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Sample records for lacz reporter gene

  1. Improved detection of lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic epithelia by immunofluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Donna; Karunaratne, Seetha; Rothnagel, Joseph A

    2002-04-01

    The bacterial lacZ gene is commonly used as a reporter for the in vivo analysis of gene regulation in transgenic mice. However, several laboratories have reported poor detection of beta-galactosidase (the lacZ gene product) using histochemical techniques, particularly in skin. Here we report the difficulties we encountered in assessing lacZ expression in transgenic keratinocytes using classic X-gal histochemical protocols in tissues shown to express the transgene by mRNA in situ hybridization. We found that lacZ reporter gene expression could be reliably detected in frozen tissue sections by immunofluorescence analysis using a beta-galactosidase-specific antibody. Moreover, we were able to localize both transgene and endogenous gene products simultaneously using double-label immunofluorescence. Our results suggest that antibody detection of beta-galactosidase should be used to verify other assays of lacZ expression, particularly where low expression levels are suspected or patchy expression is observed. PMID:11994142

  2. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines.

    PubMed

    West, David B; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M; Engelhard, Eric K; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; de Jong, Pieter J; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2015-04-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ∼ 80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ∼ 20% showed no specific staining, ∼ 13% had staining in only one tissue, and ∼ 25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (∼ 50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  3. A lacZ reporter gene expression atlas for 313 adult KOMP mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Pasumarthi, Ravi K.; Baridon, Brian; Djan, Esi; Trainor, Amanda; Griffey, Stephen M.; Engelhard, Eric K.; Rapp, Jared; Li, Bowen; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, K.C. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) in the vector used for the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is driven by the endogenous promoter of the target gene. In tissues from KOMP mice, histochemical staining for LacZ enzyme activity can be used to determine gene expression patterns. With this technique, we have produced a comprehensive resource of gene expression using both whole mount (WM) and frozen section (FS) LacZ staining in 313 unique KOMP mutant mouse lines. Of these, ∼80% of mutants showed specific staining in one or more tissues, while ∼20% showed no specific staining, ∼13% had staining in only one tissue, and ∼25% had staining in >6 tissues. The highest frequency of specific staining occurred in the brain (∼50%), male gonads (42%), and kidney (39%). The WM method was useful for rapidly identifying whole organ and some substructure staining, while the FS method often revealed substructure and cellular staining specificity. Both staining methods had >90% repeatability in biological replicates. Nonspecific LacZ staining occurs in some tissues due to the presence of bacteria or endogenous enzyme activity. However, this can be effectively distinguished from reporter gene activity by the combination of the WM and FS methods. After careful annotation, LacZ staining patterns in a high percentage of mutants revealed a unique structure-function not previously reported for many of these genes. The validation of methods for LacZ staining, annotation, and expression analysis reported here provides unique insights into the function of genes for which little is currently known. PMID:25591789

  4. A lacZ Reporter-Based Strategy for Rapid Expression Analysis and Target Validation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latent Infection Genes.

    PubMed

    Sood, Shivani; Kaur, Satinder; Shrivastava, Rahul

    2016-02-01

    We report a novel lacZ fusion vector and demonstrate its utility for expression analysis of genes associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis latent infection. The vector contains E. coli (oriE) and mycobacterial (oriM) origins of replication, a kanamycin resistance gene (Km(r)) as selection marker, and a lacZ reporter gene in fusion with MCS for cloning of upstream regulatory sequence of the desired genes. β-galactosidase activity of the vector was standardized for expression analysis under latent mycobacterial conditions using Phsp60, a constitutive mycobacterial promoter, utilizing Mycobacterium smegmatis as model organism. Validation of the vector was done by cloning and expression analysis of PhspX (alpha crystalline) and Picl (isocitrate lyase), promoters from two of the genes shown to be involved in M. tuberculosis persistence. Both genes showed appreciable levels of β-galactosidase expression under hypoxia-induced persistent conditions in comparison to their actively replicating state. Expression analysis of a set of hypothetical genes was also done, of which Rv0628c showed increased expression under persistent conditions. The reported fusion vector and the strategy can be effectively used for short listing and validation of drug targets deduced from various non-conclusive approaches such as bioinformatics and microarray analysis against latent/persistent form of mycobacterial infection. PMID:26597215

  5. In vivo expression of adenovirus-mediated lacZ gene in murine nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Yukiko; Nagata, Hiroshi; Isegawa, Naohisa; Kumahara, Keiichiro; Isoyama, Kyoko; Konno, Akiyoshi; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    Adenovirus is a good tool for transferring exogenous genes into various organs because the virus has a wide spectrum of infection. In this report, we demonstrate that a recombinant adenovirus, Ax1CAlacZ, can transfer an exogenous lacZ gene into murine nasal mucosa in vivo. The efficiency of the exogenous gene expression varied for different cell types and was improved by optimizing the method of administration. In the olfactory region, the olfactory epithelia, sustentacular cells and olfactory nerve efficiently expressed lacZ gene transferred by Ax1CAlacZ using either of two administration methods, dripping or injecting. In contrast, in the respiratory region, the respiratory epithelia but not the subepithelial tissues expressed lacZ gene transferred by Ax1CAlacZ, and the efficiency of the gene transfer, which was low when the virus was administered by nasal drops, was improved when the virus was administered by injection. Our study demonstrated that gene transfer mediated by adenovirus is more efficient in the olfactory epithelia than in the respiratory epithelia, and may be applicable to nasal or paranasal diseases such as olfactory epithelial disturbances. PMID:12403125

  6. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Pichery, Mélanie; Mirey, Emilie; Mercier, Pascale; Lefrancais, Emma; Dujardin, Arnaud; Ortega, Nathalie; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    IL-33 (previously known as NF from high endothelial venules) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals through the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, invariant NKT and NK cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and type 2 innate immune cells (natural helper cells, nuocytes, and innate helper 2 cells). Little is known about endogenous IL-33; for instance, the cellular sources of IL-33 in mouse tissues have not yet been defined. In this study, we generated an Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain (Il-33(Gt/Gt)) and used this novel tool to analyze expression of endogenous IL-33 in vivo. We found that the Il-33 promoter exhibits constitutive activity in mouse lymphoid organs, epithelial barrier tissues, brain, and embryos. Immunostaining with anti-IL-33 Abs, using Il-33(Gt/Gt) (Il-33-deficient) mice as control, revealed that endogenous IL-33 protein is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, including stratified squamous epithelia from vagina and skin, as well as cuboidal epithelium from lung, stomach, and salivary gland. Constitutive expression of IL-33 was not detected in blood vessels, revealing the existence of species-specific differences between humans and mice. Importantly, IL-33 protein was always localized in the nucleus of producing cells with no evidence for cytoplasmic localization. Finally, strong expression of the Il-33-LacZ reporter was also observed in inflamed tissues, in the liver during LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and in the lung alveoli during papain-induced allergic airway inflammation. Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues. PMID:22371395

  7. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Elizabeth; Estabel, Jeanne; Oellrich, Anika; Maguire, Anna Karin; Adissu, Hibret A.; Souter, Luke; Siragher, Emma; Lillistone, Charlotte; Green, Angela L.; Wardle-Jones, Hannah; Carragher, Damian M.; Karp, Natasha A.; Smedley, Damian; Adams, Niels C.; Bussell, James N.; Adams, David J.; Ramírez-Solis, Ramiro; Steel, Karen P.; Galli, Antonella; White, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures). A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ≥21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource. PMID:26398943

  8. Transgenic LacZ under control of Hec-6st regulatory sequences recapitulates endogenous gene expression on high endothelial venules

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shan; Bentley, Kevin; Lebrun, Marielle; Lesslauer, Werner; Ruddle, Frank H.; Ruddle, Nancy H.

    2007-01-01

    Hec-6st is a highly specific high endothelial venule (HEV) gene that is crucial for regulating lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes (LN). The enzyme is also expressed in HEV-like vessels in tertiary lymphoid organs that form in chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, graft rejection, and microbial infection. Understanding the molecular nature of Hec-6st regulation is crucial for elucidating its function in development and disease. However, studies of HEV are limited because of the difficulties in isolating and maintaining the unique characteristics of these vessels in vitro. The novel pClasper yeast homologous recombination technique was used to isolate from a BAC clone a 60-kb DNA fragment that included the Hec-6st (Chst4) gene with flanking sequences. Transgenic mice were generated with the β-galactosidase (LacZ) reporter gene inserted in-frame in the exon II of Hec-6st within the isolated BAC DNA fragment. LacZ was expressed specifically on HEV in LN, as indicated by its colocalization with peripheral node vascular addressin. LacZ was increased in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue during development and was reduced in LN and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue by LTβR-Ig (lymphotoxin-β receptor human Ig fusion protein) treatment in a manner identical to the endogenous gene. The transgene was expressed at high levels in lymphoid accumulations with characteristics of tertiary lymphoid organs in the salivary glands of aged mice. Thus, the Hec-6s-LacZ construct faithfully reproduces Hec-6st tissue-specific expression and can be used in further studies to drive expression of reporter or effector genes, which could visualize or inhibit HEV in autoimmunity. PMID:17360566

  9. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Clearing for LacZ and Fluorescent Reporters, and Immunofluorescence Staining.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mayank; Murkonda, Bhavani Sr; Asakura, Yoko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly ordered yet complex tissue containing several cell types that interact with each other in order to maintain structure and homeostasis. It is also a highly regenerative tissue that responds to damage in a highly intricate but stereotypic manner, with distinct spatial and temporal kinetics. Proper examination of this process requires one to look at the three-dimensional orientation of the cellular and subcellular components, which can be accomplished through tissue clearing. While there has been a recent surge of protocols to study biology in whole tissue, it has primarily focused on the nervous system. This chapter describes the workflow for whole mount analysis of murine skeletal muscle for LacZ reporters, fluorescent reporters and immunofluorescence staining. Using this technique, we are able to visualize LacZ reporters more effectively in deep tissue samples, and to perform fluorescent imaging with a depth greater than 1700 μm. PMID:27492170

  10. A series of vectors to construct lacZ fusions for the study of gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, M J; Petit, T; Gancedo, C

    1997-12-22

    We have constructed a series of plasmids to facilitate the fusion of promoters with or without coding regions of genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. These vectors carry a multiple cloning region in which fission yeast DNA may be inserted in three different reading frames with respect to the coding region of lacZ. The plasmids were constructed with the ura4+ or the his3+ marker of S. pombe. Functionality of the plasmids was tested measuring in parallel the expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and beta-galactosidase under the control of the fbp1+ promoter in different conditions. PMID:9450546

  11. Radial derivatives of the mouse ventral pallium traced with Dbx1-LacZ reporters.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Luis; Medina, Loreta; Borello, Ugo; Legaz, Isabel; Teissier, Anne; Pierani, Alessandra; Rubenstein, John L R

    2016-09-01

    The progeny of Dbx1-expressing progenitors was studied in the developing mouse pallium, using two transgenic mouse lines: (1) Dbx1(nlslacZ) mice, in which the gene of the β-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) is inserted directly under the control of the Dbx1 promoter, allowing short-term lineage tracing of Dbx1-derived cells; and (2) Dbx1(CRE) mice crossed with a Cre-dependent reporter strain (ROSA26(loxP-stop-loxP-LacZ)), in which the Dbx1-derived cells result permanently labeled (Bielle et al., 2005). We thus examined in detail the derivatives of the postulated longitudinal ventral pallium (VPall) sector, which has been defined among other features by its selective ventricular zone expression of Dbx1 (the recent ascription by Puelles, 2014 of the whole olfactory cortex primordium to the VPall was tested). Earlier notions about a gradiental caudorostral reduction of Dbx1 signal were corroborated, so that virtually no signal was found at the olfactory bulb and the anterior olfactory area. The piriform cortex was increasingly labeled caudalwards. The only endopiriform grisea labeled were the ventral endopiriform nucleus and the bed nucleus of the external capsule. Anterior and basolateral parts of the whole pallial amygdala also were densely marked, in contrast to the negative posterior parts of these pallial amygdalar nuclei (leaving apart medial amygdalar parts ascribed to subpallial or extratelencephalic sources of Dbx1-derived GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons). Alternative tentative interpretations are discussed to explain the partial labeling obtained of both olfactory and amygdaloid structures. This includes the hypothesis of an as yet undefined part of the pallium, potentially responsible for the posterior amygdala, or the hypothesis that the VPall may not be wholly characterized by Dbx1 expression (this gene not being necessary for VPall molecular distinctness and histogenetic potency), which would leave a dorsal Dbx1-negative VPall subdomain of variable size

  12. Tumour progression of human neuroblastoma cells tagged with a lacZ marker gene: earliest events at ectopic injection sites.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, N. R.; Lewandowska, K.; Culp, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Human Platt neuroblastoma cells were transfected with the marker gene, bacterial lacZ, to track cells at the earliest stages after ectopic injection at two different sites in athymic nude mice. Three clones (LZPt-1,-2 and -3) of differing morphologies were analysed. All clones yielded large primary tumours subcutaneously or intradermally with similar latency. While LZPt-2 and -3 clones generated well-staining primary tumours, LZPt-1 cells yielded many non-staining tumours, indicating greater instability of lacZ expression for this clone in situ (stability of lacZ expression in culture was similar for all three clones). After s.c. or intradermal injections, tumour cells were tracked for 1 h to > 3 weeks (palpable) to evaluate the topology and population expansion characteristics at the earliest times. From 1 h to 2 days, tumour cells were concentrated in central masses with 'crinkly hair' distributions emanating from the periphery. Between 3 and 7 days, these 'crinkly hair' patterns were cleared from the tissue, leaving dense ovoid patterns of tumour cells. These concentrations of cells expanded collectively, not by division of one or a few cells, but by division of many cells. For clone LZPt-1, cells stained well with X-gal for 2-3 days; by 7 days, most cells were non-staining. Evidence suggests that lacZ expression is turned off in these tumour cells, rather than a lacZ- cell type clonally dominating the population. For all three clones, tumour cells remained rounded and did not spread in any tissue environment at all time points, indicating very different matrix adhesion mechanisms operating in situ compared with their distinctive spreading patterns in culture. Angioneogenesis near primary tumours became evident by 2-3 days, leading to extensive vascularisation by 1-2 weeks. Overall, these studies indicate common tumour progression characteristics for three different clones of human neuroblastoma, insight into lacZ instability mechanisms operating in one of these

  13. Folding LacZ in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robert S; Malinverni, Juliana C; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Targeted, translational LacZ fusions provided the initial support for the signal sequence hypothesis in prokaryotes and allowed for selection of the mutations that identified the Sec translocon. Many of these selections relied on the fact that expression of targeted, translational lacZ fusions like malE-lacZ and lamB-lacZ42-1 causes lethal toxicity as folded LacZ jams the translocation pore. However, there is another class of targeted LacZ fusions that do not jam the translocon. These targeted, nonjamming fusions also show toxic phenotypes that may be useful for selecting mutations in genes involved in posttranslocational protein folding and targeting; however, they have not been investigated to the same extent as their jamming counterparts. In fact, it is still unclear whether LacZ can be fully translocated in these fusions. It may be that they simply partition into the inner membrane where they can no longer participate in folding or assembly. In the present study, we systematically characterize the nonjamming fusions and determine their ultimate localization. We report that LacZ can be fully translocated into the periplasm, where it is toxic. We show that this toxicity is likely due to LacZ misfolding and that, in the absence of the periplasmic disulfide bond catalyst DsbA, LacZ folds in the periplasm. Using the novel phenotype of periplasmic β-galactosidase activity, we show that the periplasmic chaperone FkpA contributes to LacZ folding in this nonnative compartment. We propose that targeted, nonjamming LacZ fusions may be used to further study folding and targeting in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. PMID:25002543

  14. Expression analysis of mouse Rhobtb3 using a LacZ reporter and preliminary characterization of a knockout strain.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Julia; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria S; Joshi, Pooja; Rivero, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    RhoBTB3 is an atypical member of the Rho family of small GTPases. It localizes at the Golgi apparatus and endosomes and is involved in vesicle trafficking and in targeting proteins for degradation in the proteasome. Previous studies using Northern blot analysis showed that Rhobtb3 is ubiquitously expressed in adult mice, but expression is particularly high in brain, heart and uterus. The gene is also expressed between embryonic days 11.5 and 17.5. To investigate the specific cell types that express this gene across tissues, both in the embryo and in the adult organism, we have made use of a gene trap mouse strain that expresses the LacZ gene under the transcriptional control of the endogenous Rhobtb3 promoter. Histochemical detection of β-galactosidase expression revealed a profile characterized by nearly ubiquitous expression of Rhobtb3 in the embryo, but with particularly high levels in bone, cartilage, all types of muscle, testis and restricted areas of the nervous system. In the adult, expression persists at much lower levels in cardiac muscle, the tunica media of blood vessels and cartilage and at high levels in the seminiferous tubules. A general preliminary characterization of this gene trap mouse strain revealed reduced viability, a postnatal growth defect and reduced testis size. Our results should pave the way for future studies aimed at investigating the roles of RhoBTB3 in tissue development and in cardiac, vascular and testicular function. PMID:24923387

  15. A vancomycin-inducible lacZ reporter system in Bacillus subtilis: induction by antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis and by lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Ulijasz, A T; Grenader, A; Weisblum, B

    1996-11-01

    We have constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain in which expression of a vanH::lacZ gene fusion is regulated by VanR and VanS of Enterococcus faecium. This construct allows a nonpathogenic bacterial strain to be used as a model system for studying regulation of vancomycin resistance. Antibiotics and enzymes that affect cell wall biosynthesis and stability were tested for the ability to induce lacZ expression. As a result, fosfomycin and D-cycloserine were added to the group of peptidoglycan synthesis inhibitors shown to induce expression from the vanH promoter. Induction by cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, as well as by antibiotics whose actions may lead to the accumulation of chemically different peptidoglycan precursors, raises the possibility that models that postulate induction by peptidoglycan [correction of peptidodoglycan] precursors are wrong. PMID:8892834

  16. Reporter Gene Silencing in Targeted Mouse Mutants Is Associated with Promoter CpG Island Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Julia V.; Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Cipollone, Andreana; Willis, Brandon; Engelhard, Eric K.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; de Jong, Pieter; West, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutations in mouse disrupt local chromatin structure and may lead to unanticipated local effects. We evaluated targeted gene promoter silencing in a group of six mutants carrying the tm1a Knockout Mouse Project allele containing both a LacZ reporter gene driven by the native promoter and a neo selection cassette. Messenger RNA levels of the reporter gene and targeted gene were assessed by qRT-PCR, and methylation of the promoter CpG islands and LacZ coding sequence were evaluated by sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA. Mutants were stratified by LacZ staining into presumed Silenced and Expressed reporter genes. Silenced mutants had reduced relative quantities LacZ mRNA and greater CpG Island methylation compared with the Expressed mutant group. Within the silenced group, LacZ coding sequence methylation was significantly and positively correlated with CpG Island methylation, while promoter CpG methylation was only weakly correlated with LacZ gene mRNA. The results support the conclusion that there is promoter silencing in a subset of mutants carrying the tm1a allele. The features of targeted genes which promote local silencing when targeted remain unknown. PMID:26275310

  17. Reporter Gene Silencing in Targeted Mouse Mutants Is Associated with Promoter CpG Island Methylation.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Julia V; Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A J; Cipollone, Andreana; Willis, Brandon; Engelhard, Eric K; Lloyd, K C Kent; de Jong, Pieter; West, David B

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutations in mouse disrupt local chromatin structure and may lead to unanticipated local effects. We evaluated targeted gene promoter silencing in a group of six mutants carrying the tm1a Knockout Mouse Project allele containing both a LacZ reporter gene driven by the native promoter and a neo selection cassette. Messenger RNA levels of the reporter gene and targeted gene were assessed by qRT-PCR, and methylation of the promoter CpG islands and LacZ coding sequence were evaluated by sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA. Mutants were stratified by LacZ staining into presumed Silenced and Expressed reporter genes. Silenced mutants had reduced relative quantities LacZ mRNA and greater CpG Island methylation compared with the Expressed mutant group. Within the silenced group, LacZ coding sequence methylation was significantly and positively correlated with CpG Island methylation, while promoter CpG methylation was only weakly correlated with LacZ gene mRNA. The results support the conclusion that there is promoter silencing in a subset of mutants carrying the tm1a allele. The features of targeted genes which promote local silencing when targeted remain unknown. PMID:26275310

  18. A cloning vector for creation of Escherichia coli lacZ translational fusions and generation of linear template for chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    Uhlich, Gaylen A; Chen, Chin-Yi

    2012-05-01

    A novel cloning vector to aid in the construction of single copy β-galactosidase reporter systems for gene expression studies in lactose metabolizing Escherichia coli strains, including STEC, is described. The plasmid allows construction of translational fusions of cloned gene promoters to a short segment of E. coli lacZ. A selectable spectinomycin resistance marker flanked by a short lacI segment is positioned 5' to the cloning site. PCR amplification using opposing primers complementary to the upstream lacI fragment and the downstream lacZ fragment generates a linear template suitable for integration using pRedET recombination. Integration of linear template derived from the recombinant plasmid into host strains replaces the entire native lacZ promoter and fuses the promoter of interest in-frame with the lacZ gene, thus simultaneously producing a single-copy, chromosomal reporter system and eliminating background lacZ expression. Studies comparing ahpC expression from a chromosomal fusion in the lac open with that on a plasmid in E. coli strain EDL933 are shown. PMID:22197962

  19. Mef2c-F10N enhancer driven β-galactosidase (LacZ) and Cre recombinase mice facilitate analyses of gene function and lineage fate in neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Aoto, Kazushi; Sandell, Lisa L; Butler Tjaden, Naomi E; Yuen, Kobe C; Watt, Kristin E Noack; Black, Brian L; Durnin, Michael; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) comprise a multipotent, migratory stem cell and progenitor population that gives rise to numerous cell and tissue types within a developing embryo, including craniofacial bone and cartilage, neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, and melanocytes within the skin. Here we describe two novel stable transgenic mouse lines suitable for lineage tracing and analysis of gene function in NCC. Firstly, using the F10N enhancer of the Mef2c gene (Mef2c-F10N) linked to LacZ, we generated transgenic mice (Mef2c-F10N-LacZ) that express LacZ in the majority, if not all migrating NCC that delaminate from the neural tube. Mef2c-F10N-LacZ then continues to be expressed primarily in neurogenic, gliogenic and melanocytic NCC and their derivatives, but not in ectomesenchymal derivatives. Secondly, we used the same Mef2c-F10N enhancer together with Cre recombinase to generate transgenic mice (Mef2c-F10N-Cre) that can be used to indelibly label, or alter gene function in, migrating NCC and their derivatives. At early stages of development, Mef2c-F10N-LacZ and Mef2c-F10N-Cre label NCC in a pattern similar to Wnt1-Cre mice, with the exception that Mef2c-F10N-LacZ and Mef2c-F10N-Cre specifically label NCC that have delaminated from the neural plate, while premigratory NCC are not labeled. Thus, our Mef2c-F10N-LacZ and Mef2c-F10N-Cre transgenic mice provide new resources for tracing migratory NCC and analyzing gene function in migrating and differentiating NCC independently of NCC formation. PMID:25794678

  20. Mef2c-F10N enhancer driven β-galactosidase (LacZ) and Cre recombinase mice facilitate analyses of gene function and lineage fate in neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Aoto, Kazushi; Sandell, Lisa L.; Butler Tjaden, Naomi E.; Yuen, Kobe C.; Noack Watt, Kristin E.; Black, Brian L.; Durnin, Michael; Trainor, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) comprise a multipotent, migratory stem cell and progenitor population that gives rise to numerous cell and tissue types within a developing embryo, including craniofacial bone and cartilage, neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, and melanocytes within the skin. Here we describe two novel stable transgenic mouse lines suitable for lineage tracing and analysis of gene function in NCC. Firstly, using the F10N enhancer of the Mef2c gene (Mef2c-F10N) linked to LacZ, we generated transgenic mice (Mef2c-F10N-LacZ) that express LacZ in the majority, if not all migrating NCC that delaminate from the neural tube. Mef2c-F10N-LacZ then continues to be expressed primarily in neurogenic, gliogenic and melanocytic NCC and their derivatives, but not in ectomesenchymal derivatives. Secondly, we used the same Mef2c-F10N enhancer together with Cre recombinase to generate transgenic mice (Mef2c-F10N-Cre) that can be used to indelibly label, or alter gene function in, migrating NCC and their derivatives. At early stages of development, Mef2c-F10N-LacZ and Mef2c-F10N-Cre label NCC in a pattern similar to Wnt1-Cre mice, with the exception that Mef2c-F10N-LacZ and Mef2c-F10N-Cre specifically label NCC that have delaminated from the neural plate, while premigratory NCC are not labeled. Thus, our Mef2c-F10N-LacZ and Mef2c-F10N-Cre transgenic mice provide new resources for tracing migratory NCC and analyzing gene function in migrating and differentiating NCC independently of NCC formation. PMID:25794678

  1. Levels of mRNAs which code for small, acid-soluble spore proteins and their LacZ gene fusions in sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, J M; Fajardo-Cavazos, P; Setlow, P

    1988-01-01

    The levels of mRNAs from genes (sspA, B and E) which code for major small, acid-soluble, spore proteins of Bacillus subtilis have been determined, as well as the levels of mRNAs from ssp-lacZ gene fusions. Increasing the gene dosage of ssp-lacZ fusions resulted in parallel increases in both the ssp-lacZ mRNA level and the rate of b-galactosidase accumulation. Similarly, an 11-fold increase in sspE gene dosage gave a comparable increase in sspE mRNA, but at most a 1.5-fold increase in the amount of sspE gene product accumulated. In contrast, an 11-fold increase in the dosage of the sspA or B genes had no significant effect on the level of total sspA plus sspB mRNA, but did alter the ratios of these mRNAs as well as the amount of their gene products, to reflect the altered ratio of the two genes. These results suggest that intact ssp genes, but not ssp-lacZ gene fusions, are subject to feedback regulation of gene expression, with this regulation of the sspA and B genes effected by modulation of mRNA levels, while the feedback regulation of the sspE gene is at the post-transcriptional level. Images PMID:2456528

  2. Inactivation, sequence, and lacZ fusion analysis of a regulatory locus required for repression of nitrogen fixation genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G; Pace, V M; Caldicott, I M

    1990-01-01

    Transcription of the genes that code for proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in free-living diazotrophs is typically repressed by high internal oxygen concentrations or exogenous fixed nitrogen. The DNA sequence of a regulatory locus required for repression of Rhodobacter capsulatus nitrogen fixation genes was determined. It was shown that this locus, defined by Tn5 insertions and by ethyl methanesulfonate-derived mutations, is homologous to the glnB gene of other organisms. The R. capsulatus glnB gene was upstream of glnA, the gene for glutamine synthetase, in a glnBA operon. beta-Galactosidase expression from an R. capsulatus glnBA-lacZ translational fusion was increased twofold in cells induced by nitrogen limitation relative to that in cells under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. R. capsulatus nifR1, a gene that was previously shown to be homologous to ntrC and that is required for transcription of nitrogen fixation genes, was responsible for approximately 50% of the transcriptional activation of this glnBA fusion in cells induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions. R. capsulatus GLNB, NIFR1, and NIFR2 (a protein homologous to NTRB) were proposed to transduce the nitrogen status in the cell into repression or activation of other R. capsulatus nif genes. Repression of nif genes in response to oxygen was still present in R. capsulatus glnB mutants and must have occurred at a different level of control in the regulatory circuit. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:2152916

  3. p53 deficiency alters the yield and spectrum of radiation-induced lacZ mutants in the brain of transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Kanazawa, N.; Lutze-Mann, L.; Winegar, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particle radiation in the galacto-cosmic environment poses a significant risk in space exploration and the evaluation of radiation-induced genetic damage in tissues, especially in the central nervous system, is an important consideration in long-term manned space missions. We used a plasmid-based transgenic mouse model system, with the pUR288 lacZ transgene integrated in the genome of every cell of C57Bl/6(lacZ) mice, to evaluate the genetic damage induced by iron particle radiation. In order to examine the importance of genetic background on the radiation sensitivity of individuals, we cross-bred p53 wild-type lacZ transgenic mice with p53 nullizygous mice, producing lacZ transgenic mice that were either hemizygous or nullizygous for the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Animals were exposed to an acute dose of 1 Gy of iron particles and the lacZ mutation frequency (MF) in the brain was measured at time intervals from 1 to 16 weeks post-irradiation. Our results suggest that iron particles induced an increase in lacZ MF (2.4-fold increase in p53+/+ mice, 1.3-fold increase in p53+/- mice and 2.1-fold increase in p53-/- mice) and that this induction is both temporally regulated and p53 genotype dependent. Characterization of mutants based on their restriction patterns showed that the majority of the mutants arising spontaneously are derived from point mutations or small deletions in all three genotypes. Radiation induced alterations in the spectrum of deletion mutants and reorganization of the genome, as evidenced by the selection of mutants containing mouse genomic DNA. These observations are unique in that mutations in brain tissue after particle radiation exposure have never before been reported owing to technical limitations in most other mutation assays.

  4. Yersinia pestis lacZ expresses a beta-galactosidase with low enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Bobrov, Alexander G; Perry, Robert D

    2006-02-01

    Although very little, if any, beta-galactosidase activity is detected in Yersinia pestis by a standard Miller assay, we found that Y. pestis KIM6+ cells formed blue colonies on plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside (X-gal). Searches of the Y. pestis genome databases revealed the presence of noncontiguous sequences highly homologous to Escherichia coli lacZ, lacY, and lacI. Yersinia pestis lacZ is predicted to encode a 1060 amino-acid protein with 62% identity and 72% similarity to beta-galactosidase from E. coli. A deletion in the Y. pestis lacZ gene caused the formation of white colonies on X-gal-containing plates and beta-galactosidase activity was at background levels in the KIM6+lacZ mutant, while the complemented strain expressed about 190 Miller units. The Y. pestis lacZ promoter was not regulated by isopropylthiogalactoside or glucose. Finally, uptake of lactose by Y. pestis may be impaired. PMID:16436060

  5. Characterization and Development of Two Reporter Gene Systems for Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    Feustel, Lothar; Nakotte, Stephan; Dürre, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The use of lacZ from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes (encoding β-galactosidase) and lucB from Photinus pyralis (encoding luciferase) as reporter genes in Clostridium acetobutylicum was analyzed with promoters of genes required for solventogenesis and acidogenesis. Both systems proved to be well suited and allowed the detection of differences in promoter strength at least up to 100-fold. The luciferase assay could be performed much faster and comes close to online measurement. Resequencing of lacZ revealed a sequence error in the original database entry, which resulted in β-galactosidase with an additional 31 amino acids. Cutting off part of the gene encoding this C terminus resulted in decreased enzyme activity. The lacZ reporter data showed that bdhA (encoding butanol dehydrogenase A) is expressed during the early growth phase, followed by sol (encoding butyraldehyde/butanol dehydrogenase E and coenzyme A transferase) and bdhB (encoding butanol dehydrogenase B) expression. adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) was also induced early. There is about a 100-fold difference in expression between adc and bdhB (higher) and bdhA and the sol operon (lower). The lucB reporter activity could be increased 10-fold by the addition of ATP to the assay. Washing of the cells proved to be important in order to prevent a red shift of bioluminescence in an acidic environment (for reliable data). lucB reporter measurements confirmed the expression pattern of the sol and ptb-buk (encoding phosphotransbutyrylase and butyrate kinase) operons as determined by the lacZ reporter and showed that the expression level from the ptb promoter is 59-fold higher than that from the sol operon promoter. PMID:14766557

  6. Biological sensor for sucrose availability: relative sensitivities of various reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Miller, W G; Brandl, M T; Quiñones, B; Lindow, S E

    2001-03-01

    A set of three sucrose-regulated transcriptional fusions was constructed. Fusions p61RYTIR, p61RYlac, and p61RYice contain the scrR sucrose repressor gene and the promoterless gfp, lacZ, and inaZ reporter genes, respectively, fused to the scrY promoter from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Cells of Erwinia herbicola containing these fusions are induced only in media amended with sucrose, fructose, or sorbose. While a large variation in sucrose-dependent reporter gene activity was observed in cells harboring all gene fusions, fusions to the inaZ reporter gene yielded a much wider range of activity and were responsive to lower levels of sucrose than either lacZ or gfp. The lacZ reporter gene was found to be more efficient than gfp, requiring approximately 300-fold fewer cells for a detectable response over all concentrations of sucrose. Similarly, inaZ was found to be more efficient than lacZ, requiring 30-fold fewer cells at 1.45 microM sucrose and 6,100-fold fewer cells at 29 mM sucrose for a quantifiable response. The fluorescence of individual cells containing p61RYTIR was quantified following epifluorescence microscopy in order to relate the fluorescence exhibited by populations of cells in batch cultures with that of individual cells in such cultures. While the mean fluorescence intensity of a population of individual cells increased with increasing concentrations of sucrose, a wide range of fluorescence intensity was seen among individual cells. For most cultures the distribution of fluorescence intensity among individual cells was log-normally distributed, but cells grown in intermediate concentrations of sucrose exhibited two distinct populations of cells, one having relatively low fluorescence and another with much higher fluorescence. When cells were inoculated onto bean leaves, whole-cell ice nucleation and gfp-based biological sensors for sucrose each indicated that the average concentration of sucrose on moist leaf surfaces was about 20 micro

  7. Additional enhancer copies, with intact cdx binding sites, anteriorize Hoxa-7/lacZ expression in mouse embryos: evidence in keeping with an instructional cdx gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Stephen J; Cockley, Adam; Drage, Deborah

    2004-09-01

    Expression of a Hoxa-7/lacZ reporter construct in transgenic mouse embryos is shifted anteriorly when the upstream enhancer is multimerized. The shift occurs in spinal ganglia, neurectoderm and in both paraxial and lateral plate mesoderms. Much of the multimer effect is inhibited by destruction of a single caudal (cdx) binding motif in the additional copies of the enhancer. These observations are in agreement with earlier enhancer multimerization analyses made for Hoxb-8 (Charite et al., 1998). Our findings therefore provide further evidence that the anterior limit of a Hox gene's expression domain is normally dependent upon and is determined by, the dosage of transcription factor(s) which bind to its enhancer element(s) and that these factors may be, or must include, the cdx proteins. We consider these findings in terms of both instructional (morphogen-like) gradient and timing models for the establishment of Hox gene expression domains. Enhancer multimerization results in an earlier onset of Hoxa-7/lacZ activity in the embryo. In neurectoderm at 8.7 days and in mesoderm at 10.5 days, the anterior boundaries of expression are located posterior to those seen at some earlier stages of development. We discuss how these findings are in keeping with a model where Hox expression boundaries become set along instructional cdx gradients, formed by cdx decay in cells moving away from the primitive streak region. PMID:15470633

  8. Induction of lacZ Mutations in Muta™Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guosheng; Gingerich, John; Soper, Lynda; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro mutation assay using primary hepatocytes from the transgenic Muta™Mouse. Primary hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step perfusion method with purification by Percoll, cultured, and treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl- imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-nitrobenzoanthrone (3-NBA), and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). The mean lacZ mutant frequency (MF) for the solvent control was approximately twofold greater than the spontaneous MF observed in liver tissue. A concentration-dependent increase in MF (up to 3.7-fold above control) was observed following exposure to BaP. Fourfold and twofold increases in mutant frequency were observed for 3-NBA and PhIP exposures, respectively, without the addition of any exogenous metabolic activation. A slight but statistically significant increase in lacZ MF was observed for CSC, but only at the lowest concentration. This is the first report demonstrating that mutations can be detected in cultured primary hepatocytes from Muta™Mouse. The preliminary results presented suggest that the Muta™Mouse primary hepatocyte mutagenicity assay can be used as a cost-effective tool for screening of environmental mutagens and therapeutic products. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 51:330–337, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19953605

  9. Airway gene transfer in a non-human primate: lentiviral gene expression in marmoset lungs.

    PubMed

    Farrow, N; Miller, D; Cmielewski, P; Donnelley, M; Bright, R; Parsons, D W

    2013-01-01

    Genetic therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF) must be assessed for safety and efficacy, so testing in a non-human primate (NHP) model is invaluable. In this pilot study we determined if the conducting airways of marmosets (n = 2) could be transduced using an airway pre-treatment followed by an intratracheal bolus dose of a VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 based lentiviral (LV) vector (LacZ reporter). LacZ gene expression (X-gal) was assessed after 7 days and found primarily in conducting airway epithelia as well as in alveolar regions. The LacZ gene was not detected in liver or spleen via qPCR. Vector p24 protein bio-distribution into blood was transient. Dosing was well tolerated. This preliminary study confirmed the transducibility of CF-relevant airway cell types. The marmoset is a promising NHP model for testing and translating genetic treatments for CF airway disease towards clinical trials. PMID:23412644

  10. Progress in gene targeting and gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, M.M.; Erven, A.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we localized disease genes involved in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited retinal degeneration, close to the rhodopsin and peripherin genes on 3q and 6p. Subsequently, we and others identified mutations in these genes in RP patients. Currently animal models for human retinopathies are being generated using gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Genomic clones for retinal genes including rhodopsin and peripherin have been obtained from a phage library carrying mouse DNA isogenic with the ES cell line (CC1.2). The peripherin clone has been sequenced to establish the genomic structure of the mouse gene. Targeting vectors for rhodopsin and peripherin including a neomycin cassette for positive selection and thymidine kinase genes enabling selection against random intergrants are under construction. Progress in vector construction will be presented. Simultaneously we are developing systems for delivery of gene therapies to retinal tissues utilizing replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5). Efficacy of infection subsequent to various methods of intraocular injection and with varying viral titers is being assayed using an adenovirus construct containing a CMV promoter LacZ fusion as reporter and the range of tissues infected and the level of duration of LacZ expression monitored. Viral constructs with the LacZ reporter gene under the control of retinal specific promoters such as rhodopsin and IRBP cloned into pXCJL.1 are under construction. An update on developments in photoreceptor cell-directed expression of virally delivered genes will be presented.

