conventional IRES and fused reporter gene systems and will be an alternative method to produce the transgenic fishes. PMID:22983842

Shimizu, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi



(The isolation and characterization of beta-glucosidase gene and beta-glucosidase of Trichoderma viride): Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Our project was to isolate and characterize the enzyme ..beta..-glucosidase and to clone and characterize the ..beta..-glucosidase gene; our goal is to clone and characterize each of the cellulase genes from Trichoderma. The induction of the Trichoderma reesei cellulase complex by cellulose and by the soluble inducer, sophorose, has been demonstrated. Although the induction of the cellulase complex has previously been well documented, the induction of ..beta..-glucosidase had been questioned. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Stafford, D.W.



Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene. Progress report, [April 15, 1988--April 14, 1989  

SciTech Connect

During this period researchers have been successful in determining the structure of the rice pyrophosphorylase gene. Potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylse purification and structure studies were carried out as well as recombinant DNA studies. Evidence suggests that the tuber form is made up of subunits with similar molecular weights and immunological relatedness. In contrast, the spinach leaf enzyme and presumably the maize endosperm species is composed of two dissimilar sununits encoded by different genes.

Okita, T.W.



Generation of a Stable Antioxidant Response Element-Driven Reporter Gene Cell Line and Its Use to Show Redox-Dependent Activation of Nrf2 by Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates cytoprotective genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters. To investigate whether anticancer drugs can induce ARE-driven gene expression, we have developed a stable human mammary MCF7-derived reporter cell line called AREc32, which contains a luciferase gene construct controlled by eight copies of the cis-element. In these cells, luciferase activity

Xiu Jun Wang; John D. Hayes



Microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in HepG2 cells cultured in simulated microgravity: preliminary report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed at NASA, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) allows the creation of unique microgravity environment of low shear force, high-mass transfer, and enables three-dimensional (3D) cell culture of dissimilar cell types. Recently we demonstrated that a simulated microgravity is conducive for maintaining long-term cultures of functional hepatocytes and promote 3D cell assembly. Using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray technology, it is now possible to measure the levels of thousands of different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in a single hybridization step. This technique is particularly powerful for comparing gene expression in the same tissue under different environmental conditions. The aim of this research was to analyze gene expression of hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) during early stage of 3D-cell assembly in simulated microgravity. For this, mRNA from HepG2 cultured in the RCCS was analyzed by deoxyribonucleic acid microarray. Analyses of HepG2 mRNA by using 6K glass DNA microarray revealed changes in expression of 95 genes (overexpression of 85 genes and downregulation of 10 genes). Our preliminary results indicated that simulated microgravity modifies the expression of several genes and that microarray technology may provide new understanding of the fundamental biological questions of how gravity affects the development and function of individual cells.

Khaoustov, V. I.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; Yoffe, B.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)



Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.  


Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects) including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61) who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006). It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:25415204

Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Ma?ecka, Iwona; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Anna



Suicidal Behavior and Haplotypes of the Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Alcohol Dependence – Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,- we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects) including a subgroup of individuals (n?=?61) who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p?=?0.006). It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:25415204

Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Ma?ecka, Iwona; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Anna



Further sequence requirements for male germ cell-specific expression under the control of the 14 bp promoter element (beta 2UE1) of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated a 14 bp promoter element (beta 2UE1) that is required for testis-specific expression of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene. To further elucidate the role of the 14 bp element, we fused different promoter constructs to the E. coli lacZ gene and established transgenic strains with the aid of the Drosophila P-element transformation system. Germ line transformation experiments with constructs in which the element in the beta 2 tubulin gene promoter was exchanged for a related sequence from the promoter region of the Drosophila beta 3 tubulin gene led to a dramatic reduction in the expression of the lacZ gene in the testis. Exchanging the 14 bp promoter element for a similar sequence from the distal promoter of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene abolished expression. This might indicate that the sequence differences between the beta 2UE1 and the beta 2UE1-related elements reflect functional differences between these elements. Constructs in which the beta 2UE1 was fused to the hsp70 promoter revealed that testis-specific expression of a marker gene is obtained only when the element is located at the correct distance from the transcription initiation site. However, constructs in which the beta 2UE1 was inserted at about the correct position (between -41 and -54 bp) upstream of a truncated beta 3 tubulin gene promoter did not show any expression. By making beta 2-beta 3 gene promoter fusions it was found that both the region surrounding the beta 3 transcription initiation site as well as the first 116 b of beta 3 leader sequences independently reduce testis-specific expression. These findings suggest that the testis-specific expression of the Drosophila beta 2 tubulin gene underlies a unique regulatory mechanism. Images PMID:1909432