  11. Mu d-directed lacZ fusions regulated by low pH in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Slonczewski, J L; Gonzalez, T N; Bartholomew, F M; Holt, N J

    1987-01-01

    Methods were devised to isolate strains of Escherichia coli containing Mu d (lacZ Kmr) operon fusions regulated by external pH and by internal pH. External acid-inducible fusions (exa) were detected by plating a Mu d fusion pool on Luria broth with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside, buffered at pH 7.4, and then replica plating on the same medium buffered at pH 5.5. Two exa strains showed induction by external acidification, up to 800-fold and 90-fold. Induction of both fusions was maximal at pH 5.6 and minimal over pH 7.0 to 8.3. There was no induction by membrane-permeable weak acids which depress internal pH at constant external pH. Anaerobiosis increased the steady-state level of transcription of exa-1 5-fold and of exa-2 2.5-fold at low external pH. Internal acid-inducible fusions (ina) were detected by plating a Mu d fusion pool on MacConkey medium, pH 6.8, and then replica plating with 15 mM benzoate. Two ina strains showed 10-fold induction by 20 mM benzoate at external pH 7.0. Similar results were obtained with other weak acids; their relative potency (salicylate greater than benzoate greater than dimethoxazoledinedione) was consistent with their relative ability to depress internal pH. In the absence of a weak acid, external pH had almost no effect over the pH range 5.5 to 8.0. Anaerobiosis did not affect ina induction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. coli genes induced specifically by internal but not external acidification and the first report of gene fusions induced by external acidification but not by weak acids. PMID:2954947

  12. INDUCTION OF A MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM PMGA GENE IN THE CHICKEN TRACHEAL RING ORGAN CULTURE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To search for Mycoplasma gallisepticum genes involved in colonization of the poultry respiratory tract, a transposon containing a promoterless lacZ gene was employed as a transcriptional reporter. The transposon was used to randomly mutagenize the chromosome of the M. gallisepticum S6 strain and a ...

  13. Effect of methyl methanesulfonate on hsp70 expression and tissue damage in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Ara, Gulshan; Afzal, Mohammad; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an anti-carcinogenic drug and its toxicity has been reported in various experimental models. The hsp70s are a family of ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins. In the recent years, hsp70 has been considered to be one of the candidate genes for predicting cytotoxicity against environmental chemicals. Nowadays emphasis is given to the use of alternatives to mammals in testing, research and education. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) has recommended the use of Drosophila as an alternative model for scientific studies. Almost all living organisms possess proteins with a similar structure to that of hsp70s. In the present study, the toxicity of MMS was evaluated by quantifying hsp70 expression and tissue damage in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9, at different doses and hours of exposure. We studied the effect of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 µl/ml of MMS at 2, 4, 24 and 48 hours of exposure on hsp70 expression by using the soluble O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) assay and on establishing the tissue damage by the Trypan blue exclusion assay in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hsp70 was observed at 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 µl/ml of MMS compared to the control. At the highest dose, i.e. 1.0 µl/ml of MMS, the activity of hsp70 was decreased due to tissue damage. PMID:22058658

  14. TP53 and lacZ mutagenesis induced by 3-nitrobenzanthrone in Xpa-deficient human TP53 knock-in mouse embryo fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kucab, Jill E.; Zwart, Edwin P.; van Steeg, Harry; Luijten, Mirjam; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.

    2016-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a highly mutagenic compound and possible human carcinogen found in diesel exhaust. 3-NBA forms bulky DNA adducts following metabolic activation and induces predominantly G:C > T:A transversions in a variety of experimental systems. Here we investigated the influence of nucleotide excision repair (NER) on 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis of the human tumour suppressor gene TP53 and the reporter gene lacZ. To this end we utilised Xpa -knockout (Xpa-Null) human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) embryo fibroblasts (HUFs). As Xpa is essential for NER of bulky DNA adducts, we hypothesized that DNA adducts induced by 3-NBA would persist in the genomes of Xpa-Null cells and lead to an increased frequency of mutation. The HUF immortalisation assay was used to select for cells harbouring TP53 mutations following mutagen exposure. We found that Xpa-Null Hupki mice and HUFs were more sensitive to 3-NBA treatment than their wild-type (Xpa-WT) counterparts. However, following 3-NBA treatment and immortalisation, a similar frequency of TP53-mutant clones arose from Xpa-WT and Xpa-Null HUF cultures. In cells from both Xpa genotypes G:C > T:A transversion was the predominant TP53 mutation type and mutations exhibited bias towards the non-transcribed strand. Thirty-two percent of 3-NBA-induced TP53 mutations occurred at CpG sites, all of which are hotspots for mutation in smokers’ lung cancer (codons 157, 158, 175, 245, 248, 273, 282). We also examined 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis of an integrated lacZ reporter gene in HUFs, where we again observed a similar mutant frequency in Xpa-WT and Xpa-Null cells. Our findings suggest that 3-NBA-DNA adducts may evade removal by global genomic NER; the persistence of 3-NBA adducts in DNA may be an important factor in its mutagenicity. PMID:26723900

  15. Comparison between S+L- assay and LacZ marker rescue assay for detecting replication-competent gammaretroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, A; Yoshikawa, R; Miyazawa, T

    2015-09-01

    To avoid contamination of adventitious gammaretroviruses in biological products such as vaccines, it is necessary to check the master seed cells for manufacturing. There are several assays to detect infectious gammaretroviruses. Among these, sarcoma-positive, leukemia-negative (S+L-) assay is a classical infectivity assay, which is often recommended in governmental guidelines. The S+L- cells used in S+L- assay generate unique focus upon the infection of replication-competent gammaretroviruses. Although S+L- assay is well recognized for the detection, their applicability is questionable in some cases. On the other hand, LacZ marker rescue (LMR) assay detects infectious gammaretroviruses by transducing LacZ marker gene to the target cells, which shows lacZ-positive foci if the infectious virus is present. In this study, we compared LMR and S+L- assays for detection of a variety of endogenous and exogenous gammaretroviruses. As results, LMR assay could detect all gammaretroviruses examined. On the other hand, S+L- assay using feline S+L- cells, termed QN10S, could not detect porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) subgroups A/B. Further, S+L- mink cells could not detect feline leukemia virus subgroups B in addition to PERV-A/B. These data indicate that LMR assay is better suited to detect wider range of gammaretroviruses. PMID:26164289

  16. Directed chromosomal integration and expression of the reporter gene gusA3 in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Grace L; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-10-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic microbe that survives passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and interacts with the host epithelium and mucosal immune cells. The potential for L. acidophilus to express antigens at mucosal surfaces has been investigated with various antigens and plasmid expression vectors. Plasmid instability and antibiotic selection complicate the possibility of testing these constructs in human clinical trials. Integrating antigen encoding genes into the chromosome for expression is expected to eliminate selection requirements and provide genetic stability. In this work, a reporter gene encoding a β-glucuronidase (GusA3) was integrated into four intergenic chromosomal locations. The integrants were tested for genetic stability and GusA3 activity. Two locations were selected for insertion downstream of constitutively highly expressed genes, one downstream of slpA (LBA0169), encoding a highly expressed surface-layer protein, and one downstream of phosphopyruvate hydratase (LBA0889), a highly expressed gene with homologs in other lactic acid bacteria. An inducible location was selected downstream of lacZ (LBA1462), encoding a β-galactosidase. A fourth location was selected in a low-expression region. The expression of gusA3 was evaluated from each location by measuring GusA3 activity on 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide (MUG). GusA3 activity from both highly expressed loci was more than three logs higher than the gusA3-negative parent, L. acidophilus NCK1909. GusA3 activity from the lacZ locus was one log higher in cells grown in lactose than in glucose. The differences in expression levels between integration locations highlights the importance of rational targeting with gene cassettes intended for chromosomal expression. PMID:21873486

  17. Directed in vitro evolution of reporter genes based on semi-rational design and high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong; Peng, Ri-He; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Marker genes, such as gusA, lacZ, and gfp, have been applied comprehensively in biological studies. Directed in vitro evolution provides a powerful tool for modifying genes and for studying gene structure, expression, and function. Here, we describe a strategy for directed in vitro evolution of reporter genes based on semi-rational design and high-throughput screening. The protocol involves two processes of DNA shuffling and screening. The first DNA shuffling and screening process involves eight steps: (1) amplifying the target gene by PCR, (2) cutting the product into random fragments with DNase I, (3) purification of 50-100 bp fragments, (4) reassembly of the fragments in a primerless PCR, (5) amplification of the reassembled product by primer PCR, (6) cloning into expression vector, (7) transformation of E. coli by electroporation, and (8) screening the target mutants using a nitrocellulose filter. The second DNA shuffling and screening process also involves the same eight steps, except that degenerate oligonucleotide primers are based on the sequence of the selected mutant. PMID:20676989

  18. Dual 19F/1H MR gene reporter molecules for in vivo detection of β-galactosidase

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian-Xin; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Hallac, Rami R.; Liu, Li; Mason, Ralph P.

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on personalized medicine and novel therapies require the development of non-invasive strategies for assessing biochemistry in vivo. The detection of enzyme activity and gene expression in vivo is potentially important for the characterization of diseases and gene therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a particularly promising tool since it is non-invasive, and has no associated radioactivity, yet penetrates deep tissue. We now demonstrate a novel class of dual 1H/19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lacZ gene reporter molecule to specifically reveal enzyme activity in human tumor xenografts growing in mice. We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of six novel molecules and evaluation of the most effective reporter in mice in vivo. Substrates show a single 19F NMR signal and exposure to β-galactosidase induces a large 19F NMR chemical shift response. In the presence of ferric ions the liberated aglycone generates intense proton MRI T2 contrast. The dual modality approach allows both the detection of substrate and imaging of product enhancing the confidence in enzyme detection. PMID:22352428

  19. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caixia; Tian, Rui; Liu, Ting; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase), the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor), and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene). However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies. PMID:27213309

  20. Generation and characterization of a novel neural crest marker allele, Inka1-LacZ, reveals a role for Inka1 in mouse neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Bethany S.; Sargent, Thomas D.; Williams, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies identified Inka1 as a gene regulated by AP-2α in the neural crest required for craniofacial morphogenesis in fish and frog. Here, we extend the analysis of Inka1 function and regulation to the mouse by generating a LacZ knock-in allele. Inka1-LacZ allele expression occurs in the cephalic mesenchyme, heart, and paraxial mesoderm prior to E8.5. Subsequently, expression is observed in the migratory neural crest cells and their derivatives. Consistent with expression of Inka1 in tissues of the developing head during neurulation, a low percentage of Inka1−/− mice show exencephaly while the remainder are viable and fertile. Further studies indicate that AP-2α is not required for Inka1 expression in the mouse, and suggest that there is no significant genetic interaction between these two factors during embryogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that while the expression domain of Inka1 is conserved among vertebrates, its function and regulation are not. PMID:20175189

  1. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to rabbit synovium in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, B J; Allen, E D; Wilson, J M; Hartman, J W; Davidson, B L

    1993-01-01

    Currently, treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies is often ineffective in ameliorating the progression of the disease, particularly the invasive destruction of cartilage and bone by rheumatoid synovium. Multiple aspects of this inflammatory process are mediated by the synovial lining cells (synoviocytes). Genetic modification of these cells in vivo represents a potential method for the treatment of these conditions. In this report, we describe a novel technique for the genetic transduction of synovial lining cells in vivo using recombinant adenoviral vectors and intraarticular injection techniques. Purified high titer suspensions of a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the gene for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (AdCMVlacZ) were directly injected into the hind knees of New Zealand white rabbits. Synovial tissues were then examined for transgenic lacZ expression using a combination of in situ staining for beta-galactosidase activity, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy. High efficiency gene transfer and lacZ expression was observed in both type A and type B synoviocytes throughout the articular and periarticular synovium of the rabbit knee, with continued expression of transgenic lacZ detected for > or = 8 wk after infection. Images PMID:8349791

  2. LacZ β-galactosidase: structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance.

    PubMed

    Juers, Douglas H; Matthews, Brian W; Huber, Reuben E

    2012-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ β-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize α-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the "missing" N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of β-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon. PMID:23011886

  3. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Jasmin S; Nagel, Anja C; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) and a phospho-mimetic Su(H) (MAPK-ac) isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vg (BE) -lacZ). In general, Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H) (MAPK-ac) was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vg (BE) -lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DER (act) ) or the MAPK (rl (SEM) ) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  4. Imaging of gene expression in vivo with photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zemp, Roger J.; Lungu, Gina; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-02-01

    In the post-genomic era, there is an increasing interest in visualizing the expression of functional genes in vivo. With the assistance of the reporter gene technique, various imaging modalities have been adopted for this purpose. In vivo gene expression imaging promises to provide biologists with a powerful tool for deepening our understanding of developmental biology, expanding our knowledge of the genetic basis of disease, and advancing the development of medicine. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging gene expression with photoacoustic imaging, which offers unique absorption contrast with ultrasonic resolution in vivo. We mark tumors in rats with the lacZ reporter gene. The lacZ gene encodes an enzyme β-galactosidase, which yields a dark blue product when acting on a colorimetric assay called X-gal. Photoacoustic tomography at 650nm clearly visualizes the presence of this blue product. The spectroscopic method can also potentially improve specificity. Considering how many staining methods are used in traditional biology, we believe that photoacoustic techniques will revolutionize the field of molecular imaging. The further development of reporter gene systems with high absorbing products in the NIR region is needed.

  5. A source of artifact in the lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, George R; Gray, Carol L; Lange, Paulina B; Marando, Christie I

    2015-06-01

    The lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli measures point mutations that occur by specific base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The tester strains cannot use lactose as a carbon source (Lac(-)), and revertants are easily detected by growth on lactose medium (Lac(+)). Six strains identify the six possible base substitutions, and five strains measure +G, -G, -CG, +A and -A frameshifts. Strong mutagens give dose-dependent increases in numbers of revertants per plate and revertant frequencies. Testing compounds that are arguably nonmutagens or weakly mutagenic, we often noted statistically significant dose-dependent increases in revertant frequency that were not accompanied by an absolute increase in numbers of revertants. The increase in frequency was wholly ascribable to a declining number of viable cells owing to toxicity. Analysis of the conditions revealed that the frequency of spontaneous revertants is higher when there are fewer viable cells per plate. The phenomenon resembles "adaptive" or "stress" mutagenesis, whereby lactose revertants accumulate in Lac(-) bacteria under starvation conditions in the absence of catabolite repression. Adaptive mutation is observed after long incubation and might be expected to be irrelevant in a standard assay using 48-h incubation. However, we found that elevated revertant frequencies occur under typical assay conditions when the bacterial lawn is thin, and this can cause increases in revertant frequency that mimic chemical mutagenesis when treatments are toxic but not mutagenic. Responses that resemble chemical mutagenesis were observed in the absence of mutagenic treatment in strains that revert by different frameshift mutations. The magnitude of the artifact is affected by cell density, dilution, culture age, incubation time, catabolite repression and the age and composition of media. Although the specific reversion assay is effective for quickly distinguishing classes of mutations induced by potent mutagens, its

  6. Establishment of lacZ marked strain of phosphate solubilizing bacterium in the rhizosphere and its effect on plant growth in mungbean.

    PubMed

    Sunita, S; Kapoor, K K; Goyal, S; Sharma, P K

    2010-10-01

    The establishment of lacZ marked strain of P-solubilizing bacterium Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of mungbean (Vigna radiata) under pothouse conditions was studied. The lacZ marker was transferred to Pseudomonas P-36 on LB medium using donor strain of E. coli. The lacZ marked strain formed blue colonies on selective media and could be identified from soil on the basis of this character. The lacZ marked strain was able to survive in rhizosphere of mungbean under pothouse conditions and maintained a population of about 10(4) g(-1) of rhizosphere soils up to 60 days study period. Positive effect of inoculation with P-solubilizing bacterium on dry matter yield, P and N-uptake was observed using rock phosphate and single super phosphate as P sources with and without farmyard amendment. PMID:22815583

  7. Zinc-regulated genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed by transposon tagging.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, D S

    2000-01-01

    The biochemistry of human nutritional zinc deficiency remains poorly defined. To characterize in genetic terms how cells respond to zinc deprivation, zinc-regulated genes (ZRG's) were identified in yeast. Gene expression was probed using random lacZ reporter gene fusions, integrated by transposon tagging into a diploid genome as previously described. About half of the genome was examined. Cells exhibiting differences in lacZ expression on low or moderate ( approximately 0. 1 vs. 10 microm) zinc media were isolated and the gene fusions were sequenced. Ribonuclease protection assays demonstrated four- to eightfold increases for the RNAs of the ZAP1, ZRG17 (YNR039c), DPP1, ADH4, MCD4, and YEF3B genes in zinc-deficient cells. All but YEF3B were shown through reporter gene assays to be controlled by a master regulator of zinc homeostasis now known to be encoded by ZAP1. ZAP1 mutants lacked the flocculence and distended vacuoles characteristic of zinc-deficient cells, suggesting that flocculation and vacuolation serve homeostatic functions in zinc-deficient cells. ZRG17 mutants required extra zinc supplementation to repress these phenotypes, suggesting that ZRG17 functions in zinc uptake. These findings illustrate the utility of transposon tagging as an approach for studying regulated gene expression in yeast. PMID:10978274

  8. Identification of the Ω4406 Regulatory Region, a Developmental Promoter of Myxococcus xanthus, and a DNA Segment Responsible for Chromosomal Position-Dependent Inhibition of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Loconto, Jennifer; Viswanathan, Poorna; Nowak, Scott J.; Gloudemans, Monica; Kroos, Lee

    2005-01-01

    When starved, Myxococcus xanthus cells send signals to each other that coordinate their movements, gene expression, and differentiation. C-signaling requires cell-cell contact, and increasing contact brought about by cell alignment in aggregates is thought to increase C-signaling, which induces expression of many genes, causing rod-shaped cells to differentiate into spherical spores. C-signaling involves the product of the csgA gene. A csgA mutant fails to express many genes that are normally induced after about 6 h into the developmental process. One such gene was identified by insertion of Tn5 lac at site Ω4406 in the M. xanthus chromosome. Tn5 lac fused transcription of lacZ to the upstream Ω4406 promoter. In this study, the Ω4406 promoter region was identified by analyzing mRNA and by testing different upstream DNA segments for the ability to drive developmental lacZ expression in M. xanthus. The 5′ end of Ω4406 mRNA mapped to approximately 1.3 kb upstream of the Tn5 lac insertion. A 1.0-kb DNA segment from 0.8 to 1.8 kb upstream of the Tn5 lac insertion, when fused to lacZ and integrated at a phage attachment site in the M. xanthus chromosome, showed a similar pattern of developmental expression as Tn5 lac Ω4406. The DNA sequence upstream of the putative transcriptional start site was strikingly similar to promoter regions of other C-signal-dependent genes. Developmental lacZ expression from the 1.0-kb segment was abolished in a csgA mutant but was restored upon codevelopment of the csgA mutant with wild-type cells, which supply C-signal, demonstrating that the Ω4406 promoter responds to extracellular C-signaling. Interestingly, the 0.8-kb DNA segment immediately upstream of Tn5 lac Ω4406 inhibited expression of a downstream lacZ reporter in transcriptional fusions integrated at a phage attachment site in the chromosome but not at the normal Ω4406 location. To our knowledge, this is the first example in M. xanthus of a chromosomal position

  9. Sequence Requirements for Myosin Gene Expression and Regulation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Okkema, P. G.; Harrison, S. W.; Plunger, V.; Aryana, A.; Fire, A.

    1993-01-01

    Four Caenorhabditis elegans genes encode muscle-type specific myosin heavy chain isoforms: myo-1 and myo-2 are expressed in the pharyngeal muscles; unc-54 and myo-3 are expressed in body wall muscles. We have used transformation-rescue and lacZ fusion assays to determine sequence requirements for regulated myosin gene expression during development. Multiple tissue-specific activation elements are present for all four genes. For each of the four genes, sequences upstream of the coding region are tissue-specific promoters, as shown by their ability to drive expression of a reporter gene (lacZ) in the appropriate muscle type. Each gene contains at least one additional tissue-specific regulatory element, as defined by the ability to enhance expression of a heterologous promoter in the appropriate muscle type. In rescue experiments with unc-54, two further requirements apparently independent of tissue specificity were found: sequences within the 3' non-coding region are essential for activity while an intron near the 5' end augments expression levels. The general intron stimulation is apparently independent of intron sequence, indicating a mechanistic effect of splicing. To further characterize the myosin gene promoters and to examine the types of enhancer sequences in the genome, we have initiated a screen of C. elegans genomic DNA for fragments capable of enhancing the myo-2 promoter. The properties of enhancers recovered from this screen suggest that the promoter is limited to muscle cells in its ability to respond to enhancers. PMID:8244003

  10. Selective suicide gene therapy of colon cancer cell lines exploiting fibroblast growth factor 18 promoter.

    PubMed

    Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Zeinali, Sirous

    2010-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) is one of the genes downstream of Wnt, one of the most important signaling pathways activated in colon cancer. An FGF18 promoter containing a single T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor 1 (TCF/LEF1) binding site was inserted upstream of a thymidine kinase (TK) suicide gene module, while a bacterial beta-Gal (LacZ) element served as the reporter gene. Following transient transfection with pUCFGF18LacZ, beta-Gal staining showed that 5% of SW480, 10% of HCT116, 0% of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and 0% of normal colon cells (NCCs) had expressed LacZ. beta-Gal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the ratio of pUCFGF18LacZ activity to that of positive control was 0.09 and 0.25 in SW480 and HCT116, respectively (significantly higher than mock plasmid), while there were no significant changes in the beta-Gal expression in HUVEC and NCC cells transfected with pUCFGF18LacZ or mock plasmid. Following transfection with pUCFGF18TK and pUCCMVTK (positive control), cytotoxicity analysis of transfected cells showed that treatment with ganciclovir (GCV) significantly decreased SW480 and HCT116 cell survival at GCV concentrations above 20 microg/mL. An inverse correlation between GCV concentration and cell viability was evident in both colon cancer cell lines following transfection with these suicide plasmids. pUCFGF18TK and pUCCMVTK induced apoptosis after the administration of GCV in HCT116, but not in SW480, as demonstrated by M30 cytodeath antibody. This discrepancy may stem from differences in the mechanisms of TK/GCV-induced apoptosis in p53-proficient (HCT116) and -deficient (SW480) cells. The specific activity of the FGF18 promoter in HCT116 and SW480 may reflect the advantage of this promoter over artificial promoters containing artificial TCF/LEF binding sites. PMID:20187803

  11. Mutagenesis induced by targeted alpha therapy using 213Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 in lacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Barry J; So, Trina; Abbas Rizvi, Syed M; Song, Emma Y; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lutz-Mann, Louise

    2009-05-01

    Targeted alpha therapy utilizes alpha-emitting radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to allow specific irradiation of cancer cells whilst sparing normal, healthy tissues. The mutagenic potential of (213)Bi conjugated to a human melanoma antigen-specific antibody (9.2.27) was examined using an in vivo transgenic mouse model containing multiple copies of a lacZ target gene in every cell, allowing the quantification and comparison of mutagenesis in different organs. Mice received an ip injection of 16.65 MBq of (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27, and were sacrificed at 24 h, 1 w and 4 w post-injection. Pharmacokinetic studies gave the absorbed and effective doses for each organ. The mutant frequency and mutant spectra were analysed for the brain, spleen and kidneys. The brain and spleen did not show significant increases in induced mutation frequencies compared to spontaneous background levels or changes in mutant spectra, these results being independent of p53 status. However, elevated mutation frequencies and persistent size change mutations were observed in the kidneys, but are not significant at the p = 0.05 level. The effect of p53 status was also evident, as p53 heterozygotes displayed higher mutation frequencies than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting a reduction in the p53 gene may lead to an increased susceptibility to mutagenesis. These effects were time dependent and levels returned to those of the controls at 4 w post-irradiation, albeit with a predominant residue of size mutations. These effects were observed at activities very much higher than those expected for the therapy of human patients. As such, the induction of secondary cancer with the (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 alpha immunoconjugate is not expected to be a significant problem in the clinic. PMID:19337032

  12. Shh pathway in wounds in non-diabetic Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ mice treated with MAA beads.

    PubMed

    Lisovsky, Alexandra; Sefton, Michael V

    2016-09-01

    Previously, poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (MAA) beads were shown to improve vessel formation with a concomitant increase in the expression of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene, a pleiotropic factor implicated in vascularization. The aim of this study was to follow up on this observation in the absence of the confounding factors of diabetes in non-diabetic Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ mice; in this mouse, expression of GFP and β-Gal is consistent with the transcription patterns of Shh and its receptor patched 1 (Ptch1), respectively. In agreement with studies in diabetic males, MAA beads improved vascularization in large (15 mm × 15 mm) wounds in non-diabetic males at day 7. Shh pathway activation was suggested, as the numbers of GFP+ (Shh) and β-Gal+ (Ptch1, a target of the pathway) cells increased in the granulation tissue. Shh signaling pathway modulation was also suggested in the healthy skin surrounding the wound bed, as evidenced by an increase in the number of GFP+ and β-Gal+ cells in males at day 4. Gene expression analysis of the wounds confirmed increase in Ptch1 and showed the upregulation of a downstream transcription factor Gli3, involved in the vascular effect of the Shh pathway, implicating the pathway in the effect of MAA beads. The efficacy of MAA beads was also investigated in females; MAA beads modulated the Shh pathway within granulation tissue similarly as in males, but had no enhancement effect on the healthy skin and on vascularization. We believe that understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of MAA-based biomaterials and testing the efficacy of therapeutics in both sexes will inform the development of novel therapeutic biomaterials. PMID:27343467

  13. Tissue-specific regulation of the mouse Pkhd1 (ARPKD) gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott S.; Cobo-Stark, Patricia; Hajarnis, Sachin; Aboudehen, Karam; Shao, Xinli; Richardson, James A.; Patel, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, an inherited disorder characterized by the formation of cysts in renal collecting ducts and biliary dysgenesis, is caused by mutations of the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) gene. Expression of PKHD1 is tissue specific and developmentally regulated. Here, we show that a 2.0-kb genomic fragment containing the proximal promoter of mouse Pkhd1 directs tissue-specific expression of a lacZ reporter gene in transgenic mice. LacZ is expressed in renal collecting ducts beginning during embryonic development but is not expressed in extrarenal tissues. The Pkhd1 promoter contains a binding site for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1β, which is required for activity in transfected cells. Mutation of the HNF-1β-binding site abolishes the expression of the lacZ reporter gene in renal collecting ducts. Transgenes containing the 2.0-kb promoter and 2.7 kb of additional genomic sequence extending downstream to the second exon are expressed in the kidney, intrahepatic bile ducts, and male reproductive tract. This pattern overlaps with the endogenous expression of Pkhd1 and coincides with sites of expression of HNF-1β. We conclude that the proximal 2.0-kb promoter is sufficient for tissue-specific expression of Pkhd1 in renal collecting ducts in vivo and that HNF-1β is required for Pkhd1 promoter activity in collecting ducts. Additional genomic sequences located from exons 1-2 or elsewhere in the gene locus are required for expression in extrarenal tissues. PMID:24899057

  14. A Luciferase Reporter Gene System for High-Throughput Screening of γ-Globin Gene Activators.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wensheng; Silvers, Robert; Ouellette, Michael; Wu, Zining; Lu, Quinn; Li, Hu; Gallagher, Kathleen; Johnson, Kathy; Montoute, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Luciferase reporter gene assays have long been used for drug discovery due to their high sensitivity and robust signal. A dual reporter gene system contains a gene of interest and a control gene to monitor non-specific effects on gene expression. In our dual luciferase reporter gene system, a synthetic promoter of γ-globin gene was constructed immediately upstream of the firefly luciferase gene, followed downstream by a synthetic β-globin gene promoter in front of the Renilla luciferase gene. A stable cell line with the dual reporter gene was cloned and used for all assay development and HTS work. Due to the low activity of the control Renilla luciferase, only the firefly luciferase activity was further optimized for HTS. Several critical factors, such as cell density, serum concentration, and miniaturization, were optimized using tool compounds to achieve maximum robustness and sensitivity. Using the optimized reporter assay, the HTS campaign was successfully completed and approximately 1000 hits were identified. In this chapter, we also describe strategies to triage hits that non-specifically interfere with firefly luciferase. PMID:27316998

  15. Multifactorial induction of an orphan PKS-NRPS gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Gressler, Markus; Zaehle, Christoph; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2011-02-25

    Mining the genome of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus terreus revealed the presence of an orphan polyketide-nonribosomal-peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) gene cluster. Induced expression of the transcriptional activator gene adjacent to the PKS-NRPS gene was not sufficient for the activation of the silent pathway. Monitoring gene expression, metabolic profiling, and using a lacZ reporter strain allowed for the systematic investigation of physiological conditions that eventually led to the discovery of isoflavipucine and dihydroisoflavipucine. Phytotoxin formation is only activated in the presence of certain amino acids, stimulated at alkaline pH, but strictly repressed in the presence of glucose. Global carbon catabolite repression by CreA cannot be abolished by positive-acting factors such as PacC and overrides the pathway activator. Gene inactivation and stable isotope labeling experiments unveiled the molecular basis for flavipucine/fruit rot toxin biosynthesis. PMID:21236704

  16. Simultaneous gene inactivation and promoter reporting in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kangming; Xu, Xinyi; Gu, Liping; Hildreth, Michael; Zhou, Ruanbao

    2015-02-01

    Determining spatiotemporal gene expression and analyzing knockout mutant phenotypes have become powerful tools in elucidating the function of genes; however, genetic approaches for simultaneously inactivating a gene and monitoring its expression have not been reported in the literature. In this study, we designed a dual-functional gene knockout vector pZR606 that contains a multiple cloning site (MCS) for inserting the internal fragment of a target gene, with a gfp gene as its transcriptional marker located immediately downstream of the MCS. By using this gene knockout system, we inactivated ava_2679 from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, as well as all2508, alr2887, alr3608, and all4388 from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The ava_2679 knockout mutant fails to grow diazotrophically. Morphological analysis of ava_2679 knockout mutant after nitrogen step-down revealed defective junctions between heterocysts and adjacent vegetative cells, and the heterocyst was 1.53-fold longer compared to wild-type heterocysts. The alr2887, all4388, and alr3608 mutant colonies turned yellow and showed lack of protracted growth when deprived of fixed nitrogen, consistent with the previous reports that alr2887, all4388, and alr3608 are Fox genes. The all2508 encodes a GTP-binding elongation factor (EF4/LepA), and its knockout mutant exhibited reduced diazotrophic growth. The heterocyst development of all2508 knockout was significantly delayed, and only about 4.0 % of vegetative cells differentiated to heterocysts after nitrogen deprivation for 72 h, decreased 49.6 % compared to wild-type. Thus, we discovered that All2508 may regulate heterocyst development spatiotemporally. Concurrently, the GFP reporter revealed that all five target gene expressions were up-regulated in response to nitrogen deprivation. We demonstrated that the pZR606-based specific gene knockout approach worked effectively for the five selected genes, including four previously identified Fox genes or Fox gene

  17. Luciferase as a reporter of gene activity in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their development and introduction in the early days of plant genetic engineering, reporter genes have established a proven track record as effective tools for exploring the molecular underpinnings of gene regulation. When driven by appropriate genetic control systems (e.g. transcriptional pr...