Michiels, F; Wolk, A; Renkawitz-Pohl, R



Cloning and sequencing of a serine proteinase gene from a thermophilic Bacillus species and its expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The gene for a serine proteinase from a thermophilic Bacillus species was identified by PCR amplification, and the complete gene was cloned after identification and isolation of suitably sized restriction fragments from Southern blots by using the PCR product as a probe. Two additional, distinct PCR products, which were shown to have been derived from other serine proteinase genes present in the thermophilic Bacillus species, were also obtained. Sequence analysis showed an open reading frame of 1,206 bp, coding for a polypeptide of 401 amino acids. The polypeptide was determined to be an extracellular serine proteinase with a signal sequence and prosequence. The mature proteinase possessed homology to the subtilisin-like serine proteinases from a number of Bacillus species and had 61% homology to thermitase, a serine proteinase from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli in the expression vector pJLA602 and as a fusion with the alpha-peptide of the lacZ gene in the cloning vector pGEM5. A recombinant proteinase from the lacZ fusion plasmid was used to determine some characteristics of the enzyme, which showed a pH optimum of 8.5, a temperature optimum of 75 degrees C, and thermostabilities ranging from a half-life of 12.2 min at 90 degrees C to a half-life of 40.3 h at 75 degrees C. The enzyme was bound to a bacitracin column, and this method provided a simple, one-step method for producing the proteinase, purified to near homogeneity. Images PMID:7993087

Maciver, B; McHale, R H; Saul, D J; Bergquist, P L



Gene and Enhancer Trap Tagging of Vascular-Expressed Genes in Poplar Trees  

E-print Network

Gene and Enhancer Trap Tagging of Vascular-Expressed Genes in Poplar Trees Andrew Groover*, Joseph, New York 11724 (R.M.) We report a gene discovery system for poplar trees based on gene and enhancer traps. Gene and enhancer trap vectors carrying the b-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were inserted


Vascular-specific expression of GUS and GFP reporter genes in transgenic grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albarińo) conferred by the EgCCR promoter of Eucalyptus gunnii.  


In the view of the economic importance of grapevine and the increasing threaten represented by vascular diseases, transgenic grapevine with enhanced tolerance could represent an attractive opportunity. Hitherto, constitutive promoters have been used generally to study the effects of transgene expression in grapevine. Given the fact that constitutive gene expression may be harmful to the host plant, affecting plant growth and development, the use of tissue -specific promoters restricting gene expression to tissues of interest and at given developmental stages could be more appropriate. For this purpose, we decided to study in grapevine the activity of the Eucalyptus gunnii CCR promoter that was previously reported to be vascular-preferential. We transformed grapevine with the "Sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation" (SAAT) method and a construct where both GUS and GFP (green fluorescent protein) marker genes were under control of the EgCCR promoter. High GUS and GFP activities were found to be associated with the newly formed vascular tissues in stems, leaves and petioles of transformed grapevine, suggesting a preferential activity of the EgCCR promoter in the vascular tissues of grapevine. These results suggest the tissue-specificity of this promoter from eucalyptus is conserved in grapevine and that it could be used to drive expression of defense genes in order to enhance resistance against vascular pathogens. PMID:21393008

Gago, Jorge; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Gallego, Pedro Pablo



Angiofibroma of soft tissue with fibrohistiocytic features and intratumor genetic heterogeneity of NCOA2 gene rearrangement revealed by chromogenic in situ hybridization: a case report.  


Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a recently described soft tissue tumor that is characterized by fibroblastic spindle tumor cells with arborizing capillary proliferation. Cytogenetically, it harbors a specific fusion gene involving the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. We report here additional new pathological and cytogenetic features. A soft tissue tumor in the left thigh of 73-year-old female was investigated. Microscopically, histiocytoid tumor cells were scattered in an edematous background with branching capillary proliferation. Immunohistochemically, we identified that the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers such as CD68 and CD163. Rearrangement of the NCOA2 gene was detected successfully by chromogenic in situ hybridization; however, abnormal signal patterns were observed in only a small subset of tumor cells. Unlike typical tumors with bland spindle cells, the present tumor needs to be distinguished from myxoid, dendritic and clear cell tumors. This case may suggest that angiofibroma of soft tissue is not in the center of the fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor group, but rather shows a fibrohistiocytic nature. We also found intratumor genetic heterogeneity, which is uncommon for a translocation-associated tumor. Therefore, careful evaluation is required to detect the gene rearrangement in this tumor entity. PMID:24888778

Fukuda, Yumiko; Motoi, Toru; Kato, Ikuma; Ikegami, Masachika; Funata, Nobuaki; Ohtomo, Rie; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Goto, Takahiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu



Effective generation of transgenic reporter and gene trap lines of the medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the Ac/Ds transposon system.  


In model teleost fishes like the medaka and the zebrafish many genes which have been identified in genome sequencing projects await their functional characterization. Techniques for the effective generation of transgenic animals are a prerequisite for this challenging task, and, due to their transparency, fish offer the possibility to combine the use of fluorescent proteins and developmental analysis in vivo. Here we describe the application of the Ac/Ds transposon system to generate transgenic medaka reporter and gene trap lines. We determined a germline transmission rate of 30% in our experiments using constructs ranging in size from 1.8 to 6 kilobase pairs. The genomic integration site of the Ds-elements can be easily identified which is an important feature for gene trap mutagenesis experiments and similar approaches. We constructed gene trap vectors with functional elements of medaka sequences that produce in frame fusions of the endogenous sequence to EGFP. These vectors mimic endogenous expression of the trapped allele in transgenic animals and are capable to interfere with the expression of the wild type allele in the homozygous individuals. PMID:21533666

Froschauer, Alexander; Sprott, David; Gerwien, Franziska; Henker, Yvonne; Rudolph, Franziska; Pfennig, Frank; Gutzeit, Herwig O



Parathion hydrolase specified by the Flavobacterium opd gene: relationship between the gene and protein.  

PubMed Central

The sequence of a 1,693-base-pair plasmid DNA fragment from Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 containing the parathion hydrolase gene (opd) was determined. Within this sequence, there is only one open reading frame large enough to encode the 35,000-dalton membrane-associated hydrolase protein purified from Flavobacterium extracts. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the purified Flavobacterium hydrolase demonstrated that serine is the amino-terminal residue of the hydrolase protein. The amino-terminal serine corresponds to a TCG codon located 87 base pairs downstream of the presumptive ATG initiation codon in the nucleotide sequence. The amino acid composition of the purified protein agrees well with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence, using serine as the amino-terminal residue. These data suggest that the parathion hydrolase protein is processed at its amino terminus in Flavobacterium sp. Construction in Escherichia coli of a lacZ-opd gene fusion in which the first 33 amino-terminal residues of opd were replaced by the first 5 residues of lacZ resulted in the production of an active hydrolase identical in molecular mass to the hydrolase isolated from Flavobacterium sp. E. coli cells containing the lacZ-opd fusion showed higher levels of hydrolase activity than did cells containing the parent plasmid. Images PMID:2556372

Mulbry, W W; Karns, J S



A simple protocol for preparation of a liposomal vesicle with encapsulated plasmid DNA that mediate high accumulation and reporter gene activity in tumor tissue  

PubMed Central

The systemic delivery of gene therapeutics by non-viral methods has proven difficult. Transfection systems that are performing well in vitro have been reported to have disadvantageous properties such as rapid clearance and short circulation time often resulting in poor transfection efficiency when applied in vivo. Large unilaminary vesicles (LUV) with encapsulated nucleic acids designated stabilized-plasmid-lipo-particle (SPLP) have showed promising results in terms of systemic stability and accumulation in tumor tissue due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR). We have developed a simple protocol for the research-scale preparation of SPLPs from commercially available reagents with high amounts of encapsulated plasmid DNA. The SPLPs show properties of promising accumulation in tumor tissue in comparison to other organs when intravenously injected into xenograft tumor-bearing nude mice. Although transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy was not achieved, the SPLPs were capable of mediating reporter gene transfection in subcutaneous flank tumors originating from human small cell lung cancer.

Gjetting, Torben; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Christensen, Camilla Laulund; Cramer, Frederik; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard



Evidence for a piwi-dependent RNA silencing of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus by the Drosophila melanogaster flamenco gene.  


In Drosophila melanogaster, the endogenous retrovirus gypsy is repressed by the functional alleles (restrictive) of an as-yet-uncloned heterochromatic gene called flamenco. Using gypsy-lacZ transcriptional fusions, we show here that this repression takes place not only in the follicle cells of restrictive ovaries, as was previously observed, but also in restrictive larval female gonads. Analyses of the role of gypsy cis-regulatory sequences in the control of gypsy expression are also presented. They rule out the hypothesis that gypsy would contain a single binding region for a putative Flamenco repressor. Indeed, the ovarian expression of a chimeric yp3-lacZ construct was shown to become sensitive to the Flamenco regulation when any of three different 5'-UTR gypsy sequences (ranging from 59 to 647 nucleotides) was incorporated into the heterologous yp3-lacZ transcript. The piwi mutation, which is known to affect RNA-mediated homology-dependent transgene silencing, was also shown to impede the repression of gypsy in restrictive female gonads. Finally, a RNA-silencing model is also supported by the finding in ovaries of short RNAs (25-27 nucleotides long) homologous to sequences from within the gypsy 5'-UTR. PMID:15082550

Sarot, Emeline; Payen-Groschęne, Genevičve; Bucheton, Alain; Pélisson, Alain



An image-based, dual fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of shRNA for gene silencing at the single-cell level  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to suppress gene expression in a specific manner. The efficacy of RNAi is mainly dependent on the sequence of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in relation to the target mRNA. Although several algorithms have been developed for the design of siRNA, it is still difficult to choose a really effective siRNA from among multiple candidates. In this article, we report the development of an image-based, quantitative, ratiometric fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of RNAi at the single-cell level. Two fluorescence reporter constructs are used. One expresses the candidate small hairpin RNA (shRNA) together with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP); the other expresses a 19-nt target sequence inserted into a cassette expressing a red fluorescent protein (either DsRed or mCherry). Effectiveness of the candidate shRNA is evaluated as the extent to which it knocks down expression of the red fluorescent protein. Thus, the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio (appropriately normalized to controls) is used as the read-out for quantifying the siRNA efficacy at the individual cell level. We tested this dual fluorescence assay and compared predictions to actual endogenous knockdown levels for three different genes (vimentin, lamin A/C and Arp3) and twenty different shRNAs. For each of the genes, our assay successfully predicted the target sequences for effective RNAi. To further facilitate testing of RNAi efficacy, we developed a negative selection marker ( ccdB) method for construction of shRNA and red fluorescent reporter plasmids that allowed us to purify these plasmids directly from transformed bacteria without the need for colony selection and DNA sequencing verification. PMID:24741441

Kojima, Shin-ichiro



The anthrax toxin activator gene atxA is associated with CO2-enhanced non-toxin gene expression in Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, cya, lef, and pag, can be viewed as a regulon, in which transcription of all three genes is activated in trans by the same regulatory gene, atxA, in response to the same signal, CO2. In atxA+ strains, toxin gene expression is increased 5- to 20-fold in cells grown in 5% CO2 relative to cells grown in air. CO2-enhanced toxin gene transcription is not observed in atx4-null mutants. Here, we used two independent techniques to obtain evidence for additional CO2-induced atxA-regulated genes. First, total protein preparations from atxA4+ and atxA isolates grown in 5% CO2 and in air were examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Comparison of the resulting protein patterns indicated that synthesis of non-toxin proteins is influenced by growth in elevated CO2 and the toxin gene regulator, atxA. Second, we generated random transcriptional lacZ fusions in B. anthracis with transposon Tn917-LTV3. Transposon-insertion libraries were screened for mutants expressing CO2-enhanced atxA-dependent beta-galactosidase activity. DNA sequence analysis of transposon insertion sites in 17 mutants carrying CO2- and atxA-regulated fusions revealed 10 mutants carrying independent insertions on the 185-kb toxin plasmid pXO1 which did not map to the toxin genes. The tcr-lacZ fusion mutants (tcr for toxin coregulated) were Tox+, indicating that these genes may not be involved in anthrax toxin gene activation. Our data indicate a clear association of atxA with CO2-enhanced gene expression in B. anthracis and provide evidence that atxA regulates genes other than the structural genes for the anthrax toxin proteins. PMID:9234759