  18. Preemptive heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery reveals reduced mortality and preservation of left ventricular function 1 yr after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Simpson, Jeremy A; Brunt, Keith R; Ward, Christopher A; Hall, Sean R R; Kinobe, Robert T; Barrette, Valerie; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Pachori, Alok S; Dzau, Victor J; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Melo, Luis G

    2007-07-01

    We reported previously that predelivery of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene to the heart by adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2) markedly reduces ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. However, the effect of preemptive HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival and prevention of postinfarction heart failure has not been determined. We assessed the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival, myocardial function, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling 1 yr after myocardial infarction (MI) using echocardiographic imaging, pressure-volume (PV) analysis, and histomorphometric approaches. Two groups of Lewis rats were injected with 2 x 10(11) particles of AAV-LacZ (control) or AAV-human HO-1 (hHO-1) in the anterior-posterior apical region of the LV wall. Six weeks after gene transfer, animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Echocardiographic measurements and PV analysis of LV function were obtained at 2 wk and 12 mo after I/R. One year after acute MI, mortality was markedly reduced in the HO-1-treated animals compared with the LacZ-treated animals. PV analysis demonstrated significantly enhanced LV developed pressure, elevated maximal dP/dt, and lower end-diastolic volume in the HO-1 animals compared with the LacZ animals. Echocardiography showed a larger apical anterior-to-posterior wall ratio in HO-1 animals compared with LacZ animals. Morphometric analysis revealed extensive myocardial scarring and fibrosis in the infarcted LV area of LacZ animals, which was reduced by 62% in HO-1 animals. These results suggest that preemptive HO-1 gene delivery may be useful as a therapeutic strategy to reduce post-MI LV remodeling and heart failure. PMID:17322421

  19. Direct exposure of mouse ovaries and oocytes to high doses of an adenovirus gene therapy vector fails to lead to germ cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J W

    2001-04-01

    The risk of insertion of adenovirus gene therapy DNA into female germ cells during the course of somatic gene therapy was stringently tested in the mouse by injecting up to 10(10) infectious particles directly into the ovary and by incubating naked oocytes in a solution of 2 x 10(8) particles/ml for 1 h prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The vector used was a recombinant adenovirus carrying the bacterial lacZ gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Adbeta-gal). Ovaries were stained for LacZ activity, or immunochemically for LacZ, 5-7 days after injection. Although very large amounts of LacZ activity and protein were detected, all positive staining was in the thecal portion of the ovary, with no staining seen in oocytes. In another series of experiments, mice with injected ovaries were mated, and preimplantation embryos or fetuses were analyzed either for LacZ expression or by PCR for lacZ DNA. None of 202 preimplantation embryos stained positively for LacZ and none of 58 fetuses were positive for DNA by PCR analysis. Finally, more than 1400 eggs were fertilized after exposure to the vector prior to IVF and stained as morulae for LacZ activity. Fewer than 2% of the embryos stained positively for LacZ, and experiments indicated that the staining was due to incomplete washing of the eggs prior to IVF. These data provide strong evidence that adenoviruses cannot infect oocytes and that the risk of female germ-line transduction with such vectors is very low. PMID:11319918

  20. The yeast SNF3 gene encodes a glucose transporter homologous to the mammalian protein.

    PubMed Central

    Celenza, J L; Marshall-Carlson, L; Carlson, M

    1988-01-01

    The SNF3 gene is required for high-affinity glucose transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has also been implicated in control of gene expression by glucose repression. We report here the nucleotide sequence of the cloned SNF3 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence shows that SNF3 encodes a 97-kilodalton protein that is homologous to mammalian glucose transporters and has 12 putative membrane-spanning regions. We also show that a functional SNF3-lacZ gene-fusion product cofractionates with membrane proteins and is localized to the cell surface, as judged by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of the fusion protein is regulated by glucose repression. Images PMID:3281163

  1. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  2. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  3. Towards liver-directed gene therapy: retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Raper, S E; Wilson, J M

    1991-11-01

    Liver-directed gene therapy is being considered in the treatment of inherited metabolic diseases. One approach we are considering is the transplantation of autologous hepatocytes that have been genetically modified with recombinant retroviruses ex vivo. We describe, in this report, techniques for isolating human hepatocytes and efficiently transducing recombinant genes into primary cultures. Hepatocytes were isolated from tissue of four different donors, plated in primary culture, and exposed to recombinant retroviruses expressing either the LacZ reporter gene or the cDNA for rabbit LDL receptor. The efficiency of gene transfer under optimal conditions, as determined by Southern blot analysis, varied from a maximum of one proviral copy per cell to a minimum of 0.1 proviral copy per cell. Cytochemical assays were used to detect expression of the recombinant derived proteins, E. coli beta-galactosidase and rabbit LDL receptor. Hepatocytes transduced with the LDL receptor gene expressed levels of receptor protein that exceeded the normal endogenous levels. The ability to isolate and genetically modify human hepatocytes, as described in this report, is an important step towards the development of liver-directed gene therapies in humans. PMID:1767337

  4. Genetics in methylotrophic bacteria: Appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-09-01

    This research has focused primarily on promoters in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and in methanotrophic bacteria. In Methylobacterium extorquens work continued on the moxF promoter. The author constructed chromosomal lacZ fusions of this promoter to avoid the regulation problems of plasmid-borne fragments and has shown that this is regulated normally in the chromosome. She has constructed lacZ fusions to some of the mox genes involved in the synthesis of the cofactor, PQQ, in order to carry out similar analysis of transcription of PQQ genes. The author has continued to isolate mox genes in methanotrophs for the purpose of studying their promoters and transcriptional regulation.

  5. Tbx18 targets dermal condensates for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation during embryonic hair follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Grisanti, Laura; Clavel, Carlos; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Rezza, Amelie; Tsai, Su-Yi; Sennett, Rachel; Mumau, Melanie; Cai, Chen-Leng; Rendl, Michael

    2013-02-01

    How cell fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells are regulated by their microenvironment or niche is a central question in stem cell and regenerative biology. Although functional analysis of hair follicle epithelial stem cells by gene targeting is well established, the molecular and genetic characterization of the dermal counterpart during embryonic morphogenesis has been lacking because of the absence of cell type-specific drivers. Here, we report that T-box transcription factor Tbx18 specifically marks dermal papilla (DP) precursor cells during embryonic hair follicle morphogenesis. With Tbx18(LacZ), Tbx18(H2BGFP), and Tbx18(Cre) knock-in mouse models, we demonstrate LacZ and H2BGFP (nuclear green fluorescent protein) expression and Cre activity in dermal condensates of nascent first-wave hair follicles at E14.5. As Tbx18 expression becomes more widespread throughout the dermis at later developmental stages, we use tamoxifen-inducible Cre-expressing mice, Tbx18(MerCreMer), to exclusively target DP precursor cells and their progeny. Finally, we ablate Tbx18 in full knockout mice, but find no perturbations in hair follicle formation, suggesting that Tbx18 is dispensable for normal DP function. In summary, our study establishes Tbx18 as a genetic driver to target for the first time embryonic DP precursors for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation that will greatly enhance investigations into their molecular functions during hair follicle morphogenesis. PMID:22992803

  6. Dual-modality gene reporter for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, P. Stephen; Hammersley, Jayne; Loizou, Louiza; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Hu, De-En; Tee, Sui-Seng; Hesketh, Robin; Lyons, Scott K.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Lewis, David Y.; Aime, Silvio; Fulton, Sandra M.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to track cells and their patterns of gene expression in living organisms can increase our understanding of tissue development and disease. Gene reporters for bioluminescence, fluorescence, radionuclide, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described but these suffer variously from limited depth penetration, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. We describe here a gene reporter, based on the organic anion transporting protein Oatp1a1, which mediates uptake of a clinically approved, Gd3+-based, hepatotrophic contrast agent (gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid). Cells expressing the reporter showed readily reversible, intense, and positive contrast (up to 7.8-fold signal enhancement) in T1-weighted magnetic resonance images acquired in vivo. The maximum signal enhancement obtained so far is more than double that produced by MRI gene reporters described previously. Exchanging the Gd3+ ion for the radionuclide, 111In, also allowed detection by single-photon emission computed tomography, thus combining the spatial resolution of MRI with the sensitivity of radionuclide imaging. PMID:24347640

  7. Photoacoustic imaging of gene expression using tyrosinase as a reporter gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Forbrich, Alexander; Harrison, Tyler; Hitt, Mary; Zemp, Roger J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical reporter genes, such as green fluorescence protein, are powerful research tools that allow visualization of gene expression. We have successfully used tyrosinase as a reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging. Tyrosinase is the key regulatory enzyme in the production of melanin which has a broad optical absorption spectrum. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with tyrosinase under the control of an inducible promoter. For photoacoustic experiments, MCF-7 cells were resuspended at 108 cells/mL and injected in 700 μm (inner diameter) plastic tubing. Photoacoustic signal of MCF-7 cells expressing tyrosinase were >20-fold greater than those of untransfected MCF-7 cells. Photoacoustic signal of tyrosinaseexpressing MCF-7 cells were approximately 2-fold lesser and greater than those of blood at 576 and 650 nm, respectively, suggesting that photoacoustic signal from blood and tyrosinase-expressing cells can be separated by dualwavelength analysis. Photoacoustic signal from tyrosinase-expressing MCF-7 cells covered by chicken tissue could even be detected at a laser penetration depth of 4 cm, suggesting that tyrosinase can be used to image gene expression in relatively deep tissues. The current data suggests that tyrosinase is a strong reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging.

  8. Distinct signatures for mutator sensitivity of lacZ reversions and for the spectrum of lacI/lacO forward mutations on the chromosome of nondividing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bharatan, Shanti M; Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J

    2004-02-01

    A conditional lethal galE(Ts)-based strategy was employed in Escherichia coli, first to eliminate all growth-associated chromosomal reversions in lacZ or forward mutations in lacI/lacO by incubation at the restrictive temperature and subsequently to recover (as papillae) spontaneous mutations that had arisen in the population of nondividing cells after shift to the permissive temperature. Data from lacZ reversion studies in mutator strains indicated that the products of all genes for mismatch repair (mutHLS, dam, uvrD), of some for oxidative damage repair (mutMT), and of that for polymerase proofreading (dnaQ) are required in dividing cells; some others for oxidative damage repair (mutY, nth nei) are required in both dividing and nondividing cells; and those for alkylation damage repair (ada ogt) are required in nondividing cells. The spectrum of lacI/lacO mutations in nondividing cells was distinguished both by lower frequencies of deletions and IS1 insertions and by the unique occurrence of GC-to-AT transitions at lacO +5. In the second approach to study mutations that had occurred in nondividing cells, lacI/lacO mutants were selected as late-arising papillae from the lawn of a galE+ strain; once again, transitions at lacO +5 were detected among the mutants that had been obtained from populations initially grown on poor carbon sources such as acetate, palmitate, or succinate. Our results indicate that the lacO +5 site is mutable only in nondividing cells, one possible mechanism for which might be that random endogenous alkylation (or oxidative) damage to DNA in these cells is efficiently corrected by the Ada Ogt (or Nth Nei) repair enzymes at most sites but not at lacO +5. Furthermore, the late-arising papillae from the second approach were composed almost exclusively of dominant lacI/lacO mutants. This finding lends support to "instantaneous gratification" models in which a spontaneous lesion, occurring at a random site in DNA of a nondividing cell, is most

  9. Distinct signatures for mutator sensitivity of lacZ reversions and for the spectrum of lacI/lacO forward mutations on the chromosome of nondividing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bharatan, Shanti M; Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J

    2004-01-01

    A conditional lethal galE(Ts)-based strategy was employed in Escherichia coli, first to eliminate all growth-associated chromosomal reversions in lacZ or forward mutations in lacI/lacO by incubation at the restrictive temperature and subsequently to recover (as papillae) spontaneous mutations that had arisen in the population of nondividing cells after shift to the permissive temperature. Data from lacZ reversion studies in mutator strains indicated that the products of all genes for mismatch repair (mutHLS, dam, uvrD), of some for oxidative damage repair (mutMT), and of that for polymerase proofreading (dnaQ) are required in dividing cells; some others for oxidative damage repair (mutY, nth nei) are required in both dividing and nondividing cells; and those for alkylation damage repair (ada ogt) are required in nondividing cells. The spectrum of lacI/lacO mutations in nondividing cells was distinguished both by lower frequencies of deletions and IS1 insertions and by the unique occurrence of GC-to-AT transitions at lacO +5. In the second approach to study mutations that had occurred in nondividing cells, lacI/lacO mutants were selected as late-arising papillae from the lawn of a galE+ strain; once again, transitions at lacO +5 were detected among the mutants that had been obtained from populations initially grown on poor carbon sources such as acetate, palmitate, or succinate. Our results indicate that the lacO +5 site is mutable only in nondividing cells, one possible mechanism for which might be that random endogenous alkylation (or oxidative) damage to DNA in these cells is efficiently corrected by the Ada Ogt (or Nth Nei) repair enzymes at most sites but not at lacO +5. Furthermore, the late-arising papillae from the second approach were composed almost exclusively of dominant lacI/lacO mutants. This finding lends support to "instantaneous gratification" models in which a spontaneous lesion, occurring at a random site in DNA of a nondividing cell, is most

  10. Highly efficient regulation of gene expression by tetracycline in a replication-defective herpes simplex viral vector.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng; Theopold, Christoph; Hoeller, Daniela; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Lu, Zheming

    2006-06-01

    Employing the tetracycline repressor tetR and the wild-type hCMV major immediate-early promoter, we have developed a highly sensitive tetracycline-inducible transcription switch in mammalian cells (T-REx; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). In view of the previous difficulty in achieving regulatable gene expression in recombinant HSV vector systems, we constructed a T-REx-encoding replication-defective HSV-1 recombinant, QR9TO-lacZ, that encodes two copies of the tetR gene controlled by the HSV-1 immediate-early ICP0 promoter and a reporter, the LacZ gene, under the control of the tetO-bearing hCMV major immediate-early promoter. Infection of cells, such as Vero, PC12, and NGF-differentiated PC12 cells, with QR9TO-lacZ led to 300- to 1000-fold tetracycline-regulated gene expression. Moreover, the expression of the LacZ gene by QR9TO-lacZ can be finely controlled by tetracycline in a dose-dependent fashion. Efficiently regulated gene expression can also be achieved in vivo following intracerebral and footpad inoculations in mice. The demonstrated capability of T-REx for achieving high levels of sensitively regulated gene expression in the context of the HSV-1 genome will significantly expand the utility of HSV-based vector systems for studying gene function in the nervous system and delivering regulated gene expression in therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of CNS diseases. PMID:16574491

  11. Coupling the T7 A1 promoter to the runaway-replication vector as an efficient method for stringent control and high-level expression of lacZ.

    PubMed

    Chao, Y P; Chern, J T; Wen, C S

    2001-01-01

    An expression vector characterized by tight regulation and high expression of cloned genes appears to be indispensable for the engineering need. To achieve this goal, in association with lacI the T7 A1 promoter containing two synthetic lac operators was constructed into a runaway-replication vector. To further examine this vector system, lacZ was subcloned and placed under the control of the T7 A1 promoter on the plasmid. With the application of the thermal induction alone, the Escherichia coli strain harboring the recombinant plasmid was able to produce 15,000 Miller units of beta-galactosidase, while it yielded the recombinant protein with 45,000-50,000 Miller units upon both thermal and chemical induction. In sharp contrast, only 60-90 Miller units of beta-galactosidase was obtained for the cell at an uninduced state. As a result, the production yield of beta-galactosidase over the background level is amplified approximately 170-fold by thermal induction and 500-fold by thermal and chemical induction. To produce the recombinant protein on a large scale, an approach by connecting two fermenters in series was newly developed. By applying the three-stage temperature shift in this dual fermenter system, 55,000 Miller units of beta-galactosidase was obtained. Overall, it shows the potential use of the vector system developed here for its tight control and high production of recombinant proteins. PMID:11170500

  12. Sublinear response in lacZ mutant frequency of Muta™ Mouse spermatogonial stem cells after low dose subchronic exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jason M; Walker, Mike; Sivathayalan, Ahalya; Douglas, George R; Yauk, Carole L; Marchetti, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The transgenic rodent mutation assay was used to compare the dose-response relationship of lacZ mutant frequency (MF) in spermatogonial stem cells exposed acutely or subchronically to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Muta(™) Mouse males were exposed orally to 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg ENU for acute exposures and 0, 1, 2, or 5 mg/(kg day) for 28-day subchronic exposures. LacZ MF was measured in sperm collected 70 days post-exposure to target spermatogonial stem cells. Dose-response data were fit to linear, quadratic, exponential, or power models. Acute exposure resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MF that was significant (P < 0.05) at all doses tested and was best described by a quadratic dose-response model that was linear in the low dose range. In contrast, similar total doses fragmented over a 28-day subchronic exposure only resulted in a significant increase in lacZ MF at the highest dose tested. Therefore, the subchronic no observable genotoxic effect level (NOGEL) was 2 mg/(kg day) (or 56 mg/kg total dose). The subchronic dose-response was best described by the exponential and power models, which were sublinear in the low dose range. Benchmark dose lower confidence limits (BMDLs) for acute and subchronic exposure were 3.0 and 1.0 mg/(kg day) (or 27.4 mg/kg total dose), respectively. These findings are supportive of a saturable DNA repair mechanism as the mutagenic mode of action for ENU in spermatogonia and imply that sufficiently low exposures would not cause appreciable genotoxic effects over background. This may have important implications for the quantitative risk assessment of germ cell mutagens. PMID:25598316

  13. Robust reconstruction of gene expression profiles from reporter gene data using linear inversion

    PubMed Central

    Zulkower, Valentin; Page, Michel; Ropers, Delphine; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Time-series observations from reporter gene experiments are commonly used for inferring and analyzing dynamical models of regulatory networks. The robust estimation of promoter activities and protein concentrations from primary data is a difficult problem due to measurement noise and the indirect relation between the measurements and quantities of biological interest. Results: We propose a general approach based on regularized linear inversion to solve a range of estimation problems in the analysis of reporter gene data, notably the inference of growth rate, promoter activity, and protein concentration profiles. We evaluate the validity of the approach using in silico simulation studies, and observe that the methods are more robust and less biased than indirect approaches usually encountered in the experimental literature based on smoothing and subsequent processing of the primary data. We apply the methods to the analysis of fluorescent reporter gene data acquired in kinetic experiments with Escherichia coli. The methods are capable of reliably reconstructing time-course profiles of growth rate, promoter activity and protein concentration from weak and noisy signals at low population volumes. Moreover, they capture critical features of those profiles, notably rapid changes in gene expression during growth transitions. Availability and implementation: The methods described in this article are made available as a Python package (LGPL license) and also accessible through a web interface. For more information, see https://team.inria.fr/ibis/wellinverter. Contact: Hidde.de-Jong@inria.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26072511

  14. Development of a LacZ-based transcriptional reporter system for use with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amanda S; Pybus, Christine; Hansen, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    The lack of a transcriptional reporter system for use in Moraxella catarrhalis has hindered studies of gene regulation in this pathogen. PCR and recombinant DNA methods were used to insert a multicloning site (MCS) and promoterless full-length Escherichia coli lacZ gene, flanked by transcriptional terminators both immediately upstream and downstream, into the M. catarrhalis recombinant plasmid pWW115. Insertion into the MCS in the newly constructed plasmid pASE222 of M. catarrhalis promoter regions controlled by either a repressor (i.e., NsrR) or activator (i.e., PhoB) yielded transcriptional fusion constructs that were appropriately responsive to signal inputs dependent on the host strain genotype, as measured quantitatively by means of a Miller β-galactosidase assay. The transcriptional reporter plasmid pASE222 should prove to be a useful tool for rapid screening of factors affecting gene expression in M. catarrhalis. PMID:23219721

  15. Generation of Shox2-Cre allele for tissue specific manipulation of genes in the developing heart, palate, and limb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Chen, YiPing

    2013-07-01

    Shox2 is expressed in several developing organs in a tissue specific manner in both mice and humans, including the heart, palate, limb, and nervous system. To better understand the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Shox2 and to systematically dissect the genetic cascade regulated by Shox2, we created Shox2-LacZ and Shox2-Cre knock-in mouse lines. We show that the Shox2-LacZ allele expresses beta-galactosidase reporter gene in a fashion that recapitulates the endogenous Shox2 expression pattern in developing organs, including the sinoatrial node (SAN), the anterior portion of the palate, and the proximal region of the limb bud. Conditional deletion of Shox2 in mice carrying the Shox2-Cre allele yielded SAN phenotypes that resemble conventional Shox2 knockout mice. Our results indicate that the Shox2-Cre allele offer a useful tool for tissue specific manipulation of genes in a number of developing organs, particularly in the developing SAN. PMID:23620086

  16. [Construction and function identification of luciferase reporter gene vectors containing SNPs in NFKBIA gene 3'UTR].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Li, Jia-li; Bi, Hui-chang; Zhou, Shou-ning; Liu, Xiao-man; Zeng, Hang; Hu, Bing-fang; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the function of two SNPs (rs8904C > T and rs696G >A) in 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of NFKBIA gene by constructing luciferase reporter gene. A patient's genomic DNA with rs8904 CC and rs696 GA genotype was used as the PCR template. Full-length 3'UTR of NFKBIA gene was amplified by different primers. After sequencing validation, these fragments were inserted to the luciferase reporter vector, pGL3-promoter to construct recombinant plasmids containing four kinds of haplotypes, pGL3-rs8904C/rs696G, pGL3-rs8904C/rs696A, pGL3-rs8904T/rs696G and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696A. Then these plasmids were transfected into LS174T cells and the luciferase activity was detected. Compared with pGL3-vector transfected cells (negative control), the luciferase activity of the four kinds of recombinant plasmids was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). For rs696G > A, the luciferase activity of the recombinant plasmids containing A allele (pGL3-rs8904C/rs696A and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696A) was about 45.1% (P < 0.05) and 56.1% (P < 0.001) lower than those containing G allele (pGL3-rs8904C/rs696G and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696G), respectively. For rs8904C > T, there were no significant differences in the luciferase activity between the recombinant plasmids containing T allele and those with C allele. Together, the luciferase reporter gene vectors containing SNPs in NFKBIA gene 3'UTR were constructed successfully and rs696G > A could decrease the luciferase activity while rs8904C >T didn't have much effect on the luciferase activity. PMID:27405166

  17. A cloning vector for creation of Escherichia coli lacZ translational fusions and generation of linear template for chromosomal integrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel cloning vector to aid in the construction of ß-galactosidase reporter systems for gene expression studies in lactose metabolizing strains of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli is described. The plasmid allows construction of translational fusions of cloned gene promoters with a short seg...

  18. Gene overexpression as a tool for identifying new trans-acting factors involved in translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Namy, Olivier; Hatin, Isabelle; Stahl, Guillaume; Liu, Hongmei; Barnay, Stephanie; Bidou, Laure; Rousset, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, translation termination is dependent on the availability of both release factors, eRF1 and eRF3; however, the precise mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. In particular, the fact that the phenotype of release factor mutants is pleiotropic could imply that other factors and interactions are involved in translation termination. To identify unknown elements involved in this process, we performed a genetic screen using a reporter strain in which a leaky stop codon is inserted in the lacZ reporter gene, attempting to isolate factors modifying termination efficiency when overexpressed. Twelve suppressors and 11 antisuppressors, increasing or decreasing termination readthrough, respectively, were identified and analyzed for three secondary phenotypes often associated with translation mutations: thermosensitivity, G418 sensitivity, and sensitivity to osmotic pressure. Interestingly, among these candidates, we identified two genes, SSO1 and STU2, involved in protein transport and spindle pole body formation, respectively, suggesting puzzling connections with the translation termination process. PMID:12072456

  19. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  20. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  1. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  2. Replication-Competent Influenza A Viruses Expressing Reporter Genes

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael; Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause annual seasonal human respiratory disease epidemics. In addition, IAV have been implicated in occasional pandemics with inordinate health and economic consequences. Studying IAV, in vitro or in vivo, requires the use of laborious secondary methodologies to identify virus-infected cells. To circumvent this requirement, replication-competent IAV expressing an easily traceable reporter protein can be used. Here we discuss the development and applications of recombinant replication-competent IAV harboring diverse fluorescent or bioluminescent reporter genes in different locations of the viral genome. These viruses have been employed for in vitro and in vivo studies, such as the screening of neutralizing antibodies or antiviral compounds, the identification of host factors involved in viral replication, cell tropism, the development of vaccines, or the assessment of viral infection dynamics. In summary, reporter-expressing, replicating-competent IAV represent a powerful tool for the study of IAV both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27347991

  3. Replication-Competent Influenza A Viruses Expressing Reporter Genes.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael; Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause annual seasonal human respiratory disease epidemics. In addition, IAV have been implicated in occasional pandemics with inordinate health and economic consequences. Studying IAV, in vitro or in vivo, requires the use of laborious secondary methodologies to identify virus-infected cells. To circumvent this requirement, replication-competent IAV expressing an easily traceable reporter protein can be used. Here we discuss the development and applications of recombinant replication-competent IAV harboring diverse fluorescent or bioluminescent reporter genes in different locations of the viral genome. These viruses have been employed for in vitro and in vivo studies, such as the screening of neutralizing antibodies or antiviral compounds, the identification of host factors involved in viral replication, cell tropism, the development of vaccines, or the assessment of viral infection dynamics. In summary, reporter-expressing, replicating-competent IAV represent a powerful tool for the study of IAV both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27347991

  4. Photoacoustic molecular imaging of ferritin as a reporter gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, S.; Carson, A.; Kim, K.

    2012-02-01

    Spectral analysis of photoacoustic (PA) molecular imaging (PMI) of ferritin expressed in human melanoma cells (SK-24) was performed in vitro. Ferritin is a ubiquitously expressed protein which stores iron that can be detected by PA imaging, allowing ferritin to act as a reporter gene. To over-express ferritin, SK-24 cells were co-transfected with plasmid expressing Heavy chain ferritin (H-FT) and plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C1) using LipofectamineTM 2000. Non-transfected SK-24 cells served as a negative control. Fluorescent imaging of EGFP confirmed transfection and transgene expression in co-transfected cells. To detect iron accumulation in SK-24 cells, a focused high frequency ultrasonic transducer (60 MHz, f/1.5), synchronized to a pulsed laser (<20mJ/cm2), was used to scan the PA signal from 680 nm to 950 nm (in 10 nm increments) from the surface of the 6-well culturing plate. PA signal intensity from H-FT transfected SK-24 cells was not different from that of non-transfected SK-24 cells at wavelengths less than 770 nm, but was over 4 dB higher than non-transfected SK-24 cells at 850 ~ 950 nm. Fluorescent microscopy indicates significant accumulation of ferritin in H-FT transfected SK-24 cells, with little ferritin expression in non-transfected SK-24 cells. The PA spectral analysis clearly differentiates transfected SK-24 cells from nontransfected SK-24 cells with significantly increased iron signal at 850 ~ 950 nm, and these increased signals were associated with transfection of H-FT plasmid. As such, the feasibility of ferritin as a reporter gene for PMI has been demonstrated in vitro. The use of ferritin as a reporter gene represents a new concept for PA imaging, and may provide various opportunities for molecular imaging and basic science research.

  5. Genetic engineering with a gene encoding a soybean storage protein. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Beachy, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in gene transfer experiments using the soybean seed storage protein gene. The sequencing of gene Gmg ..cap alpha..' 17.1 has been completed. Several deletion mutants of this gene are being prepared for experiments to transfer the gene into the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The purpose is to determine which, if any, of the upstream sequences are those which regulate the developmental expression of the gene. (ACR)

  6. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Jasmin S.; Nagel, Anja C.; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H)MAPK-ko and a phospho-mimetic Su(H)MAPK-ac isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vgBE-lacZ). In general, Su(H)MAPK-ko induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H)MAPK-ac was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vgBE-lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DERact) or the MAPK (rlSEM) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  7. PET/CT imaging of human somatostatin receptor 2 (hsstr2) as reporter gene for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Gazdhar, A.; Weitzel, T.; Schmid, R.; Krause, T.

    2006-12-01

    Localized information on region-selective gene expression in small animals is widely obtained by use of reporter genes inducing light emission. Using these reporter genes for imaging deep inside the human body fluorescent probes are hindered by attenuation, scattering and possible fluorescence quenching. This can be overcome by use of radio-peptide receptors as reporter genes. Therefore, the feasibility of the somatostatin receptor 2 expression vector system for expression imaging was checked against a control vector containing luciferase gene. For in vivo transduction of vector DNA into the rat forelimb muscles the in vivo electroporation technique was chosen because of its high regio-selectivity. The gene expression was imaged by high-sensitive CCD camera (luciferase activity) and by PET/CT using a Ga-68-DOTATOC as radio peptide probe. The relative sstr2 expression was enhanced by gene transduction at maximum to a factor of 15. The PET/CT images could be fully quantified. The above demonstrated feasibility of radio-peptide PET/CT reporter gene imaging may serve in the future as a tool for full quantitative understanding of regional gene expression, especially in large animals and humans.

  8. Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Two Genes for DNA polymerase delta were identified from the wild type Chinese hamster ovary cells. These genes were cloned via RT-PCR from mRNA prepared the Chinese hamster ovary cells using primers specific to conserved sequences of the DNA polymerase {delta} gene. The first gene encodes a PCNA dependent DNA polymerase {delta} gene whereas the second gene encodes a PCNA independent DNA polymerase {delta} gene. Methods were developed to clone these genes in expression vector and host systems. The role of the two genes in DNA replication and repair was determined.

  9. A fast-evolving human NPAS3 enhancer gained reporter expression in the developing forebrain of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Gretel B.; López-Leal, Rodrigo; Lorenzo, Juan R.; Franchini, Lucía F.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental brain gene NPAS3 stands out as a hot spot in human evolution because it contains the largest number of human-specific, fast-evolving, conserved, non-coding elements. In this paper we studied 2xHAR142, one of these elements that is located in the fifth intron of NPAS3. Using transgenic mice, we show that the mouse and chimp 2xHAR142 orthologues behave as transcriptional enhancers driving expression of the reporter gene lacZ to a similar NPAS3 expression subdomain in the mouse central nervous system. Interestingly, the human 2xHAR142 orthologue drives lacZ expression to an extended expression pattern in the nervous system. Thus, molecular evolution of 2xHAR142 provides the first documented example of human-specific heterotopy in the forebrain promoted by a transcriptional enhancer and suggests that it may have contributed to assemble the unique properties of the human brain. PMID:24218632

  10. The peroxisomal transporter gene ANT1 is regulated by a deviant oleate response element (ORE): characterization of the signal for fatty acid induction.

    PubMed Central

    Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Palmieri, Luigi; Hartig, Andreas; Hamilton, Barbara; Ruis, Helmut; Erdmann, Ralf; Gurvitz, Aner

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ANT1/YPR128c encodes the peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter that provides ATP for intra-peroxisomal activation of medium-chain fatty acids. A lacZ reporter construct comprising the ANT1 promoter was shown to be comparatively more highly expressed in a wild-type strain grown on oleic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, than in pip2Delta(oaf1)Delta mutant cells that are defective in fatty acid induction. The ANT1 promoter was demonstrated to contain a deviant oleate response element (ORE) that could bind the Pip2p-Oaf1p transcription factor and confer activation on a basal CYC1-lacZ reporter gene. Expression of Ant1p as well as other enzymes whose genes are known to be regulated by a canonical ORE was found to be increased in cells grown on lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid. We concluded that the signal for induction does not differentiate between long- and medium-chain fatty acids. This signal was independent of beta-oxidation or the biogenesis of the peroxisomal compartment where this process occurs, since a pox1Delta strain blocked in the first and rate-limiting step of beta-oxidation as well as various pex mutant cells devoid of intact peroxisomes produced sufficient amounts of Pip2p-Oaf1p for binding OREs in vitro and for expressing an ORE-driven reporter gene. The signal's durability was shown to be related to the concentration of fatty acids in the medium, since a pex6Delta strain expressed an ORE-driven reporter gene at high levels for a longer period than did isogenic wild-type cells. Generation of the signal was also independent of protein synthesis, as demonstrated by cycloheximide treatment. PMID:12071844

  11. Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Arie; Vanvickle-Chavez, Sarah J.; Yao, Junjie; Fleming, Timothy P.; Gillanders, William E.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-08-01

    Photoacoustic tomography is a hybrid modality based on optical absorption excitation and ultrasonic detection. It is sensitive to melanin, one of the primary absorbers in skin. For cells that do not naturally contain melanin, melanin production can be induced by introducing the gene for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy was used in the ex vivo study reported here, where the signal from transfected cells increased by more than 10 times over wild-type cells. A subsequent in vivo experiment was conducted to demonstrate the capability of photoacoustic microscopy to spectrally differentiate between tyrosinase-catalyzed melanin and various other absorbers in tissue.