Hoffmaster, A R; Koehler, T M



Development of a Site-Directed Integration Plasmid for Heterologous Gene Expression in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Deciphering the molecular basis of the interactions between the parasite Mycoplasma gallisepticum and its avian hosts suffers from the lack of genetic tools available for the pathogen. In the absence of well established methods for targeted disruption of relevant M. gallisepticum genes, we started to develop suicide vectors and equipped them with a short fragment of M. gallisepticum origin or replication (oriCMG). We failed to create a disruption vector, although by adding a further short fragment of the M. gallisepticum tufB upstream region we created a “Trojan horse” plasmid. This is fully integrated into the genomic DNA of M. gallisepticum, always at the same site, oriCMG, and is able to carry and express any gene of interest in the genetic background of M. gallisepticum. Successful expression of a heterologous gene was shown with the lacZ gene of E. coli. When used for gene complementation or expression of hybrid genes in M. gallisepticum, a site-specific combined integration/expression vector constitutes an improvement on randomly integrating transposons, which might have unexpected effects on the expression of chromosomal genes. PMID:24278444

Indikova, Ivana; Szostak, Michael P.



Population density-dependent regulation of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodulation genes.  


The nodulation genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum are essential for infection and establishment of a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Here, we demonstrate that plant-produced isoflavones induce nodulation gene expression in a population density-dependent fashion. Nodulation gene induction is highest at a low population density and significantly reduced in more dense cultures. A quorum signal molecule in the conditioned medium of B. japonicum cultures mediates this repression. Repression in response to the quorum signal results from the induction of NolA which, in turn, induces NodD2 leading to inhibition of nod gene expression. Consistent with this, nolA-lacZ and nodD2-lacZ expression increased with increasing population density. Unlike the wild type, the ability to induce nodY-lacZ expression did not decline with population density in a NolA mutant. Normally, nod gene expression is repressed in planta (i.e. within nodules). However, expression of a nodY-GUS fusion was not repressed in a NolA mutant, suggesting that quorum-sensing control may mediate in planta repression of the nod genes. Addition of conditioned medium to cultures significantly reduced nod gene expression. Treatment of inoculant cultures with conditioned medium also reduced the ability of B. japonicum to nodulate soybean plants. PMID:11679065

Loh, J T; Yuen-Tsai, J P; Stacey, M G; Lohar, D; Welborn, A; Stacey, G



Mutations in the Spt4, Spt5, and Spt6 Genes Alter Transcription of a Subset of Histone Genes in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 gene products define a class of transcriptional repressors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are thought to function through their effects on chromatin assembly or stability. Mutations in these genes confer a similar range of phenotypes to mutations in HIR genes, which encode transcriptional repressors that regulate expression of many of the core histone genes. Here we show that mutations in the three SPT genes also affect transcription of the histone genes that reside at the HTA1-HTB1 locus. HTA1-lacZ transcription was reduced in each spt mutant background, an effect that required a negative site in the HTA1 promoter. The transcriptional effect could be reversed by the overproduction of histones H2A and H2B in an spt4 mutant and histones H3 and H4 in all three spt mutants. Suppression of the spt4 transcriptional defect was dependent on the overproduction of both histones H2A and H2B, and required the presence of N-terminal amino acids in both histones. The results are consistent with the idea that the effects of the spt mutations on nucleosome assembly and/or stability activate repressors of HTA1 transcription. PMID:8844144

Compagnone-Post, P. A.; Osley, M. A.



Generating lineage-specific markers to study Drosophila development.  


To generate cell- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the reporter gene lacZ in Drosophila, we have generated and characterized 1,426 independent insertion strains using four different P-element constructs. These four transposons carry a lacZ gene driven either by the weak promoter of the P-element transposase gene or by partial promoters from the even-skipped, fushi-tarazu, or engrailed genes. The tissue-specific patterns of beta-galactosidase expression that we are able to generate depend on the promoter utilized. We describe in detail 13 strains that can be used to follow specific cell lineages and demonstrate their utility in analyzing the phenotypes of developmental mutants. Insertion strains generated with P-elements that carry various sequences upstream of the lacZ gene exhibit an increased variety of expression patterns that can be used to study Drosophila development. PMID:1651183

Perrimon, N; Noll, E; McCall, K; Brand, A



GenePRIMP: A GENE PRediction IMprovement Pipeline for Prokaryotic genomes  

SciTech Connect

We present 'gene prediction improvement pipeline' (GenePRIMP;, a computational process that performs evidence-based evaluation of gene models in prokaryotic genomes and reports anomalies including inconsistent start sites, missed genes and split genes. We found that manual curation of gene models using the anomaly reports generated by GenePRIMP improved their quality, and demonstrate the applicability of GenePRIMP in improving finishing quality and comparing different genome-sequencing and annotation technologies.

Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kyrpides, Nikos C.



Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.



Replication-Deficient Adenovirus Vector Transfer of gfpReporter Gene into Supraoptic Nucleus and Subfornical Organ Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies used defined cells of the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as model systems to demonstrate the efficacy of replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) for gene transfer. The studies investigated the effects of both direct transfection of the SON and indirect transfection (i.e., via retrograde transport) of SFO neurons. The SON of rats

Elisardo C. Vasquez; Ralph F. Johnson; Terry G. Beltz; Ronald E. Haskell; Beverly L. Davidson; Alan Kim Johnson




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ftsZ gene, found in representatives of all bacterial groups, encodes an essential protein engaged in prokaryotic cell division. We cloned and characterized the ftsZ homologue (ftsZsk) from a pathogenic strain of the wall-less bacterium Spiroplasma kunkelii that causes corn stunt disease. The 1...


Primary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Epididymis: Report of a Rare Case With Molecular Genetic Characterization Including Mutation Analysis of the TP53 Gene.  


We report a case of primary epididymal mucinous adenocarcinoma in a 60-year-old man who presented with a scrotal mass and subsequently developed pulmonary metastases. On immunohistochemistry the tumor was positive for villin and CK20 and negative for CK7, CDX2, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Molecular genetic analysis revealed an uncommon mutation; 249: AGG ?ATG in the TP53 gene, which has not been previously described in association with a primary epididymal adenocarcinoma. Mutational analysis showed KRAS, BRAF, and VHL to be wild-type. No microsatellite instability was found. PMID:25839701

Gupta, Sarika; Yan, Benedict; Leow, Pay Chin; Chin, Sze Yung; Soong, Richie; Petersson, Fredrik



Interactions of Drosophila Ultrabithorax Regulatory Regions with Native and Foreign Promoters  

PubMed Central

The Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene of the Drosophila bithorax complex is required to specify parasegments 5 and 6. Two P-element ``enhancer traps'' have been recovered within the locus that contain the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of the P-element promoter. The P insertion that is closer to the Ubx promoter expresses lacZ in a pattern similar to that of the normal Ubx gene, but also in parasegment 4 during embryonic development. Two deletions have been recovered that remove the normal Ubx promoter plus several kilobases on either side, but retain the lacZ reporter gene. The lacZ patterns from the deletion derivatives closely match the normal pattern of Ubx expression in late embryos and imaginal discs. The lacZ genes in the deletion derivatives are also negatively regulated by Ubx and activated in trans by Contrabithorax mutations, again like the normal Ubx gene. Thus, the deleted regions, including several kilobases around the Ubx promoter, are not required for long range interactions with Ubx regulatory regions. The deletion derivatives also stimulate transvection, a pairing-dependent interaction with the Ubx promoter on the homologous chromosome. PMID:9017395

Casares, F.; Bender, W.; Merriam, J.; Sanchez-Herrero, E.