  12. Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Arie; Vanvickle-Chavez, Sarah J; Yao, Junjie; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-08-01

    Photoacoustic tomography is a hybrid modality based on optical absorption excitation and ultrasonic detection. It is sensitive to melanin, one of the primary absorbers in skin. For cells that do not naturally contain melanin, melanin production can be induced by introducing the gene for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy was used in the ex vivo study reported here, where the signal from transfected cells increased by more than 10 times over wild-type cells. A subsequent in vivo experiment was conducted to demonstrate the capability of photoacoustic microscopy to spectrally differentiate between tyrosinase-catalyzed melanin and various other absorbers in tissue. PMID:21895303

  13. (Genetic engineering with a gene encoding a soybean storage protein). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Beachy, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported on research directed toward introducing a gene (Gmg 17.1) encoding the ..cap alpha..'-subunit of ..beta..-conglycinin, a soybean seed protein, into petunia plants using gene transfer mechanisms. (ACR)

  14. In vitro gene fusions that join an enzymatically active beta-galactosidase segment to amino-terminal fragments of exogenous proteins: Escherichia coli plasmid vectors for the detection and cloning of translational initiation signals.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J; Chou, J; Cohen, S N

    1980-01-01

    We report the construction and use of a series of plasmid vectors suitable for the detection and cloning of translational control signals and 5' coding sequences of exogenously derived genes. In these plasmids, the first eight codons of the amino-terminal end of the lactose operon beta-galactosidase gene, lacZ, were removed, and unique BamHI, EcoRI, and SmaI (XmaI) endonuclease cleavage sites were incorporated adjacent to the eighth codon of lacZ. Introduction of deoxyribonucleic acid fragments containing appropriate regulatory signals and 5' coding sequences into such lac fusion plasmids led to the production of hybrid proteins consisting of the carboxyl-terminal segment of a beta-galactosidase remnant plus a peptide fragment that contained the amino-terminal amino acids encoded by the exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. These hybrid peptides retained beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity and yielded a Lac+ phenotype. Such hybrid proteins are useful for purifying peptide sequences encoded by exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid fragments and for studies relating the structure and function of specific peptide segments. Images PMID:6162838

  15. [Synthesis of new gene-loaded microbubbles serve as gene delivery vehicle applied in reporter gene transfer into cardiac myocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guozhong; Hu, Shenjiang; Zheng, Zhelan; Sun, Jian; Zheng, Xia; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Jiang; Yao, Yumei

    2006-08-01

    To improve the stability and gene-carried capability of gene-attached microbubbles, the method for manufacture of albumin microbubbles was modified and new gene-loaded microbubbles were synthesized by incorporated gene-PEI complex into the shell of microbubbles. Agarose gel electrophoresis and bacteria transformation showed that PEI had the ability to provide the protection of plasmid DNA from ultrasonic degradation. The new gene-loaded microbubbles exhibited excellent acoustical and hemorheological properties. Moreover, they could carry more plasmid DNA than gene-attached microbubbles. beta-galactosidase plasmid transfection into cardiac myocytes was performed by using ultrasound targeted destruction of new gene-loaded microbubbles or gene-attached microbubbles. Gene expression in cardiac myocytes was detected by beta-galactosidase in situ staining and quantitive assay. It was shown that beta-galactosidase activity in cardiac myocytes was enhanced 107-fold by ultrasonic destruction of gene-loaded microbubbles compared with naked plasmid transfection and new gene-loaded microbubbles resulted in 6.85-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity compared with optimal transfection mediated by gene-attached microbubbles. These results suggested that ultrasonic destruction of the gene-loaded microbubbles can enhance the cardiac myocytes exogenous gene transfer efficiency significantly and new gene-loaded microbubbles is an efficient and safe gene delivery vehicle. PMID:17002125

  16. Inducible gene expression of the human immunodeficiency virus LTR in a replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus vector.

    PubMed

    Warden, M P; Weir, J P

    1996-12-01

    Although replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors have the capability to express foreign genes, successful development of these vectors for gene delivery would require that expression of the foreign gene be regulated. To investigate the feasibility of obtaining inducible expression of a foreign gene in such a vector, a replication-incompetent HSV vector, vd120/LTR beta, was developed that used the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) to express the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. Examination of lacZ expression from the HIV-1 LTR in vd120/LTR beta-infected cells indicated that the LTR was active as a promoter under both replicating and nonreplicating conditions, although expression of lacZ under nonreplicating conditions was approximately 4-fold lower. In addition, the LTR expressed lacZ in a manner distinct from that of well-characterized HSV-1 promoters of each temporal class. The effect of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat on expression from the LTR in vd120/LTR beta was examined by infection of two different HeLa-derived cell lines that constitutively expressed Tat, HL2/3, and HLtat. Compared to infection of HeLa cells, lacZ expression from vd120/LTR beta-infected HL2/3 and HLtat cells increased from 4- to 24-fold, depending on the multiplicity of vector infection. Sustained expression of lacZ from the LTR in vd120/LTR beta-infected cells was not observed even in the continuous presence of Tat, although vector could be recovered for up to 5 days after infection. However, the amount of recoverable vector decreased during this time, suggesting that cellular cytotoxicity may account for some of the decrease in Tat-mediated expression from the LTR. PMID:8941330

  17. A Hypoxia-Regulated Adeno-Associated Virus Vector for Cancer-Specific Gene Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hangjun; Su, Hua; Hu, Lily; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Kan, YW; Deen, Dennis F

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The presence of hypoxic cells in human brain tumors is an important factor leading to resistance to radiation therapy. However, this physiological difference between normal tissues and tumors also provides the potential for designing cancer-specific gene therapy. We compared the increase of gene expression under anoxia (<0.01% oxygen) produced by 3, 6, and 9 copies of hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE) from the erythropoietin gene (Epo), which are activated through the transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Under anoxic conditions, nine copies of HRE (9XHRE) yielded 27- to 37-fold of increased gene expression in U-251 MG and U-87 MG human brain tumor cell lines. Under the less hypoxic conditions of 0.3% and 1% oxygen, gene activation by 9XHRE increased expression 11- to 18-fold in these cell lines. To generate a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) in which the transgene can be regulated by hypoxia, we inserted the DNA fragment containing 9XHRE and the LacZ reporter gene into an AAV vector. Under anoxic conditions, this vector produced 79- to 110-fold increase in gene expression. We believe this hypoxia-regulated rAAV vector will provide a useful delivery vehicle for cancer-specific gene therapy. PMID:11494119

  18. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

  19. A transgenic Neospora caninum strain based on mutations of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luiz Miguel; Baroni, Luciana; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia

    2014-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite related to abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. The amenability of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium to genetic manipulation offers several tools to determine the invasion and replication processes, which support posterior strategies related to the combat of these diseases. For Plasmodium the use of pyrimethamine as an auxiliary drug on malaria treatment has been affected by the rise of resistant strains and the analyses on Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene indicated several point mutations. In this work we developed a method for stable insertion of genes based on resistance to pyrimethamine. For that, the coding sequence of NcDHFR-TS (Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase) was point mutated in two amino acids, generating DHFRM2M3. The DHFRM2M3 flanked by the promoter and 3'UTR of Ncdhfr-ts (Ncdhfr-DHFRM2M3) conferred resistance to pyrimethamine after transfection. For illustration of stability and expression, the cassette Ncdhfr-DHFRM2M3 was ligated to the reporter gene Lac-Z (β-galactosidase enzyme) controlled by the N. caninum tubulin promoter and was transfected and selected in N. caninum. The cassette was integrated into the genome and the selected tachyzoites expressed Lac-Z, allowing the detection of tachyzoites by the CPRG reaction and X-gal precipitation. The obtainment of transgenic N. caninum resistant to pyrimethamine confirms the effects on DHFR-TS among the Apicomplexa members and will support future approaches on pholate inhibitors for N. caninum prophylaxis. The construction of stable tachyzoites based on vectors with N. caninum promoters initiates the molecular manipulation of this parasite independently of T. gondii. PMID:24440296

  20. Hoxa5 gene regulation: A gradient of binding activity to a brachial spinal cord element.

    PubMed

    Nowling, T; Zhou, W; Krieger, K E; Larochelle, C; Nguyen-Huu, M C; Jeannotte, L; Tuggle, C K

    1999-04-01

    The Hox genes cooperate in providing positional information needed for spatial and temporal patterning of the vertebrate body axis. However, the biological mechanisms behind spatial Hox expression are largely unknown. In transgenic mice, gene fusions between Hoxa5 (previously called Hox-1.3) 5' flanking regions and the lacZ reporter gene show tissue- and time-specific expression in the brachial spinal cord in day 11-13 embryos. A 604-bp regulatory region with enhancer properties directs this spatially specific expression. Fine-detail mapping of the enhancer has identified several elements involved in region-specific expression, including an element required for expression in the brachial spinal cord. Factors in embryonic day 12.5 nuclear extracts bind this element in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and protect three regions from DNase digestion. All three sites contain an AAATAA sequence and mutations at these sites reduce or abolish binding. Furthermore, this element binds specific individual embryonic proteins on a protein blot. The binding activity appears as a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis with two- to threefold higher levels observed in extracts from anterior regions than from posterior regions. In parallel with the EMSA, the proteins on the protein blot also show reduced binding to probes with mutations at the AAATAA sites. Most importantly, transgenic mice carrying Hoxa5/lacZ fusions with the three AAATAA sites mutated either do not express the transgene or have altered transgene expression. The brachial spinal cord element and its binding proteins are likely to be involved in spatial expression of Hoxa5 during development. PMID:10075847

  1. In vivo translation of a region within the rrnB 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, K L; Squires, C L; Squires, C

    1987-01-01

    In this study we show that a segment of the Escherichia coli rrnB 16S gene can be translated in vivo. Other laboratories have previously reported that there are internal transcription and translation signals and open reading frames within the E. coli rrnB rRNA operon. Their studies revealed a translation start signal followed by a 252-base-pair open reading frame (ORF16) within the 16S gene and detected a promoter (p16) in the same general region by using in vitro RNA polymerase binding and transcription initiation assays. By using plasmid gene fusions of ORF16 to lacZ we showed that an ORF16'-'beta-galactosidase fusion protein was made in vivo. Transcripts encoding the fusion protein were expressed either from the rrnB p1p2 control region or from a hybrid trp-lac promoter (tacP), but the amount of expression was considerably less than for a lacZ control plasmid. We used fusions to the cat gene to show that p16 is one-half as active as lacP. Deletions were used to show that p16 is located within ORF16 and thus cannot promote a transcript encoding the ORF16 peptide. A comparison of sequences from different organisms shows that ORF16 and p16 lie in a highly conserved region of the procaryotic 16S RNA structure. The first 20 amino acids of ORF16 are conserved in most eubacterial and plant organellar sequences, and promoter activity has been detected in this region of the Caulobacter crescentus sequence by other workers. Images PMID:2435709

  2. Development of Timd2 as a reporter gene for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, P. Stephen; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Lyons, Scott K.; Neves, André A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the potential of an MRI gene reporter based on the ferritin receptor Timd2 (T‐cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein 2), using T1‐ and T2‐weighted imaging. Methods Pellets of cells that had been modified to express the Timd2 transgene, and incubated with either iron‐loaded or manganese‐loaded ferritin, were imaged using T1‐ and T2‐weighted MRI. Mice were also implanted subcutaneously with Timd2‐expressing cells and the resulting xenograft tissue imaged following intravenous injection of ferritin using T2‐weighted imaging. Results Timd2‐expressing cells, but not control cells, showed a large increase in both R2 and R1 in vitro following incubation with iron‐loaded and manganese‐loaded ferritin, respectively. Expression of Timd2 had no effect on cell viability or proliferation; however, manganese‐loaded ferritin, but not iron‐loaded ferritin, was toxic to Timd2‐expressing cells. Timd2‐expressing xenografts in vivo showed much smaller changes in R2 following injection of iron‐loaded ferritin than the same cells incubated in vitro with iron‐loaded ferritin. Conclusion Timd2 has demonstrated potential as an MRI reporter gene, producing large increases in R2 and R1 with ferritin and manganese‐loaded ferritin respectively in vitro, although more modest changes in R2 in vivo. Manganese‐loaded apoferritin was not used in vivo due to the toxicity observed in vitro. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Magn Reson Med 75:1697–1707, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society

  3. Control of gag-pol gene expression in the Candida albicans retrotransposon Tca2

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Elaine M; Nieduszynska, Siân R; Brunton, Fiona K; Gibson, Joanne; Glover, L Anne; Stansfield, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background In the C. albicans retrotransposon Tca2, the gag and pol ORFs are separated by a UGA stop codon, 3' of which is a potential RNA pseudoknot. It is unclear how the Tca2 gag UGA codon is bypassed to allow pol expression. However, in other retroelements, translational readthrough of the gag stop codon can be directed by its flanking sequence, including a 3' pseudoknot. Results The hypothesis was tested that in Tca2, gag stop codon flanking sequences direct translational readthrough and synthesis of a gag-pol fusion protein. Sequence from the Tca2 gag-UGA-pol junction (300 nt) was inserted between fused lacZ and luciferase (luc) genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae dual reporter construct. Although downstream of UGA, luc was expressed, but its expression was unaffected by inserting additional stop codons at the 3' end of lacZ. Luc expression was instead being driven by a previously unknown minor promoter activity within the gag-pol junction region. Evidence together indicated that junction sequence alone cannot direct UGA readthrough. Using reporter genes in C. albicans, the activities of this gag-pol junction promoter and the Tca2 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter were compared. Of the two promoters, only the LTR promoter was induced by heat-shock, which also triggers retrotransposition. Tca2 pol protein, epitope-tagged in C. albicans to allow detection, was also heat-shock induced, indicating that pol proteins were expressed from a gag-UGA-pol RNA. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that the LTR promoter directs Tca2 pol protein expression, and that pol proteins are translated from a gag-pol RNA, which thus requires a mechanism for stop codon bypass. However, in contrast to most other retroelement and viral readthrough signals, immediate gag UGA-flanking sequences were insufficient to direct stop readthrough in S. cerevisiae, indicating non-canonical mechanisms direct gag UGA bypass in Tca2. PMID:17961216

  4. Optical imaging of reporter gene expression using a positron-emission-tomography probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongguang; Ren, Gang; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Chen, Luxi; Han, Peizhen; Cheng, Zhen

    2010-11-01

    Reporter gene/reporter probe technology is one of the most important techniques in molecular imaging. Lately, many reporter gene/reporter probe systems have been coupled to different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). It has been recently found that OI techniques could be used to monitor radioactive tracers in vitro and in living subjects. In this study, we further demonstrate that a reporter gene/nuclear reporter probe system [herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and 9-(4-18F-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl] butyl) guanine ([18F]FHBG)] could be successfully imaged by OI in vitro and in vivo. OI with radioactive reporter probes will facilitate and broaden the applications of reporter gene/reporter probe techniques in medical research.

  5. Editor's Highlight: Identification and Characterization of Teratogenic Chemicals Using Embryonic Stem Cells Isolated From a Wnt/β-Catenin-Reporter Transgenic Mouse Line.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Josephine; Kemler, Rolf; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are commonly used for the analysis of gene function in embryonic development and provide valuable models for human diseases. In recent years, ESCs have also become an attractive tool for toxicological testing, in particular for the identification of teratogenic compounds. We have recently described a Bmp-reporter ESC line as a new tool to identify teratogenic compounds and to characterize the molecular mechanisms mediating embryonic toxicity. Here we describe the use of a Wnt/β-Catenin-reporter ESC line isolated from a previously described mouse line that carries the LacZ reporter gene under the control of a β-Catenin responsive promoter. The reporter ESC line stably differentiates into cardiomyocytes within 12 days. The reporter was endogenously induced between day 3-5 of differentiation reminiscent of its expression in vivo, in which strong LacZ activity is detected around gastrulation. Subsequently its expression becomes restricted to mesodermal cells and cells undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The Wnt/β-Catenin-dependent expression of the reporter protein allowed quantification of dose- and time-dependent effects of teratogenic chemicals. In particular, valproic acid reduced reporter activity on day 7 whereas retinoic acid induced reporter activity on day 5 at concentrations comparable to the ones inhibiting the formation of functional cardiomyocytes, the classical read-out of the embryonic stem cell test (EST). In addition, we were also able to show distinct effects of teratogenic chemicals on the Wnt/β-Catenin-reporter compared with the previously described Bmp-reporter ESCs. Thus, different reporter cell lines provide complementary tools for the identification and analysis of potentially teratogenic compounds. PMID:27208078

  6. The pobA gene of Burkholderia cenocepacia encodes a group I Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyltransferase required for biosynthesis of the siderophores ornibactin and pyochelin.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Atif H; Shastri, Sravanthi; Dave, Emma; Wowk, Irena; Agnoli, Kirsty; Cook, Anne M; Thomas, Mark S

    2011-02-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia produces the siderophores ornibactin and pyochelin under iron-restricted conditions. Biosynthesis of both siderophores requires the involvement of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Using a transposon containing the lacZ reporter gene, two B. cenocepacia mutants were isolated which were deficient in siderophore production. Mutant IW10 was shown to produce normal amounts of ornibactin but only trace amounts of pyochelin, whereas synthesis of both siderophores was abolished in AHA27. Growth of AHA27, but not IW10, was inhibited under iron-restricted conditions. In both mutants, the transposon had integrated into the pobA gene, which encodes a polypeptide exhibiting similarity to the Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyltransferases (PPTases). These enzymes are responsible for activation of NRPSs by the covalent attachment of the 4'-phosphopantetheine (P-pant) moiety of coenzyme A. Previously characterized PPTase genes from other bacteria were shown to efficiently complement both mutants for siderophore production when provided in trans. The B. cenocepacia pobA gene was also able to efficiently complement an Escherichia coli entD mutant for production of the siderophore enterobactin. Using mutant IW10, in which the lacZ gene carried by the transposon is inserted in the same orientation as pobA, it was shown that pobA is not appreciably iron-regulated. Finally, we confirmed that Sfp-type bacterial PPTases can be subdivided into two distinct groups, and we present the amino acid signature sequences which characterize each of these groups. PMID:20966087

  7. Satellite DNA from the brine shrimp Artemia affects the expression of a flanking gene in yeast.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, D; Cece, R; Badaracco, G

    1997-04-11

    We have previously revealed that in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana an AluI DNA family of repeats, 113 bp in length, is the major component of the constitutive heterochromatin and that this repetitive DNA shows a stable curvature that confers a solenoidal geometry on the double helix in vitro. It was suggested that this particular structure may play a relevant role in determining the condensation of the heterochromatin. In this report we have cloned hexamers of highly-repetitive sequence (AluI-satellite DNA) in proximity to a yeast lacZ reporter gene on a plasmid. We find that the expression of the reporter gene is affected by the presence of this DNA in a dose- and orientation-dependent manner in the yeast, S. cerevisiae. We show that this effect is not dependent on under-replication or re-arrangements of the repetitive DNA in the cell but is due to decreased expression of the reporter gene. Our results indicate that the AluI-satellite DNA of Artemia per se is able to influence gene expression. PMID:9161405

  8. Glycerophosphorylcholine regulates Haemophilus influenzae glpQ gene expression.

    PubMed

    Alrousan, Enas; Fan, Xin

    2015-05-01

    An important virulence strategy adopted by Haemophilus influenzae to establish a niche on the mucosal surface of the host is the phosphorylcholine (ChoP) decoration of its lipopolysaccharides, which promotes adherence to the host cells. Haemophilus influenzae is able to use glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) from host for ChoP synthesis. Utilization of GPC requires glpQ, which encodes a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase enzyme. In this study, we investigate the transcriptional regulation of glpQ gene using real-time PCR and transcriptional fusion of H. influenzae glpQ promoter to the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene. The glpQ promoter activities were examined under environmental conditions including changes in temperature, oxygen, high salt and minimal growth medium. Our data showed that under room temperature and anaerobic conditions, the glpQ gene expression levels were significantly higher than under other growth conditions. In addition, the glpQ gene expression levels were upregulated in the presence of GPC. These results suggest that H. influenzae may upregulate glpQ expression in response to different environments it encounters during infection, from the airway surfaces (room temperature) to deep tissues (anaerobic). Upregulation of glpQ by GPC may allow efficient use of abundant GPC from mammalian cells by H. influenzae as a source of nutrient and for ChoP decoration of lipopolysaccharide that facilitates bacterial adhesion to host cells and growth during infection. PMID:25837816

  9. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  10. Reporter enzyme inhibitor study to aid assembly of orthogonal reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pei-i; Yue, Kimberley; Pandey, Pramod; Breault, Lyne; Harbinski, Fred; McBride, Aaron J; Webb, Brian; Narahari, Janaki; Karassina, Natasha; Wood, Keith V; Hill, Adam; Auld, Douglas S

    2013-05-17

    Reporter gene assays (RGAs) are commonly used to measure biological pathway modulation by small molecules. Understanding how such compounds interact with the reporter enzyme is critical to accurately interpret RGA results. To improve our understanding of reporter enzymes and to develop optimal RGA systems, we investigated eight reporter enzymes differing in brightness, emission spectrum, stability, and substrate requirements. These included common reporter enzymes such as firefly luciferase (Photinus pyralis), Renilla reniformis luciferase, and β-lactamase, as well as mutated forms of R. reniformis luciferase emitting either blue- or green-shifted luminescence, a red-light emitting form of Luciola cruciata firefly luciferase, a mutated form of Gaussia princeps luciferase, and a proprietary luciferase termed "NanoLuc" derived from the luminescent sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris. To determine hit rates and structure-activity relationships, we screened a collection of 42,460 PubChem compounds at 10 μM using purified enzyme preparations. We then compared hit rates and chemotypes of actives for each enzyme. The hit rates ranged from <0.1% for β-lactamase to as high as 10% for mutated forms of Renilla luciferase. Related luciferases such as Renilla luciferase mutants showed high degrees of inhibitor overlap (40-70%), while unrelated luciferases such as firefly luciferases, Gaussia luciferase, and NanoLuc showed <10% overlap. Examination of representative inhibitors in cell-based assays revealed that inhibitor-based enzyme stabilization can lead to increases in bioluminescent signal for firefly luciferase, Renilla luciferase, and NanoLuc, with shorter half-life reporters showing increased activation responses. From this study we suggest strategies to improve the construction and interpretation of assays employing these reporter enzymes. PMID:23485150

  11. Use of Reporter Genes in the Generation of Vaccinia Virus-Derived Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Al Ali, Sally; Baldanta, Sara; Fernández-Escobar, Mercedes; Guerra, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is one of the most extensively-studied viruses of the Poxviridae family. It is easy to genetically modify, so it has become a key tool for many applications. In this context, reporter genes facilitate the study of the role of foreign genes introduced into the genome of VACV. In this review, we describe the type of reporter genes that have been used to generate reporter-expressing VACV and the applications of the recombinant viruses obtained. Reporter-expressing VACV are currently employed in basic and immunology research, in the development of vaccines and cancer treatment. PMID:27213433

  12. Use of Reporter Genes in the Generation of Vaccinia Virus-Derived Vectors.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, Sally; Baldanta, Sara; Fernández-Escobar, Mercedes; Guerra, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is one of the most extensively-studied viruses of the Poxviridae family. It is easy to genetically modify, so it has become a key tool for many applications. In this context, reporter genes facilitate the study of the role of foreign genes introduced into the genome of VACV. In this review, we describe the type of reporter genes that have been used to generate reporter-expressing VACV and the applications of the recombinant viruses obtained. Reporter-expressing VACV are currently employed in basic and immunology research, in the development of vaccines and cancer treatment. PMID:27213433

  13. Two alleles of the sulfite resistance genes are differentially regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Youji; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Iimura, Yuzuru

    2005-08-01

    The sulfite resistance gene, SSU1-R, is widely distributed in wine yeasts. This gene has an upstream region distinct from that of the allelic gene, SSU1 and SSU1-R is expressed at a much higher level than SSU1. We characterized the promoters of both of these genes by analysis of their activity using the LacZ gene as a reporter. FZF1, the activator gene of SSU1, was shown to regulate SSU1-R expression indirectly. SSU1-R expression was activated under microaerobic conditions, and four 76-bp repeats, present within the SSU1-R promoter region, was essential for high expression. These results indicate that SSU1-R expression is regulated in different manner from that of SSU1. By deletion analysis of the SSU1-R promoter region, we found that at least two of the 76-bp repeats are necessary for promoter activity, and that the number of 76-bp repeats influences the activity. Hence, it was suggested that the number of 76-bp repeats increases in wine yeasts that require strong sulfite resistance. PMID:16116289

  14. Expression of Mycobacteriophage Ms6 Lysis Genes Is Driven by Two σ70-Like Promoters and Is Dependent on a Transcription Termination Signal Present in the Leader RNA

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Miguel; Pimentel, Madalena; Moniz-Pereira, José

    2002-01-01

    A mycobacteriophage Ms6 strong promoter region (Plys) was isolated by using transcriptional fusions with the lacZ reporter gene. Two tandem σ70-like promoter sequences (P1 and P2) were found in this region. DNA sequencing of the promoter downstream region revealed a 214-bp leader sequence followed by five adjacent coding regions of 231 bp (ORF1), 1,152 bp (ORF2), 996 bp (ORF3), 231 bp (ORF4), and 372 (ORF5). ORF1 has the potential to encode a 77-amino-acid protein which revealed similarity to mycobacteriophage TM4 gp90, a predicted protein with unknown function. ORF2 encodes a 384-amino-acid protein which is related to several bacteriophage amidases. This protein induced cell lysis upon addition of chloroform, confirming its mureinolytic activity. ORF3 encodes a 332-amino-acid protein which is related to TM4 gp30, a protein with sequence similarity to amidases. ORF4 encodes a 77-amino-acid holin-like protein with significant similarity to the holin of Lactococcus lactis r1t bacteriophage. ORF5 encodes a 124-amino-acid protein which is related to mycobacteriophage L5 gp30, a protein with unknown function. These data indicate that the promoter region Plys drives the transcription of the Ms6 lysis genes. An intrinsic transcription termination signal was identified in the leader sequence. Experiments using lacZ fusions showed that β-galactosidase synthesis is inhibited when this transcription termination signal is present in the leader sequence. In conclusion, mycobacteriophage Ms6 cell lysis genes are expressed by their own promoter region, independently of virion structure and assembly protein genes. Moreover, an antitermination mechanism might be involved in their transcription regulation. PMID:12003945

  15. Signal transduction pathways that regulate CAB gene expression. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, J.

    1993-12-31

    We have completed the initial genetic and phenotypic characterization of several classes of new mutants that affect CAB gene expression. The doc mutants (for dark overexpression of cab) are characterized by elevated levels of CAB gene expression in the dark; however, unlike the previously isolated de-etiolated mutants (also isolated in my lab), the doc mutants still appear etiolated. The doc alleles define 3 loci, each of which maps to a separate chromosome. The details of the mutant isolation scheme and the genetic and phenotypic description of these new mutants are described. The second class of mutants, the gun mutants (for genomes uncoupled) show accumulation of CAB mRNA in the absence of chloroplast gene expression and development. Thus, the normally tightly coordinated expression between the chloroplast and nuclear genes that encode chloroplast-destined proteins has been uncoupled. We have shown that the Arabidopsis HY3 locus encodes the type B phytochrome apoprotein gene and have characterized the phenotypes of null hy3 alleles to ascertain a role for this phytochrome in Arabidopsis development. We have also isolated and characterized a number of alleles of the phytochrome A gene.

  16. Reporter gene technologies for imaging cell fates in hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kusy, Sophie; Contag, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Advances in noninvasive imaging technologies that allow for in vivo dynamic monitoring of cells and cellular function in living research subjects have revealed new insights into cell biology in the context of intact organs and their native environment. In the field of hematopoiesis and stem cell research, studies of cell trafficking involved in injury repair and hematopoietic engraftment have made great progress using these new tools. Stem cells present unique challenges for imaging since after transplantation, they proliferate dramatically and differentiate. Therefore, the imaging modality used needs to have a large dynamic range, and the genetic regulatory elements used need to be stably expressed during differentiation. Multiple imaging technologies using different modalities are available, and each varies in sensitivity, ease of data acquisition, signal to noise ratios (SNR), substrate availability, and other parameters that affect utility for monitoring cell fates and function. For a given application, there may be several different approaches that can be used. For mouse models, clinically validated technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been joined by optical imaging techniques such as in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence imaging (FLI), and all have been used to monitor bone marrow and stem cells after transplantation into mice. Photoacoustic imaging that utilizes the sound created by the thermal expansion of absorbed light to generate an image best represents hybrid technologies. Each modality requires that the cells of interest be marked with a genetic reporter that acts as a label making them uniquely visible using that technology. For each modality, there are several labels to choose from. Multiple methods for applying these different labels are available. This chapter provides an overview of the imaging technologies and commonly used labels for each, as well as detailed

  17. Terminator Operon Reporter: combining a transcription termination switch with reporter technology for improved gene synthesis and synthetic biology applications

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Mur, Luis A. J.; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Pachebat, Justin A.; Newbold, C. James; Hayes, Finbarr; Kingston-Smith, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology is characterized by the development of novel and powerful DNA fabrication methods and by the application of engineering principles to biology. The current study describes Terminator Operon Reporter (TOR), a new gene assembly technology based on the conditional activation of a reporter gene in response to sequence errors occurring at the assembly stage of the synthetic element. These errors are monitored by a transcription terminator that is placed between the synthetic gene and reporter gene. Switching of this terminator between active and inactive states dictates the transcription status of the downstream reporter gene to provide a rapid and facile readout of the accuracy of synthetic assembly. Designed specifically and uniquely for the synthesis of protein coding genes in bacteria, TOR allows the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of synthetic constructs by employing oligonucleotides at the most basic purification level (desalted) and without the need for costly and time-consuming post-synthesis correction methods. Thus, TOR streamlines gene assembly approaches, which are central to the future development of synthetic biology. PMID:27220405

  18. Terminator Operon Reporter: combining a transcription termination switch with reporter technology for improved gene synthesis and synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Mur, Luis A J; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Pachebat, Justin A; Newbold, C James; Hayes, Finbarr; Kingston-Smith, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology is characterized by the development of novel and powerful DNA fabrication methods and by the application of engineering principles to biology. The current study describes Terminator Operon Reporter (TOR), a new gene assembly technology based on the conditional activation of a reporter gene in response to sequence errors occurring at the assembly stage of the synthetic element. These errors are monitored by a transcription terminator that is placed between the synthetic gene and reporter gene. Switching of this terminator between active and inactive states dictates the transcription status of the downstream reporter gene to provide a rapid and facile readout of the accuracy of synthetic assembly. Designed specifically and uniquely for the synthesis of protein coding genes in bacteria, TOR allows the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of synthetic constructs by employing oligonucleotides at the most basic purification level (desalted) and without the need for costly and time-consuming post-synthesis correction methods. Thus, TOR streamlines gene assembly approaches, which are central to the future development of synthetic biology. PMID:27220405

  19. The plant mitochondrial mat-r gene/nad1 gene complex. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolstenholme, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    The authors have completed sequencing the segments (totalling 19 kb, both complementary strands) of the maize mtDNA molecule that encode the entire NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nadl) gene. They have identified nucleotides in mature transcripts of the nadl gene that are edited and have generated clones of cDNAs of entire mature (fully spliced) nadl transcripts. They have examined the relative rates of splicing in transcripts of the four nadl gene group II introns and begun examining nadl intron cDNAs to determine the extent and distribution of RNA edits in introns, in order to evaluate the possibility that intron excision and exon splicing might be editing independent.

  20. Persistent Gene Expression in Mouse Nasal Epithelia following Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Vector Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Patrick L.; Burnight, Erin R.; Hickey, Melissa A.; Blissard, Gary W.; McCray, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Gene transfer development for treatment or prevention of cystic fibrosis lung disease has been limited by the inability of vectors to efficiently and persistently transduce airway epithelia. Influenza A is an enveloped virus with natural lung tropism; however, pseudotyping feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vector with the hemagglutinin envelope protein proved unsuccessful. Conversely, pseudotyping FIV with the envelope protein from influenza D (Thogoto virus GP75) resulted in titers of 106 transducing units (TU)/ml and conferred apical entry into well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoproteins share sequence identity with influenza D GP75 envelope glycoproteins. Pseudotyping FIV with GP64 from three species of baculovirus resulted in titers of 107 to 109 TU/ml. Of note, GP64 from Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus resulted in high-titer FIV preparations (∼109 TU/ml) and conferred apical entry into polarized primary cultures of human airway epithelia. Using a luciferase reporter gene and bioluminescence imaging, we observed persistent gene expression from in vivo gene transfer in the mouse nose with A. californica GP64-pseudotyped FIV (AcGP64-FIV). Longitudinal bioluminescence analysis documented persistent expression in nasal epithelia for ∼1 year without significant decline. According to histological analysis using a LacZ reporter gene, olfactory and respiratory epithelial cells were transduced. In addition, methylcellulose-formulated AcGP64-FIV transduced mouse nasal epithelia with much greater efficiency than similarly formulated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV. These data suggest that AcGP64-FIV efficiently transduces and persistently expresses a transgene in nasal epithelia in the absence of agents that disrupt the cellular tight junction integrity. PMID:16188984

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease gene discovery. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-09

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the human gene(s) responsible for the disorder known as IBD. The work was planned in two phases. The desired products resulting from Phase 1 were BAC clone(s) containing the genetic marker(s) identified by gene/Networks, Inc. as potentially linked to IBD, plasmid subclones of those BAC(s), and new genetic markers developed from these plasmid subclones. The newly developed markers would be genotyped by gene/Networks, Inc. to ascertain evidence for linkage or non-linkage of IBD to this region. If non-linkage was indicated, the project would move to investigation of other candidate chromosomal regions. Where linkage was indicated, the project would move to Phase 2, in which a physical map of the candidate region(s) would be developed. The products of this phase would be contig(s) of BAC clones in the region exhibiting linkage to IBD, as well as plasmic subclones of the BACs and further genetic marker development. There would also be continued genotyping with new polymorphic markers during this phase. It was anticipated that clones identified and developed during these two phases would provide the physical resources for eventual disease gene discovery.

  2. Bioluminescent reporters for catabolic gene expression and pollutant bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzer, A.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sayler, G.S. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology); Burlage, R.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The application of visualized catabolic nah-gene expression using a luxCDABE gene fusion provides a valuable method to measure quantitatively and specifically naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability. It has been demonstrated that the physiological state of the test culture together with the intrinsic regulation mechanisms of the naphthalene degradation pathway as well as the physiological aspects of the lux gene fusion have to be taken into account. The method presented provides a high potential for in situ bioprocess monitoring. In addition, the results obtained with immobilized cells provide a basis for the development of biosensors for environmental applications in specific pollutant monitoring in waste streams and soil slurry systems but, as a general method, also for more conventional biotechnological process control. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Structural explanation for allolactose (lac operon inducer) synthesis by lacZ β-galactosidase and the evolutionary relationship between allolactose synthesis and the lac repressor.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J; Dugdale, Megan L; Huber, Reuben E

    2013-05-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol) and L-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795-803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

  4. Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D.; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A.; Lazard, ZaWaunyka W.; Davis, Alan R.; Simpson, LaShan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models. PMID:24104323

  5. Development and validation of promoter-probe vectors for the study of methane monooxygenase gene expression in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanif; Murrell, J Colin

    2009-03-01

    A series of integrative and versatile broad-host-range promoter-probe vectors carrying reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (XylE) or beta-galactosidase (LacZ) were constructed for use in methanotrophs. These vectors facilitated the measurement of in vivo promoter activity in methanotrophs under defined growth conditions. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) sigma(54) promoter or particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) sigma(70) promoter from Methylococcus capsulatus and the reporter genes. Reporter gene activity was measured under high- and low-copper growth conditions and the data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the sMMO or pMMO operon, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in methanotrophs. When beta-galactosidase expression was coupled with the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide it yielded a sensitive and powerful screening system for detecting cells expressing this reporter gene. These data were substantiated with independent experiments using RT-PCR and RNA dot-blot analysis. PMID:19246747

  6. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Vectors in Liver-directed Gene Delivery of LDLR and VLDLR for Gene Therapy of Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Tytteli A K; Kurkipuro, Jere; Heikura, Tommi; Vuorio, Taina; Hytönen, Elisa; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    Plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors were developed and used to deliver genes for low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR and VLDLR, respectively) or lacZ reporter into liver of an LDLR-deficient mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). SB transposase, SB100x, was used to integrate the therapeutic transposons into mice livers for evaluating the feasibility of the vectors in reducing high blood cholesterol and the progression of atherosclerosis. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of transposon-VLDLR into the livers of the mice resulted in initial 17-19% reductions in plasma cholesterol, and at the later time points, in a significant stabilization of the cholesterol level for the 6.5-month duration of the study compared to the control mice. Transposon-LDLR-treated animals also demonstrated a trend of stabilization in the cholesterol levels in the long term. Vector-treated mice had slightly less lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced aortic atherosclerosis. Clinical chemistry and histological analyses revealed normal liver function and morphology comparable to that of the controls during the follow-up with no safety issues regarding the vector type, transgenes, or the gene transfer method. The study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of the SB transposon vectors in the treatment of FH. PMID:26670130

  7. MAMMALIAN CELL GENE MUTATION ASSAYS WORKING GROUP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian cell gene mutation assays have been used for many years and the diversity of the available systems attests to the varied methods found to grow mammalian dells and detect mutations. s part of the International Workshop on Standardization of Genotoxicity Test Procedures, ...

  8. Characterization of Arabidopsis Genes Involved in Gene Silencing. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, S. R.

    1999-02-05

    Enhancer of gene silencing 1 (egs1) is an Arabidopsis mutant that enhances post-transcriptional gene silencing of the rolB gene introduced by genetic engineering (transgene). The goal of our proposal was cloning EGS1 based on its map position. Although we screened more than 2000 chromosomes for recombination, we were unable to get closer than 2 cM to the gene. We experienced an unexpected tendency of the post-transcriptionally silenced transgene to switch to a more stable silenced state. This made it impossible to select egs1 homozygotes for map based cloning. This forced us to reconsider our cloning strategy. One possibility would have been to use a different transgene as the target of gene silencing. We tested two other transgenes. Both encoded proteins unrelated to the first but they were all expressed from the same type of promoter and they all had a similar tendency to become post-transcriptionally silenced. After screening over 80 F2 segregants from each cross between our egs1 mutant and Arabidopsis of the same ecotype homozygous for the new transgene, we were disappointed to find that the egs1 mutation did not enhance post-transcription silencing of the two new genes. In 80 plants we expected to have between 4 and 6 plants that were homozygous for the transgene and for the mutant egs1 allele. If egs1 mutations could enhance gene silencing of the new transgene, these plants would not express it. However all the double homozygotes still expressed the transgene. Therefore, we could not change the target transgene for mapping. This was the state of the cloning at the time for renewal of the grant in 1999. Because the selection of new meaningful recombinant plants had become extremely inefficient using the original rolB transgene, we abandoned the attempt at map based cloning and did not apply for further funding.

  9. Analysis of Gene Targeting & Nonhomologous End-joining. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, J. E.

    2002-11-30

    Overall, we identified a number of new proteins that participate in nonhomologous end-joining and also in telomere addition to the ends of broken chromosomes. We showed that NHEJ is severely reduced in cells expressing both yeast mating-type genes and then went on to identify the NEJ1 gene that was under this control. We showed the epistasis relations among a set of mutations that impair telomere addition and we showed that there are in fact two pathways to repair broken chromosomes in the absence of telomerase. We characterized the DNA damage checkpoint pathway in response to a single broken chromosome and characterized especially the adaptation of cells arrested by an unrepaired DSB. We demonstrated that the DNA damage response is nuclear-limited. We showed adaptation defects for Tid1and Srs2 proteins and showed that Srs2 was also recovery-defective, even when DNA was repaired.

  10. A specific library of randomly integrated reporter genes for the isolation of inducible functions by cell sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Lapeyre, J.N.; Marini, F.; Gratzner, H.G. AMC ImmunoDiagnostics, Houston, TX )

    1993-01-01

    A library of cells containing randomly integrated reporter genes has been constructed. The purpose of this library is to enable the isolation of genes of interest which are inducible by radiation, biological response modifiers, cytokines, or other agents. These genes are located near reporter genes which can be induced by the upstream promoter of the gene of interest. The reporter gene, Lac Z, was randomly inserted into the genome by retroviral transduction and subsequent selection of the neo[sup r] gene with gentamycin. Studies of radiation inducible genes were undertaken, whereby cells with the radiation sensitive function were isolated by sorting the cells fluorescent after staining with the beta gal substrate, fluorescein digalactoside (FDG). This gene-tagging approach is an improvement over the cDNA library subtraction protocol in that a single library of cells with random marker gene integration can be repeatedly and sequentially probed by sorting under different, selective conditions, dependent upon the genes to be characterized.

  11. Gene therapy for trigeminal pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tzabazis, Alexander Z.; Klukinov, Michael; Feliciano, David P.; Wilson, Steven P.; Yeomans, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a single direct injection of viral vector encoding for encephalin to induce a widespread expression of the transgene and potential analgesic effect in trigeminal behavioral pain models in mice. After direct injection of HSV-1 based vectors encoding for human preproenkephalin (SHPE) or the lacZ reporter gene (SHZ.1, control virus) into the trigeminal ganglia in mice, we performed an orofacial formalin test and assessed the cumulative nociceptive behavior at different time points after injection of the viral vectors. We observed an analgesic effect on nociceptive behavior that lasted up to 8 weeks after a single injection of SHPE into the trigeminal ganglia. Control virus injected animals showed nociceptive behavior similar to naïve mice. The analgesic effect of SHPE injection was reversed/attenuated by subcutaneous naloxone injections, a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. SHPE injected mice also showed normalization in withdrawal latencies upon thermal noxious stimulation of inflamed ears after subdermal complete Freund’s adjuvans injection indicating widespread expression of the transgene. Quantitative immunohistochemistry of trigeminal ganglia showed expression of human preproenkephalin after SHPE injection. Direct injection of viral vectors proved to be useful for exploring the distinct pathophysiology of the trigeminal system and could also be an interesting addition to the pain therapists’ armamentarium. PMID:24572785

  12. A Novel Binary T-Vector with the GFP Reporter Gene for Promoter Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Bai, Yanan; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Several strategies have been developed to clone PCR fragments into desired vectors. However, most of commercially available T-vectors are not binary vectors and cannot be directly used for Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. In this study, a novel binary T-vector was constructed by integrating two AhdI restriction sites into the backbone vector pCAMBIA 1300. The T-vector also contains a GFP reporter gene and thus, can be used to analyze promoter activity by monitoring the reporter gene. On the other hand, identification and characterization of various promoters not only benefit the functional annotation of their genes but also provide alternative candidates to be used to drive interesting genes for plant genetic improvement by transgenesis. More than 1,000 putative pollen-specific rice genes have been identified in a genome-wide level. Among them, 67 highly expressed genes were further characterized. One of the pollen-specific genes LOC_Os10g35930 was further surveyed in its expression patterns with more details by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Finally, its promoter activity was further investigated by analyzing transgenic rice plants carrying the promoter::GFP cassette, which was constructed from the newly developed T-vector. The reporter GFP gene expression in these transgenic plants showed that the promoter was active only in mature but not in germinated pollens. PMID:25197968

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Kirov, Julia V.; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3’ UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  14. New ANTXR1 Gene Mutation for GAPO Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Salas-Alanís, Julio C; Scott, Claire A; Fajardo-Ramírez, Oscar R; Duran, Carola; Moreno-Treviño, María G; Kelsell, David P

    2016-07-01

    GAPO syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia and progressive optic atrophy (GAPO). To date, only 30 cases have been described worldwide. Recently, gene alterations in the ANTXR1 gene have been reported to be causative of this disorder, and an autosomal recessive pattern has been observed. This gene encodes a matrix-interacting protein that works as an adhesion molecule. In this report, we describe 2 homozygous siblings diagnosed with GAPO syndrome carrying a new missense mutation. This mutation produces the substitution of a glutamine in position 137 for a leucine (c.410A>T, p.Q137L). PMID:27587992

  15. Space experiment "Rad Gene"-report 1; p53-Dependent gene expression in human cultured cells exposed to space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences: space radiations and microgravity. A p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a role as a guardian of the genome through the activity of p53-centered signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to clarify the biological effects of space radiations, microgravity and a space environment on the gene and protein expression of p53-dependent regulated genes. Space experiments were performed with two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines: one cells line (TSCE5) bears a wild-type p53 gene status, and another cells line (WTK1) bears a mutated p53 gene status. Un-der one gravity or microgravity condition, the cells were grown in the cell biology experimental facility (CBEF) of the International Space Station (ISS) for 8 days without experiencing the stress during launching and landing because the cells were frozen during these periods. Ground control samples also were cultured for 8 days in the CBEF on the ground during the same periods as space flight. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by using DNA chip (a 44k whole human genome microarray, Agilent Technologies Inc.) and protein chip (PanoramaTM Ab MicroArray, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), respectively. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression in cultured cells after space flight during 133 days with frozen condition. We report the results and discussion from the viewpoint of the functions of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes after an exposure to space radiations and/or microgravity. The initial goal of this space experiment was completely achieved. It is expected that data from this type of work will be helpful in designing physical protection from the deleterious effects of space radiations during long term stays in space.

  16. MS-1 magA: Revisiting Its Efficacy as a Reporter Gene for MRI.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sofia M; Williams, Steve R; Murray, Patricia; Taylor, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genes involved in the biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetotactic bacteria have recently been proposed as reporters for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In such systems, the expression of the bacterial genes in mammalian cells purportedly leads to greater concentrations of intracellular iron or the biomineralization of iron oxides, thus leading to an enhancement in relaxation rate that is detectable via MRI. Here, we show that the constitutive expression of the magA gene from Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum is tolerated by human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells but induces a strong toxic effect in murine mesenchymal/stromal cells and kidney-derived stem cells, severely restricting its effective use as a reporter gene for stem cells. Although it has been suggested that magA is involved in iron transport, when expressed in HEK cells, it does not affect the transcription of endogenous genes related to iron homeostasis. Furthermore, the magA-induced enhancement in iron uptake in HEK cells is insignificant, suggesting this gene is a poor reporter even for cell types that can tolerate its expression. We suggest that the use of magA for stem cells should be approached with caution, and its efficacy as a reporter gene requires a careful assessment on a cell-by-cell basis. PMID:27118760

  17. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-05-01

    The following is a review of research accomplished in the first two years of funding for the above mentioned project. The work performed is a molecular characterization of nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which are deficient in different stages in the post-transcriptional expression of a single chloroplast encoded polypeptide, the D2 protein of Photosystem II. Our long-term goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear gene products affect the expression of chloroplast genes. Specifically, we which to understand how specific nuclear gene products affect the turnover rate of the D2 encoding mRNA (psbD), how other nuclear encoded factors work to promote the translation of psbD mRNA and/or stabilize the D2 protein, and what the role of the D2 protein itself is in Photosystem II assembly and in the control of expression of other chloroplast genes. This progress report will be organized into four major sections concerning (I) The characterization of nuclear mutants affected in D2 translation/turnover, (II) The study of trans-acting factors which associate with the 5{prime} end of the psbD mRNA, (III) In vitro mutagenesis of the psbD gene, and (IV) Additional studies.

  18. Role of starvation genes in the survival of deep subsurface bacterial communities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, A.; Schmidt, T.; Caldwell, D.

    1998-11-01

    The investigation dealt with several aspects of subsurface bacterial survival and their nature. Mutants of Pseudomonas putida, a common environmental bacterium with counterparts in the subsurface, were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. These mutants were highly sensitive to starvation stress. Reporter gene fusions also showed that these genes were starvation genes since they were induced several fold when the cultures were started. Since the regulatory religions (promoters) of starvation genes are of interest in bioremediation and in experiments designed to understand the roles of starvation genes in the maintenance of microbial community structure, the promoter of one of these genes (pstarv1, contained in strain MK107) was characterized in detail. As a preliminary to these studies, the growth characteristics of Pseudomonas putida MK1 and MK107 were compared for cells growing in batch cultures or as an attached monolayer in microstat cultures.

  19. Recombinant Hendra viruses expressing a reporter gene retain pathogenicity in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hendra virus (HeV) is an Australian bat-borne zoonotic paramyxovirus that repeatedly spills-over to horses causing fatal disease. Human cases have all been associated with close contact with infected horses. Methods A full-length antigenome clone of HeV was assembled, a reporter gene (GFP or luciferase) inserted between the P and M genes and transfected to 293T cells to generate infectious reporter gene-encoding recombinant viruses. These viruses were then assessed in vitro for expression of the reporter genes. The GFP expressing recombinant HeV was used to challenge ferrets to assess the virulence and tissue distribution by monitoring GFP expression in infected cells. Results Three recombinant HeV constructs were successfully cloned and rescued; a wild-type virus, a GFP-expressing virus and a firefly luciferase-expressing virus. In vitro characterisation demonstrated expression of the reporter genes, with levels proportional to the initial inoculum levels. Challenge of ferrets with the GFP virus demonstrated maintenance of the fatal phenotype with disease progressing to death consistent with that observed previously with the parental wild-type isolate of HeV. GFP expression could be observed in infected tissues collected from animals at euthanasia. Conclusions Here, we report on the first successful rescue of recombinant HeV, including wild-type virus and viruses expressing two different reporter genes encoded as an additional gene cassette inserted between the P and M genes. We further demonstrate that the GFP virus retained the ability to cause fatal disease in a well-characterized ferret model of henipavirus infection despite the genome being an extra 1290 nucleotides in length. PMID:23521919

  20. Functional analysis of the promoter region of amphioxus β-actin gene: a useful tool for driving gene expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Li, Guang; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2014-10-01

    Amphioxus is a promising new animal model for developmental biology. To develop molecular tools for this model, we characterized the promoter region of a cytoplasmic β-actin gene (Bb-actin-6-2) from the Chinese amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. In situ hybridization and real time-quantitative PCR analyses showed that this gene is expressed in many tissues throughout embryonic development. Cloning of cDNA revealed two isoforms with distinct transcription start sites. Isoform #1 exhibits a similar exon/intron and regulatory element organization to that of vertebrate β-actin, whereas isoform #2 lacks the first exon of isoform #1 and recruits its first intron as a promoter. The activities of upstream promoter regions in the two isoforms were examined using the lacZ reporter system in amphioxus embryos. The proximal promoter of isoform #1 drove reporter gene expression broadly in 58.6 % of injected embryos. That of isoform #2 exhibited much higher activity (91.5 %) than that of isoform #1 or the human EF-1-α gene (38.2 %). We determined the minimal promoter regions of the two isoforms via functional analysis. These two regions, alone or inserted a random DNA fragment upstream, had no detectable activity, but when an upstream enhancer was inserted, the promoters directed reporter gene expression in 61.0 and 93.8 %, respectively, of injected embryos in a tissue-specific manner. Our study not only provides insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying amphioxus Bb-actin-6-2 gene expression, but also identifies two sets of efficient proximal and minimal promoters. These promoters could be used to construct gene expression vectors for transgenic studies using amphioxus as a model. PMID:25078982

  1. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  2. Intraarticular expression of biologically active interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein by ex vivo gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, G; Mueller, G M; Galea-Lauri, J; Tindal, M H; Georgescu, H I; Suchanek, M K; Hung, G L; Glorioso, J C; Robbins, P D; Evans, C H

    1993-01-01

    Gene therapy offers a radical different approach to the treatment of arthritis. Here we have demonstrated that two marker genes (lacZ and neo) and cDNA coding for a potentially therapeutic protein (human interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein; IRAP or IL-1ra) can be delivered, by ex vivo techniques, to the synovial lining of joints; intraarticular expression of IRAP inhibited intraarticular responses to interleukin 1. To achieve this, lapine synoviocytes were first transduced in culture by retroviral infection. The genetically modified synovial cells were then transplanted by intraarticular injection into the knee joints of rabbits, where they efficiently colonized the synovium. Assay of joint lavages confirmed the in vivo expression of biologically active human IRAP. With allografted cells, IRAP expression was lost by 12 days after transfer. In contrast, autografted synoviocytes continued to express IRAP for approximately 5 weeks. Knee joints expressing human IRAP were protected from the leukocytosis that otherwise follows the intraarticular injection of recombinant human interleukin 1 beta. Thus, we report the intraarticular expression and activity of a potentially therapeutic protein by gene-transfer technology; these experiments demonstrate the feasibility of treating arthritis and other joint disorders with gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8248169

  3. An Approach for Treating the Hepatobiliary Disease of Cystic Fibrosis by Somatic Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiping; Raper, Steven E.; Cohn, Jonathan A.; Engelhardt, John F.; Wilson, James M.

    1993-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of epithelial cell ion transport that is associated with pathology in multiple organ systems, including lung, pancreas, and liver. As treatment of the pulmonary manifestations of CF has improved, management of CF liver disease has become increasingly important in adult patients. This report describes an approach for treating CF liver disease by somatic gene transfer. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry analysis of rat liver sections indicated that the endogenous CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is primarily expressed in the intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells. To specifically target recombinant genes to the biliary epithelium in vivo, recombinant adenoviruses expressing lacZ or human CFTR were infused retrograde into the biliary tract through the common bile duct. Conditions were established for achieving recombinant gene expression in virtually all cells of the intrahepatic bile ducts in vivo. Expression persisted in the smaller bile ducts for the duration of the experiment, which was 21 days. These studies suggest that it may be feasible to prevent CF liver disease by genetically reconstituting CFTR expression in the biliary tract, using an approach that is clinically feasible.

  4. Spontaneous gene transfection of human bone cells using 3D mineralized alginate-chitosan macrocapsules.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of nonviral gene therapy remains uncertain because of low transfection efficiencies and high toxicities compared with viral-based strategies. We describe a simple system for transient transfection of continuous human cell lines, with low toxicity, using mineral-coated chitosan and alginate capsules. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate transfection of Saos-2 and MG63 human osteosarcoma continuous cell lines with gfp, LacZ reporter genes, and a Sox-9 carrying plasmid, to illustrate expression of a functional gene with therapeutic relevance. We show that continuous cell lines transfect with significant efficiency of up to 65% possibly through the interplay between chitosan and DNA complexation and calcium/phosphate-induced translocation into cells entrapped within the 3D polysaccharide based environment, as evidenced by an absence of transfection in unmineralized and chitosan-free capsules. We demonstrated that our transfection system was equally effective at transfection of primary human bone marrow stromal cells. To illustrate, the Sox-9, DNA plasmid was spontaneously expressed in primary human bone marrow stromal cells at 7 days with up to 90% efficiency in two repeats. Mineralized polysaccharide macrocapsules are gene delivery vehicles with a number of biological and practical advantages. They are highly efficient at self-transfecting primary bone cells, with programmable spatial and temporal delivery prospects, premineralized bone-like environments, and have no cytotoxic effects, as compared with many other nonviral systems. PMID:25645372

  5. Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with the long term goal of our research to understand the nature of the key enzymes in eukaryotic DNA replication we have characterized the properties of the wild type DNA polymerases of the {alpha}-family and their mutants. We have also provided evidence for the role of aphidicolin in the elongation process of the in vivo DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. We also developed a technology for planned prep from a large numbers of clones for direct screening by size or restriction digestion in order to facilitate our goals to clone the DNA polymerase gene.

  6. Genetic Evidence for Transcriptional Activation by the Yeast Ime1 Gene Product

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H. E.; Driscoll, S. E.; Sia, RAL.; Yuan, H. E.; Mitchell, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    IME1 is required in yeast for meiosis and for expression of IME2 and other early meiotic genes. IME1 is a 360-amino acid polypeptide with central and C-terminal tyrosine-rich regions. We report here that a fusion protein composed of the lexA DNA-binding domain and IME1 activates transcription in vivo of a reporter gene containing upstream lexA binding sites. Activation by the fusion protein shares several features with natural IME1 activity: both are dependent on the RIM11 gene product; both are impaired by the same ime1 missense mutations; both are restored by intragenic suppressors. The central tyrosine-rich region is sufficient to activate transcription when fused to lexA. Deletion of this putative activation domain results in a defective IME1 derivative. Function of the deletion derivative is restored by fusion to the acidic Herpesvirus VP16 activation domain. The C-terminal tyrosine-rich region is dispensable for transcriptional activation; rather it renders activation dependent upon starvation and RIM11. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that an IME1-lacZ fusion protein is concentrated in the nucleus. These observations are consistent with a model in which IME1 normally stimulates IME2 expression by providing a transcriptional activation domain at the IME2 5' regulatory region. PMID:8462841

  7. Focused ultrasound enhanced molecular imaging and gene therapy for multifusion reporter gene in glioma-bearing rat model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Chang, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chien, Yi-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Tsai, Min-Lan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to monitor the responses of and inhibit the growth of brain tumors during gene therapy has been severely limited due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A previous study has demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasive in vivo imaging with 123I-2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-iodo-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (123I-FIAU) for monitoring herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) cancer gene expression in an experimental animal model. Here, we tested the enhancement of SPECT with 123I-FIAU and ganciclovir (GCV) treatment in brain tumors after BBB disruption induced by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles. We established an orthotopic F98 glioma-bearing rat model with trifusion reporter genes. The results of this study showed that the rat model of HSV1-tk-expressing glioma cells could be successfully detected by SPECT imaging after FUS-induced BBB disruption on day 10 after implantation. Compared to the control group, animals receiving the GCV with or without sonication exhibited a significant antitumor activity (P < 0.05) of glioma cells on day 16 after implantation. Moreover, combining sonication with GCV significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with GCV alone. This study demonstrated that FUS may be used to deliver a wide variety of theranostic agents to the brain for molecular imaging and gene therapy in brain diseases. PMID:26429860

  8. Identification and characterization of rabbit ROSA26 for gene knock-in and stable reporter gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongshan; Song, Jun; Zhang, Jifeng; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Wang, Zhong; Lai, Liangxue; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory rabbit has been a valuable model system for human disease studies. To make the rabbit model more amendable to targeted gene knockin and stable gene over-expression, we identified a rabbit orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus through genomic sequence homology analysis. Real-time PCR and 5′ RACE and 3′ RACE experiments revealed that this locus encodes two transcript variants of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) (rbRosaV1 and rbRosaV2). Both variants are expressed ubiquitously and stably in different tissues. We next targeted the rabbit Rosa26 (rbRosa26) locus using CRISPR/Cas9 and produced two lines of knock-in rabbits (rbRosa26-EGFP, and rbRosa26-Cre-reporter). In both lines, all the founders and their offspring appear healthy and reproduce normally. In F1 generation animals, the rbRosa26-EGFP rabbits express EGFP, and the rbRosa26-Cre-reporter rabbits express tdTomato ubiquitously in all the tissues examined. Furthermore, disruption of rbRosa26 locus does not adversely impact the animal health and reproduction. Therefore, our work establishes rbRosa26 as a safe harbor suitable for nuclease mediated gene targeting. The addition of rbRosa26 to the tool box of transgenic research is expected to allow diverse genetic manipulations, including gain-of function, conditional knock out and lineage-tracing studies in rabbits. PMID:27117226

  9. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment. PMID:27468205

  10. Tetracycline inducible gene manipulation in serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tillmann; Renzland, Insa; Baur, Max; Mönks, Simon; Herrmann, Elke; Huppert, Verena; Nürnberg, Frank; Schönig, Kai; Bartsch, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic (5-HT) neuronal system has important and diverse physiological functions throughout development and adulthood. Its dysregulation during development or later in adulthood has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic animal models designed to study the contribution of serotonergic susceptibility genes to a pathological phenotype should ideally allow to study candidate gene overexpression or gene knockout selectively in serotonergic neurons at any desired time during life. For this purpose, conditional expression systems such as the tet-system are preferable. Here, we generated a transactivator (tTA) mouse line (TPH2-tTA) that allows temporal and spatial control of tetracycline (Ptet) controlled transgene expression as well as gene deletion in 5-HT neurons. The tTA cDNA was inserted into a 196 kb PAC containing a genomic mouse Tph2 fragment (177 kb) by homologous recombination in E. coli. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled transgene expression, TPH2-tTA mice were crossed to a Ptet-regulated lacZ reporter line (Ptet-nLacZ). In adult double-transgenic TPH2-tTA/Ptet-nLacZ mice, TPH2-tTA founder line L62-20 showed strong serotonergic β-galactosidase expression which could be completely suppressed with doxycycline (Dox). Furthermore, Ptet-regulated gene expression could be reversibly activated or inactivated when Dox was either withdrawn or added to the system. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled, Cre-mediated gene deletion, TPH2-tTA mice (L62-20) were crossed to double transgenic Ptet-Cre/R26R reporter mice to generate TPH2-tTA/Ptet-Cre/R26R mice. Without Dox, 5-HT specific recombination started at E12.5. With permanent Dox administration, Ptet-controlled Cre-mediated recombination was absent. Dox withdrawal either postnatally or during adulthood induced efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons of all raphe nuclei, respectively. In the enteric nervous system, recombination could not be detected. We generated a

  11. A muscle-specific intron enhancer required for rescue of indirect flight muscle and jump muscle function regulates Drosophila tropomyosin I gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.A.; Gremke, L.; Storti, R.V. ); Tansey, T. )

    1991-04-01

    The control of expression of the Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin I (TmI) gene has been investigated by P-element transformation and rescue of the flightless TmI mutant strain, Ifm(3)3. To localize cis-acting DNA sequences that control TmI gene expression, Ifm(3)3 flies were transformed with P-element plasmids containing various deletions and rearrangements of the TmI gene. The effects of these mutations on TmI gene expression were studied by analyzing both the extent of rescue of the Ifm(3)3 mutant phenotypes and determining TmI RNA levels in the transformed flies by primer extension analysis. The results of this analysis indicate that a region located within intron 1 of the gene is necessary and sufficient for directing muscle-specific TmI expression in the adult fly. This intron region has characteristics of a muscle regulatory enhancer element that can function in conjunction with the heterologous nonmuscle hsp70 promoter to promote rescue of the mutant phenotypes and to direct expression of an hsp70-Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene in adult muscle. The enhancer can be subdivided further into two domains of activity based on primer extension analysis of TmI mRNA levels and on the rescue of mutant phenotypes.