Identification and Cloning of Unc-119, a Gene Expressed in the Caenorhabditis Elegans Nervous System  

PubMed Central

A spontaneous mutation affecting locomotion of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been mapped to a new gene, unc-119. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants suggests the defect does not lie in the musculature and that the animals also have defects in feeding behavior and chemosensation. unc-119 has been physically mapped relative to a previously identified chromosomal break in linkage group III, and DNA clones covering the region can rescue the mutant phenotype in transgenic animals. Three more alleles at the locus, with identical phenotypes, have been induced and characterized, all of which are putative null alleles. The predicted UNC-119 protein has no significant similarity to other known proteins. Expression of an unc-119/lacZ fusion in transgenic animals is seen in many neurons, suggesting that the unc-119 mutant phenotype is due to a defect in the nervous system. PMID:8582641

Maduro, M.; Pilgrim, D.



Positive Darwinian Selection after Gene Duplication in Primate Ribonuclease Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary mechanisms of origins of new gene function have been a subject of long-standing debate. Here we report a convincing case in which positive Darwinian selection operated at the molecular level during the evolution of novel function by gene duplication. The genes for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in primates belong to the ribonuclease gene family, and

Jianzhi Zhang; Helene F. Rosenberg; Masatoshi Nei



Efficient adventitial gene delivery to rabbit carotid artery with cationic polymer-plasmid complexes.  


Different lipids and cationic polymers were tested in vitro for their ability to transfect rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells and human endothelial cells with lacZ marker gene. Toxicity of the complexes was evaluated with MTT assay. Selected plasmid-polymer complexes with different charge ratios were then tested for in vivo gene transfer efficiency using adventitial gene transfer by placing a silastic gene delivery reservoir (collar) around the carotid artery. Transfection efficiency was determined by X-gal staining 3 days after the gene transfer. Based on in vitro experiments, fractured polyamidoamine dendrimers and polyethylenimines (PEI) were selected for in vivo experiments. Fractured dendrimers (generation 6, +/- charge ratio of 3) had the highest in vivo gene transfer efficiency (4.4% +/- 1.7). PEI with molecular size of 25 kDa (+/- charge ratio 4) was also effective (2.8% +/- 1.8) in this model. PEI of 800 kDa showed a constant but modest gene transfer efficiency (1.8% +/- 0.1) with all charge ratios. A low level gene transfer was also detected with naked DNA (0.5% +/- 0.3). No signs of inflammation were seen in any of the study groups. We show here that in vitro cell culture experiments can be used to identify efficient in vivo gene transfer methods for arterial gene therapy, but the charge ratios for each complex must be optimized in vivo. It is concluded that fractured dendrimer and PEI are efficient gene delivery vehicles and can be used for arterial gene therapy via adventitial gene delivery route. PMID:10341870

Turunen, M P; Hiltunen, M O; Ruponen, M; Virkamäki, L; Szoka, F C; Urtti, A; Ylä-Herttuala, S



A piggyBac-based reporter system for scalable in vitro and in vivo analysis of 3? untranslated region-mediated gene regulation  

PubMed Central

Regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) subcellular localization, stability and translation is a central aspect of gene expression. Much of this control is mediated via recognition of mRNA 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) by microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins. The gold standard approach to assess the regulation imparted by a transcript's 3? UTR is to fuse the UTR to a reporter coding sequence and assess the relative expression of this reporter as compared to a control. Yet, transient transfection approaches or the use of highly active viral promoter elements may overwhelm a cell's post-transcriptional regulatory machinery in this context. To circumvent this issue, we have developed and validated a novel, scalable piggyBac-based vector for analysis of 3? UTR-mediated regulation in vitro and in vivo. The vector delivers three independent transcription units to the target genome—a selection cassette, a turboGFP control reporter and an experimental reporter expressed under the control of a 3? UTR of interest. The pBUTR (piggyBac-based 3? UnTranslated Region reporter) vector performs robustly as a siRNA/miRNA sensor, in established in vitro models of post-transcriptional regulation, and in both arrayed and pooled screening approaches. The vector is robustly expressed as a transgene during murine embryogenesis, highlighting its potential usefulness for revealing post-transcriptional regulation in an in vivo setting. PMID:24753411

Chaudhury, Arindam; Kongchan, Natee; Gengler, Jon P.; Mohanty, Vakul; Christiansen, Audrey E.; Fachini, Joseph M.; Martin, James F.; Neilson, Joel R.