  12. Construction of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors: expression of antibiotic-resistance genes.

    PubMed

    West, S E; Romero, M J; Regassa, L B; Zielinski, N A; Welch, R A

    1995-07-01

    We constructed several cloning vectors, designated pGZRS-18/19 and pGZRS-38/39, which were based on an endogenous Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Apl) 4.3-kb plasmid. They carry the lacZ alpha-complementation fragment and MCS from pUC18/19, and either the bla gene under the control of a putative Apl promoter or the KmR gene from Tn903. These vectors replicate in representative strains of Apl serotypes 1 and 7, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella haemolytica (Ph) and Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans. We also found that Apl and Ph did not express genes under the control of the lacZ or bla promoters, suggesting that their RNA polymerases may not utilize these promoters. PMID:7628722

  13. In situ gene transfer and suicide gene therapy of gastric cancer induced by N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, N; Hoshino, A; Igarashi, T; Hasegawa, H; Okino, T; Onda, M; Iijima, O; Akiyama, K; Goto, T; Takubo, K; Suzuki, S; Shimada, T

    1999-09-01

    Gene therapy could potentially revolutionize the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. The aim of this study was to establish a practical method of gene transfer which would be applicable to human gastric cancer. Retrovirus or/and adenovirus vectors carrying the lacZ marker gene were transferred in situ by needle through an endoscopic biopsy channel into primary gastric cancer in six male beagle dogs that had been treated with N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG). In addition, an adenovirus vector carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Ad.CAGHSV-TK) gene was introduced in situ into cancer tissues in the stomach of three dogs, and the animals were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV). Retrovirus-producing cells which expressed the lacZ gene were specifically localized to the injection site in the stomach. The lacZ gene was more widely transferred into the tumor by the adenovirus vector than by retrovirus-producing cells. Improvement of the needle used for gene transfer and the use of multiple injections per tumor led to more diffuse transfer of the vector into the tumor. The Ad.CAGlacZ gene was also transferred into regional lymph nodes of the stomach. Moderate to diffuse degeneration of the primary cancer tissues of the stomach was found after Ad.CAGHSV-TK/GCV gene therapy. Moreover, almost complete tissue degeneration was observed in the regional lymph nodes of the stomach. An adverse effect of HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy was acute hepatotoxicity, which was not found after Ad.CAGlacZ gene transfer, but was found after high-titer Ad.CAGHSV-TK gene transfer followed by GCV. These findings suggest that in situ gene transfer of a suicide gene followed by prodrug treatment may be applicable not only to primary tumors, but also to lymph node metastases of gastric cancer, though further study of both beneficial and adverse effects is required before clinical usage. PMID:10551335

  14. Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene’s expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment. PMID:27468205

  16. FOXP2 gene deletion and infant feeding difficulties: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maron, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a well-studied gene known to play an essential role in normal speech development. Deletions in the gene have been shown to result in developmental speech disorders and regulatory disruption of downstream gene targets associated with common forms of language impairments. Despite similarities in motor planning and execution between speech development and oral feeding competence, there have been no reports to date linking deletions within the FOXP2 gene to oral feeding impairments in the newborn. The patient was a nondysmorphic, appropriately and symmetrically grown male infant born at 35-wk gestational age. He had a prolonged neonatal intensive care unit stay because of persistent oral feeding incoordination requiring gastrostomy tube placement. Cardiac and neurological imagings were within normal limits. A microarray analysis found an ∼9-kb loss within chromosome band 7q3.1 that contains exon 2 of FOXP2, demonstrating a single copy of this region instead of the normal two copies per diploid gene. This case study expands our current understanding of the role FOXP2 exerts on motor planning and coordination necessary for both oral feeding success and speech–language development. This case report has important consequences for future diagnosis and treatment for infants with FOXP2 deletions, mutations, and varying levels of gene expression. PMID:27148578

  17. FOXP2 gene deletion and infant feeding difficulties: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maron, Jill L

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a well-studied gene known to play an essential role in normal speech development. Deletions in the gene have been shown to result in developmental speech disorders and regulatory disruption of downstream gene targets associated with common forms of language impairments. Despite similarities in motor planning and execution between speech development and oral feeding competence, there have been no reports to date linking deletions within the FOXP2 gene to oral feeding impairments in the newborn. The patient was a nondysmorphic, appropriately and symmetrically grown male infant born at 35-wk gestational age. He had a prolonged neonatal intensive care unit stay because of persistent oral feeding incoordination requiring gastrostomy tube placement. Cardiac and neurological imagings were within normal limits. A microarray analysis found an ∼9-kb loss within chromosome band 7q3.1 that contains exon 2 of FOXP2, demonstrating a single copy of this region instead of the normal two copies per diploid gene. This case study expands our current understanding of the role FOXP2 exerts on motor planning and coordination necessary for both oral feeding success and speech-language development. This case report has important consequences for future diagnosis and treatment for infants with FOXP2 deletions, mutations, and varying levels of gene expression. PMID:27148578

  18. Sequence and expression of a halobacterial beta-galactosidase gene.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M L; Dyall-Smith, M L

    2000-04-01

    Studies of gene expression in haloarchaea have been greatly hindered by the lack of a convenient reporter gene. In a previous study, a beta-galactosidase from Haloferax alicantei was purified and several peptide sequences determined. The peptide sequences have now been used to clone the entire beta-galactosidase gene (designated bgaH) along with some flanking chromosomal DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of BgaH was 665 amino acids (74 kDa) and showed greatest amino acid similarity to members of glycosyl hydrolase family 42 [classification of Henrissat, B., and Bairoch, A. (1993) New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities. Biochem J 293: 781-788]. Within this family, BgaH was most similar (42-43% aa identity) to enzymes from extremely thermophilic bacteria such as Thermotoga and Thermus. Family 42 enzymes are only distantly related to the Sulfolobus LacS and Escherichia coli LacZ enzymes (families one and two respectively). Three open reading frames (ORFs) upstream of bgaH were readily identified by database searches as glucose-fructose oxidoreductase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphogluconate aldolase and 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate kinase, enzymes that are also involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Downstream of bgaH there was an ORF which contained a putative fibronectin III motif. The bgaH gene was engineered into a halobacterial plasmid vector and introduced into Haloferax volcanii, a widely used strain that lacks detectable beta-galactosidase activity. Transformants were shown to express the enzyme; colonies turned blue when sprayed with Xgal and enzyme activity could be easily quantitated using a standard ONPG assay. In an accompanying publication, Patenge et al. (2000) have demonstrated the utility of bgaH as a promoter reporter in Halobacterium salinarum. PMID:10760168

  19. Inducible Gene Manipulations in Brain Serotonergic Neurons of Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    The serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP), in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system. PMID:22140568

  20. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with normal FISH result and CREBBP gene analysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Balci, Sevim; Ergün, Mehmet Ali; Yüksel-Konuk, E Berrin; Bartsch, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We report on a six-year-old boy with typical Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) phenotype. Clinical findings included mental and motor retardation, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), undescended testes, hirsutism, broad thumbs with radial angulation and broad toes, and inguinal hernia. His karyotype was normal (46, XY) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed no deletion of the CREBBP [cAMP response element-binding (CREB) binding protein] gene on chromosome 16p13.3. CREBBP gene sequencing also revealed normal results. We wish to present this case because this patient had typical RSTS phenotype, but normal FISH and CREBBP gene sequencing results. It could be possible that genetic heterogeneity is related with novel mutations in other genes. With the publication of such cases, their significance will be brought to the attention of researchers in this field. PMID:18773673

  1. Mfsd14a (Hiat1) gene disruption causes globozoospermia and infertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Doran, Joanne; Walters, Cara; Kyle, Victoria; Wooding, Peter; Hammett-Burke, Rebecca; Colledge, William Henry

    2016-07-01

    The Mfsd14a gene, previously called Hiat1, encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function with homology to the solute carrier protein family. To study the function of the MFSD14A protein, mutant mice (Mus musculus, strain 129S6Sv/Ev) were generated with the Mfsd14a gene disrupted with a LacZ reporter gene. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and healthy, but males are sterile due to a 100-fold reduction in the number of spermatozoa in the vas deferens. Male mice have adequate levels of testosterone and show normal copulatory behaviour. The few spermatozoa that are formed show rounded head defects similar to those found in humans with globozoospermia. Spermatogenesis proceeds normally up to the round spermatid stage, but the subsequent structural changes associated with spermiogenesis are severely disrupted with failure of acrosome formation, sperm head condensation and mitochondrial localization to the mid-piece of the sperm. Staining for β-galactosidase activity as a surrogate for Mfsd14a expression indicates expression in Sertoli cells, suggesting that MFSD14A may transport a solute from the bloodstream that is required for spermiogenesis. PMID:27107036

  2. A novel delta-endotoxin gene cryIM from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. wuhanensis.

    PubMed

    Shevelev, A B; Kogan YaN; Bushueva, A M; Voronina, E J; Rebrikov, D V; Novikova, S I; Chestukhina, G G; Kuvshinov, V; Pehu, E; Stepanov, V M

    1997-03-10

    A new cryI-related sequence designated cryIM was cloned using an immunoscreening technique from ssp. wuhanensis of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), previously reported to produce multiple Cry proteins [Chestukhina et al. (1994) Can. J. Microbiol. 240, 1026-1034]. Analysis of the cryIM nucleotide sequence revealed an ORF, BTII-type promoter-like sequence, peculiar for such genes, a translation initiation element and a putative transcription terminator. Nevertheless, its product was not previously found in the crystals of the host strain [Chestukhina et al. (1994) Can. J. Microbiol. 240, 1026-1034] which shows its weak or absent natural expression. The amino acid sequence of 1151 residues encoded by the continuous reading frame of cryIM is not identical but is essentially similar to the other delta-endotoxins of the CryI class. An IS231-like sequence was found 400 bp downstream of the cryIM stop codon and a fragment of the cryIAb gene was located 3 kb upstream of its initiator codon in the same orientation. Artificial expression of the cloned gene in E. coli under the control of the lacZ promoter allowed us to obtain its hypothetical protein product. PMID:9119053

  3. The Drosophila slamdance gene: a mutation in an aminopeptidase can cause seizure, paralysis and neuronal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, HaiGuang; Tan, Jeff; Reynolds, Elaine; Kuebler, Daniel; Faulhaber, Sally; Tanouye, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We report here the characterization of slamdance (sda), a Drosophila melanogaster "bang-sensitive" (BS) paralytic mutant. This mutant exhibits hyperactive behavior and paralysis following a mechanical "bang" or electrical shock. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that this mutant is much more prone to seizure episodes than normal flies because it has a drastically lowered seizure threshold. Through genetic mapping, molecular cloning, and RNA interference, we have demonstrated that the sda phenotype can be attributed to a mutation in the Drosophila homolog of the human aminopeptidase N (APN) gene. Furthermore, using mRNA in situ hybridization and LacZ staining, we have found that the sda gene is expressed specifically in the central nervous system at particular developmental stages. Together, these results suggest that the bang sensitivity in sda mutants is caused by a defective APN gene that somehow increases seizure susceptibility. Finally, by using the sda mutation as a sensitized background, we have been able to identify a rich variety of sda enhancers and other independent BS mutations. PMID:12454073

  4. Rhizobium meliloti Genes Encoding Catabolism of Trigonelline Are Induced under Symbiotic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Boivin, C.; Camut, S.; Malpica, C. A.; Truchet, G.; Rosenberg, C.

    1990-12-01

    Rhizobium meliloti trc genes controlling the catabolism of trigonelline, a plant secondary metabolite often abundant in legumes, are closely linked to nif-nod genes on the symbiotic megaplasmid pSym [Boivin, C., Malpica, C., Rosenberg, C., Denarie, J., Goldman, A., Fleury, V., Maille, M., Message, B., and Tepfer, D. (1989). In Molecular Signals in the Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Systems. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), pp. 401-407]. To investigate the role of trigonelline catabolism in the Rhizobium-legume interaction, we studied the regulation of trc gene expression in free-living and in endosymbiotic bacteria using Escherichia coli lacZ as a reporter gene. Experiments performed with free-living bacteria indicated that trc genes were organized in at least four transcription units and that the substrate trigonelline was a specific inducer for three of them. Noninducing trigonelline-related compounds such as betaines appeared to antagonize the inducing effect of trigonelline. None of the general or symbiotic regulatory genes ntrA, dctB/D, or nodD seemed to be involved in trigonelline catabolism. trc fusions exhibiting a low basal and a high induced [beta]-galactosidase activity when present on pSym were used to monitor trc gene expression in alfalfa tissue under symbiotic conditions. Results showed that trc genes are induced during all the symbiotic steps, i.e., in the rhizosphere, infection threads, and bacteroids of alfalfa, suggesting that trigonelline is a nutrient source throughout the Rhizobium-legume association. PMID:12354952

  5. Characterization of a novel phenazine antibiotic gene cluster in Erwinia herbicola Eh1087.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Stephen R; Feng, Yunjiang; Mahanty, H Khris

    2002-08-01

    Erwinia herbicola strain Eh1087 produces the broad-spectrum phenazine antibiotic D-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In this report, a cluster of 16 ehp (Erwinia herbicola phenazine) plasmid genes required for the production of AGA by Eh1087 is described. The extent of the gene cluster was revealed by the isolation of 82 different Eh1087 AGA- mutants, all found to possess single mini-Tn5lacZ2 insertions within a 14 kbp DNA region. Additional transposon insertions that did not affect antibiotic production by Eh1087 were created to define the boundaries of the gene cluster. The size and location of genes between these boundaries were derived from a combination of DNA sequence analyses, minicell protein analyses and the correlation between mutation position and the production of coloured AGA intermediates by many ehp mutants. Precursor-feeding and complementation experiments resulted in 15 ehp genes being assigned to one of four functional groups according to their role in the synthesis of AGA. Group 1 is required for the synthesis of the phenazine nucleus in the form of antibiotic precursor one (AP1, phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid). Group 2 is responsible for conversion of AP1 to AP2, which is subsequently modified to AP3 (griseoluteic acid) and exported by the group 3 gene products. Group 4 catalyses the addition of D-alanine to AP3 to create AGA, independently of groups 1, 2 and 3. A gene that is divergently transcribed from the 15 AGA synthesis ehp genes confers resistance to AGA. PMID:12139622

  6. Oral contrast enhances the resolution of in-life NIS reporter gene imaging.

    PubMed

    Suksanpaisan, L; Pham, L; McIvor, S; Russell, S J; Peng, K-W

    2013-11-01

    Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene imaging is an excellent technology for noninvasive cell fate determination in living animals unless the NIS-transduced cells reside in perigastric organs such as the spleen, liver, diaphragm, omentum, pancreas, perigastric lymph nodes or perigastric tumor deposits. Here we report that orally administered barium sulfate enhances CT definition of the stomach, masks background gamma ray emissions from the stomach and enhances signal detection from radiotracer uptake in NIS-transduced organs. PMID:24030210

  7. Regional mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines in the intestine: mutation analysis of the cII gene in lambda/lacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Toshiaki; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Ohnishi, Yoshinari

    2003-08-01

    Transgenic mouse assays have revealed that the mouse intestine, despite its resistance to carcinogenesis, is sensitive to the mutagenicity of some heterocyclic amines (HCAs). Little is known, however, about the level and localization of that sensitivity. We assessed the mutagenicity of four orally administered (20 mg/kg per day for 5 days) HCAs-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) hydrochloride, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) acetate-in the intestine of male MutaMice. Two weeks after the last administration, we isolated epithelium from the small intestine, cecum, and colon and analyzed lacZ and cII transgene mutations. PhIP increased the lacZ mutant frequency (MF) in all the samples, and in the small intestine, cII and lacZ MFs were comparable. In the cII gene, G:C to T:A and G:C to C:G transversions were characteristic PhIP-induced mutations (which has also been reported for the rat colon, where PhIP is carcinogenic). In the small intestine, PhIP increased the cII MF to four-fold that of the control, but IQ, MeIQ, and Trp-P-2 did not have a significant mutagenic effect. In the cecum, cII MFs induced by IQ and MeIQ were 1.9 and 2.7 times those in the control, respectively. The MF induced by MeIQ in the colon was 3.1 times the control value. Mutagenic potency was in the order PhIP>MeIQ>IQ; Trp-P-2 did not significantly increase the MF in any tissue. The cecum was the most susceptible organ to HCA mutagenicity. PMID:12948818

  8. Efficient gene delivery to the inflamed colon by local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, S; Galle, P; Neurath, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Replication deficient recombinant adenoviruses represent an efficient means of transferring genes in vivo into a wide variety of dividing and quiescent cells from many different organs. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially attractive target for gene therapy approaches, only a few studies on the use of viral gene transfer vehicles in the gut have been reported. The prospects of using recombinant adenoviruses for gene delivery into epithelial and subepithelial cells of the normal and inflamed colon are here analysed.
METHODS—An E1/E3 deleted recombinant adenovirus (denoted AdCMVβGal) and an adenovirus with modified fibre structure (denoted AdZ.F(pk7)) both expressing the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter were used for reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. β-Galactosidase activity was determined by specific chemiluminescent reporter gene assay.
RESULTS—Intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AdCMVβGal into healthy Balb/c mice caused strong reporter gene expression in the liver and spleen but not in the colon. In contrast, local administration of AdCMVβGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVβGal caused a higher β-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. Furthermore, isolated lamina propria cells from mice with colitis infected in vitro showed a significant increase in reporter gene activity compared with controls. Finally, AdZ.F(pk7) adenoviruses with modified fibre structure produced 10- to 40-fold higher reporter gene activity in spleen T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells of colitic mice compared with

  9. Plasmid size up to 20 kbp does not limit effective in vivo lung gene transfer using compacted DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fink, T L; Klepcyk, P J; Oette, S M; Gedeon, C R; Hyatt, S L; Kowalczyk, T H; Moen, R C; Cooper, M J

    2006-07-01

    Nanoparticles consisting of single molecules of DNA condensed with polyethylene glycol-substituted lysine 30-mers efficiently transfect lung epithelium following intrapulmonary administration. Nanoparticles formulated with lysine polymers having different counterions at the time of DNA mixing have distinct geometric shapes: trifluoroacetate or acetate counterions produce ellipsoids or rods, respectively. Based on intracytoplasmic microinjection studies, nanoparticle ellipsoids having a minimum diameter less than the 25 nm nuclear membrane pore efficiently transfect non-dividing cells. This 25 nm size restriction corresponds to a 5.8 kbp plasmid when compacted into spheroids, whereas the 8-11 nm diameter of rod-like particles is smaller than the nuclear pore diameter. In mice, up to 50% of lung cells are transfected after dosing with a rod-like compacted 6.9 kbp lacZ expression plasmid, and correction of the CFTR chloride channel was observed in humans following intranasal administration of a rod-like compacted 8.3 kbp plasmid. To further investigate the potential size and shape limitations of DNA nanoparticles for in vivo lung delivery, reporter gene activity of ellipsoidal and rod-like compacted luciferase plasmids ranging in size between 5.3 and 20.2 kbp was investigated. Equivalent molar reporter gene activities were observed for each formulation, indicating that microinjection size limitations do not apply to the in vivo gene transfer setting. PMID:16525478

  10. Post-transcriptional regulation of sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans: widespread expression of the sex-determining gene fem-1 in both sexes.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, J; VanderElst, I; Spence, A M

    1996-01-01

    The fem-1 gene of C. elegans is one of three genes required for all aspects of male development in the nematode. Current models of sex determination propose that the products of the fem genes act in a novel signal-transduction pathway and that their activity is regulated primarily at the post-translational level in somatic tissues. We analyzed the expression of fem-1 to determine whether it revealed any additional levels of regulation. Both XX hermaphrodites and XO males express fem-1 at approximately constant levels throughout development. Somatic tissues in hermaphrodites adopt female fates, but they nonetheless express fem-1 mRNA and FEM-1 protein, suggesting that the regulation of fem-1 activity is post-transcriptional and probably post-translational. A compact promoter directs functional expression of fem-1 transgenes, as assayed by their masculinizing activity in fem-1 mutants. Activity also requires any two or more introns, suggesting that splicing may enhance fem-1 expression. The minimal noncoding sequences required for activity of fem-1 transgenes suffice to direct expression of a fem-1::lacZ reporter gene in all somatic tissues in both sexes. Many fem-1 transgenes, including those that rescue male somatic development in fem-1 mutants, paradoxically feminize the germline. We suggest that they do so by interfering with the germline expression of the endogenous fem-1 gene. Images PMID:8862524

  11. Targeted gene expression without a tissue-specific promoter: creating mosaic embryos using laser-induced single-cell heat shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halfon, M. S.; Kose, H.; Chiba, A.; Keshishian, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method to target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo to a specific cell without having a promoter that directs expression in that particular cell. Using a digitally enhanced imaging system to identify single cells within the living embryo, we apply a heat shock to each cell individually by using a laser microbeam. A 1- to 2-min laser treatment is sufficient to induce a heat-shock response but is not lethal to the heat-shocked cells. Induction of heat shock was measured in a variety of cell types, including neurons and somatic muscles, by the expression of beta-galactosidase from an hsp26-lacZ reporter construct or by expression of a UAS target gene after induction of hsGAL4. We discuss the applicability of this technique to ectopic gene expression studies, lineage tracing, gene inactivation studies, and studies of cells in vitro. Laser heat shock is a versatile technique that can be adapted for use in a variety of research organisms and is useful for any studies in which it is desirable to express a given gene in only a distinct cell or clone of cells, either transiently or constitutively, at a time point of choice.

  12. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, L.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

  13. Efficient adenovirus-mediated transfer of a human minidystrophin gene to skeletal muscle of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Ragot, T; Vincent, N; Chafey, P; Vigne, E; Gilgenkrantz, H; Couton, D; Cartaud, J; Briand, P; Kaplan, J C; Perricaudet, M

    1993-02-18

    Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy is a lethal and common X-linked genetic disease caused by the absence of dystrophin, a 427K protein encoded by a 14 kilobase transcript. Two approaches have been proposed to correct the dystrophin deficiency in muscle. The first, myoblast transfer therapy, uses cells from normal donors, whereas the second involves direct intramuscular injection of recombinant plasmids expressing dystrophin. Adenovirus is an efficient vector for in vivo expression of various foreign genes. It has recently been demonstrated that a recombinant adenovirus expressing the lac-Z reporter gene can infect stably many mouse tissues, particularly muscle and heart. We have tested the ability of a recombinant adenovirus, containing a 6.3 kilobase pair Becker-like dystrophin complementary DNA driven by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter to direct the expression of a 'minidystrophin' in infected 293 cells and C2 myoblasts, and in the mdx mouse, after intramuscular injection. We report here that in vivo, we have obtained a sarcolemmal immunostaining in up to 50% of fibres of the injected muscle. PMID:8437625

  14. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome associated with mutations in the human insulin receptor gene: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yohei; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Mineo, Ikuo; Fukui, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Iwamoto, Ryuya; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Insulinoma and insulin or insulin receptor (IR) autoantibodies are the main causes of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, but the exact cause in other cases remains obscure. This study is to determine the genetic basis of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in two cases without the above abnormalities. Sequence analysis of IR gene in two patients with adult-onset hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and their relatives were performed, and the mutant gene observed in one case was analyzed. Both cases had normal levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, and hypoglycemia with excessive insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Both reported adult-onset postprandial hypoglycemic symptoms. In one patient, a missense mutation (Arg256Cys) was detected in both alleles of the IR gene, and his parents had the same mutation in only one allele but no hypoglycemia. The other had a novel nonsense mutation (Trp1273X) followed by a mutation (Gln1274Lys) in one allele, and his 9-year old son had the same mutation in one allele, together with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during OGTT. Overexpression experiments of the mutant gene found in Case 1 in mammalian cells showed abnormal processing of the IR protein and demonstrated reduced function of Akt/Erk phosphorylation by insulin in the cells. In two cases of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, we found novel mutations in IR gene considered to be linked to hypoglycemia. We propose a disease entity of adult-onset hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome associated with mutations in IR gene. PMID:25753915

  15. MRI-based detection of alkaline phosphatase gene reporter activity using a porphyrin solubility switch

    PubMed Central

    Westmeyer, Gil G.; Emer, Elena G.; Lintelmann, Jutta; Jasanoff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to map patterns of gene expression noninvasively in living animals could have impact in many areas of biology. Reporter systems compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be particularly valuable, but existing strategies tend to lack sensitivity or specificity. Here we address the challenge of MRI-based gene mapping using the reporter enzyme secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), in conjunction with a water soluble metalloporphyrin contrast agent. SEAP cleaves the porphyrin into an insoluble product that accumulates at sites of enzyme expression and can be visualized by MRI and optical absorbance. The contrast mechanism functions in vitro, in brain slices, and in animals. The system also provides the possibility of readout both in the living animal and by post mortem histology, and it notably does not require intracellular delivery of the contrast agent. The solubility switch mechanism used to detect SEAP could be adapted for imaging of additional reporter enzymes or endogenous targets. PMID:24613020

  16. Multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging of inducible tyrosinase reporter gene expression in xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Heinmiller, Andrew; Wachowicz, Keith; Zemp, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid imaging technology capable of breaking through resolution limits of pure optical imaging technologies imposed by optical-scattering to provide fine-resolution optical contrast information in deep tissues. We demonstrate the ability of multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging to estimate relative gene expression distributions using an inducible expression system and co-register images with hemoglobin oxygen saturation estimates and micro-ultrasound data. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production, is used as a reporter gene owing to its strong optical absorption and enzymatic amplification mechanism. Tetracycline-inducible melanin expression is turned on via doxycycline treatment in vivo. Serial multi-wavelength imaging reveals very low estimated melanin expression in tumors prior to doxycycline treatment or in tumors with no tyrosinase gene present, but strong signals after melanin induction in tumors tagged with the tyrosinase reporter. The combination of new inducible reporters and high-resolution photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound technology is poised to bring a new dimension to the study of gene expression in vivo. PMID:24936769

  17. Molecular characterization of a maize regulatory gene. Progress report, July 1989--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wessler, S.

    1990-12-31

    This progress report contains information concerning the characterization of the Maize regulatory gene. The findings of this research program have immediate significance. Firstly, it provides support for the notion that R proteins, produced by the regulatory gene, are functionally equivalent. Secondly, the success of these experiments provides a simple transient assay for either natural or constructed R protein mutations. The relative ease of this assay coupled with overnight results are important prerequisites to the proposed experiments involving a structure-function analysis of the R protein.

  18. Identification and sequence analysis of the hupR1 gene, which encodes a response regulator of the NtrC family required for hydrogenase expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Richaud, P; Colbeau, A; Toussaint, B; Vignais, P M

    1991-01-01

    The hupR1 gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned and sequenced. It can encode a protein of 53,843 Da which shares significant similarity with several transcriptional regulators and activates transcription of the structural hupSL genes of [NiFe]hydrogenase, as shown by the use of a translational fusion of lacZ with the hupSL promoter. A Hup- mutant having a point mutation in the hupR1 gene is described. PMID:1885559

  19. Principal components analysis and the reported low intrinsic dimensionality of gene expression microarray data.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Michael; Müller, Franz-Josef; Zenke, Martin; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a common unsupervised method for the analysis of gene expression microarray data, providing information on the overall structure of the analyzed dataset. In the recent years, it has been applied to very large datasets involving many different tissues and cell types, in order to create a low dimensional global map of human gene expression. Here, we reevaluate this approach and show that the linear intrinsic dimensionality of this global map is higher than previously reported. Furthermore, we analyze in which cases PCA fails to detect biologically relevant information and point the reader to methods that overcome these limitations. Our results refine the current understanding of the overall structure of gene expression spaces and show that PCA critically depends on the effect size of the biological signal as well as on the fraction of samples containing this signal. PMID:27254731

  20. Principal components analysis and the reported low intrinsic dimensionality of gene expression microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Michael; Müller, Franz-Josef; Zenke, Martin; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a common unsupervised method for the analysis of gene expression microarray data, providing information on the overall structure of the analyzed dataset. In the recent years, it has been applied to very large datasets involving many different tissues and cell types, in order to create a low dimensional global map of human gene expression. Here, we reevaluate this approach and show that the linear intrinsic dimensionality of this global map is higher than previously reported. Furthermore, we analyze in which cases PCA fails to detect biologically relevant information and point the reader to methods that overcome these limitations. Our results refine the current understanding of the overall structure of gene expression spaces and show that PCA critically depends on the effect size of the biological signal as well as on the fraction of samples containing this signal. PMID:27254731

  1. Regulatory sequences of Arabidopsis drive reporter gene expression in nematode feeding structures.

    PubMed Central

    Barthels, N; van der Lee, F M; Klap, J; Goddijn, O J; Karimi, M; Puzio, P; Grundler, F M; Ohl, S A; Lindsey, K; Robertson, L; Robertson, W M; Van Montagu, M; Gheysen, G; Sijmons, P C

    1997-01-01

    In the quest for plant regulatory sequences capable of driving nematode-triggered effector gene expression in feeding structures, we show that promoter tagging is a valuable tool. A large collection of transgenic Arabidopsis plants was generated. They were transformed with a beta-glucuronidase gene functioning as a promoter tag. Three T-DNA constructs, pGV1047, p delta gusBin19, and pMOG553, were used. Early responses to nematode invasion were of primary interest. Six lines exhibiting beta-glucuronidase activity in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode were studied. Reporter gene activation was also identified in galls induced by root knot and ectoparasitic nematodes. Time-course studies revealed that all six tags were differentially activated during the development of the feeding structure. T-DNA-flanking regions responsible for the observed responses after nematode infection were isolated and characterized for promoter activity. PMID:9437858

  2. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report.

    PubMed

    Işık, Emregül; Beck Peccoz, Paolo; Campi, Irene; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazlı; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones. It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. In the present report, we describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and genetic analysis of patients with a novel THRB gene mutation. The index patient had been misdiagnosed as hyperthyroidism and treated with antithyroid drugs since eight days of age. Thyroid hormone results showed that thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) was never suppressed despite elevated thyroid hormone levels, and there was no symptom suggesting hyperthyroidism. A heterozygous mutation at codon 350 located in exon 9 of the THRB gene was detected in all the affected members of the family. It is important to consider thyroid hormone levels in association with TSH levels to prevent inappropriate treatment and the potential complications, such as clinical hypothyroidism or an increase in goiter size. PMID:24217081

  3. Novel reporter gene expression systems for monitoring activation of the Aspergillus nidulans HOG pathway.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kentaro; Yoshimi, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Hoshi, Yukiko; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sato, Natsuko; Fujioka, Tomonori; Mizutani, Osamu; Mizuno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-07-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans high-osmolarity glycerol response (AnHOG) pathway is involved in osmoadaptation. We found that fludioxonil, a fungicide, causes improper activation of HogA mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in A. nidulans. Here we present novel reporter systems for monitoring activation of the AnHOG pathway. The promoter region of gfdB (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), whose expression depends on the presence of HogA, was fused to a beta-glucuronidase uidA gene (GUS) to construct the reporter, which was introduced into A. nidulans wild type and hogADelta. Increased GUS activity was detected in the wild type only when it was treated with high osmolarity or fludioxonil, while reporter activity was scarcely stimulated in the hogADelta mutant. These results indicate that the reporter activity is controlled via HogA activation. Furthermore, we present possible applications of the reporter systems in screening new antifungal compounds. PMID:17617716

  4. Chalcone synthase as a reporter in virus-induced gene silencing studies of flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Chih; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Gookin, Timothy E; Hunter, Donald A; Clark, David G; Reid, Michael S

    2004-07-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated infection of petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants with tobacco rattle virus (TRV) bearing fragments of Petunia genes resulted in systemic infection and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the homologous host genes. Infection with TRV containing a phytoene desaturase (PDS) fragment resulted in reduced abundance of PDS transcripts and typical photobleaching of photosynthetic tissues. Infection with TRV containing a chalcone synthase (CHS) fragment resulted in silencing of anthocyanin production in infected flowers. The silencing phenotype ranged from scattered white spots on the normal purple background to entirely white flowers. Symptoms in the V26 cultivar were a diffuse mosaic, but infection of some purple-flowered commercial cultivars resulted in large white sectors and even entirely white flowers. Abundance of CHS transcripts in the white flowers was less than 4% of that in purple flowers on the same plant. Infection with TRV containing a tandem construct of PDS and CHS resulted in leaf photobleaching and white patterns on the flowers. Transcripts of CHS and PDS were reduced both in leaves and in flowers confirming simultaneous silencing of both genes by the tandem construct. We tested the effects of infection with TRV containing CHS and a fragment of a petunia gene encoding for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO4) Abundance of transcripts encoding ACO4 and ACO1 were reduced (by 5% and 20%, respectively) in infected flowers. Whether the flowers were treated with ACC or pollinated, the white (silenced) flowers or flower sectors produced less ethylene and senesced later than purple (non-silenced) tissues. These results indicate the value of VIGS with tandem constructs containing CHS as reporter and a target gene as a tool for examining the function of floral-associated genes. PMID:15604697

  5. The role of regulatory genes nifA, vnfA, anfA, nfrX, ntrC, and rpoN in expression of genes encoding the three nitrogenases of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, J; Toukdarian, A; Kennedy, C

    1994-01-01

    Several regulatory gene mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii were tested for ability to synthesize functional nitrogenase-1 (Nif phenotype), nitrogenase-2 (Vnf), or nitrogenase-3 (Anf). While nifA mutants were Nif-, Vnf+, and Anf+/-, and ntrC mutants were Nif+, Vnf+, and Anf+, nifA ntrC double mutants were Nif-, Vnf-, and Anf-. A vnfA mutant was Nif+, Vnf+/-, and Anf+/-, and an anfA strain was Nif+, Vnf+, and Anf-. lacZ fusions in the nifH, vnfH, vnfD, anfH, and nifM genes of Azotobacter vinelandii were constructed and introduced into wild-type and regulatory mutants of A. vinelandii. Expression of these operons correlated with the growth phenotype of the regulatory mutants. Apparently either NifA or NtrC can activate expression of nifM. Also, expression of the anf operon required the NifA transcriptional activator, although there are no NifA binding sites at appropriate locations upstream of anfH (or anfA). The results confirm previous reports that VnfA and AnfA are required for expression of vnf and anf genes, respectively, and that VnfA is involved in repression of the nifHDK operon in the absence of molybdenum and of the anfHDGK operon in the presence of vanadium. PMID:7872838

  6. Bortezomib and ixazomib protect firefly luciferase from degradation and can flaw respective reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonas Philipp; Clemens, Jannick Robert; Theile, Dirk; Weiss, Johanna

    2016-09-15

    Firefly luciferase-based reporter gene assays are the most commonly used assays to investigate the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, direct interaction of tested compounds with the firefly luciferase leading to altered enzymatic activity may lead to misinterpretation of experimental data. When investigating the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, we observed increased luminescence for bortezomib and ixazomib, but not for carfilzomib, in a pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) reporter gene assay, which was inconsistent with the mRNA expression levels of the main PXR target gene CYP3A4. To further scrutinize this phenomenon, we performed experiments with constitutively expressed firefly luciferase and demonstrated that the increase in cellular firefly luciferase activity is independent from PXR activation or CYP3A4 promoter. Using cell-free assays with recombinant firefly luciferase enzyme, we made the counterintuitive observation that firefly luciferase activity is inhibited by bortezomib and ixazomib in a reversible and competitive manner. This inhibition stabilizes the firefly luciferase enzyme against proteolytic degradation (e.g., toward trypsin), thereby increasing its half-life with subsequent enhancement of total cellular luminescence that eventually mimicked PXR-driven luciferase induction. These data show that particular compounds can strikingly interfere with firefly luciferase and once more illustrate the importance of careful interpretation of data obtained from luciferase-based assays. PMID:27325500

  7. Screening two mutations in the dysferlin gene by exon capture and sequence analysis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XUEYAN; YANG, YUN; ZHOU, RONG

    2016-01-01

    A patient with progressive muscular atrophy was assessed for the disease-associated genes by next-generation sequencing technology and exon trap and sequence analysis. The results of the investigation identified 399 genes, covering all exons in addition to 10 bp on either side, which are specific to 659 types of neuromuscular disorders, including hypotypes. Exon capture and sequence analysis revealed that the patient possessed two splice site mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene, c.144+1G>A and c.342+1G>T, and the presence of the mutations was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The patient's mother and sister were also assessed and confirmed to have mutations within the DYSF gene, the mother with c.342+1G>T and the sister with c.144+1G>A. The two splice site mutations in the DYSF gene, c.144+1G>A and c.342+1G>T, have not previously been reported. Therefore, exon capture and sequence analysis is able to rapidly and efficiently screen for genetic alterations in neuromuscular disorders.

  8. Evaluation of a GFP Report Gene Construct for Environmental Arsenic Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, F.F.; Barnes, J.M.; Bruhn, D.F.

    2002-03-28

    Detection of arsenic and other heavy metal contaminants in the environment is critical to ensuring safe drinking water and effective cleanup of historic activities that have led to widespread contamination of soil and groundwater. Biosensors have the potential to significantly reduce the costs associated with site characterization and long term environmental monitoring. By exploiting the highly selective and sensitive natural mechanisms by which bacteria and other living organisms respond to heavy metals, and fusing transcriptionally active components of these mechanisms to reporter genes, such as B-galactosidase, bacterial luciferase (lux), or green fluorescent protein (GFP) from marine jellyfish, it is possible to produce inexpensive, yet effective biosensors. This article describes the response to submicrogram quantities of arsenite and arsenate of a whole cell arsenic biosensor utilizing a GFP reporter gene.

  9. Detection of coliform bacteria in water by polymerase chain reaction and gene probes.

    PubMed Central

    Bej, A K; Steffan, R J; DiCesare, J; Haff, L; Atlas, R M

    1990-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and gene probe detection of regions of two genes, lacZ and lamB, were tested for their abilities to detect coliform bacteria. Amplification of a segment of the coding region of Escherichia coli lacZ by using a PCR primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C detected E. coli and other coliform bacteria (including Shigella spp.) but not Salmonella spp. and noncoliform bacteria. Amplification of a region of E. coli lamB by using a primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C selectively detected E. coli and Salmonella and Shigella spp. PCR amplification and radiolabeled gene probes detected as little as 1 to 10 fg of genomic E. coli DNA and as a few as 1 to 5 viable E. coli cells in 100 ml of water. PCR amplification of lacZ and lamB provides a basis for a method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of water, and amplification of lamB in particular permits detection of E. coli and enteric pathogens (Salmonella and Shigella spp.) with the necessary specificity and sensitivity for monitoring the bacteriological quality of water so as to ensure the safety of water supplies. Images PMID:2306085

  10. Perrault syndrome: report of four new cases, review and exclusion of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Sandrine; Lacombe, Didier; Jonard, Laurence; Leboulanger, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Goizet, Cyril; de Villemeur, Thierry Billette; Cabrol, Sylvie; Houang, Muriel; Moatti, Lucien; Feldmann, Delphine; Denoyelle, Françoise

    2008-03-01

    We report on two sporadic and two familial new cases with sensorineural hearing impairment and ovarian dysgenesis which are the cardinal signs of Perrault syndrome in females. Only one of them has a nervous system defect. We reviewed all the published cases of Perrault syndrome in order to define the clinical variability and to evaluate the frequency of the neurological anomalies in this clinical entity. Moreover we excluded GJB2, POLG, and FOXL2 as candidate genes in Perrault syndrome. PMID:18241061

  11. Herpes simplex virus vectors overexpressing the glucose transporter gene protect against seizure-induced neuron loss.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, M S; Ho, D Y; Dash, R; Sapolsky, R M

    1995-01-01

    We have generated herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors vIE1GT and v alpha 4GT bearing the GLUT-1 isoform of the rat brain glucose transporter (GT) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus ie1 and HSV alpha 4 promoters, respectively. We previously reported that such vectors enhance glucose uptake in hippocampal cultures and the hippocampus. In this study we demonstrate that such vectors can maintain neuronal metabolism and reduce the extent of neuron loss in cultures after a period of hypoglycemia. Microinfusion of GT vectors into the rat hippocampus also reduces kainic acid-induced seizure damage in the CA3 cell field. Furthermore, delivery of the vector even after onset of the seizure is protective, suggesting that HSV-mediated gene transfer for neuroprotection need not be carried out in anticipation of neurologic crises. Using the bicistronic vector v alpha 22 beta gal alpha 4GT, which coexpresses both GT and the Escherichia coli lacZ marker gene, we further demonstrate an inverse correlation between the extent of vector expression in the dentate and the amount of CA3 damage resulting from the simultaneous delivery of kainic acid. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7638175

  12. Final Report [Function of the Arabidopsis TIR1 gene in auxin response

    SciTech Connect

    Estelle, Mark

    2000-12-18

    During this grant period substantial progress was made in the characterization of the TIR1 gene in Arabidopsis. Studies showed that the TIR1 protein is part of a protein complex that includes AtCUL1, ASK1 and RBX1. This complex, called SCF-TIR1, functions in the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway. Our work is the first report of an SCF complex in a plant system. The results of our studies are described in more detail in the report together with a publication resulting from this study.

  13. Phytoalexin detoxification genes and gene products: Implication for the evolution of host specific traits for pathogenicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    VanEtten, H.

    1997-06-01

    The overall objectives of this research were to determine which differences among PDA genes were associated with different levels of virulence on pea and to clone and characterize a MAK gene. The authors also proposed to characterize the pisatin detoxifying system in pea pathogens in addition to N. haematococca to assess whether pathogens of a common host had evolved similar pathogenicity genes.

  14. Rational design of a triple reporter gene for multimodality molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Hwu, Luen; Ke, Chien-Chih; Yeh, Skye Hsin-Hsien; Lin, Chien-Feng; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lin, Kang-Ping; Chen, Ran-Chou; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging using noncytotoxic triple fusion (TF) reporter genes is an important application for cell-based tracking, drug screening, and therapy. The firefly luciferase (fl), monomeric red fluorescence protein (mrfp), and truncated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase SR39 mutant (ttksr39) were fused together to create TF reporter gene constructs with different order. The enzymatic activities of TF protein in vitro and in vivo were determined by luciferase reporter assay, H-FEAU cellular uptake experiment, bioluminescence imaging, and micropositron emission tomography (microPET). The TF construct expressed in H1299 cells possesses luciferase activity and red fluorescence. The tTKSR39 activity is preserved in TF protein and mediates high levels of H-FEAU accumulation and significant cell death from ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug activation. In living animals, the luciferase and tTKSR39 activities of TF protein have also been successfully validated by multimodality imaging systems. The red fluorescence signal is relatively weak for in vivo imaging but may expedite FACS-based selection of TF reporter expressing cells. We have developed an optimized triple fusion reporter construct DsRedm-fl-ttksr39 for more effective and sensitive in vivo animal imaging using fluorescence, bioluminescence, and PET imaging modalities, which may facilitate different fields of biomedical research and applications. PMID:24809057

  15. Transcription of the pcbAB, pcbC and penDE genes of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 is repressed by glucose and the repression is not reversed by alkaline pHs.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, S; Marcos, A T; Casqueiro, J; Kosalková, K; Fernández, F J; Velasco, J; Martín, J F

    1999-02-01

    Glucose repressed transcription of the penicillin biosynthesis genes pcbAB, pcbC and penDE when added at inoculation time to cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 but it had little repressive effect when added at 12 h and no effect when added at 24 or 36 h. A slight increase in the expression of pcbC and penDE (and to a smaller extent of pcbAB) was observed in glucose-grown cultures at pH 6.8, 7.4 and 8.0 as compared with pH 6.2, but alkaline pHs did not override the strong repression exerted by glucose. Transcription of the actin gene used as control was not significantly affected by glucose or alkaline pHs. Repression by glucose of the three penicillin biosynthetic genes was also observed using the lacZ reporter gene coupled to each of the three promoters in monocopy transformants with the constructions integrated at the pyrG locus. Glucose repression of the three genes encoding enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis therefore appears to be exerted by a regulatory mechanism independent from pH regulation. PMID:10075414

  16. Influence of transcriptional and translational control sequences on the expression of foreign genes in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Yap, W H; Thanabalu, T; Porter, A G

    1994-01-01

    The influence of expression control sequences (ECSs; promoters and ribosome-binding sites [RBSs]), transcriptional terminators, and gene orientation on the expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene in the gram-negative microorganisms Caulobacter crescentus and E. coli was investigated. A series of broad-host-range expression vectors, based on the RK2 plasmid derivative pRK248, were constructed. The ECSs included the tac promoter, the promoter for the surface layer protein of C. crescentus, and promoters from a number of gram-positive bacteria together with their associated RBSs. In addition, synthetic ECSs were constructed by using different combinations of promoters and RBSs. lacZ expression was found to be dependent on the nature of the promoter and RBS and, to a lesser extent, on the presence of a transcriptional terminator and the orientation of the promoter-lacZ construct in pRK248. The relative efficiencies of the various ECSs in driving lacZ expression differed markedly in C. crescentus and E. coli. In C. crescentus, the ECS ptac1 (tac promoter and consensus RBS for C. crescentus mRNAs) appeared to be the most efficient, producing 12-fold-higher activity than did pSL (promoter for the surface layer protein of C. crescentus and its putative RBS). pSL was not transcribed in E. coli, whereas various promoters from gram-positive microorganisms were transcribed in both C. crescentus and E. coli. A number of ECSs were also used to drive mosquitocidal toxin gene expression in C. crescentus, and a correlation between toxin expression and lacZ expression was observed. PMID:8169208

  17. Luciferase NanoLuc as a reporter for gene expression and protein levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Masser, Anna E; Kandasamy, Ganapathi; Kaimal, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan; Andréasson, Claes

    2016-05-01

    Reporter proteins are essential tools in the study of biological processes and are employed to monitor changes in gene expression and protein levels. Luciferases are reporter proteins that enable rapid and highly sensitive detection with an outstanding dynamic range. Here we evaluated the usefulness of the 19 kDa luciferase NanoLuc (Nluc), derived from the deep sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris, as a reporter protein in yeast. Cassettes with codon-optimized genes expressing yeast Nluc (yNluc) or its destabilized derivative yNlucPEST have been assembled in the context of the dominant drug resistance marker kanMX. The reporter proteins do not impair the growth of yeast cells and exhibit half-lives of 40 and 5 min, respectively. The commercial substrate Nano-Glo® is compatible with detection of yNluc bioluminescence in < 50 cells. Using the unstable yNlucPEST to report on the rapid and transient expression of a heat-shock promoter (PCYC1-HSE ), we found a close match between the intensity of the bioluminescent signal and mRNA levels during both induction and decay. We demonstrated that the bioluminescence of yNluc fused to the C-terminus of a temperature-sensitive protein reports on its protein levels. In conclusion, yNluc and yNlucPEST are valuable new reporter proteins suitable for experiments with yeast using standard commercial substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26860732

  18. Comparative Analysis of T Cell Imaging with Human Nuclear Reporter Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Maxim A.; Zhang, Hanwen; Lee, Jason; Moroz, Ekaterina; Zurita, Juan; Shenker, Larissa; Serganova, Inna; Blasberg, Ronald; Ponomarev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring genetically altered T cells is an important component of adoptive T cell therapy in patients, and the ability to visualize their trafficking/targeting, proliferation/expansion, and retention/death using highly sensitive reporter systems that do not induce an immunologic response would provide useful information. Therefore, we focused on human reporter gene systems that have the potential for translation to clinical studies. The objective of the in vivo imaging studies was to determine the minimum number of T cells that could be visualized with the different nuclear reporter systems. We determined the imaging sensitivity (lower limit of T cell detection) of each reporter using appropriate radiolabeled probes for PET or SPECT imaging. Methods Human T cells were transduced with retroviral vectors encoding for the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), human sodiumiodide symporter (hNIS), a human deoxycytidine kinase double mutant (hdCKDM), and herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (hsvTK) reporter genes. After viability and growth were assessed, 105 to 3 × 106 reporter T cells were injected subcutaneously on the shoulder area. The corresponding radiolabeled probe was injected intravenously 30 min later, followed by sequential PET or SPECT imaging. Radioactivity at the T cell injection sites and in the thigh (back-ground) was measured. Results The viability and growth of experimental cells were unaffected by transduction. The hNET/meta-18F-fluorobenzylguanidine (18F-MFBG) reporter system could detect less than 1 × 105 T cells because of its high uptake in the transduced T cells and low background activity. The hNIS/124I-iodide reporter system could detect approximately 1 × 106 T cells; 124I-iodide uptake at the T cell injection site was time-dependent and associated with high background. The hdCKDM/2′-18F-fluoro-5-ethyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (18F-FEAU) and hsvTK/18F-FEAU reporter systems detected approximately 3 × 105 T cells

  19. Validation of Mitochondrial Gene Delivery in Liver and Skeletal Muscle via Hydrodynamic Injection Using an Artificial Mitochondrial Reporter DNA Vector.

    PubMed

    Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Ishikawa, Takuya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-12-01

    For successful mitochondrial transgene expression, two independent processes, i.e., developing a mitochondrial gene delivery system and construction of DNA vector to achieve mitochondrial gene expression, are required. To date, very few studies dealing with mitochondrial gene delivery have been reported and, in most cases, transgene expression was not validated, because the construction of a reporter DNA vector for mitochondrial gene expression is the bottleneck. In this study, mitochondrial transgene expression by the in vivo mitochondrial gene delivery of an artificial mitochondrial reporter DNA vector via hydrodynamic injection is demonstrated. In the procedure, a large volume of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) is rapidly injected. We designed and constructed pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) as a mitochondrial reporter DNA vector that possesses a mitochondrial heavy strand promoter (HSP) and an artificial mitochondrial genome with the reporter NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system. We delivered the pDNA into mouse liver mitochondria by hydrodynamic injection, and detected exogenous mRNA in the liver using reverse transcription PCR analysis. The hydrodynamic injection of pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) resulted in the expression of the Nluc luciferase protein in liver and skeletal muscle. Our mitochondrial transgene expression reporter system would contribute to mitochondrial gene therapy and further studies directed at mitochondrial molecular biology. PMID:26567847

  20. A GFP-MAP4 reporter gene for visualizing cortical microtubule rearrangements in living epidermal cells

    PubMed

    Marc; Granger; Brincat; Fisher; Kao; McCubbin; Cyr

    1998-11-01

    Microtubules influence morphogenesis by forming distinct geometrical arrays in the cell cortex, which in turn affect the deposition of cellulose microfibrils. Although many chemical and physical factors affect microtubule orientation, it is unclear how cortical microtubules in elongating cells maintain their ordered transverse arrays and how they reorganize into new geometries. To visualize these reorientations in living cells, we constructed a microtubule reporter gene by fusing the microtubule binding domain of the mammalian microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) gene with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and transient expression of the recombinant protein in epidermal cells of fava bean was induced. The reporter protein decorates microtubules in vivo and binds to microtubules in vitro. Confocal microscopy and time-course analysis of labeled cortical arrays along the outer epidermal wall revealed the lengthening, shortening, and movement of microtubules; localized microtubule reorientations; and global microtubule reorganizations. The global microtubule orientation in some cells fluctuates about the transverse axis and may be a result of a cyclic self-correcting mechanism to maintain a net transverse orientation during cellular elongation. PMID:9811799

  1. beta-Glucosidase as a reporter for the gene expression studies in Thermus thermophilus and constitutive expression of DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Toshihiro; Tokishita, Shin-Ichi; Imazuka, Reiko; Mori, Ichiro; Okamura, Jin; Yamagata, Hideo

    2006-07-01

    Thermus thermophilus is an extremely thermophilic eubacterium that grows optimally at 70-75 degrees C. Because the frequency of DNA damage, such as deamination, depurination and single-strand breaks, increases as the temperature rises, the regulation of expression as well as the specificities and activities of T.thermophilus DNA repair systems are of particular interest. To study those systems, we developed a gene expression vector using the T.thermophilus beta-glucosidase gene (bgl) with host strain JOS9 (Deltabgl) derived from the T.thermophilus wild-type strain HB27. Since HB27 has two putative beta-galactosidase genes, the use of a single bgl gene as a reporter in combination with a Deltabgl host strain permits the study of gene expression against a low background level. We assayed Bgl activity with 2-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside as the substrate at 80 degrees C. We measured the expression of seven genes involved in DNA repair--three nucleotide excision repair genes (uvrA, uvrB and uvrC) and four recombinational repair genes (recA, ruvA, ruvB and ruvC). Expression levels of uvrA and uvrB were about three times those of uvrC, while those of ruvA, ruvB and ruvC were almost equal. Both ruvA and ruvC formed an operon with their adjacent 5'-upstream gene paaG and ftsQAZ, respectively. recA was transcribed as an operon of four genes, amt-cinA-ligT-recA. All seven DNA repair genes were expressed constitutively, and the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C did not increase their expression. PMID:16777922

  2. Cornelia de Lange Syndrome with NIPBL Gene Mutation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Seung-Tae; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2010-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multiple congenital anomaly characterized by distinctive facial features, upper limb malformations, growth and cognitive retardation. The diagnosis of the syndrome is based on the distinctive clinical features. The etiology is still not clear. Mutations in the sister chromatid cohesion factor genes NIPBL, SMC1A (also called SMC1L1) and SMC3 have been suggested as probable cause of this syndrome. We experienced a case of newborn with CdLS showing bushy eyebrows and synophrys, long curly eyelashes, long philtrum, downturned angles of the mouth and thin upper lips, cleft palate, micrognathia, excessive body hair, micromelia of both hands, flexion contracture of elbows and hypertonicity. We detected a NIPBL gene mutation in a present neonate with CdLS, the first report in Korea. PMID:21165303

  3. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in preimplantation mouse embryos using green fluorescent protein reporter.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Serguei Yuri; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki; Schultz, Richard M; Furukawa, Tsutomu; Nagai, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Manabu; Hosoe, Misa; Yakovlev, Alexander F; Takahashi, Seiya; Izaike, Yoshiaki

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a method to monitor noninvasively, quantitatively, and in real-time transcription in living preimplantation mouse embryos by measuring expression of a short half-life form of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) following microinjection of a plasmid-borne EGFP reporter gene. A standard curve was established by injecting known amounts of recombinant green fluorescent protein, and transcriptional activity was then determined by interpolating the amount of fluorescence in the DNA-injected embryos. This approach permitted multiple measurements in single embryos with no significant detrimental effect on embryonic development as long as light exposure was brief (<30 sec) and no more than two measurements were made each day. This method should facilitate analysis of the regulation of gene expression in preimplantation embryos; in particular, during the maternal-to-zygotic transition, and in other species in which limited numbers of embryos are available. PMID:12080029

  4. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5` UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

  5. In vivo Tracking of Dendritic Cell using MRI Reporter Gene, Ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoe Suk; Woo, Jisu; Lee, Jae Hoon; Joo, Hyun Jung; Choi, YoonSeok; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Seung Ja

    2015-01-01

    The noninvasive imaging of dendritic cells (DCs) migrated into lymph nodes (LNs) can provide helpful information on designing DCs-based immunotherapeutic strategies. This study is to investigate the influence of transduction of human ferritin heavy chain (FTH) and green fluorescence protein (GFP) genes on inherent properties of DCs, and the feasibility of FTH as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporter gene to track DCs migration into LNs. FTH-DCs were established by the introduction of FTH and GFP genes into the DC cell line (DC2.4) using lentivirus. The changes in the rate of MRI signal decay (R2*) resulting from FTH transduction were analyzed in cell phantoms as well as popliteal LN of mice after subcutaneous injection of those cells into hind limb foot pad by using a multiple gradient echo sequence on a 9.4 T MR scanner. The transduction of FTH and GFP did not influence the proliferation and migration abilities of DCs. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) in FTH-DCs was similar to that of DCs. FTH-DCs exhibited increased iron storage capacity, and displayed a significantly higher transverse relaxation rate (R2*) as compared to DCs in phantom. LNs with FTH-DCs exhibited negative contrast, leading to a high R2* in both in vivo and ex vivo T2*-weighted images compared to DCs. On histological analysis FTH-DCs migrated to the subcapsular sinus and the T cell zone of LN, where they highly expressed CD25 to bind and stimulate T cells. Our study addresses the feasibility of FTH as an MRI reporter gene to track DCs migration into LNs without alteration of their inherent properties. This study suggests that FTH-based MRI could be a useful technique to longitudinally monitor DCs and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of DC-based vaccines. PMID:25993535

  6. In vivo Tracking of Dendritic Cell using MRI Reporter Gene, Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoe Suk; Woo, Jisu; Lee, Jae Hoon; Joo, Hyun Jung; Choi, YoonSeok; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Seung Ja

    2015-01-01

    The noninvasive imaging of dendritic cells (DCs) migrated into lymph nodes (LNs) can provide helpful information on designing DCs-based immunotherapeutic strategies. This study is to investigate the influence of transduction of human ferritin heavy chain (FTH) and green fluorescence protein (GFP) genes on inherent properties of DCs, and the feasibility of FTH as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporter gene to track DCs migration into LNs. FTH-DCs were established by the introduction of FTH and GFP genes into the DC cell line (DC2.4) using lentivirus. The changes in the rate of MRI signal decay (R2*) resulting from FTH transduction were analyzed in cell phantoms as well as popliteal LN of mice after subcutaneous injection of those cells into hind limb foot pad by using a multiple gradient echo sequence on a 9.4 T MR scanner. The transduction of FTH and GFP did not influence the proliferation and migration abilities of DCs. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) in FTH-DCs was similar to that of DCs. FTH-DCs exhibited increased iron storage capacity, and displayed a significantly higher transverse relaxation rate (R2*) as compared to DCs in phantom. LNs with FTH-DCs exhibited negative contrast, leading to a high R2* in both in vivo and ex vivo T2*-weighted images compared to DCs. On histological analysis FTH-DCs migrated to the subcapsular sinus and the T cell zone of LN, where they highly expressed CD25 to bind and stimulate T cells. Our study addresses the feasibility of FTH as an MRI reporter gene to track DCs migration into LNs without alteration of their inherent properties. This study suggests that FTH-based MRI could be a useful technique to longitudinally monitor DCs and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of DC-based vaccines. PMID:25993535

  7. Gene Deletion by Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Konrad E.; Wolf, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although progress in Chlamydia genetics has been rapid, genomic modification has previously been limited to point mutations and group II intron insertions which truncate protein products. The bacterium has thus far been intractable to gene deletion or more-complex genomic integrations such as allelic exchange. Herein, we present a novel suicide vector dependent on inducible expression of a chlamydial gene that renders Chlamydia trachomatis fully genetically tractable and permits rapid reverse genetics by fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM). We describe the first available system of targeting chlamydial genes for deletion or allelic exchange as well as curing plasmids from C. trachomatis serovar L2. Furthermore, this approach permits the monitoring of mutagenesis by fluorescence microscopy without disturbing bacterial growth, a significant asset when manipulating obligate intracellular organisms. As proof of principle, trpA was successfully deleted and replaced with a sequence encoding both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-lactamase. The trpA-deficient strain was unable to grow in indole-containing medium, and this phenotype was reversed by complementation with trpA expressed in trans. To assess reproducibility at alternate sites, FRAEM was repeated for genes encoding type III secretion effectors CTL0063, CTL0064, and CTL0065. In all four cases, stable mutants were recovered one passage after the observation of transformants, and allelic exchange was limited to the specific target gene, as confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Deleted sequences were not detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) from isogenic mutant populations. We demonstrate that utilization of the chlamydial suicide vector with FRAEM renders C. trachomatis highly amenable to versatile and efficient genetic manipulation. PMID:26787828

  8. Gene-Environment Interactions in Cancer Epidemiology: A National Cancer Institute Think Tank Report

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Carolyn M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillander, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF]>0.05) and less common (0.01genes and environment, including gene-environment interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a “Gene-Environment Think Tank” on January 10th–011th, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on: 1) the state of the science; 2) the goals of gene-environment interaction studies in cancer epidemiology; and 3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of gene-environment interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24123198

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of an Erwinia sp. gene encoding diphenyl ether cleavage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, H J; Srinivasan, V R

    1989-01-01

    A 2.1-kilobase fragment obtained by restriction enzyme HindIII digestion of Erwinia sp. genomic DNA was cloned into plasmid pUC19 and introduced into Escherichia coli by transformation. The transformants with diphenyl ether cleaving activity (Dpe+) were selected on agar plates with a specially designed medium (LTFN) containing 4-nitrodiphenyl ether. The positive clones showed a clear zone around the colonies. Analysis of mutants obtained by transposon mini-Mu dI(lacZ Kmr) mutagenesis indicated the coding region of the gene (dpe) and the utilization of a lacZ promoter of pUC19 for transcription of dpe. Clones with dpe in the opposite orientation in pUC19 were not expressed, confirming the need for a lacZ promoter. Utilization of a lacZ promoter in pUC19 was further confirmed by the observation that the degradation of 4-nitrodiphenyl ether was enhanced in the presence of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside. Expression of dpe was also found in pDPE7321, generated from cloning this gene into another plasmid, pSP73. Analysis of the plasmid-encoded proteins by the maxicell technique showed a polypeptide of 21,000 molecular weight as the product of dpe. Images PMID:2679381

  10. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-15

    This report details the progress of the three tasks of this project. The tasks are: (1) develop genetic models and analytical methods; (2) molecular confirmation of major gene segregation; and (3) develop strategies for marker-assisted breeding.

  11. Characterization of two trpE genes encoding anthranilate synthase {alpha}-subunit in Azospirillum brasilense

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Shimei; Xie Baoen; Chen Sanfeng . E-mail: chensf@cau.edu.cn

    2006-03-10

    The previous report from our laboratory has recently identified a new trpE gene (termed trpE {sub 2}) which exists independently in Azospirillum brasilense Yu62. In this study, amplification of trpE(G) (termed trpE {sub 1}(G) here) confirmed that there are two copies of trpE gene, one trpE being fused into trpG while the other trpE existed independently. This is First report to suggest that two copies of the trpE gene exist in this bacterium. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence demonstrated that putative leader peptide, terminator, and anti-terminator were found upstream of trpE {sub 1}(G) while these sequence features did not exist in front of trpE {sub 2}. The {beta}-galactosidase activity of an A. brasilense strain carrying a trpE {sub 2}-lacZ fusion remained constant at different tryptophan concentrations, but the {beta}-galactosidase activity of the same strain carrying a trpE {sub 1}(G)-lacZ fusion decreased as the tryptophan concentration increased. These data suggest that the expression of trpE {sub 1}(G) is regulated at the transcriptional level by attenuation while trpE {sub 2} is constantly expressed. The anthranilate synthase assays with trpE {sub 1}(G){sup -} and trpE {sub 2} {sup -} mutants demonstrated that TrpE{sub 1}(G) fusion protein is feedback inhibited by tryptophan while TrpE{sub 2} protein is not. We also found that both trpE {sub 1}(G) and trpE {sub 2} gene products were involved in IAA synthesis.

  12. The Intracellular DNA Sensor IFI16 Gene Acts as Restriction Factor for Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gariano, Grazia Rosaria; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Bronzini, Matteo; Gatti, Deborah; Luganini, Anna; De Andrea, Marco; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gariglio, Marisa; Landolfo, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Human interferon (IFN)-inducible IFI16 protein, an innate immune sensor of intracellular DNA, modulates various cell functions, however, its role in regulating virus growth remains unresolved. Here, we adopt two approaches to investigate whether IFI16 exerts pro- and/or anti-viral actions. First, the IFI16 gene was silenced using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA) in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELF) and replication of DNA and RNA viruses evaluated. IFI16-knockdown resulted in enhanced replication of Herpesviruses, in particular, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Consistent with this, HELF transduction with a dominant negative form of IFI16 lacking the PYRIN domain (PYD) enhanced the replication of HCMV. Second, HCMV replication was compared between HELFs overexpressing either the IFI16 gene or the LacZ gene. IFI16 overexpression decreased both virus yield and viral DNA copy number. Early and late, but not immediate-early, mRNAs and proteins were strongly down-regulated, thus IFI16 may exert its antiviral effect by impairing viral DNA synthesis. Constructs with the luciferase reporter gene driven by deleted or site-specific mutated forms of the HCMV DNA polymerase (UL54) promoter demonstrated that the inverted repeat element 1 (IR-1), located between −54 and −43 relative to the transcription start site, is the target of IFI16 suppression. Indeed, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that suppression of the UL54 promoter is mediated by IFI16-induced blocking of Sp1-like factors. Consistent with these results, deletion of the putative Sp1 responsive element from the HCMV UL44 promoter also relieved IFI16 suppression. Together, these data implicate IFI16 as a novel restriction factor against HCMV replication and provide new insight into the physiological functions of the IFN-inducible gene IFI16 as a viral restriction factor. PMID:22291595

  13. Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

  14. Cambial-Region-Specific Expression of the Agrobacterium iaa Genes in Transgenic Aspen Visualized by a Linked uidA Reporter Gene1

    PubMed Central

    Tuominen, Hannele; Puech, Laurence; Regan, Sharon; Fink, Siegfried; Olsson, Olof; Sundberg, Björn

    2000-01-01

    The level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was locally modified in cambial tissues of transgenic aspen (Populus tremula L. × Populus tremuloides Michx.). We also demonstrate the use of a linked reporter gene to visualize the expression of the iaa genes. The rate-limiting bacterial IAA-biosynthetic gene iaaM and the reporter gene for β-glucuronidase (GUS), uidA, were each fused to the cambial-region-specific Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC promoter and linked on the same T-DNA. In situ hybridization of the iaaM gene confirmed that histochemical analysis of GUS activity could be used to predict iaaM gene expression. Moreover, quantitative fluorometric analysis of GUS activity allowed estimation of the level of de novo production of IAA in transgenic lines carrying a single-copy insert of the iaaM, uidA T-DNA. Microscale analysis of the IAA concentration across the cambial region tissues showed an increase in IAA concentration of about 35% to 40% in the two transgenic lines, but no changes in the radial distribution pattern of IAA compared with wild-type plants. This increase did not result in any changes in the developmental pattern of cambial derivatives or the cambial growth rate, which emphasizes the importance of the radial distribution pattern of IAA in controlling the development of secondary xylem, and suggests that a moderate increase in IAA concentration does not necessarily stimulate growth. PMID:10859183

  15. Detection of transformed cells in crown gall tumors using the GUS reporter gene and correlation of GUS stained cells with T-DNA gene activity

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.C. ); Labriola, J.; Binns, A.N. )

    1990-05-01

    Crown gall tumors are a mixture of transformed hormone producing cells and normal cells. Until now it has not been possible to directly visualize these cell types in situ. We have constructed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that carry the 35S-{beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in either wild type or mutant Ti plasmids. Using histochemical staining for GUS activity, blue (GUS positive) sectors are observed in tumor sections. In order to demonstrate that the blue sectors actually represent cells expressing other T-DNA genes, we have looked for T-DNA gene encoded enzyme activity in the stained and unstained sectors. The blue sectors accumulate octopine (a product of the octopine synthase gene on the T-DNA) while the white (GUS negative) sectors do not. We conclude that the use of the GUS reporter gene provides a sensitive and reliable method for visualizing transformation events in plant tissues. A comparison of the proportion of transformed and nontransformed cells in wild type tumors vs. tumors deficient in auxin or cytokinin encoding genes will be discussed.

  16. [Radiation biology of structurally different Drosophila genes. Report V. The cinnabar gene: general and molecular characteristics of its radiomutability].

    PubMed

    Davkova, L N; Aleksandrov, I D; Aleksandrova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The results of the genetic, cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the recessive mutations at the small, lying close to the centromere, cinnabar (cn) gene of Drosophila melanogaster induced by γ-rays of 60Co (doses 5-60 Gy) or 0.85 MeV fission neutrons (doses 2.5-20 Gy) in the mature sperm of the wild-type males from the laboratory line D32 are presented. The whole spectrum of the cn mutations induced by different quality radiation is found to be the same and consists of the two main-distinct classes such as gene/point and gene/chromosome mutations either of which includes the array of the subclasses (gene/point simple or complex mutations and chromosome rearrangements detected as F1 cn mutants with dominant sterility of multilocus deletions involving the cn gene wholly). The induction rate of both mutation classes is found to be increased linearly with dose of low- and high-LET radiation and the RGE values of neutrons are 1.0 and 4.0 for the gene/point and gene/chromosome mutations respectively. According to the data of the molecular analysis, 28 out of 59 (47.5%) γ-ray- and neutron-induced gene/point cn mutations studied are found to have the intragenic DNA alterations detected by PCR technique as a loss of the single or two adjacent fragments-amplicons non-randomly located at the 5'- or 3'- end of the gene map. Essentially, 10 out of 48 (20.8%) γ-ray-and 3 out of 11 (27.3%) neutron-induced gene/point mutations are found to show the same molecular "phenotype" (the loss of the two adjacent fragments at the 3'- end of the gene map) as that in the cn1 allele-marker from the maternal tester-line KL with the females of which the irradiated males were crossed. Among the putative recombination-based genetic processes underlying the exchange between the cn1 and damaged cn(+32) alleles, the gene conversion in the "gonomeric" nucleus of the zygote seems to be the most likely such processing. The established features of the cn gene radiomutability are compared with those

  17. Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Janet

    2008-10-28

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes, originally isolated as a consequence of their upregulation in response to the mechanical stimulus of touch, are also upregulated by a variety of seemingly disparate environmental and hormonal stimuli. To gain insight into the complexities of TCH gene regulation, a number of approaches were taken. Regulatory elements responsible for regulation were identified and characteristics of the regulation were evaluated. Reporter genes were used to monitor expression localization and dynamics. Microarray analyses of genome-wide expression behavior indicated that touch-inducible gene expression is more widespread than generally appreciated. Identification of all touch-regulated genes shed light on the types of cellular processes that may be altered in response to mechanical stress perturbations. Expression of the TCH2 gene, also called CML24, encoding a calmodulin (CaM)-like (CML) protein, was evaluated. CML24 shares over 40% amino acid sequence identity with CaM, has 4 EF hands and undergoes a Ca2+-dependent change in migration rate through denaturing gel electrophoresis, indicating that CML24 binds Ca2+ and, as a consequence, undergoes conformational changes. CML24 expression occurs in all major organs and is induced from 2- to 15-fold in plants subjected to touch, darkness, heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide, abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress, in regions undergoing growth, in vascular tissues and various floral organs and in stomata, trichomes and hydathodes. CML24 underexpressing transgenics are resistant to ABA inhibition of germination and seedling growth, defective in long-day induction of flowering, and have enhanced tolerance to CoCl2, molybdic acid, ZnSO4 and MgCl2. These data present evidence that CML24 encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that may function to enable responses to ABA, day length and presence of various salts. Further

  18. [Radiation biology of structurally different Drosophila genes. Report III. The black gene: general and molecular characteristics of its radiomutability].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, I D; Namolovan, L N; Aleksandrova, M V

    2012-01-01

    The results of the genetic, cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the nature of heritable recessive mutations at the small black (b) gene of Drosophila melanogaster induced by different doses (5-10 Gy) of 60Co gamma-rays and 0.85 MeV fission neutrons in the mature sperms of the wild-type males from the laboratory line D32 are presented. The whole spectrum of the b mutations induced by radiation of different quality is found to be the same and consists of the two main classes such as gene/point and gene/chromosome mutations, the latter of which include the whole-genomic, infra- or inter-chromosomal rearrangements involving the b gene. The induction rate of both mutation classes is found to be increased linearly with a dose of low- and high-LET radiation and the effectiveness of neutrons is 2.7 and 4.6 as large as that of gamma-rays under the gene/point and gene/chromosome mutation induction, respectively. Essentially, the molecular alterations underlying 65 gamma-ray- and neutron-induced gene/point b mutations are found not to be detected by the PCR technique. These and other established features of the b gene radiomutability are drastically different from those of another larger vestigial gene described earlier. The nature of these differences is discussed within the framework of the current notion of different biological organization of the two genes mentioned above and of the track structure theory as well. PMID:23227709

  19. Involvement of Pax6 and Otx2 in the forebrain-specific regulation of the vertebrate homeobox gene ANF/Hesx1.

    PubMed

    Spieler, Derek; Bäumer, Nicole; Stebler, Jürg; Köprunner, Marion; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Teichmann, Ulrike; Raz, Erez; Kessel, Michael; Wittler, Lars

    2004-05-15

    During early vertebrate development, ANF homeobox genes are expressed in the prospective forebrain. Their regulation is essential for correct morphogenesis and function of the prosencephalon. We identified a 1-kb fragment upstream of the chicken GANF gene sufficient to drive lacZ expression in the endogenous expression domain. Concordant with the high conservation of this sequence in five investigated species, this element is also active in the corresponding expression domain of the zebrafish orthologue. In vivo analysis of two in vitro-identified Otx2 binding sites in this conserved sequence revealed their necessity for activation of the chicken ANF promoter. In addition, we identified a Pax6-binding site close to the transcriptional start site that is occupied in vivo by Pax6 protein. Pax6 and GANF exhibit mutually exclusive expression domains in the anterior embryonic region. Overexpression of Pax6 in chick embryos inhibited the endogenous GANF expression, and in Pax6(-/-) mice the expression domain of the murine ANF orthologue Hesx1 was expanded and sustained, indicating inhibitory effects of Pax6 on GANF. However, a mutation of the Pax6 site did not abolish reporter activity from an electroporated vector. We conclude that Otx2 and Pax6 are key molecules involved in conserved mechanisms of ANF gene regulation. PMID:15110720

  20. Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage

    PubMed Central

    Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W.; Burt, David W.; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A.; Sang, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. PMID:25063453

  1. Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage.

    PubMed

    Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W; Burt, David W; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A; Sang, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. PMID:25063453

  2. Melanin production by Rhizobium meliloti GR4 is linked to nonsymbiotic plasmid pRmeGR4b: cloning, sequencing, and expression of the tyrosinase gene mepA.

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Blanco, J; García, F; Fernández-López, M; Olivares, J

    1993-01-01

    Melanin production by Rhizobium meliloti GR4 is linked to nonsymbiotic plasmid pRmeGR4b (140 MDa). Transfer of this plasmid to GR4-cured derivatives or to Agrobacterium tumefaciens enables these bacteria to produce melanin. Sequence analysis of a 3.5-kb PstI fragment of plasmid pRmeGR4b has revealed the presence of a open reading frame 1,481-bp that codes for a protein whose sequence shows strong homology to two conserved regions involved in copper binding in tyrosinases and hemocyanins. In vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that this open reading frame codes for a 55-kDa polypeptide. Melanin production in GR4 is not under the control of the RpoN-NifA regulatory system, unlike that in R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 8002. The GR4 tyrosinase gene could be expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lacZ promoter. For avoiding confusion with mel genes (for melibiose), a change of the name of the previously reported mel genes of R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and other organisms to mep genes (for melanin production) is proposed. Images PMID:8366027

  3. A case report: Autosomal recessive microcephaly caused by a novel mutation in MCPH1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Fardaei, Majid; Gholami, Milad; Miryounesi, Mohammad

    2015-10-15

    Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly (MCPH-MIM 251200) is distinguished by congenital decrease in occipito-frontal head circumference (OFC) of at least 2 standard deviations (SD) below population average in addition to non-progressive mental retardation, without any prominent neurological disorder. Mutations in MCPH1, which encodes the protein microcephalin have been detected in this disorder. Here we report a consanguineous Iranian family with 2 children affected with microcephaly. Despite the severe mental retardation observed in the male patient, the female patient had normal intelligent with no delay in motor milestones or speech. A novel splice-acceptor site homozygous mutation has been detected in intron 4 of MCPH1 gene (c.322-2A>T) which results in an RNA processing defect with a 15-nucleotide deletion in exon 5 of the mRNA transcript (r.322_336del15, p.R108_Q112del5). This novel mutation has resulted in different phenotypes in affected male and female patients of this family. The sex-specific variations in gene regulation during brain development may partially explain such difference in phenotypes probably in addition to other mechanisms such as modifier genes. PMID:26192461

  4. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  5. Are all the previously reported genetic variants in limb girdle muscular dystrophy genes pathogenic?

    PubMed

    Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Garofalo, Arcomaria; Mutarelli, Margherita; Savarese, Marco; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of variants in autosomal genes associated with the limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) have been reported as being causative. However, in most cases the proof of pathogenicity derives from their non-occurrence in hundreds of healthy controls and/or from segregation studies in small families. The limited statistics of the genetic variations in the general population may hamper a correct interpretation of the effect of variants on the protein. To clarify the meaning of low-frequency variants in LGMD genes, we have selected all variants described as causative in the Leiden Open Variation Database and the Human Gene Mutation Database. We have systematically searched for their frequency in the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and in our internal database. Surprisingly, the ESP contains about 4% of the variants previously associated with a dominant inheritance and about 9% of those associated with a recessive inheritance. The putative disease alleles are much more frequent than those estimated considering the disease prevalence. In conclusion, we hypothesize that a number of disease-associated variants are non-pathogenic and that other variations are not fully penetrant, even if they affect the protein function, suggesting a more complex genetic mechanisms for such heterogeneous disorders. PMID:25898921

  6. Are all the previously reported genetic variants in limb girdle muscular dystrophy genes pathogenic?

    PubMed Central

    Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Garofalo, Arcomaria; Mutarelli, Margherita; Savarese, Marco; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of variants in autosomal genes associated to the limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) have been reported as being causative. However, in most cases the proof of pathogenicity derives from their non-occurrence in hundreds of healthy controls and/or from segregation studies in small families. The limited statistics of the genetic variations in the general population may hamper a correct interpretation of the effect of variants on the protein. To clarify the meaning of low-frequency variants in LGMD genes, we have selected all variants described as causative in the Leiden Open Variation Database and the Human Gene Mutation Database. We have systematically searched for their frequency in the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and in our internal database. Surprisingly, the ESP contains about 4% of the variants previously associated with a dominant inheritance and about 9% of those associated with a recessive inheritance. The putative disease alleles are much more frequent than those estimated considering the disease prevalence. In conclusion, we hypothesize that a number of disease-associated variants are nonpathogenic and that other variations are not fully penetrant, even if they affect the protein function, suggesting a more complex genetic mechanisms for such heterogeneous disorders. PMID:25898921

  7. A Novel Homozygous Mutation in the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 6 Gene: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Altıncık, Ayça; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Tosun, Mahya Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6) gene. Affected individuals present in early infancy with seizures caused by the severe hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. By presenting this case report, we also aimed to highlight the need for molecular genetic analysis in inbred or familial cases with hypomagnesemia. A Turkish inbred girl, now aged six years, had presented to another hospital at age two months with seizures diagnosed to be due to hypomagnesemia. She was on magnesium replacement therapy when she was admitted to our clinic with complaints of chronic diarrhea at age 3.6 years. During her follow-up in our clinic, she showed an age-appropriate physical and neurological development. In molecular genetic analysis, a novel homozygous frame-shift mutation (c.3447delT>p.F1149fs) was identified in the TRPM6 gene. This mutation leads to a truncation of the TRPM6 protein, thereby complete loss of function. We present the clinical follow-up findings of a pediatric HSH case due to a novel mutation in the TRPM6 gene and highlight the need for molecular genetic analysis in inbred or familial cases with hypomagnesemia. PMID:26759217

  8. Carbon source-dependent regulation of the acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase-encoding gene ACS1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, S; Schüller, H J

    1995-08-01

    The yeast ACS1 gene, encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), was cloned using colony hybridization and a facA probe from Aspergillus nidulans. The complete sequence of 1.5 kb of the ACS1 upstream region was determined. Northern hybridization revealed a strong depression of ACS1 transcripts in a strain grown on the nonfermentable carbon sources, acetate or ethanol. In contrast to a previous report, delta acs1 null mutants did not exhibit a growth defect on acetate medium. Indeed, enzyme assays showed the presence of an additional constitutively expressed ACS activity in delta acs1 mutants. The carbon source-dependent expression was further investigated by the use of an ACS1::lacZ fusion gene, showing complete repression on easily fermentable sugars such as glucose, maltose, sucrose or galactose. Binding sites for the yeast general regulatory factors, Abf1p and Reb1p, together with a sequence reminiscent of the recently identified carbon source-responsive element (CSRE), could be detected in the ACS1 upstream region, presumably mediating the observed regulatory phenotype of this ACS isoenzyme. PMID:7642141

  9. Molecular cloning, expression profiling and trans-activation property studies of a DREB2-like gene from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema vestitum).

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqing; Zhu, Kai; Yang, Yanfang; Wu, Jian; Chen, Fadi; Yu, Deyue

    2008-03-01

    Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are important transcription factors in plant stress response and signal transduction. In this study, a DREB homolog gene, DvDREB2A, was isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema vestitum) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,471 bp encoding 366 amino acid residues and was classified as a DREB2 subfamily member based on multiple sequence alignment. The predicted protein sequence contained a typical AP2/EREBP DNA-binding domain near the N-terminal region. In yeast one-hybrid analysis DvDREB2A protein was specifically bound to DRE elements (core sequence, A/GCCGAC) and activated the expression of the reporter HIS3 and LacZ. Transient expression experiment suggested that DvDREB2A protein was localized to the nucleus of onion epidermis cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) experiments showed that expression level of DvDREB2A was significantly affected by heat, low temperature, drought, abscisic acid (ABA) and high salinity treatments. These results indicated that the DvDREB2A gene is a new member of the DREB transcription factors, which may play an important role in providing tolerance to environmental stresses. PMID:18224275

  10. Dissection of tumour and host cells from target organs of metastasis for testing gene expression directly ex vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, M.; Hexel, K.; Bucur, M.; Schirrmacher, V.; Umansky, V.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a new methodology which allows the direct analysis ex vivo of tumour cells and host cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells) from a metastasised organ (liver or spleen) at any time point during the metastatic process and without any further in vitro culture. First, we used a tumour cell line transduced with the bacterial gene lacZ, which permits the detection of the procaryotic enzyme beta-galactosidase in eukaryotic cells at the single cell level thus allowing flow adhesion cell sorting (FACS) analysis of tumour cells from metastasised target organs. Second, we established a method for the separation and enrichment of tumour and host cells from target organs of metastasis with a high viability and reproducibility. As exemplified with the murine lymphoma ESb, this new methodology permits the study of molecules of importance for metastasis or anti-tumour immunity (adhesion, costimulatory and cytotoxic molecules, cytokines, etc.) at the RNA or protein level in tumour and host cells during the whole process of metastasis. This novel approach may open new possibilities of developing strategies for intervention in tumour progression, since it allows the determination of the optimal window in time for successful treatments. The possibility of direct analysis of tumour and host cell properties also provides a new method for the evaluation of the effects of immunisation with tumour vaccines or of gene therapy. Images Figure 3 PMID:8883407

  11. The Global Regulator CodY Regulates Toxin Gene Expression in Bacillus anthracis and Is Required for Full Virulence▿ †

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Willem; Château, Alice; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Fouet, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    In gram-positive bacteria, CodY is an important regulator of genes whose expression changes upon nutrient limitation and acts as a repressor of virulence gene expression in some pathogenic species. Here, we report the role of CodY in Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax. Disruption of codY completely abolished virulence in a toxinogenic, noncapsulated strain, indicating that the activity of CodY is required for full virulence of B. anthracis. Global transcriptome analysis of a codY mutant and the parental strain revealed extensive differences. These differences could reflect direct control for some genes, as suggested by the presence of CodY binding sequences in their promoter regions, or indirect effects via the CodY-dependent control of other regulatory proteins or metabolic rearrangements in the codY mutant strain. The differences included reduced expression of the anthrax toxin genes in the mutant strain, which was confirmed by lacZ reporter fusions and immunoblotting. The accumulation of the global virulence regulator AtxA protein was strongly reduced in the mutant strain. However, in agreement with the microarray data, expression of atxA, as measured using an atxA-lacZ transcriptional fusion and by assaying atxA mRNA, was not significantly affected in the codY mutant. An atxA-lacZ translational fusion was also unaffected. Overexpression of atxA restored toxin component synthesis in the codY mutant strain. These results suggest that CodY controls toxin gene expression by regulating AtxA accumulation posttranslationally. PMID:19651859

  12. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multi-level and interdisciplinary study. Progress report, February 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ts`o, P.O.P.

    1992-08-01

    This progress report describes gains made in three projects entitled (1) 3-Dimensional nuclear topography of genes and chromosomes in interphase nuclei, (2) Sequence specific identification and perturbation of the genomic DNA in living cells by nonionic oligonucleotide analogs (Matagen), and Resolution and isolation of specific DNA restriction fragments.(DT)

  13. LrhA as a new transcriptional key regulator of flagella, motility and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, D; Blumer, C; Polen, T; Wackwitz, B; Wendisch, V F; Unden, G

    2002-07-01

    The function of the LysR-type regulator LrhA of Escherichia coli was defined by comparing whole-genome mRNA profiles from wild-type E. coli and an isogenic lrhA mutant on a DNA microarray. In the lrhA mutant, a large number (48) of genes involved in flagellation, motility and chemotaxis showed relative mRNA abundances increased by factors between 3 and 80. When a representative set of five flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes was tested in lacZ reporter gene fusions, similar factors for derepression were found in the lrhA mutant. In gel retardation experiments, the LrhA protein bound specifically to flhD and lrhA promoter DNA (apparent K(D) approximately 20 nM), whereas the promoters of fliC, fliA and trg were not bound by LrhA. The expression of flhDC (encoding FlhD(2)C(2)) was derepressed by a factor of 3.5 in the lrhA mutant. FlhD(2)C(2) is known as the master regulator for the expression of flagellar and chemotaxis genes. By DNase I footprinting, LrhA binding sites at the flhDC and lrhA promoters were identified. The lrhA gene was under positive autoregulation by LrhA as shown by gel retardation and lrhA expression studies. It is suggested that LrhA is a key regulator controlling the transcription of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes by regulating the synthesis and concentration of FlhD(2)C(2). PMID:12123461

  14. [Radiation biology of structurally different Drosophila genes. Report 2. The vestigial gene: molecular characteristics of chromosome mutations].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, K P; Aleksandrova, M V; Aleksandrov, I D; Korablinova, S V

    2012-01-01

    The results of the PCR-assay of mutation lesions at each of 16 fragments overlapping the entire vestigial (vg) gene of Drosophila melanogaster in 52 gamma-ray-, neutron- and neutron + gamma-ray-induced vg mutants having the inversion or translocation breakpoint within the vg microregion are presented. 4 from 52 mutants studied were found to have large deletions of about 200 kb covering the entire vg gene and adjacent to sca and l(2)C gene-markers as well. 23 mutants from 48 (47.9%) were found to have a wild-type gene structure showing that the exchange breakpoints are located outside of the vg gene. 25 others display the intragenic lesions of different complexity detected by PCR as the absence of(i) either one fragment or (ii) two or more (6-7) adjacent fragments and (iii) simultaneously several (i) or (i) and (ii) types separated by normal gene regions. It is important that 6 from 25 mutants have the breakpoint inside the vg gene and display the (i) or (ii) type of lesions at the gene regions containing the putative break whereas 5 others from 25 with the above lesions have the exchange breakpoint outside the vg gene. Therefore, the breakpoints underlying either inversions or translocations induced by low- and high-LET radiation are likely to be located within and outside the gene under study. Thereby, the formation of exchanges is accompanied by DNA deletions of various sizes at the exchange breakpoints. The molecular model of formation of such exchange-deletion rearrangements is elaborated and presented. Also, conception of the predominately clustered action of both low- and high-LET radiation on the germ cell genome is suggested as the summing-up of the presented results. The ability of ionizing radiation to induce the clusters of genetic alterations in the form of hidden DNA damages as well as gene/chromosome mutations is determined by the track structure and hierarchical organization of the genome. To detect the quality and frequency patterns of all

  15. Testotoxicosis: Report of Two Cases, One with a Novel Mutation in LHCGR Gene

    PubMed Central

    Özcabı, Bahar; Tahmiscioğlu Bucak, Feride; Ceylaner, Serdar; Özcan, Rahşan; Büyükünal, Cenk; Ercan, Oya; Tüysüz, Beyhan; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay

    2015-01-01

    Testotoxicosis is a rare disorder which presents as isosexual peripheral precocious puberty in males. Despite the pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance, sporadic cases also may occur. Due to activating mutation in luteinizing hormone (LH))/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene, early virilization and advancement in bone age are common with increased serum testosterone levels above adult ranges, despite low LH and follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. There are different treatment regimens, such as combination of bicalutamide (antiandrogen agent) and a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, that are reported to be well-tolerated and successful in slowing bone age advancement and preventing progression of virilization. We report here two patients who presented with peripheral precocious puberty and an activating mutation in the LHCGR gene: one with a family history and previously determined mutation and the other without family history and with a novel mutation (c.830G>T). Combination of bicalutamide+anastrozole was ineffective in slowing pubertal progression and bone age. Short-term results were better with ketoconazole. PMID:26831561

  16. Development of tyrosinase-based reporter genes for preclinical photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, Julia; Ruschke, Karen; Dortay, Hakan; Schreiber, Isabelle; Sass, Andrea; Qazi, Taimoor; Pumberger, Matthias; Laufer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The capability to image stem cells in vivo in small animal models over extended periods of time is important to furthering our understanding of the processes involved in tissue regeneration. Photoacoustic imaging is suited to this application as it can provide high resolution (tens of microns) absorption-based images of superficial tissues (cm depths). However, stem cells are rare, highly migratory, and can divide into more specialised cells. Genetic labelling strategies are therefore advantageous for their visualisation. In this study, methods for the transfection and viral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells with reporter genes for the co-expression of tyrosinase and a fluorescent protein (mCherry). Initial photoacoustic imaging experiments of tyrosinase expressing cells in small animal models of tissue regeneration were also conducted. Lentiviral transduction methods were shown to result in stable expression of tyrosinase and mCherry in mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that photoacoustic imaging using reporter genes is suitable for the study of stem cell driven tissue regeneration in small animals.

  17. Mutations of SCN4A gene cause different diseases: 2 case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-li; Huang, Xiao-jun; Luan, Xing-hua; Zhou, Hai-yan; Wang, Tian; Wang, Jing-yi; Chen, Sheng-di; Tang, Hui-dong; Cao, Li

    2015-01-01

    SCN4A encodes the Nav1.4 channel and mutations in SCN4A lead to different ionic channelopathies. In this study, one sporadic individual of periodic paralysis, one paramyotonia family and 200 normal healthy controls are enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, followed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of candidate genes, including SCN4A and CACNA1S. As a result, heterozygous mutations c.2024G>A (R675Q) and c.1333G>A (V445M) of gene SCN4A were identified in the hypokalemic periodic paralysis patient and the paramyotonia congenita family respectively. Both mutations were not detected in healthy controls. Compared with reported cases, patients with mutation R675Q usually do not present hypokalemic periodic paralysis but hyperkalemic or normokalemic periodic paralysis. The mutation V445M was first reported in Chinese patients with nondystrophic myotonias. In addition, we carried out literature review by summarizing clinical features of the 2 mutations and establish the genotype–phenotype correlations to provide guidance for diagnosis. PMID:25839108

  18. Mutations of SCN4A gene cause different diseases: 2 case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-li; Huang, Xiao-jun; Luan, Xing-hua; Zhou, Hai-yan; Wang, Tian; Wang, Jing-yi; Chen, Sheng-di; Tang, Hui-dong; Cao, Li

    2015-01-01

    SCN4A encodes the Nav1.4 channel and mutations in SCN4A lead to different ionic channelopathies. In this study, one sporadic individual of periodic paralysis, one paramyotonia family and 200 normal healthy controls are enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, followed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of candidate genes, including SCN4A and CACNA1S. As a result, heterozygous mutations c.2024G>A (R675Q) and c.1333G>A (V445M) of gene SCN4A were identified in the hypokalemic periodic paralysis patient and the paramyotonia congenita family respectively. Both mutations were not detected in healthy controls. Compared with reported cases, patients with mutation R675Q usually do not present hypokalemic periodic paralysis but hyperkalemic or normokalemic periodic paralysis. The mutation V445M was first reported in Chinese patients with nondystrophic myotonias. In addition, we carried out literature review by summarizing clinical features of the 2 mutations and establish the genotype-phenotype correlations to provide guidance for diagnosis. PMID:25839108

  19. The use of the NIS reporter gene for optimizing oncolytic virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amber; Russell, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oncolytic viruses are experimental cancer therapies being translated to the clinic. They are unique in their ability to amplify within the body, therefore requiring careful monitoring of viral replication and biodistribution. Traditional monitoring strategies fail to recapitulate the dynamic nature of oncolytic virotherapy. Consequently, clinically relevant, noninvasive, high resolution strategies are needed to effectively track virotherapy in real time. Areas covered: The expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene is tightly coupled to viral genome replication and mediates radioisotope concentration, allowing noninvasive molecular nuclear imaging of active viral infection with high resolution. This provides insight into replication kinetics, biodistribution, the impact of vector design, administration, and dosing on therapeutic outcomes, and highlights the heterogeneity of spatial distribution and temporal evolution of infection. NIS-mediated imaging in clinical trials confirms the feasibility of this technology to noninvasively and longitudinally observe oncolytic virus infection, replication, and distribution. Expert opinion: NIS-mediated imaging provides detailed functional and molecular information on the evolution of oncolytic virus infection in living animals. The use of NIS reporter gene imaging has rapidly advanced to provide unparalleled insight into the spatial and temporal context of oncolytic infection which will be integral to optimization of oncolytic treatment strategies. PMID:26457362

  20. Transient transfection of polarized epithelial monolayers with CFTR and reporter genes using efficacious lipids.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Torry A; Varga, Karoly; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Zsembery, Akos; McCarty, Nael A; Collawn, James F; Schwiebert, Erik M; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2003-03-01

    Transient transfection of epithelial cells with lipid reagents has been limited because of toxicity and lack of efficacy. In this study, we show that more recently developed lipids transfect nonpolarized human airway epithelial cells with high efficacy and efficiency and little or no toxicity. Because of this success, we hypothesized that these lipids may also allow transient transfection of polarized epithelial monolayers. A panel of reagents was tested for transfer of the reporter gene luciferase (LUC) into polarized monolayers of non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) and CF human bronchial epithelial cells, MDCK epithelial cell monolayers, and, ultimately, primary non-CF and CF airway epithelial cells. Lipid reagents, which were most successful in initial LUC assays, were also tested for transfer of vectors bearing the reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) and for successful transfection and expression of an epithelial-specific protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Electrophysiological, biochemical, and immunological assays were performed to show successful complementation of an epithelial monolayer with transiently expressed CFTR. We also present findings that help facilitate monolayer formation by these airway epithelial cell lines. Together, these data show that polarized monolayers are transfected transiently with more recently developed lipids, specifically LipofectAMINE PLUS and LipofectAMINE 2000. Transient transfection of epithelial monolayers provides a powerful system in which to express the cDNA of any epithelium-specific protein transiently in a native polarized epithelium to study protein function. PMID:12421695

  1. Conditional Gene Targeting in Mouse High Endothelial Venules

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Jotaro; Tobisawa, Yuki; Fukuda, Minoru; Saga, Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized blood vessels of secondary lymphoid organs composed of endothelial cells with a characteristic cuboidal morphology. Lymphocytes selectively adhere to and migrate across HEVs to initiate immune responses. In this study, we established a novel transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the gene encoding HEV-expressed sulfotransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GlcNAc6ST-2), using bacterial artificial chromosome recombineering. Crossing these transgenic mice with the ROSA26 reporter strain, which expresses lacZ following Cre-mediated recombination, and staining the resulting progeny with 5-bromo-4-chloro-5-indolyl-β-D-galactoside indicated that Cre recombinase was specifically expressed in mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in secondary lymphoid organs but not in any other blood vessels of the transgenic mice. The expression of Cre recombinase correlated with a developmental switch, from immature, mAb MECA367-reactive HEVs to mature, mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in neonatal lymph nodes. In addition to the HEVs, Cre recombinase was also strongly expressed in the colonic villi, which recapitulated the intrinsic expression of GlcNAc6ST-2 as confirmed in GlcNAc6ST-2GFP/GFP knock-in mice and by RT-PCR. Furthermore, treatment with an antimicrobial agent revealed that the colonic expression of Cre recombinase in the transgenic mice was regulated by commensal bacteria in the colon. In addition, Cre recombinase was expressed in a small subset of cells in the brain, testis, stomach, small intestine, and lung. In view of the restricted expression of Cre recombinase, this transgenic mouse line should be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene functions using the Cre/loxP system. PMID:19380794

  2. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D; Campbell, Robert E; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9×dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ∼20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and

  3. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and

  4. Epitope-Tagged Autotransporters as Single-Cell Reporters for Gene Expression by a Salmonella Typhimurium wbaP Mutant.

    PubMed

    Curkić, Ismeta; Schütz, Monika; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Diard, Médéric; Claassen, Manfred; Linke, Dirk; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is an important trait of bacterial populations and can enhance fitness of the existing genotype in a given environment. To characterize different subpopulations, several studies have analyzed differential gene expression using fluorescent reporters. These studies visualized either single or multiple genes within single cells using different fluorescent proteins. However, variable maturation and folding kinetics of different fluorophores complicate the study of dynamics of gene expression. Here, we present a proof-of-principle study for an alternative gene expression system in a wbaP mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) lacking the O-sidechain of the lipopolysaccharide. We employed the hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged inverse autotransporter invasin (invAHA) as a transcriptional reporter for the expression of the type three secretion system 1 (T1) in S. Tm. Using a two-reporter approach with GFP and the InvAHA in single cells, we verify that this reporter system can be used for T1 gene expression analysis, at least in strains lacking the O-antigen (wbaP), which are permissive for detection of the surface-exposed HA-epitope. When we placed the two reporters gfp and invAHA under the control of either one or two different promoters of the T1 regulon, we were able to show correlative expression of both reporters. We conclude that the invAHA reporter system is a suitable tool to analyze T1gene expression in S. Tm and propose its applicability as molecular tool for gene expression studies within single cells. PMID:27149272

  5. Epitope-Tagged Autotransporters as Single-Cell Reporters for Gene Expression by a Salmonella Typhimurium wbaP Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Curkić, Ismeta; Schütz, Monika; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Diard, Médéric; Claassen, Manfred; Linke, Dirk; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is an important trait of bacterial populations and can enhance fitness of the existing genotype in a given environment. To characterize different subpopulations, several studies have analyzed differential gene expression using fluorescent reporters. These studies visualized either single or multiple genes within single cells using different fluorescent proteins. However, variable maturation and folding kinetics of different fluorophores complicate the study of dynamics of gene expression. Here, we present a proof-of-principle study for an alternative gene expression system in a wbaP mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) lacking the O-sidechain of the lipopolysaccharide. We employed the hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged inverse autotransporter invasin (invAHA) as a transcriptional reporter for the expression of the type three secretion system 1 (T1) in S. Tm. Using a two-reporter approach with GFP and the InvAHA in single cells, we verify that this reporter system can be used for T1 gene expression analysis, at least in strains lacking the O-antigen (wbaP), which are permissive for detection of the surface-exposed HA-epitope. When we placed the two reporters gfp and invAHA under the control of either one or two different promoters of the T1 regulon, we were able to show correlative expression of both reporters. We conclude that the invAHA reporter system is a suitable tool to analyze T1gene expression in S. Tm and propose its applicability as molecular tool for gene expression studies within single cells. PMID:27149272

  6. Knockin of Cre Gene at Ins2 Locus Reveals No Cre Activity in Mouse Hypothalamic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Gao, Lin; Wang, Kejia; Ma, Xianhua; Chang, Xusheng; Shi, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Ye; Yin, Kai; Liu, Zhimin; Shi, Yuguang; Xie, Zhifang; Zhang, Weiping J.

    2016-01-01

    The recombination efficiency and cell specificity of Cre driver lines are critical for exploring pancreatic β cell biology with the Cre/LoxP approach. Some commonly used Cre lines are based on the short Ins2 promoter fragment and show recombination activity in hypothalamic neurons; however, whether this stems from endogenous Ins2 promoter activity remains controversial. In this study, we generated Ins2-Cre knockin mice with a targeted insertion of IRES-Cre at the Ins2 locus and demonstrated with a cell lineage tracing study that the Ins2 gene is not transcriptionally active in the hypothalamus. The Ins2-Cre driver line displayed robust Cre expression and activity in pancreatic β cells without significant alterations in insulin expression. In the brain, Cre activity was mainly restricted to the choroid plexus, without significant recombination detected in the hippocampus or hypothalamus by the LacZ or fluorescent tdTomato reporters. Furthermore, Ins2-Cre mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance and insulin secretion upon glucose stimulation in vivo. In conclusion, this Ins2-Cre driver line allowed high-fidelity detection of endogenous Ins2 promoter activity in vivo, and the negative activity in the hypothalamus demonstrated that this system is a promising alternative tool for studying β cell biology. PMID:26830324

  7. Regulation of the acuF Gene, Encoding Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Draht, Oliver W.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key enzyme required for gluconeogenesis when microorganisms grow on carbon sources metabolized via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Aspergillus nidulans acuF mutants isolated by their inability to use acetate as a carbon source specifically lack PEPCK. The acuF gene has been cloned and shown to encode a protein with high similarity to PEPCK from bacteria, plants, and fungi. The regulation of acuF expression has been studied by Northern blotting and by the construction of lacZ fusion reporters. Induction by acetate is abolished in mutants unable to metabolize acetate via the TCA cycle, and induction by amino acids metabolized via 2-oxoglutarate is lost in mutants unable to form 2-oxoglutarate. Induction by acetate and proline is not additive, consistent with a single mechanism of induction. Malate and succinate result in induction, and it is proposed that PEPCK is controlled by a novel mechanism of induction by a TCA cycle intermediate or derivative, thereby allowing gluconeogenesis to occur during growth on any carbon source metabolized via the TCA cycle. It has been shown that the facB gene, which mediates acetate induction of enzymes specifically required for acetate utilization, is not directly involved in PEPCK induction. This is in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where Cat8p and Sip4p, homologs of FacB, regulate PEPCK as well as the expression of other genes necessary for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources in response to the carbon source present. This difference in the control of gluconeogenesis reflects the ability of A. nidulans and other filamentous fungi to use a wide variety of carbon sources in comparison with S. cerevisiae. The acuF gene was also found to be subject to activation by the CCAAT binding protein AnCF, a protein homologous to the S. cerevisiae Hap complex and the mammalian NFY complex. PMID:11741859

  8. Gene therapy with iNOS provides long-term protection against myocardial infarction without adverse functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Tan, Wei; Stein, Adam B.; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Wu, Wen-Jian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Lu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xiaoming; Siddiqui, Tariq; Tiwari, Sumit; Bolli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protects against myocardial infarction at 3 days after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of iNOS gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and cardiac function are unknown. To address this issue, we used a recombinant adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector (Av3) with deletions of the E1, E2a, and E3 regions, which enables long-lasting recombinant gene expression for at least 2 mo due to lack of inflammation. Mice received intramyocardial injections in the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall of Av3/LacZ (LacZ group) or Av3/iNOS (iNOS group); 1 or 2 mo later, they were subjected to myocardial infarction (30-min coronary occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion). Cardiac iNOS gene expression was confirmed by immunoblotting and activity assays at 1 and 2 mo after gene transfer. In the iNOS group, infarct size (percentage of risk region) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) both at 1 mo (24.2 ± 3.4%, n = 6, vs. 48.0 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group) and at 2 mo (23.4 ± 3.1%, n = 8, vs. 36.6 ± 2.4%, n = 7). The infarct-sparing effects of iNOS gene therapy were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (23.1 ± 3.4%, n = 10). iNOS gene transfer had no effect on LV function or dimensions up to 8 wk later (echocardiography). These data demonstrate that iNOS gene therapy mediated by the Av3 vector affords long-term (2 mo) cardioprotection without inflammation or adverse functional consequences, a finding that provides a rationale for further preclinical testing of this therapy. PMID:16172153

  9. The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) as an Imaging Reporter for Gene, Viral, and Cell-based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Penheiter, Alan R; Russell, Stephen J; Carlson, Stephanie K

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical tomographic imaging systems increasingly are being utilized for non-invasive imaging of reporter gene products to reveal the distribution of molecular therapeutics within living subjects. Reporter gene and probe combinations can be employed to monitor vectors for gene, viral, and cell-based therapies. There are several reporter systems available; however, those employing radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) or singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer the highest sensitivity and the greatest promise for deep tissue imaging in humans. Within the category of radionuclide reporters, the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has emerged as one of the most promising for preclinical and translational research. NIS has been incorporated into a remarkable variety of viral and non-viral vectors in which its functionality is conveniently determined by in vitro iodide uptake assays prior to live animal imaging. This review on the NIS reporter will focus on 1) differences between endogenous NIS and heterologously-expressed NIS, 2) qualitative or comparative use of NIS as an imaging reporter in preclinical and translational gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, and cell trafficking research, and 3) use of NIS as an absolute quantitative reporter. PMID:22263922

  10. Fluorescence-based gene reporter plasmid to track canonical Wnt signaling in ENS inflammation.

    PubMed

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Bertalot, Thomas; Schuster, Anne; Schrenk, Sandra; Müller, Oliver; Apfel, Johanna; Reischmann, Patricia; Rajendran, Senthilkumar; Sfriso, Riccardo; Gasparella, Marco; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Schäfer, Karl Herbert

    2016-03-15

    In several gut inflammatory or cancer diseases, cell-cell interactions are compromised, and an increased cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin is observed. Over the last decade, numerous studies provided compelling experimental evidence that the loss of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can promote β-catenin release and signaling without any specific activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. In the present work, we took advantage of the ability of lipofectamine-like reagent to cause a synchronous dissociation of adherent junctions in cells isolated from the rat enteric nervous system (ENS) for obtaining an in vitro model of deregulated β-catenin signaling. Under these experimental conditions, a green fluorescent protein Wnt reporter plasmid called ΔTop_EGFP3a was successfully tested to screen β-catenin stabilization at resting and primed conditions with exogenous Wnt3a or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ΔTop_EGFP3a provided a reliable and strong fluorescent signal that was easily measurable and at the same time highly sensitive to modulations of Wnt signaling following Wnt3a and LPS stimulation. The reporter gene was useful to demonstrate that Wnt3a exerts a protective activity in the ENS from overstimulated Wnt signaling by promoting a downregulation of the total β-catenin level. Based on this evidence, the use of ΔTop_EGFP3a reporter plasmid could represent a more reliable tool for the investigation of Wnt and cross-talking pathways in ENS inflammation. PMID:26767983